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Sample records for regret system jordi

  1. Anticipated regret

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeelenberg, M.; Parrott, R.

    2018-01-01

    Regret is the prototypical decision related emotion. It is felt when the outcome of a non-chosen alternative is better than the outcomes obtained. Regret is a functional emotion that helps people to correct mistakes. It is also functional because people can anticipate regret beforehand, then choose

  2. Sexual Regret

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    Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study sought to answer three key questions about explaining the emotion of regret in the domain of casual sex: Are sex differences in sexual regret robust or attenuated in a highly egalitarian culture? What proximate psychological variables might explain sex differences in sexual regret? And what accounts for within-sex variation in experiences of sexual regret about casual sex. We conducted a study of 263 Norwegian students (ages 19–37 who reported how much they regretted having either engaged in, or passed up, their most recent casual sexual experience. Sex differences in sexual regret are not attenuated in this sexually egalitarian culture. The study revealed sex differences in worries about pregnancy, STIs, and reputation; however, these predictors did not succeed in accounting for the sex differences in regret engaging in casual sex. Sexual gratification and socio-sexual orientation both predicted the sex differences in casual sex regret. In contrast, only socio-sexual orientation attenuated the sex difference in regret passing up casual sex. Predictors of within-sex variation in casual sexual regret included worry about sexual reputation, experienced gratification during the encounter, and socio-sexual orientation. Discussion focuses on implications for the psychological design features of this relatively neglected emotion.

  3. Design of Biomass Combined Heat and Power (CHP Systems based on Economic Risk using Minimax Regret Criterion

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    Ling Wen Choong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a great challenge to identify optimum technologies for CHP systems that utilise biomass and convert it into heat and power. In this respect, industry decision makers are lacking in confidence to invest in biomass CHP due to economic risk from varying energy demand. This research work presents a linear programming systematic framework to design biomass CHP system based on potential loss of profit due to varying energy demand. Minimax Regret Criterion (MRC approach was used to assess maximum regret between selections of the given biomass CHP design based on energy demand. Based on this, the model determined an optimal biomass CHP design with minimum regret in economic opportunity. As Feed-in Tariff (FiT rates affects the revenue of the CHP plant, sensitivity analysis was then performed on FiT rates on the selection of biomass CHP design. Besides, design analysis on the trend of the optimum design selected by model was conducted. To demonstrate the proposed framework in this research, a case study was solved using the proposed approach. The case study focused on designing a biomass CHP system for a palm oil mill (POM due to large energy potential of oil palm biomass in Malaysia.

  4. Transparency systems: do businesses in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany regret the cancellation of the Smiley scheme?

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    Anica Veronika Fietz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Our paper explores how participants of voluntary transparency systems react to the cancellation of such programmes. We concern ourselves with participants of the voluntary transparency scheme known as the “North Rhine-Westphalia Smiley”. The Smiley system, which awarded the compliant behavior of businesses that joined it, was established in 2007 but cancelled in 2013 due to lack of participants. In our survey, the vast majority of the respondents express regret at the cancellation of the scheme. The goals of this paper are to (i econometrically explain how socio-demographic, monetary, and non-monetary determinants influence participants’ willingness to continue with the voluntary transparency system and (ii find reasons for the inconsistency between the lack of participants and the expression of regret within our survey. We find evidence that the non-monetary variables “revenue” and “award” and the monetary variable “revenue” influence participants’ regret. We speculate that status quo bias and loss aversion are the reasons why businesses favour maintaining the Smiley scheme once they have experienced it.

  5. Entrevista a Jordi Canal para Historia 2.0

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    Miguel Darío Cuadros Sánchez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jordi Canal es profesor y director de estudios en la École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS de Paris, uno de los grandes especialistas en historia contemporánea. Cosmopolita y trilingüe (español, catalán y francés, su bibliografía reciente incluye obras de referencia, como autor o editor, «Los éxodos políticos en España, siglos XV-XX» (2007, «Una historia política del carlismo, 1876-1939» (2006. En el marco del XVII Congreso de la Asociación de Colombianista y la presentación de una conferencia sobre historia política en la Maestría de Historia de la Universidad Industrial de Santander, el profesor Jordi Canal visitó la ciudad de Bucaramanga del 3 al 5 a de agosto del presente año y tuvo la amabilidad de brindar sus opiniones a la revista Historia 2.0.

  6. Regret in Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, T.; Zeelenberg, M.

    2002-01-01

    Decision research has only recently started to take seriously the role of emotions in choices and decisions. Regret is the emotion that has received the most attention. In this article, we sample a number of the initial regret studies from psychology and economics, and trace some of the complexities

  7. Praise for regret: People value regret above other negative emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Saffrey, Colleen; Summerville, Amy; Roese, Neal J.

    2008-01-01

    What do people think about the emotion of regret? Recent demonstrations of the psychological benefits of regret have been framed against an assumption that most people find regret to be aversive, both when experienced but also when recalled later. Two studies explored lay evaluations of regret experiences, revealing them to be largely favorable rather than unfavorable. Study 1 demonstrated that regret, but not other negative emotions, was dominated by positive more than negative evaluations. ...

  8. Reseña Manual de Relaciones Públicas e Institucionales, de Jordi Xifra / Book review Handbook of Public and Institutional Relations, by Jordi Xifra

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    Antonio Castillo Esparcia (España

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El ámbito de las relaciones públicas se está afianzando en España con el aumento de publicaciones en libros, capítulo de libros y revistas que estudian esa disciplina desde diversas perspectivas. El libro publicado por Jordi Xifra, profesor de la Universitat Pompeu Fabra, cumple el cometido de servir de manual de relaciones públicas institucionales.

  9. The Development of Regret

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Eimear; McCormack, Teresa; Feeney, Aidan

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments, 4- to 9-year-olds played a game in which they selected one of two boxes to win a prize. On "regret" trials the unchosen box contained a better prize than the prize children actually won, and on "baseline" trials the other box contained a prize of the same value. Children rated their feelings about their prize before and after…

  10. Praise for regret: People value regret above other negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffrey, Colleen; Summerville, Amy; Roese, Neal J

    2008-03-01

    What do people think about the emotion of regret? Recent demonstrations of the psychological benefits of regret have been framed against an assumption that most people find regret to be aversive, both when experienced but also when recalled later. Two studies explored lay evaluations of regret experiences, revealing them to be largely favorable rather than unfavorable. Study 1 demonstrated that regret, but not other negative emotions, was dominated by positive more than negative evaluations. In both studies 1 and 2, although participants saw a great deal of benefit from their negative emotions, regret stood out as particularly beneficial. Indeed, in study 2, regret was seen to be the most beneficial of 12 negative emotions on all five functions of: making sense of past experiences, facilitating approach behaviors, facilitating avoidance behaviors, gaining insights into the self, and in preserving social harmony. Moreover, in study 2, individuals made self-serving ascriptions of regret, reporting greater regret experiences for themselves than for others. In short, people value their regrets substantially more than they do other negative emotions.

  11. The Regret/Disappointment Scale

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    Francesco Marcatto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article investigates the effectiveness of methods traditionally used to distinguish between the emotions of regret and disappointment and presents a new method --- the Regret and Disappointment Scale (RDS --- for assessing the two emotions in decision making research. The validity of the RDS was tested in three studies. Study 1 used two scenarios, one prototypical of regret and the other of disappointment, to test and compare traditional methods (``How much regret do you feel'' and ``How much disappointment do you feel'' with the RDS. Results showed that only the RDS clearly differentiated between the constructs of regret and disappointment. Study 2 confirmed the validity of the RDS in a real-life scenario, in which both feelings of regret and disappointment could be experienced. Study 2 also demonstrated that the RDS can discriminate between regret and disappointment with results similar to those obtained by using a context-specific scale. Study 3 showed the advantages of the RDS over the traditional methods in gambling situations commonly used in decision making research, and provided evidence for the convergent validity of the RDS.

  12. A Generalized Random Regret Minimization Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chorus, C.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents, discusses and tests a generalized Random Regret Minimization (G-RRM) model. The G-RRM model is created by replacing a fixed constant in the attribute-specific regret functions of the RRM model, by a regret-weight variable. Depending on the value of the regret-weights, the G-RRM

  13. The regrets of procrastination in climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Klaus [Department of Geosciences, Penn State, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Robinson, Alexander [Department of Geosciences, Penn State, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bradford, David F [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Oppenheimer, Michael [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions are projected to impose economic costs due to the associated climate change impacts. Climate change impacts can be reduced by abating CO{sub 2} emissions. What would be an economically optimal investment in abating CO{sub 2} emissions? Economic models typically suggest that reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by roughly ten to twenty per cent relative to business-as-usual would be an economically optimal strategy. The currently implemented CO{sub 2} abatement of a few per cent falls short of this benchmark. Hence, the global community may be procrastinating in implementing an economically optimal strategy. Here we use a simple economic model to estimate the regrets of this procrastination-the economic costs due to the suboptimal strategy choice. The regrets of procrastination can range from billions to trillions of US dollars. The regrets increase with increasing procrastination period and with decreasing limits on global mean temperature increase. Extended procrastination may close the window of opportunity to avoid crossing temperature limits interpreted by some as 'dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system' in the sense of Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Global Climate Change.

  14. The regrets of procrastination in climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Klaus [Department of Geosciences, Penn State, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Robinson, Alexander [Department of Geosciences, Penn State, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bradford, David F [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Oppenheimer, Michael [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions are projected to impose economic costs due to the associated climate change impacts. Climate change impacts can be reduced by abating CO{sub 2} emissions. What would be an economically optimal investment in abating CO{sub 2} emissions? Economic models typically suggest that reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by roughly ten to twenty per cent relative to business-as-usual would be an economically optimal strategy. The currently implemented CO{sub 2} abatement of a few per cent falls short of this benchmark. Hence, the global community may be procrastinating in implementing an economically optimal strategy. Here we use a simple economic model to estimate the regrets of this procrastination-the economic costs due to the suboptimal strategy choice. The regrets of procrastination can range from billions to trillions of US dollars. The regrets increase with increasing procrastination period and with decreasing limits on global mean temperature increase. Extended procrastination may close the window of opportunity to avoid crossing temperature limits interpreted by some as 'dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system' in the sense of Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Global Climate Change.

  15. The regrets of procrastination in climate policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Klaus; Robinson, Alexander; Bradford, David F.; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2007-04-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are projected to impose economic costs due to the associated climate change impacts. Climate change impacts can be reduced by abating CO2 emissions. What would be an economically optimal investment in abating CO2 emissions? Economic models typically suggest that reducing CO2 emissions by roughly ten to twenty per cent relative to business-as-usual would be an economically optimal strategy. The currently implemented CO2 abatement of a few per cent falls short of this benchmark. Hence, the global community may be procrastinating in implementing an economically optimal strategy. Here we use a simple economic model to estimate the regrets of this procrastination—the economic costs due to the suboptimal strategy choice. The regrets of procrastination can range from billions to trillions of US dollars. The regrets increase with increasing procrastination period and with decreasing limits on global mean temperature increase. Extended procrastination may close the window of opportunity to avoid crossing temperature limits interpreted by some as 'dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system' in the sense of Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Global Climate Change.

  16. The regrets of procrastination in climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Klaus; Robinson, Alexander; Bradford, David F; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions are projected to impose economic costs due to the associated climate change impacts. Climate change impacts can be reduced by abating CO 2 emissions. What would be an economically optimal investment in abating CO 2 emissions? Economic models typically suggest that reducing CO 2 emissions by roughly ten to twenty per cent relative to business-as-usual would be an economically optimal strategy. The currently implemented CO 2 abatement of a few per cent falls short of this benchmark. Hence, the global community may be procrastinating in implementing an economically optimal strategy. Here we use a simple economic model to estimate the regrets of this procrastination-the economic costs due to the suboptimal strategy choice. The regrets of procrastination can range from billions to trillions of US dollars. The regrets increase with increasing procrastination period and with decreasing limits on global mean temperature increase. Extended procrastination may close the window of opportunity to avoid crossing temperature limits interpreted by some as 'dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system' in the sense of Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Global Climate Change

  17. Applying the expectancy disconfirmation and regret theories to online consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chechen; Liu, Chuang-Chun; Liu, Yu-Ping; To, Pui-Lai; Lin, Hong-Nan

    2011-04-01

    This study synthesizes the expectancy disconfirmation theory with empirical theories pertaining to customer regret in an e-commerce environment. The study begins by examining the roles that information quality (IQ), system quality (SYQ), and service quality (SEQ) play in determining customer regret and satisfaction. Then the consequences of regret and satisfaction on reuse intention are examined. Survey data collected from 445 respondents are analyzed using structural equation modeling with partial least squares (PLS-Graph 3.0) to provide support for the hypothesized links. Results show that IQ disconfirmation, SYQ disconfirmation and SEQ disconfirmation are related to regret and satisfaction. Both regret and satisfaction are related to reuse intention. In addition, satisfaction mediates the effect of regret on reuse intention. Based on these results, implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  18. A closer look at adaptive regret

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Adamskyi (Dmitri); W.M. Koolen-Wijkstra (Wouter); A. Chernov (Alexey); V. Vovk

    2016-01-01

    textabstractFor the prediction with expert advice setting, we consider methods to construct algorithms that have low adaptive regret. The adaptive regret of an algorithm on a time interval [t1,t2] is the loss of the algorithm minus the loss of the best expert over that interval. Adaptive regret

  19. Nuovamente la Biennale di Paesaggio di Barcellona. Dialogo con Jordi Bellmunt

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    Enrica Dall’Ara

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available First reflections on the fourth Biennal of Landscape Architecture, after few days from the end of the meeting, in a dialogue with Jordi Bellmunt ,director of the Master Programme in Landscape Architecture and member of the Biennal Esecutive Committee. These considerations are anticipated by a brief history of the event. The results of Rosa Barba Prize, the projects chosen for the exposition and the finalist projects, the theme of this edition Landscape: product/production, all these things originates a reflection, by one side, on the value of research and innovation in the landscape project and, by the other side, on the importance of a spread good doing in the profession (good practices that can tent to standardization. 

  20. Regret and the rationality of choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois-Gironde, Sacha

    2010-01-27

    Regret helps to optimize decision behaviour. It can be defined as a rational emotion. Several recent neurobiological studies have confirmed the interface between emotion and cognition at which regret is located and documented its role in decision behaviour. These data give credibility to the incorporation of regret in decision theory that had been proposed by economists in the 1980s. However, finer distinctions are required in order to get a better grasp of how regret and behaviour influence each other. Regret can be defined as a predictive error signal but this signal does not necessarily transpose into a decision-weight influencing behaviour. Clinical studies on several types of patients show that the processing of an error signal and its influence on subsequent behaviour can be dissociated. We propose a general understanding of how regret and decision-making are connected in terms of regret being modulated by rational antecedents of choice. Regret and the modification of behaviour on its basis will depend on the criteria of rationality involved in decision-making. We indicate current and prospective lines of research in order to refine our views on how regret contributes to optimal decision-making.

  1. El cine de Jordi Grau y la autobiografía como fabulación

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    Miren GABANTXO-URIAGEREKA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El cine de los años ochenta en España corre paralelo a la situación de transformación social del país. Con la transición política en marcha, el cineasta Jordi Grau (Barcelona, 1930 se atreve en 1986 a rodar una película autobiográfica y a su vez representativa de la evolución de “los usos amorosos”, (Martín Gaite 1987 y del momento histórico de la ”nueva masculinidad, el antihéroe, el fin del macho ibérico y el principio del español sensible” (Guarinos 2008, que acopia ideas sobre los afectos y la sexualidad, ideas ya reiteradas en sus películas, pero en 1986, en una versión sin censura erótico-sexual. Afirmado o negado, en campo o fuera de campo, de una forma u otra, implícito o explícito, los afectos y la sexualidad siempre han estado y están inscritos en las películas de Grau.

  2. Thinking Styles and Regret in Physicians.

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    Mia Djulbegovic

    Full Text Available Decision-making relies on both analytical and emotional thinking. Cognitive reasoning styles (e.g. maximizing and satisficing tendencies heavily influence analytical processes, while affective processes are often dependent on regret. The relationship between regret and cognitive reasoning styles has not been well studied in physicians, and is the focus of this paper.A regret questionnaire and 6 scales measuring individual differences in cognitive styles (maximizing-satisficing tendencies; analytical vs. intuitive reasoning; need for cognition; intolerance toward ambiguity; objectivism; and cognitive reflection were administered through a web-based survey to physicians of the University of South Florida. Bonferroni's adjustment was applied to the overall correlation analysis. The correlation analysis was also performed without Bonferroni's correction, given the strong theoretical rationale indicating the need for a separate hypothesis. We also conducted a multivariate regression analysis to identify the unique influence of predictors on regret.165 trainees and 56 attending physicians (age range 25 to 69 participated in the survey. After bivariate analysis we found that maximizing tendency positively correlated with regret with respect to both decision difficulty (r=0.673; p<0.001 and alternate search strategy (r=0.239; p=0.002. When Bonferroni's correction was not applied, we also found a negative relationship between satisficing tendency and regret (r=-0.156; p=0.021. In trainees, but not faculty, regret negatively correlated with rational-analytical thinking (r=-0.422; p<0.001, need for cognition (r=-0.340; p<0.001, and objectivism (r=-0.309; p=0.003 and positively correlated with ambiguity intolerance (r=0.285; p=0.012. However, after conducting a multivariate regression analysis, we found that regret was positively associated with maximizing only with respect to decision difficulty (r=0.791; p<0.001, while it was negatively associated with

  3. Regret Theory and Equilibrium Asset Prices

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    Jiliang Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regret theory is a behavioral approach to decision making under uncertainty. In this paper we assume that there are two representative investors in a frictionless market, a representative active investor who selects his optimal portfolio based on regret theory and a representative passive investor who invests only in the benchmark portfolio. In a partial equilibrium setting, the objective of the representative active investor is modeled as minimization of the regret about final wealth relative to the benchmark portfolio. In equilibrium this optimal strategy gives rise to a behavioral asset priciting model. We show that the market beta and the benchmark beta that is related to the investor’s regret are the determinants of equilibrium asset prices. We also extend our model to a market with multibenchmark portfolios. Empirical tests using stock price data from Shanghai Stock Exchange show strong support to the asset pricing model based on regret theory.

  4. Generality and cultural variation in the experience of regret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breugelmans, Seger M; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Gilovich, Thomas; Huang, Wen-Hsien; Shani, Yaniv

    2014-12-01

    Regret is the prototypical decision-related emotion. Most theory and research on regret comes from the United States and Europe, but recent research has suggested potential cross-cultural differences in regret. We examined generality and cultural variation in the experience of regret. A cross-cultural study compared experiences of regret with those of disappointment and guilt as reported by participants from the United States (n = 143), the Netherlands (n = 147), Israel (n = 148), and Taiwan (n = 115). We found strong evidence for generality of the distinct emotion components of regret, compared with those of disappointment and guilt. We also found cultural variation in the frequency and intensity of regret in intrapersonal situations (regrets about outcomes affecting the self) and interpersonal regrets (regrets about outcomes affecting others). Whereas in the U.S. sample, regret was experienced more intensely in intrapersonal than interpersonal situations, both emotions were experienced more intensely in interpersonal situations in the Taiwanese sample.

  5. Thinking Styles and Regret in Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Mia; Beckstead, Jason; Elqayam, Shira; Reljic, Tea; Kumar, Ambuj; Paidas, Charles; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making relies on both analytical and emotional thinking. Cognitive reasoning styles (e.g. maximizing and satisficing tendencies) heavily influence analytical processes, while affective processes are often dependent on regret. The relationship between regret and cognitive reasoning styles has not been well studied in physicians, and is the focus of this paper. A regret questionnaire and 6 scales measuring individual differences in cognitive styles (maximizing-satisficing tendencies; analytical vs. intuitive reasoning; need for cognition; intolerance toward ambiguity; objectivism; and cognitive reflection) were administered through a web-based survey to physicians of the University of South Florida. Bonferroni's adjustment was applied to the overall correlation analysis. The correlation analysis was also performed without Bonferroni's correction, given the strong theoretical rationale indicating the need for a separate hypothesis. We also conducted a multivariate regression analysis to identify the unique influence of predictors on regret. 165 trainees and 56 attending physicians (age range 25 to 69) participated in the survey. After bivariate analysis we found that maximizing tendency positively correlated with regret with respect to both decision difficulty (r=0.673; prational-analytical thinking (r=-0.422; p<0.001), need for cognition (r=-0.340; p<0.001), and objectivism (r=-0.309; p=0.003) and positively correlated with ambiguity intolerance (r=0.285; p=0.012). However, after conducting a multivariate regression analysis, we found that regret was positively associated with maximizing only with respect to decision difficulty (r=0.791; p<0.001), while it was negatively associated with satisficing (r=-0.257; p=0.020) and objectivism (r=-0.267; p=0.034). We found no statistically significant relationship between regret and overall accuracy on conditional inferential tasks. Regret in physicians is strongly associated with their tendency to maximize; i.e. the

  6. Generality and cultural variation in the experience of regret

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugelmans, S.M.; Zeelenberg, M.; Gilovich, T.; Huang, W.H.; Shani, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Regret is the prototypical decision-related emotion. Most theory and research on regret comes from the United States and Europe, but recent research has suggested potential cross-cultural differences in regret. We examined generality and cultural variation in the experience of regret. A

  7. Regulation of experienced and anticipated regret in daily decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjälkebring, Pär; Västfjäll, Daniel; Svenson, Ola; Slovic, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Decisions were sampled from 108 participants during 8 days using a web-based diary method. Each day participants rated experienced regret for a decision made, as well as forecasted regret for a decision to be made. Participants also indicated to what extent they used different strategies to prevent or regulate regret. Participants regretted 30% of decisions and forecasted regret in 70% of future decisions, indicating both that regret is relatively prevalent in daily decisions but also that experienced regret was less frequent than forecasted regret. In addition, a number of decision-specific regulation and prevention strategies were successfully used by the participants to minimize regret and negative emotions in daily decision making. Overall, these results suggest that regulation and prevention of regret are important strategies in many of our daily decisions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Regret following female sterilization in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becner, Anja; Turkanović, Anela Bečić; But, Igor

    2015-07-01

    To estimate the regret rate and risk factors for regret among women who have undergone sterilization. A retrospective study was conducted among all women who underwent a sterilization procedure at the University Medical Center Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia, in 2008-2012. Identified women were contacted and asked to complete an online questionnaire assessing regret and symptoms associated with depression. Among 714 identified women, 308 (43.1%) completed the questionnaire. Four (1.3%) participants reported regret, and 9 (2.9%) reported that they would not opt for sterilization again, all of whom had post-sterilization problems. Such problems were significantly associated with participants reporting that they would not opt for sterilization again (P=0.003). Additionally, women who would not choose sterilization again had significantly higher scores on the depressive scale used than did those who would undergo sterilization again (P=0.028). Few women report regret after tubal sterilization in Slovenia. However, an additional consultation on post-sterilization problems and depressive disorder before sterilization might minimize the risk of regret. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding others' regret: a FMRI study.

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    Nicola Canessa

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that the understanding of others' basic emotional experiences is based on a "resonant" mechanism, i.e., on the reactivation, in the observer's brain, of the cerebral areas associated with those experiences. The present study aimed to investigate whether the same neural mechanism is activated both when experiencing and attending complex, cognitively-generated, emotions. A gambling task and functional-Magnetic-Resonance-Imaging (fMRI were used to test this hypothesis using regret, the negative cognitively-based emotion resulting from an unfavorable counterfactual comparison between the outcomes of chosen and discarded options. Do the same brain structures that mediate the experience of regret become active in the observation of situations eliciting regret in another individual? Here we show that observing the regretful outcomes of someone else's choices activates the same regions that are activated during a first-person experience of regret, i.e. the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. These results extend the possible role of a mirror-like mechanism beyond basic emotions.

  10. 2000 days of SMOS at the Barcelona Expert Centre: a tribute to the work of Jordi Font

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    Antonio Turiel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS is the first satellite mission capable of measuring sea surface salinity and soil moisture from space. Its novel instrument (the L-band radiometer MIRAS has required the development of new algorithms to process SMOS data, a challenging task due to many processing issues and the difficulties inherent in a new technology. In the wake of SMOS, a new community of users has grown, requesting new products and applications, and extending the interest in this novel brand of satellite services. This paper reviews the role played by the Barcelona Expert Centre under the direction of Jordi Font, SMOS co-principal investigator. The main scientific activities and achievements and the future directions are discussed, highlighting the importance of the oceanographic applications of the mission.

  11. Parental Decisional Regret after Primary Distal Hypospadias Repair: Family and Surgery Variables, and Repair Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghidini, Filippo; Sekulovic, Sasa; Castagnetti, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Decisional regret is defined as distress after making a health care choice and can be an issue for parents electing distal hypospadias repair for their sons. We assessed the influence on decisional regret of variables related to the family, surgery and outcomes. Charts for 372 patients undergoing primary distal hypospadias repair between 2005 and 2012 were reviewed, and validated questionnaires, including the Decisional Regret Scale, Pediatric Penile Perception Score and Dysfunctional Voiding and Incontinence Scoring System, were administered to parents. Data were available for 172 of 372 families (response rate 46.2%). Of 323 parents 128 (39.6%) presented with moderately strong decisional regret, with good agreement within couples. Predictors of decisional regret included intermediate parental educational level (OR 3.19, 95% CI 1.52-6.69), patient not being the first born (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.07-3.78), family history of hypospadias (OR 4.42, 95% CI 1.96-9.97), initial desire to avoid surgery (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.04-4.12), younger age at followup (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.72-0.91), presence of lower urinary tract symptoms (OR 4.92, 95% CI 1.53-15.81) and lower Pediatric Penile Perception Score (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75-0.99). Decisional regret was unrelated to parental desire to avoid circumcision, surgical variables, development of complications and duration of followup. Decisional regret is a problem in a significant proportion of parents electing distal hypospadias repair for their sons. In our experience family variables seemed to be predictors of decisional regret, while surgical variables did not. Predictors of decisional regret included worse parental perception of penile appearance and the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms. However, the latter could be unrelated to surgery. Irrespective of the duration of followup, decisional regret seems decreased in parents of older patients. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  12. Using Regrets to Elicit Behavior Change in Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Leilani A.; Robbins, Jamie E.; Stanley, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to support the notion of regret as a useful tool rather than merely a negative emotion. The article introduces means for using feelings of regret to change past behaviors, increase motivation to reach goals, and minimize future regrets in athletes and teams.

  13. Risk Route Choice Analysis and the Equilibrium Model under Anticipated Regret Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pengcheng yuan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The assumption about travellers’ route choice behaviour has major influence on the traffic flow equilibrium analysis. Previous studies about the travellers’ route choice were mainly based on the expected utility maximization theory. However, with the gradually increasing knowledge about the uncertainty of the transportation system, the researchers have realized that there is much constraint in expected util­ity maximization theory, because expected utility maximiza­tion requires travellers to be ‘absolutely rational’; but in fact, travellers are not truly ‘absolutely rational’. The anticipated regret theory proposes an alternative framework to the tra­ditional risk-taking in route choice behaviour which might be more scientific and reasonable. We have applied the antici­pated regret theory to the analysis of the risk route choosing process, and constructed an anticipated regret utility func­tion. By a simple case which includes two parallel routes, the route choosing results influenced by the risk aversion degree, regret degree and the environment risk degree have been analyzed. Moreover, the user equilibrium model based on the anticipated regret theory has been established. The equivalence and the uniqueness of the model are proved; an efficacious algorithm is also proposed to solve the model. Both the model and the algorithm are demonstrated in a real network. By an experiment, the model results and the real data have been compared. It was found that the model re­sults can be similar to the real data if a proper regret degree parameter is selected. This illustrates that the model can better explain the risk route choosing behaviour. Moreover, it was also found that the traveller’ regret degree increases when the environment becomes more and more risky.

  14. Nocturnal Regrets and Insomnia in Elderly People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ralph E.; Renaud, Olivier; Van Der Linden, Martial

    2011-01-01

    Despite their importance for general health, emotion-related factors have rarely been considered in the etiology of late-life insomnia. This study explored the relations between impulsivity, regret experiences, use of different thought-control strategies, and insomnia severity in a sample of older adults whose age ranged from 51 to 98 years.…

  15. Parental regret regarding children's vaccines-The correlation between anticipated regret, altruism, coping strategies and attitudes toward vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Ginossar-David, Eyal; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2016-01-01

    Parental hesitancy for recommended childhood vaccines is a growing public health concern influenced by various factors. This study aimed to explore regret regarding parental decisions to vaccinate their children via possible correlations between anticipated regret, altruism, coping strategies, and parents' attitudes toward the vaccination of their children. The study was conducted during 2014 in Israel. Data were collected via snowballing methodology (i.e., Internet forums, Facebook and e- mails). 314 parents of children ages 0-6 years participated in the study. Questionnaires were distributed and completed on-line including attitudes toward vaccines, altruism, coping strategies, regret and anticipated regret. Pearson analysis revealed a moderate negative association between attitudes toward vaccinations and regret. In addition, weak but significant positive associations emerged between anticipated regret and regret as well as between gender and regret. Performing hierarchical regression analysis revealed contribution of 35.9 % to the explained variance of regret suggesting that coping strategy of instrumental support, attitudes toward vaccinations and anticipated regret are linked significantly to regret. Parental attitudes toward vaccines and anticipated regret have a salient role when deciding whether or not to vaccinate children and contribute to the prediction of regret regarding vaccination. In order to increase parental consent to vaccination of their children, it is important to minimize possible regret through the strength of the recommendation and/or knowledge base about risk/benefit (perceived, heuristic) of vaccines that might influence parental attitudes and lessen their anticipated regret. N/A. This is not a clinical trial and thus does not require registration. Ethics approval was received from Ariel University School of Social Work Ethics committee (18/02/14). This was an attitude survey. The Ariel University School of Social Work Ethics committee

  16. Integrated Transport Planning Framework Involving Combined Utility Regret Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yang; Monzon, Andres; Di Ciommo, Floridea

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable transport planning requires an integrated approach involving strategic planning, impact analysis, and multicriteria evaluation. This study aimed at relaxing the utility-based decision-making assumption by newly embedding anticipated-regret and combined utility regret decision mechanisms...... in a framework for integrated transport planning. The framework consisted of a two-round Delphi survey, integrated land use and transport model for Madrid, and multicriteria analysis. Results show that (a) the regret-based ranking has a similar mean but larger variance than the utility-based ranking does, (b......) the least-regret scenario forms a compromise between the desired and the expected scenarios, (c) the least-regret scenario can lead to higher user benefits in the short term and lower user benefits in the long term, (d) the utility-based, the regret-based, and the combined utility- and regret...

  17. Lesmes, Daniel; Cabello, Gabriel; Massó Castilla, Jordi (Coords.: Georges Didi-Huberman. Imágenes, historia, pensamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Torres

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coordinado por Daniel Lesmes (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Gabriel Cabello (Universidad de Granada y Jordi Massó Castilla (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, el número 246 de la revista Anthropos está íntegramente dedicado al pensamiento de Georges Didi-Huberman (Saint-Étienne, 1953, investigador de innegable trascendencia en el estudio sobre las imágenes y cuya recuperación del legado de Aby Warburg ha situado a la historia del arte ante un necesario replanteamiento de sus conceptos originarios, llevando, además, la reflexión sobre las imágenes a una nueva dimensión ética, emocional y gestual. Imágenes traidoras, en aquel sentido de Magritte, insostenibles sin la presencia de otros saberes diferentes y a priori dispares como la propia historia del arte, el psicoanálisis, la filosofía posestructuralista y la antropología. Desentrañar las relaciones que como seres culturales mantenemos con ellas ha sido el motivo del trabajo de Didi-Huberman, capaz de mostrar la importancia de esa dependencia revelando nuestra esgrima con el pasado y, de esta manera, nuestro trato con el presente, su legitimación y las posibilidades de transformación que este ofrece.

  18. No-Regrets Remodeling, 2nd Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    No-Regrets Remodeling, sponsored by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is an informative publication that walks homeowners and/or remodelers through various home remodeling projects. In addition to remodeling information, the publication provides instruction on how to incorporate energy efficiency into the remodeling process. The goal of the publication is to improve homeowner satisfaction after completing a remodeling project and to provide the homeowner with a home that saves energy and is comfortable and healthy.

  19. Regret and Behavior: Comment on Zeelenberg and Pieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roese, Neal J; Summerville, Amy; Fessel, Florian

    2007-01-01

    Zeelenberg and Pieter's (2007) regret regulation theory 1.0 offers a synthesis that brings together concepts spanning numerous literatures. We have no substantive disagreement with their theory, but instead offer 3 observations to further aid regret researchers studying consumer decision making. First, the overall arch of any regret theory must be situated within an understanding of behavior regulation. Second, the distinction between regrets of action versus inaction is best understood in terms of motivational implications, particularly with regard to Higgin's (1998) distinction between promotion and prevention focus. Third, the opportunity principle offers a particularly clear means of summarizing the regulatory consequences of the regret experience. Regret is an emotion pivotal for decision making, and its cognitive underpinning has and continues to be elucidated in research focusing on counterfactual thinking.

  20. Anticipated regret and health behavior: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Noel T; DeFrank, Jessica T; Gilkey, Melissa B

    2016-11-01

    Risk beliefs are central to most theories of health behavior, yet many unanswered questions remain about an increasingly studied risk construct, anticipated regret. The authors sought to better understand anticipated regret's role in motivating health behaviors. The authors systematically searched electronic databases for studies of anticipated regret and behavioral intentions or health behavior. They used random effects meta-analysis to synthesize effect sizes from 81 studies (n = 45,618). Anticipated regret was associated with both intentions (r+ = .50, p emotions and risk appraisals. Anticipated inaction regret has a stronger and more stable association with health behavior than previously thought. The field should give greater attention to understanding how anticipated regret differs from similar constructs, its role in health behavior theory, and its potential use in health behavior interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Perbedaan Post Purchase Regret Berdasarkan Perilaku Pada Konsumen Wanita

    OpenAIRE

    Fardhani, Diah

    2014-01-01

    Post purchase regret is a negative emotion of consumer after evaluating the purchase decision has been made, the evaluation is conducted based on the outcome and process of consumer decision making. This study was a comparative quantitative study aimed to determine differences on post purchase regret based on unplanned and substitute purchasing behavior. The research hypothesis was the differences in post purchase regret based on unplanned behavior and substitute purchasing. The study involve...

  2. Why Do Tertiary Education Graduates Regret Their Study Program? A Comparison between Spain and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucel, Aleksander; Vilalta-Bufi, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the determinants of regret of study program for tertiary education graduates in Spain and the Netherlands. These two countries differ in their educational system in terms of the tracking structure in their secondary education and the strength of their education-labor market linkages in tertiary education. Therefore, by…

  3. La herencia de una guerra perdida. La memoria multidireccional en Los rojos de ultramar de Jordi Soler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Liikanen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los rojos de Ultramar (2004, by the Mexican author Jordi Soler, is a novel that looks into the memory of the Spanish Civil War and Franco’s dictatorship, and explores both individual and collective consequences of these events through the experience of exiles. The narrator of the novel, a fictional version of the author, is the grandson of a Spanish republican exile who decides to reconstruct his grandfather’s biography. The book shares many formal and thematic features with several recent Spanish memory novels, such as Soldados de Salamina by Javier Cercas and Mala gente que camina by Benjamin Prado, in which the historical research of a narrator-character functions as the motor of the narrative. However, Los rojos de ultramar contributes a novel point of view to the ongoing debate over the interpertation of the Spanish recent past from outside the national borders. Through the voice of the narrator, who grew up at the intersection of two cultures (the Mexican and the Catalan and two languages (Castilian and Catalan, Soler’s novel provides a transnational and multicultural perspective that bears resemblance to the model of multidirectional memory proposed by Michael Rothberg. The aim of this paper is, on the one hand, to identify the narrative features that Los rojos de ultramar shares with the memory novels by Spanish authors and, on the other hand, to discuss the particular contribution of this work that promotes cultural hybridity and uses the memory of a specific group (Spanish Republican exiles in an exemplary way in order to create solidarity between different cultural groups.

  4. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-09

    This is the first of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. This paper examines the circumstances and consequences of the elimination of The INF-range Pershing II ballistic missile and Gryphon Ground-Launched Cruise Missile (GLCM), deployed by NATO under a dual-track strategy to counter Soviet intermediate-range missiles while pursuing negotiations to limit or eliminate all of these missiles. The Short-Range Attack Missile (SRAM), which was actually a family of missiles including SRAM A, SRAM B (never deployed), and SRAM II and SRAM T, these last two cancelled during an over-budget/behind-schedule development phase as part of the Presidential Nuclear Initiatives of 1991 and 1992. The nuclear-armed version of the Tomahawk Land-Attack Cruise Missile (TLAM/N), first limited to shore-based storage by the PNIs, and finally eliminated in deliberations surrounding the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review Report. The Missile-X (MX), or Peacekeeper, a heavy MIRVed ICBM, deployed in fixed silos, rather than in an originally proposed mobile mode. Peacekeeper was likely intended as a bargaining chip to facilitate elimination of Russian heavy missiles. The plan failed when START II did not enter into force, and the missiles were eliminated at the end of their intended service life. The Small ICBM (SICBM), or Midgetman, a road-mobile, single-warhead missile for

  5. Verdades en paralelo bajo la censura: una exploración del híbrido docu-ficción Chicas de Club (1970, de Jordi Grau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Guerra, Vanesa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo planteamos los modos en que Jordi Grau sortea la censura para crear una película innovadora que desafía tanto las nociones establecidas de cómo hacer cine, como las expectativas de la audiencia. En Chicas de club el director se atreve a reflexionar sobre lo que empuja a algunas mujeres a prostituirse en los eufemísticamente denominados “clubs de alterne”. Corren los años setenta y en España, bajo el régimen autoritario del dictador Franco y por lo tanto bajo la censura cinematográfica, el tema de la prostitución está prohibido como tal en el cine. Jordi Grau, en colaboración con el guionista Mario Camus, pone en marcha un arriesgado juego narrativo y visual donde un periodista es el hilo conductor de entrevistas realizadas a gente de la calle y a chicas de alterne, que participan como actrices de su propia vida ficcionada. La película se convierte en un híbrido entre ficción y realidad que seduce al espectador.Abstract in English: In the following paper we look into the ways in which Jordi Grau (1930 navigated the censors to make an innovative film that challenged the established notions of film-making and the audience’s expectations alike. In Chicas de club the director daringly reflected on what pushes some women into prostitution in the euphemistically named "clubs de alterne" (meeting clubs. It is the 1970s and in Spain, under Franco's authoritarian dictatorship - and in a situation of cinematographic censorship - the issue of prostitution is forbidden as a subject for cinema. Jordi Grau, in collaboration with the scriptwriter Mario Camus, sets a risky narrative and visual game in motion in which a journalist is the connecting thread between the interviews carried out with people in the street and the girls in the club, who participate as actresses in the fictional retelling of their very own lives. Thus the film becomes a hybrid of reality and fiction that captivates the viewer.

  6. A random regret minimization model of travel choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chorus, C.G.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents an alternative to Random Utility-Maximization models of travel choice. Our Random Regret-Minimization model is rooted in Regret Theory and provides several useful features for travel demand analysis. Firstly, it allows for the possibility that choices between travel

  7. Regret and Responsibility Resolved? Evaluation Ordonez and Connolly's Conclusions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeelenberg, M.; van Dijk, W.W.; Manstead, A.S.R.

    2000-01-01

    T. Connolly, L. D. Ordo;aan;atez, and R. Coughlan (1997, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 70, 73-85) argued, on the basis of 5 experiments, that regret need not be related to a sense of responsibility for the regretted outcome. We (M. Zeelenberg, W. W. van Dijk, & A. S. R.

  8. Every third Kazakhstani medical student regrets the choice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many physicians regret about their choice of profession. However, no studies on this topic have been performed in Central Asia. Objective: To assess the proportion of medical students who regret their choice of education and to study factors associated with this outcome in Kazakhstan. Methods: This is a ...

  9. Investigating the appraisal patterns of regret and disappointment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, W.W.; Zeelenberg, M.

    2002-01-01

    Regret and disappointment are the two emotions that are most closely linked to decision making. This study compares the appraisal patterns of the two emotions. This is done in the context of the related negative emotions anger and sadness. The results show clear differences between regret and

  10. Regret and its avoidance: a neuroimaging study of choice behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coricelli, Giorgio; Critchley, Hugo D; Joffily, Mateus; O'Doherty, John P; Sirigu, Angela; Dolan, Raymond J

    2005-09-01

    Human decisions can be shaped by predictions of emotions that ensue after choosing advantageously or disadvantageously. Indeed, anticipating regret is a powerful predictor of future choices. We measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while subjects selected between two gambles wherein regret was induced by providing information about the outcome of the unchosen gamble. Increasing regret enhanced activity in the medial orbitofrontal region, the anterior cingulate cortex and the hippocampus. Notably, across the experiment, subjects became increasingly regret-aversive, a cumulative effect reflected in enhanced activity within medial orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. This pattern of activity reoccurred just before making a choice, suggesting that the same neural circuitry mediates direct experience of regret and its anticipation. These results demonstrate that medial orbitofrontal cortex modulates the gain of adaptive emotions in a manner that may provide a substrate for the influence of high-level emotions on decision making.

  11. The value of adaptive regret management in retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Jamie C; Wrosch, Carsten; Pushkar, Dolores; Li, Karen Z H

    2013-01-01

    This 3-year longitudinal study examined the associations between regret management, everyday activities, and retirement satisfaction among recent retirees. We hypothesized that the regulation of a severe life regret can facilitate activity engagement and retirement satisfaction, but only if retirees manage their regrets adaptively by either increasing effort and commitment when possessing favorable opportunities or disengaging when opportunity is unfavorable. Cross-sectional analyses demonstrated that the highest baseline levels of activity (e.g., volunteering, traveling) and retirement satisfaction were observed among participants who perceived favorable opportunities for addressing their life regrets and had high levels of engagement. Longitudinal analyses showed that this pattern was also associated with increases in activity engagement. In contrast, disengagement protected individuals with unfavorable opportunity from 3-year declines in retirement satisfaction. These findings indicate that adaptive regulation of regrets can both contribute to gains and prevent losses in the early stages of retirement, which may have lasting consequences on retirees' quality of life.

  12. A regret theory approach to decision curve analysis: a novel method for eliciting decision makers' preferences and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Hozo, Iztok; Vickers, Andrew; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2010-09-16

    Decision curve analysis (DCA) has been proposed as an alternative method for evaluation of diagnostic tests, prediction models, and molecular markers. However, DCA is based on expected utility theory, which has been routinely violated by decision makers. Decision-making is governed by intuition (system 1), and analytical, deliberative process (system 2), thus, rational decision-making should reflect both formal principles of rationality and intuition about good decisions. We use the cognitive emotion of regret to serve as a link between systems 1 and 2 and to reformulate DCA. First, we analysed a classic decision tree describing three decision alternatives: treat, do not treat, and treat or no treat based on a predictive model. We then computed the expected regret for each of these alternatives as the difference between the utility of the action taken and the utility of the action that, in retrospect, should have been taken. For any pair of strategies, we measure the difference in net expected regret. Finally, we employ the concept of acceptable regret to identify the circumstances under which a potentially wrong strategy is tolerable to a decision-maker. We developed a novel dual visual analog scale to describe the relationship between regret associated with "omissions" (e.g. failure to treat) vs. "commissions" (e.g. treating unnecessary) and decision maker's preferences as expressed in terms of threshold probability. We then proved that the Net Expected Regret Difference, first presented in this paper, is equivalent to net benefits as described in the original DCA. Based on the concept of acceptable regret we identified the circumstances under which a decision maker tolerates a potentially wrong decision and expressed it in terms of probability of disease. We present a novel method for eliciting decision maker's preferences and an alternative derivation of DCA based on regret theory. Our approach may be intuitively more appealing to a decision-maker, particularly

  13. A regret theory approach to decision curve analysis: A novel method for eliciting decision makers' preferences and decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickers Andrew

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision curve analysis (DCA has been proposed as an alternative method for evaluation of diagnostic tests, prediction models, and molecular markers. However, DCA is based on expected utility theory, which has been routinely violated by decision makers. Decision-making is governed by intuition (system 1, and analytical, deliberative process (system 2, thus, rational decision-making should reflect both formal principles of rationality and intuition about good decisions. We use the cognitive emotion of regret to serve as a link between systems 1 and 2 and to reformulate DCA. Methods First, we analysed a classic decision tree describing three decision alternatives: treat, do not treat, and treat or no treat based on a predictive model. We then computed the expected regret for each of these alternatives as the difference between the utility of the action taken and the utility of the action that, in retrospect, should have been taken. For any pair of strategies, we measure the difference in net expected regret. Finally, we employ the concept of acceptable regret to identify the circumstances under which a potentially wrong strategy is tolerable to a decision-maker. Results We developed a novel dual visual analog scale to describe the relationship between regret associated with "omissions" (e.g. failure to treat vs. "commissions" (e.g. treating unnecessary and decision maker's preferences as expressed in terms of threshold probability. We then proved that the Net Expected Regret Difference, first presented in this paper, is equivalent to net benefits as described in the original DCA. Based on the concept of acceptable regret we identified the circumstances under which a decision maker tolerates a potentially wrong decision and expressed it in terms of probability of disease. Conclusions We present a novel method for eliciting decision maker's preferences and an alternative derivation of DCA based on regret theory. Our approach may

  14. Myopic Regret Avoidance: Feedback Avoidance and Learning in Repeated Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reb, Jochen; Connolly, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Decision makers can become trapped by "myopic regret avoidance" in which rejecting feedback to avoid short-term "outcome regret" (regret associated with counterfactual outcome comparisons) leads to reduced learning and greater long-term regret over continuing poor decisions. In a series of laboratory experiments involving repeated choices among…

  15. ``Feeling more regret than I would have imagined''

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernandez-Duque

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available People tend to overestimate emotional responses to future events. This study examined whether such affective forecasting errors occur for feelings of regret, as measured by self-report and subsequent decision-making. Some participants played a pricing game and lost by a narrow or wide margin, while others were asked to imagine losing by such margins. Participants who experienced a narrow loss reported more regret than those who imagined a narrow loss. Furthermore, those experiencing a narrow loss behaved more cautiously in a subsequent gambling task. Thus, the study provides self-report and behavioral evidence for a reversal of the affective forecasting phenomenon for feelings of regret.

  16. Clinical decision regret among critical care nurses: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanian-Engoren, Cynthia; Scott, Linda D

    2014-01-01

    Decision regret is a negative cognitive emotion associated with experiences of guilt and situations of interpersonal harm. These negative affective responses may contribute to emotional exhaustion in critical care nurses (CCNs), increased staff turnover rates and high medication error rates. Yet, little is known about clinical decision regret among CCNs or the conditions or situations (e.g., feeling sleepy) that may precipitate its occurrence. To examine decision regret among CCNs, with an emphasis on clinical decisions made when nurses were most sleepy. A content analytic approach was used to examine the narrative descriptions of clinical decisions by CCNs when sleepy. Six decision regret themes emerged that represented deviations in practice or performance behaviors that were attributed to fatigued CCNs. While 157 CCNs disclosed a clinical decision they made at work while sleepy, the prevalence may be underestimated and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The inaction effect in the psychology of regret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, Marcel; van de Bos, Kees; van Dijk, Eric; Pieters, Rik

    2002-03-01

    Previous research showed that decisions to act (i.e., actions) produce more regret than decisions not to act (i.e., inactions). This previous research focused on decisions made in isolation and ignored that decisions are often made in response to earlier outcomes. The authors show in 4 experiments that these prior outcomes may promote action and hence make inaction more abnormal. They manipulated information about a prior outcome. As hypothesized, when prior outcomes were positive or absent, people attributed more regret to action than to inaction. However, as predicted and counter to previous research, following negative prior outcomes, more regret was attributed to inaction, a finding that the authors label the inaction effect. Experiment 4, showing differential effects for regret and disappointment, demonstrates the need for emotion-specific predictions.

  18. Fear appeals in HIV prevention: the role of anticipated regret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerecnik, Chris M R; Ruiter, Robert A C

    2010-10-01

    The present study examined the role of a number of cognitive beliefs (i.e. attitude, subjective norm, anticipated regret, and self-efficacy) in explaining the effects of fear appeal information on behavioral motivation. A randomized experiment with a 2 (threat: low versus high) × 2 (coping: low versus high) between-subjects design was used in the study. Undergraduates were exposed to one of four scenario messages that presented high or low threat information about HIV/AIDS combined with high or low coping information with regard to condom use in HIV prevention. Explorative analyses revealed that only anticipated regret qualified as a mediator of the effect of the fear appeal message on intention. High coping information was observed to increase anticipated regret, which increased the intention to use condoms. Anticipated regret mediated the coping-intention relationship. This finding furthers our understanding of the working mechanisms of fear appeals in HIV prevention.

  19. Anticipated Regret and Omission Bias in HPV Vaccination Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated effects of anticipated regret on parents’ HPV vaccination intentions and effects of omission bias on HPV vaccination intentions and vaccine uptake. An online survey was completed by 851 parents of adolescent girls in Denmark, a country where HPV vaccine safety is currently...... heavily debated. Multivariate regression analyses revealed anticipated inaction regret as a significant positive predictor of vaccination intentions, and, anticipated action regret as a significant negative predictor of vaccination intentions. Multivariate analyses also revealed omission bias...... in a hypothetical vaccination vignette as a significant negative predictor of HPV vaccination intention as well as vaccine uptake. Finally, the study tested effects of anticipated regret and omission bias on evaluations of two extisting Danish pro-vaccine campaign videos. Here, the result revealed anticipated...

  20. Every third Kazakhstani medical student regrets the choice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Conclusions: The results suggest that one third of medical students in Almaty, Kazakhstan, regret the choice of medical education. ..... test (MCAT) (24), the graduate Australian medical .... experience of help seeking for mental health problems ...

  1. Multiagent Reinforcement Learning with Regret Matching for Robot Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel multiagent reinforcement learning (MARL algorithm Nash- learning with regret matching, in which regret matching is used to speed up the well-known MARL algorithm Nash- learning. It is critical that choosing a suitable strategy for action selection to harmonize the relation between exploration and exploitation to enhance the ability of online learning for Nash- learning. In Markov Game the joint action of agents adopting regret matching algorithm can converge to a group of points of no-regret that can be viewed as coarse correlated equilibrium which includes Nash equilibrium in essence. It is can be inferred that regret matching can guide exploration of the state-action space so that the rate of convergence of Nash- learning algorithm can be increased. Simulation results on robot soccer validate that compared to original Nash- learning algorithm, the use of regret matching during the learning phase of Nash- learning has excellent ability of online learning and results in significant performance in terms of scores, average reward and policy convergence.

  2. Cheating at the end to avoid regret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effron, Daniel A; Bryan, Christopher J; Murnighan, J Keith

    2015-09-01

    How do people behave when they face a finite series of opportunities to cheat with little or no risk of detection? In 4 experiments and a small meta-analysis, we analyzed over 25,000 cheating opportunities faced by over 2,500 people. The results suggested that the odds of cheating are almost 3 times higher at the end of a series than earlier. Participants could cheat in 1 of 2 ways: They could lie about the outcome of a private coin flip to get a payoff that they would otherwise not receive (Studies 1-3) or they could overbill for their work (Study 4). We manipulated the number of cheating opportunities they expected but held the actual number of opportunities constant. The data showed that the likelihood of cheating and the extent of dishonesty were both greater when people believed that they were facing a last choice. Mediation analyses suggested that anticipatory regret about passing up a chance to enrich oneself drove this cheat-at-the-end effect. We found no support for alternative explanations based on the possibility that multiple cheating opportunities depleted people's self-control, eroded their moral standards, or made them feel that they had earned the right to cheat. The data also suggested that the cheat-at-the-end effect may be limited to relatively short series of cheating opportunities (i.e., n < 20). Our discussion addresses the psychological and behavioral dynamics of repeated ethical choices. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Regret Expression and Social Learning Increases Delay to Sexual Gratification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J Quisenberry

    Full Text Available Modification and prevention of risky sexual behavior is important to individuals' health and public health policy. This study employed a novel sexual discounting task to elucidate the effects of social learning and regret expression on delay to sexual gratification in a behavioral task.Amazon Mechanical Turk Workers were assigned to hear one of three scenarios about a friend who engages in similar sexual behavior. The scenarios included a positive health consequence, a negative health consequence or a negative health consequence with the expression of regret. After reading one scenario, participants were asked to select from 60 images, those with whom they would have casual sex. Of the selected images, participants chose one image each for the person they most and least want to have sex with and person most and least likely to have a sexually transmitted infection. They then answered questions about engaging in unprotected sex now or waiting some delay for condom-protected sex in each partner condition.Results indicate that the negative health outcome scenario with regret expression resulted in delayed sexual gratification in the most attractive and least STI partner conditions, whereas in the least attractive and most STI partner conditions the negative health outcome with and without regret resulted in delayed sexual gratification.Results suggest that the sexual discounting task is a relevant laboratory measure and the framing of information to include regret expression may be relevant for prevention of risky sexual behavior.

  4. The role of interpersonal harm in distinguishing regret from guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, Marcel; Breugelmans, Seger M

    2008-10-01

    Regret and guilt are emotions that are produced by negative outcomes for which one is responsible. Both emotions have received ample attention in the psychological literature; however, it is still unclear to what extent regret and guilt represent distinct psychological processes. We examined the extent to which the distinction between interpersonal harm (negative outcomes for others) and intrapersonal harm (negative outcomes for self) is crucial in differentiating these two emotions. In a series of 3 studies we found that guilt is predominantly felt in situations of interpersonal harm, whereas regret is felt in both situations of interpersonal harm and intrapersonal harm. Moreover, the results show that in situations of interpersonal harm the phenomenology of regret shares many, but not all features with the phenomenology of guilt. We conclude that the emotion processes resulting from interpersonal and intrapersonal harm are clearly distinct, but that regret as an emotion label is applied to both types of processes whereas the emotion label guilt is primarily used to refer to experiences of interpersonal harm. Implications for emotion research are discussed. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Regret salience and accountability in the decoy effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Connolly

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments examined the impact on the decoy effect of making salient the possibility of post-decision regret, a manipulation that has been shown in several earlier studies to stimulate critical examination and improvement of decision process. Experiment 1 (N = 62 showed that making regret salient eliminated the decoy effect in a personal preference task. Experiment 2 (N = 242 replicated this finding for a different personal preference task and for a prediction task. It also replicated previous findings that external accountability demands do not reduce, and may exacerbate, the decoy effect. We interpret both effects in terms of decision justification, with different justification standards operating for different audiences. The decoy effect, in this account, turns on accepting a weak justification, which may be seen as adequate for an external audience or one's own inattentive self but inadequate under the more critical review triggered by making regret possibilities salient. Seeking justification to others (responding to accountability demands thus maintains or exacerbates the decoy effect; seeking justification to oneself (responding to regret salience reduces or eliminates it. The proposed mechanism provides a theoretical account both of the decoy effect itself and of how regret priming provides an effective debiasing procedure for it.

  6. Examining Trust, Forgiveness and Regret as Computational Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Stephen; Briggs, Pamela

    The study of trust has advanced tremendously in recent years, to the extent that the goal of a more unified formalisation of the concept is becoming feasible. To that end, we have begun to examine the closely related concepts of regret and forgiveness and their relationship to trust and its siblings. The resultant formalisation allows computational tractability in, for instance, artificial agents. Moreover, regret and forgiveness, when allied to trust, are very powerful tools in the Ambient Intelligence (AmI) security area, especially where Human Computer Interaction and concrete human understanding are key. This paper introduces the concepts of regret and forgiveness, exploring them from social psychological as well as a computational viewpoint, and presents an extension to Marsh's original trust formalisation that takes them into account. It discusses and explores work in the AmI environment, and further potential applications.

  7. Behavioural consequences of regret and disappointment in social bargaining games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Luis M F; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Rijsman, John B

    2011-02-01

    Previous research on the role of negative emotions in social bargaining games has focused primarily on social emotions such as anger and guilt. In this article, we provide a test for behavioural differences between two prototypical decision-related negative emotions-regret and disappointment-in one-shot social dilemma games. Three experiments with two different emotion-induction procedures (autobiographical recall and imagined scenarios) and two different games (the ultimatum game and the 10-coin give-some game) revealed that regret increased prosocial behaviour, whereas disappointment decreased prosocial behaviour. These results extend previous findings concerning differences between regret and disappointment to interdependent (social) situations. © 2010 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  8. Brain, emotion and decision making: the paradigmatic example of regret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coricelli, Giorgio; Dolan, Raymond J; Sirigu, Angela

    2007-06-01

    Human decisions cannot be explained solely by rational imperatives but are strongly influenced by emotion. Theoretical and behavioral studies provide a sound empirical basis to the impact of the emotion of regret in guiding choice behavior. Recent neuropsychological and neuroimaging data have stressed the fundamental role of the orbitofrontal cortex in mediating the experience of regret. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data indicate that reactivation of activity within the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala occurring during the phase of choice, when the brain is anticipating possible future consequences of decisions, characterizes the anticipation of regret. In turn, these patterns reflect learning based on cumulative emotional experience. Moreover, affective consequences can induce specific mechanisms of cognitive control of the choice processes, involving reinforcement or avoidance of the experienced behavior.

  9. Trust me (or not) : Regret and disappointment in experimental economic games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, L.F.; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Emotional states exert an influence on trust and the reciprocation of trust. The current research found that regret and disappointment, though both negatively valenced, have distinct effects on trust (and trustworthiness). Three experiments showed that regret decreased trust and trustworthiness,

  10. The application of the random regret minimization model to drivers’ choice of crash avoidance maneuvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    This study explores the plausibility of regret minimization as behavioral paradigm underlying the choice of crash avoidance maneuvers. Alternatively to previous studies that considered utility maximization, this study applies the random regret minimization (RRM) model while assuming that drivers ...

  11. The application of the random regret minimization model to drivers’ choice of crash avoidance maneuvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the plausibility of regret minimization as behavioral paradigm underlying the choice of crash avoidance maneuvers. Alternatively to previous studies that considered utility maximization, this study applies the random regret minimization (RRM) model while assuming that drivers ...

  12. Eliciting regret improves decision making at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Mhaskar, Rahul; Hozo, Iztok; Miladinovic, Branko; Tuch, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Management choices at the end of life are high-stake decisions fraught with emotions, chief among is regret. Our objective in this paper is to test the utility of a regret-based model to facilitate referral to hospice care while helping patients clarify their preferences on how they wish to spend the remaining days of their lives. A prospective cohort study that enrolled consecutive adult patients (n = 178) aware of the terminal nature of their disease. The patients were at the point in care where they had to decide between continuing potentially 'curative/life-prolonging' treatment (Rx) versus hospice care. Preferences were elicited using a Dual Visual Analog Scale regarding the level of regret of omission versus commission (RgO/RgC) towards hospice care and Rx. Each patient's RgO/RgC was contrasted against the predictive probability of death to suggest a management plan, which was then compared with the patient's actual choice. The probability of death was estimated using validated Palliative Performance Scale predictive model. Eighty-five percent (151/178) of patients agreed with the model's recommendations (p < 0.000001). Model predicted the actual choices for 72% (128/178) of patients (p < 0.00001). Logistic regression analysis showed that people who were initially inclined to be referred to hospice and were predicted to choose hospice over disease-directed treatment by the regret model have close to 98% probability of choosing hospice care at the end of their lives. No other factors (age, gender, race, educational status and pain level) affected their choice. Using regret to elicit choices in the end-of-life setting is both descriptively and prescriptively valid. People with terminal disease who are initially inclined to choose hospice and do not regret such a choice will select hospice care with high level of certainty. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Regret in One-Shot and Recurrent Decisions: A Cautionary Tale

    OpenAIRE

    Imas, Alex; Lamé, Diego; Wilson, Alistair J.

    2016-01-01

    Under regret theory, decision-makers derive utility both from the outcome of their chosen action and the counterfactual. Evidence for anticipatory regret aversion has been found in oneshot settings, with ”regret lotteries” that always reveal outcomes, as a counterfactual on non-entry, being priced higher than comparable standard lotteries that only realize outcomes for entrants. However, as anticipation and realization of regret necessarily interact in dynamic settings, the predictions of reg...

  14. Accounting for perception in random regret choice models: Weberian and generalized Weberian specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jang, S.; Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, regret-based choice models have been introduced in the travel behavior research community as an alternative to expected/random utility models. The fundamental proposition underlying regret theory is that individuals minimize the amount of regret they (are expected to) experience when

  15. Inaction inertia, regret, and valuation : A closer look

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeelenberg, Marcel; Nijstad, Bernard A.; van Putten, Marijke; van Dijk, Eric

    Inaction inertia is the phenomenon that one is not likely to act on an attractive opportunity after having bypassed an even more attractive opportunity. So far, all published work has assumed a causal role for the emotion regret in this effect. In a series of 5 experiments we found no support for

  16. Waves of regret: a meg study of emotion and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgetta, Cinzia; Grecucci, Alessandro; Bonini, Nicolao; Coricelli, Giorgio; Demarchi, Gianpaolo; Braun, Christoph; Sanfey, Alan G

    2013-01-01

    Recent fMRI studies have investigated brain activity involved in the feeling of regret and disappointment by manipulating the feedback participants saw after making a decision to play certain gambles: full-feedback (regret: participant sees the outcomes from both the chosen and unchosen gamble) vs. partial-feedback (disappointment: participant only sees the outcome from chosen gamble). However, regret and disappointment are also characterized by differential agency attribution: personal agency for regret, external agency for disappointment. In this study, we investigate the neural correlates of these two characterizations of regret and disappointment using magnetoencephalography (MEG). To do this, we experimentally induced each emotion by manipulating feedback (chosen gamble vs. unchosen gamble), agency (human vs. computer choice) and outcomes (win vs. loss) in a fully randomized design. At the behavioral level the emotional experience of regret and disappointment were indeed affected by both feedback and agency manipulations. These emotions also differentially affect subsequent choices, with regret leading to riskier behavior. At the neural level both feedback and agency affected the brain responses associated with regret and disappointment, demonstrating differential localization in the brain for each. Notably, feedback regret showed greater brain activity in the right anterior and posterior regions, with agency regret producing greater activity in the left anterior region. These findings extend the evidence for neural activity in processing both regret and disappointment by highlighting for the first time the respective importance of feedback and agency, as well as outlining the temporal dynamics of these emotions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Regret of Multi-Channel Bandit Game in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of how to evaluate the rate of convergence to Nash equilibrium solutions in the process of channel selection under incomplete information is studied. In this paper, the definition of regret is used to reflect the convergence rates of online algorithms. The process of selecting an idle channel for each secondary user is modeled as a multi-channel bandit game. The definition of the maximal averaged regret is given. Two existing online learning algorithms are used to obtain the Nash equilibrium for each SU. The maximal averaged regrets are used to evaluate the performances of online algorithms. When there is a pure strategy Nash equilibrium in the multi-channel bandit game, the maximal averaged regrets are finite. A cooperation mechanism is also needed in the process of calculating the maximal averaged regrets. Simulation results show the maximal averaged regrets are finite and the online algorithm with greater convergence rate has less maximal averaged regrets.

  18. No-regrets, efficiency improvements and penetration rates for end-use technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    Denmark participated in the UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Study which was aimed at developing a common methodology for undertaking cost assessments of greenhouse gas abatement, and using this methodology to carry out a number of country studies. One of the main components of the Danish country study was the methodological analysis of cost curve construction and the testing of the developed methodology on national CO 2 reduction scenarios. Following the development of a baseline scenario, two main reduction scenarios were constructed: (a) a 20% reduction scenario for 2005, and (b) a 50% reduction scenario for 2030, taking as its starting point the 20% scenario for 2005. The medium-term cost curve for 2005 and long-term cost curve for 2030 for CO 2 reduction were established on the basis of these two reduction scenarios. The existence of so-called 'no-regret' options are discussed. No-regret options exist when it is economically attractive for society to undertake these options and at the same time reduce CO 2 -emissions. Two illustrative cases are developed describing the introduction of standards for households appliances. It is shown that introduction of such standards for household appliances might be an attractive way to accelerate the adjustment process towards more efficient appliances. Improving standards for household appliances could reduce CO-2-emissions in 2005 by approximately 2% compared to the baseline, and at the same time lower the energy-system cost to society. Three-quarters of the CO 2 emission reductions are realized through supply-side options. Restricting the use of no-regret demand-side options would require additional supply-side CO 2 reduction in order to achieve the same reduction target, and this might prove very difficult to achieve. (au)

  19. Regret associated with the decision for breast reconstruction: the association of negative body image, distress and surgery characteristics with decision regret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Joanne; Sherman, Kerry A; Lam, Thomas; Boyages, John

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of psychosocial and surgical factors on decision regret among 123 women diagnosed with breast cancer who had undergone immediate (58%) or delayed (42%) breast reconstruction following mastectomy. The majority of participants (52.8%, n = 65) experienced no decision regret, 27.6% experienced mild regret and 19.5% moderate to strong regret. Bivariate analyses indicated that decision regret was associated with negative body image and psychological distress - intrusion and avoidance. There were no differences in decision regret either with respect to methods or timing patterns of reconstructive surgery. Multinominal logistic regression analysis showed that, when controlling for mood state and time since last reconstructive procedure, increases in negative body image were associated with increased likelihood of experiencing decision regret. These findings highlight the need for optimal input from surgeons and therapists in order to promote realistic expectations regarding the outcome of breast reconstruction and to reduce the likelihood of women experiencing decision regret.

  20. Regret and Responsibility: A Reply to Zeelenberg et al. (1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez; Connolly

    2000-01-01

    M. Zeelenberg, W. W. van Dijk, and A. S. R. Manstead (1998, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 74, 254-272) recently reported an altered replication of our earlier study (T. Connolly, L. D. Ordóñez, & R. Coughlan, 1997, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 70, 73-85) concerning the effects of decision agency on regret and outcome evaluation. Our earlier study had found no such effect, but Zeelenberg et al. did. In two new experiments, we have largely confirmed Zeelenberg et al.'s result but have shown that, contrary to most theory, regret (a) can appear even in the absence of decision agency, (b) can be unrelated to outcome evaluations, and (c) may be more influenced by the experience of gains or losses from the status quo than by any decisional responsibility for those changes. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  1. Cassandra's regret: The psychology of not wanting to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigerenzer, Gerd; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio

    2017-03-01

    Ignorance is generally pictured as an unwanted state of mind, and the act of willful ignorance may raise eyebrows. Yet people do not always want to know, demonstrating a lack of curiosity at odds with theories postulating a general need for certainty, ambiguity aversion, or the Bayesian principle of total evidence. We propose a regret theory of deliberate ignorance that covers both negative feelings that may arise from foreknowledge of negative events, such as death and divorce, and positive feelings of surprise and suspense that may arise from foreknowledge of positive events, such as knowing the sex of an unborn child. We conduct the first representative nationwide studies to estimate the prevalence and predictability of deliberate ignorance for a sample of 10 events. Its prevalence is high: Between 85% and 90% of people would not want to know about upcoming negative events, and 40% to 70% prefer to remain ignorant of positive events. Only 1% of participants consistently wanted to know. We also deduce and test several predictions from the regret theory: Individuals who prefer to remain ignorant are more risk averse and more frequently buy life and legal insurance. The theory also implies the time-to-event hypothesis, which states that for the regret-prone, deliberate ignorance is more likely the nearer the event approaches. We cross-validate these findings using 2 representative national quota samples in 2 European countries. In sum, we show that deliberate ignorance exists, is related to risk aversion, and can be explained as avoiding anticipatory regret. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Regret and adaptive decision making in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Eimear; McCormack, Teresa; Beck, Sarah R; Feeney, Aidan

    2015-07-01

    In line with the claim that regret plays a role in decision making, O'Connor, McCormack, and Feeney (Child Development, 85 (2014) 1995-2010) found that children who reported feeling sadder on discovering they had made a non-optimal choice were more likely to make a different choice the next time around. We examined two issues of interpretation regarding this finding: whether the emotion measured was indeed regret and whether it was the experience of this emotion, rather than the ability to anticipate it, that affected decision making. To address the first issue, we varied the degree to which children aged 6 or 7 years were responsible for an outcome, assuming that responsibility is a necessary condition for regret. The second issue was addressed by examining whether children could accurately anticipate that they would feel worse on discovering they had made a non-optimal choice. Children were more likely to feel sad if they were responsible for the outcome; however, even if they were not responsible, children were more likely than chance to report feeling sadder. Moreover, across all conditions, feeling sadder was associated with making a better subsequent choice. In a separate task, we demonstrated that children of this age cannot accurately anticipate feeling sadder on discovering that they had not made the best choice. These findings suggest that although children may feel regret following a non-optimal choice, even if they were not responsible for an outcome, they may experience another negative emotion such as frustration. Experiencing either of these emotions seems to be sufficient to support better decision making. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Regret Aversion Bias dan Risk Tolerance Investor Muda Jakarta dan Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohnson Yohnson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment decision behavior is an interesting topic in finance research. Bailey and Kinerson’s (2005 research found that individual risk tolerance and experienced regret significantly influenced investment decisions. Anticipation of potential future regret did not predict subsequent investment decision behavior. Specifically, this research also wants to know the effects of a person’s experienced regret and anticipated regret or the effects of individual risk tolerance on investment decision behavior in Jakarta and Surabaya. Respondent of this research is 323 students from UK Petra who represent young investors from Surabaya and students from UPH who represent young investors from Jakarta. The method of research is experimental study and the design of research is 2x2x2 (between subject with experienced regret (time deposit and stock as first variable, anticipated regret (time deposit and stock as second variable and risk tolerance (high and low as third variable This study finds that an individual risk tolerance significantly influences decisions. Regret aversion bias does not influence young investors in Indonesia. (We assume that it is because the character of Indonesian investors is different from foreign investors. The couse of this is supposedly the unique characteristics of Indonesian investors and the different view points between Indonesian investors and investors from other countries. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Perilaku keputusan investasi sangat menarik untuk diteliti. Dalam penelitian Bailey dan Kinerson (2005 ditemukan risk tolerance dan experienced regret mempengaruhi keputusan investasi. Anticipated regret tidak dapat dipakai sebagai predictor perilaku keputusan investasi. Penelitian ini juga ingin mengetahui experienced regret, anticipated regret atau risk tolerance yang lebih mempengaruhi perilaku keputusan investasi di Jakarta dan Surabaya. Responden yang diteliti sebesar 323 mahasiswa berasal dari UK Petra yang mewakili

  4. Entrevista a Jordi Borja, geógrafo y urbanista. Entrevista a Santiago Cirugeda, arquitecto. Entrevista a Pere Alcober, delegado de deportes del Ayuntamiento de Barcelona.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Magrinyà

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Jordi Borja, nacido en Barcelona, es geógrafo y urbanista. Entre sus publicaciones destaca Local y global, con Manuel Castells (1998, Barcelona, un modelo de transformación urbana (1995, El espacio público, ciudad y ciudadanía, con Zaida Muxi (2001 y La ciudad conquistada (Alianza, 2004. Dirige el Programa de Gestión de la Ciudad en la Universidad Abierta de Catalunya (UOC. Entre muchos otros temas, su interés por el concepto de ciudadanía y espacio público ha sido siempre una constante. La entrevista se realizó el 27 de mayo de 2007. Cuando Santiago Cirugeda aceptó realizar una entrevista para Apunts. Educación Física y Deportes, le propusimos que nos enviara un currículo de presentación a fin que pudiera ser conocido por las personas que la leyeran. He aquí unos fragmentos del mismo: “Estudié arquitectura en la ETSA de Sevilla, donde lo pasé muy bien. Finalmente acabé mi carrera en Barcelona. Desarrollo desde hace 10 años proyectos de subversión en distintos ámbitos de la realidad urbana que me ayuden a sobrellevar esta complicada vida social. Desde ocupaciones sistemáticas de espacios públicos con contenedores, hasta la construcción de prótesis en fachadas, patios, cubiertas e incluso en solares. Todo ello negociando entre la legalidad e ilegalidad, para recordar el enorme control al que estamos sometidos. Realizo proyectos de arquitectura, escribo artículos y participo en diferentes medios docentes y culturales (masters, seminarios, conferencias, workshops, exposiciones, etc... En 2007 presento el libro Situaciones Urbanas, que plantea estrategias legales y demandas, a través de proyectos arquitectónicos” Pere Alcober nos acoge en su despacho del Instituto Barcelona Esports (IBE del Ayuntamiento de Barcelona. El día de la entrevista, 27 de septiembre de 2007, el sol entra por las ventanas y fuera se ven árboles, jardines y el cielo azul. Hay mucha tranquilidad. Hablamos durante casi dos horas y no hay

  5. Verdades en paralelo bajo la censura: una exploración del híbrido docu-ficción ‘chicas de club’ (1970, de jordi grau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren GABANTXO URIAGEREA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo planteamos los modos en que Jordi Grau sortea la censura para crear una película innovadora que desafía tanto las nociones establecidas de cómo hacer cine, como las expectativas de la audiencia. En ‘Chicas de club’ el director se atreve a reflexionar sobre lo que empuja a algunas mujeres a prostituirse en los eufemísticamente denominados “clubs de alterne”. Corren los años setenta y en España, bajo el régimen autoritario del dictador Franco y por lo tanto bajo la censura cinematográfica, el tema de la prostitución está prohibido como tal en el cine. Jordi Grau, en colaboración con el guionista Mario Camus, pone en marcha un arriesgado juego narrativo y visual donde un periodista es el hilo conductor de entrevistas realizadas a gente de la calle y a chicas de alterne, que participan como actrices de su propia vida ficcionada. La película se convierte en un híbrido entre ficción y realidad que seduce al espectador

  6. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: DEFINING THE NEEDED CAPABILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-10

    This is the second of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. This paper begins with a discussion of the current nuclear force and the plans and procurement programs for the modernization of that force. Current weapon systems and warheads were conceived and built decades ago, and procurement programs have begun for the modernization or replacement of major elements of the nuclear force: the heavy bomber, the air-launched cruise missile, the ICBMs, and the ballistic-missile submarines. In addition, the Nuclear Weapons Council has approved a new framework for nuclear-warhead life extension not fully fleshed out yet that aims to reduce the current number of nuclear explosives from seven to five, the so-called 3+2 vision. This vision includes three interoperable warheads for both ICBMs and SLBMs (thus eliminating one backup weapon) and two warheads for aircraft delivery (one gravity bomb and one cruise-missile, eliminating a second backup gravity bomb). This paper also includes a discussion of the current and near-term nuclear-deterrence mission, both global and regional, and offers some observations on future of the strategic deterrence mission and the challenges of regional and extended nuclear deterrence.

  7. The Influence of Counterfactual Thinking and Regret on Ethical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celuch, Kevin; Saxby, Carl; Oeding, Jill

    2015-01-01

    The authors explore the influence of counterfactual thoughts in triggering the emotions of regret and disappointment in ethical decision making. Counterfactual thinking involves examining possible outcomes to events and is often explored in what-if scenarios. Findings support that subjects were able to transfer regret (but not disappointment)…

  8. Spirituality is associated with less treatment regret in men with localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollica, Michelle A; Underwood, Willie; Homish, Gregory G; Homish, D Lynn; Orom, Heather

    2017-11-01

    Some patients with prostate cancer regret their treatment choice. Treatment regret is associated with lower physical and mental quality of life. We investigated whether, in men with prostate cancer, spirituality is associated with lower decisional regret 6 months after treatment and whether this is, in part, because men with stronger spiritual beliefs experience lower decisional conflict when they are deciding how to treat their cancer. One thousand ninety three patients with prostate cancer (84% white, 10% black, and 6% Hispanic; mean age = 63.18; SD = 7.75) completed measures of spiritual beliefs and decisional conflict after diagnosis and decisional regret 6 months after treatment. We used multivariable linear regression to test whether there is an association between spirituality and decisional regret and structural equation modeling to test whether decisional conflict mediated this relationship. Stronger spiritual beliefs were associated with less decisional regret (b = -0.39, 95% CI = -0.53, -0.26, P conflict partially (38%) mediated the effect of spirituality on regret (indirect effect: b = -0.16, 95% CI = -0.21, -0.12, P Spirituality may help men feel less conflicted about their cancer treatment decisions and ultimately experience less decisional regret. Psychosocial support post-diagnosis could include clarification of spiritual values and opportunities to reappraise the treatment decision-making challenge in light of these beliefs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Consequences of regret aversion : effects of expected feedback on risky decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeelenberg, M.; Beattie, J.; Pligt, van der J.; Vries, de N.K.

    1996-01-01

    Previous research has considered the question of how anticipated regret affects risky decision making. Several studies have shown that anticipated regret forces participants towards the safe option, showing risk-aversion. We argue that these results are due to the previous confounding of the

  10. Random regret minimization : Exploration of a new choice model for environmental and resource economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiene, M.; Boeri, M.; Chorus, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the discrete choice model-paradigm of Random Regret Minimization (RRM) to the field of environmental and resource economics. The RRM-approach has been very recently developed in the context of travel demand modelling and presents a tractable, regret-based alternative to the

  11. Regret causes ego-depletion and finding benefits in the regrettable events alleviates ego-depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongmei; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Yan; Hong, Ying-Yi; Jiang, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that experiencing regret would result in ego-depletion, while finding benefits (i.e., "silver linings") in the regret-eliciting events counteracted the ego-depletion effect. Using a modified gambling paradigm (Experiments 1, 2, and 4) and a retrospective method (Experiments 3 and 5), five experiments were conducted to induce regret. Results revealed that experiencing regret undermined performance on subsequent tasks, including a paper-and-pencil calculation task (Experiment 1), a Stroop task (Experiment 2), and a mental arithmetic task (Experiment 3). Furthermore, finding benefits in the regret-eliciting events improved subsequent performance (Experiments 4 and 5), and this improvement was mediated by participants' perceived vitality (Experiment 4). This study extended the depletion model of self-regulation by considering emotions with self-conscious components (in our case, regret). Moreover, it provided a comprehensive understanding of how people felt and performed after experiencing regret and after finding benefits in the events that caused the regret.

  12. Counterfactually Mediated Emotions: A Developmental Study of Regret and Relief in a Probabilistic Gambling Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, M.; Cassotti, M.; Borst, G.; Simon, G.; Pineau, A.; Houde, O.; Moutier, S.

    2012-01-01

    Regret and relief are related to counterfactual thinking and rely on comparison processes between what has been and what might have been. In this article, we study the development of regret and relief from late childhood to adulthood (11.2-20.2 years), and we examine how these two emotions affect individuals' willingness to retrospectively…

  13. The influence of anticipated regret on business start-up behaviour: A research note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatak, Isabella; Snellman, Kirsi

    This research note aims to develop the emotional underpinning of early-stage entrepreneurship by examining the influence of anticipated regret, a negative emotion, on the transformation of latent entrepreneurs into nascent entrepreneurs. Drawing on regret regulation theory and two waves of survey

  14. Expanding the applicability of random regret minimization for route choice analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    The discrete choice paradigm of random regret minimization (RRM) has been recently proposed in several choice contexts. In the route choice context, the paradigm has been used to model the choice among three routes and to formulate regret-based stochastic user equilibrium. However, in the same co...

  15. Waves of regret: A MEG study of emotion and decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giorgetta, C.; Grecucci, A.; Bonini, N.; Coricelli, G.; Demarchi, G.; Braun, C.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent fMRI studies have investigated brain activity involved in the feeling of regret and disappointment by manipulating the feedback participants saw after making a decision to play certain gambles: full-feedback (regret: participant sees the outcomes from both the chosen and unchosen gamble) vs.

  16. Avoidance of anticipated regret: the ordering of prostate-specific antigen tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorum, Paul C; Mullet, Etienne; Shim, Junseop; Bonnin-Scaon, Sylvie; Chasseigne, Gérard; Cogneau, Joël

    2004-01-01

    When making decisions, people are known to try to minimize the regret that would be provoked by unwanted consequences of these decisions. The authors explored the strength and determinants of such anticipated regret in a study of physicians' decisions to order prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. 32 US and 33 French primary care physicians indicated the likelihood they would order a PSA for 32 hypothetical men presenting for routine physical exams. They then indicated how much regret they would feel if they found advanced prostate cancer in 12 other patients for whom they had chosen not to order PSAs several years before. The latter patients differed according to age (55, 65, or 75 years), a prior request or not for PSA testing, and no or some irregularity of the prostate on the earlier rectal exam. ANOVA found that regret was higher when the patient had requested a PSA, the prostate was irregular, and the patient was younger. Shape had less effect when the patient had requested a PSA. US physicians had more regret than the French, patient request had a greater impact on the Americans, and increasing patient age reduced regret more among the French. In a 1-way correlation, the regret score was associated with the likelihood of ordering PSAs for both the French (r = 0.64, P regret score was the most important predictor of the likelihood of ordering a PSA (beta = 0.37, P Regret over failing to diagnose aggressive prostate cancer is associated with a policy of ordering PSAs. This regret appears to be culturally sensitive.

  17. A Reference-Dependent Regret Model for Deterministic Trade-off Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawski, Edouard

    2005-02-25

    Today's typical multi-criteria decision analysis is based on classical expected utility theory that assumes a mythical ''Rational Individual'' immune to psychological influences such as anticipated regret. It is therefore in conflict with rational individuals who trade-off some benefits and forgo the alternative with the highest total classical utility for a more balanced alternative in order to reduce their levels of anticipated regret. This paper focuses on decision making under certainty. It presents a reference-dependent regret model (RDRM) in which the level of regret that an individual experiences depends on the absolute values rather than the differences of the utilities of the chosen and forgone alternatives. The RDRM best choice may differ from the conventional linear additive utility model, the analytic hierarchy process, and the regret theory of Bell and Loomes and Sugden. Examples are presented that indicate that RDRM is the better predictive descriptor for decision making under certainty. RDRM satisfies transitivity of the alternatives under pairwise comparisons and models rank reversal consistent with observed reasonable choices under dynamic or distinct situations. Like regret theory, the RDRM utilities of all the alternatives under consideration are interrelated. For complex trade-off studies regret is incorporated as an element of a cost-utility-regret analysis that characterizes each alternative in terms of its monetary cost, an aggregate performance utility, and a regret value. This provides decision makers adequate information to compare the alternatives and depending on their values they may trade-off some performance and/or cost to avoid high levels of regret. The result is a well-balanced alternative often preferred by reasonable decision makers to the optimal choice of classical multi-attribute utility analysis. The model can readily be extended to incorporate rejoicing to suit decision makers who seek it. The

  18. Regulatory Mode and Risk-Taking: The Mediating Role of Anticipated Regret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panno, Angelo; Lauriola, Marco; Pierro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We propose that decision maker's regulatory mode affects risk-taking through anticipated regret. In the Study 1 either a locomotion or an assessment orientation were experimentally induced, and in the Studies 2 and 3 these different orientations were assessed as chronic individual differences. To assess risk-taking we used two behavioral measures of risk: BART and hot-CCT. The results show that experimentally induced assessment orientation--compared to locomotion--leads to decreased risk-taking through increased anticipated regret (Study 1). People chronically predisposed to be in the assessment state take less risk through increased anticipated regret (Study 2 and Study 3). Study 2 results also show a marginally non-significant indirect effect of chronic locomotion mode on BART through anticipated regret. Differently, Study 3 shows that people chronically predisposed to be in the locomotion state take greater risk through decreased anticipated regret, when play a dynamic risk task triggering stronger emotional arousal. Through all three studies, the average effect size for the relationship of assessment with anticipated regret was in the moderate-large range, whereas for risk-taking was in the moderate range. The average effect size for the relationship of locomotion with anticipated regret was in the moderate range, whereas for risk-taking was in the small-moderate range. These results increase our understanding of human behavior under conditions of risk obtaining novel insights into regulatory mode theory and decision science.

  19. Sex Differences in Relationship Regret: The Role of Perceived Mate Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Coats

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current set of studies examined regret involving action and inaction in the realm of romantic relationships by testing whether such regret is associated with the characteristics of one's mate. In study 1, 394 participants reported on a previous casual sexual encounter, and in study 2, 358 participants reported on a previous romantic relationship. In both, instances of actual engagement and instances of passing up opportunities were studied. Study 3 was experimental and elicited reactions to hypothetical scenarios from 201 participants. Regret reported by men in both study 1 and study 2 varied as a function of the perceived attractiveness of the participants' actual and potential mate. Regret reported by women in study 2 varied as a function of the perceived stinginess of the participant's mate and perceived wealth of the participants' potential mate. Study 3 found that sex differences in type of regret (with men regretting inaction more than women occurred only when the mate presented in the scenario was described in ways consistent with mate preferences. Together these findings suggest that regret differs between the sexes in ways consistent with sex differences in mate preferences.

  20. The effects of anticipated regret on risk preferences of social and problem gamblers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Tochkov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Anticipated regret is an important determinant in risky decision making, however only a few studies have explored its role in problem gambling. This study tested for differences in the anticipation of regret among social and problem gamblers and examined how these differences affect risk preferences in a gambling task. The extent of problem gambling was assessed using the South Oaks Gambling Screen and participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the risky feedback condition, the feeling of regret was avoided by choosing the risky gamble, whereas in the safe feedback condition the safe gamble was the regret-minimizing option. Problem gambling was associated with the choice of the risky gamble in both conditions indicating less sensitivity to anticipated regret. It was also associated with risk seeking across feedback conditions when the stakes of winning and loosing were higher. These findings suggest that less regret or the poor anticipation of regret might contribute to excessive gambling and thus need to be addressed in cognitive treatments of problem gambling.

  1. Minimizing the regrets of long-term urban floodplain management decisions under deeply uncertain climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, J. S.; Kirshen, P. H.; Vogel, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Making long-term floodplain management decisions under uncertain climate change is a major urban planning challenge of the 21stcentury. To support these efforts, we introduce a screening-level optimization model that identifies adaptation portfolios by minimizing the regrets associated with their flood-control and damage costs under different climate change trajectories that are deeply uncertain, i.e. have probabilities that cannot be specified plausibly. This mixed integer program explicitly considers the coupled damage-reduction impacts of different floodwall designs and property-scale investments (first-floor elevation, wet floodproofing of basements, permanent retreat and insurance), recommends implementation schedules, and assesses impacts to stakeholders residing in three types of homes. An application to a stylized municipality illuminates many nonlinear system dynamics stemming from large fixed capital costs, infrastructure design thresholds, and discharge-depth-damage relationships. If stakeholders tolerate mild damage, floodwalls that fully protect a community from large design events are less cost-effective than portfolios featuring both smaller floodwalls and property-scale measures. Potential losses of property tax revenue from permanent retreat motivate municipal property-tax initiatives for adaptation financing. Yet, insurance incentives for first-floor elevation may discourage locally financed floodwalls, in turn making lower-income residents more vulnerable to severe flooding. A budget constraint analysis underscores the benefits of flexible floodwall designs with low incremental expansion costs while near-optimal solutions demonstrate the scheduling flexibility of many property-scale measures. Finally, an equity analysis shows the importance of evaluating the overpayment and under-design regrets of recommended adaptation portfolios for each stakeholder and contrasts them to single-scenario model results.

  2. Association of sleep and fatigue with decision regret among critical care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Linda D; Arslanian-Engoren, Cynthia; Engoren, Milo C

    2014-01-01

    The effects of inadequate sleep on clinical decisions may be important for patients in critical care units, who are often more vulnerable than patients in other units. Fatigued nurses are more likely than well-rested nurses to make faulty decisions that lead to decision regret, a negative cognitive emotion that occurs when the actual outcome differs from the desired or expected outcome. To examine the association between selected sleep variables, impairment due to fatigue, and clinical-decision self-efficacy and regret among critical care nurses. Decision regret was the primary outcome variable. Methods A nonexperimental, descriptive design and extant measures were used to obtain data from a random sample of full-time nurses. Binary logistic regression models were used to examine the association between sleep variables, fatigue, and clinical-decision self-efficacy and regret. The discrimination of the models was compared with the C statistic, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. A total of 605 nurses returned the questionnaires (17% response rate). Among these, decision regret was reported by 157 of 546 (29%). Nurses with decision regret reported more fatigue, more daytime sleepiness, less intershift recovery, and worse sleep quality than did nurses without decision regret. Being male, working a 12-hour shift, and clinical-decision satisfaction were significantly associated with decision regret (C statistic, 0.719; SE, 0.024). Nurses who experience impairments due to fatigue, loss of sleep, and inability to recover between shifts are more likely than unimpaired nurses to report decision regret.

  3. Investor regret: The role of expectation in comparing what is to what might have been

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsien Huang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Investors, like any decision maker, feel regret when they compare the outcome of an investment with what the outcome would have been had they invested differently. We argue and show that this counterfactual comparison process is most likely to take place when the decision maker's expectations are violated. Across five scenario experiments we found that decision makers were influenced only by forgone investment outcomes when the realized investment fell short of the expected result. However, when their investments exceeded prior expectations, the effect of foregone investment on regret disappeared. In addition, Experiment 4 found that individual differences in the need to maximize further moderated the effects of their expectations, such that maximizers always take into account the forgone investment. The final experiment found that when probed to make counterfactual comparisons, also investments that exceed expectations may lead to regret. Together these experiments reveal insights into the comparative processes leading to decision regret.

  4. Effects of Pride and Regret on Geriatric Depression: A Cross-Cultural Study With Mixed-Methods Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Othelia E; Ryu, Seungah

    2018-03-01

    Pride and regret are self-conscious emotions that develop later in life and become a source of emotional struggle. This cross-cultural study examined the effect of the content and intensity of self-conscious emotions on Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) scores. Among a convenience sample of 234 older adults (130 in the United States and 104 in South Korea), the contents and intensities of both life regrets and pride were examined. Although a greater variety of regrets was cited by Americans, overall Korean respondents reported higher intensity of regret. Regrets that were related to leisure and addiction among Americans and health and career among Koreans were predictors of the GDS scores. Pride in leisure activities for Americans and altruism among Koreans could alleviate depression. While regrets and pride explained a small amount of the variance in the GDS scores, current life stressors greatly contributed to geriatric depression.

  5. Long-term decision regret after post-prostatectomy image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Thomas P; Chin, Stephen; Manuel, Lucy; Wen, Shelly; Hoffman, Matthew; Wilcox, Shea W; Aherne, Noel J

    2017-02-01

    Decision regret (DR) may occur when a patient believes their outcome would have been better if they had decided differently about their management. Although some studies investigate DR after treatment for localised prostate cancer, none report DR in patients undergoing surgery and post-prostatectomy radiotherapy. We evaluated DR in this group of patients overall, and for specific components of therapy. We surveyed 83 patients, with minimum 5 years follow-up, treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) and post-prostatectomy image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) to 64-66 Gy following www.EviQ.org.au protocols. A validated questionnaire identified DR if men either indicated that they would have been better off had they chosen another treatment, or they wished they could change their mind about treatment. There was an 85.5% response rate, with median follow-up post-IMRT 78 months. Adjuvant IG-IMRT was used in 28% of patients, salvage in 72% and ADT in 48%. A total of 70% of patients remained disease-free. Overall, 16.9% of patients expressed DR for treatment, with fourfold more regret for the RP component of treatment compared to radiotherapy (16.9% vs 4.2%, P = 0.01). DR for androgen deprivation was 14.3%. Patients were regretful of surgery due to toxicity, not being adequately informed about radiotherapy as an alternative, positive margins and surgery costs (83%, 33%, 25% and 8% of regretful patients respectively). Toxicity caused DR in the three radiotherapy-regretful and four ADT-regretful patients. Patients were twice as regretful overall, and of surgery, for salvage vs adjuvant approaches (both 19.6% vs 10.0%). Decision regret after RP and post-prostatectomy IG-IMRT is uncommon, although patients regret RP more than post-operative IG-IMRT. This should reassure urologists referring patients for post-prostatectomy IG-IMRT, particularly in the immediate adjuvant setting. Other implications include appropriate patient selection for RP (and

  6. Evaluation of Influencing Factors on Tubal Sterilization Regret: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahideh Jahanian Sadatmahalleh

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the menstrual pattern, sexual function, and anxiety, and depression in women with poststerilization regret, and potential influencing factors for regret following tubal ligation (TL in Iranian women. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 166 women with TL were subdivided into two groups including women with poststerilization regret (n=41 and women without poststerilization regret (n=125. They were selected from a health care center in Guilan province (Iran during 2015-2016. Menstrual blood loss was measured using the Pictorial Blood Loss Assessment Chart (PBLAC and through a self-administered questionnaire. In addition, sexual function was assessed by the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, and psychological distress was measured by employing the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Student’s t test and Chi-square test were used to reveal the statistical differences between the two groups. We used logistic regression to determine the influencing factors associated with regretting sterilization. Results Women with poststerilization regret had more menorrhagia (78 vs. 57.6%, P=0.03 than those who did not regret sterilization. A significant difference was found in sexual dysfunction in orgasm (P=0.02, satisfaction (P=0.004, pain (P=0.02, and total FSFI scores (P=0.007 between the two groups. Also, there was a significant difference between the two groups in anxiety, depression and total scores HADS (P=0.01. In the logistic regression model, age of sterilization [odds ratio (OR=2.67, confidence interval (CI: 1.03-7.81, P=0.04], pre-sterilization counseling (OR=19.92, CI: 6.61-59.99, P<0.001, score of PBLAC (OR=1.01, CI: 1.004-1.01, P=0.001, the number of days of bleeding (OR=1.37, CI: 1.01-1.99, P=0.04, and the length of menstrual cycles (OR=0.91, CI: 0.84-0.99, P=0.03 were significantly associated with regretting sterilization. Conclusion Complications due to sterilization are

  7. Psychopathic individuals exhibit but do not avoid regret during counterfactual decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle; Stuppy-Sullivan, Allison M.; Buckholtz, Joshua W.

    2016-01-01

    Psychopathy is associated with persistent antisocial behavior and a striking lack of regret for the consequences of that behavior. Although explanatory models for psychopathy have largely focused on deficits in affective responsiveness, recent work indicates that aberrant value-based decision making may also play a role. On that basis, some have suggested that psychopathic individuals may be unable to effectively use prospective simulations to update action value estimates during cost–benefit decision making. However, the specific mechanisms linking valuation, affective deficits, and maladaptive decision making in psychopathy remain unclear. Using a counterfactual decision-making paradigm, we found that individuals who scored high on a measure of psychopathy were as or more likely than individuals low on psychopathy to report negative affect in response to regret-inducing counterfactual outcomes. However, despite exhibiting intact affective regret sensitivity, they did not use prospective regret signals to guide choice behavior. In turn, diminished behavioral regret sensitivity predicted a higher number of prior incarcerations, and moderated the relationship between psychopathy and incarceration history. These findings raise the possibility that maladaptive decision making in psychopathic individuals is not a consequence of their inability to generate or experience negative emotions. Rather, antisocial behavior in psychopathy may be driven by a deficit in the generation of forward models that integrate information about rules, costs, and goals with stimulus value representations to promote adaptive behavior. PMID:27911790

  8. Consumer preferences for alternative fuel vehicles: Comparing a utility maximization and a regret minimization model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorus, Caspar G.; Koetse, Mark J.; Hoen, Anco

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a utility-based and a regret-based model of consumer preferences for alternative fuel vehicles, based on a large-scale stated choice-experiment held among company car leasers in The Netherlands. Estimation and application of random utility maximization and random regret minimization discrete choice models shows that while the two models achieve almost identical fit with the data and differ only marginally in terms of predictive ability, they generate rather different choice probability-simulations and policy implications. The most eye-catching difference between the two models is that the random regret minimization model accommodates a compromise-effect, as it assigns relatively high choice probabilities to alternative fuel vehicles that perform reasonably well on each dimension instead of having a strong performance on some dimensions and a poor performance on others. - Highlights: • Utility- and regret-based models of preferences for alternative fuel vehicles. • Estimation based on stated choice-experiment among Dutch company car leasers. • Models generate rather different choice probabilities and policy implications. • Regret-based model accommodates a compromise-effect

  9. Evidence of depression-associated circadian rhythm disruption and regret in prostate cancer patients after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Joanne; Sharpley, Christopher F; Bitsika, Vicki; Christie, David

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between prostate cancer (PCa) patients' regret that their surgery harmed them, and their scores on the two key symptoms of major depressive disorder (depressed mood, anhedonia) and a symptom of melancholic depression (disruption to circadian rhythm). Forty PCa patients who had received surgery for their PCa completed a postal survey including background information, regret about surgery that 'did them a lot of harm' and three items drawn from the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale measuring depressed mood, anhedonia and circadian rhythm disruption. There were significant correlations between all three symptoms of depression (depressed mood, anhedonia, disruption to circadian rhythm) and between patients' regret that surgery did them a lot of harm and their circadian rhythm disruption, but not between depressed mood or anhedonia and regret about surgery doing harm. These findings suggest that PCa patients' post-surgery regrets about major harm may lead to a significant disruption in a central physiological function and raise the need to consider this side effect of surgery when planning supportive services for these men.

  10. Psychopathic individuals exhibit but do not avoid regret during counterfactual decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle; Stuppy-Sullivan, Allison M; Buckholtz, Joshua W

    2016-12-13

    Psychopathy is associated with persistent antisocial behavior and a striking lack of regret for the consequences of that behavior. Although explanatory models for psychopathy have largely focused on deficits in affective responsiveness, recent work indicates that aberrant value-based decision making may also play a role. On that basis, some have suggested that psychopathic individuals may be unable to effectively use prospective simulations to update action value estimates during cost-benefit decision making. However, the specific mechanisms linking valuation, affective deficits, and maladaptive decision making in psychopathy remain unclear. Using a counterfactual decision-making paradigm, we found that individuals who scored high on a measure of psychopathy were as or more likely than individuals low on psychopathy to report negative affect in response to regret-inducing counterfactual outcomes. However, despite exhibiting intact affective regret sensitivity, they did not use prospective regret signals to guide choice behavior. In turn, diminished behavioral regret sensitivity predicted a higher number of prior incarcerations, and moderated the relationship between psychopathy and incarceration history. These findings raise the possibility that maladaptive decision making in psychopathic individuals is not a consequence of their inability to generate or experience negative emotions. Rather, antisocial behavior in psychopathy may be driven by a deficit in the generation of forward models that integrate information about rules, costs, and goals with stimulus value representations to promote adaptive behavior.

  11. Feelings of regret and disappointment in adults with high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalla, Tiziana; Sirigu, Angela; Robic, Suzanne; Chaste, Pauline; Leboyer, Marion; Coricelli, Giorgio

    2014-09-01

    Impairments in emotional processing in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) can be characterised by failure to generate and recognize self-reflective, cognitive-based emotions, such as pride, embarrassment and shame. Among this type of emotions, regret and disappointment, as well as their positive counterparts, result from a counterfactual comparison, that is the comparison between an actual value ("what is") and a fictive value ("what might have been"). However, while disappointment is experienced when the obtained outcome is worse than the expected outcome that might have occurred from the same choice, regret occurs when one experiences an outcome that is worse than the outcome of foregone choices. By manipulating a simple gambling task, we examined subjective reports on the intensity of negative and positive emotions in a group of adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS), and a control group matched for age, gender and educational level. Participants were asked to choose between two lotteries with different levels of risk under two conditions of outcome feedback: (i) Partial, in which only the outcome of the chosen lottery was visible, (ii) Complete, in which the outcomes of the two lotteries were simultaneously visible. By comparing partial and complete conditions, we aimed to investigate the differential effect between disappointment and regret, as well as between their positive counterparts. Relative to the control participants (CP), the group with HFA/AS reported reduced regret and no difference between regret and disappointment, along with a preserved ability to use counterfactual thinking and similar choice behaviour. Difficulties to distinguish the feeling of regret in participants with HFA/AS can be explained by diminished emotional awareness, likely associated with an abnormal fronto-limbic connectivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Emotional Reactions to the Outcomes of Decisions: The Role of Counterfactual Thought in the Experience of Regret and Disappointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg; van Dijk WW; van der Pligt J; Manstead; van Empelen P; Reinderman

    1998-08-01

    Regret and disappointment are emotions that can be experienced in response to an unfavorable outcome of a decision. Previous research suggests that both emotions are related to the process of counterfactual thinking. The present research extends this idea by combining it with ideas from regret and disappointment theory. The results show that regret is related to behavior-focused counterfactual thought in which the decision-maker's own actions are changed, whereas disappointment is related to situation-focused counterfactual thought in which aspects of the situation are changed. In Study 1 participants (N = 130) were asked to recall an autobiographical episode of either a regretful or a disappointing event. When asked to undo this event, regret participants predominantly changed their own actions, whereas disappointment participants predominantly changed aspects of the situation. In Study 2 all participants (N = 50) read a scenario in which a person experiences a negative event. Participants who were instructed to undo the event by changing the person's actions reported more regret than disappointment, while participants who were instructed to undo the event by changing aspects of the situation reported more disappointment than regret. Study 3 (N = 140) replicated the findings from Study 2 with a different scenario, and a design in which regret and disappointment were measured between rather than within subjects. In the discussion we address the relation among counterfactual thinking, attributions and affective reactions to decision outcomes, and the implications for decision research. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  13. Counterfactual reasoning for regretted situations involving controllable versus uncontrollable events: the modulating role of contingent self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Meredith R; Ball, Linden J; Alford, David

    2015-01-01

    We report a study that examined the modulating impact of contingent self-esteem on regret intensity for regretted outcomes associated with controllable versus uncontrollable events. The Contingent Self-Esteem Scale (e.g., Kernis & Goldman, 2006) was used to assess the extent to which a person's sense of self-worth is based on self and others' expectations. We found that there was an influence of self-esteem contingency for controllable but not for uncontrollable regret types. For controllable regret types individuals with a high contingent (i.e., unstable) self-esteem reported greater regret intensity than those with a low contingent (i.e., stable) self-esteem. We interpret this finding as reflecting a functional and adaptive role of high contingent self-esteem in terms of mobilizing the application of counterfactual reasoning and planning mechanisms that can enable personal expectations to be achieved in the future.

  14. Counterfactual Reasoning for Regretted Situations Involving Controllable Versus Uncontrollable Events: The Modulating Role of Contingent Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Meredith R.; Ball, Linden J.; Alford, David

    2015-01-01

    We report a study that examined the modulating impact of contingent self-esteem on regret intensity for regretted outcomes associated with controllable versus uncontrollable events. The Contingent Self-Esteem Scale (e.g., Kernis & Goldman, 2006) was used to assess the extent to which a person’s sense of self-worth is based on self and others’ expectations. We found that there was an influence of self-esteem contingency for controllable but not for uncontrollable regret types. For controllable regret types individuals with a high contingent (i.e., unstable) self-esteem reported greater regret intensity than those with a low contingent (i.e., stable) self-esteem. We interpret this finding as reflecting a functional and adaptive role of high contingent self-esteem in terms of mobilizing the application of counterfactual reasoning and planning mechanisms that can enable personal expectations to be achieved in the future. PMID:25883697

  15. Regret and Responsibility Resolved? Evaluating Ordóñez and Connolly's (2000) Conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg; van Dijk WW; Manstead

    2000-01-01

    T. Connolly, L. D. Ordo;aan;atez, and R. Coughlan (1997, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 70, 73-85) argued, on the basis of 5 experiments, that regret need not be related to a sense of responsibility for the regretted outcome. We (M. Zeelenberg, W. W. van Dijk, & A. S. R. Manstead, 1998, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 74, 254-272) showed in 2 experiments that this conclusion was premature, because it was based on an indirect measure of regret (i.e., overall happiness with the decision outcome). When regret was directly measured, the predicted effects of responsibility were found. L. D. Ordo;aan;atez and T. Connolly (2000, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 81, 132-142) replicated our findings in 2 experiments. Based on their findings they arrived at 4 conclusions. In this rejoinder we first discuss Ordóñez and Connolly's new studies and we then discuss the validity of their 4 conclusions. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  16. Regret in repeat purchase versus switching decisions : The attenuating role of decision justifiability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inman, J.J.; Zeelenberg, M.

    2002-01-01

    The decision-making literature has consistently reported that decisions to maintain the status quo tend to be regretted less than decisions to change it. We examine the consequences of repeat purchasing (maintaining the status quo) versus switching in the context of information regarding the reason

  17. Random regret and random utility in the household purchase of a motor vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, M.; Chorus, C.G.; Rose, J.M.; Hensher, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Random utility maximisation is the preeminent behavioural theory used to model choices. An alternative paradigm, however, is random regret minimisation. While the majority of the literature examines the choices of individuals, this paper compares the choices of groups, as well individuals, in both

  18. A Minimax Regret Analysis of Flood Risk Management Strategies Under Climate Change Uncertainty and Emerging Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der T.D.; Gabbert, S.; Weikard, H.P.; Ierland, van E.C.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the dynamic application of the minimax regret (MR) decision criterion to identify robust flood risk management strategies under climate change uncertainty and emerging information. An MR method is developed that uses multiple learning scenarios, for example about sea level rise

  19. A systematic review of women's satisfaction and regret following risk-reducing mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braude, Lucy; Kirsten, Laura; Gilchrist, Jemma; Juraskova, Ilona

    2017-12-01

    A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies, to describe patient satisfaction and regret associated with risk-reducing mastectomies (RRM), and the patient-reported factors associated with these among women at high risk of developing breast cancer. Studies were identified using Medline, CINAHL, Embase and PsycInfo databases (1995-2016). Data were extracted and crosschecked for accuracy. Article quality was assessed using standardised criteria. Of the 1657 unique articles identified, 30 studies met the inclusion criteria (n=23 quantitative studies, n=3 qualitative studies, n=4 mixed-method studies). Studies included were cross-sectional (n=23) or retrospective (n=7). General satisfaction with RRM, decision satisfaction and aesthetic satisfaction were generally high, although some women expressed regret around their decision and dissatisfaction with their appearance. Factors associated with both patient satisfaction and regret included: post-operative complications, body image changes, psychological distress and perceived inadequacy of information. While satisfaction with RRM was generally high, some women had regrets and expressed dissatisfaction. Future research is needed to further explore RRM, and to investigate current satisfaction trends given the ongoing improvements to surgical and clinical practice. Offering pre-operative preparation, decisional support and continuous psychological input may help to facilitate satisfaction with this complex procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigating the effects of consumption-associated cues on disappointment, regret and post-consumption behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Muhammad Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Consumers invariably encounter both positive and negative consumption experiences in their lives. Prior research finds that negative consumption experiences result in particular affective and behavioural reactions. This research focuses on how consumers respond to consumption-associated cues, in particular, causal attributions, expectations, and perceived information search, in terms of feelings of disappointment and regret, and how these emotions subsequently influence consumers’ post consum...

  1. Timing matters: length of leave and working mothers' daily reentry regrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Bettina S; Ritter, Johannes O

    2012-11-01

    Dealing with developmental tasks in work and family domains is an important challenge for young and middle-aged adults. We investigated a transition that has evolved into a normative task for women, namely, the retransition back to paid work following maternity leave. In a diary study with 149 mothers who had just returned to work, we examined the daily experienced regrets concerning this return. In addition to personal resources (i.e., emotional stability, feeling prepared for the transition) and financial requirements needed to return to work, daily experienced family stress predicted decisional regrets. Moreover, our results suggest that leave length is related to psychological resilience in the face of day-to-day stress experiences: Late returners reported fewer regrets in general and were unaffected by daily family stress. Return-to-work regrets, in turn, were predictive of withdrawal intentions. This underlines the relevancy of the timing of the transition back to work in terms of successful development during this life phase.

  2. Adolescents' Pregnancy Intentions, Wantedness, and Regret: Cross-Lagged Relations with Mental Health and Harsh Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Patricia L.; Chien, Nina C.; Barber, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors used cross-lagged analyses to examine the across-time influences on and consequences of adolescents' pregnancy intentions, wantedness, and regret. One hundred pregnant Latina adolescents were studied during pregnancy and at 6 and 12 months postpartum. The results revealed 4 main findings: (a) similar to what has been found in adult…

  3. Opportunity, satisfaction and regret: trying long acting reversible contraception in a unique scientific circumstance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Holly M; Packer, Catherine A; Spector, Hannah L; Hubacher, David

    2018-06-19

    Increased use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) can reduce unintended pregnancies. However, significant barriers exist to LARC uptake, particularly high up-front costs. In North Carolina in 2014, we interviewed 34 purposively-selected participants (aged 20-30 years) enrolled in a partially randomized patient preference trial to learn about their experiences with and attitudes toward contraception in this unique trial context. Cost of LARC was important in participants' decision-making. Experiencing an unintended pregnancy motivated women to switch to LARC. No participants who tried LARC, even those who experienced side effects, regretted it. Several participants regretted discontinuing their LARC. Concerns about insertion and removal did not influence future willingness to try LARC. Participants discussed the importance of affordability and feeling in control when choosing a contraceptive method. Cost, combined with uncertainty over whether LARC is the right method for them, may deter young women from trying LARC. Intrauterine devices and implants should be made affordable so that women can try them without significant financial commitment. Affordability will likely increase uptake, which will reduce unintended pregnancies. Regret from discontinuing LARC was more more frequently reported than regret from trying LARC. Providers should offer young women LARC and counsel to support continuation.

  4. The "ick" factor, anticipated regret, and willingness to become an organ donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, Ronan E; Foster, Catherine; McGeechan, Grant; Sandford, Kayleigh; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2011-03-01

    This research tested the role of traditional rational-cognitive factors and emotional barriers to posthumous organ donation. An example of an emotional barrier is the "ick" factor, a basic disgust reaction to the idea of organ donation. We also tested the potential role of manipulating anticipated regret to increase intention to donate in people who are not yet registered organ donors. In three experiments involving 621 members of the United Kingdom general public, participants were invited to complete questionnaire measures tapping potential emotional affective attitude barriers such as the "ick" factor, the desire to retain bodily integrity after death, and medical mistrust. Registered posthumous organ donors were compared with nondonors. In Experiments 2 and 3, nondonors were then allocated to a simple anticipated regret manipulation versus a control condition, and the impact on intention to donate was tested. Self-reported emotional barriers and intention to donate in the future. Traditional rational-cognitive factors such as knowledge, attitude, and subjective norm failed to distinguish donors from nondonors. However, in all three experiments, nondonors scored significantly higher than donors on the emotional "ick" factor and bodily integrity scales. A simple anticipated regret manipulation led to a significant increase in intention to register as an organ donor in future. Negative affective attitudes are thus crucial barriers to people registering as organ donors. A simple anticipated regret manipulation has the potential to significantly increase organ donation rates. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Increasing organ donation via anticipated regret (INORDAR: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Carroll Ronan E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout the world there is an insufficient supply of donor organs to meet the demand for organ transplantations. This paper presents a protocol for a randomised controlled trial, testing whether a simple, theory-based anticipated regret manipulation leads to a significant increase in posthumous organ donor registrations. Methods We will use a between-groups, prospective randomised controlled design. A random sample of 14,520 members of the adult Scottish general public will be contacted via post. These participants will be randomly allocated into 1 of the 4 conditions. The no questionnaire control (NQC group will simply receive a letter and donor registration form. The questionnaire control (QC arm will receive a questionnaire measuring their emotions and non-cognitive affective attitudes towards organ donation. The theory of planned behavior (TPB group will complete the emotions and affective attitudes questionnaire plus additional items assessing their cognitive attitudes towards organ donation, perceived control over registration and how they think significant others view this action. Finally, the anticipated regret (AR group will complete the same indices as the TPB group, plus two additional anticipated regret items. These items will assess the extent to which the participant anticipates regret for not registering as an organ donor in the near future. The outcome variable will be NHS Blood and Transplant verified registrations as an organ donor within 6 months of receiving our postal intervention. Discussion This study will assess whether simply asking people to reflect on the extent to which they may anticipate regret for not registering as an organ donor increases organ donor registration 6 months later. If successful, this simple and easy to administer theory-based intervention has the potential to save lives and money for the NHS by reducing the number of people receiving treatments such as dialysis. This

  6. Reversal Surgery in Regretful Male-to-Female Transsexuals After Sex Reassignment Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Miroslav L; Bizic, Marta R; Duisin, Dragana; Bouman, Mark-Bram; Buncamper, Marlon

    2016-06-01

    Sex reassignment surgery (SRS) has proved an effective intervention for patients with gender identity disorder. However, misdiagnosed patients sometimes regret their decision and request reversal surgery. This review is based on our experience with seven patients who regretted their decision to undergo male-to-female SRS. To analyze retrospectively seven patients who underwent reversal surgery after regretting their decision to undergo male-to-female SRS elsewhere. From November 2010 through November 2014, seven men 33 to 53 years old with previous male-to-female SRS underwent reversal phalloplasty. Preoperatively, they were examined by three independent psychiatrists. Surgery included three steps: removal of female genitalia with scrotoplasty and urethral lengthening, total phalloplasty with microvascular transfer of a musculocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap, and neophallus urethroplasty with penile prosthesis implantation. Self-reported esthetic and psychosexual status after reversion surgery and International Index of Erectile Function scores for sexual health after phalloplasty and penile prosthesis implantation. Follow-up was 13 to 61 months (mean = 31 months). Good postoperative results were achieved in all patients. In four patients, all surgical steps were completed; two patients are currently waiting for penile implants; and one patient decided against the penile prosthesis. Complications were related to urethral lengthening: two fistulas and one stricture were observed. All complications were repaired by minor revision. According to patients' self-reports, all patients were pleased with the esthetic appearance of their genitalia and with their significantly improved psychological status. Reversal surgery in regretful male-to-female transsexuals after SRS represents a complex, multistage procedure with satisfactory outcomes. Further insight into the characteristics of persons who regret their decision postoperatively would facilitate better future

  7. The importance of regret minimization in the choice for renewable energy programmes: Evidence from a discrete choice experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeri, Marco; Longo, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    This study provides a methodologically rigorous attempt to disentangle the impact of various factors – unobserved heterogeneity, information and environmental attitudes – on the inclination of individuals to exhibit either a utility maximization or a regret minimization behaviour in a discrete choice experiment for renewable energy programmes described by four attributes: greenhouse gas emissions, power outages, employment in the energy sector, and electricity bill. We explore the ability of different models – multinomial logit, random parameters logit, and hybrid latent class – and of different choice paradigms – utility maximization and regret minimization – in explaining people's choices for renewable energy programmes. The “pure” random regret random parameters logit model explains the choices of our respondents better than other models, indicating that regret is an important choice paradigm, and that choices for renewable energy programmes are mostly driven by regret, rather than by rejoice. In particular, we find that our respondents' choices are driven more by changes in greenhouse gas emissions than by reductions in power outages. Finally, we find that changing the level of information to one attribute has no effect on choices, and that being a member of an environmental organization makes a respondent more likely to be associated with the utility maximization choice framework. - Highlights: • The first paper to use the Random Regret Minimization choice paradigm in energy economics • With a hybrid latent class model, choices conform to either utility or pure random regret. • The pure random regret random parameters logit model outperforms other models. • Reducing greenhouse gas emissions is more important than reducing power outages.

  8. Treatment Decision Regret Among Long-Term Survivors of Localized Prostate Cancer: Results From the Prostate Cancer Outcomes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Richard M; Lo, Mary; Clark, Jack A; Albertsen, Peter C; Barry, Michael J; Goodman, Michael; Penson, David F; Stanford, Janet L; Stroup, Antoinette M; Hamilton, Ann S

    2017-07-10

    Purpose To determine the demographic, clinical, decision-making, and quality-of-life factors that are associated with treatment decision regret among long-term survivors of localized prostate cancer. Patients and Methods We evaluated men who were age ≤ 75 years when diagnosed with localized prostate cancer between October 1994 and October 1995 in one of six SEER tumor registries and who completed a 15-year follow-up survey. The survey obtained demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical data and measured treatment decision regret, informed decision making, general- and disease-specific quality of life, health worry, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concern, and outlook on life. We used multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify factors associated with regret. Results We surveyed 934 participants, 69.3% of known survivors. Among the cohort, 59.1% had low-risk tumor characteristics (PSA decision regret: 8.2% of those whose disease was managed conservatively, 15.0% of those who received surgery, and 16.6% of those who underwent radiotherapy. Factors associated with regret on multivariable analysis included reporting moderate or big sexual function bother (reported by 39.0%; OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.51 to 5.0), moderate or big bowel function bother (reported by 7.7%; OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.04 to 5.15), and PSA concern (mean score 52.8; OR, 1.01 per point change; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.02). Increasing age at diagnosis and report of having made an informed treatment decision were inversely associated with regret. Conclusion Regret was a relatively infrequently reported outcome among long-term survivors of localized prostate cancer; however, our results suggest that better informing men about treatment options, in particular, conservative treatment, might help mitigate long-term regret. These findings are timely for men with low-risk cancers who are being encouraged to consider active surveillance.

  9. Regret and rationalization among smokers in Thailand and Malaysia: findings from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonkyong B; Fong, Geoffrey T; Zanna, Mark P; Omar, Maizurah; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Borland, Ron

    2009-07-01

    To test whether differences of history and strength in tobacco control policies will influence social norms, which, in turn, will influence quit intentions, by influencing smokers' regret and rationalization. The data were from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Southeast Asia Survey, a cohort survey of representative samples of adult smokers in Thailand (N = 2,000) and Malaysia (N = 2,006). The survey used a stratified multistage sampling design. Measures included regret, rationalization, social norms, and quit intention. Thai smokers were more likely to have quit intentions than Malaysian smokers. This difference in quit intentions was, in part, explained by the country differences in social norms, regret, and rationalization. Reflecting Thailand's history of stronger tobacco control policies, Thai smokers, compared with Malaysian smokers, perceived more negative social norms toward smoking, were more likely to regret, and less likely to rationalize smoking. Mediational analyses revealed that these differences in social norms, accounted, in part, for the country-quit intention relation and that regret and rationalization accounted, in part, for the social norm-quit intention relation. The results suggest that social norms toward smoking, which are shaped by tobacco control policies, and smokers' regret and rationalization influence quit intentions.

  10. Decision Regret in Men Undergoing Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steer, Anna N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour (Australia); Aherne, Noel J., E-mail: noel.aherne@ncahs.health.nsw.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour (Australia); Rural Clinical School Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Coffs Harbour (Australia); Gorzynska, Karen; Hoffman, Matthew; Last, Andrew; Hill, Jacques [Department of Radiation Oncology, North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour (Australia); Shakespeare, Thomas P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour (Australia); Rural Clinical School Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Coffs Harbour (Australia)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: Decision regret (DR) is a negative emotion associated with medical treatment decisions, and it is an important patient-centered outcome after therapy for localized prostate cancer. DR has been found to occur in up to 53% of patients treated for localized prostate cancer, and it may vary depending on treatment modality. DR after modern dose-escalated radiation therapy (DE-RT) has not been investigated previously, to our knowledge. Our primary aim was to evaluate DR in a cohort of patients treated with DE-RT. Methods and Materials: We surveyed 257 consecutive patients with localized prostate cancer who had previously received DE-RT, by means of a validated questionnaire. Results: There were 220 responses (85.6% response rate). Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy was given in 85.0% of patients and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy in 15.0%. Doses received included 73.8 Gy (34.5% patients), 74 Gy (53.6%), and 76 Gy (10.9%). Neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (AD) was given in 51.8% of patients and both neoadjuvant and adjuvant AD in 34.5%. The median follow-up time was 23 months (range, 12-67 months). In all, 3.8% of patients expressed DR for their choice of treatment. When asked whether they would choose DE-RT or AD again, only 0.5% probably or definitely would not choose DE-RT again, compared with 8.4% for AD (P<.01). Conclusion: Few patients treated with modern DE-RT express DR, with regret appearing to be lower than in previously published reports of patients treated with radical prostatectomy or older radiation therapy techniques. Patients experienced more regret with the AD component of treatment than with the radiation therapy component, with implications for informed consent. Further research should investigate regret associated with individual components of modern therapy, including AD, radiation therapy and surgery.

  11. Protecting young children against skin cancer: Parental beliefs, roles, and regret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; Kirkpatrick, Aaron; Rebar, Amanda; White, Katherine M; Hagger, Martin S

    2017-12-01

    To examine the role of parental beliefs, roles, and anticipated regret toward performing childhood sun-protective behaviours. Parents (N = 230; 174 mothers, 56 fathers), recruited using a nonrandom convenience sample, of at least 1 child aged between 2 and 5 years completed an initial questionnaire assessing demographics and past behaviour as well as theory of planned behaviour global (attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control) and belief-based (behavioural, normative, and control beliefs) measures, role construction, and anticipated regret regarding their intention and behaviour to protect their child from the sun. Two weeks later, participants completed a follow-up questionnaire assessing their sun protection of their child during the previous 2 weeks. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis identified attitude, perceived behavioural control, role construction, anticipated regret, past behaviour, and a normative belief ("current partner/other family members") as significant predictors of parents' intention to participate in sun-protective behaviour for their child. Intention and past behaviour were significant predictors of parents' follow-up sun-protective behaviour. The regression models explained 64% and 36% of the variance in intention and behaviour, respectively. The findings of this study highlight the importance of anticipated regret and role-related beliefs alongside personal, normative, and control beliefs in determining parents' intentional sun-protective behaviour for their children. Findings may inform the development of parent- and community-based sun protection intervention programs to promote parents' sun-safety behaviours for their children to prevent future skin cancer incidence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Decision Regret in Men Undergoing Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steer, Anna N.; Aherne, Noel J.; Gorzynska, Karen; Hoffman, Matthew; Last, Andrew; Hill, Jacques; Shakespeare, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Decision regret (DR) is a negative emotion associated with medical treatment decisions, and it is an important patient-centered outcome after therapy for localized prostate cancer. DR has been found to occur in up to 53% of patients treated for localized prostate cancer, and it may vary depending on treatment modality. DR after modern dose-escalated radiation therapy (DE-RT) has not been investigated previously, to our knowledge. Our primary aim was to evaluate DR in a cohort of patients treated with DE-RT. Methods and Materials: We surveyed 257 consecutive patients with localized prostate cancer who had previously received DE-RT, by means of a validated questionnaire. Results: There were 220 responses (85.6% response rate). Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy was given in 85.0% of patients and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy in 15.0%. Doses received included 73.8 Gy (34.5% patients), 74 Gy (53.6%), and 76 Gy (10.9%). Neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (AD) was given in 51.8% of patients and both neoadjuvant and adjuvant AD in 34.5%. The median follow-up time was 23 months (range, 12-67 months). In all, 3.8% of patients expressed DR for their choice of treatment. When asked whether they would choose DE-RT or AD again, only 0.5% probably or definitely would not choose DE-RT again, compared with 8.4% for AD (P<.01). Conclusion: Few patients treated with modern DE-RT express DR, with regret appearing to be lower than in previously published reports of patients treated with radical prostatectomy or older radiation therapy techniques. Patients experienced more regret with the AD component of treatment than with the radiation therapy component, with implications for informed consent. Further research should investigate regret associated with individual components of modern therapy, including AD, radiation therapy and surgery

  13. Decision regret in men undergoing dose-escalated radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Anna N; Aherne, Noel J; Gorzynska, Karen; Hoffman, Matthew; Last, Andrew; Hill, Jacques; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2013-07-15

    Decision regret (DR) is a negative emotion associated with medical treatment decisions, and it is an important patient-centered outcome after therapy for localized prostate cancer. DR has been found to occur in up to 53% of patients treated for localized prostate cancer, and it may vary depending on treatment modality. DR after modern dose-escalated radiation therapy (DE-RT) has not been investigated previously, to our knowledge. Our primary aim was to evaluate DR in a cohort of patients treated with DE-RT. We surveyed 257 consecutive patients with localized prostate cancer who had previously received DE-RT, by means of a validated questionnaire. There were 220 responses (85.6% response rate). Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy was given in 85.0% of patients and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy in 15.0%. Doses received included 73.8 Gy (34.5% patients), 74 Gy (53.6%), and 76 Gy (10.9%). Neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (AD) was given in 51.8% of patients and both neoadjuvant and adjuvant AD in 34.5%. The median follow-up time was 23 months (range, 12-67 months). In all, 3.8% of patients expressed DR for their choice of treatment. When asked whether they would choose DE-RT or AD again, only 0.5% probably or definitely would not choose DE-RT again, compared with 8.4% for AD (P<.01). Few patients treated with modern DE-RT express DR, with regret appearing to be lower than in previously published reports of patients treated with radical prostatectomy or older radiation therapy techniques. Patients experienced more regret with the AD component of treatment than with the radiation therapy component, with implications for informed consent. Further research should investigate regret associated with individual components of modern therapy, including AD, radiation therapy and surgery. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Learning and dynamic choices under uncertainty: from weighted regret and rejoice to expected utility

    OpenAIRE

    Zagonari, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies the globally stable conditions under which an individual facing the same choice in many subsequent times learns to behave as prescribed by the expected-utility model. To do so, the analysis moves from the relevant behavioural models suggested by psychology (i.e., weighted probabilities applied to regret and rejoice theory), and by updating probability estimations and outcome preferences according to the learning models suggested by neuroscience (i.e., adaptive learning a...

  15. Regulating emotion in the context of interpersonal decisions: The role of anticipated pride and regret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job eVan Der Schalk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent theories about the relation between emotion and behavior hold that social behavior is influenced not only by the experience of emotion, but also by the anticipation of emotion. We argue that anticipating future emotional states is an emotion regulation strategy when it leads to a change in behavior. In the current studies we examined how construal of a fair or an unfair situation in terms of positive or negative anticipated emotions influences the fairness of subsequent behavior. We used the Ultimatum Bargaining Game--an experimental game in which participants divide a resource between themselves and another person--as a social situation that offers the opportunity to engage in fair and unfair behavior. In Study 1 we used an autobiographical recall task to manipulate anticipated emotions. Although the task did not influence anticipated emotions directly, results showed that anticipated pride about fair behavior increased levels of fairness, whereas anticipated pride about unfair behavior decreased levels of fairness. Similarly, anticipated regret about fair behavior decreased levels of fairness, whereas anticipated regret about unfair behavior increased levels of fairness. In Study 2 we replicated this pattern of findings, and found that participants who thought about their anticipated emotions (pride or regret in relation to unfair behavior behaved more fairly. We discuss these findings in relation to theories of emotion regulation and economic decision-making.

  16. Integrating Regret Psychology to Travel Mode Choice for a Transit-Oriented Evacuation Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi An

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Facing the potential dangers from sudden disasters in urban cities, emergency administrators have to make an appropriate evacuation plan to mitigate negative consequences. However, little attention has been paid to evacuee real decision psychology when developing a strategy. The aim of this paper is to analyze evacuee mode choice behavior considering regret aversion psychology during evacuation. First, the utility-based and regret-based models are formulated to obtain evacuees’ preferences on travel mode choice, respectively. According to the data collected from the stated preference (SP survey on evacuee mode choice, the estimation results show that the regret-based model performs better than the utility model. Moreover, based on the estimates from behavioral analysis, the elasticities of evacuee mode choices are calculated, and transit strategy simulation is undertaken to investigate the influence on evacuee mode switching from private automobile to public transit. The results are expected to help emergency administrators to make a transit-oriented strategy for a sustainable evacuation plan, especially for the benefit of carless people.

  17. The potential role of regret in the physician-patient relationship: insights from neuroeconomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coricelli, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the chapter is to show how two important facts of physicians' behavior, (i) their tendency to "create" the demand for medical practices, and (ii) their delay and reluctance in using new treatments and therapies, can be explained with the lens of the neuroeconomics research on the neural and behavioral basis of regret. This chapter adopts a neuroeconomics perspective on decision-making, asking how the brain represents values and generates emotional states, which consequently influence choices. In the line of recent work on emotion-based decision-making, we expect to be able to characterize the brain areas underlying the studied processes and to specify the functional relationship between rational decision-making and the emotional influences that modulate these decisional processes. Neurobiological approaches can contribute significantly to a better understanding of the cognitive and emotional underpinnings of medical decision-making, from how physicians might evaluate and anticipate the effect of alternative therapies, to how patients might anticipate future consequences of their health choice. This can explain some features of the doctor-patient relationship which are not consistent with simple maximization models. Our findings suggest that physicians' behavior can be often explained by regret avoidance. Likewise, they suggest that physicians play as actual agents when they make medical decisions that will affect the future well-being of their patients. We limited our analysis to the potential role of anticipated regret; therefore, this chapter neglects many important factors of the health sector.

  18. Cerebellar damage impairs the self-rating of regret feeling in a gambling task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausi, Silvia; Coricelli, Giorgio; Pisotta, Iolanda; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Lauriola, Marco; Molinari, Marco; Leggio, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Anatomical, clinical, and neuroimaging evidence implicates the cerebellum in processing emotions and feelings. Moreover recent studies showed a cerebellar involvement in pathologies such as autism, schizophrenia and alexithymia, in which emotional processing have been found altered. However, cerebellar function in the modulation of emotional responses remains debated. In this study, emotions that are involved directly in decision-making were examined in 15 patients (six males; age range 17–60 years) affected by cerebellar damage and 15 well matched healthy controls. We used a gambling task, in which subjects’ choices and evaluation of outcomes with regard to their anticipated and actual emotional impact were analyzed. Emotions, such as regret and relief, were elicited, based on the outcome of the unselected gamble. Interestingly, despite their ability to avoid regret in subsequent choices, patients affected by cerebellar lesions were significantly impaired in evaluating the feeling of regret subjectively. These results demonstrate that the cerebellum is involved in conscious recognizing of negative feelings caused by the sense of self-responsibility for an incorrect decision. PMID:25999829

  19. Personal responsibility, regret, and medical stigma among individuals living with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, Kevin R; Owen, Jason E; Thornton, Andrea A; Stanton, Annette L

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the degree to which adults with lung cancer perceive personal responsibility for their disease, personal regret for actions that may have contributed to lung cancer, and potential stigmatization from others is important, because these perceptions and experiences may be linked with treatment nonadherence, feelings of isolation, avoidance of healthcare providers, and poor quality of life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate rates and intensity of these types of experiences and to characterize the extent to which they are linked with smoking status and psychological adjustment in those living with lung cancer. Adults with lung cancer (N = 213) were recruited from two major cancer centers to complete a mail survey. Perceived responsibility was frequent in those who had ever smoked (74-80%), whereas regret and feelings of stigmatization were less frequent. When present, however, personal regret and stigmatization were associated with adverse psychological outcomes, particularly for never smokers. These results are consistent with the theory of stereotype threat and have clinical implications for management of people with lung cancer.

  20. Selecting Products Considering the Regret Behavior of Consumer: A Decision Support Model Based on Online Ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With the remarkable promotion of e-commerce platforms, consumers increasingly prefer to purchase products online. Online ratings facilitate consumers to choose among products. Thus, to help consumers effectively select products, it is necessary to provide decision support methods for consumers to trade online. Considering the decision makers are bounded rational, this paper proposes a novel decision support model for product selection based on online ratings, in which the regret aversion behavior of consumers is formulated. Massive online ratings provided by experienced consumers for alternative products associated with several evaluation attributes are obtained by software finders. Then, the evaluations of alternative products in format of stochastic variables are conducted. To select a desirable alternative product, a novel method is introduced to calculate gain and loss degrees of each alternative over others. Considering the regret behavior of consumers in the product selection process, the regret and rejoice values of alternative products for consumer are computed to obtain the perceived utility values of alternative products. According to the prior order of the evaluation attributes provided by the consumer, the prior weights of attributes are determined based on the perceived utility values of alternative products. Furthermore, the overall perceived utility values of alternative products are obtained to generate a ranking result. Finally, a practical example from Zol.com.cn for tablet computer selection is used to demonstrate the feasibility and practically of the proposed model.

  1. Decision making regarding prophylactic mastectomy: stability of preferences and the impact of anticipated feelings of regret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Sandra; van Roosmalen, Mariëlle S; Otten, Wilma; Stalmeier, Peep F M

    2008-05-10

    Women who test positive for a BRCA1/2 mutation face difficult choices to manage their breast cancer risk; one of these choices is whether to opt for prophylactic mastectomy. Few data are available about this decision-making process. The current study provides data regarding the stability of risk-management preferences over time and the factors that are associated with these preferences. We analyzed data from 338 women who opted for breast cancer antigen (BRCA) testing. First, we prospectively assessed preferences of 80 BRCA mutation carriers at five different points in time ranging from 1 week after blood sampling up to 9 months after BRCA-test disclosure. Second, we applied univariate and multivariate regression analyses to examine which medical, sociodemographic, and psychological factors are related to a preference for prophylactic mastectomy. Ninety percent of the women already indicated a preference regarding risk management at baseline. Moreover, most women had stable preferences over time. Furthermore, anticipated feelings of regret in case of a hypothetical breast cancer diagnosis in the near future were strongly related to risk-management preference (odds ratio = 8.93; P preferences. Many of them may be sensitive to the possibility of regret in case of a bad outcome. We discuss whether possible regret in the future is a rational reason for opting for prophylactic mastectomy, or whether it signifies an emotional coping process or strategy in which the future costs are no longer fully considered.

  2. An Experimental Decision-Making Paradigm to Distinguish Guilt and Regret and Their Self-Regulating Function via Loss Averse Choice Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Ullrich; Handke, Lisa; Dörfel, Denise; Walter, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Both guilt and regret typically result from counterfactual evaluations of personal choices that caused a negative outcome and are thought to regulate human decisions by people’s motivation to avoid these emotions. Despite these similarities, studies asking people to describe typical situations of guilt and regret identified the social dimension as a fundamental distinguishing factor, showing that guilt but not regret specifically occurs for choices in interpersonal (social) contexts. However,...

  3. Regret about surgical decisions among early-stage breast cancer patients: Effects of the congruence between patients' preferred and actual decision-making roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ashley Wei-Ting; Chang, Su-Mei; Chang, Cheng-Shyong; Chen, Shou-Tung; Chen, Dar-Ren; Fan, Fang; Antoni, Michael H; Hsu, Wen-Yau

    2018-02-01

    Early-stage breast cancer patients generally receive either a mastectomy or a lumpectomy, either by their own choice or that of their surgeon. Sometimes, there is regret about the decision afterward. To better understand regret about surgical decisions, this study examined 2 possibilities: The first is that women who take a dominant or collaborative role in decision making about the surgery express less regret afterward. The second is that congruence between preferred role and actual role predicts less regret. We also explored whether disease stage moderates the relationship between role congruence and decisional regret. In a cross-sectional design, 154 women diagnosed with breast cancer completed a survey assessing decisional role preference and actual decisional role, a measure of post-decision regret, and a measure of disturbances related to breast cancer treatment. Hierarchical regression was used to investigate prediction of decisional regret. Role congruence, not actual decisional role, was significantly associated with less decisional regret, independent of all the control variables. The interaction between disease stage and role congruence was also significant, showing that mismatch relates to regret only in women with more advanced disease. Our findings suggest that cancer patients could benefit from tailored decision support concerning their decisional role preferences in the complex scenario of medical and personal factors during the surgical decision. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. AoA Case Study: A Variation of Regret Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kane, Robyn A

    2005-01-01

    .... It is not overly pessimistic to assign at most a 30-percent confidence level to a complex system's cost estimate to account for significant technical and program uncertainties, and the estimation uncertainty itself...

  5. CO2-stabilization may be a 'no-regrets' policy. A general equilibrium analysis of the Norwegian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haakonsen, L.; Mathiesen, L.

    1997-01-01

    Restricting CO 2 emissions requires changing today's consumption pattern away from energy and emission intensive commodities towards cleaner goods. The cost of stabilizing CO 2 emissions at the 1990 level by the year 2000, say, as compared to a business-as-usual trend, is estimated by several researchers to be on the order of 1% of GNP. We will argue that the cost may be overestimated because of a too simple model describing the working of the economic system and the evaluation of welfare. We demonstrate that by expanding a model to include the actual tax system and negative externalities, the cost to present generations from restricting emissions by a CO 2 tax may be negative. That is, some reduction may actually correspond to a 'no-regrets' policy. The reasons are inefficiencies in today's tax system and non-optimal handling of negative externalities. Our analysis suggests that a CO 2 tax and reduced emissions will lessen such inefficiencies. 8 figs., 2 appendices, 22 refs

  6. O arrependimento após a esterilização feminina Regret by women following sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Meloni Vieira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A esterilização feminina é o método anticoncepcional mais usado pelas mulheres brasileiras, embora este método não seja oferecido pelo sistema de saúde. Ele não tem sido recomendado pelos Conselhos de Medicina como um procedimento ético devido à sua ambigüidade legal. Em um estudo realizado na região metropolitana de São Paulo entre março e julho de 1992 foram entrevistadas 3.149 mulheres sobre o uso de anticoncepcionais. Delas, 407 mulheres com menos de 40 anos e que haviam sido esterilizadas há pelo menos um ano foram questionadas sobre a adaptação após a cirurgia. Entrevistas em profundidade com 15 mulheres que estavam arrependidas foram analisadas para um melhor entendimento da natureza do arrependimento. Os resultados incluem: a adaptação após a esterilização, a oferta da cirurgia, o conhecimento dos métodos anticoncepcionais, o uso prévio de métodos entre as mulheres esterilizadas e os fatores associados ao arrependimento. Os dados qualitativos enfocam a falta de informação das mulheres esterilizadas. Os resultados mostram a necessidade de regulamentar este procedimento de forma a salvaguardar a saúde das mulheres, seus direitos reprodutivos e os princípios fundamentais da ética médica.Female sterilization is the most widely used contraceptive method among Brazilian women, although it has not been provided by the National Health System. Due to its legal ambiguity, it has not been recommended by Medical Boards as an ethical procedure. A study in which 3,149 women were asked about contraceptive use was carried out in the Greater São Paulo Metropolitan Area between March and July 1992. A total of 407 women under 40 years of age who had been submitted to sterilization at least one year prior to the interview were asked about their adjustment after the operation. Fifteen in-depth interviews with regretful women were analyzed in order to elucidate the nature of such feelings. The results include: adjustment after

  7. Satisfaction with treatment decision-making and treatment regret among Latinas and non-Latina whites with DCIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Mónica E.; Kaplan, Celia P.; Nápoles, Anna M.; Hwang, E. Shelly; Livaudais, Jennifer C.; Karliner, Leah S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine differences in treatment decision-making participation, satisfaction, and regret among Latinas and non-Latina whites with DCIS. Methods Survey of Latina and non-Latina white women diagnosed with DCIS. We assessed women’s preferences for involvement in decision-making, primary treatment decision maker, and participatory decision-making. We examined primary outcomes of satisfaction with treatment decision-making and treatment regret by ethnic-language group. Results Among 745 participants (349 Latinas, 396 white) Spanish-speaking Latinas (SSL) had the highest mean preference for involvement in decision-making score and the lowest mean participatory decision-making score and were more likely to defer their final treatment decision to their physicians than English-speaking Latinas or whites (26%, 13%, 18%, pdecision-making (OR 0.4; CI 95%, 0.2-0.8) and expressed more regret than whites (OR 6.2; CI 95%, 3.0-12.4). More participatory decision-making increased the odds of satisfaction (OR 1.5; CI 95%, 1.3-1.8) and decreased the odds of treatment regret (OR 0.8; CI 95%, 0.7-1.0), independent of ethnicity-language. Conclusion Language barriers impede the establishment of decision-making partnerships between Latinas and their physicians, and result in less satisfaction with the decision-making process and more treatment regret. Practice Implications Use of professional interpreters may address communication-related disparities for these women. PMID:24207116

  8. Decision conflict and regret among surrogate decision makers in the medical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jesse J; Morris, Peter; Files, D Clark; Gower, Emily; Young, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Family members of critically ill patients in the intensive care unit face significant morbidity. It may be the decision-making process that plays a significant role in the psychological morbidity associated with being a surrogate in the ICU. We hypothesize that family members facing end-of-life decisions will have more decisional conflict and decisional regret than those facing non-end-of-life decisions. We enrolled a sample of adult patients and their surrogates in a tertiary care, academic medical intensive care unit. We queried the surrogates regarding decisions they had made on behalf of the patient and assessed decision conflict. We then contacted the family member again to assess decision regret. Forty (95%) of 42 surrogates were able to identify at least 1 decision they had made on behalf of the patient. End-of-life decisions (defined as do not resuscitate [DNR]/do not intubate [DNI] or continuation of life support) accounted for 19 of 40 decisions (47.5%). Overall, the average Decision Conflict Scale (DCS) score was 21.9 of 100 (range 0-100, with 0 being little decisional conflict and 100 being great decisional conflict). The average DCS score for families facing end-of-life decisions was 25.5 compared with 18.7 for all other decisions. Those facing end-of-life decisions scored higher on the uncertainty subscale (subset of DCS questions that indicates level of certainty regarding decision) with a mean score of 43.4 compared with all other decisions with a mean score of 27.0. Overall, very few surrogates experienced decisional regret with an average DRS score of 13.4 of 100. Nearly all surrogates enrolled were faced with decision-making responsibilities on behalf of his or her critically ill family member. In our small pilot study, we found more decisional conflict in those surrogates facing end-of-life decisions, specifically on the subset of questions dealing with uncertainty. Surrogates report low levels of decisional regret. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  9. Validation of a 10-item care-related regret intensity scale (RIS-10) for health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courvoisier, Delphine S; Cullati, Stéphane; Haller, Chiara S; Schmidt, Ralph E; Haller, Guy; Agoritsas, Thomas; Perneger, Thomas V

    2013-03-01

    Regret after one of the many decisions and interventions that health care professionals make every day can have an impact on their own health and quality of life, and on their patient care practices. To validate a new care-related regret intensity scale (RIS) for health care professionals. Retrospective cross-sectional cohort study with a 1-month follow-up (test-retest) in a French-speaking University Hospital. A total of 469 nurses and physicians responded to the survey, and 175 answered the retest. RIS, self-report questions on the context of the regret-inducing event, its consequences for the patient, involvement of the health care professionals, and changes in patient care practices after the event. We measured the impact of regret intensity on health care professionals with the satisfaction with life scale, the SF-36 first question (self-reported health), and a question on self-esteem. On the basis of factor analysis and item response analysis, the initial 19-item scale was shortened to 10 items. The resulting scale (RIS-10) was unidimensional and had high internal consistency (α=0.87) and acceptable test-retest reliability (0.70). Higher regret intensity was associated with (a) more consequences for the patient; (b) lower life satisfaction and poorer self-reported health in health care professionals; and (c) changes in patient care practices. Nurses reported analyzing the event and apologizing, whereas physicians reported talking preferentially to colleagues, rather than to their supervisor, about changing practices. The RIS is a valid and reliable measure of care-related regret intensity for hospital-based physicians and nurses.

  10. Validation of a 15-item care-related regret coping scale for health-care professionals (RCS-HCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courvoisier, Delphine Sophie; Cullati, Stephane; Ouchi, Rieko; Schmidt, Ralph Eric; Haller, Guy; Chopard, Pierre; Agoritsas, Thomas; Perneger, Thomas V

    2014-01-01

    Coping with difficult care-related situations is a common challenge for health-care professionals. How these professionals deal with the regrets they may experience following one of the many decisions and interventions they must make every day can have an impact on their own health and quality of life, and also on their patient care practices. To identify professionals most at need for extra support, development and validation of a tool measuring coping style are needed. We performed a survey of physicians and nurses of a French-speaking University hospital; 469 health-care professionals responded to the survey, and 175 responded to the same survey one-month later. Regret was assessed with the regret coping scale developed for this study, self-report questions on the frequency of regretted situations and the intensity of regret. Construct validity was assessed using measures of health-care professionals' quality of life (including job and life satisfaction, and self-reported health) as well as sleep problems and depression. Based on factor analysis and item response analysis, the initial 31-item scale was shortened to 15 items, which measured three types of strategies: problem-focused strategies (i.e., trying to find solutions, talking to colleagues) and two types of emotion-focused strategies, A (i.e., self-blame, rumination) and B (e.g., acceptance, emotional distance). All subscales showed high internal consistency (α >0.85). Overall, as expected, problem-focused and emotion-focused B strategies correlated with higher quality of life, fewer sleep problems and less depression, and emotion-focused A strategies showed the opposite pattern. The regret coping scale (RCS-HCP) is a valid and reliable measure of coping abilities of hospital-based health-care professionals.

  11. Will I regret it? Anticipated negative emotions modulate choices in moral dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pletti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We tested if post-decisional emotions of regret, guilt, shame, anger, and disgust can account for individuals’ choices in moral dilemmas depicting the choice of letting some people die (non-utilitarian option or sacrificing one person to save them (utilitarian option. We collected participants’ choices and post-decisional emotional ratings for each option using Footbridge-type dilemmas, in which the sacrifice of one person is the means to save more people, and Trolley-type dilemmas, in which the sacrifice is only a side effect. Moreover, we computed the EEG Readiness Potential to test if the neural activity related to the last phase of decision-making was related to the emotional conflict. Participants reported generally stronger emotions for the utilitarian as compared to the non-utilitarian options, with the exception of anger and regret, which in Trolley-type dilemmas were stronger for the non-utilitarian option. Moreover, participants tended to choose the option that minimized the intensity of negative emotions, irrespective of dilemma type. No significant relationship between emotions and the amplitude of the Readiness Potential emerged. It is possible that anticipated post-decisional emotions play a role in earlier stages of decision-making.

  12. Heuristic algorithms for the minmax regret flow-shop problem with interval processing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćwik, Michał; Józefczyk, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    An uncertain version of the permutation flow-shop with unlimited buffers and the makespan as a criterion is considered. The investigated parametric uncertainty is represented by given interval-valued processing times. The maximum regret is used for the evaluation of uncertainty. Consequently, the minmax regret discrete optimization problem is solved. Due to its high complexity, two relaxations are applied to simplify the optimization procedure. First of all, a greedy procedure is used for calculating the criterion's value, as such calculation is NP-hard problem itself. Moreover, the lower bound is used instead of solving the internal deterministic flow-shop. The constructive heuristic algorithm is applied for the relaxed optimization problem. The algorithm is compared with previously elaborated other heuristic algorithms basing on the evolutionary and the middle interval approaches. The conducted computational experiments showed the advantage of the constructive heuristic algorithm with regards to both the criterion and the time of computations. The Wilcoxon paired-rank statistical test confirmed this conclusion.

  13. Will I Regret It? Anticipated Negative Emotions Modulate Choices in Moral Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletti, Carolina; Lotto, Lorella; Tasso, Alessandra; Sarlo, Michela

    2016-01-01

    We tested if post-decisional emotions of regret, guilt, shame, anger, and disgust can account for individuals’ choices in moral dilemmas depicting the choice of letting some people die (non-utilitarian option) or sacrificing one person to save them (utilitarian option). We collected participants’ choices and post-decisional emotional ratings for each option using Footbridge-type dilemmas, in which the sacrifice of one person is the means to save more people, and Trolley-type dilemmas, in which the sacrifice is only a side effect. Moreover, we computed the EEG Readiness Potential to test if the neural activity related to the last phase of decision-making was related to the emotional conflict. Participants reported generally stronger emotions for the utilitarian as compared to the non-utilitarian options, with the exception of anger and regret, which in Trolley-type dilemmas were stronger for the non-utilitarian option. Moreover, participants tended to choose the option that minimized the intensity of negative emotions, irrespective of dilemma type. No significant relationship between emotions and the amplitude of the Readiness Potential emerged. It is possible that anticipated post-decisional emotions play a role in earlier stages of decision-making. PMID:27999559

  14. The Demographics and Rates of Tattoo Complications, Regret, and Unsafe Tattooing Practices: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszewski, Walter; Kream, Elizabeth; Helland, Sarah; Cavigli, Amy; Lavin, Bridget C; Murina, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Tattoos have become increasingly common in the United States; however, there are limited data on the rates of tattoo complications and tattoo regret. To determine the rates of infectious and allergic complications after tattooing, rates of tattoo regret, the perception of dermatologists among people with tattoos, and the demographics of people with tattoos. An 18-question cross-sectional survey was fielded in New Orleans in January 2015. Participants had to be at least 18 years old, have at least 1 tattoo, and reside within the United States. In total, 501 participants from 38 American states were enrolled. Of all participants, 3.2% had a history of an infected tattoo, 3.8% had a history of a painful tattoo, and 21.2% had a history of a pruritic tattoo; 16.2% of participants regret a current tattoo and 21.2% are interested in having 1 or more tattoos removed; 21.2% received a tattoo while intoxicated and 17.6% had a tattoo placed somewhere other than at a tattoo parlor; and 78.9% believe dermatologists are knowledgeable about the infectious and allergic complications of tattoos. Given the rates of pruritic tattoos and tattoo regret, there is an opportunity, and trust among people with tattoos, for dermatologists to manage these complications.

  15. The moderating role of self-efficacy beliefs in the relationship between anticipated feelings of regret and condom use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, AB; Buunk, BP; Manstead, ASR

    1997-01-01

    This prospective study examined how the feelings of regret and self-blame one anticipates after engaging in unsafe sex affect condom use in new sexual relationships. The central theoretical question is whether self-efficacy perceptions can moderate the relationship between anticipated feelings and

  16. Risk, rationality, and regret: responding to the uncertainty of childhood food anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, W; Kerridge, I; Kemp, A

    2005-06-01

    Risk and uncertainty are unavoidable in clinical medicine. In the case of childhood food allergy, the dysphoric experience of uncertainty is heightened by the perception of unpredictable danger to young children. Medicine has tended to respond to uncertainty with forms of rational decision making. Rationality cannot, however, resolve uncertainty and provides an insufficient account of risk. This paper compares the medical and parental accounts of two peanut allergic toddlers to highlight the value of emotions in decision making. One emotion in particular, regret, assists in explaining the actions taken to prevent allergic reactions, given the diffuse nature of responsibility for children. In this light, the assumption that doctors make rational judgments while patients have emotion led preferences is a false dichotomy. Reconciling medical and lay accounts requires acknowledgement of the interrelationship between the rational and the emotional, and may lead to more appropriate clinical decision making under conditions of uncertainty.

  17. Behavioral Economics and Physician Board Meetings: Opportunity Cost, Regret, and Their Mitigation in Orthopaedic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinicrope, Brent J; Roberts, Craig S; Sussman, Lyle

    2018-01-01

    Health care is a business. Health care providers must become familiar with terms such as opportunity costs, the potential loss or gain when one choice is made in lieu of another. The purpose of this study was to calculate the opportunity cost of two orthopaedic surgery society board meetings and discuss these in the context of behavioral economics and regret. A literature search was conducted to determine an orthopaedic surgeon's average yearly salary, hours worked per week, and weeks worked per year. The details of two orthopaedic surgery professional society meetings that one senior author (CSR) attended were used to calculate opportunity cost. Although the true benefits are multifactorial and difficult to objectively quantify, awareness of the cost-benefit ratio can help guide time and resource management to maximize the return on investment while minimizing buyer's remorse and perhaps influence the media by which medical meetings are held in the future. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 27(1):10-13, 2018).

  18. Random regret-based discrete-choice modelling: an application to healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; Chorus, Caspar G

    2013-07-01

    A new modelling approach for analysing data from discrete-choice experiments (DCEs) has been recently developed in transport economics based on the notion of regret minimization-driven choice behaviour. This so-called Random Regret Minimization (RRM) approach forms an alternative to the dominant Random Utility Maximization (RUM) approach. The RRM approach is able to model semi-compensatory choice behaviour and compromise effects, while being as parsimonious and formally tractable as the RUM approach. Our objectives were to introduce the RRM modelling approach to healthcare-related decisions, and to investigate its usefulness in this domain. Using data from DCEs aimed at determining valuations of attributes of osteoporosis drug treatments and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations, we empirically compared RRM models, RUM models and Hybrid RUM-RRM models in terms of goodness of fit, parameter ratios and predicted choice probabilities. In terms of model fit, the RRM model did not outperform the RUM model significantly in the case of the osteoporosis DCE data (p = 0.21), whereas in the case of the HPV DCE data, the Hybrid RUM-RRM model outperformed the RUM model (p implied by the two models can vary substantially. Differences in model fit between RUM, RRM and Hybrid RUM-RRM were found to be small. Although our study did not show significant differences in parameter ratios, the RRM and Hybrid RUM-RRM models did feature considerable differences in terms of the trade-offs implied by these ratios. In combination, our results suggest that RRM and Hybrid RUM-RRM modelling approach hold the potential of offering new and policy-relevant insights for health researchers and policy makers.

  19. An Experimental Decision-Making Paradigm to Distinguish Guilt and Regret and Their Self-Regulating Function via Loss Averse Choice Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ullrich; Handke, Lisa; Dörfel, Denise; Walter, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Both guilt and regret typically result from counterfactual evaluations of personal choices that caused a negative outcome and are thought to regulate human decisions by people's motivation to avoid these emotions. Despite these similarities, studies asking people to describe typical situations of guilt and regret identified the social dimension as a fundamental distinguishing factor, showing that guilt but not regret specifically occurs for choices in interpersonal (social) contexts. However, an experimental paradigm to investigate this distinction systematically by inducing emotions of guilt and regret online is still missing. Here, extending existing procedures, we introduce such a paradigm, in which participants choose in each trial between two lotteries, with the outcome of the chosen lottery (gain or loss) being either assigned to themselves (intrapersonal trials) or to another person (interpersonal trials). After results of both the chosen and the unchosen lottery were shown, subjects rated how they felt about the outcome, including ratings of guilt and regret. Trait Guilt (TG) was determined for all participants in order to take their general inclination to experience guilt into account. Results confirmed that guilt but not regret specifically occurred in an interpersonal context. Percentages of loss averse choices (choosing the lottery with the lower possible monetary loss) were determined as indicators of regulation via guilt and regret avoidance. High TG scorers generally made more loss averse choices than low TG scorers, while trial-by-trial analyses showed that low TG scorers used their feelings of guilt more specifically to avoid the same emotional experience in subsequent choices. Our results confirm the social dimension as the critical factor distinguishing guilt from regret and identify TG as an important moderator determining the way in which guilt vs. regret can regulate their own occurrence by influencing choice strategies.

  20. An experimental decision-making paradigm to distinguish guilt and regret and their self-regulating function via loss-averse choice behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullrich eWagner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Both guilt and regret typically result from counterfactual evaluations of personal choices that caused a negative outcome and are thought to regulate human decisions by people’s motivation to avoid these emotions. Despite these similarities, studies asking people to describe typical situations of guilt and regret identified the social dimension as a fundamental distinguishing factor, showing that guilt but not regret specifically occurs for choices in interpersonal (social contexts. However, an experimental paradigm to investigate this distinction systematically by inducing emotions of guilt and regret online is still missing. Here, extending existing procedures, we introduce such a paradigm, in which participants choose in each trial between two lotteries, with the outcome of the chosen lottery (gain or loss being either assigned to themselves (intrapersonal trials or to another person (interpersonal trials. After results of both the chosen and the unchosen lottery were shown, subjects rated how they felt about the outcome, including ratings of guilt and regret. Trait Guilt (TG was determined for all participants in order to take their general inclination to experience guilt into account. Results confirmed that guilt but not regret specifically occurred in an interpersonal context. Percentages of loss averse choices (choosing the lottery with the lower possible monetary loss were determined as indicators of regulation via guilt and regret avoidance. High TG scorers generally made more loss averse choices than low TG scorers, while trial-by-trial analyses showed that low TG scorers used their feelings of guilt more specifically to avoid the same emotional experience in subsequent choices. Our results confirm the social dimension as the critical factor distinguishing guilt from regret and identify TG as an important moderator determining the way in which guilt vs. regret can regulate their own occurrence by influencing choice strategies.

  1. An Experimental Decision-Making Paradigm to Distinguish Guilt and Regret and Their Self-Regulating Function via Loss Averse Choice Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ullrich; Handke, Lisa; Dörfel, Denise; Walter, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Both guilt and regret typically result from counterfactual evaluations of personal choices that caused a negative outcome and are thought to regulate human decisions by people’s motivation to avoid these emotions. Despite these similarities, studies asking people to describe typical situations of guilt and regret identified the social dimension as a fundamental distinguishing factor, showing that guilt but not regret specifically occurs for choices in interpersonal (social) contexts. However, an experimental paradigm to investigate this distinction systematically by inducing emotions of guilt and regret online is still missing. Here, extending existing procedures, we introduce such a paradigm, in which participants choose in each trial between two lotteries, with the outcome of the chosen lottery (gain or loss) being either assigned to themselves (intrapersonal trials) or to another person (interpersonal trials). After results of both the chosen and the unchosen lottery were shown, subjects rated how they felt about the outcome, including ratings of guilt and regret. Trait Guilt (TG) was determined for all participants in order to take their general inclination to experience guilt into account. Results confirmed that guilt but not regret specifically occurred in an interpersonal context. Percentages of loss averse choices (choosing the lottery with the lower possible monetary loss) were determined as indicators of regulation via guilt and regret avoidance. High TG scorers generally made more loss averse choices than low TG scorers, while trial-by-trial analyses showed that low TG scorers used their feelings of guilt more specifically to avoid the same emotional experience in subsequent choices. Our results confirm the social dimension as the critical factor distinguishing guilt from regret and identify TG as an important moderator determining the way in which guilt vs. regret can regulate their own occurrence by influencing choice strategies. PMID:23133433

  2. Comparing the experience of regret and its predictors among smokers in four Asian countries: findings from the ITC surveys in Thailand, South Korea, Malaysia, and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Natalie; Fong, Geoffrey T; Lee, Wonkyong B; Laux, Fritz L; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Seo, Hong-Gwan; Omar, Maizurah; Jiang, Yuan

    2013-10-01

    Nearly all smokers in high-income Western countries report that they regret smoking (Fong, G. T., Hammond, D., Laux, F. L., Zanna, M. P., Cummings, M. K., Borland, R., & Ross, H. [2004]. The near-universal experience of regret among smokers in four countries: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, S341-S351. doi:10.1080/14622200412331320743), but no research to date has examined the prevalence of regret among smokers in non-Western, low- and middle-income countries. Data were from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys of smokers in 4 Asian countries (China, Malaysia, South Korea, and Thailand); N = 9,738. Regret was measured with the statement: "If you had to do it over again, you would not have started smoking." Prevalence of regret in 3 countries (South Korea = 87%, Malaysia = 77%, and China = 74%) was lower than that found by Fong et al. in the United States, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom (89%-90%); but was higher in Thailand (93%). These significant country differences in regret corresponded with differences in tobacco control and norms regarding smoking. The predictors of regret in the Asian countries were very similar to those in the 4 Western countries: Regret was more likely to be experienced by smokers who smoked fewer cigarettes per day, perceived greater benefits of quitting and higher financial costs of smoking, had more prior quit attempts, worried that smoking would damage their health, and felt that their loved ones and society disapproved of smoking. Regret was also positively associated with intentions to quit (r = 0.23, p tobacco control and is related to factors associated with future quitting.

  3. Greenhouse policy without regrets. A free market approach to the uncertain risks of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.H.

    2000-07-01

    Due to uncertainty about climate change, and human contributions thereto, many policymakers call for 'precautionary' measures to reduce the risk of global warming. Such policies are characterized as 'insurance'. Such insurance against the risks of climate change can be achieved by either lessening the likelihood of change by reducing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases through a combination of emission controls and carbon sequestration strategies, or by enacting mitigation measures to reduce the possible economic and ecological impact of a potential climate change. No insurance policy is worthwhile if the cost of the premiums exceeds the protection purchased. For greenhouse insurance to be worthwhile, it must either reduce the risks of anthropogenic climate change or reduce the costs of emission reductions designed to achieve the same goal, without imposing off-setting risks, such as those which would result from policies that slow economic growth and technological advance. Currently proposed precautionary measures, such as the Kyoto Protocol, call for government interventions to control greenhouse-gas emissions and suppress the use of carbon-based fuels. Such policies would impose substantial costs and yet do little, if anything, to reduce the risks of climate change. Such policies cannot be characterized as cost-effective greenhouse 'insurance'. Rather than adopt costly regulatory measures that serve to suppress energy use and economic growth, policy makers should seek to eliminate government interventions in the marketplace that obstruct emission reductions and discourage the adoption of lower emission technologies. Such an approach is a 'no regrets' strategy, as these policy recommendations will provide economic and environmental benefits by fostering innovation and economic efficiency whether or not climate change is a serious threat. While fear of global warming may prompt the enactment of these reforms, they merit implementation even if we have

  4. Self-Reevaluation and Anticipated Regret Did Not Change Attitude, Nor Perceived Distance in an Online Context

    OpenAIRE

    Crutzen, Rik; Cyr, Dianne; Taylor, Sarah E.; Lim, Eric; Ruiter, Robert A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Internet-delivered interventions can be effective in changing behavior, but more research is needed on effective elements of behavior change interventions. Moreover, although anonymity is one of the advantages of using an online context, it might also increase the perceived distance between the participant and the intervention. Hence, the current study investigated whether the behavior change methods of self-reevaluation and anticipated regret can be used to narrow the perceived distance and,...

  5. Dangerous Beliefs: College Alcohol Beliefs Are Associated With Increased Risk of Regretted Sexual Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osberg, Timothy M; Boyer, Amber

    2016-10-14

    This study explored the relative impact of college alcohol beliefs (CABs; i.e., the extent to which the student views alcohol as part of the fabric of college life), descriptive norms, injunctive norms, positive alcohol expectancies, and sensation seeking on college students' (N = 415) risk for engaging in regretted sexual encounters (RSE). Overall, 12% of our sample reported having experienced RSE within the past 30 days. When pitted against the other traditional predictors of college student drinking and its consequences, such as positive alcohol expectancies, descriptive and injunctive norms, and sensation seeking, CABs emerged as the strongest correlate of RSE other than drinking itself, and explained significant additional variance in RSE beyond these other predictors. Mediation analyses revealed that CABs had a significant indirect effect on RSE through typical weekly drinking. This pattern of findings indicates that college alcohol beliefs are, from a public health perspective, dangerous beliefs, that warrant serious consideration in the development of new approaches to college student drinking and its consequences.

  6. When is it rational to participate in a clinical trial? A game theory approach incorporating trust, regret and guilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djulbegovic Benjamin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomized controlled trials (RCTs remain an indispensable form of human experimentation as a vehicle for discovery of new treatments. However, since their inception RCTs have raised ethical concerns. The ethical tension has revolved around “duties to individuals” vs. “societal value” of RCTs. By asking current patients “to sacrifice for the benefit of future patients” we risk subjugating our duties to patients’ best interest to the utilitarian goal for the good of others. This tension creates a key dilemma: when is it rational, from the perspective of the trial patients and researchers (as societal representatives of future patients, to enroll in RCTs? Methods We employed the trust version of the prisoner’s dilemma since interaction between the patient and researcher in the setting of a clinical trial is inherently based on trust. We also took into account that the patient may have regretted his/her decision to participate in the trial, while a researcher may feel guilty because he/she abused the patient’s trust. Results We found that under typical circumstances of clinical research, most patients can be expected not to trust researchers, and most researchers can be expected to abuse the patients’ trust. The most significant factor determining trust was the success of experimental or standard treatments, respectively. The more that a researcher believes the experimental treatment will be successful, the more incentive the researcher has to abuse trust. The analysis was sensitive to the assumptions about the utilities related to success and failure of therapies that are tested in RCTs. By varying all variables in the Monte Carlo analysis we found that, on average, the researcher can be expected to honor a patient’s trust 41% of the time, while the patient is inclined to trust the researcher 69% of the time. Under assumptions of our model, enrollment into RCTs represents a rational strategy that can meet

  7. When is it rational to participate in a clinical trial? A game theory approach incorporating trust, regret and guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Hozo, Iztok

    2012-06-22

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) remain an indispensable form of human experimentation as a vehicle for discovery of new treatments. However, since their inception RCTs have raised ethical concerns. The ethical tension has revolved around "duties to individuals" vs. "societal value" of RCTs. By asking current patients "to sacrifice for the benefit of future patients" we risk subjugating our duties to patients' best interest to the utilitarian goal for the good of others. This tension creates a key dilemma: when is it rational, from the perspective of the trial patients and researchers (as societal representatives of future patients), to enroll in RCTs? We employed the trust version of the prisoner's dilemma since interaction between the patient and researcher in the setting of a clinical trial is inherently based on trust. We also took into account that the patient may have regretted his/her decision to participate in the trial, while a researcher may feel guilty because he/she abused the patient's trust. We found that under typical circumstances of clinical research, most patients can be expected not to trust researchers, and most researchers can be expected to abuse the patients' trust. The most significant factor determining trust was the success of experimental or standard treatments, respectively. The more that a researcher believes the experimental treatment will be successful, the more incentive the researcher has to abuse trust. The analysis was sensitive to the assumptions about the utilities related to success and failure of therapies that are tested in RCTs. By varying all variables in the Monte Carlo analysis we found that, on average, the researcher can be expected to honor a patient's trust 41% of the time, while the patient is inclined to trust the researcher 69% of the time. Under assumptions of our model, enrollment into RCTs represents a rational strategy that can meet both patients' and researchers' interests simultaneously 19% of the time

  8. A comparative assessment of the long term electricity expansion plans in Mexico by using the position vector of minimum regret analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martindelcampo, C.; Gonzalezbello, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    A comparative assessment of alternative expansion plans for the Mexican electricity generating system was made by applying the Position Vector of Minimum Regret Analysis (PVMRA) as a decision analysis tool. Four expansion plans were ranked according to the following decision criteria: The cost which calculates the cumulated cost of electricity generation during the time period studied. The external cost which brings into play the costs associated with the impact on health and the environment. The risk which takes into account the economic impact associated with incremental fuel prices from the baseline scenario to the high scenario. The diversity which evaluates the generation park diversity in terms of the Shannon-Weaner Index. The foreign-capital fraction in investment using foreign inputs. The carbon-free fraction which evaluates electricity generation that contributes to climate change policies. The cost of severe-accidents which is the sum of full chain damage costs and external costs of severe accidents with at least 10 injured. Optimizations were made by internalizing the external cost into the objective function of the WASP-IV model, the cost of externalise of the operation and maintenance cost, and these expansions were compared with those that did not. Special attention was paid to studying the convenience of including nuclear power in the electricity generation mix. Furthermore, better electricity expansion plans, with lower internal and external costs, were also found when the optimization had included externalise

  9. Impact of CAre-related Regret Upon Sleep (ICARUS) cohort study: protocol of a 3-year multicentre, international, prospective cohort study of novice healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Boris; Cullati, Stéphane; Pihl-Thingvad, Jesper; Mongin, Denis; Von Arx, Martina; Chopard, Pierre; Courvoisier, Delphine S

    2018-03-27

    Healthcare professionals are particularly at risk of developing numerous physical and psychological health problems. The experiences of emotional burden associated with providing healthcare, notably care-related regret, have been associated with these health problems, but only using cross-sectional data so far. Evidence of a causal impact of regret has not been assessed. The Impact of CAre-related Regret Upon Sleep (ICARUS) study is the first prospective and international cohort study established to examine how newly practising healthcare professionals adapt to their challenging job by assessing the impact of care-related regret on sleep and job quitting. The ICARUS cohort study will include newly practising healthcare professionals working in acute care hospitals and clinics recruited between May 2017 and November 2019. Data collection, which will begin as soon as the participant starts working with patients, will consist of a 1-year weekly assessment using a secure web survey. Follow-up data will be collected at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after the end of the first year. We will collect detailed information on the experience of care-related regret (ie, highest regret intensity, accumulation of regrets and coping strategies related to regrets), sleep problems and job quitting. Moreover, quality of life, health status and burnout will be assessed during the follow-up. Several confounders factors, including sociodemographic characteristics, personality, night shifts and work environment characteristics, will be assessed. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Geneva Canton, Switzerland (CCER2016-02041), the Ethics Committee of London South Bank University (HSCSEP/17/06) and the University Research Ethics Committee of Bedfordshire (UREC106). Other study centres deemed local ethical approval unnecessary since the main ethics committee (Geneva) had already accepted the project. Results will be published in relevant scientific journals and be disseminated in

  10. Real and hypothetical endowment effects when exchanging lottery tickets: Is regret a better explanation than loss aversion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Christoph; Kühberger, Anton; Gilhofer, Rainer

    2013-08-01

    The endowment effect is the finding that possession of an item adds to its value. We introduce a new procedure for testing this effect: participants are divided into two groups. Possession group participants inspect a numbered lottery ticket and know it is theirs, while inspection group participants only inspect a lottery ticket without being endowed with it. Subsequently participants choose between playing the lottery with this (possessed or inspected) ticket, or exchanging it for another one. Our procedure tests for the effect of endowment while controlling for the influence of transaction costs as well as for inspection effects and the influence of bargaining roles (buyer vs. seller), which often afflict experimentation with the endowment effect. In a real setting, tickets in possession were valued significantly higher than inspected tickets. Contrary to some findings in the literature participants also correctly predicted these valuation differences in a hypothetical situation, both for themselves as well as for others. Furthermore, our results suggest that regret rather than loss aversion may be the source of the endowment effect in an experimental setting using lottery tickets. Applying our procedure to a setting employing riskless objects in form of mugs revealed rather ambiguous results, thus emphasizing that the role of regret might be less prominent in non-lottery settings.

  11. I am so glad that we parted! Am I? On attitude representation, counterfactual thinking, and experienced regret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabowski Adam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined how different linguistic forms affect the way in which people access memories of former close relationships that are irrevocably over. Remembering former relationships can activate either positive or negative attitudes. Whether people feel sorrow that bygones are in fact bygones depends on attitudinal valence, but also on the linguistic form in which people express their attitudes. More abstract linguistic forms prevent people from retrieving specific and detailed memories, and thus prompt them to generating more counterfactual thoughts and to experience stronger regret. In contrast, more concrete linguistic forms lead people to remember their personal past more vividly and accurately, and this subjective impression can forestall counterfactual thinking. Study 2 further shows that people are more prone to generate counterfactual thoughts when they focus on the final stage of their relationships rather than the beginning even when the valence of recalled attitudes and objective time are controlled.

  12. Arrependimento após a esterilização feminina no Brasil Regret subsequent to sterilization among Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Freitas Barbosa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar fatores sócio-demográficos associados com o arrependimento após a esterilização. MÉTODOS: trata-se de um estudo de corte transversal com dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde realizada no Brasil em 1996. A amostra é composta por 3233 mulheres em idade reprodutiva, cuja esterilização ocorreu há pelo menos um ano antes da entrevista. Um modelo de regressão logística foi utilizado. RESULTADOS: a proporção de mulheres arrependidas foi de 10,5% e a principal razão relatada foi o desejo de ter outro filho (62,7%. A chance de uma mulher esterilizada com 35 anos ou mais se arrepender é 69% menor que uma mulher com menos de 25 anos (pOBJECTIVES: to identify socio-demographic factors associated with regret following sterilization. METHODS: a cross-cutting study was carried out using data from the National Population and Health Survey conducted in Brazil in 1996. The sample comprised 3233 women of child-bearing age who had been sterilized at least one year prior to the interview. The logistic regression model was employed. RESULTS: the proportion of women regretting sterilization was 10.5% and the main reason reported was the desire to have another child (62.7%. The likelihood of a sterilized woman aged 35 years or over regretting sterilization was less than that for women aged below 25 years (p<0.01. Women with more than nine years of schooling are less likely to regret sterilization than women with three years of schooling or less (RC=0.75; 95%CI: 0.51-1.03. CONCLUSIONS: young women with a low level of education are the group that is most likely to have regrets following sterilization. These results may aid family planning program managers, restating the need for orientation regarding the irreversibility of the method and the changes that may occur in the lives of women in the course of the reproductive cycle, thereby minimizing the possibility of a woman coming to regret the decision.

  13. A longitudinal study investigating the role of decisional conflicts and regret and short-term psychological adjustment after IVF treatment failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Celia Hoi Yan; Lau, Hi Po Bobo; Tam, Michelle Yi Jun; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu

    2016-12-01

    What is the relationship between decisional conflict, decisional regret and psychological well-being in women following unsuccessful IVF cycles? The mediating effect of decisional regret on the relationship between decisional conflict and fertility-related quality of life (FRQOL) has been found to be moderated by the availability (versus absence) of frozen embryos after an unsuccessful IVF cycle. Infertility treatment is marked by its open-ended nature. Stresses in treatment decision-making could be aggravated by a culture which honours families through procreation. While studies have investigated treatment-related decision-making among infertile women, little is known about the mental health consequences of decisional conflict and decisional regret following an unsuccessful IVF cycle. A study was conducted over a 3-month period with infertile women who had recently experienced a failed IVF cycle (T 0 ). Decisional conflict when they decided on terminating or continuing treatment (T 1 ) and decisional regret 3 months later (T 2 ) were measured. Participants reported their levels of depression, anxiety and FRQOL at three time points. A total of 151 participants completed all time points (attrition rate: 39%). The average age of participants was 37.2 years, and they had had 1.1 cycles (range: 0-8) on average at the time of study intake. The duration of the study was 2 years. Participants were infertile women who were not pregnant following an IVF cycle recruited from a university-affiliated assisted reproduction centre. Following the notification of a negative pregnancy result, patients were invited to complete measures of FRQOL, depression and anxiety across three time points and decisional conflict and decisional regret at T 1 and T 2 respectively. Decisional regret partially mediated the effect of decisional conflict on overall and treatment-specific FRQOL (P IVF cycle (P IVF cycle. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the psychological ramifications of

  14. Preventing Tire Blowout Accidents: A Perspective on Factors Affecting Drivers’ Intention to Adopt Tire Pressure Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Ying Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore whether risk perception or anticipated regret is responsible for intensifying the participants’ intention to adopt a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS to prevent a tire-related accident, and whether the optimism bias has a moderator effect between risk perception/anticipated regret and intention. With 274 valid questionnaires and PLS-SEM (partial least squares structural equation modeling analysis, the results indicate a significant positive relationship between risk perception and intention to adopt TPMS, but not between anticipated regret and intention. The moderator effect of optimism bias on risk perception and anticipated regret is not found in the model. The findings will prove useful for public service advertising campaigns by providing a basis for an understanding of the role of cognitive and emotional factors in tire-blowout accident prevention, thereby increasing the motivation for drivers in Taiwan to take advantage of the protection afforded them by using TPMS.

  15. Anatomy of regret: a developmental view of the depressive position and a critical turn toward love and creativity in the transforming schizoid personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaler-Adler, Susan

    2004-03-01

    This article deals with critical psychic transformation in a schizoid personality disorder that evolves in an object relations psychoanalysis in which "developmental mourning" plays a central role. Within a mourning process that allows for the grieving of loss related to arrested separation-individuation development, the analysand confronts the existential grief of regret that had always unconsciously haunted her. The unconscious guilt related to the existential grief of regret had caused much dissociation of self-experience and affect states. The analysand acknowledges her own part in the destruction of primal and current relationships after the traumatic impact of her early life is understood. This allows her to repair current relationships, both within her internal and external worlds so that she can open to capacities for love and creativity. The analysand's courage to consciously grapple with her regret (loss and guilt combined) allows her to relinquish self-sabotaging character defenses such as contempt and emotional withdrawl. Consequently, a second marriage is salvaged and enriched, and the analysand's relationship with her two children is dramatically improved.

  16. Using Minimax Regret Optimization to Search for Multi-Stakeholder Solutions to Deeply Uncertain Flood Hazards under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshen, P. H.; Hecht, J. S.; Vogel, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Prescribing long-term urban floodplain management plans under the deep uncertainty of climate change is a challenging endeavor. To address this, we have implemented and tested with stakeholders a parsimonious multi-stage mixed integer programming (MIP) model that identifies the optimal time period(s) for implementing publicly and privately financed adaptation measures. Publicly funded measures include reach-scale flood barriers, flood insurance, and buyout programs to encourage property owners in flood-prone areas to retreat from the floodplain. Measures privately funded by property owners consist of property-scale floodproofing options, such as raising building foundations, as well as investments in flood insurance or retreat from flood-prone areas. The objective function to minimize the sum of flood control and damage costs in all planning stages for different property types during floods of different severities. There are constraints over time for flow mass balances, construction of flood management alternatives and their cumulative implementation, budget allocations, and binary decisions. Damages are adjusted for flood control investments. In recognition of the deep uncertainty of GCM-derived climate change scenarios, we employ the minimax regret criterion to identify adaptation portfolios robust to different climate change trajectories. As an example, we identify publicly and privately funded adaptation measures for a stylized community based on the estuarine community of Exeter, New Hampshire, USA. We explore the sensitivity of recommended portfolios to different ranges of climate changes, and costs associated with economies of scale and flexible infrastructure design as well as different municipal budget constraints.

  17. Decision-making when data and inferences are not conclusive: risk-benefit and acceptable regret approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozo, Iztok; Schell, Michael J; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2008-07-01

    The absolute truth in research is unobtainable, as no evidence or research hypothesis is ever 100% conclusive. Therefore, all data and inferences can in principle be considered as "inconclusive." Scientific inference and decision-making need to take into account errors, which are unavoidable in the research enterprise. The errors can occur at the level of conclusions that aim to discern the truthfulness of research hypothesis based on the accuracy of research evidence and hypothesis, and decisions, the goal of which is to enable optimal decision-making under present and specific circumstances. To optimize the chance of both correct conclusions and correct decisions, the synthesis of all major statistical approaches to clinical research is needed. The integration of these approaches (frequentist, Bayesian, and decision-analytic) can be accomplished through formal risk:benefit (R:B) analysis. This chapter illustrates the rational choice of a research hypothesis using R:B analysis based on decision-theoretic expected utility theory framework and the concept of "acceptable regret" to calculate the threshold probability of the "truth" above which the benefit of accepting a research hypothesis outweighs its risks.

  18. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: DETAILS - AVOIDING BOX CANYONS, ROACH MOTELS, AND WRONG TURNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swegle, John A.; Tincher, Douglas J.

    2013-08-09

    The United States is concurrently pursuing the goals of reducing the size of its nuclear weapons force – strategic and non-strategic, deployed and non-deployed – and of modernizing the weapons it continues to possess. Many of the existing systems were deployed 30 to 50 years ago, and the modernization process can be expected to extend over the next decade or more. Given the impossibility of predicting the future over the lifetime of systems that could extend to the end of this century, it is essential that dead ends in force development be avoided, and the flexibility and availability of options be retained that allow for • Scalability downward in the event that further reductions are agreed upon; • Reposturing to respond to changes in threat levels and to new nuclear actors; and • Breakout response in the event that a competitor significantly increases its force size or force capability, In this paper, we examine the current motivations for reductions and modernization; review a number of historical systems and the attendant capabilities that have been eliminated in recent decades; discuss the current path forward for the U.S. nuclear force; provide a view of the evolving deterrence situation and our assessment of the uncertainties involved; and present examples of possibly problematic directions in force development. We close with our thoughts on how to maintain flexibility and the availability of options for which a need might recur in the future.

  19. The abandonment of the RANZCP OCI--and why we may live to regret it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Brendan

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this article is to explore the tension between what should be complementary notions of medical education and professional identity formation, referencing a major recent change to the assessment program of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (RANZCP). The College recently determined that the observed clinical interview (OCI) is to cease with equivalent skills assessed by multiple workplace-based assessments within a competency-based education program. The literature relating to the change is briefly reviewed. The shortcomings of the OCI include concerns regarding reliability, validity, sustainability and transparency. Arguments in favour of keeping the OCI are then considered, including those made on grounds of reliability of the new instruments, validity of the new assessment program as a whole, the importance of professional identity formation and cultural considerations within the specialty. Education and professional identity formation are not synonymous. Applying educational evidence alone to assessment design may mean an opportunity for trainees to demonstrate qualities previously assessed at the OCI is lost. This may have negative consequences for the quality of RANZCP trained psychiatrists and for our patients. The OCI is a flawed instrument but the new system will be flawed in different and possibly more important ways. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  20. Reductions without Regret: Avoiding Wrong Turns, Roach Motels, and Box Canyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swegle, John A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Tincher, Douglas J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-09-11

    This is the third of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. In this paper, we provide one example each of our judgments on what constitutes a box canyon, a roach motel, and a wrong turn: Wrong Turn: The Reliable Replacement Warhead: Roach Motel: SRAM T vs the B61: and A Possible Box Canyon: A Low-Yield Version of the W76 SLBM Warhead. Recognizing that new nuclear missions or weapons are not demanded by current circumstances ₋ a development path that yields future capabilities similar to those of today, which are adequate if not always ideal, and a broader national-security strategy that supports nonproliferation and arms control by reducing the role for, and numbers, of nuclear weapons ₋ we briefly consider alternate, less desirable futures, and their possible effect on the complex problem of regional deterrence. In this regard, we discuss the issues posed by, and possible responses to, three example regional deterrence challenges: in-country defensive use of nuclear weapons by an adversary; reassurance of U.S. allies with limited strategic depth threatened by an emergent nuclear power; and extraterritorial, non-strategic offensive use of nuclear weapons by an adversary in support of limited military objectives against a U.S. ally.

  1. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-16

    This paper briefly summarizes the series in which we consider the possibilities for losing, or compromising, key capabilities of the U.S. nuclear force in the face of modernization and reductions. The first of the three papers takes an historical perspective, considering capabilities that were eliminated in past force reductions. The second paper is our attempt to define the needed capabilities looking forward in the context of the current framework for force modernization and the current picture of the evolving challenges of deterrence and assurance. The third paper then provides an example for each of our undesirable outcomes: the creation of roach motels, box canyons, and wrong turns.

  2. With no regrets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    my M.Sc. in Chemistry in 1964 from D.A.V. College, Kanpur. The best thing which ... versity, I joined the Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow as. Research ... was then a bare forest with no research or science culture. How- ever this did ...

  3. The Regretful Acknowledgement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Lisa Storm

    2013-01-01

    This chapter offers a close rhetorical reading of an open hearing in the Danish Parliament’s Commission on Social Affairs concerning the Minister of Social Affair’s refusal to apologize in response to a report documenting mistreatment of children in state-supervised orphanages. The minister uses...

  4. Common path in-line holography using enhanced joint object reference digital interferometers

    OpenAIRE

    Kelner, Roy; Katz, Barak; Rosen, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Joint object reference digital interferometer (JORDI) is a recently developed system capable of recording holograms of various types [Opt. Lett. 22(5), 4719 (2013)]. Presented here is a new enhanced system design that is based on the previous JORDI. While the previous JORDI has been based purely on diffractive optical elements, displayed on spatial light modulators, the present design incorporates an additional refractive objective lens, thus enabling hologram recording with improved resoluti...

  5. Couples' communication before the wife's death to cancer and the widower's feelings of guilt or regret after the loss - a population-based investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Junmei Miao; Hauksdóttir, Arna; Nemes, Szilard; Surkan, Pamela J; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Onelöv, Erik; Steineck, Gunnar

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the association between couples' communication before the wife's death to cancer and the widower's feelings of guilt and regret after the loss, in a population-based data. Men (n=907) younger than 80 years and living in Sweden, who had lost their wives due to cancer, were asked 4-5 years after their loss to answer an anonymous postal questionnaire it included questions about the couple's end-of-life communication during the last 3 months of life and the widower's feelings of guilt or regret during the first 6 months after the wife's death. During the last 3 months of their wives' lives, men who had not talked about the impending death with their wives had a higher risk of experiencing feelings of guilt than men who did talk (relative risk (RR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-3.4). Men who were not able to spend as much time as they wished with their wives had an increase in the risk of having feelings of guilt twice that of men who spent time (RR 2.0 95% CI 1.5-2.7). Men who did not talk with their wives about how they could cope practically or emotionally after the death had elevated risks of guilt feelings compared with men who talked (RR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0-3.0; RR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.9, respectively). Men who realised it was too late to discuss the impending death had an increased risk of guilt feelings (RR 4.3, 95% CI 2.9-6.6). Men who thought that not everything had been brought to closure before their wives' deaths had 3.3 times increased risk of guilt feeling (RR 3.3, 95% CI 1.7-6.4). A man who does not have end-of-life discussions with his wife during the last 3 months before her death from cancer may be subject to a significantly greater risk of experiencing feelings of guilt or regret in widowhood than men who did engage in such discussions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Satisfaction and uncertainty in car-sharing decisions : an integration of hybrid choice and random regret-based models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Jinhee; Rasouli, Soora; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2017-01-01

    Car-sharing systems have attracted increasingly attention as one of several sustainable transportation systems. After joining a car-sharing organization, people can use a shared-car. Because sharing a car involves other members, there is some inherent uncertainty that originates from the possible

  7. A regret theory approach to decision curve analysis: A novel method for eliciting decision makers' preferences and decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Vickers Andrew; Hozo Iztok; Tsalatsanis Athanasios; Djulbegovic Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Decision curve analysis (DCA) has been proposed as an alternative method for evaluation of diagnostic tests, prediction models, and molecular markers. However, DCA is based on expected utility theory, which has been routinely violated by decision makers. Decision-making is governed by intuition (system 1), and analytical, deliberative process (system 2), thus, rational decision-making should reflect both formal principles of rationality and intuition about good decisions. ...

  8. Expected utility versus expected regret theory versions of decision curve analysis do generate different results when treatment effects are taken into account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozo, Iztok; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2018-02-01

    Decision curve analysis (DCA) is a widely used method for evaluating diagnostic tests and predictive models. It was developed based on expected utility theory (EUT) and has been reformulated using expected regret theory (ERG). Under certain circumstances, these 2 formulations yield different results. Here we describe these situations and explain the variation. We compare the derivations of the EUT- and ERG-based formulations of DCA for a typical medical decision problem: "treat none," "treat all," or "use model" to guide treatment. We illustrate the differences between the 2 formulations when applied to the following clinical question: at which probability of death we should refer a terminally ill patient to hospice? Both DCA formulations yielded identical but mirrored results when treatment effects are ignored; they generated significantly different results otherwise. Treatment effect has a significant effect on the results derived by EUT DCA and less so on ERG DCA. The elicitation of specific values for disutilities affected the results even more significantly in the context of EUT DCA, whereas no such elicitation was required within the ERG framework. EUT and ERG DCA generate different results when treatment effects are taken into account. The magnitude of the difference depends on the effect of treatment and the disutilities associated with disease and treatment effects. This is important to realize as the current practice guidelines are uniformly based on EUT; the same recommendations can significantly differ if they are derived based on ERG framework. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Laqueadura intraparto e de intervalo Intrapartum and interval tubal sterilization: characteristics correlated with the procedure and regret in a sample of women from a public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlete Maria dos Santos Fernandes

    2006-10-01

    foi cesárea. Não se detectou diferença nas taxas de satisfação e arrependimento após o procedimento entre os grupos.BACKGROUND: Brazil is a country with a high prevalence of tubal ligation, which is frequently performed at the time of delivery. In recent years, an increase in tubal reversal has been noticed, primarily among young women. OBJECTIVES: To study characteristics correlated with the procedure, determine frequency of intrapartum tubal ligation, measure patient satisfaction rates and tubal sterilization regret, in a sample of post-tubal patients. METHODS: Three hundred and thirty-five women underwent tubal ligation. The variables studied were related to the procedure: age at tubal ligation, whether ligation was performed intrapartum (vaginal or cesarean section or after an interval (other than the intrapartum and puerperal period, health service performing the sterilization, medical expenses paid for the procedure, reason stated for choosing the method and causes related to satisfaction/regret: desire to become pregnant after sterilization, search for treatment and performance of tubal ligation reversal. The women were divided into two groups, a group undergoing ligation in the intrapartum period and a second group ligated after an interval, to evaluate the association between variables by using Fisher's exact test and chi-squared calculation with Yates' correction. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the institution. RESULTS: There was a predominance of Caucasian women over 35 years of age, married, and with a low level of education of which 43.5% had undergone sterilization before 30 years of age. Two hundred and forty-five women underwent intrapartum tubal ligation, 91.2% of them had cesarean delivery and 44.6% vaginal delivery. In both groups undergoing intrapartum tubal ligation and ligation after an interval, 82.0% and 80.8% reported satisfaction with the method. Although 14.6% expressed a desire to become pregnant at some time after

  10. Development of EBM-CDSS (Evidence-Based Clinical Decision Support System) to AIG Prognostication in Terminally Ill Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    indicates that, when making their choices, the people tend to be regret averse: they anticipate regret to avoid post-decisional regret . In the...visual analogue scales for elicitation of regret , elicitation of acceptable regret , incorporation of treatment effects in the decision making...calculations. The details of the CDSS-EBM are published in a peer-reviewed journal manuscript (See appendix: Extensions to Regret -based Decision Curve Analysis

  11. Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy in women with inherited risk of breast cancer--prevalence of pain and discomfort, impact on sexuality, quality of life and feelings of regret two years after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahm, Jessica; Wickman, Marie; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2010-12-01

    Mastectomy due to breast cancer is associated with chronic pain and a negative impact on sexuality. The purposes of the study were to analyze the prevalence of pain and discomfort in the breasts, impact on sexuality, quality of life, and feelings of regret after bilateral prophylactic mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with implants. Fifty-nine women operated 2004-2006 were included. A questionnaire was sent out two years after the procedure. Complications and re-operations were recorded. Mean follow-up time was 29 months. 93% of patients answered the questionnaire. 69% reported pain and 71% discomfort in the breasts. Lost or much reduced sexual sensations were reported by 85% and enjoyment of sex was negatively impacted for 75% of patients. Quality of life was not affected and feelings of regret were almost non-existent. It is important to inform women approaching this prophylactic procedure about the risk of having unwanted secondary effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Minimizing Regret : The General Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rustichini, A.

    1998-01-01

    In repeated games with differential information on one side, the labelling "general case" refers to games in which the action of the informed player is not known to the uninformed, who can only observe a signal which is the random outcome of his and his opponent's action. Here we consider the

  13. Adaptation of water resources systems to changing society and environment: a statement by the International Association of Hydrological Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Serena Ceola; Alberto Montanari; Tobias Krueger; Fiona Dyer; H. Kreibich; Ida Westerberg; Gemma Carr; Christophe Cudennec; Amin Elshorbagy; Hubert Savenije; Pieter van der Zaag; Dan Rosbjerg; Hafzullah Aksoy; Francesco Viola; Guido Petrucci

    2016-01-01

    We explore how to address the challenges of adaptation of water resources systems under changing conditions by supporting flexible, resilient and low-regret solutions, coupled with on-going monitoring and evaluation. This will require improved understanding of the linkages between biophysical and social aspects in order to better anticipate the possible future co-evolution of water systems and society. We also present a call to enhance the dialogue and foster the actions of governments, the i...

  14. Common path in-line holography using enhanced joint object reference digital interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelner, Roy; Katz, Barak; Rosen, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Joint object reference digital interferometer (JORDI) is a recently developed system capable of recording holograms of various types [Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4719 (2013)24322115]. Presented here is a new enhanced system design that is based on the previous JORDI. While the previous JORDI has been based purely on diffractive optical elements, displayed on spatial light modulators, the present design incorporates an additional refractive objective lens, thus enabling hologram recording with improved resolution and increased system applicability. Experimental results demonstrate successful hologram recording for various types of objects, including transmissive, reflective, three-dimensional, phase and highly scattering objects. The resolution limit of the system is analyzed and experimentally validated. Finally, the suitability of JORDI for microscopic applications is verified as a microscope objective based configuration of the system is demonstrated. PMID:24663838

  15. Common path in-line holography using enhanced joint object reference digital interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelner, Roy; Katz, Barak; Rosen, Joseph

    2014-03-10

    Joint object reference digital interferometer (JORDI) is a recently developed system capable of recording holograms of various types [Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4719 (2013)]. Presented here is a new enhanced system design that is based on the previous JORDI. While the previous JORDI has been based purely on diffractive optical elements, displayed on spatial light modulators, the present design incorporates an additional refractive objective lens, thus enabling hologram recording with improved resolution and increased system applicability. Experimental results demonstrate successful hologram recording for various types of objects, including transmissive, reflective, three-dimensional, phase and highly scattering objects. The resolution limit of the system is analyzed and experimentally validated. Finally, the suitability of JORDI for microscopic applications is verified as a microscope objective based configuration of the system is demonstrated.

  16. 服务补救情境下在线消费者后悔对行为意向的影响——基于关系质量的调节%The Impact of Online Consumer Regret on Behavioral Intention under Service Recovery Situation --Based on the Moderating Role of Relationship Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯如靖; 张初兵; 易牧农

    2012-01-01

    在网络购物环境下,根据感知公平理论、认知评价理论、情感控制理论和后悔理论,本文提出了一个关系质量作为调节变量的服务补救情境下的“感知公平一情绪反应(后悔)一行为意向”的概念模型。采用情景模拟法,选取学生为调查对象,验证了感知公平三维度对在线消费者后悔有显著的负向影响,进而显著影响服务补救后的行为意向。但是,关系质量对后悔与行为意向的关系没有显著的调节作用。%Although there are some literatures which studied the relationships of the oit-hne service recovery, the consumer moods (positive or negative), and the behavioral intentions, the few literatures analyze the relationship among the service recovery, online consumer regret and behavioral intentions in the network shopping. According to the justice theory, consumers tend to evaluate the process of service recovery from three-dimen- sion perception justice, namely distribution justice, procedure justice and interactive justice. According to cognitive evaluation theory and emotional control theory, the mood is the psychological reaction or psychological state's self- adjustment after evaluating a particular consumer experience( such as the service recovery), including positive and negative emotions. According to the regret theory, the regret is a special kind of negative emotion, and has an effec- tive influence on consumers' behavior intentions. According to the related literature of relationship quality, the rela- tionship quality has some strong regulation effects between attitude and behavior. Therefore, this paper puts forward a conceptual model, in which relationship quality moderates the relationship of "perception justice-emotional respon- ses(regret)-behavior intention" under service recovery situation. Scholars adopt generally the scenario simulation method for service failure and service recovery, so this paper

  17. xCELLigence system for real-time label-free monitoring of growth and viability of cell lines from hematological malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez-Serra J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jordi Martinez-Serra,1 Antonio Gutierrez,1 Saúl Muñoz-Capó,1 María Navarro-Palou,1 Teresa Ros,1 Juan Carlos Amat,1 Bernardo Lopez,1 Toni F Marcus,1 Laura Fueyo,2 Angela G Suquia,2 Jordi Gines,3 Francisco Rubio,1 Rafael Ramos,4 Joan Besalduch11Department of Hematology, 2Department of Clinical Analysis, 3Department of Pharmacy, 4Department of Pathology, University Hospital Son Espases, Palma de Mallorca, Balearic Islands, SpainAbstract: The xCELLigence system is a new technological approach that allows the real-time cell analysis of adherent tumor cells. To date, xCELLigence has not been able to monitor the growth or cytotoxicity of nonadherent cells derived from hematological malignancies. The basis of its technology relies on the use of culture plates with gold microelectrodes located in their base. We have adapted the methodology described by others to xCELLigence, based on the pre-coating of the cell culture surface with specific substrates, some of which are known to facilitate cell adhesion in the extracellular matrix. Pre-coating of the culture plates with fibronectin, compared to laminin, collagen, or gelatin, significantly induced the adhesion of most of the leukemia/lymphoma cells assayed (Jurkat, L1236, KMH2, and K562. With a fibronectin substrate, nonadherent cells deposited in a monolayer configuration, and consequently, the cell growth and viability were robustly monitored. We further demonstrate the feasibility of xCELLigence for the real-time monitoring of the cytotoxic properties of several antineoplastic agents. In order to validate this technology, the data obtained through real-time cell analysis was compared with that obtained from using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. This provides an excellent label-free tool for the screening of drug efficacy in nonadherent cells and discriminates optimal time points for further molecular analysis of cellular events associated with treatments

  18. The Malaria System MicroApp: A New, Mobile Device-Based Tool for Malaria Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Allisson Dantas; Prats, Clara; Espasa, Mateu; Zarzuela Serrat, Francesc; Montañola Sales, Cristina; Silgado, Aroa; Codina, Daniel Lopez; Arruda, Mercia Eliane; I Prat, Jordi Gomez; Albuquerque, Jones

    2017-04-25

    Malaria is a public health problem that affects remote areas worldwide. Climate change has contributed to the problem by allowing for the survival of Anopheles in previously uninhabited areas. As such, several groups have made developing news systems for the automated diagnosis of malaria a priority. The objective of this study was to develop a new, automated, mobile device-based diagnostic system for malaria. The system uses Giemsa-stained peripheral blood samples combined with light microscopy to identify the Plasmodium falciparum species in the ring stage of development. The system uses image processing and artificial intelligence techniques as well as a known face detection algorithm to identify Plasmodium parasites. The algorithm is based on integral image and haar-like features concepts, and makes use of weak classifiers with adaptive boosting learning. The search scope of the learning algorithm is reduced in the preprocessing step by removing the background around blood cells. As a proof of concept experiment, the tool was used on 555 malaria-positive and 777 malaria-negative previously-made slides. The accuracy of the system was, on average, 91%, meaning that for every 100 parasite-infected samples, 91 were identified correctly. Accessibility barriers of low-resource countries can be addressed with low-cost diagnostic tools. Our system, developed for mobile devices (mobile phones and tablets), addresses this by enabling access to health centers in remote communities, and importantly, not depending on extensive malaria expertise or expensive diagnostic detection equipment. ©Allisson Dantas Oliveira, Clara Prats, Mateu Espasa, Francesc Zarzuela Serrat, Cristina Montañola Sales, Aroa Silgado, Daniel Lopez Codina, Mercia Eliane Arruda, Jordi Gomez i Prat, Jones Albuquerque. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 25.04.2017.

  19. "Was it a mistake to tell others that you are infected with HIV?": factors associated with regret following HIV disclosure among people living with HIV in five countries (Mali, Morocco, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador and Romania). Results from a community-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Emilie; Bernier, Adeline; Lazar, Florin; Matamba, Gaspard; Loukid, Mohamed; Bonifaz, Cesar; Diop, Samba; Otis, Joanne; Préau, Marie

    2015-02-01

    This study examined regret following HIV serostatus disclosure and associated factors in under-investigated contexts (Mali, Morocco, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador and Romania). A community-based cross-sectional study was implemented by a mixed consortium [researchers/community-based organizations (CBO)]. Trained CBO members interviewed 1,500 PLHIV in contact with CBOs using a 125-item questionnaire. A weighted multivariate logistic regression was performed. Among the 1,212 participants included in the analysis, 290 (23.9 %) declared that disclosure was a mistake. Female gender, percentage of PLHIV's network knowing about one's seropositivity from a third party, having suffered rejection after disclosure, having suffered HIV-based discrimination at work, perceived seriousness of infection score, daily loneliness, property index and self-esteem score were independently associated with regret. Discrimination, as well as individual characteristics and skills may affect the disclosure experience. Interventions aiming at improving PLHIV skills and reducing their social isolation may facilitate the disclosure process and avoid negative consequences.

  20. Case studies of scenario analysis for adaptive management of natural resource and infrastructure systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, M.C.; Thekdi, S.A.; Jenicek, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Management of natural resources and infrastructure systems for sustainability is complicated by uncertainties in the human and natural environment. Moreover, decisions are further complicated by contradictory views, values, and concerns that are rarely made explicit. Scenario analysis can play...... of emergent conditions and help to avoid regret and belated action. The purpose of this paper is to present several case studies in natural resources and infrastructure systems management where scenario analysis has been used to aide decision making under uncertainty. The case studies include several resource...... and infrastructure systems: (1) water resources (2) land-use corridors (3) energy infrastructure, and (4) coastal climate change adaptation. The case studies emphasize a participatory approach, where scenario analysis becomes a means of incorporating diverse stakeholder concerns and experience. This approach...

  1. Communicatie-architectuur PLC’s en Unity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Scholte

    2017-01-01

    Voor het afronden van de studie Technische Informatica aan de Haagse Hogeschool te Delft is het noodzakelijk om een afstudeeropdracht uit te voeren. In de loop van zeventien weken is deze opdracht uitgevoerd bij het bedrijf JB Systems te Vlaardingen en Delft door de afstudeerder Jordy Scholte. Dit

  2. Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Papers in this session describe the concept of mined geologic disposal system and methods for ensuring that the system, when developed, will meet all technical requirements. Also presented in the session are analyses of system parameters, such as cost and nuclear criticality potential, as well as a technical analysis of a requirement that the system permit retrieval of the waste for some period of time. The final paper discusses studies under way to investigate technical alternatives or complements to the mined geologic disposal system. Titles of the presented papers are: (1) Waste Isolation System; (2) Waste Isolation Economics; (3) BWIP Technical Baseline; (4) Criticality Considerations in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Waste; (5) Retrieving Nuclear Wastes from Repository; (6) NWTS Programs for the Evaluation of Technical Alternatives or Complements to Mined Geologic Repositories - Purpose and Objectives

  3. systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Leonessa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  4. Solving problems by interrogating sets of knowledge systems: Toward a theory of multiple knowledge systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekorvin, Andre

    1989-01-01

    The main purpose is to develop a theory for multiple knowledge systems. A knowledge system could be a sensor or an expert system, but it must specialize in one feature. The problem is that we have an exhaustive list of possible answers to some query (such as what object is it). By collecting different feature values, in principle, it should be possible to give an answer to the query, or at least narrow down the list. Since a sensor, or for that matter an expert system, does not in most cases yield a precise value for the feature, uncertainty must be built into the model. Also, researchers must have a formal mechanism to be able to put the information together. Researchers chose to use the Dempster-Shafer approach to handle the problems mentioned above. Researchers introduce the concept of a state of recognition and point out that there is a relation between receiving updates and defining a set valued Markov Chain. Also, deciding what the value of the next set valued variable is can be phrased in terms of classical decision making theory such as minimizing the maximum regret. Other related problems are examined.

  5. Limiting Regret: Building the Army We Will Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-18

    mass destruction; ignite a new era of global economic growth through free markets and free trade; expand the circle of development by opening...change; • Major energy market disruptions; • Significant security consequences associated with weak or failing states (including mass atrocities...the 1st Marine Division and the British 1st (UK) Armoured Division – which would imply a lower support-to-division ratio. On the other hand, the

  6. Climate change policy instruments in a least regrets context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenstra, W.J.; Bonney, M. [Ministry of Housing, The Hague (Netherlands). Spatial Planning and Environment

    1995-12-31

    The Dutch CO{sub 2} target - which was set down in the National Environmental Policy Plan Plus (NMP-plus) and sent to Parliament in 1990 - is to reduce emissions by 3 to 5 % in 2000 relative to 1989/1990. The second National Environmental Policy Plan (NMP-2), issued in December 1993, confirmed this target but also concluded that policies will have to be enhanced and additional measures taken in order to achieve it. The measures developed in NMP-plus assumed that real energy prices would rise substantially during the 1990`s. However, the prices are at their lowest level since the early 1970`s and official projections now assume that real energy prices will remain more or less constant between 1990 and 2000. Under these conditions, application of existing policy instruments will have to be intensified and additional policy instruments will have to be deployed in order to attain even the 3 % emission reduction target for CO{sub 2}. In December 1993 the Government`s second National Environmental Policy Plan and second Memorandum on Energy Conservation indicated how policy efforts in the area of climate change will be enhanced. Targets were set for improving energy efficiency in different sectors in the period 1989-2000: 23 % for households, 23 % for non-residential buildings, 19 % for industry, 26 % for agriculture, 10 % for transport and 26 % for power stations. The overall efficiency improvement (including renewables) will lead to energy consumption of 2865 PJ in 2000 (550 PJ less than what it would have been without the policy measures; slightly more than what it was in 1990). Energy efficiency (including renewables) will be responsible for roughly two thirds of the CO{sub 2} reduction needed, with the remainder coming from transport, recycling, reduced coal use, afforestation and structural changes

  7. Limiting Regret: Building the Army We Will Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing...NUMBER OF PAGES 23 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298...Army’s ability to help execute the national defense strategy against key threats. The documentation for this analysis was funded by philanthropic

  8. Climate change policy instruments in a least regrets context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenstra, W J; Bonney, M [Ministry of Housing, The Hague (Netherlands). Spatial Planning and Environment

    1996-12-31

    The Dutch CO{sub 2} target - which was set down in the National Environmental Policy Plan Plus (NMP-plus) and sent to Parliament in 1990 - is to reduce emissions by 3 to 5 % in 2000 relative to 1989/1990. The second National Environmental Policy Plan (NMP-2), issued in December 1993, confirmed this target but also concluded that policies will have to be enhanced and additional measures taken in order to achieve it. The measures developed in NMP-plus assumed that real energy prices would rise substantially during the 1990`s. However, the prices are at their lowest level since the early 1970`s and official projections now assume that real energy prices will remain more or less constant between 1990 and 2000. Under these conditions, application of existing policy instruments will have to be intensified and additional policy instruments will have to be deployed in order to attain even the 3 % emission reduction target for CO{sub 2}. In December 1993 the Government`s second National Environmental Policy Plan and second Memorandum on Energy Conservation indicated how policy efforts in the area of climate change will be enhanced. Targets were set for improving energy efficiency in different sectors in the period 1989-2000: 23 % for households, 23 % for non-residential buildings, 19 % for industry, 26 % for agriculture, 10 % for transport and 26 % for power stations. The overall efficiency improvement (including renewables) will lead to energy consumption of 2865 PJ in 2000 (550 PJ less than what it would have been without the policy measures; slightly more than what it was in 1990). Energy efficiency (including renewables) will be responsible for roughly two thirds of the CO{sub 2} reduction needed, with the remainder coming from transport, recycling, reduced coal use, afforestation and structural changes

  9. A Journey of No Return and No Regrets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Chang Yeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the author's personal journey from childhood to a career in physics. The beauty and truth that the author finds in physics has been the primary driving force and inspiration for her relentless pursuit of knowledge and her constant push for cutting-edge research, despite all obstacles and odds against her as a “double minority” (an Asian woman in a predominantly white male profession. Based on her 20 years of research and teaching at one of the world's leading academic institutions, the California Institute of Technology, the author observes no differences between men and women in their scientific talents, thereby dispelling the misconception of possible inferiority of women as scientists. She further stresses the urgent societal needs for more talent in various sciences to address many of the important issues facing the planet. In this context, society must promote gender equality in science so that one half of the talent does not go to waste. Finally, the author shares her thoughts with young people about how to be better prepared to face the challenges in life and fulfill their dreams.

  10. Optimizing power system investments and resilience against attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Yiping; Sansavini, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the combination of capacity expansion and switch installation in electric systems that ensures optimum performance under nominal operations and attacks. The planner–attacker–defender model is adopted to develop decisions that minimize investment and operating costs, and functionality loss after attacks. The model bridges long-term system planning for transmission expansion and short-term switching operations in reaction to attacks. The mixed-integer optimization is solved by decomposition via two-layer cutting plane algorithm. Numerical results on an IEEE system shows that small investments in transmission line switching enhance resilience by responding to disruptions via system reconfiguration. Sensitivity analyses show that transmission planning under the assumption of small-scale attacks provides the most robust strategy, i.e. the minimum-regret planning, if many constraints and limited investment budget affect the planning. On the other hand, the assumption of large-scale attacks provides the most robust strategy if the planning process involves large flexibility and budget. - Highlights: • Investment optimization in power systems under attacks is presented. • Capacity expansion and switch installation for system reconfiguration are combined. • The problem is solved by decomposition via two-layer cutting plane algorithm. • Small investments in switch installation enhance resilience by response to attacks. • Sensitivity analyses identify robust planning against different attack scenarios.

  11. SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Swarnalatha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk analysis of urban aquatic systems due to heavy metals turns significant due to their peculiar properties viz. persis tence, non-degradab ility, toxicity, and accumulation. Akkulam Veli (AV, an urba n tropical lake in south India is subjected to various environmental stresses due to multiple waste discharge, sand mining, developmental activities, tour ism related activitie s etc. Hence, a comprehensive approach is adopted for risk assessment using modified degree of contamination factor, toxicity units based on numerical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs, and potentialecological risk indices. The study revealed the presence of toxic metals such as Cr, C d, Pb and As and the lake is rated under ‘low ecological risk’ category.

  12. Decision analysis and risk models for land development affecting infrastructure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekdi, Shital A; Lambert, James H

    2012-07-01

    Coordination and layering of models to identify risks in complex systems such as large-scale infrastructure of energy, water, and transportation is of current interest across application domains. Such infrastructures are increasingly vulnerable to adjacent commercial and residential land development. Land development can compromise the performance of essential infrastructure systems and increase the costs of maintaining or increasing performance. A risk-informed approach to this topic would be useful to avoid surprise, regret, and the need for costly remedies. This article develops a layering and coordination of models for risk management of land development affecting infrastructure systems. The layers are: system identification, expert elicitation, predictive modeling, comparison of investment alternatives, and implications of current decisions for future options. The modeling layers share a focus on observable factors that most contribute to volatility of land development and land use. The relevant data and expert evidence include current and forecasted growth in population and employment, conservation and preservation rules, land topography and geometries, real estate assessments, market and economic conditions, and other factors. The approach integrates to a decision framework of strategic considerations based on assessing risk, cost, and opportunity in order to prioritize needs and potential remedies that mitigate impacts of land development to the infrastructure systems. The approach is demonstrated for a 5,700-mile multimodal transportation system adjacent to 60,000 tracts of potential land development. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Jordi Canal (dir., Sophie Baby, Jean-Philippe Luis, Stéphane Michonneau et Mercedes Yusta, Histoire de l’Espagne contemporaine de 1808 à nos jours. Politique et société

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Maurice

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Esta obra sobre la España contemporánea de cinco historiadores que ejercen la docencia en la Enseñanza Superior de Francia es una apuesta: abarcar en 300 páginas dos siglos de sucesos harto complejos. Se divide en tres partes de idéntica extensión que se corresponden con períodos de igual duración. La primera parte examina el período 1808-1874 caracterizado como « dilatada y persistente guerra civil » durante la cual se va construyendo el Estado liberal. Enfocado más como práctica política que como ideología, el liberalismo se analiza como fenómeno urbano en un país fundamentalmente agrario. Va evolucionando en un sentido cada vez más conservador hasta aceptar que la soberanía nacional fuera compartida entre las Cortes y la Corona. En el terreno económico, la privatización de tierras enajenadas es un proceso dilatado y de gran amplitud que favorece un desarrollo extensivo de la agricultura. El fracaso del sexenio democrático es el de una monarquía democrática basada sobre las libertades y el sufragio universal. Se echa de menos un análisis concreto del fenómeno singular que fue el cantonalismo.La segunda parte abarca el período 1875-1939 con la consolidación y crisis del sistema liberal, las soluciones contrapuestas para resolver dicha crisis con el régimen de excepción de Primo de Rivera y la experiencia democrática de la Segunda República.En el análisis del bipartidismo propio del régimen de la Restauración se minimiza la importancia del caciquismo que trae como consecuencia la desnaturalización del sufragio universal. En igual sentido se discute la interpretación del regeneracionismo como variante de nacionalismo y la subestimación del movimiento obrero en la crisis de 1917, apuntándose a este respecto el desconocimiento de lo que ocurrió en Andalucía durante el trienio bolchevique.La crisis del turno político facilitó la toma del poder por el general Primo de Rivera que, tras pacificar Marruecos, no logró institucionalizar un régimen corporativista. Es cierto que, en el terreno político, la Segunda República constituyó una ruptura con el reconocimiento del derecho de voto para las mujeres y la separación del Estado y de la Iglesia, la cual provocó la enemistad del catolicismo que encabezó la reconfiguración de la derecha. Pero lentitud e insuficiencias de una reforma tan anhelada como era la de la propiedad de la tierra se debió menos al desinterés del personal político que a la determinación que mostró la burguesía agraria en la defensa de sus intereses.La guerra civil por antonomasia se internacionalizó pronto por necesitar armas los beligerantes, lo que consiguió fácilmente Franco de los estados fascistas, dándole temprana superioridad militar. Se subraya el carácter contrarrevolucionario de la sublevacíon, el uso sistemático que hizo del terror contra los republicanos. Se echan de menos análisis concretos del proceso colectivizador en la España republicana así como de los luctuosos sucesos de mayo de 1937. También se pudo recordar la movilización internacional de escritores y artistas en apoyo de la República.De la dictadura a la democracia, reza la tercera parte que plantea la problemática de la modernización de la sociedad española.El Caudillo tardó mucho en institucionalizar un Estado a su medida, adaptándose hábilmente al entorno internacional y estableciendo temprano una relación bilateral con los EE.UU de América que ha perdurado hasta la actualidad. Base de su régimen fue una represión multiforme en el marco de una autarquía económica dura para el pueblo. Multiforme fue también la resistencia, siendo una de las formas más originales la político-sindical de CC.OO.El desarrollismo llevado a cabo por miembros del Opus Dei –organización de seglares dependiente del Vaticano– tuvo resultados desiguales y el crecimiento de clases medias urbanas no significa que fue « total » la transformación de la sociedad española.El paso a la democracia fue doblemente democrático, siendo un largo proceso presidido por la voluntad de transigir pero en base a la triple exigencia de la oposición antifranquista : amnistía, autonomía y libertad. Culminó en una Constitución abierta completada, apenas promulgada, por acuerdos con el Vaticano que cercenan la no confesionalidad del Estado. ¿ Fue « una revancha de los vencidos de la guerra civil » la victoria del PSOE liderado por Felipe González ? O, más bien, la realización de una política reformista que –conforme se estaba construyendo el Estado de las autonomías– « ajustaba » la economía según los criterios europeos…Sería conveniente matizar el balance globalmente positivo que se hace de los catorce años de gobierno socialista.El último capítulo sobre « cultura y sociedad » plantea varios interrogantes de carácter metodológico sobre el papel que los autores otorgan a la literatura en su quehacer de historiador. Se evoca, en conclusión, la cuestión batallona de la « recuperación de la memoria histórica ».La bibliografía, copiosa, pudo distinguir mejor las obras de referencia de los libros de vulgarización. Pobre en trabajos de historia social, confirma que se ha dado la primacía a lo político. De aquí el carácter desigual de una obra en la cual las nociones recurrentes de « modernización » y « normalización » no bastan en darle coherencia.

  14. Role of nuclear fusion in future energy systems and the environment under future uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokimatsu, Koji; Fujino, Jun'ichi; Konishi, Satoshi; Ogawa, Yuichi; Yamaji, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    Debates about whether or not to invest heavily in nuclear fusion as a future innovative energy option have been made within the context of energy technology development strategies. This is because the prospects for nuclear fusion are quite uncertain and the investments therefore carry the risk of quite large regrets, even though investment is needed in order to develop the technology. The timeframe by which nuclear fusion could become competitive in the energy market has not been adequately studied, nor has roles of the nuclear fusion in energy systems and the environment. The present study has two objectives. One is to reveal the conditions under which nuclear fusion could be introduced economically (hereafter, we refer to such introductory conditions as breakeven prices) in future energy systems. The other objective is to evaluate the future roles of nuclear fusion in energy systems and in the environment. Here we identify three roles that nuclear fusion will take on when breakeven prices are achieved: (i) a portion of the electricity market in 2100, (ii) reduction of annual global total energy systems cost, and (iii) mitigation of carbon tax (shadow price of carbon) under CO 2 constraints. Future uncertainties are key issues in evaluating nuclear fusion. Here we treated the following uncertainties: energy demand scenarios, introduction timeframe for nuclear fusion, capacity projections of nuclear fusion, CO 2 target in 2100, capacity utilization ratio of options in energy/environment technologies, and utility discount rates. From our investigations, we conclude that the presently designed nuclear fusion reactors may be ready for economical introduction into energy systems beginning around 2050-2060, and we can confirm that the favorable introduction of the reactors would reduce both the annual energy systems cost and the carbon tax (the shadow price of carbon) under a CO 2 concentration constraint

  15. Critical infrastructure protection decision support system decision model : overview and quick-start user's guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsa, M.; Van Kuiken, J.; Jusko, M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-12-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Protection Decision Support System Decision Model (CIPDSS-DM) is a useful tool for comparing the effectiveness of alternative risk-mitigation strategies on the basis of CIPDSS consequence scenarios. The model is designed to assist analysts and policy makers in evaluating and selecting the most effective risk-mitigation strategies, as affected by the importance assigned to various impact measures and the likelihood of an incident. A typical CIPDSS-DM decision map plots the relative preference of alternative risk-mitigation options versus the annual probability of an undesired incident occurring once during the protective life of the investment, assumed to be 20 years. The model also enables other types of comparisons, including a decision map that isolates a selected impact variable and displays the relative preference for the options of interest--parameterized on the basis of the contribution of the isolated variable to total impact, as well as the likelihood of the incident. Satisfaction/regret analysis further assists the analyst or policy maker in evaluating the confidence with which one option can be selected over another.

  16. Developing the evidence base for mainstreaming adaptation of stormwater systems to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersonius, B; Nasruddin, F; Ashley, R; Jeuken, A; Pathirana, A; Zevenbergen, C

    2012-12-15

    In a context of high uncertainty about hydro-climatic variables, the development of updated methods for climate impact and adaptation assessment is as important, if not more important than the provision of improved climate change data. In this paper, we introduce a hybrid method to facilitate mainstreaming adaptation of stormwater systems to climate change: i.e., the Mainstreaming method. The Mainstreaming method starts with an analysis of adaptation tipping points (ATPs), which is effect-based. These are points of reference where the magnitude of climate change is such that acceptable technical, environmental, societal or economic standards may be compromised. It extends the ATP analysis to include aspects from a bottom-up approach. The extension concerns the analysis of adaptation opportunities in the stormwater system. The results from both analyses are then used in combination to identify and exploit Adaptation Mainstreaming Moments (AMMs). Use of this method will enhance the understanding of the adaptive potential of stormwater systems. We have applied the proposed hybrid method to the management of flood risk for an urban stormwater system in Dordrecht (the Netherlands). The main finding of this case study is that the application of the Mainstreaming method helps to increase the no-/low-regret character of adaptation for several reasons: it focuses the attention on the most urgent effects of climate change; it is expected to lead to potential cost reductions, since adaptation options can be integrated into infrastructure and building design at an early stage instead of being applied separately; it will lead to the development of area-specific responses, which could not have been developed on a higher scale level; it makes it possible to take account of local values and sensibilities, which contributes to increased public and political support for the adaptive strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation Of Model Based Systems Engineering Processes For Integration Into Rapid Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    for the required simulation allowed the MK6LE project to avoid the risk of having lower level model components not integrating together. The initial...that programs that applied MBSE at the lower levels, in particular the MK54 Torpedo program, expressed regrets of limiting the re-architecture to the

  18. Phenomenologies of the akratic self: masculinity, regrets, and HIV among men on methadone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontdevila, Jorge

    2006-07-01

    This study explores the motivational bargaining processes that constitute an "act" of heterosexual HIV risk-taking by focusing on the narrative viewpoint of two men in methadone maintenance treatment programs in the Harlem section of New York City. These men reported sexual episodes with complex motivational "event grammars" that were analyzed using qualitative methods. Building on the concept of akrasia (failure to convert intentions into action), I argue that HIV risky heterosex results from temporal displacements of instrumental rationality by two other equally relevant orientations of sexual action, namely, affectual and normative. I conclude that sexual risk occurs in the context of emotions and normative presentations of the masculine self. Consequently, a man's risk of loosing footing or consistent face vis-à-vis his female sex partner, and not the risks of HIV, becomes a priority of the sexual interaction. Sexuality is at its core social and, hence, subject to more powerful forces than personal safety or behaviorist reward.

  19. I gave too much: Low self-esteem and the regret of sacrifices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Righetti, F.; Visserman, M.L.

    2017-01-01

    Low self-esteem is often related to interpersonal difficulties. In fact, low self-esteem people fear rejection and tend to adopt self-protection goals. In the present work, we tested the idea that when low self-esteem individuals decide to sacrifice personal preferences for their relationship, they

  20. Decision making regarding prophylactic mastectomy: stability of preferences and the impact of anticipated feelings of regret.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, S. van; Roosmalen, M.S van; Otten, W.; Stalmeier, P.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Women who test positive for a BRCA1/2 mutation face difficult choices to manage their breast cancer risk; one of these choices is whether to opt for prophylactic mastectomy. Few data are available about this decision-making process. The current study provides data regarding the stability of

  1. Timing Matters: Length of Leave and Working Mothers' Daily Reentry Regrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Bettina S.; Ritter, Johannes O.

    2012-01-01

    Dealing with developmental tasks in work and family domains is an important challenge for young and middle-aged adults. We investigated a transition that has evolved into a normative task for women, namely, the retransition back to paid work following maternity leave. In a diary study with 149 mothers who had just returned to work, we examined the…

  2. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IT

    contrastive investigation uses systemic functional grammar (SFG) as a tool which, to my ... this study to simplify the analysis of conjunction in film translation. ...... projected clause and to express the speaker's regret at not having another job.

  3. An Integrated Environmental Assessment of Green and Gray Infrastructure Strategies for Robust Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal-Campos, Arturo; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David; Moore, Andrew

    2015-07-21

    The robustness of a range of watershed-scale "green" and "gray" drainage strategies in the future is explored through comprehensive modeling of a fully integrated urban wastewater system case. Four socio-economic future scenarios, defined by parameters affecting the environmental performance of the system, are proposed to account for the uncertain variability of conditions in the year 2050. A regret-based approach is applied to assess the relative performance of strategies in multiple impact categories (environmental, economic, and social) as well as to evaluate their robustness across future scenarios. The concept of regret proves useful in identifying performance trade-offs and recognizing states of the world most critical to decisions. The study highlights the robustness of green strategies (particularly rain gardens, resulting in half the regret of most options) over end-of-pipe gray alternatives (surface water separation or sewer and storage rehabilitation), which may be costly (on average, 25% of the total regret of these options) and tend to focus on sewer flooding and CSO alleviation while compromising on downstream system performance (this accounts for around 50% of their total regret). Trade-offs and scenario regrets observed in the analysis suggest that the combination of green and gray strategies may still offer further potential for robustness.

  4. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  5. WITHDRAWN: Ivory vertebra and systemic mastocytosis. Comments on the article by Frenzel et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhadour, Thierry; Saraux, Alain

    2013-06-02

    L'éditeur a le regret de vous informer que cet article ayant déjà été publié dans: , 80/5 (2013) 553-554, doi:10.1016/, cette seconde publication faite par erreur a été retirée. Copyright © 2013 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossler

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with - controlled area ventilation systems - ventilation systems for switchgear-building and control-room - other ventilation systems for safety equipments - service systems for ventilation systems. (orig./RW)

  7. Embedded Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Embedded system, micro-con- troller ... Embedded systems differ from general purpose computers in many ... Low cost: As embedded systems are extensively used in con- .... operating systems for the desktop computers where scheduling.

  8. Thermal systems; Systemes thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalot, S. [Valenciennes Univ. et du Hainaut Cambresis, LME, 59 (France); Lecoeuche, S. [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Dept. GIP, 59 - Douai (France)]|[Lille Univ. des Sciences et Technologies, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Ahmad, M.; Sallee, H.; Quenard, D. [CSTB, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Bontemps, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI/GRETh, 38 - Grenoble (France); Gascoin, N.; Gillard, P.; Bernard, S. [Laboratoire d' Energetique, Explosion, Structure, 18 - Bourges (France); Gascoin, N.; Toure, Y. [Laboratoire Vision et Robotique, 18 - Bourges (France); Daniau, E.; Bouchez, M. [MBDA, 18 - Bourges (France); Dobrovicescu, A.; Stanciu, D. [Bucarest Univ. Polytechnique, Faculte de Genie Mecanique (Romania); Stoian, M. [Reims Univ. Champagne Ardenne, Faculte des Sciences, UTAP/LTM, 51 (France); Bruch, A.; Fourmigue, J.F.; Colasson, S. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. Greth, 38 (France); Bontemps, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI/GRETh, 38 - Grenoble (France); Voicu, I.; Mare, T.; Miriel, J. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), LGCGM, IUT, 35 - Rennes (France); Galanis, N. [Sherbrooke Univ., Genie Mecanique, QC (Canada); Nemer, M.; Clodic, D. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre Energetique et Procedes, 75 (France); Lasbet, Y.; Auvity, B.; Castelain, C.; Peerhossaini, H. [Nantes Univ., Ecole Polytechnique, Lab. de Thermocinetiquede Nantes, UMR-CNRS 6607, 44 (France)

    2005-07-01

    This session about thermal systems gathers 26 articles dealing with: neural model of a compact heat exchanger; experimental study and numerical simulation of the thermal behaviour of test-cells with walls made of a combination of phase change materials and super-insulating materials; hydraulic and thermal modeling of a supercritical fluid with pyrolysis inside a heated channel: pre-dimensioning of an experimental study; energy analysis of the heat recovery devices of a cryogenic system; numerical simulation of the thermo-hydraulic behaviour of a supercritical CO{sub 2} flow inside a vertical tube; mixed convection inside dual-tube exchangers; development of a nodal approach with homogenization for the simulation of the brazing cycle of a heat exchanger; chaotic exchanger for the cooling of low temperature fuel cells; structural optimization of the internal fins of a cylindrical generator; a new experimental approach for the study of the local boiling inside the channels of exchangers with plates and fins; experimental study of the flow regimes of boiling hydrocarbons on a bundle of staggered tubes; energy study of heat recovery exchangers used in Claude-type refrigerating systems; general model of Carnot engine submitted to various operating constraints; the free pistons Stirling cogeneration system; natural gas supplied cogeneration system with polymer membrane fuel cell; influence of the CRN coating on the heat flux inside the tool during the wood unrolling process; transport and mixture of a passive scalar injected inside the wake of a Ahmed body; control of a laser welding-brazing process by infrared thermography; 2D self-adaptative method for contours detection: application to the images of an aniso-thermal jet; exergy and exergy-economical study of an 'Ericsson' engine-based micro-cogeneration system; simplified air-conditioning of telephone switching equipments; parametric study of the 'low-energy' individual dwelling; brief synthesis of

  9. Data Systems vs. Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Amatayakul, Margret K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the current status of “hospital information systems” with respect to the distinction between data systems and information systems. It is proposed that the systems currently existing are incomplete data dystems resulting in ineffective information systems.

  10. EXPERT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiana Marin; Mihai Catalin Andrei

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades IT and computer systems have evolved rapidly in economic informatics field. The goal is to create user friendly information systems that respond promptly and accurately to requests. Informatics systems evolved into decision assisted systems, and such systems are converted, based on gained experience, in expert systems for creative problem solving that an organization is facing. Expert systems are aimed at rebuilding human reasoning on the expertise obtained from experts, sto...

  11. STENCIL - Strategies and Tools for Environment-friendly Shore Nourishments as Climate Change Impact Low-Regret Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmels, Stefan; Cofalla, Catrina; Deutschmann, Björn; Ganal, Caroline; Gijsman, Rik; Hass, H. Christian; Hollert, Henner; Mielck, Finn; Schlurmann, Thorsten; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Shiravani, Gholamreza; Staudt, Franziska; Strusinska, Agnieszka; Visscher, Jan; Wiltshire, Karen; Wolbring, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    Shore nourishments are regarded as an almost routine coastal protection measure and have been carried out worldwide for several decades. Recent studies generally conclude that "soft" coastal protection measures are an effective option for a sustainable coastal management. However, more research on economic sustainability, species-specific habitat demands and availability of sand deposits is required. Nowadays, the recent paradigm shifts to concepts like the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) and the Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM). For the German Wadden Sea these management objectives are an important issue of the "Wattenmeerstrategie 2100" (MELLUR-SH, 2015), a political strategy report that demands an adaption against the global change and the expected sea-level rise up to the year 2100. Hence, also new concepts and tools for the implementation of more sustainable, effective and environment-friendly shore nourishments are needed. The research project STENCIL joins the expertise of coastal engineers, geologists, biologists and toxicologists in order to make a first step towards the long-term goal of establishing an ICZM and EAM for shore nourishments in the German Wadden Sea. The project focuses on providing improved tools, models and methods for the prediction of coastal hydro- and morphodynamics. Furthermore, the impact of dredging and dumping activities on benthic habitats and their natural regeneration potentials will be evaluated. Since these impacts are still widely uninvestigated, monitoring of dredging areas and the surrounding sites using hydroacoustic devices, aerial photos and sediment samples for grain-size and benthos analysis remains of high importance. In order to develop standardized operative observation methods, analysis and decision-supporting tools, an implementation of field measurements, laboratory experiments as well as conceptual and numerical models is planned. These combined approaches will result in valuable data sets for habitat evaluation, improved prediction methods as well as process and work-flow studies. Finally, a strategy for future planning and monitoring of shore nourishment projects will be established in close cooperation with the coastal authorities. STENCIL has recently started in October 2016 within the research program "Research for sustainable development" (FONA) of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The poster will give an overview of the project structure and present the research objectives and methods in more detail.

  12. Satisfaction and uncertainty in car-sharing decisions : an integration of hybrid choice and random regret-based models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, J.; Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, the number of private car tends to exacerbate environmental problems such as emissions, decreasing exhaustible resources, taking land for road and parking spaces, and so forth. The severity of these damaging effects is even more problematic when it is realized that private cars spend

  13. GARN2: coarse-grained prediction of 3D structure of large RNA molecules by regret minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudard, Mélanie; Barth, Dominique; Bernauer, Julie; Denise, Alain; Cohen, Johanne

    2017-08-15

    Predicting the 3D structure of RNA molecules is a key feature towards predicting their functions. Methods which work at atomic or nucleotide level are not suitable for large molecules. In these cases, coarse-grained prediction methods aim to predict a shape which could be refined later by using more precise methods on smaller parts of the molecule. We developed a complete method for sampling 3D RNA structure at a coarse-grained model, taking a secondary structure as input. One of the novelties of our method is that a second step extracts two best possible structures close to the native, from a set of possible structures. Although our method benefits from the first version of GARN, some of the main features on GARN2 are very different. GARN2 is much faster than the previous version and than the well-known methods of the state-of-art. Our experiments show that GARN2 can also provide better structures than the other state-of-the-art methods. GARN2 is written in Java. It is freely distributed and available at http://garn.lri.fr/. melanie.boudard@lri.fr or johanne.cohen@lri.fr. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Multibody Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Falko Jens

    1999-01-01

    Multibody Systems is one area, in which methods for solving DAEs are of special interst. This chapter is about multibody systems, why they result in DAE systems and what kind of problems that can arise when dealing with multibody systems and formulating their corresponding DAE system....

  15. System dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Hun; Mun, Tae Hun; Kim, Dong Hwan

    1999-02-01

    This book introduces systems thinking and conceptual tool and modeling tool of dynamics system such as tragedy of single thinking, accessible way of system dynamics, feedback structure and causal loop diagram analysis, basic of system dynamics modeling, causal loop diagram and system dynamics modeling, information delay modeling, discovery and application for policy, modeling of crisis of agricultural and stock breeding products, dynamic model and lesson in ecosystem, development and decadence of cites and innovation of education forward system thinking.

  16. Coupling component systems towards systems of systems

    OpenAIRE

    Autran , Frédéric; Auzelle , Jean-Philippe; Cattan , Denise; Garnier , Jean-Luc; Luzeaux , Dominique; Mayer , Frédérique; Peyrichon , Marc; Ruault , Jean-René

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Systems of systems (SoS) are a hot topic in our "fully connected global world". Our aim is not to provide another definition of what SoS are, but rather to focus on the adequacy of reusing standard system architecting techniques within this approach in order to improve performance, fault detection and safety issues in large-scale coupled systems that definitely qualify as SoS, whatever the definition is. A key issue will be to secure the availability of the services pr...

  17. Systems effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Habayeb, A R

    1987-01-01

    Highlights three principal applications of system effectiveness: hardware system evaluation, organizational development and evaluation, and conflict analysis. The text emphasizes the commonality of the system effectiveness discipline. The first part of the work presents a framework for system effectiveness, partitioning and hierarchy of hardware systems. The second part covers the structure, hierarchy, states, functions and activities of organizations. Contains an extended Appendix on mathematical concepts and also several project suggestions.

  18. Auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Systems included under the heading ''Reactor Auxillary Systems'' are those immediately involved with the reactor operation. These include the systems for dosing and letdown of reactor coolant, as well as for the chemical dosing, purification and treatment of the reactor coolant and the cooling system in the controlled area. The ancillary systems are mainly responsible for liquid and gaseous treatment and the waste treatment for final storage. (orig.)

  19. Bitcoin System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lánský

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptocurrency systems are purely digital and decentralized systems that use cryptographic principles to confirm transactions. Bitcoin is the first and also the most widespread cryptocurrency. The aim of this article is to introduce Bitcoin system using a language understandable also to readers without computer science education. This article captures the Bitcoin system from three perspectives: internal structure, network and users. Emphasis is placed on brief and clear definitions (system components and their mutual relationships. A new system view of the stated terms constitutes author’s own contribution.

  20. JOSHUA system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honeck, H.C.

    1975-04-01

    A major computational system called JOSHUA has been under development at the Savannah River Laboratory since 1968. The JOSHUA System has two major parts: the Operating System and the Application System. The Operating System has been in production use since 1970 and provides data management, terminal, and job execution facilities. The Application System uses these facilities in solving problems in reactor physics and engineering. Features of the Application System are the two-dimensional lattice physics and three-dimensional transient reactor physics capabilities, which have been in use since 1971 and 1974, respectively. The capabilities of the JOSHUA System are summarized, and statistics on size, use, and development effort are provided. (U.S.)

  1. Systems thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Derek; Colosi, Laura; Lobdell, Claire

    2008-08-01

    Evaluation is one of many fields where "systems thinking" is popular and is said to hold great promise. However, there is disagreement about what constitutes systems thinking. Its meaning is ambiguous, and systems scholars have made diverse and divergent attempts to describe it. Alternative origins include: von Bertalanffy, Aristotle, Lao Tsu or multiple aperiodic "waves." Some scholars describe it as synonymous with systems sciences (i.e., nonlinear dynamics, complexity, chaos). Others view it as taxonomy-a laundry list of systems approaches. Within so much noise, it is often difficult for evaluators to find the systems thinking signal. Recent work in systems thinking describes it as an emergent property of four simple conceptual patterns (rules). For an evaluator to become a "systems thinker", he or she need not spend years learning many methods or nonlinear sciences. Instead, with some practice, one can learn to apply these four simple rules to existing evaluation knowledge with transformative results.

  2. Cognitive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective...... to be modeled within a limited set of predefined specifications. There will inevitably be a need for robust decisions and behaviors in novel situations that include handling of conflicts and ambiguities based on the capability and knowledge of the artificial cognitive system. Further, there is a need...... in cognitive systems include e.g. personalized information systems, sensor network systems, social dynamics system and Web2.0, and cognitive components analysis. I will use example from our own research and link to other research activities....

  3. Crystal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

  4. Filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanin, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    The multidetector systems for high resolution gamma spectroscopy are presented. The observable parameters for identifying nuclides produced simultaneously in the reaction are analysed discussing the efficiency of filter systems. (M.C.K.)

  5. Expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldy, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    The definitions of the terms 'artificial intelligence' and 'expert systems', the methodology, areas of employment and limits of expert systems are discussed. The operation of an expert system is described, especially the presentation and organization of knowledge as well as interference and control. Methods and tools for expert system development are presented and their application in nuclear energy are briefly addressed. 7 figs., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  6. Expert System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas Troels; Cattani, Gian Luca

    2016-01-01

    An expert system is a computer system for inferring knowledge from a knowledge base, typically by using a set of inference rules. When the concept of expert systems was introduced at Stanford University in the early 1970s, the knowledge base was an unstructured set of facts. Today the knowledge b...... for the application of expert systems, but also raises issues regarding privacy and legal liability....

  7. Retrofitting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the different retrofitting possibilities that are available today. The report looks at both external and internal systems for external wall constructions, roof constructions, floor constructions and foundations. All systems are described in detail in respect to use...... and methods, and the efficiency of the different systems are discussed....

  8. Multifunction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wauthier, J.; Fiori, R.

    1990-01-01

    The development, the characteristics and the applications of a multifunction system are presented. The system is used on the RBES laboratory pipes, at Marcoule. The system was developed in order to allow, without time loss, the modification of the circuit function by replacing only one component. The following elements form the multifunction system: a fixed base, which is part of the tube, a removable piece, which is inserted into the base, a cover plate and its locking system. The material, chosen among commercial trade marks, required small modifications in order to be used in the circuit [fr

  9. Operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tsichritzis, Dionysios C; Rheinboldt, Werner

    1974-01-01

    Operating Systems deals with the fundamental concepts and principles that govern the behavior of operating systems. Many issues regarding the structure of operating systems, including the problems of managing processes, processors, and memory, are examined. Various aspects of operating systems are also discussed, from input-output and files to security, protection, reliability, design methods, performance evaluation, and implementation methods.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of what constitutes an operating system, followed by a discussion on the definition and pr

  10. Security Strategies of Both Players in Asymmetric Information Zero-Sum Stochastic Games with an Informed Controller

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lichun

    2017-11-07

    This paper considers a zero-sum two-player asymmetric information stochastic game where only one player knows the system state, and the transition law is controlled by the informed player only. For the informed player, it has been shown that the security strategy only depends on the belief and the current stage. We provide LP formulations whose size is only linear in the size of the uninformed player\\'s action set to compute both history based and belief based security strategies. For the uninformed player, we focus on the regret, the difference between 0 and the future payoff guaranteed by the uninformed player in every possible state. Regret is a real vector of the same size as the belief, and depends only on the action of the informed player and the strategy of the uninformed player. This paper shows that the uninformed player has a security strategy that only depends on the regret and the current stage. LP formulations are then given to compute the history based security strategy, the regret at every stage, and the regret based security strategy. The size of the LP formulations are again linear in the size of the uninformed player action set. Finally, an intrusion detection problem is studied to demonstrate the main results in this paper.

  11. Systems integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a view of systems integration, from an ergonomics/human factors perspective, emphasising the process of systems integration as is carried out by humans. The first section discusses some of the fundamental issues in systems integration, such as the significance of systems boundaries, systems lifecycle and systems entropy, issues arising from complexity, the implications of systems immortality, and so on. The next section outlines various generic processes for executing systems integration, to act as guides for practitioners. These address both the design of the system to be integrated and the preparation of the wider system in which the integration will occur. Then the next section outlines some of the human-specific issues that would need to be addressed in such processes; for example, indeterminacy and incompleteness, the prediction of human reliability, workload issues, extended situation awareness, and knowledge lifecycle management. For all of these, suggestions and further readings are proposed. Finally, the conclusions section reiterates in condensed form the major issues arising from the above.

  12. Enhancing Community Based Early Warning Systems in Nepal with Flood Forecasting Using Local and Global Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugar, Sumit; Smith, Paul; Parajuli, Binod; Khanal, Sonu; Brown, Sarah; Gautam, Dilip; Bhandari, Dinanath; Gurung, Gehendra; Shakya, Puja; Kharbuja, RamGopal; Uprety, Madhab

    2017-04-01

    % probability of exceeding the Medium Level Alert in two days. Rainfall stations upstream of the West Rapti catchment recorded heavy rainfall on 26 July, and localized forecasts from the probabilistic model at 8 am suggested that the water level would cross a pre-determined warning level in the next 3 hours. The Flood Forecasting Section at DHM issued a flood advisory, and disseminated SMS flood alerts to more than 13,000 at-risk people residing along the floodplains. Water levels crossed the danger threshold (5.4 meters) at 11 am, peaking at 8.15 meters at 10 pm. Extension of the warning lead time from probabilistic forecasts was significant in minimising the risk to lives and livelihoods as communities gained extra time to prepare, evacuate and respond. Likewise, longer timescale forecasts from GLoFAS could be potentially linked with no-regret early actions leading to improved preparedness and emergency response. These forecasting tools have contributed to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of existing community based systems, increasing the lead time for response. Nevertheless, extensive work is required on appropriate ways to interpret and disseminate probabilistic forecasts having longer (2-14 days) and shorter (3-5 hours) time horizon for operational deployment as there are numerous uncertainties associated with predictions.

  13. Ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, D.N.; Hubberstey, P.; Barker, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the experimental and theoretical studies carried out on multicomponent alkali metal systems. Solid-liquid phase equilibria studies are mainly concerned with the systems Na-K-Rb and Na-K-Cs, and data on the liquidus temperatures in these systems are presented. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system have been determined experimentally, and the enthalpy, heat capacity and excess functions of the alloy are given. An analysis of calculational methods used in determining thermodynamic functions of ternary liquid metals systems is described. Finally, data are tabulated for the density, compressibility, saturated vapour pressure, viscosity and thermal conductivity of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system. (UK)

  14. Recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kembellec, Gérald; Saleh, Imad

    2014-01-01

    Acclaimed by various content platforms (books, music, movies) and auction sites online, recommendation systems are key elements of digital strategies. If development was originally intended for the performance of information systems, the issues are now massively moved on logical optimization of the customer relationship, with the main objective to maximize potential sales. On the transdisciplinary approach, engines and recommender systems brings together contributions linking information science and communications, marketing, sociology, mathematics and computing. It deals with the understan

  15. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  16. Systems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, William W.

    2016-01-01

    The term “systems engineering” when entered into the Google search page, produces a significant number of results, evidence that systems engineering is recognized as being important for the success of essentially all products. Since most readers of this item will be rather well versed in documents concerning systems engineering, I have elected to share some of the points made on this subject in a document developed by the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS), a component of t...

  17. Energetic Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetic Systems Division provides full-spectrum energetic engineering services (project management, design, analysis, production support, in-service support,...

  18. Intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, J David

    2011-01-01

    Technology has now progressed to the point that intelligent systems are replacing humans in the decision making processes as well as aiding in the solution of very complex problems. In many cases intelligent systems are already outperforming human activities. Artificial neural networks are not only capable of learning how to classify patterns, such images or sequence of events, but they can also effectively model complex nonlinear systems. Their ability to classify sequences of events is probably more popular in industrial applications where there is an inherent need to model nonlinear system

  19. Systemic darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2008-08-19

    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a "compositional paradigm" according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality.

  20. Caste System

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Karla

    2016-01-01

    In standard economics, individuals are rational actors and economic forces undermine institutions that impose large inefficiencies. The persistence of the caste system is evidence of the need for psychologically more realistic models of decision-making in economics. The caste system divides South Asian society into hereditary groups whose lowest ranks are represented as innately polluted. ...

  1. Recommender systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lu L.; Medo M.; Yeung C.H.; Zhang Y.-C.; Zhang Z.-K.; Zhou T.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing rapid expansion of the Internet greatly increases the necessity of effective recommender systems for filtering the abundant information. Extensive research for recommender systems is conducted by a broad range of communities including social and computer scientists, physicists, and interdisciplinary researchers. Despite substantial theoretical and practical achievements, unification and comparison of different approaches are lacking, which impedes further advances. In this article...

  2. GEOMASS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Takuya; Saegusa, Hiromitsu

    2009-03-01

    As a part of the research and development regarding characterisation of deep geological environment, the GEOMASS (GEOLOGICAL MODELLING ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION SOFTWARE) system has been developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency in order to carry out geological and hydrogeological modelling and groundwater flow simulation and so on. The GEOMASS system integrates a commercial geological interpretation system (EarthVision), which is used for geological modelling and visualisation, with a proprietary code for groundwater flow (FracAffinity). This integrated system allows users to make rapid improvement of models as data increases. Also, it is possible to perform more realistic groundwater flow simulation due to the capability of modelling the rock mass as a continuum with discrete hydro-structural features in the rock mass. This paper consists of 'Overview of GEOMASS system', FracAffinity Theoretical Background' and 'FracAffinity User Guide' and is edited as a GEOMASS system manual. 'Overview of GEOMASS system' describes the outline of this system. 'FracAffinity Theoretical Background' describes the information of technical background of FracAffinity software. FracAffinity User Guide' describes the structure of the FracAffinity input files, the usage of FracAffinity Interface and flow-solver. Updating of the FracAffinity has been continued as needed and FracAffinity version3.3 is the latest version at present (July 2008). (author)

  3. Systems integration (automation system). System integration (automation system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, K; Komori, T; Fukuma, Y; Oikawa, M [Nippon Steal Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-09-26

    This paper introduces business activities on an automation systems integration (SI) started by a company in July,1988, and describes the SI concepts. The business activities include, with the CIM (unified production carried out on computers) and AMENITY (living environment) as the mainstays, a single responsibility construction ranging from consultation on structuring optimal systems for processing and assembling industries and intelligent buildings to system design, installation and after-sales services. With an SI standing on users {prime} position taken most importantly, the business starts from a planning and consultation under close coordination. On the conceptual basis of structuring optimal systems using the ompany {prime}s affluent know-hows and tools and adapting and applying with multi-vendors, open networks, centralized and distributed systems, the business is promoted with the accumulated technologies capable of realizing artificial intelligence and neural networks in its background, and supported with highly valuable business results in the past. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Creative Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manelius, Anne-Mette; Beim, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Opsamling af diskussioner på konferencen og udstillingen Creative Systems i september/oktober 2007. Konferencen og Udstillingen Creative Systems sætter fokus på systemer som en positiv drivkraft i den kreative skabelsesproces. CINARK inviterede fire internationale kapaciteter, som indenfor hver...... deres felt har beskæftiget sig med udviklingen af systemer. Kieran Timberlake, markant amerikansk tegnestue; Mark West, Professor på University of Manitoba, Canada, og pioner indenfor anvendelse af tekstilforskalling til betonstøbninger; Matilda McQuaid, Arkitekturhistoriker og kurator på udstillingen...... om Extreme Textiles på amerikanske Cooper Hewit Design Museum, samt Professor Ludger Hovestadt, ved ETH, Zürich der fokuserer på udvikling og anvendelse af logaritmiske systemtilgange. Udstillingen diskuterede ud fra deres meget forskellige arbejder, det kreative potentiale i anvendelsen af systemer...

  5. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems......, the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...... they are best used. Milner's CCS and its operational semantics are introduced, together with the notions of behavioural equivalences based on bisimulation techniques and with recursive extensions of Hennessy-Milner logic. In the second part of the book, the presented theories are extended to take timing issues...

  6. Upgraded RECOVER system - CASDAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoichi; Koyama, Kinji

    1992-03-01

    The CASDAC (Containment And Surveillance Data Authenticated Communication) system has been developed by JAERI for nuclear safeguards and physical protection of nuclear material. This system was designed and constructed as an upgraded RECOVER system, design concept of which was based on the original RECOVER system and also the TRANSEAVER system. Both of them were developed several years ago as a remote monitoring system for continual verification of security and safeguards status of nuclear material. The system consists of two subsystems, one of them is a Grand Command Center (GCC) subsystem and the other is a facility subsystem. Communication between the two subsystems is controlled through the international telephone line network. Therefore all communication data are encrypted to prevent access by an unauthorized person who may intend to make a falsification, or tapping. The facility subsystem has an appropriate measure that ensure data security and reliable operation under unattended mode of operator. The software of this system is designed so as to be easily used in other different types of computers. This report describes the outline of the CASDAC system and the results of its performance test. This work has been carried out in the framework of Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) as a project, JA-1. (author)

  7. Development of an Ocular and Craniofacial Trauma Treatment Training System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    motions were measured, with performance  statistics   previously  employed  in  a  laparoscopy  trainer  that  we  developed,  including  total  exercise...of  the  final  report  and  regrets  the  complications that have resulted from the  delinquency  of this document.    Personnel:   During the final...feature was  important  to  create  to  extract  and  analyze  specific  sections with  appropriate  statistical   tools,  leading  to  creation  of

  8. Watchdog System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Bahnsen, Chris Holmberg; Jensen, Morten Bornø

    This deliverable is part of WP4. Overall WP4 is motivated by the need for automatic systems that can ease the task of annotating massive amounts of traffic data. Concretely this deliverable is related to WP4.2 - the watchdog system. The idea with the watchdog is to develop a system that can remov...... huge chunks of video data where no events/interactions of interest are occurring and hence let a user focus on manually annotation of only the interesting stuff....

  9. Dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sternberg, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    Celebrated mathematician Shlomo Sternberg, a pioneer in the field of dynamical systems, created this modern one-semester introduction to the subject for his classes at Harvard University. Its wide-ranging treatment covers one-dimensional dynamics, differential equations, random walks, iterated function systems, symbolic dynamics, and Markov chains. Supplementary materials offer a variety of online components, including PowerPoint lecture slides for professors and MATLAB exercises.""Even though there are many dynamical systems books on the market, this book is bound to become a classic. The the

  10. Water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, R.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper describes the coolant chemistry and its consequences for 1300 MWsub(e) KWU PWR plants. Some selected systems, i.e. primary heat transport system, steam water cycle and cooling water arrangements, are chosen for this description. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surfaces have been discussed. The water supply systems necessary to fulfill the requirements of the coolant chemistry are discussed as well. It has been concluded that a good operating performance can only be achieved when - beside other factors - the water chemistry has been given sufficient consideration. (orig./RW)

  11. Water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, R.

    1981-01-01

    The present paper describes the coolant chemistry and its consequences for 1300 MWsub(e) KWU PWR plants. Some selected systems, i.e. primary heat transport system, steam water cycle and cooling water arrangements, are chosen for this description. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surface have been discussed. The water supply systems necessary to fulfill the requirements of the coolant chemistry are discussed as well. It has been concluded that a good operating performance can only be achieved when - beside other factors - the water chemistry has been given sufficient consideration. (orig./RW)

  12. Imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froggatt, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The invention provides a two dimensional imaging system in which a pattern of radiation falling on the system is detected to give electrical signals for each of a plurality of strips across the pattern. The detection is repeated for different orientations of the strips and the whole processed by compensated back projection. For a shadow x-ray system a plurality of strip x-ray detectors are rotated on a turntable. For lower frequencies the pattern may be rotated with a Dove prism and the strips condensed to suit smaller detectors with a cylindrical lens. (author)

  13. Kaonic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oset E.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available I make a short review of the situation of the kaonic systems, with novel information supporting the two Λ(1405 states from the K-d → nπΣ reaction. A review is made of the K¯$ar K$NN system with recent calculations converging to smaller bindings and larger widths. Novel systems involving two kaons and one nucleon or three kaons are also reported and finally a short discussion is made of the analogous state DNN for which recent studies find a large binding and a small width.

  14. The systems integration modeling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danker, W.J.; Williams, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the systems integration modeling system (SIMS), an analysis tool for the detailed evaluation of the structure and related performance of the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS) and its interface with waste generators. It's use for evaluations in support of system-level decisions as to FWMS configurations, the allocation, sizing, balancing and integration of functions among elements, and the establishment of system-preferred waste selection and sequencing methods and other operating strategies is presented. SIMS includes major analysis submodels which quantify the detailed characteristics of individual waste items, loaded casks and waste packages, simulate the detailed logistics of handling and processing discrete waste items and packages, and perform detailed cost evaluations

  15. ring system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,3,2-DIAZABORACYCLOALKANE. RING SYSTEM. Negussie Retta" and Robert H. Neilson. 'Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Department of Chemistry, Texas Christian University.

  16. Septic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The web site provides guidance and technical assistance for homeowners, government officials, industry professionals, and EPA partners about how to properly develop and manage individual onsite and community cluster systems that treat domestic wastewater.

  17. Respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  18. Bubble systems

    CERN Document Server

    Avdeev, Alexander A

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a systematic analysis of bubble system mathematics, using the mechanics of two-phase systems in non-equilibrium as the scope of analysis. The author introduces the thermodynamic foundations of bubble systems, ranging from the fundamental starting points to current research challenges. This book addresses a range of topics, including description methods of multi-phase systems, boundary and initial conditions as well as coupling requirements at the phase boundary. Moreover, it presents a detailed study of the basic problems of bubble dynamics in a liquid mass: growth (dynamically and thermally controlled), collapse, bubble pulsations, bubble rise and breakup. Special emphasis is placed on bubble dynamics in turbulent flows. The analysis results are used to write integral equations governing the rate of vapor generation (condensation) in non-equilibrium flows, thus creating a basis for solving a number of practical problems. This book is the first to present a comprehensive theory of boil...

  19. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    study and understand the function of biological systems, particu- larly, the response of such .... understand the organisation and behaviour of prokaryotic sys- tems. ... relationship of the structure of a target molecule to its ability to bind a certain ...

  20. Bricks / Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    At first glance, this book may appear eclectic. It contains writings from architectural practice in a language and structure based on subjective views and experiences, combined with research contributions based on systematic design investigations of discrete computational systems. Discussions range......, and it aims to illustrate and identify new modes of working in architecture, particularly with regards to brickwork and other complex systems of modular assemblies, whether physical or digital....

  1. Expert Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, P.J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Expert systems mimic the problem-solving activity of human experts in specialized domains by capturing and representing expert knowledge. Expert systems include a knowledge base, an inference engine that derives conclusions from the knowledge, and a user interface. Knowledge may be stored as if-then rules, orusing other formalisms such as frames and predicate logic. Uncertain knowledge may be represented using certainty factors, Bayesian networks, Dempster-Shafer belief functions, or fuzzy se...

  2. Nanorobotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Dong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Two strategies towards the realization of nanotechnology have been presented, i.e., top-down and bottom up. The former one is mainly based on nanofabrication and includes technologies such as nano-lithography, nano-imprint, and etching. Presently, they are still 2D fabrication processes with low resolution. The later one is an assembly-based technique. At present, it includes such items as self-assembly, dip-pen lithography, and directed self-assembly. These techniques can generate regular nano patterns in large scales. To fabricate 3D complex nano devices there are still no effective ways by so far. Here we show our effort on the development of a nano laboratory, a prototype nanomanufacturing system, based on nanorobotic manipulations. In which, we take a hybrid strategy as shown in Fig. 1. In this system, nano fabrication and nano assembly can be performed in an arbitrary order to construct nano building blocks and finally nano devices. The most important feature in this system is that the products can be fed back into the system to shrink the system part by part leading to nanorobots. Property characterization can be performed in each intermediate process. Due to the nanorobotic manipulation system, dynamic measurement can be performed rather than conventional static observations.

  3. Fiscal system analysis - contractual systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Production sharing contracts are one of the most popular forms of contractual system used in petroleum agreements around the world, but the manner in which the fiscal terms and contract parameters impact system measures is complicated and not well understood. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the influence of private and market uncertainty in contractual fiscal systems. A meta-modelling approach is employed that couples the results of a simulation model with regression analysis to construct numerical functionals that quantify the fiscal regime. Relationships are derived that specify how the present value, rate of return, and take statistics vary as a function of the system parameters. The deepwater Girassol field development in Angola is taken as a case study. (author)

  4. Reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, Hiroshi; Narabayashi, Naoshi.

    1990-01-01

    The represent invention concerns a reactor system with improved water injection means to a pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor. A steam pump is connected to a heat removing system pipeline, a high pressure water injection system pipeline and a low pressure water injection system pipeline for injecting water into the pressure vessel. A pump actuation pipeline is disposed being branched from a main steam pump or a steam relieaf pipeline system, through which steams are supplied to actuate the steam pump and supply cooling water into the pressure vessel thereby cooling the reactor core. The steam pump converts the heat energy into the kinetic energy and elevates the pressure of water to a level higher than the pressure of the steams supplied by way of a pressure-elevating diffuser. Cooling water can be supplied to the pressure vessel by the pressure elevation. This can surely inject cooling water into the pressure vessel upon loss of coolant accident or in a case if reactor scram is necessary, without using an additional power source. (I.N.)

  5. ARAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, M.F.; Wyman, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    In spite of the remarkable safety record of the nuclear industry as a whole, recent public concern over the potential impact of the industry's accelerated growth has prompted ERDA to expand its emergency response procedures. The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability, ARAC, is a computer communications system designed to enhance the existing emergency response capability of ERDA nuclear facilities. ARAC will add at least two new functions to this capability: centralized, real-time data acquisition and storage, and simulation of the long range atmospheric transport of hazardous materials. To perform these functions, ARAC employs four major sub-systems or facilities: the site facility, the central facility, the global weather center and the regional model. The system has been under development for the past two years at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the University of California

  6. Microbiology System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Technology originating in a NASA-sponsored study of the measurement of microbial growth in zero gravity led to the development of Biomerieux Vitek, Inc.'s VITEK system. VITEK provides a physician with accurate diagnostic information and identifies the most effective medication. Test cards are employed to identify organisms and determine susceptibility to antibiotics. A photo-optical scanner scans the card and monitors changes in the growth of cells contained within the card. There are two configurations - VITEK and VITEK JR as well as VIDAS, a companion system that detects bacteria, viruses, etc. from patient specimens. The company was originally created by McDonnell Douglas, the NASA contractor.

  7. Spin systems

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, W J

    1989-01-01

    This book is about spin systems as models for magnetic materials, especially antiferromagnetic lattices. Spin-systems are well-defined models, for which, in special cases, exact properties may be derived. These special cases are for the greater part, one- dimensional and restricted in their applicability, but they may give insight into general properties that also exist in higher dimension. This work pays special attention to qualitative differences between spin lattices of different dimensions. It also replaces the traditional picture of an (ordered) antiferromagnetic state of a Heisenberg sy

  8. Distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Van Steen, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    For this third edition of "Distributed Systems," the material has been thoroughly revised and extended, integrating principles and paradigms into nine chapters: 1. Introduction 2. Architectures 3. Processes 4. Communication 5. Naming 6. Coordination 7. Replication 8. Fault tolerance 9. Security A separation has been made between basic material and more specific subjects. The latter have been organized into boxed sections, which may be skipped on first reading. To assist in understanding the more algorithmic parts, example programs in Python have been included. The examples in the book leave out many details for readability, but the complete code is available through the book's Website, hosted at www.distributed-systems.net.

  9. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Immune System Print en español El sistema inmunitario Whether you're stomping through the showers ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  10. Operating Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    areas in which this type is useful are multimedia, virtual reality, and advanced scientific projects such as undersea exploration and planetary rovers. Because of the expanded uses for soft real-time functionality, it is finding its way into most current operating systems, including major versions of Unix and Windows NT OS.

  11. Barrier Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heteren, S. van

    2015-01-01

    Barrier-system dynamics are a function of antecedent topography and substrate lithology, Relative sea-level (RSL) changes, sediment availability and type, climate, vegetation type and cover, and various aero- and hydrodynamic processes during fair-weather conditions and extreme events. Global change

  12. Systems Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Alexander; Hammond, Debora; Jackson, Michael; Laszlo, Alexander; Mitroff, Ian; Snowden, Dave; Troncale, Len; Carr-Chellman, Alison; Spector, J. Michael; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of systems science were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Alexander Christakis, Debora Hammond, Michael Jackson, Alexander Laszlo, Ian Mitroff, Dave…

  13. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  14. Quorum Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wattenhofer, Roger; Förster, Klaus-Tycho

    2016-01-01

    What happens if a single server is no longer powerful enough to service all your customers? The obvious choice is to add more servers and to use the majority approach (e.g. Paxos, Chapter 2) to guarantee consistency. However, even if you buy one million servers, a client still has to access more ...... study the theory behind overlapping sets, known as quorum systems....

  15. System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morecroft, John

    System dynamics is an approach for thinking about and simulating situations and organisations of all kinds and sizes by visualising how the elements fit together, interact and change over time. This chapter, written by John Morecroft, describes modern system dynamics which retains the fundamentals developed in the 1950s by Jay W. Forrester of the MIT Sloan School of Management. It looks at feedback loops and time delays that affect system behaviour in a non-linear way, and illustrates how dynamic behaviour depends upon feedback loop structures. It also recognises improvements as part of the ongoing process of managing a situation in order to achieve goals. Significantly it recognises the importance of context, and practitioner skills. Feedback systems thinking views problems and solutions as being intertwined. The main concepts and tools: feedback structure and behaviour, causal loop diagrams, dynamics, are practically illustrated in a wide variety of contexts from a hot water shower through to a symphony orchestra and the practical application of the approach is described through several real examples of its use for strategic planning and evaluation.

  16. System Description:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Poswolsky, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Delphin is a functional programming language [Adam Poswolsky and Carsten Schürmann. Practical programming with higher-order encodings and dependent types. In European Symposium on Programming (ESOP), 2008] utilizing dependent higher-order datatypes. Delphin's two-level type-system cleanly separates...

  17. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  18. Bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.P.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a bioenergy system has to be considered as an integrated process in which each stage or step interacts with other steps in the overall process. There are a number of stages in the supply and conversion of woody biomass for energy. Each step in the chain has implications for the next step and for overall system efficiency. The resource can take many forms and will have varying physical and chemical characteristics which will influence the efficiency and cost of conversion. The point in the supply chain at which size and moisture content is reduced and the manner in which it is done is influential in determining feedstock delivered cost and overall system costs. To illustrate the interactions within the overall system, the influence of the nature, size and moisture content of delivered feedstocks on costs of generating electricity via thermal conversion processes is examined using a model developed to investigate the inter-relationships between the stages in the supply chain. (author)

  19. Urogenital system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, B.; Asbach, P.; Beyersdorff, D.; Hein, P.; Zaspel, U.

    2007-01-01

    The book is focussed on the radiological diagnostics of diseases in the urogential system. The description of the specific diseases, the identification by modern imaging techniques, the interpretation of examinatory results and therapeutic options are systematically treated in 4 chapters: kidney and adrenal glands, urinary tract, male genitals, female genitals

  20. Mirror systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogassi, Leonardo; Ferrari, Pier Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons are a class of visuomotor neurons, discovered in the monkey premotor cortex and in an anatomically connected area of the inferior parietal lobule, that activate both during action execution and action observation. They constitute a circuit dedicated to match actions made by others with the internal motor representations of the observer. It has been proposed that this matching system enables individuals to understand others' behavior and motor intentions. Here we will describe the main features of mirror neurons in monkeys. Then we will present evidence of the presence of a mirror system in humans and of its involvement in several social-cognitive functions, such as imitation, intention, and emotion understanding. This system may have several implications at a cognitive level and could be linked to specific social deficits in humans such as autism. Recent investigations addressed the issue of the plasticity of the mirror neuron system in both monkeys and humans, suggesting also their possible use in rehabilitation. WIREs Cogn Sci 2011 2 22-38 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.89 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Systemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering...

  2. Energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1974-01-01

    Up to the present the production, transmission and distribution of energy has been considered mostly as a fragmented problem; at best only subsystems have been considered. Today the scale of energy utilization is increasing rapidly, and correspondingly, the reliance of societies on energy. Such strong quantitative increases influence the qualitative nature of energy utilization in most of its aspects. Resources, reserves, reliability and environment are among the key words that may characterize the change in the nature of the energy utilization problem. Energy can no longer be considered an isolated technical and economical problem, rather it is embedded in the ecosphere and the society-technology complex. Restraints and boundary conditions have to be taken into account with the same degree of attention as in traditional technical problems, for example a steam turbine. This results in a strong degree of interweaving. Further, the purpose of providing energy becomes more visible, that is, to make survival possible in a civilized and highly populated world on a finite globe. Because of such interweaving and finiteness it is felt that energy should be considered as a system and therefore the term 'energy systems' is used. The production of energy is only one component of such a system; the handling of energy and the embedding of energy into the global and social complex in terms of ecology, economy, risks and resources are of similar importance. he systems approach to the energy problem needs more explanation. This paper is meant to give an outline of the underlying problems and it is hoped that by so doing the wide range of sometimes confusing voices about energy can be better understood. Such confusion starts already with the term 'energy crisis'. Is there an energy crisis or not? Much future work is required to tackle the problems of energy systems. This paper can only marginally help in that respect. But it is hoped that it will help understand the scope of the

  3. Energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefele, W [Nuclear Research Centre, Applied Systems Analysis and Reactor Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

    1974-07-01

    Up to the present the production, transmission and distribution of energy has been considered mostly as a fragmented problem; at best only subsystems have been considered. Today the scale of energy utilization is increasing rapidly, and correspondingly, the reliance of societies on energy. Such strong quantitative increases influence the qualitative nature of energy utilization in most of its aspects. Resources, reserves, reliability and environment are among the key words that may characterize the change in the nature of the energy utilization problem. Energy can no longer be considered an isolated technical and economical problem, rather it is embedded in the ecosphere and the society-technology complex. Restraints and boundary conditions have to be taken into account with the same degree of attention as in traditional technical problems, for example a steam turbine. This results in a strong degree of interweaving. Further, the purpose of providing energy becomes more visible, that is, to make survival possible in a civilized and highly populated world on a finite globe. Because of such interweaving and finiteness it is felt that energy should be considered as a system and therefore the term 'energy systems' is used. The production of energy is only one component of such a system; the handling of energy and the embedding of energy into the global and social complex in terms of ecology, economy, risks and resources are of similar importance. he systems approach to the energy problem needs more explanation. This paper is meant to give an outline of the underlying problems and it is hoped that by so doing the wide range of sometimes confusing voices about energy can be better understood. Such confusion starts already with the term 'energy crisis'. Is there an energy crisis or not? Much future work is required to tackle the problems of energy systems. This paper can only marginally help in that respect. But it is hoped that it will help understand the scope of the

  4. Estándares internacionales del trabajo infantil: el caso de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Ferrer, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Treballs finals del Màster "Estudios Internacionales: organizaciones internacionales y cooperación – Colección Memorias MEI", Facultat de Dret, Universitat de Barcelona, Curs:2013-2014 , Tutor: Jordi Bonet Pérez

  5. Kaks paljast ja kaks riides meest / Kätlin Kaldmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldmaa, Kätlin, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    18.-31. augustini Tallinnas Kanuti Gildi saalis toimunud Augusti tantsufestivali lavastustest : Frans Poelstra ja Robert Steijni "Frans Poelstra, his dramaturge and Bach" ja Jordi Cortési ja Damian Munozi "Hõõguvad söed"

  6. "Ariel" avab juudi kultuuri väärtusi / Kersti Inno

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Inno, Kersti, 1954-

    2007-01-01

    Hispaania gambamängija Jordi Savalli ja ansambli Hesperion XXI kontserdist programmiga "El Paradiso Perdido" ehk "Kadunud paradiis" juudi süvakultuuri festivali "Ariel" raames 17. nov. Estonia kontserdisaalis

  7. TUBO system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, H.J.C.; Guerreiro, J.N.C.; Toledo, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Proceedings recently incorporated to TUBO system like the seismic analysis and the stress verification acccording to ASME-Boiler Rule and Pressure Vessel Code-section III are presented. The seismic analysis comprehend the consideration of uniform motion of the support, its multiple excitation, and the attainment of the spectral response for both cases. The module for stress verification uses stresses resulting fromthe combination of the loads specified by the user, in the automatic verification of permissible stresses for the pipings class 1 and 2, based on criteria NB-3650 and NC-3650 of ASME. The implementation of these proceedings in the TUBO system are discussed and a numerical example that covers the different phases of a stress analysis in a piping is presented [pt

  8. Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  9. Bilateral system. The ABACC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, Ruben O.

    2001-01-01

    After relating the antecedents of the creation of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), the paper describes the common system of accounting and control set up by Argentina and Brazil. The organization of ABACC is also outlined

  10. Physical system requirements: Overall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy (DOE) the responsibility for managing the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for that purpose. The Secretary of Energy, in his November 1989 report to Congress (DOE/RW-0247), announced three new initiatives for conduct of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) program. One of these initiatives was to establish improved management structure and procedures. In response, OCRWM performed a management study and the Direct subsequently issued the Management Systems Improvement Strategy (MSIS) on August 10, 1990, calling for a rigorous implementation of systems engineering principles with a special emphasis on functional analysis. This approach establishes a framework for integrating the program management efforts with the technical requirements analysis into a single, unified, and consistent program. The functional analysis approach recognizes that just the facilities and equipment comprising the physical waste management system must perform certain functions, so must certain programmatic and management functions be performed within the program in order to successfully bring the physical system into being

  11. Security system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  12. Cardiovascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulen, R.L.; Grosh, J.

    1984-01-01

    Invasive cardiovascular diagnostic procedures involve a finite risk and therefore can be recommended only when the benefit appears to exceed the risk by a substantial margin. The risk/benefit ratio varies not only with the procedure concerned but with the status of the vascular system, concomitant diseases, and the risks of both the suspected illness and its treatment. The risks inherent in the procedures per se are detailed in the sections to follow

  13. Priority Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gössler , Gregor; Sifakis , Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Projet POP_ART; We present a framework for the incremental construction of deadlock-free systems meeting given safety properties. The framework borrows concepts and basic results from the controller synthesis paradigm by considering a step in the construction process as a controller synthesis problem. We show that priorities are expressive enough to represent restrictions induced by deadlock-free controllers preserving safety properties. We define a correspondence between such restrictions an...

  14. Imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushbrooke, J.G.; Ansorge, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    A moving object such as a container on a conveyor belt is imaged by an optical system onto a charge coupled device array in which the lines of the array are arranged perpendicular to the direction of motion of the object. The speed of movement of the object is sensed to generate electrical signals which are processed to provide shift signals enabling the shifting of data row to row in the array in synchronism with the movement of the container. The electrical charge associated with a given point on the array is transferred from one line to the other until it appears at the last line of the array, from which it is read out in known manner in conjunction with all other electrical charges associated with the row of charge coupled devices in the last line of the array. Due to the integrating effect achieved, the aperture of the imaging system can be much smaller than otherwise would be required, and/or the level of light illumination can be reduced. The imaging system can be applied to X-ray inspection devices, aerial surveillance or scanning of moving documents in copying processes. (author)

  15. Braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgren, D.U.

    1982-09-23

    A balanced braking system comprising a plurality of braking assemblies located about a member to be braked. Each of the braking assemblies consists of a spring biased piston of a first material fitted into a body of a different material which has a greater contraction upon cooling than the piston material. The piston is provided with a recessed head portion over which is positioned a diaphragm and forming a space therebetween to which is connected a pressurized fluid supply. The diaphragm is controlled by the fluid in the space to contact or withdraw from the member to be braked. A cooling means causes the body within which the piston is fitted to contract more than the piston, producing a tight shrink fit therebetween. The braking system is particularly applicable for selectively braking an arbor of an electron microscope which immobilizes, for example, a vertically adjustable low temperature specimen holder during observation. The system provides balanced braking forces which can be easily removed and re-established with minimal disturbance to arbor location.

  16. Protecting information in systems of systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivellato, D.

    2012-01-01

    Systems of systems are coalitions of autonomous and heterogeneous systems that collaborate to achieve a common goal. The component systems of a system of systems often belong to different security domains, which are governed by different authorities (hereafter called parties). Furthermore, systems

  17. Expression and activity of the urokinase plasminogen activator system in canine primary brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossmeisl JH

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available John H Rossmeisl,1–3 Kelli Hall-Manning,4 John L Robertson,1,3,5 Jamie N King,1,2 Rafael V Davalos,3,5 Waldemar Debinski,3 Subbiah Elankumaran6,† 1Veterinary and Comparative Neuro-Oncology Laboratory, 2Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, 3The Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center Comprehensive Cancer Center, Winston-Salem, NC, 4Virginia Tech Animal Laboratory Services, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, 5Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech, 6Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, VA, USA†The authors regret to advise of the passing of Dr Subbiah Elankumaran prior to publicationBackground: The expression of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein family member, and the activity of its ligand, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA, have been associated with the invasive and metastatic potentials of a variety of human brain tumors through their regulation of extracellular matrix degradation. Domesticated dogs develop naturally occurring brain tumors that share many clinical, phenotypic, molecular, and genetic features with their human counterparts, which has prompted the use of the dogs with spontaneous brain tumors as models to expedite the translation of novel brain tumor therapeutics to humans. There is currently little known regarding the role of the uPA system in canine brain tumorigenesis. The objective of this study was to characterize the expression of uPAR and the activity of uPA in canine brain tumors as justification for the development of uPAR-targeted brain tumor therapeutics in dogs.Methods: We investigated the expression of uPAR in 37 primary canine brain tumors using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, real

  18. Dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Birkhoff, George D

    1927-01-01

    His research in dynamics constitutes the middle period of Birkhoff's scientific career, that of maturity and greatest power. -Yearbook of the American Philosophical Society The author's great book€¦is well known to all, and the diverse active modern developments in mathematics which have been inspired by this volume bear the most eloquent testimony to its quality and influence. -Zentralblatt MATH In 1927, G. D. Birkhoff wrote a remarkable treatise on the theory of dynamical systems that would inspire many later mathematicians to do great work. To a large extent, Birkhoff was writing about his o

  19. Nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Todreas, Neil E

    2011-01-01

    Principal Characteristics of Power ReactorsIntroductionPower CyclesPrimary Coolant SystemsReactor CoresFuel AssembliesAdvanced Water- and Gas-Cooled Reactors (Generation III And III+)Advanced Thermal and Fast Neutron Spectrum Reactors (Generation IV)ReferencesProblemsThermal Design Principles and ApplicationIntroductionOverall Plant Characteristics Influenced by Thermal Hydraulic ConsiderationsEnergy Production and Transfer ParametersThermal Design LimitsThermal Design MarginFigures of Merit for Core Thermal PerformanceThe Inverted Fuel ArrayThe Equivalent Annulus ApproximationReferencesProble

  20. Videobasierte Systeme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Peter

    Videosensoren spielen für Fahrerassistenz systeme eine zentrale Rolle, da sie die Interpretation visueller Informationen (Objektklassifikation) gezielt unterstützen. Im Heckbereich kann die Video sensorik in der einfachsten Variante die ultraschallbasierte Einparkhilfe bei Einpark- und Rangiervorgängen unterstützen. Beim Nachtsichtsystem NightVision wird das mit Infrarotlicht angestrahlte Umfeld vor dem Fahrzeug mit einer Frontkamera aufgenommen und im Fahrzeugcockpit auf einem Display dem Fahrer angezeigt (s. Nachtsichtsysteme). Andere Fahrerassistenzsysteme verarbeiten die Videosignale und generieren daraus gezielt Informationen, die für eigenständige Funktionen (z. B. Spurverlassenswarner) oder aber als Zusatzinformation für andere Funktionen ausgewertet werden (Sensordatenfusion).

  1. Relaxation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Environ Corporation's relaxation system is built around a body lounge, a kind of super easy chair that incorporates sensory devices. Computer controlled enclosure provides filtered ionized air to create a feeling of invigoration, enhanced by mood changing aromas. Occupant is also surrounded by multidimensional audio and the lighting is programmed to change colors, patterns, and intensity periodically. These and other sensory stimulators are designed to provide an environment in which the learning process is stimulated, because research has proven that while an individual is in a deep state of relaxation, the mind is more receptive to new information.

  2. Bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1987-01-01

    A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

  3. Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    stand.    CV CS x dAvvdVov dt d F   (18-1) Where  denotes density and vx is the velocity in the x-direction. The first term on the...by  but to avoid confusion with  from Eqs. 18-7 to 10, it is denoted k in this formula . Ru is the universal gas constant (8.314472 J/mol K), pe is...Russian Federation Used on Phobos spacecraft as main engines 74 1.03 NTO/ UDMH 13.73-19.61 316-325 Orbital Maneuvering System 1 Aerojet Shuttle

  4. Expert Systems: What Is an Expert System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Beverly K.; Main, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Describes expert systems and discusses their use in libraries. Highlights include parts of an expert system; expert system shells; an example of how to build an expert system; a bibliography of 34 sources of information on expert systems in libraries; and a list of 10 expert system shells used in libraries. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

  5. System analysis and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Seung Hui

    2004-02-01

    This book deals with information technology and business process, information system architecture, methods of system development, plan on system development like problem analysis and feasibility analysis, cases for system development, comprehension of analysis of users demands, analysis of users demands using traditional analysis, users demands analysis using integrated information system architecture, system design using integrated information system architecture, system implementation, and system maintenance.

  6. Posting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackney, S.

    1983-01-01

    A system for posting hazardous materials into and out of an enclosure, such as a glovebox, through a port in a wall of the enclosure. The port is normally closed by a door which cooperates with a removable end closure, on a container or the like when the latter is presented to and secured at the port. The container is secured in position at the port by means of a rotatable coupling ring. A single interlock ensures that the door cannot be opened in the absence of a container at the port and also that the container cannot be removed from the port when the door is open. In place of the container, a glove secured to a rigid sleeve may be used to enable the operator to perform a work function within the glovebox. (author)

  7. hydrothermal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bayón

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we revise the classical formulation of the problem depriving it of the concepts that are superfluous from the mathematical point of view. We observe that a number of power stations can be substituted by a single one that behaves equivalently to the entire set. Proceeding in this way, we obtain a variational formulation in its purest sense (without restrictions. This formulation allows us to employ the theory of calculus of variations to the highest degree. We then calculate the equivalent minimizer in the case where the cost functions are second-order polynomials. We prove that the equivalent minimizer is a second-order polynomial with piece-wise constant coefficients. Moreover, it belongs to the class C1. Finally, we present various examples prompted by real systems and perform the proposed algorithms using Mathematica.

  8. Nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Palmero, Faustino; Lemos, M; Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Casado-Pascual, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the most recent advances in nonlinear science. It provides a unified view of nonlinear properties in many different systems and highlights many  new developments. While volume 1 concentrates on mathematical theory and computational techniques and challenges, which are essential for the study of nonlinear science, this second volume deals with nonlinear excitations in several fields. These excitations can be localized and transport energy and matter in the form of breathers, solitons, kinks or quodons with very different characteristics, which are discussed in the book. They can also transport electric charge, in which case they are known as polarobreathers or solectrons. Nonlinear excitations can influence function and structure in biology, as for example, protein folding. In crystals and other condensed matter, they can modify transport properties, reaction kinetics and interact with defects. There are also engineering applications in electric lattices, Josephson junction a...

  9. Posting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    A posting system for the movement of equipment, such as a manipulator, into and out of an enclosure e.g. a cell or glovebox, for toxic or radioactive materials has the manipulator arranged within a collapsible bellows-like container with an end of the container cooperating with a port entry to the enclosure. The collapsible container isolates the manipulator from the environment outside the enclosure and allows the manipulator to enter and leave the contaminated enclosure without breach of the containment. A particular construction of cell for use with radioactive material is described, having a thick wall of shielding material such as concrete provided with a door normally closed by a Pb shutter and having a cylindrical gamma shield block located over the shutter on the exterior of the wall. (author)

  10. Systems engineering simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Cloutier, Robert; Bone, Mary Alice

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionOverviewDiscussion of Common TerminologyThe Case for Systems EngineeringA Brief History of Systems EngineeringSystem ExamplesSummaryThe System Life CycleManaging System Development-The Vee ModelSystem ProductionSystem Utilization and SupportSystem Retirement and DisposalOther Systems Engineering Development ModelsSpiral ModelAgile Model for Systems EngineeringSystem of InterestAbstraction and DecompositionIntegrationDeveloping and Managing RequirementsCyclone Requiremen

  11. NJOY system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Choong Sup; Kim, Jung Do

    1998-01-01

    The NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System is used to convert evaluated nuclear data in ENDF format into forms useful for applications. The NJOY code is a modular computer code designed to read evaluated data in ENDF format, transform the data in various ways, and output the results as libraries designed to be used in various applications. The modules are essentially independent programs, and they communicate with each other using input and output files, plus a very few common variables. The NJOY code can work with neutrons, photons, and charged particles. The evaluated nuclear data are reconstructed to pointwise cross sections from ENDF resonance parameters and interpolation schemes. The pointwise data can be Doppler broadened to the temperatures requested by users. The data in unresolved energy range can be computed to effective self-shielded pointwise cross sections. The cross sections and scattering matrices for free or bound scatterers in the thermal energy range are able to be produced. The self-shielded multigroup cross sections, group-to-group scattering matrices, photon-production matrices, and charged-particle cross sections from pointwise data can be generated for various application codes

  12. Chem systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that world styrene demand, paced by a near doubling of combined requirements in East Asia and Oceania, could reach 19.3 million metric tons by 2000, an average growth rate of 3.7%/year. So concludes Chem Systems Inc., Tarrytown, N.Y., in a study of world styrene markets through the end of the century. Pacific Rim styrene production and consumption throughout the 1990s are predicted to make up increasingly larger shares of world markets, while demand and production lag in the U.S. and western Europe. Demand and capacity in other parts of the world will grow in real terms, increasing combined market shares only slightly. Most of the increase will be driven by demand in East Asia and Oceania, where consumption by century's end is expected to increase 4.48 million metric tons from 2.25 million tons in 1991. Meantime, Japan's styrene demand in 2000 is projected at 2.64 million tons, a 500,000 ton increase from 1991 demand but a net market loss of 1.9%

  13. System safety education focused on system management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, V. L.

    1971-01-01

    System safety is defined and characteristics of the system are outlined. Some of the principle characteristics include role of humans in hazard analysis, clear language for input and output, system interdependence, self containment, and parallel analysis of elements.

  14. Systems Biology and Health Systems Complexity in;

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donald Combs, C.; Barham, S.R.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Systems biology addresses interactions in biological systems at different scales of biological organization, from the molecular to the cellular, organ, organism, societal, and ecosystem levels. This chapter expands on the concept of systems biology, explores its implications for individual patients

  15. Airport Information Retrieval System (AIRS) System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-01

    This report presents the system design for a prototype air traffic flow control automation system developed for the FAA's Systems Command Center. The design was directed toward the immediate automation of airport data for use in traffic load predicti...

  16. System specifications for the NDS Dictionary System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attree, P.M.; Smith, P.M.

    1979-09-01

    The NDS Dictionary System is a computerized system for maintaining and distributing the EXFOR dictionaries and for preparing internal versions of these dictionaries for use in the NDS EXFOR System and other NDS systems. This document is an internal manual for the system specifications of the NDS Dictionary System. It includes flow charts, system and program summaries, input and output specifications and file and record descriptions. This manual is updated from time to time when system modifications are made; this is the version of January 1979

  17. Is Fuel-Switching a No-Regrets Environmental Policy? VAR Evidence on Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Performance in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo M. Pereira; Rui Manuel Marvão Pereira

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to estimate the impact of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion activities on economic activity in Portugal in order to evaluate the economic costs of policies designed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. We find that energy consumption has a significant impact on macroeconomic activity. In fact, a one ton of oil equivalent permanent reduction in aggregate energy consumption reduces output by €6,340 over the long term, an aggregate impact which hi...

  18. The Social Power of Regret : The Effect of Social Appraisal and Anticipated Emotions on Fair and Unfair Allocations in Resource Dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schalk, Job; Kuppens, Toon; Bruder, Martin; Manstead, Antony S. R.

    We investigated how another person's emotions about resource allocation decisions influence observers' resource allocations by influencing the emotions that observers anticipate feeling if they were to act in the same way. Participants were exposed to an exemplar who made a fair or unfair division

  19. Quality management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mu Sung

    2009-08-15

    This book deals with ISO9001 quality management system which includes summary of this system such as classification of quality, principle of quality management, and definition, requirement and procedure of quality management system, introduction of ISO9001 system like model of ISO9001 quality management system, ISO certificate system, structure of ISO9001 standard, requirement of ISO9001 quality management system, process approach and documentation of system, propel cases of ISO9001 quality management system.

  20. Quality management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mu Sung

    2009-08-01

    This book deals with ISO9001 quality management system which includes summary of this system such as classification of quality, principle of quality management, and definition, requirement and procedure of quality management system, introduction of ISO9001 system like model of ISO9001 quality management system, ISO certificate system, structure of ISO9001 standard, requirement of ISO9001 quality management system, process approach and documentation of system, propel cases of ISO9001 quality management system.

  1. Protecting Information in Systems of Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivellato, Daniel; Zannone, Nicola; Etalle, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Systems of Systems (SoS) are dynamic, distributed coalitions of autonomous and heterogeneous systems that collaborate to achieve a common goal. While offering several advantages in terms of scalability and flexibility, the SoS paradigm has a strong impact on system interoperability and on the

  2. A security framework for systems of systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivellato, D.; Zannone, N.; Etalle, S.

    2011-01-01

    Systems of systems consist of a wide variety of dynamic, distributed coalitions of autonomous and heterogeneous systems that collaborate to achieve a common goal. While offering several advantages in terms of scalability and flexibility, this new paradigm has a strong impact on system

  3. A Security Framework for Systems of Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivellato, Daniel; Zannone, Nicola; Etalle, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Systems of systems consist of a wide variety of dynamic, distributed coalitions of autonomous and heterogeneous systems that collaborate to achieve a common goal. While offering several advantages in terms of scalability and flexibility, this new paradigm has a strong impact on system

  4. Systems theory of interconnected port contact systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberard, D.; Maschke, B.M.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    Port-based network modeling of a large class of complex physical systems leads to dynamical systems known as port-Hamiltonian systems. The key ingredient of any port-Hamiltonian system is a power-conserving interconnection structure (mathematically formalized by the geometric notion of a Dirac

  5. Digital processing data communication systems (bus systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleck, K.

    1980-01-01

    After an introduction to the technology of digital processing data communication systems there are the following chapters: digital communication of processing data in automation technology, the technology of biserial communication, the implementaiton of a bus system, the data transmission of the TDC-2000 system of Honeywell's and the process bus CS 275 in the automation system TELEPERM M of Siemens AG. (WB) [de

  6. Networked control of microgrid system of systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Rahman, Mohamed Saif Ur; AL-Sunni, Fouad M.

    2016-08-01

    The microgrid has made its mark in distributed generation and has attracted widespread research. However, microgrid is a complex system which needs to be viewed from an intelligent system of systems perspective. In this paper, a network control system of systems is designed for the islanded microgrid system consisting of three distributed generation units as three subsystems supplying a load. The controller stabilises the microgrid system in the presence of communication infractions such as packet dropouts and delays. Simulation results are included to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  7. D0 Cryo System Control System Autodialer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-04-17

    The DO cryogenic system is controlled by a TI565-PLC based control system. This allows the system to be unmanned when in steady state operation. System experts will need to be contacted when system parameters exceed normal operating points and reach alarm setpoints. The labwide FIRUS system provides one alarm monitor and communication link. An autodialer provides a second and more flexible alarm monitor and communication link. The autodialer monitors contact points in the control system and after receiving indication of an alarm accesses a list of experts which it calls until it receives an acknowledgement. There are several manufacturers and distributors of autodialer systems. This EN explains the search process the DO cryo group used to fmd an autodialer system that fit the cryo system's needs and includes information and specs for the unit we chose.

  8. Superspeed Maglev system Transrapid. System decription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L [Thyssen Henschel AG,, Maglev Transportation Technology, Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The superspeed maglev system Transrapid is a track-bound transportation system for passengern and priority freight transport. The transrapid trainsets are composed of self-sufficient vehicle section coupled together. The superspeed maglev system Transrapid is capable of revenue operation at speeds of 100 to 500 km/h. Besides the description of the system concept and system characteristics safety and availability are discussed. (HW)

  9. System design specification Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System (FS), and Ground Demonstration System (GDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The system design specification for ground demonstration, development, and flight qualification of a Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) is presented. The requirements for both a BIPS conceptual Flight System (FS) and a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) are defined

  10. Situation awareness with systems of systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tretmans, Jan; Borth, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book discusses various aspects, challenges, and solutions for developing systems-of-systems for situation awareness, using applications in the domain of maritime safety and security.  Topics include advanced, multi-objective visualization methods for situation awareness, stochastic outlier selection, rule-based anomaly detection, an ontology-based event model for semantic reasoning, new methods for semi-automatic generation of adapters bridging communication gaps, security policies for systems-of-systems, trust assessment, and methods to deal with the dynamics of systems-of-systems in run-time monitoring, testing, and diagnosis. Architectural considerations for designing information-centric systems-of-systems such as situation awareness systems, and an integrated demonstrator implementing many of the investigated aspects, complete the book.

  11. System specifications for the NDS EXFOR System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attree, P.M.; Smith, P.M.

    1979-07-01

    EXFOR is the agreed exchange format for the magnetic-tape exchange of nuclear reaction data between national and international nuclear data centres for the benefit of nuclear data users in all countries. The NDS EXFOR System is a computerized system for the storage and retrieval of EXFOR information compiled or received by the IAEA. This document is an internal manual for the system specifications of the NDS EXFOR System. It includes flow charts, system and program summaries, input and output specifications and file and record descriptions. The manual is updated from time to time when system modifications are made

  12. System specifications for the NDS EXFOR System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attree, P M; Smith, P M

    1982-06-01

    EXFOR is the agreed exchange format for the magnetic-tape exchange of nuclear reaction data between national and international nuclear data centers for the benefit of nuclear data users in all countries. The NDS EXFOR System is a computerized system for the storage and retrieval of EXFOR information compiled or received of the IAEA. This document is an internal manual for the system specifications of the NDS EXFOR System. It includes flow charts, system and program summaries, input and output specifications and file and record descriptions. The manual is updated from time to time when system modifications are made; the first version was issued in July 1979. (author)

  13. Computer System Design System-on-Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Flynn, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of computer system designers will be less concerned about details of processors and memories, and more concerned about the elements of a system tailored to particular applications. These designers will have a fundamental knowledge of processors and other elements in the system, but the success of their design will depend on the skills in making system-level tradeoffs that optimize the cost, performance and other attributes to meet application requirements. This book provides a new treatment of computer system design, particularly for System-on-Chip (SOC), which addresses th

  14. Smart electromechanical systems the central nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Kurbanov, Vugar

    2017-01-01

    This book describes approaches to solving the problems of developing the central nervous system of robots (CNSR) based on smart electromechanical systems (SEMS) modules, principles of construction of the various modules of the central nervous system and variants of mathematical software CNSR in control systems for intelligent robots. It presents the latest advances in theory and practice at the Russian Academy of Sciences. Developers of intelligent robots to solve modern problems in robotics are increasingly addressing the use of the bionic approach to create robots that mimic the complexity and adaptability of biological systems. These have smart electromechanical system (SEMS), which are used in various cyber-physical systems (CPhS), and allow the functions of calculation, control, communications, information storage, monitoring, measurement and control of parameters and environmental parameters to be integrated. The behavior of such systems is based on the information received from the central nervous syst...

  15. Multiobjective Collaborative Optimization of Systems of Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolf, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    ...; in other words an inefficient design of the system of systems. This thesis examines the simultaneous design of several ships using the sea base concept as an example application of a network of ships working together...

  16. Situation Awareness with Systems of Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, P. van de; Tretmans, J.; Borth, M.

    2013-01-01

    This book discusses various aspects, challenges, and solutions for developing systems-of-systems for situation awareness, using applications in the domain of maritime safety and security. Topics include advanced, multi-objective visualization methods for situation awareness, stochastic outlier

  17. Linking Political Systems and War Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    Decisive parts of the Western political system have demonstrated a seemingly surprising misinterpretation of military might. As Madelaine Albright has suggested, the mighty perceived themselves as "almighty". Political power seems to have invested in instrumental coercive power relations and found...... military coercion to be the appropriate mean. Using the system theory and the theory of systemic risks displayed by the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann the article demonstrates how military systems due to their own autonomy and autopoiesis do not fit into the idea of political government....... The Clausewitzian ideal of a political system that could continue its power games by means of war was moderated by Clausewitz' own analysis of "friction". How can a political system be so blind towards the possibilities of another system? What are the risks of systemic blind spots? The argument of the paper...

  18. Designing information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Blethyn, Stanley G

    2014-01-01

    Designing Information Systems focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in designing information systems. The book first describes systems, management and control, and how to design information systems. Discussions focus on documents produced from the functional construction function, users, operators, analysts, programmers and others, process management and control, levels of management, open systems, design of management information systems, and business system description, partitioning, and leveling. The text then takes a look at functional specification and functiona

  19. Cognitive Medical Multiagent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Barna Iantovics

    2010-01-01

    The development of efficient and flexible agent-based medical diagnosis systems represents a recent research direction. Medical multiagent systems may improve the efficiency of traditionally developed medical computational systems, like the medical expert systems. In our previous researches, a novel cooperative medical diagnosis multiagent system called CMDS (Contract Net Based Medical Diagnosis System) was proposed. CMDS system can solve flexibly a large variety of medical diagnosis problems...

  20. Non linear system become linear system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.

  1. System Design of the SWRL Financial System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masumi

    To produce various management and accounting reports in order to maintain control of SWRL (Southwest Regional Laboratory) operational and financial activities, a computer-based SWRL financial system was developed. The system design is outlined, and various types of system inputs described. The kinds of management and accounting reports generated…

  2. Triggering system innovation in agricultural innovation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, James A.; Williams, Tracy; Nicholas, Graeme; Foote, Jeff; Rijswijk, Kelly; Barnard, Tim; Beechener, Sam; Horita, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a process for stimulating engagement among change agents to develop a shared understanding of systemic problems in the agricultural innovation system (AIS), challenge prevalent institutional logics and identify actions they might undertake to stimulate system innovation.

  3. Port contact systems for irreversible thermodynamical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberard, D.; Maschke, B.M.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose a definition of control contact systems, generalizing input-output Hamiltonian systems, to cope with models arising from irreversible Thermodynamics. We exhibit a particular subclass of these systems, called conservative, that leaves invariant some Legendre submanifold (the

  4. Modeling learning technology systems as business systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Retalis, Symeon; Papaspyrou, Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    The design of Learning Technology Systems, and the Software Systems that support them, is largely conducted on an intuitive, ad hoc basis, thus resulting in inefficient systems that defectively support the learning process. There is now justifiable, increasing effort in formalizing the engineering

  5. General Systems Theory and Instructional Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, David F.

    1990-01-01

    Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and identifies commonalities that exist between GST and instructional systems design (ISD). Models and diagrams that depict system elements in ISD are presented, and two matrices that show how GST has been used in ISD literature are included. (11 references) (LRW)

  6. Expert systems in process control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittig, T.

    1987-01-01

    To illustrate where the fundamental difference between expert systems in classical diagnosis and in industrial control lie, the work of process control instrumentation is used as an example for the job of expert systems. Starting from the general process of problem-solving, two classes of expert systems can be defined accordingly. (orig.) [de

  7. Expert Systems for auditing management information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheroghe Popescu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Expert systems are built with the help of: specialised programming languages or expert system generators (shell. But this structure was reached after tens of years of work and research, because expert systems are nothing but pragmatic capitalisation of the results of research carried out in artificial intelligence and theory of knowledge.

  8. Psychology of system design

    CERN Document Server

    Meister, D

    2014-01-01

    This is a book about systems, including: systems in which humans control machines; systems in which humans interact with humans and the machine component is relatively unimportant; systems which are heavily computerized and those that are not; and governmental, industrial, military and social systems. The book deals with both traditional systems like farming, fishing and the military, and with systems just now tentatively emerging, like the expert and the interactive computer system. The emphasis is on the system concept and its implications for analysis, design and evaluation of these many di

  9. Biomedical signals and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquillo, Joseph V

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical Signals and Systems is meant to accompany a one-semester undergraduate signals and systems course. It may also serve as a quick-start for graduate students or faculty interested in how signals and systems techniques can be applied to living systems. The biological nature of the examples allows for systems thinking to be applied to electrical, mechanical, fluid, chemical, thermal and even optical systems. Each chapter focuses on a topic from classic signals and systems theory: System block diagrams, mathematical models, transforms, stability, feedback, system response, control, time

  10. Operating System Security

    CERN Document Server

    Jaeger, Trent

    2008-01-01

    Operating systems provide the fundamental mechanisms for securing computer processing. Since the 1960s, operating systems designers have explored how to build "secure" operating systems - operating systems whose mechanisms protect the system against a motivated adversary. Recently, the importance of ensuring such security has become a mainstream issue for all operating systems. In this book, we examine past research that outlines the requirements for a secure operating system and research that implements example systems that aim for such requirements. For system designs that aimed to

  11. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murray, Regan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  12. Manager's assistant systems for space system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, William L.; Burnard, Robert; Edwards, Gary E.; Shoop, James

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a class of knowledge-based 'assistant' systems for space system planning. Derived from technology produced for the DARPA/USAF Pilot's Associate program, these assistant systems help the human planner by doing the bookkeeping to maintain plan data and executing the procedures and heuristics currently used by the human planner to define, assess, diagnose, and revise plans. Intelligent systems for Space Station Freedom assembly sequence planning and Advanced Launch System modeling will be presented as examples. Ongoing NASA-funded work on a framework supporting the development of such tools will also be described.

  13. Lighting system with thermal management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton; Stecher, Thomas; Seeley, Charles; Kuenzler, Glenn; Wolfe, Jr., Charles; Utturkar, Yogen; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2013-05-07

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  14. EPICS based DAQ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Weixing; Chen Yongzhong; Zhou Weimin; Ye Kairong; Liu Dekang

    2002-01-01

    EPICS is the most popular developing platform to build control system and beam diagnostic system in modern physics experiment facilities. An EPICS based data acquisition system was built in Redhat 6.2 operation system. The system is successfully used in the beam position monitor mapping, it improves the mapping process a lot

  15. Autonomous photovoltaic lighting system

    OpenAIRE

    Hafez, Ahmed A. A.; Montesinos Miracle, Daniel; Sudrià Andreu, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a comparison between the conventional and Photovoltaic (PV) lighting systems. A simple sizing procedure for a PV stand-alone system was advised. The paper also proposes a novel PV lighting system. The proposed system is simple, compact and reliable. The system operation was investigated by thoroughly mathematical and simulation work.

  16. FFTF control system experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrick, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    The FFTF control systems provide control equipment for safe and efficient operation of the plant. For convenience, these systems will be divided into three parts for discussions: (1) Plant Protection System (PPS); (2) Plant Control System (PCS); and (3) General Observations. Performance of each of these systems is discussed

  17. Automatic control systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yun Gi

    2004-01-01

    This book gives descriptions of automatic control for electrical electronics, which indicates history of automatic control, Laplace transform, block diagram and signal flow diagram, electrometer, linearization of system, space of situation, state space analysis of electric system, sensor, hydro controlling system, stability, time response of linear dynamic system, conception of root locus, procedure to draw root locus, frequency response, and design of control system.

  18. MEA vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroo, R.; Schwebke, H.; Heine, E.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes construction and operation of the MEA vacuum system of NIKHEF (Netherlands). First, the klystron vacuum system, beam transport system, diode pump and a triode pump are described. Next, the isolation valve and the fast valves of the vacuum system are considered. Measuring instruments, vacuum system commands and messages of failures are treated in the last chapter. (G.J.P.)

  19. From systems biology to systems biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Paul M A; Balling, Rudi; Vlassis, Nikos

    2012-08-01

    Systems Biology is about combining theory, technology, and targeted experiments in a way that drives not only data accumulation but knowledge as well. The challenge in Systems Biomedicine is to furthermore translate mechanistic insights in biological systems to clinical application, with the central aim of improving patients' quality of life. The challenge is to find theoretically well-chosen models for the contextually correct and intelligible representation of multi-scale biological systems. In this review, we discuss the current state of Systems Biology, highlight the emergence of Systems Biomedicine, and highlight some of the topics and views that we think are important for the efficient application of Systems Theory in Biomedicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mapping biological systems to network systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rathore, Heena

    2016-01-01

    The book presents the challenges inherent in the paradigm shift of network systems from static to highly dynamic distributed systems – it proposes solutions that the symbiotic nature of biological systems can provide into altering networking systems to adapt to these changes. The author discuss how biological systems – which have the inherent capabilities of evolving, self-organizing, self-repairing and flourishing with time – are inspiring researchers to take opportunities from the biology domain and map them with the problems faced in network domain. The book revolves around the central idea of bio-inspired systems -- it begins by exploring why biology and computer network research are such a natural match. This is followed by presenting a broad overview of biologically inspired research in network systems -- it is classified by the biological field that inspired each topic and by the area of networking in which that topic lies. Each case elucidates how biological concepts have been most successfully ...

  1. Environmental Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goals Recycling Green Purchasing Pollution Prevention Reusing Water Resources Environmental Management Stewardship » Environmental Protection » Environmental Management System Environmental Management System An Environmental Management System is a systematic method for assessing mission activities, determining the

  2. System floorplanning optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Browning, David W.; Elansary, Ayman; Shalaby, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Notebook and Laptop Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) place great emphasis on creating unique system designs to differentiate themselves in the mobile market. These systems are developed from the 'outside in' with the focus on how the system

  3. Connected motorcycle system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This project characterized the performance of Connected Vehicle Systems (CVS) on motorcycles based on two key components: global positioning and wireless communication systems. Considering that Global Positioning System (GPS) and 5.9 GHz Dedicated Sh...

  4. Antiskid braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazdera, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Published report describes analytical development and simulation of braking system. System prevents wheels from skidding when brakes are applied, significantly reducing stopping distance. Report also presents computer simulation study on system as applied to aircraft.

  5. Bridge Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way....

  6. TWRSview system requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.A.; Lee, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides the system requirements specification for the TWRSview software system. The TWRSview software system is being developed to integrate electronic data supporting the development of the TWRS technical baseline

  7. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  8. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth / For Parents / Lungs and Respiratory System ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't ...

  9. The Trinity System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, Billy Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vigil, Benny Manuel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-13

    This paper describes the Trinity system, the first ASC Advanced Technology System (ATS-1). We describe the Trinity procurement timeline, the ASC computing strategy, the Trinity specific mission needs, and the Trinity system specifications.

  10. Pneumatic transfer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bichler, H.; Boeck, H.; Hammer, J.; Buchtela, K.

    1988-11-01

    A pneumatic transfer system for research reactors, including a sample changer system and to be used for neutron activation analysis, is described. The system can be obtained commercially from the Atominstitut. 2 figs. (qui)

  11. Immune System Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth / For Kids / Quiz: Immune System Print How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! About Us ...

  12. System floorplanning optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Browning, David W.; Ansary, Ayman M. El; Shalaby, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Notebook and Laptop Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) place great emphasis on creating unique system designs to differentiate themselves in the mobile market. These systems are developed from the 'outside in' with the focus on how the system

  13. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  14. Central Nervous System Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Vasculitis / Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Swap out your current Facebook Profile ... Facebook personal page. Replace with this image. Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis is inflammation of blood vessel walls ...

  15. Wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  16. System Software 7 Macintosh

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    System 7 is a single-user graphical user interface-based operating system for Macintosh computers and was part of the classic Mac OS line of operating systems. It was introduced on May 13, 1991, by Apple Computer. It succeeded System 6, and was the main Macintosh operating system until it was succeeded by Mac OS 8 in 1997. Features added with the System 7 release included virtual memory, personal file sharing, QuickTime, QuickDraw 3D, and an improved user interface. This is the first real major evolution of the Macintosh system, bringing a significant improvement in the user interface, improved stability and many new features such as the ability to use multiple applications at the same time. "System 7" is the last operating system name of the Macintosh that contains the word "system". Macintosh operating systems were later called "Mac OS" (for Macintosh Operating System).

  17. Marketing reporting system

    OpenAIRE

    Hanić Hasan M.

    2004-01-01

    The main components of a developed and good organized marketing information system are: internal reporting system, marketing reporting system, market research system and analytical marketing system. Marketing reporting system provides data and information about changes in business and micro marketing environment. This component of MIS ensures that marketing managers are up-to-date with what is going on, and to be informed about changes in company marketing environment.

  18. Marketing reporting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanić Hasan M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The main components of a developed and good organized marketing information system are: internal reporting system, marketing reporting system, market research system and analytical marketing system. Marketing reporting system provides data and information about changes in business and micro marketing environment. This component of MIS ensures that marketing managers are up-to-date with what is going on, and to be informed about changes in company marketing environment.

  19. Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  20. Small test SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different.......Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different....

  1. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  2. Gas transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlin, J.C.; Frick, G.; Kempfer, C.; North, C.

    1988-09-01

    The state of work on the Vivitron gas transfer system and the system functions are summarized. The system has to: evacuate the Vivitron reservoir; transfer gas from storage tanks to the Vivitron; recirculate gas during operation; transfer gas from the Vivitron to storage tanks; and assure air input. The system is now being installed. Leak alarms are given by SF6 detectors, which set off a system of forced ventilation. Another system continuously monitors the amount of SF6 in the tanks [fr

  3. Cognitive Medical Multiagent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Iantovics

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of efficient and flexible agent-based medical diagnosis systems represents a recent research direction. Medical multiagent systems may improve the efficiency of traditionally developed medical computational systems, like the medical expert systems. In our previous researches, a novel cooperative medical diagnosis multiagent system called CMDS (Contract Net Based Medical Diagnosis System was proposed. CMDS system can solve flexibly a large variety of medical diagnosis problems. This paper analyses the increased intelligence of the CMDS system, which motivates its use for different medical problem’s solving.

  4. Airports Geographic Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  5. Aeronautical Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Aeronautical Information System (AIS) is a leased weather automated system that provides a means of collecting and distributing aeronautical weather information...

  6. Credit Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Credit Management System. Outsourced Internet-based application. CMS stores and processes data related to USAID credit programs. The system provides information...

  7. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  8. Neural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As part of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and The Institute for System Research, the Neural Systems Laboratory studies the functionality of the...

  9. Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

  10. System Analysis and Risk Assessment (SARA) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krantz, E.A.; Russell, K.D.; Stewart, H.D.; Van Siclen, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    Utilization of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) related information in the day-to-day operation of plant systems has, in the past, been impracticable due to the size of the computers needed to run PRA codes. This paper discusses a microcomputer-based database system which can greatly enhance the capability of operators or regulators to incorporate PRA methodologies into their routine decision making. This system is called the System Analysis and Risk Assessment (SARA) system. SARA was developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to facilitate the study of frequency and consequence analyses of accident sequences from a large number of light water reactors (LWRs) in this country. This information is being amassed by several studies sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). To meet the need of portability and accessibility, and to perform the variety of calculations necessary, it was felt that a microcomputer-based system would be most suitable

  11. Systems engineering for very large systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowicz, Paul E.

    Very large integrated systems have always posed special problems for engineers. Whether they are power generation systems, computer networks or space vehicles, whenever there are multiple interfaces, complex technologies or just demanding customers, the challenges are unique. 'Systems engineering' has evolved as a discipline in order to meet these challenges by providing a structured, top-down design and development methodology for the engineer. This paper attempts to define the general class of problems requiring the complete systems engineering treatment and to show how systems engineering can be utilized to improve customer satisfaction and profit ability. Specifically, this work will focus on a design methodology for the largest of systems, not necessarily in terms of physical size, but in terms of complexity and interconnectivity.

  12. Epilogue: Systems Approaches and Systems Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Each of the five systems approaches discussed in this volume: system dynamics (SD), the viable systems model (VSM), strategic options development and analysis (SODA), soft systems methodology (SSM) and critical systems heuristics (CSH) has a pedigree. Not in the sense of the sometimes absurd spectacle of animals paraded at dog shows. Rather, their pedigree derives from their systems foundations, their capacity to evolve and their flexibility in use. None of the five approaches has developed out of use in restricted and controlled contexts of either low or high levels of complicatedness. Neither has any one of them evolved as a consequence of being applied only to situations with either presumed stakeholder agreement on purpose, or courteous disagreement amongst stakeholders, or stakeholder coercion. The compilation is not a celebration of abstract ‘methodologies', but of theoretically robust approaches that have a genuine pedigree in practice.

  13. Systems analysis of a security alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiff, A.

    1975-01-01

    When the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory found that its security alarm system was causing more false alarms and maintenance costs than LLL felt was tolerable, a systems analysis was undertaken to determine what should be done about the situation. This report contains an analysis of security alarm systems in general and ends with a review of the existing Security Alarm Control Console (SACC) and recommendations for its improvement, growth and change. (U.S.)

  14. DOE SciDAC's Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-09-27

    Computing Centre, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The ESGF software is distinguished from other collaborative knowledge systems in the climate community by its widespread adoption, federation capabilities, and broad developer base. It is the leading source for present climate data holdings, including the most important and largest data sets in the global-climate community, and - assuming its development continues - we expect it to be the leading source for future climate data holdings as well. Recently, ESG-CET extended its services beyond data-file access and delivery to include more detailed information products (scientific graphics, animations, etc.), secure binary data-access services (based upon the OPeNDAP protocol), and server-side analysis. The latter capabilities allow users to request data subsets transformed through commonly used analysis and intercomparison procedures. As we transition from development activities to production and operations, the ESG-CET team is tasked with making data available to all users seeking to understand, process, extract value from, visualize, and/or communicate it to others. This ongoing effort, though daunting in scope and complexity, will greatly magnify the value of numerical climate model outputs and climate observations for future national and international climate-assessment reports. The ESG-CET team also faces substantial technical challenges due to the rapidly increasing scale of climate simulation and observational data, which will grow, for example, from less than 50 terabytes for the last Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment to multiple Petabytes for the next IPCC assessment. In a world of exponential technological change and rapidly growing sophistication in climate data analysis, an infrastructure such as ESGF must constantly evolve if it is to remain relevant and useful. Regretfully, we submit our

  15. Precision digital control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskub, V. G.; Rozov, B. S.; Savelev, V. I.

    This book is concerned with the characteristics of digital control systems of great accuracy. A classification of such systems is considered along with aspects of stabilization, programmable control applications, digital tracking systems and servomechanisms, and precision systems for the control of a scanning laser beam. Other topics explored are related to systems of proportional control, linear devices and methods for increasing precision, approaches for further decreasing the response time in the case of high-speed operation, possibilities for the implementation of a logical control law, and methods for the study of precision digital control systems. A description is presented of precision automatic control systems which make use of electronic computers, taking into account the existing possibilities for an employment of computers in automatic control systems, approaches and studies required for including a computer in such control systems, and an analysis of the structure of automatic control systems with computers. Attention is also given to functional blocks in the considered systems.

  16. L-system fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Jibitesh

    2007-01-01

    The book covers all the fundamental aspects of generating fractals through L-system. Also it provides insight to various researches in this area for generating fractals through L-system approach & estimating dimensions. Also it discusses various applications of L-system fractals. Key Features: - Fractals generated from L-System including hybrid fractals - Dimension calculation for L-system fractals - Images & codes for L-system fractals - Research directions in the area of L-system fractals - Usage of various freely downloadable tools in this area - Fractals generated from L-System including hybrid fractals- Dimension calculation for L-system fractals- Images & codes for L-system fractals- Research directions in the area of L-system fractals- Usage of various freely downloadable tools in this area

  17. Power system protection 2 systems and methods

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The worldwide growth in demand for electricity has forced the pace of developments in electrical power system design to meet consumer needs for reliable, secure and cheap supplies. Power system protection, as a technology essential to high quality supply, is widely recognised as a specialism of growing and often critical importance, in which power system needs and technological progress have combined to result in rapid developments in policy and practice in recent years. In the United Kingdom, the need for appropriate training in power system protection was recognised in the early 1960s with t

  18. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  19. Unmanned Aerial System, New System Manning Prediction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunn, Bruce P

    2006-01-01

    .... System safety and effectiveness, training, contractor operations and working conditions were evaluated for current UASs, including Hunter, Shadow, Predator, Improved Gnat, and to a lesser degree...

  20. Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-05-03

    The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID 430.1). These documents define the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) processes and products to be used at Hanford to implement the systems engineering process at the site level. This SEMP describes the products being provided by the site systems engineering activity in fiscal year (FY) 1996 and the associated schedule. It also includes the procedural approach being taken by the site level systems engineering activity in the development of these products and the intended uses for the products in the integrated planning process in response to the DOE policy and implementing directives. The scope of the systems engineering process is to define a set of activities and products to be used at the site level during FY 1996 or until the successful Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) is onsite as a result of contract award from Request For Proposal DE-RP06-96RL13200. Following installation of the new contractor, a long-term set of systems engineering procedures and products will be defined for management of the Hanford Project. The extent to which each project applies the systems engineering process and the specific tools used are determined by the project`s management.

  1. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System''s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section

  2. Systems integration of business systems. Business system ni kanshite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, H [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-09-26

    System integration (SI) is defined as combining hardwares and softwares as the infrastructures with know-hows for their use comprehensively to respond to high-level needs of users. This paper reports the features of an SI being developed by a company (E Company), its concept on the systematized development methodology, and the conceptual models. With the primary policy placed on creative integration standing on customers positions, the SI concept comprises three parts of models for evaluations as seen from the customers, evaluations as seen from the E Company, and the development object systems to link both parts. The third part is further consisted of several lower hierarchies including a customer controlled system hierarchy (this enables customers to control the system through visualization, for example, and includes three logic models (multiple solution selection, optimal solution under restricted conditions, and numerical solution)). 2 refs., 9 figs.

  3. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  4. Smart SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. A smart SDHW is a system in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top an...

  5. Information Systems Security Audit

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Popescu; Veronica Adriana Popescu; Cristina Raluca Popescu

    2007-01-01

    The article covers:Defining an information system; benefits obtained by introducing new information technologies; IT management;Defining prerequisites, analysis, design, implementation of IS; Information security management system; aspects regarding IS security policy; Conceptual model of a security system; Auditing information security systems and network infrastructure security.

  6. Medical imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-06-25

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and diagnostic or functional images. The system may be portable, and may include adapters for connecting various light sources and cameras in open surgical environments or laparascopic or endoscopic environments. A user interface provides control over the functionality of the integrated imaging system. In one embodiment, the system provides a tool for surgical pathology.

  7. Evolution of ERP systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortmann, J.C.; Bititci, U.S.; Carrie, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the development of ERP systems over time. It explores both the functionality and the technology of ERP-systems. It explains the increased importance of ERP systems in practice. The paper also addresses the difficulties encountered in implementing ERP systems in real life. Modern

  8. Digital processing data communication systems (bus systems). Digitale Prozessdaten-Kommunikations-Systeme (Bus Systeme)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleck, K

    1980-01-01

    After an introduction to the technology of digital processing data communication systems there are the following chapters: digital communication of processing data in automation technology, the technology of biserial communication, the implementaiton of a bus system, the data transmission of the TDC-2000 system of Honeywell's and the process bus CS 275 in the automation system TELEPERM M of Siemens AG.

  9. EUCLID ARCHIVE SYSTEM PROTOTYPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belikov, Andrey; Williams, Owen; Droge, Bob; Tsyganov, Andrey; Boxhoorn, Danny; McFarland, John; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Valentijn, E; Altieri, Bruno; Dabin, Christophe; Pasian, F.; Osuna, Pedro; Soille, P.; Marchetti, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    The Euclid Archive System prototype is a functional information system which is used to address the numerous challenges in the development of fully functional data processing system for Euclid. The prototype must support the highly distributed nature of the Euclid Science Ground System, with Science

  10. Product Service Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems......Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems...

  11. Biogas plant control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasevicius, L.; Dervinis, G.; Macerauskas, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents intelligent control system for the pig farm biogas production process. The system uses a fuzzy logic models based on knowledge of experts and operators. Four fuzzy models are introduced. The adequacy of fuzzy models is verified using real data and MATLAB simulation. Proposed expert system is implemented into traditional SCADA system for biogas process prediction and failure analyzing. (authors)

  12. System Performance and Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frei, U.; Oversloot, H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter compares and contrasts the system performance of two widely used solar thermal systems using testing and simulation programs. Solar thermal systems are used in many countries for heating domestically used water. In addition to the simple thermosiphon systems, better designed pumped

  13. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  14. ERP–systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shustova I.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we analyzed the existing ERP–systems of foreign and domestic manufacturers. Popular ERP–systems in the Republic of Belarus were considered. The leading ERP-systems in the domestic market and their features were described in detail. Finally, we described the steps that must be taken to select the most suitable ERP-system for a particular company.

  15. Business advertisements management system

    OpenAIRE

    Rekel, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    Business Advertisements Management System The main goal of the project was to create a business advertisements management system, where users could easily create and find business advertisements. To accomplish this goal exist- ing systems were analyzed as well as their limitations. The end result is a working system which is able to store and proccess huge amount of data.

  16. Functional System Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ligterink, N.E.

    2007-01-01

    Functional system dynamics is the analysis, modelling, and simulation of continuous systems usually described by partial differential equations. From the infinite degrees of freedom of such systems only a finite number of relevant variables have to be chosen for a practical model description. The proper input and output of the system are an important part of the relevant variables.

  17. Type Systems for Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Ebbe; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Sangiorgi, Davide

    of controls and a set of reaction rules, collectively a bigraphical reactive system (BRS). Possible advantages of developing bigraphical type systems include: a deeper understanding of a type system itself and its properties; transfer of the type systems to the concrete family of calculi that the BRS models...

  18. Computer Operating System Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    FACILITY The Computer Management Information Facility ( CMIF ) system was developed by Rapp Systems to fulfill the need at the CRF to record and report on...computer center resource usage and utilization. The foundation of the CMIF system is a System 2000 data base (CRFMGMT) which stores and permits access

  19. Balancing for nonlinear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpen, J.M.A.

    1993-01-01

    We present a method of balancing for nonlinear systems which is an extension of balancing for linear systems in the sense that it is based on the input and output energy of a system. It is a local result, but gives 'broader' results than we obtain by just linearizing the system. Furthermore, the

  20. EPICS system: system structure and user interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, R.E.; Bartlett, J.F.; Bobbitt, J.S.; Lahey, T.E.; Kramper, B.J.; MacKinnon, B.A.

    1984-02-01

    This paper present the user's view of and the general organization of the EPICS control system at Fermilab. Various subsystems of the EPICS control system are discussed. These include the user command language, software protection, the device database, remote computer interfaces, and several application utilities. This paper is related to two other papers on EPICS: an overview paper and a detailed implementation paper

  1. Probabilistic fuzzy systems as additive fuzzy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, R.J.; Verbeek, N.; Kaymak, U.; Costa Sousa, da J.M.; Laurent, A.; Strauss, O.; Bouchon-Meunier, B.; Yager, R.

    2014-01-01

    Probabilistic fuzzy systems combine a linguistic description of the system behaviour with statistical properties of data. It was originally derived based on Zadeh’s concept of probability of a fuzzy event. Two possible and equivalent additive reasoning schemes were proposed, that lead to the

  2. System of Systems Analytic Workbench - 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization with Type-2 Fuzzy Sets for Generating Systems of Systems Architectures. Procedia Computer Science...The application effort involves modeling an existing messaging network to perform real-time situational awareness. The Analytical Workbench’s

  3. On generalized Volterra systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambides, S. A.; Damianou, P. A.; Evripidou, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    We construct a large family of evidently integrable Hamiltonian systems which are generalizations of the KM system. The algorithm uses the root system of a complex simple Lie algebra. The Hamiltonian vector field is homogeneous cubic but in a number of cases a simple change of variables transforms such a system to a quadratic Lotka-Volterra system. We present in detail all such systems in the cases of A3, A4 and we also give some examples from higher dimensions. We classify all possible Lotka-Volterra systems that arise via this algorithm in the An case.

  4. Transdisciplinarity Needs Systemism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Hofkirchner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main message of this paper is that systemism is best suited for transdisciplinary studies. A description of disciplinary sciences, transdisciplinary sciences and systems sciences is given, along with their different definitions of aims, scope and tools. The rationale for transdisciplinarity is global challenges, which are complex. The rationale for systemism is the concretization of understanding complexity. Drawing upon Ludwig von Bertalanffy’s intention of a General System Theory, three items deserve attention—the world-view of a synergistic systems technology, the world picture of an emergentist systems theory, and the way of thinking of an integrationist systems method.

  5. Measuring Systemic Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Viral V.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Philippon, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We present an economic model of systemic risk in which undercapitalization of the financial sector as a whole is assumed to harm the real economy, leading to a systemic risk externality. Each financial institution’s contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall...... of components of SES to predict emerging systemic risk during the financial crisis of 2007–2009....

  6. Multiprocessor data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haumann, J.R.; Crawford, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    A multiprocessor data acquisition system has been built to replace the single processor systems at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory. The multiprocessor system was needed to accommodate the higher data rates at IPNS brought about by improvements in the source and changes in instrument configurations. This paper describes the hardware configuration of the system and the method of task sharing and compares results to the single processor system

  7. Genetics, systems, and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClearn, G E

    1993-03-01

    Under a variety of rubrics (e.g., complexity, self-constructing systems, dissipative structures), interest has recently burgeoned in applying principles of complex systems to a wide variety of scientific issues. A major concern is with emergent properties of systems not derivable from the properties of components of the systems. In this paper, some elementary aspects of "systems" considerations are applied to phenomena of alcohol pharmacogenetics. It is likely that whole new families of informative phenotypes can be generated by this approach.

  8. Intrusion detection system elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.; Mangan, D.L.

    1980-09-01

    This report highlights elements required for an intrusion detection system and discusses problems which can be encountered in attempting to make the elements effective. Topics discussed include: sensors, both for exterior detection and interior detection; alarm assessment systems, with the discussion focused on video assessment; and alarm reporting systems, including alarm communication systems and dislay/console considerations. Guidance on careful planning and design of a new or to-be-improved system is presented

  9. Satellite services system overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysavy, G.

    1982-01-01

    The benefits of a satellite services system and the basic needs of the Space Transportation System to have improved satellite service capability are identified. Specific required servicing equipment are discussed in terms of their technology development status and their operative functions. Concepts include maneuverable television systems, extravehicular maneuvering unit, orbiter exterior lighting, satellite holding and positioning aid, fluid transfer equipment, end effectors for the remote manipulator system, teleoperator maneuvering system, and hand and power tools.

  10. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  11. The control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The present control system has matured both in terms of age and capacity. Thus a new system based on a local area network (LAN) is being developed. A pilot project has been started but, owing to difficulties encountered with the present operating system used with the microprocessors, it has become necessary to reconsider the choice of operating system. A recently-released multi-tasking operating system that runs on the existing hardware has been chosen. 1 fig

  12. SQL injection detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vargonas, Vytautas

    2017-01-01

    SQL injection detection system Programmers do not always ensure security of developed systems. That is why it is important to look for solutions outside being reliant on developers. In this work SQL injection detection system is proposed. The system analyzes HTTP request parameters and detects intrusions. It is based on unsupervised machine learning. Trained by regular request data system detects outlier user parameters. Since training is not reliant on previous knowledge of SQL injections, t...

  13. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  14. Telemetry System Data Latency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-13

    latencies will be measured. DATS Network TM Antenna TM ReceiverMCS System IOPlex IOPlexIADS CDS IADS Client TM Transmitter Sensors Signal Conditioning...TIME Figure 1-2 Mission Control System (MCS) / Interactive Analysis and Display System (IADS) Overview IADS CDSIADS Client TELEMETRY SYSTEM DATA...Sim GPS Signal Combiner MCS system Oscilloscope IADS Client IADS CDS Figure 13-1 IADS Data Flow 13.2. Test Results The results of the data test at

  15. Systems Theory and Systems Approach to Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Berim Ramosaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Systems theory is product of the efforts of many researchers to create an intermediate field of coexistence of all sciences. If not for anything else, because of the magnitude that the use of systemic thinking and systemic approach has taken, it has become undisputed among the theories. Systems theory not only provides a glossary of terms with which researchers from different fields can be understood, but provides a framework for the presentation and interpretation of phenomena and realities. This paper addresses a systematic approach to leadership, as an attempt to dredge leadership and systems theory literature to find the meeting point. Systems approach is not an approach to leadership in terms of a manner of leader’s work, but it’s the leader's determination to factorize in his leadership the external environment and relationships with and among elements. Leader without followers is unable to exercise his leadership and to ensure their conviction he should provide a system, a structure, a purpose, despite the alternative chaos. Systems approach clarifies the thought on the complexity and dynamism of the environment and provides a framework for building ideas. If the general system theory is the skeleton of science (Boulding: 1956, this article aims to replenish it with leadership muscles by prominent authors who have written on systems theory and leadership, as well as through original ideas. In this work analytical methods were used (by analyzing approaches individually as well as synthetic methods (by assaying individual approaches in context of entirety. The work is a critical review of literature as well as a deductive analysis mingled with models proposed by authors through inductive analysis. Meta-analysis has been used to dissect the interaction and interdependence between leadership approaches.

  16. A distribution management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verho, P.; Jaerventausta, P.; Kaerenlampi, M.; Paulasaari, H. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Partanen, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The development of new distribution automation applications is considerably wide nowadays. One of the most interesting areas is the development of a distribution management system (DMS) as an expansion of the traditional SCADA system. At the power transmission level such a system is called an energy management system (EMS). The idea of these expansions is to provide supporting tools for control center operators in system analysis and operation planning. The needed data for new applications is mainly available in some existing systems. Thus the computer systems of utilities must be integrated. The main data source for the new applications in the control center are the AM/FM/GIS (i.e. the network database system), the SCADA, and the customer information system (CIS). The new functions can be embedded in some existing computer system. This means a strong dependency on the vendor of the existing system. An alternative strategy is to develop an independent system which is integrated with other computer systems using well-defined interfaces. The latter approach makes it possible to use the new applications in various computer environments, having only a weak dependency on the vendors of the other systems. In the research project this alternative is preferred and used in developing an independent distribution management system

  17. A distribution management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verho, P; Jaerventausta, P; Kaerenlampi, M; Paulasaari, H [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Partanen, J [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The development of new distribution automation applications is considerably wide nowadays. One of the most interesting areas is the development of a distribution management system (DMS) as an expansion of the traditional SCADA system. At the power transmission level such a system is called an energy management system (EMS). The idea of these expansions is to provide supporting tools for control center operators in system analysis and operation planning. The needed data for new applications is mainly available in some existing systems. Thus the computer systems of utilities must be integrated. The main data source for the new applications in the control center are the AM/FM/GIS (i.e. the network database system), the SCADA, and the customer information system (CIS). The new functions can be embedded in some existing computer system. This means a strong dependency on the vendor of the existing system. An alternative strategy is to develop an independent system which is integrated with other computer systems using well-defined interfaces. The latter approach makes it possible to use the new applications in various computer environments, having only a weak dependency on the vendors of the other systems. In the research project this alternative is preferred and used in developing an independent distribution management system

  18. Modeling Power Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Malard, Joel M.; Posse, Christian; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mallow, J V.

    2004-12-30

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This report explores the state-of-the-art physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and deriving stable and robust control strategies for using them. We review and discuss applications of some analytic methods based on a thermodynamic metaphor, according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood. We apply these methods to the question of how power markets can be expected to behave under a variety of conditions.

  19. Rover waste assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Rover waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched 235 U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for 137 Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Micro Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulslev Pedersen, Rasmus; Kühn Pedersen, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    such as medical and manufacturing. These new sensor applications have implications for information systems (IS) and, the authors visualize this new class of information systems as fractals growing from an established class of systems; namely that of information systems (IS). The identified applications...... and implications are used as an empirical basis for creating a model for these small new information systems. Such sensor systems are called embedded systems in the technical sciences, and the authors want to couple it with general IS. They call the merger of these two important research areas (IS and embedded...... systems) for micro information systems (micro-IS). It is intended as a new research field within IS research. An initial framework model is established, which seeks to capture both the possibilities and constraints of this new paradigm, while looking simultaneously at the fundamental IS and ICT aspects...

  2. ITER cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalizio, A.; Hollies, R.E.; Sochaski, R.O.; Stubley, P.H.

    1992-06-01

    The ITER reference system uses low-temperature water for heat removal and high-temperature helium for bake-out. As these systems share common equipment, bake-out cannot be performed until the cooling system is drained and dried, and the reactor cannot be started until the helium has been purged from the cooling system. This study examines the feasibility of using a single high-temperature fluid to perform both heat removal and bake-out. The high temperature required for bake-out would also be in the range for power production. The study examines cost, operational benefits, and impact on reactor safety of two options: a high-pressure water system, and a low-pressure organic system. It was concluded that the cost savings and operational benefits are significant; there are no significant adverse safety impacts from operating either the water system or the organic system; and the capital costs of both systems are comparable

  3. System performance optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarz, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The System Performance Optimization has become an important and difficult field for large scientific computer centres. Important because the centres must satisfy increasing user demands at the lowest possible cost. Difficult because the System Performance Optimization requires a deep understanding of hardware, software and workload. The optimization is a dynamic process depending on the changes in hardware configuration, current level of the operating system and user generated workload. With the increasing complication of the computer system and software, the field for the optimization manoeuvres broadens. The hardware of two manufacturers IBM and CDC is discussed. Four IBM and two CDC operating systems are described. The description concentrates on the organization of the operating systems, the job scheduling and I/O handling. The performance definitions, workload specification and tools for the system stimulation are given. The measurement tools for the System Performance Optimization are described. The results of the measurement and various methods used for the operating system tuning are discussed. (Auth.)

  4. NASA systems engineering handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; McDuffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-06-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive.

  5. Expert systems and computer based industrial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunand, R.

    1989-01-01

    Framentec is the artificial intelligence subsidiary of FRAMATOME. It is involved in expert-system activities of Shells, developments, methodology and software for maintenance (Maintex) and consulting and methodology. Specific applications in the nuclear field are presented. The first is an expert system to assist in the piping support design prototype, the second is an expert system that assists an ultrasonic testing operator in determining the nature of a welding defect and the third is a welding machine diagnosis advisor. Maintex is a software tool to provide assistance in the repair of complex industrial equipment. (author)

  6. Visualization System for Monitoring Data Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Pinho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Usually, a Big Data system has a monitoring system for performance evaluation and error prevention. There are some disadvantages in the way that these tools display the information and its targeted approach to physical components. The main goal is to study visual and interactive mechanisms that allow the representation of monitoring data in grid computing environments, providing the end-user information, which can contribute objectively to the system analysis. This paper is an extension of the paper presented at (Pinho and Carvalho 2016 and has the purpose to present the state of the art, carries out the proposed solution and present the achieved goals.

  7. System architecture for microprocessor based protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.M. Jr.; Lilly, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses the architectural design features to be employed by Westinghouse in the application of distributed digital processing techniques to the protection system. While the title of the paper makes specific reference to microprocessors, this is only one (and the newest) of the building blocks which constitutes a distributed digital processing system. The actual system structure (as realized through utilization of the various building blocks) is established through considerations of reliability, licensability, and cost. It is the intent of the paper to address these considerations licenstions as they relate to the architectural design features. (orig.) [de

  8. Embedded systems handbook networked embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zurawski, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Considered a standard industry resource, the Embedded Systems Handbook provided researchers and technicians with the authoritative information needed to launch a wealth of diverse applications, including those in automotive electronics, industrial automated systems, and building automation and control. Now a new resource is required to report on current developments and provide a technical reference for those looking to move the field forward yet again. Divided into two volumes to accommodate this growth, the Embedded Systems Handbook, Second Edition presents a comprehensive view on this area

  9. Modern system architectures in embedded systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korhonen, T.

    2012-01-01

    Several new technologies are making their way also in embedded systems. In addition to the FPGA technology which has become commonplace, multi-core CPUs and I/O virtualization (the implementation of the tasks of a software hyper-visor in hardware to improve the efficiency) are being introduced to the embedded systems. In this paper we review the trends and discuss how to take advantage of these features in control systems. Some potential application examples like parallelization, data streaming, high-speed data acquisition and virtualization are discussed

  10. Nonlinearity of colloid systems oxyhydrate systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sucharev, Yuri I

    2008-01-01

    The present monograph is the first systematic study of the non-linear characteristic of gel oxy-hydrate systems involving d- and f- elements. These are the oxyhydrates of rare-earth elements and oxides - hydroxides of d- elements (zirconium, niobium, titanium, etc.) The non-linearity of these gel systems introduces fundamental peculiarities into their structure and, consequently, their properties. The polymer-conformational diversity of energetically congenial gel fragments, which continu-ously transform under the effect of, for instance, system dissipation heat, is central to the au-thor's hy

  11. Information system development activities and inquiring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carugati, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a framework that maps information system development (ISD) activities on systems for the creation of knowledge. This work addresses the relevant and persisting problem of improving the chances of ISD success. The article builds upon previous research on knowledge aspects...... based on ISD literature and on Churchman's (1971) inquiring systems. The second part presents the use of the framework in an ISD project. The case is used to show the applicability of the framework and to highlight the advantages of this approach. The main theoretical implication is that the framework...

  12. Automatic remote communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoichi

    1990-05-01

    The Upgraded RECOVER (Remote Continual Verification) system is a communication system for remote continual verification of security and safeguards status of nuclear material in principal nuclear facilities. The system is composed of a command center and facility sub-systems. A command center is a mini-computer system to process C/S (Containment and Surveillance) status data. Facility sub-systems consists of OSM (On-site Multiplexer), MU (Monitoring Unit) and C/S sensor. The system uses public telephone network for communication between a command center and facility sub-systems, and it encrypts communication data to prevent falsification and wiretapping by unauthorized persons. This system inherits the design principle of RECOVER system that was tested by IAEA before. We upgraded and expanded its capabilities more than those of RECOVER. The development of this system began in 1983, and it finished in 1987. Performance tests of the system were carried out since 1987. It showed a farely good result with some indications which should need further improvements. The Upgraded RECOVER system provides timely information about the status of C/S systems, which could contribute to the reduction of inspection effort and the improvement of cost performance. (author)

  13. Photovoltaic systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Messenger, Roger A

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundPopulation and Energy DemandEnergy UnitsCurrent World Energy Use PatternsExponential GrowthHubbert's Gaussian ModelNet Energy, Btu Economics, and the Test for SustainabilityDirect Conversion of Sunlight to Electricity with PhotovoltaicsThe SunThe Solar SpectrumThe Effect of Atmosphere on SunlightSunlight SpecificsCapturing SunlightIntroduction to PV SystemsThe PV CellThe PV ModuleThe PV ArrayEnergy StoragePV System LoadsPV System AvailabilityAssociated System Electronic ComponentsGeneratorsBalance of System (BOS) ComponentsGrid-Connected Utility-Interactive PV SystemsApplicable Codes and StandardsDesign Considerations for Straight Grid-Connected PV SystemsDesign of a System Based on Desired Annual System PerformanceDesign of a System Based on Available Roof SpaceDesign of a Microinverter-Based SystemDesign of a Nominal 21 kW System that Feeds a Three-Phase Distribution PanelDesign of a Nominal 250 kW SystemSystem Performance MonitoringMechanical ConsiderationsImportant Properties of MaterialsEstabli...

  14. T-systems and Y-systems in integrable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuniba, Atsuo; Nakanishi, Tomoki; Suzuki, Junji

    2011-01-01

    T- and Y-systems are ubiquitous structures in classical and quantum integrable systems. They are difference equations having a variety of aspects related to commuting transfer matrices in solvable lattice models, q-characters of Kirillov-Reshetikhin modules of quantum affine algebras, cluster algebras with coefficients, periodicity conjectures of Zamolodchikov and others, dilogarithm identities in conformal field theory, difference analog of L-operators in KP hierarchy, Stokes phenomena in 1D Schroedinger problem, AdS/CFT correspondence, Toda field equations on discrete spacetime, Laplace sequence in discrete geometry, Fermionic character formulas and combinatorial completeness of Bethe ansatz, Q-system and ideal gas with exclusion statistics, analytic and thermodynamic Bethe ansaetze, quantum transfer matrix method and so forth. This review is a collection of short reviews on these topics which can be read more or less independently. (topical review)

  15. T-systems and Y-systems in integrable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuniba, Atsuo [Institute of Physics, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Nakanishi, Tomoki [Graduate School of Mathematics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8604 (Japan); Suzuki, Junji, E-mail: atsuo@gokutan.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Ohya 836 (Japan)

    2011-03-11

    T- and Y-systems are ubiquitous structures in classical and quantum integrable systems. They are difference equations having a variety of aspects related to commuting transfer matrices in solvable lattice models, q-characters of Kirillov-Reshetikhin modules of quantum affine algebras, cluster algebras with coefficients, periodicity conjectures of Zamolodchikov and others, dilogarithm identities in conformal field theory, difference analog of L-operators in KP hierarchy, Stokes phenomena in 1D Schroedinger problem, AdS/CFT correspondence, Toda field equations on discrete spacetime, Laplace sequence in discrete geometry, Fermionic character formulas and combinatorial completeness of Bethe ansatz, Q-system and ideal gas with exclusion statistics, analytic and thermodynamic Bethe ansaetze, quantum transfer matrix method and so forth. This review is a collection of short reviews on these topics which can be read more or less independently. (topical review)

  16. Cooperating systems: Layered MAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Distributed intelligent systems can be distinguished by the models that they use. The model developed focuses on layered multiagent system conceived of as a bureaucracy in which a distributed data base serves as a central means of communication. The various generic bureaus of such a system is described and a basic vocabulary for such systems is presented. In presenting the bureaus and vocabularies, special attention is given to the sorts of reasonings that are appropriate. A bureaucratic model has a hierarchy of master system and work group that organizes E agents and B agents. The master system provides the administrative services and support facilities for the work groups.

  17. Simulation of Polygeneration Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Calise

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue aims at collecting the recent studies dealing with polygeneration systems, with a special focus on the possible integration of different technologies into a single system, able to convert one or multiple energy sources into energy services (electricity, heat and cooling and other useful products (e.g., desalinized water, hydrogen, glycerin, ammonia, etc.. Renewable sources (solar, wind, hydro, biomass and geothermal, as well as fossil fuels, feeding advanced energy systems such as fuel cells and cogeneration systems, are considered. Special attention is paid to control strategies and to the management of the systems in general. Studies including thermoeconomic analyses and system optimizations are presented.

  18. The BELLE DAQ system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Soh Yamagata; Yamauchi, Masanori; Nakao, Mikihiko; Itoh, Ryosuke; Fujii, Hirofumi

    2000-10-01

    We built a data acquisition system for the BELLE experiment. The system was designed to cope with the average trigger rate up to 500 Hz at the typical event size of 30 kB. This system has five components: (1) the readout sequence controller, (2) the FASTBUS-TDC readout systems using charge-to-time conversion, (3) the barrel shifter event builder, (4) the parallel online computing farm, and (5) the data transfer system to the mass storage. This system has been in operation for physics data taking since June 1999 without serious problems.

  19. The BELLE DAQ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Soh Yamagata; Yamauchi, Masanori; Nakao, Mikihiko; Itoh, Ryosuke; Fujii, Hirofumi

    2000-01-01

    We built a data acquisition system for the BELLE experiment. The system was designed to cope with the average trigger rate up to 500 Hz at the typical event size of 30 kB. This system has five components: (1) the readout sequence controller, (2) the FASTBUS-TDC readout systems using charge-to-time conversion, (3) the barrel shifter event builder, (4) the parallel online computing farm, and (5) the data transfer system to the mass storage. This system has been in operation for physics data taking since June 1999 without serious problems

  20. Reliable computer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, L L; Pinkert, J R

    1993-11-01

    In this article, we looked at some decisions that apply to the design of reliable computer systems. We began with a discussion of several terms such as testability, then described some systems that call for highly reliable hardware and software. The article concluded with a discussion of methods that can be used to achieve higher reliability in computer systems. Reliability and fault tolerance in computers probably will continue to grow in importance. As more and more systems are computerized, people will want assurances about the reliability of these systems, and their ability to work properly even when sub-systems fail.

  1. Adaptive intrusion data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.

    1976-01-01

    An Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) was developed to collect data from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique digital data compression, storage, and formatting system. It also incorporates capability for video selection and recording for assessment of the sensors monitored by the system. The system is software reprogrammable to numerous configurations that may be utilized for the collection of environmental, bi-level, analog and video data. The output of the system is digital tapes formatted for direct data reduction on a CDC 6400 computer, and video tapes containing timed tagged information that can be correlated with the digital data

  2. Introducing Systems Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Systems Approaches to Managing Change brings together five systems approaches to managing complex issues, each having a proven track record of over 25 years. The five approaches are: System Dynamics (SD) developed originally in the late 1950s by Jay Forrester Viable Systems Model (VSM) developed originally in the late 1960s by Stafford Beer Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA: with cognitive mapping) developed originally in the 1970s by Colin Eden Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) developed originally in the 1970s by Peter Checkland Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) developed originally in the late 1970s by Werner Ulrich

  3. EPICS system: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.F.; Bobbitt, J.S.; Kramper, B.J.; Lahey, T.E.; MacKinnon, B.A.; West, R.E.

    1984-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of the EPICS control system at FERMILAB. EPICS is a distributed, multi-user, interactive system for the control and monitoring of particle beamlines at a high-energy experimental physics laboratory. The overview discusses the operating environment of the control system, the requirements which determined the design decisions, the hardware and software configurations, and plans for the future growth and enhancement of the present system. This paper is the first of three related papers on the EPICS system. The other two cover (1) the system structure and user interface and (2) RSX implementation issues

  4. Nonlinear Hamiltonian systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Finn

    1995-01-01

    It is generally very difficult to solve nonlinear systems, and such systems often possess chaotic solutions. In the rare event that a system is completely solvable, it is said to integrable. Such systems never have chaotic solutions. Using the Inverse Scattering Transform Method (ISTM) two...... particular configurations of the Discrete Self-Trapping (DST) system are shown to be completely solvable. One of these systems includes the Toda lattice in a certain limit. An explicit integration is carried through for this Near-Toda lattice. The Near-Toda lattice is then generalized to include singular...

  5. LCA of Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2018-01-01

    Energy systems are essential in the support of modern societies’ activities, and can span a wide spectrum of electricity and heat generation systems and cooling systems. Along with their central role and large diversity, these systems have been demonstrated to cause serious impacts on human health...... , ecosystems and natural resources. Over the past two decades, energy systems have thus been the focus of more than 1000 LCA studies, with the aim to identify and reduce these impacts. This chapter addresses LCA applications to energy systems for generation of electricity and heat . The chapter gives insight...

  6. Two Tethered Balloon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngbluth, Otto; Owens, Thomas L.; Storey, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Systems take meteorological measurements for variety of research projects. Report describes work done by NASA Langley Research Center in atmospheric research using tethered balloon systems composed of commercially available equipment. Two separate tethered balloon systems described in report have payloads and configurations tailored to requirements of specific projects. Each system capable of measuring atmospheric parameter or species in situ and then telemetering this data in real time to ground station. Meteorological data and concentration of ozone typically measured. Indicates instrumented tethered balloon systems have distinct advantages over other systems for gathering data on troposphere.

  7. Microelectronic systems 1 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Vears, R E

    2013-01-01

    Microelectronic Systems 1 Checkbook provides coverage of the Business and Technician Education Council level 1 unit in Microelectronic Systems. However, it can be regarded as a basic textbook in microelectronic systems for a much wider range of studies. Each topic considered in the text is presented in a way that assumes the reader has little prior knowledge of electronics. The aim of the book is to provide an introduction to the concept of systems, to differentiate analogue and digital systems, and to describe the nature of microprocessor-controlled systems. An introduction to programming is

  8. Quality data systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, J.E.; Patterson, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    General Electric's Nuclear Fuel Department data system strategy of multifunctional system integration and specific applications of data systems for the Quality Assurance Programme is detailed. Descriptions of two manufacturing control systems and their function in satisfying quality data requirements are included. The timesharing quality data system developed for processing laboratory, traceability and material release data in the Fuel Manufacturing Operation is described. In addition, specific references are made to those areas where significant time reductions have been realized through the utilization of mechanized data-handling systems. (author)

  9. Water Fluoridation Reporting System (Public Water Systems)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  10. Combat Systems Department Employee Recognition System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    This handbook contains two types of information: guidelines and instructions. The guidelines provide a foundation of purpose, assumptions, principles, expectations and attributes the Employee Recognition System is designed to reflect...

  11. Test System Impact on System Availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pau, L. F.

    1987-01-01

    The specifications are presented for an imperfect automatic test system (ATS) (test frequency distribution, reliability, false alarm rate, nondetection rate) in order to account for the availability, readiness, mean time between unscheduled repairs (MTBUR), reliability, and maintenance of the sys......The specifications are presented for an imperfect automatic test system (ATS) (test frequency distribution, reliability, false alarm rate, nondetection rate) in order to account for the availability, readiness, mean time between unscheduled repairs (MTBUR), reliability, and maintenance...... of the system subject to monitoring and test. A time-dependent Markov model is presented, and applied in three cases, with examples of numerical results provided for preventive maintenance decisions, design of an automatic test system, buffer testing in computers, and data communications....

  12. An expert system for reward systems design.

    OpenAIRE

    Erturk, Alper

    2000-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Today's business environment is a highly competitive marketplace. In this competition, organizations distribute numerous rewards to motivate, attract and retain employees, such as pay, fringe benefits and promotions. However, not all managers have the necessary knowledge and expertise to effectively decide and structure reward systems. This thesis presents an expert system to assist managers with designing the most appropriate reward s...

  13. SUBSURFACE EMPLACEMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.; Novotny, R.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is to identify issues and criteria that apply to the design of the Subsurface Emplacement Transportation System (SET). The SET consists of the track used by the waste package handling equipment, the conductors and related equipment used to supply electrical power to that equipment, and the instrumentation and controls used to monitor and operate those track and power supply systems. Major considerations of this analysis include: (1) Operational life of the SET; (2) Geometric constraints on the track layout; (3) Operating loads on the track; (4) Environmentally induced loads on the track; (5) Power supply (electrification) requirements; and (6) Instrumentation and control requirements. This analysis will provide the basis for development of the system description document (SDD) for the SET. This analysis also defines the interfaces that need to be considered in the design of the SET. These interfaces include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Waste handling building; (2) Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface site layout; (3) Waste Emplacement System (WES); (4) Waste Retrieval System (WRS); (5) Ground Control System (GCS); (6) Ex-Container System (XCS); (7) Subsurface Electrical Distribution System (SED); (8) MGR Operations Monitoring and Control System (OMC); (9) Subsurface Facility System (SFS); (10) Subsurface Fire Protection System (SFR); (11) Performance Confirmation Emplacement Drift Monitoring System (PCM); and (12) Backfill Emplacement System (BES)

  14. Solar power satellite system; Uchu hatsuden system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-05

    The solar power satellite system is a system that converts solar energy into electric energy in the space, transmits power to earth through wireless resort such as microwave and supplies energy of new concept. In order to realize this system it is necessary to have new technologies such as space power transmission at low cost, construction of large space buildings and wireless high power transmission. In this paper, the principles, characteristics and the necessary technology of this system were explained. Besides Japan`s SPS2000 Plan (cooperative research by universities, government agencies and private corporations on the model of solar power satellite) the group of Europe, Russia and the United States has also proposed some ideas concerning the solar power satellite system. As far as the microwave power transmission, which is the key technology for solar power satellite system, is concerned, ground demonstration tests at the level of several tens of kW are discussed in Canada and France. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  15. System and method for creating expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Peter M. (Inventor); Luczak, Edward C. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A system and method provides for the creation of a highly graphical expert system without the need for programming in code. An expert system is created by initially building a data interface, defining appropriate Mission, User-Defined, Inferred, and externally-generated GenSAA (EGG) data variables whose data values will be updated and input into the expert system. Next, rules of the expert system are created by building appropriate conditions of the rules which must be satisfied and then by building appropriate actions of rules which are to be executed upon corresponding conditions being satisfied. Finally, an appropriate user interface is built which can be highly graphical in nature and which can include appropriate message display and/or modification of display characteristics of a graphical display object, to visually alert a user of the expert system of varying data values, upon conditions of a created rule being satisfied. The data interface building, rule building, and user interface building are done in an efficient manner and can be created without the need for programming in code.

  16. Business system: Sustainable development and anticipatory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Potočan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence and development of humankind depends mainly upon the co-ordinated operation of all areas and levels of human activity. However, in theory and in practice there is no model of operation, which would provide a harmonized and target oriented development. A partial solution is offered by sustainable development, which tries to define and carry out common goals of mankind with a harmonized implementation of human activities at all levels of its living and behaviour. Companies belong to central institutions of modern society which essentially co–create the sustainability of society. The company’s endeavour by simulation to prepare models of their goals concerning their internal and external environment. On the base of systemic treatment, we can define companies as business system, which can survive in a log-run only on the basis of sustainable development. The business system can also be supported by the application of the anticipatory systems. The anticipatory systems can be, in this sense, understood as an entity of the methodological approach, techniques and modes of work. Their characteristics have, a direct impact on the determination of goals, on the orientation of operation, and hence on the achievement of the business system results.

  17. Operating System for Runtime Reconfigurable Multiprocessor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Göhringer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Operating systems traditionally handle the task scheduling of one or more application instances on processor-like hardware architectures. RAMPSoC, a novel runtime adaptive multiprocessor System-on-Chip, exploits the dynamic reconfiguration on FPGAs to generate, start and terminate hardware and software tasks. The hardware tasks have to be transferred to the reconfigurable hardware via a configuration access port. The software tasks can be loaded into the local memory of the respective IP core either via the configuration access port or via the on-chip communication infrastructure (e.g. a Network-on-Chip. Recent-series of Xilinx FPGAs, such as Virtex-5, provide two Internal Configuration Access Ports, which cannot be accessed simultaneously. To prevent conflicts, the access to these ports as well as the hardware resource management needs to be controlled, e.g. by a special-purpose operating system running on an embedded processor. For that purpose and to handle the relations between temporally and spatially scheduled operations, the novel approach of an operating system is of high importance. This special purpose operating system, called CAP-OS (Configuration Access Port-Operating System, which will be presented in this paper, supports the clients using the configuration port with the services of priority-based access scheduling, hardware task mapping and resource management.

  18. FFTF gas processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, T.G.

    1977-01-01

    The design and operation of the two radioactive gas processing systems at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) exemplifies the concept that will be used in the first generation of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR's). The two systems, the Radioactive Argon Processing System (RAPS) and the Cell Atmosphere Processing System (CAPS), process the argon and nitrogen used in the FFTF for cover gas on liquid metal systems and as inert atmospheres in steel lined cells housing sodium equipment. The RAPS specifically processes the argon cover gas from the reactor coolant system, providing for decontamination and eventual reuse. The CAPS processes radioactive gasses from inerted cells and other liquid metal cover gas systems, providing for decontamination and ultimate discharge to the atmosphere. The cryogenic processing of waste gas by both systems is described

  19. Optical Airborne Tracker System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Airborne Tracker System (OATS) is an airborne dual-axis optical tracking system capable of pointing at any sky location or ground target.  The objectives...

  20. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.