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Sample records for regression examined associations

  1. Misery loves company? A meta-regression examining aggregate unemployment rates and the unemployment-mortality association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfs, David J; Shor, Eran; Blank, Aharon; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2015-05-01

    Individual-level unemployment has been consistently linked to poor health and higher mortality, but some scholars have suggested that the negative effect of job loss may be lower during times and in places where aggregate unemployment rates are high. We review three logics associated with this moderation hypothesis: health selection, social isolation, and unemployment stigma. We then test whether aggregate unemployment rates moderate the individual-level association between unemployment and all-cause mortality. We use six meta-regression models (each using a different measure of the aggregate unemployment rate) based on 62 relative all-cause mortality risk estimates from 36 studies (from 15 nations). We find that the magnitude of the individual-level unemployment-mortality association is approximately the same during periods of high and low aggregate-level unemployment. Model coefficients (exponentiated) were 1.01 for the crude unemployment rate (P = .27), 0.94 for the change in unemployment rate from the previous year (P = .46), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 5-year running average (P = .87), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 10-year running average (P = .73), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average (measured as a continuous variable; P = .61), and showed no variation across unemployment levels when the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average was measured categorically. Heterogeneity between studies was significant (P unemployment experiences change when macroeconomic conditions change. Efforts to ameliorate the negative social and economic consequences of unemployment should continue to focus on the individual and should be maintained regardless of periodic changes in macroeconomic conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Examination of influential observations in penalized spline regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkan, Semra

    2013-10-01

    In parametric or nonparametric regression models, the results of regression analysis are affected by some anomalous observations in the data set. Thus, detection of these observations is one of the major steps in regression analysis. These observations are precisely detected by well-known influence measures. Pena's statistic is one of them. In this study, Pena's approach is formulated for penalized spline regression in terms of ordinary residuals and leverages. The real data and artificial data are used to see illustrate the effectiveness of Pena's statistic as to Cook's distance on detecting influential observations. The results of the study clearly reveal that the proposed measure is superior to Cook's Distance to detect these observations in large data set.

  3. A multiple regression method for genomewide association studies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bujun Mei

    2018-06-07

    Jun 7, 2018 ... Similar to the typical genomewide association tests using LD ... new approach performed validly when the multiple regression based on linkage method was employed. .... the model, two groups of scenarios were simulated.

  4. Using quantile regression to examine health care expenditures during the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Mortensen, Karoline; Thomas, Stephen B

    2014-04-01

    To examine the association between the Great Recession of 2007-2009 and health care expenditures along the health care spending distribution, with a focus on racial/ethnic disparities. Secondary data analyses of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2005-2006 and 2008-2009). Quantile multivariate regressions are employed to measure the different associations between the economic recession of 2007-2009 and health care spending. Race/ethnicity and interaction terms between race/ethnicity and a recession indicator are controlled to examine whether minorities encountered disproportionately lower health spending during the economic recession. The Great Recession was significantly associated with reductions in health care expenditures at the 10th-50th percentiles of the distribution, but not at the 75th-90th percentiles. Racial and ethnic disparities were more substantial at the lower end of the health expenditure distribution; however, on average the reduction in expenditures was similar for all race/ethnic groups. The Great Recession was also positively associated with spending on emergency department visits. This study shows that the relationship between the Great Recession and health care spending varied along the health expenditure distribution. More variability was observed in the lower end of the health spending distribution compared to the higher end. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  5. Parameter Estimation for Improving Association Indicators in Binary Logistic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Bashiri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is estimation of Binary logistic regression parameters for maximizing the log-likelihood function with improved association indicators. In this paper the parameter estimation steps have been explained and then measures of association have been introduced and their calculations have been analyzed. Moreover a new related indicators based on membership degree level have been expressed. Indeed association measures demonstrate the number of success responses occurred in front of failure in certain number of Bernoulli independent experiments. In parameter estimation, existing indicators values is not sensitive to the parameter values, whereas the proposed indicators are sensitive to the estimated parameters during the iterative procedure. Therefore, proposing a new association indicator of binary logistic regression with more sensitivity to the estimated parameters in maximizing the log- likelihood in iterative procedure is innovation of this study.

  6. Visual grading characteristics and ordinal regression analysis during optimisation of CT head examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarb, Francis; McEntee, Mark F; Rainford, Louise

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate visual grading characteristics (VGC) and ordinal regression analysis during head CT optimisation as a potential alternative to visual grading assessment (VGA), traditionally employed to score anatomical visualisation. Patient images (n = 66) were obtained using current and optimised imaging protocols from two CT suites: a 16-slice scanner at the national Maltese centre for trauma and a 64-slice scanner in a private centre. Local resident radiologists (n = 6) performed VGA followed by VGC and ordinal regression analysis. VGC alone indicated that optimised protocols had similar image quality as current protocols. Ordinal logistic regression analysis provided an in-depth evaluation, criterion by criterion allowing the selective implementation of the protocols. The local radiology review panel supported the implementation of optimised protocols for brain CT examinations (including trauma) in one centre, achieving radiation dose reductions ranging from 24 % to 36 %. In the second centre a 29 % reduction in radiation dose was achieved for follow-up cases. The combined use of VGC and ordinal logistic regression analysis led to clinical decisions being taken on the implementation of the optimised protocols. This improved method of image quality analysis provided the evidence to support imaging protocol optimisation, resulting in significant radiation dose savings. • There is need for scientifically based image quality evaluation during CT optimisation. • VGC and ordinal regression analysis in combination led to better informed clinical decisions. • VGC and ordinal regression analysis led to dose reductions without compromising diagnostic efficacy.

  7. Logistic regression analysis to predict Medical Licensing Examination of Thailand (MLET) Step1 success or failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanvarie, Samkaew; Sathapatayavongs, Boonmee

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess factors that predict students' performance in the Medical Licensing Examination of Thailand (MLET) Step1 examination. The hypothesis was that demographic factors and academic records would predict the students' performance in the Step1 Licensing Examination. A logistic regression analysis of demographic factors (age, sex and residence) and academic records [high school grade point average (GPA), National University Entrance Examination Score and GPAs of the pre-clinical years] with the MLET Step1 outcome was accomplished using the data of 117 third-year Ramathibodi medical students. Twenty-three (19.7%) students failed the MLET Step1 examination. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that the significant predictors of MLET Step1 success/failure were residence background and GPAs of the second and third preclinical years. For students whose sophomore and third-year GPAs increased by an average of 1 point, the odds of passing the MLET Step1 examination increased by a factor of 16.3 and 12.8 respectively. The minimum GPAs for students from urban and rural backgrounds to pass the examination were estimated from the equation (2.35 vs 2.65 from 4.00 scale). Students from rural backgrounds and/or low-grade point averages in their second and third preclinical years of medical school are at risk of failing the MLET Step1 examination. They should be given intensive tutorials during the second and third pre-clinical years.

  8. Exploring factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in preschool children: a Poisson regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Ferreira, Simone Helena; Spiguel, Mônica Hermann; Marquezan, Marcela

    2010-04-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the factors associated with dental trauma in preschool children using Poisson regression analysis with robust variance. The study population comprised 888 children aged 3- to 5-year-old attending public nurseries in Canoas, southern Brazil. Questionnaires assessing information related to the independent variables (age, gender, race, mother's educational level and family income) were completed by the parents. Clinical examinations were carried out by five trained examiners in order to assess traumatic dental injuries (TDI) according to Andreasen's classification. One of the five examiners was calibrated to assess orthodontic characteristics (open bite and overjet). Multivariable Poisson regression analysis with robust variance was used to determine the factors associated with dental trauma as well as the strengths of association. Traditional logistic regression was also performed in order to compare the estimates obtained by both methods of statistical analysis. 36.4% (323/888) of the children suffered dental trauma and there was no difference in prevalence rates from 3 to 5 years of age. Poisson regression analysis showed that the probability of the outcome was almost 30% higher for children whose mothers had more than 8 years of education (Prevalence Ratio = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.03-1.60) and 63% higher for children with an overjet greater than 2 mm (Prevalence Ratio = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.31-2.03). Odds ratios clearly overestimated the size of the effect when compared with prevalence ratios. These findings indicate the need for preventive orientation regarding TDI, in order to educate parents and caregivers about supervising infants, particularly those with increased overjet and whose mothers have a higher level of education. Poisson regression with robust variance represents a better alternative than logistic regression to estimate the risk of dental trauma in preschool children.

  9. Complete regression of myocardial involvement associated with lymphoma following chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinicki, Juan Pablo; Cianciulli, Tomás F; Farace, Gustavo A; Saccheri, María C; Lax, Jorge A; Kazelian, Lucía R; Wachs, Adolfo

    2013-09-26

    Cardiac involvement as an initial presentation of malignant lymphoma is a rare occurrence. We describe the case of a 26 year old man who had initially been diagnosed with myocardial infiltration on an echocardiogram, presenting with a testicular mass and unilateral peripheral facial paralysis. On admission, electrocardiograms (ECG) revealed negative T-waves in all leads and ST-segment elevation in the inferior leads. On two-dimensional echocardiography, there was infiltration of the pericardium with mild effusion, infiltrative thickening of the aortic walls, both atria and the interatrial septum and a mildly depressed systolic function of both ventricles. An axillary biopsy was performed and reported as a T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL). Following the diagnosis and staging, chemotherapy was started. Twenty-two days after finishing the first cycle of chemotherapy, the ECG showed regression of T-wave changes in all leads and normalization of the ST-segment elevation in the inferior leads. A follow-up Two-dimensional echocardiography confirmed regression of the myocardial infiltration. This case report illustrates a lymphoma presenting with testicular mass, unilateral peripheral facial paralysis and myocardial involvement, and demonstrates that regression of infiltration can be achieved by intensive chemotherapy treatment. To our knowledge, there are no reported cases of T-LBL presenting as a testicular mass and unilateral peripheral facial paralysis, with complete regression of myocardial involvement.

  10. Examining Predictive Validity of Oral Reading Fluency Slope in Upper Elementary Grades Using Quantile Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eunsoo; Capin, Philip; Roberts, Greg; Vaughn, Sharon

    2017-07-01

    Within multitiered instructional delivery models, progress monitoring is a key mechanism for determining whether a child demonstrates an adequate response to instruction. One measure commonly used to monitor the reading progress of students is oral reading fluency (ORF). This study examined the extent to which ORF slope predicts reading comprehension outcomes for fifth-grade struggling readers ( n = 102) participating in an intensive reading intervention. Quantile regression models showed that ORF slope significantly predicted performance on a sentence-level fluency and comprehension assessment, regardless of the students' reading skills, controlling for initial ORF performance. However, ORF slope was differentially predictive of a passage-level comprehension assessment based on students' reading skills when controlling for initial ORF status. Results showed that ORF explained unique variance for struggling readers whose posttest performance was at the upper quantiles at the end of the reading intervention, but slope was not a significant predictor of passage-level comprehension for students whose reading problems were the most difficult to remediate.

  11. Isolating and Examining Sources of Suppression and Multicollinearity in Multiple Linear Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckstead, Jason W.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of suppression (and multicollinearity) in multiple regression analysis complicates interpretation of predictor-criterion relationships. The mathematical conditions that produce suppression in regression analysis have received considerable attention in the methodological literature but until now nothing in the way of an analytic…

  12. Germplasm-regression-combined marker-trait association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-01

    susceptible genotypes from different parts of south India. RAPD and. SSR ... Fiber length (FL). 100 individuals SSR,. RAPD and. ISSR. MRA. Four. SSR markers associated with FL, PB15 of them could identify as high as 75% long ...

  13. Healthcare Expenditures Associated with Depression Among Individuals with Osteoarthritis: Post-Regression Linear Decomposition Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Parul; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2015-12-01

    Depression is common among individuals with osteoarthritis and leads to increased healthcare burden. The objective of this study was to examine excess total healthcare expenditures associated with depression among individuals with osteoarthritis in the US. Adults with self-reported osteoarthritis (n = 1881) were identified using data from the 2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Among those with osteoarthritis, chi-square tests and ordinary least square regressions (OLS) were used to examine differences in healthcare expenditures between those with and without depression. Post-regression linear decomposition technique was used to estimate the relative contribution of different constructs of the Anderson's behavioral model, i.e., predisposing, enabling, need, personal healthcare practices, and external environment factors, to the excess expenditures associated with depression among individuals with osteoarthritis. All analysis accounted for the complex survey design of MEPS. Depression coexisted among 20.6 % of adults with osteoarthritis. The average total healthcare expenditures were $13,684 among adults with depression compared to $9284 among those without depression. Multivariable OLS regression revealed that adults with depression had 38.8 % higher healthcare expenditures (p regression linear decomposition analysis indicated that 50 % of differences in expenditures among adults with and without depression can be explained by differences in need factors. Among individuals with coexisting osteoarthritis and depression, excess healthcare expenditures associated with depression were mainly due to comorbid anxiety, chronic conditions and poor health status. These expenditures may potentially be reduced by providing timely intervention for need factors or by providing care under a collaborative care model.

  14. A Poisson Regression Examination of the Relationship between Website Traffic and Search Engine Queries

    OpenAIRE

    Tierney, Heather L.R.; Pan, Bing

    2010-01-01

    A new area of research involves the use of Google data, which has been normalized and scaled to predict economic activity. This new source of data holds both many advantages as well as disadvantages, which are discussed through the use of daily and weekly data. Daily and weekly data are employed to show the effect of aggregation as it pertains to Google data, which can lead to contradictory findings. In this paper, Poisson regressions are used to explore the relationship between the online...

  15. Bias due to two-stage residual-outcome regression analysis in genetic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Serkalem; Cupples, L Adrienne

    2011-11-01

    Association studies of risk factors and complex diseases require careful assessment of potential confounding factors. Two-stage regression analysis, sometimes referred to as residual- or adjusted-outcome analysis, has been increasingly used in association studies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and quantitative traits. In this analysis, first, a residual-outcome is calculated from a regression of the outcome variable on covariates and then the relationship between the adjusted-outcome and the SNP is evaluated by a simple linear regression of the adjusted-outcome on the SNP. In this article, we examine the performance of this two-stage analysis as compared with multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. Our findings show that when a SNP and a covariate are correlated, the two-stage approach results in biased genotypic effect and loss of power. Bias is always toward the null and increases with the squared-correlation between the SNP and the covariate (). For example, for , 0.1, and 0.5, two-stage analysis results in, respectively, 0, 10, and 50% attenuation in the SNP effect. As expected, MLR was always unbiased. Since individual SNPs often show little or no correlation with covariates, a two-stage analysis is expected to perform as well as MLR in many genetic studies; however, it produces considerably different results from MLR and may lead to incorrect conclusions when independent variables are highly correlated. While a useful alternative to MLR under , the two -stage approach has serious limitations. Its use as a simple substitute for MLR should be avoided. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Overall Odds Ratio as an Intuitive Effect Size Index for Multiple Logistic Regression: Examination of Further Refinements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Huy; Marcus, Justin

    2012-01-01

    This study used Monte Carlo simulation to examine the properties of the overall odds ratio (OOR), which was recently introduced as an index for overall effect size in multiple logistic regression. It was found that the OOR was relatively independent of study base rate and performed better than most commonly used R-square analogs in indexing model…

  17. Logistic regression analysis of psychosocial correlates associated with recovery from schizophrenia in a Chinese community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Samson; Davidson, Larry; Chung, Ka-Fai; Yu, Chong Ho; Ng, King Lam; Tsoi, Emily

    2015-02-01

    More mental health services are adopting the recovery paradigm. This study adds to prior research by (a) using measures of stages of recovery and elements of recovery that were designed and validated in a non-Western, Chinese culture and (b) testing which demographic factors predict advanced recovery and whether placing importance on certain elements predicts advanced recovery. We examined recovery and factors associated with recovery among 75 Hong Kong adults who were diagnosed with schizophrenia and assessed to be in clinical remission. Data were collected on socio-demographic factors, recovery stages and elements associated with recovery. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables that could best predict stages of recovery. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to detect the classification accuracy of the model (i.e. rates of correct classification of stages of recovery). Logistic regression results indicated that stages of recovery could be distinguished with reasonable accuracy for Stage 3 ('living with disability', classification accuracy = 75.45%) and Stage 4 ('living beyond disability', classification accuracy = 75.50%). However, there was no sufficient information to predict Combined Stages 1 and 2 ('overwhelmed by disability' and 'struggling with disability'). It was found that having a meaningful role and age were the most important differentiators of recovery stage. Preliminary findings suggest that adopting salient life roles personally is important to recovery and that this component should be incorporated into mental health services. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Integration of association statistics over genomic regions using Bayesian adaptive regression splines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaohua

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the search for genetic determinants of complex disease, two approaches to association analysis are most often employed, testing single loci or testing a small group of loci jointly via haplotypes for their relationship to disease status. It is still debatable which of these approaches is more favourable, and under what conditions. The former has the advantage of simplicity but suffers severely when alleles at the tested loci are not in linkage disequilibrium (LD with liability alleles; the latter should capture more of the signal encoded in LD, but is far from simple. The complexity of haplotype analysis could be especially troublesome for association scans over large genomic regions, which, in fact, is becoming the standard design. For these reasons, the authors have been evaluating statistical methods that bridge the gap between single-locus and haplotype-based tests. In this article, they present one such method, which uses non-parametric regression techniques embodied by Bayesian adaptive regression splines (BARS. For a set of markers falling within a common genomic region and a corresponding set of single-locus association statistics, the BARS procedure integrates these results into a single test by examining the class of smooth curves consistent with the data. The non-parametric BARS procedure generally finds no signal when no liability allele exists in the tested region (ie it achieves the specified size of the test and it is sensitive enough to pick up signals when a liability allele is present. The BARS procedure provides a robust and potentially powerful alternative to classical tests of association, diminishes the multiple testing problem inherent in those tests and can be applied to a wide range of data types, including genotype frequencies estimated from pooled samples.

  19. Identifying Dietary Patterns Associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Korean Adults Using Reduced Rank Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayeon Shin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet plays a crucial role in cognitive function. Few studies have examined the relationship between dietary patterns and cognitive functions of older adults in the Korean population. This study aimed to identify the effect of dietary patterns on the risk of mild cognitive impairment. A total of 239 participants, including 88 men and 151 women, aged 65 years and older were selected from health centers in the district of Seoul, Gyeonggi province, and Incheon, in Korea. Dietary patterns were determined using Reduced Rank Regression (RRR methods with responses regarding vitamin B6, vitamin C, and iron intakes, based on both a one-day 24-h recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Cognitive function was assessed using the Korean-Mini Mental State Examination (K-MMSE. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between dietary pattern score and the risk of mild cognitive impairment. A total of 20 (8% out of the 239 participants had mild cognitive impairment. Three dietary patterns were identified: seafood and vegetables, high meat, and bread, ham, and alcohol. Among the three dietary patterns, the older adult population who adhered to the seafood and vegetables pattern, characterized by high intake of seafood, vegetables, fruits, bread, snacks, soy products, beans, chicken, pork, ham, egg, and milk had a decreased risk of mild cognitive impairment compared to those who did not (adjusted odds ratios 0.06, 95% confidence interval 0.01–0.72 after controlling for gender, supplementation, education, history of dementia, physical activity, body mass index (BMI, and duration of sleep. The other two dietary patterns were not significantly associated with the risk of mild cognitive impairment. In conclusion, high consumption of fruits, vegetables, seafood, and protein foods was significantly associated with reduced mild cognitive impairment in older Korean adults. These results can contribute to the establishment of

  20. Assessing the reliability of the borderline regression method as a standard setting procedure for objective structured clinical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mortaz Hejri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the methods used for standard setting is the borderline regression method (BRM. This study aims to assess the reliability of BRM when the pass-fail standard in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE was calculated by averaging the BRM standards obtained for each station separately. Materials and Methods: In nine stations of the OSCE with direct observation the examiners gave each student a checklist score and a global score. Using a linear regression model for each station, we calculated the checklist score cut-off on the regression equation for the global scale cut-off set at 2. The OSCE pass-fail standard was defined as the average of all station′s standard. To determine the reliability, the root mean square error (RMSE was calculated. The R2 coefficient and the inter-grade discrimination were calculated to assess the quality of OSCE. Results: The mean total test score was 60.78. The OSCE pass-fail standard and its RMSE were 47.37 and 0.55, respectively. The R2 coefficients ranged from 0.44 to 0.79. The inter-grade discrimination score varied greatly among stations. Conclusion: The RMSE of the standard was very small indicating that BRM is a reliable method of setting standard for OSCE, which has the advantage of providing data for quality assurance.

  1. Associations of neighborhood disorganization and maternal spanking with children's aggression: A fixed-effects regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Julie; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Lee, Shawna J

    2018-02-01

    This study employed fixed effects regression that controls for selection bias, omitted variables bias, and all time-invariant aspects of parent and child characteristics to examine the simultaneous associations between neighborhood disorganization, maternal spanking, and aggressive behavior in early childhood using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS). Analysis was based on 2,472 children and their mothers who participated in Wave 3 (2001-2003; child age 3) and Wave 4 (2003-2006; child age 5) of the FFCWS. Results indicated that higher rates of neighborhood crime and violence predicted higher levels of child aggression. Maternal spanking in the past year, whether frequent or infrequent, was also associated with increases in aggressive behavior. This study contributes statistically rigorous evidence that exposure to violence in the neighborhood as well as the family context are predictors of child aggression. We conclude with a discussion for the need for multilevel prevention and intervention approaches that target both community and parenting factors. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Association between biomarkers and clinical characteristics in chronic subdural hematoma patients assessed with lasso regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Are Hugo Pripp

    Full Text Available Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH is characterized by an "old" encapsulated collection of blood and blood breakdown products between the brain and its outermost covering (the dura. Recognized risk factors for development of CSDH are head injury, old age and using anticoagulation medication, but its underlying pathophysiological processes are still unclear. It is assumed that a complex local process of interrelated mechanisms including inflammation, neomembrane formation, angiogenesis and fibrinolysis could be related to its development and propagation. However, the association between the biomarkers of inflammation and angiogenesis, and the clinical and radiological characteristics of CSDH patients, need further investigation. The high number of biomarkers compared to the number of observations, the correlation between biomarkers, missing data and skewed distributions may limit the usefulness of classical statistical methods. We therefore explored lasso regression to assess the association between 30 biomarkers of inflammation and angiogenesis at the site of lesions, and selected clinical and radiological characteristics in a cohort of 93 patients. Lasso regression performs both variable selection and regularization to improve the predictive accuracy and interpretability of the statistical model. The results from the lasso regression showed analysis exhibited lack of robust statistical association between the biomarkers in hematoma fluid with age, gender, brain infarct, neurological deficiencies and volume of hematoma. However, there were associations between several of the biomarkers with postoperative recurrence requiring reoperation. The statistical analysis with lasso regression supported previous findings that the immunological characteristics of CSDH are local. The relationship between biomarkers, the radiological appearance of lesions and recurrence requiring reoperation have been inclusive using classical statistical methods on these data

  3. Association of Attorney Advertising and FDA Action with Prescription Claims: A Time Series Segmented Regression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett, Elizabeth C; Chen, Brian K

    2015-12-01

    Attorneys sponsor television advertisements that include repeated warnings about adverse drug events to solicit consumers for lawsuits against drug manufacturers. The relationship between such advertising, safety actions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and healthcare use is unknown. To investigate the relationship between attorney advertising, FDA actions, and prescription drug claims. The study examined total users per month and prescription rates for seven drugs with substantial attorney advertising volume and FDA or other safety interventions during 2009. Segmented regression analysis was used to detect pre-intervention trends, post-intervention level changes, and changes in post-intervention trends relative to the pre-intervention trends in the use of these seven drugs, using advertising volume, media hits, and the number of Medicare enrollees as covariates. Data for these variables were obtained from the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Kantar Media, and LexisNexis. Several types of safety actions were associated with reductions in drug users and/or prescription rates, particularly for fentanyl, varenicline, and paroxetine. In most cases, attorney advertising volume rose in conjunction with major safety actions. Attorney advertising volume was positively correlated with prescription rates in five of seven drugs, likely because advertising volume began rising before safety actions, when prescription rates were still increasing. On the other hand, attorney advertising had mixed associations with the number of users per month. Regulatory and safety actions likely reduced the number of users and/or prescription rates for some drugs. Attorneys may have strategically chosen to begin advertising adverse drug events prior to major safety actions, but we found little evidence that attorney advertising reduced drug use. Further research is needed to better understand how consumers and physicians respond to attorney advertising.

  4. Examination of Parameters Affecting the House Prices by Multiple Regression Analysis and its Contributions to Earthquake-Based Urban Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denli, H. H.; Durmus, B.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the factors which may affect the apartment prices with multiple linear regression analysis models and visualize the results by value maps. The study is focused on a county of Istanbul - Turkey. Totally 390 apartments around the county Umraniye are evaluated due to their physical and locational conditions. The identification of factors affecting the price of apartments in the county with a population of approximately 600k is expected to provide a significant contribution to the apartment market.Physical factors are selected as the age, number of rooms, size, floor numbers of the building and the floor that the apartment is positioned in. Positional factors are selected as the distances to the nearest hospital, school, park and police station. Totally ten physical and locational parameters are examined by regression analysis.After the regression analysis has been performed, value maps are composed from the parameters age, price and price per square meters. The most significant of the composed maps is the price per square meters map. Results show that the location of the apartment has the most influence to the square meter price information of the apartment. A different practice is developed from the composed maps by searching the ability of using price per square meters map in urban transformation practices. By marking the buildings older than 15 years in the price per square meters map, a different and new interpretation has been made to determine the buildings, to which should be given priority during an urban transformation in the county.This county is very close to the North Anatolian Fault zone and is under the threat of earthquakes. By marking the apartments older than 15 years on the price per square meters map, both older and expensive square meters apartments list can be gathered. By the help of this list, the priority could be given to the selected higher valued old apartments to support the economy of the country

  5. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.

  6. Multiple Regression Analysis of mRNA-miRNA Associations in Colorectal Cancer Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengfeng; Wong, S. C. Cesar; Chan, Lawrence W. C.; Cho, William C. S.; Yip, S. P.; Yung, Benjamin Y. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a short and endogenous RNA molecule that regulates posttranscriptional gene expression. It is an important factor for tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC), and a potential biomarker for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of CRC. Our objective is to identify the related miRNAs and their associations with genes frequently involved in CRC microsatellite instability (MSI) and chromosomal instability (CIN) signaling pathways. Results. A regression model was adopted to identify the significantly associated miRNAs targeting a set of candidate genes frequently involved in colorectal cancer MSI and CIN pathways. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to construct the model and find the significant mRNA-miRNA associations. We identified three significantly associated mRNA-miRNA pairs: BCL2 was positively associated with miR-16 and SMAD4 was positively associated with miR-567 in the CRC tissue, while MSH6 was positively associated with miR-142-5p in the normal tissue. As for the whole model, BCL2 and SMAD4 models were not significant, and MSH6 model was significant. The significant associations were different in the normal and the CRC tissues. Conclusion. Our results have laid down a solid foundation in exploration of novel CRC mechanisms, and identification of miRNA roles as oncomirs or tumor suppressor mirs in CRC. PMID:24895601

  7. Extralobar pulmonary sequestration in neonates: The natural course and predictive factors associated with spontaneous regression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hee Mang; Jung, Ah Young; Cho, Young Ah; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Lee, Jin Seong [Asan Medical Center Children' s Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Division of Neonatology, Asan Medical Center Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Sung-Hoon [Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon-Ok [Asan Medical Center, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To describe the natural course of extralobar pulmonary sequestration (EPS) and identify factors associated with spontaneous regression of EPS. We retrospectively searched for patients diagnosed with EPS on initial contrast CT scan within 1 month after birth and had a follow-up CT scan without treatment. Spontaneous regression of EPS was assessed by percentage decrease in volume (PDV) and percentage decrease in sum of the diameter of systemic feeding arteries (PDD) by comparing initial and follow-up CT scans. Clinical and CT features were analysed to determine factors associated with PDV and PDD rates. Fifty-one neonates were included. The cumulative proportions of patients reaching PDV > 50 % and PDD > 50 % were 93.0 % and 73.3 % at 4 years, respectively. Tissue attenuation was significantly associated with PDV rate (B = -21.78, P <.001). The tissue attenuation (B = -22.62, P =.001) and diameter of the largest systemic feeding arteries (B = -48.31, P =.011) were significant factors associated with PDD rate. The volume and diameter of systemic feeding arteries of EPS spontaneously decreased within 4 years without treatment. EPSs showing a low tissue attenuation and small diameter of the largest systemic feeding arteries on initial contrast-enhanced CT scans were likely to regress spontaneously. (orig.)

  8. Auto-associative Kernel Regression Model with Weighted Distance Metric for Instrument Drift Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ho Cheol; Park, Moon Ghu; You, Skin

    2006-01-01

    Recently, many on-line approaches to instrument channel surveillance (drift monitoring and fault detection) have been reported worldwide. On-line monitoring (OLM) method evaluates instrument channel performance by assessing its consistency with other plant indications through parametric or non-parametric models. The heart of an OLM system is the model giving an estimate of the true process parameter value against individual measurements. This model gives process parameter estimate calculated as a function of other plant measurements which can be used to identify small sensor drifts that would require the sensor to be manually calibrated or replaced. This paper describes an improvement of auto associative kernel regression (AAKR) by introducing a correlation coefficient weighting on kernel distances. The prediction performance of the developed method is compared with conventional auto-associative kernel regression

  9. Early regression of severe left ventricular hypertrophy after transcatheter aortic valve replacement is associated with decreased hospitalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindman, Brian R; Stewart, William J; Pibarot, Philippe; Hahn, Rebecca T; Otto, Catherine M; Xu, Ke; Devereux, Richard B; Weissman, Neil J; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Szeto, Wilson Y; Makkar, Raj; Miller, D Craig; Lerakis, Stamatios; Kapadia, Samir; Bowers, Bruce; Greason, Kevin L; McAndrew, Thomas C; Lei, Yang; Leon, Martin B; Douglas, Pamela S

    2014-06-01

    This study sought to examine the relationship between left ventricular mass (LVM) regression and clinical outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). LVM regression after valve replacement for aortic stenosis is assumed to be a favorable effect of LV unloading, but its relationship to improved clinical outcomes is unclear. Of 2,115 patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis at high surgical risk receiving TAVR in the PARTNER (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves) randomized trial or continued access registry, 690 had both severe LV hypertrophy (left ventricular mass index [LVMi] ≥ 149 g/m(2) men, ≥ 122 g/m(2) women) at baseline and an LVMi measurement at 30-day post-TAVR follow-up. Clinical outcomes were compared for patients with greater than versus lesser than median percentage change in LVMi between baseline and 30 days using Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate event rates from 30 to 365 days. Compared with patients with lesser regression, patients with greater LVMi regression had a similar rate of all-cause mortality (14.1% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.99), but a lower rate of rehospitalization (9.5% vs. 18.5%, hazard ratio [HR]: 0.50, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.32 to 0.78; p = 0.002) and a lower rate of rehospitalization specifically for heart failure (7.3% vs. 13.6%, p = 0.01). The association with a lower rate of rehospitalization was consistent across subgroups and remained significant after multivariable adjustment (HR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.84; p = 0.007). Patients with greater LVMi regression had lower B-type natriuretic peptide (p = 0.002) and a trend toward better quality of life (p = 0.06) at 1-year follow-up than did those with lesser regression. In high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis and severe LV hypertrophy undergoing TAVR, those with greater early LVM regression had one-half the rate of rehospitalization over the subsequent year compared to those with lesser regression. Copyright © 2014 American College of

  10. Examining Spatial Variation in the Effects of Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora on Burn Severity Using Geographically Weighted Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Joo Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Burn severity has profound impacts on the response of post-fire forest ecosystems to fire events. Numerous previous studies have reported that burn severity is determined by variables such as meteorological conditions, pre-fire forest structure, and fuel characteristics. An underlying assumption of these studies was the constant effects of environmental variables on burn severity over space, and these analyses therefore did not consider the spatial dimension. This study examined spatial variation in the effects of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora on burn severity. Specifically, this study investigated the presence of spatially varying relationships between Japanese red pine and burn severity due to changes in slope and elevation. We estimated conventional ordinary least squares (OLS and geographically weighted regression (GWR models and compared them using three criteria; the coefficients of determination (R2, Akaike information criterion for small samples (AICc, and Moran’s I-value. The GWR model performed considerably better than the OLS model in explaining variation in burn severity. The results provided strong evidence that the effect of Japanese red pine on burn severity was not constant but varied spatially. Elevation was a significant factor in the variation in the effects of Japanese red pine on burn severity. The influence of red pine on burn severity was considerably higher in low-elevation areas but became less important than the other variables in high-elevation areas. The results of this study can be applied to location-specific strategies for forest managers and can be adopted to improve fire simulation models to more realistically mimic the nature of fire behavior.

  11. Weighted functional linear regression models for gene-based association analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belonogova, Nadezhda M; Svishcheva, Gulnara R; Wilson, James F; Campbell, Harry; Axenovich, Tatiana I

    2018-01-01

    Functional linear regression models are effectively used in gene-based association analysis of complex traits. These models combine information about individual genetic variants, taking into account their positions and reducing the influence of noise and/or observation errors. To increase the power of methods, where several differently informative components are combined, weights are introduced to give the advantage to more informative components. Allele-specific weights have been introduced to collapsing and kernel-based approaches to gene-based association analysis. Here we have for the first time introduced weights to functional linear regression models adapted for both independent and family samples. Using data simulated on the basis of GAW17 genotypes and weights defined by allele frequencies via the beta distribution, we demonstrated that type I errors correspond to declared values and that increasing the weights of causal variants allows the power of functional linear models to be increased. We applied the new method to real data on blood pressure from the ORCADES sample. Five of the six known genes with P models. Moreover, we found an association between diastolic blood pressure and the VMP1 gene (P = 8.18×10-6), when we used a weighted functional model. For this gene, the unweighted functional and weighted kernel-based models had P = 0.004 and 0.006, respectively. The new method has been implemented in the program package FREGAT, which is freely available at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/FREGAT/index.html.

  12. Shigella mediated depletion of macrophages in a murine breast cancer model is associated with tumor regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Galmbacher

    Full Text Available A tumor promoting role of macrophages has been described for a transgenic murine breast cancer model. In this model tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs represent a major component of the leukocytic infiltrate and are associated with tumor progression. Shigella flexneri is a bacterial pathogen known to specificly induce apotosis in macrophages. To evaluate whether Shigella-induced removal of macrophages may be sufficient for achieving tumor regression we have developed an attenuated strain of S. flexneri (M90TDeltaaroA and infected tumor bearing mice. Two mouse models were employed, xenotransplantation of a murine breast cancer cell line and spontanous breast cancer development in MMTV-HER2 transgenic mice. Quantitative analysis of bacterial tumor targeting demonstrated that attenuated, invasive Shigella flexneri primarily infected TAMs after systemic administration. A single i.v. injection of invasive M90TDeltaaroA resulted in caspase-1 dependent apoptosis of TAMs followed by a 74% reduction in tumors of transgenic MMTV-HER-2 mice 7 days post infection. TAM depletion was sustained and associated with complete tumor regression.These data support TAMs as useful targets for antitumor therapy and highlight attenuated bacterial pathogens as potential tools.

  13. Using quantile regression to examine the effects of inequality across the mortality distribution in the U.S. counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Chen, Vivian Yi-Ju; Shoff, Carla; Matthews, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. has experienced a resurgence of income inequality in the past decades. The evidence regarding the mortality implications of this phenomenon has been mixed. This study employs a rarely used method in mortality research, quantile regression (QR), to provide insight into the ongoing debate of whether income inequality is a determinant of mortality and to investigate the varying relationship between inequality and mortality throughout the mortality distribution. Analyzing a U.S. dataset where the five-year (1998–2002) average mortality rates were combined with other county-level covariates, we found that the association between inequality and mortality was not constant throughout the mortality distribution and the impact of inequality on mortality steadily increased until the 80th percentile. When accounting for all potential confounders, inequality was significantly and positively related to mortality; however, this inequality–mortality relationship did not hold across the mortality distribution. A series of Wald tests confirmed this varying inequality–mortality relationship, especially between the lower and upper tails. The large variation in the estimated coefficients of the Gini index suggested that inequality had the greatest influence on those counties with a mortality rate of roughly 9.95 deaths per 1000 population (80th percentile) compared to any other counties. Furthermore, our results suggest that the traditional analytic methods that focus on mean or median value of the dependent variable can be, at most, applied to a narrow 20 percent of observations. This study demonstrates the value of QR. Our findings provide some insight as to why the existing evidence for the inequality–mortality relationship is mixed and suggest that analytical issues may play a role in clarifying whether inequality is a robust determinant of population health. PMID:22497847

  14. Association between large strongyle genera in larval cultures--using rare-event poisson regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X; Vidyashankar, A N; Nielsen, M K

    2013-09-01

    Decades of intensive anthelmintic treatment has caused equine large strongyles to become quite rare, while the cyathostomins have developed resistance to several drug classes. The larval culture has been associated with low to moderate negative predictive values for detecting Strongylus vulgaris infection. It is unknown whether detection of other large strongyle species can be statistically associated with presence of S. vulgaris. This remains a statistical challenge because of the rare occurrence of large strongyle species. This study used a modified Poisson regression to analyse a dataset for associations between S. vulgaris infection and simultaneous occurrence of Strongylus edentatus and Triodontophorus spp. In 663 horses on 42 Danish farms, the individual prevalences of S. vulgaris, S. edentatus and Triodontophorus spp. were 12%, 3% and 12%, respectively. Both S. edentatus and Triodontophorus spp. were significantly associated with S. vulgaris infection with relative risks above 1. Further, S. edentatus was associated with use of selective therapy on the farms, as well as negatively associated with anthelmintic treatment carried out within 6 months prior to the study. The findings illustrate that occurrence of S. vulgaris in larval cultures can be interpreted as indicative of other large strongyles being likely to be present.

  15. Associations between United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) and Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (IM-ITE) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Furman S; Zeger, Scott L; Kolars, Joseph C

    2008-07-01

    Little is known about the associations of previous standardized examination scores with scores on subsequent standardized examinations used to assess medical knowledge in internal medicine residencies. To examine associations of previous standardized test scores on subsequent standardized test scores. Retrospective cohort study. One hundred ninety-five internal medicine residents. Bivariate associations of United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Steps and Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (IM-ITE) scores were determined. Random effects analysis adjusting for repeated administrations of the IM-ITE and other variables known or hypothesized to affect IM-ITE score allowed for discrimination of associations of individual USMLE Step scores on IM-ITE scores. In bivariate associations, USMLE scores explained 17% to 27% of the variance in IME-ITE scores, and previous IM-ITE scores explained 66% of the variance in subsequent IM-ITE scores. Regression coefficients (95% CI) for adjusted associations of each USMLE Step with IM-ITE scores were USMLE-1 0.19 (0.12, 0.27), USMLE-2 0.23 (0.17, 0.30), and USMLE-3 0.19 (0.09, 0.29). No single USMLE Step is more strongly associated with IM-ITE scores than the others. Because previous IM-ITE scores are strongly associated with subsequent IM-ITE scores, appropriate modeling, such as random effects methods, should be used to account for previous IM-ITE administrations in studies for which IM-ITE score is an outcome.

  16. Dietary patterns by reduced rank regression are associated with obesity and hypertension in Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2017-01-01

    Evidence linking dietary patterns (DP) and obesity and hypertension prevalence is inconsistent. We aimed to identify DP derived from energy density, fibre and sugar intakes, as well as Na, K, fibre, SFA and PUFA, and investigate associations with obesity and hypertension. Adults (n 4908) were included from the cross-sectional Australian Health Survey 2011-2013. Two 24-h dietary recalls estimated food and nutrient intakes. Reduced rank regression derived DP with dietary energy density (DED), fibre density and total sugar intake as response variables for obesity and Na:K, SFA:PUFA and fibre density as variables for hypertension. Poisson regression investigated relationships between DP and prevalence ratios (PR) of overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and hypertension (blood pressure≥140/90 mmHg). Obesity-DP1 was positively correlated with fibre density and sugars and inversely with DED. Obesity-DP2 was positively correlated with sugars and inversely with fibre density. Individuals in the highest tertile of Obesity-DP1 and Obesity-DP2, compared with the lowest, had lower (PR 0·88; 95 % CI 0·81, 0·95) and higher (PR 1·09; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·18) prevalence of obesity, respectively. Na:K and SFA:PUFA were positively correlated with Hypertension-DP1 and inversely correlated with Hypertension-DP2, respectively. There was a trend towards higher hypertension prevalence in the highest tertile of Hypertension-DP1 compared with the lowest (PR 1·18; 95 % CI 0·99, 1·41). Hypertension-DP2 was not associated with hypertension. Obesity prevalence was inversely associated with low-DED, high-fibre and high-sugar (natural sugars) diets and positively associated with low-fibre and high-sugar (added sugars) diets. Hypertension prevalence was higher on low-fibre and high-Na and SFA diets.

  17. Esophageal Stenosis Associated With Tumor Regression in Radiotherapy for Esophageal Cancer: Frequency and Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atsumi, Kazushige [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Shioyama, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: shioyama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Arimura, Hidetaka [Department of Health Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Terashima, Kotaro [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Matsuki, Takaomi [Department of Health Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Nonoshita, Takeshi; Tsurumaru, Daisuke; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Asai, Kaori; Matsumoto, Keiji [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital at Beppu, Oita (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine clinical factors for predicting the frequency and severity of esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: The study group consisted of 109 patients with esophageal cancer of T1-4 and Stage I-III who were treated with definitive radiotherapy and achieved a complete response of their primary lesion at Kyushu University Hospital between January 1998 and December 2007. Esophageal stenosis was evaluated using esophagographic images within 3 months after completion of radiotherapy. We investigated the correlation between esophageal stenosis after radiotherapy and each of the clinical factors with regard to tumors and therapy. For validation of the correlative factors for esophageal stenosis, an artificial neural network was used to predict the esophageal stenotic ratio. Results: Esophageal stenosis tended to be more severe and more frequent in T3-4 cases than in T1-2 cases. Esophageal stenosis in cases with full circumference involvement tended to be more severe and more frequent than that in cases without full circumference involvement. Increases in wall thickness tended to be associated with increases in esophageal stenosis severity and frequency. In the multivariate analysis, T stage, extent of involved circumference, and wall thickness of the tumor region were significantly correlated to esophageal stenosis (p = 0.031, p < 0.0001, and p = 0.0011, respectively). The esophageal stenotic ratio predicted by the artificial neural network, which learned these three factors, was significantly correlated to the actual observed stenotic ratio, with a correlation coefficient of 0.864 (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study suggested that T stage, extent of involved circumference, and esophageal wall thickness of the tumor region were useful to predict the frequency and severity of esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer.

  18. Association of footprint measurements with plantar kinetics: a linear regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fascione, Jeanna M; Crews, Ryan T; Wrobel, James S

    2014-03-01

    The use of foot measurements to classify morphology and interpret foot function remains one of the focal concepts of lower-extremity biomechanics. However, only 27% to 55% of midfoot variance in foot pressures has been determined in the most comprehensive models. We investigated whether dynamic walking footprint measurements are associated with inter-individual foot loading variability. Thirty individuals (15 men and 15 women; mean ± SD age, 27.17 ± 2.21 years) walked at a self-selected speed over an electronic pedography platform using the midgait technique. Kinetic variables (contact time, peak pressure, pressure-time integral, and force-time integral) were collected for six masked regions. Footprints were digitized for area and linear boundaries using digital photo planimetry software. Six footprint measurements were determined: contact area, footprint index, arch index, truncated arch index, Chippaux-Smirak index, and Staheli index. Linear regression analysis with a Bonferroni adjustment was performed to determine the association between the footprint measurements and each of the kinetic variables. The findings demonstrate that a relationship exists between increased midfoot contact and increased kinetic values in respective locations. Many of these variables produced large effect sizes while describing 38% to 71% of the common variance of select plantar kinetic variables in the medial midfoot region. In addition, larger footprints were associated with larger kinetic values at the medial heel region and both masked forefoot regions. Dynamic footprint measurements are associated with dynamic plantar loading kinetics, with emphasis on the midfoot region.

  19. Association Between National Board Dental Examination Part II Scores and Comprehensive Examinations at Harvard School of Dental Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Kyeong; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Howell, T Howard; Karimbux, Nadeem Y

    2011-01-01

    Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM) uses a hybrid problem-based approach to teaching in the predoctoral program. The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a formative examination designed to assess the performance of students in the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum. At HSDM three comprehensive examinations with OSCE components are administered during the third and fourth years of clinical training. The National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) Part II is taken in the final year of the predoctoral program. This study examines the association between the NBDE Part II and the comprehensive exams held at HSDM. Predoctoral students from the HSDM classes of 2005 and 2006 were included in this study. The outcome variable of interest was the scores obtained by students in the NBDE Part II, and the main independent variable of interest was the performance of students in the comprehensive exams (honors, pass, make-up exam to pass). The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to examine the association between the grades obtained in the each of the three comprehensive exams and the NBDE Part II scores. Multivariable linear regression analysis was also used to examine the association between the NBDE Part II scores and the comprehensive exam grades. The effect of potential confounding factors including age, sex, and race/ethnicity was adjusted. The results suggest that students who performed well in the comprehensive exams performed better on the NBDE Part II, even after adjusting for confounding factors. Future studies will examine the long-term impact of PBL on postdoctoral plans and career choices.

  20. Comparing lagged linear correlation, lagged regression, Granger causality, and vector autoregression for uncovering associations in EHR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Matthew E; Albers, David J; Hripcsak, George

    2016-01-01

    Time series analysis methods have been shown to reveal clinical and biological associations in data collected in the electronic health record. We wish to develop reliable high-throughput methods for identifying adverse drug effects that are easy to implement and produce readily interpretable results. To move toward this goal, we used univariate and multivariate lagged regression models to investigate associations between twenty pairs of drug orders and laboratory measurements. Multivariate lagged regression models exhibited higher sensitivity and specificity than univariate lagged regression in the 20 examples, and incorporating autoregressive terms for labs and drugs produced more robust signals in cases of known associations among the 20 example pairings. Moreover, including inpatient admission terms in the model attenuated the signals for some cases of unlikely associations, demonstrating how multivariate lagged regression models' explicit handling of context-based variables can provide a simple way to probe for health-care processes that confound analyses of EHR data.

  1. A simple bias correction in linear regression for quantitative trait association under two-tail extreme selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Johnny S H; Kung, Annie W C; Sham, Pak C

    2011-09-01

    Selective genotyping can increase power in quantitative trait association. One example of selective genotyping is two-tail extreme selection, but simple linear regression analysis gives a biased genetic effect estimate. Here, we present a simple correction for the bias.

  2. Is frequency of family meals associated with fruit and vegetable intake among preschoolers? A logistic regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, A R; Terhorst, L; Skidmore, E R; Bendixen, R M

    2018-01-23

    The present study aimed to examine the associations between frequency of family meals and low fruit and vegetable intake in preschool children. Promoting healthy nutrition early in life is recommended for combating childhood obesity. Frequency of family meals is associated with fruit and vegetable intake in school-age children and adolescents; the relationship in young children is less clear. We completed a secondary analysis using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. Participants included children, born in the year 2001, to mothers who were >15 years old (n = 8 950). Data were extracted from structured parent interviews during the year prior to kindergarten. We used hierarchical logistic regression to describe the relationships between frequency of family meals and low fruit and vegetable intake. Frequency of family meals was associated with low fruit and vegetable intake. The odds of low fruit and vegetable intake were greater for preschoolers who shared less than three evening family meals per week (odds ratio = 1.5, β = 0.376, P meal with family every night. Fruit and vegetable intake is related to frequency of family meals in preschool-age children. Educating parents about the potential benefits of frequent shared meals may lead to a higher fruit and vegetable consumption among preschoolers. Future studies should address other factors that likely contribute to eating patterns during the preschool years. © 2018 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. A Dietary Pattern Derived by Reduced Rank Regression is Associated with Type 2 Diabetes in An Urban Ghanaian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K. Frank

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reduced rank regression (RRR is an innovative technique to establish dietary patterns related to biochemical risk factors for type 2 diabetes, but has not been applied in sub-Saharan Africa. In a hospital-based case-control study for type 2 diabetes in Kumasi (diabetes cases, 538; controls, 668 dietary intake was assessed by a specific food frequency questionnaire. After random split of our study population, we derived a dietary pattern in the training set using RRR with adiponectin, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides as responses and 35 food items as predictors. This pattern score was applied to the validation set, and its association with type 2 diabetes was examined by logistic regression. The dietary pattern was characterized by a high consumption of plantain, cassava, and garden egg, and a low intake of rice, juice, vegetable oil, eggs, chocolate drink, sweets, and red meat; the score correlated positively with serum triglycerides and negatively with adiponectin. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of type 2 diabetes for the highest quintile compared to the lowest was 4.43 (95% confidence interval: 1.87–10.50, p for trend < 0.001. The identified dietary pattern increases the odds of type 2 diabetes in urban Ghanaians, which is mainly attributed to increased serum triglycerides.

  4. Multinomial logistic regression analysis for differentiating 3 treatment outcome trajectory groups for headache-associated disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kristin Nicole; Heckman, Bernadette Davantes; Himawan, Lina

    2011-08-01

    Growth mixture modeling (GMM) identified latent groups based on treatment outcome trajectories of headache disability measures in patients in headache subspecialty treatment clinics. Using a longitudinal design, 219 patients in headache subspecialty clinics in 4 large cities throughout Ohio provided data on their headache disability at pretreatment and 3 follow-up assessments. GMM identified 3 treatment outcome trajectory groups: (1) patients who initiated treatment with elevated disability levels and who reported statistically significant reductions in headache disability (high-disability improvers; 11%); (2) patients who initiated treatment with elevated disability but who reported no reductions in disability (high-disability nonimprovers; 34%); and (3) patients who initiated treatment with moderate disability and who reported statistically significant reductions in headache disability (moderate-disability improvers; 55%). Based on the final multinomial logistic regression model, a dichotomized treatment appointment attendance variable was a statistically significant predictor for differentiating high-disability improvers from high-disability nonimprovers. Three-fourths of patients who initiated treatment with elevated disability levels did not report reductions in disability after 5 months of treatment with new preventive pharmacotherapies. Preventive headache agents may be most efficacious for patients with moderate levels of disability and for patients with high disability levels who attend all treatment appointments. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors Associated with Hemorrhoids in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hun; Shin, Jin-Young; Song, Yun-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Background Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common anal diseases among Koreans, risk factors for hemorrhoids have not been well identified. Methods We analyzed the data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2007 and 2009. Study subjects were 17,228 participants of KNHANES who were aged 19 years or older. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between hemorrhoids and probable risk factors. Results Overall pre...

  6. Factors associated with child sexual abuse confirmation at forensic examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welington dos Santos Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study is identify potential factors associated with child sexual abuse confirmation at forensic examinations. The forensic files of children under 12 years of age reporting sexual abuse at the Nina Rodrigues Institute of Forensic Medicine in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil between January 2008 and December 2009 were reviewed. A multivariate analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with finding evidence of sexual abuse in forensic examinations. The proportion of cases confirmed by the forensic physician based on material evidence was 10.4%. Adjusted analysis showed that the variables place of birth, type of abuse reported, family relationship between the child and the perpetrator, and the interval between the reported abuse and the forensic examination were not independently associated with finding forensic evidence of sexual abuse. A report of penetration was associated with a five-fold greater likelihood of confirmation, while the victim being 10-11 years of age was associated with a two-fold of abuse confirmation than younger children. These findings should be taken into consideration when drawing up guidelines for the multidisciplinary evaluation of children suspected of being victims of sexual abuse and in deciding whether to refer the child for forensic examination.

  7. Cultural Conceptions of Morality: Examining Laypeople's Associations of Moral Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauclair, Christin-Melanie; Wilson, Marc; Fischer, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Whether moral conceptions are universal or culture-specific is controversial in moral psychology. One option is to refrain from imposing theoretical constraints and to ask laypeople from different cultures how "they" conceptualize morality. Our article adopts this approach by examining laypeople's associations of moral character in…

  8. Examining empathy and its association with aggression in young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: In a context of disturbing rates of violent crime, this pilot study initiated examination of the association between empathy and aggressive behaviour in young Western Cape children. Establishing which empathy measures are appropriate for our context was a primary concern. Method: To capture various aspects of ...

  9. Integration of least angle regression with empirical Bayes for multi-locus genome-wide association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-locus genome-wide association studies has become the state-of-the-art procedure to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with traits simultaneously. However, implementation of multi-locus model is still difficult. In this study, we integrated least angle regression with empirical B...

  10. Risk and benefit associated with preventive mammography examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladar, M.; Nikodemova, D.

    1998-01-01

    The risk of mammographic examination was estimated. It is concluded that a mean glandular dose (MGD) of 1 mGy per exposure can be associated with a risk of 1 radiation-induced carcinoma per less than 100 positive detected by the preventive examination. The variability of actual MGD at various hospitals can be quite large. Although the majority of measurements were made on phantoms it is assumed that the national MGD average will exceed 3 mGy for the average breast size of 55 mm

  11. Drusen regression is associated with local changes in fundus autofluorescence in intermediate age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Brian C; Krishnadev, Nupura; Indaram, Maanasa; Cunningham, Denise; Cukras, Catherine A; Chew, Emily Y; Wong, Wai T

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the association of spontaneous drusen regression in intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with changes on fundus photography and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging. Prospective observational case series. Fundus images from 58 eyes (in 58 patients) with intermediate AMD and large drusen were assessed over 2 years for areas of drusen regression that exceeded the area of circle C1 (diameter 125 μm; Age-Related Eye Disease Study grading protocol). Manual segmentation and computer-based image analysis were used to detect and delineate areas of drusen regression. Delineated regions were graded as to their appearance on fundus photographs and FAF images, and changes in FAF signal were graded manually and quantitated using automated image analysis. Drusen regression was detected in approximately half of study eyes using manual (48%) and computer-assisted (50%) techniques. At year-2, the clinical appearance of areas of drusen regression on fundus photography was mostly unremarkable, with a majority of eyes (71%) demonstrating no detectable clinical abnormalities, and the remainder (29%) showing minor pigmentary changes. However, drusen regression areas were associated with local changes in FAF that were significantly more prominent than changes on fundus photography. A majority of eyes (64%-66%) demonstrated a predominant decrease in overall FAF signal, while 14%-21% of eyes demonstrated a predominant increase in overall FAF signal. FAF imaging demonstrated that drusen regression in intermediate AMD was often accompanied by changes in local autofluorescence signal. Drusen regression may be associated with concurrent structural and physiologic changes in the outer retina. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Examining the nonparametric effect of drivers' age in rear-end accidents through an additive logistic regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lu; Yan, Xuedong

    2014-06-01

    This study seeks to inspect the nonparametric characteristics connecting the age of the driver to the relative risk of being an at-fault vehicle, in order to discover a more precise and smooth pattern of age impact, which has commonly been neglected in past studies. Records of drivers in two-vehicle rear-end collisions are selected from the general estimates system (GES) 2011 dataset. These extracted observations in fact constitute inherently matched driver pairs under certain matching variables including weather conditions, pavement conditions and road geometry design characteristics that are shared by pairs of drivers in rear-end accidents. The introduced data structure is able to guarantee that the variance of the response variable will not depend on the matching variables and hence provides a high power of statistical modeling. The estimation results exhibit a smooth cubic spline function for examining the nonlinear relationship between the age of the driver and the log odds of being at fault in a rear-end accident. The results are presented with respect to the main effect of age, the interaction effect between age and sex, and the effects of age under different scenarios of pre-crash actions by the leading vehicle. Compared to the conventional specification in which age is categorized into several predefined groups, the proposed method is more flexible and able to produce quantitatively explicit results. First, it confirms the U-shaped pattern of the age effect, and further shows that the risks of young and old drivers change rapidly with age. Second, the interaction effects between age and sex show that female and male drivers behave differently in rear-end accidents. Third, it is found that the pattern of age impact varies according to the type of pre-crash actions exhibited by the leading vehicle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Statistical associations between radiation exposure and the clinical examination data of Japanese radiology technicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okumura, Yutaka; Aoyama, Takashi; Sugahara, Tsutomu; Hashimoto, Tetsuaki; Yamamoto, Yoichi.

    1995-01-01

    The associations between occupational irradiation, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and clinical examination data were investigated in Japanese male radiology technicians. The number of investigated examination items was 35, including 29 biochemical serum test, four hematological tests and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The associations with each factor were evaluated using the multiple linear regression model. As single factors, radiation associated with urea nitrogen, alkaline phosphatase, monoamine oxidase and leukocyte count (four items), smoking associated with albumin-globulin index, zinc sulfate turbidity test, urea nitrogen, creatinine, neutral fat, amylase, serum iron, leukocyte count, hemoglobin and hematocrit (10 items), and drinking associated with creatinine, uric acid, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, leucine aminopeptidase, alkaline phosphatase and erythrocyte count (six items). As synergistic factors, the combination of radiation and smoking associated with nine items, radiation and drinking 10 items, smoking and drinking four items, and radiation, smoking and drinking two items. These results suggested that the number of items which radiation associated as single-factor were less than that of smoking and of drinking, however suggested that associations between radiation and examination data was synergistic when combined with smoking or drinking. (author)

  14. Statistical associations between radiation exposure and the clinical examination data of Japanese radiology technicians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okumura, Yutaka [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Aoyama, Takashi; Sugahara, Tsutomu; Hashimoto, Tetsuaki; Yamamoto, Yoichi

    1995-06-01

    The associations between occupational irradiation, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and clinical examination data were investigated in Japanese male radiology technicians. The number of investigated examination items was 35, including 29 biochemical serum test, four hematological tests and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The associations with each factor were evaluated using the multiple linear regression model. As single factors, radiation associated with urea nitrogen, alkaline phosphatase, monoamine oxidase and leukocyte count (four items), smoking associated with albumin-globulin index, zinc sulfate turbidity test, urea nitrogen, creatinine, neutral fat, amylase, serum iron, leukocyte count, hemoglobin and hematocrit (10 items), and drinking associated with creatinine, uric acid, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, leucine aminopeptidase, alkaline phosphatase and erythrocyte count (six items). As synergistic factors, the combination of radiation and smoking associated with nine items, radiation and drinking 10 items, smoking and drinking four items, and radiation, smoking and drinking two items. These results suggested that the number of items which radiation associated as single-factor were less than that of smoking and of drinking, however suggested that associations between radiation and examination data was synergistic when combined with smoking or drinking. (author).

  15. A simple bias correction in linear regression for quantitative trait association under two-tail extreme selection

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan, Johnny S. H.; Kung, Annie W. C.; Sham, Pak C.

    2011-01-01

    Selective genotyping can increase power in quantitative trait association. One example of selective genotyping is two-tail extreme selection, but simple linear regression analysis gives a biased genetic effect estimate. Here, we present a simple correction for the bias. © The Author(s) 2011.

  16. [Logistic regression model of noninvasive prediction for portal hypertensive gastropathy in patients with hepatitis B associated cirrhosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingliang; Li, Xiaojie; Hu, Kunpeng; Zhao, Kun; Yang, Peisheng; Liu, Bo

    2015-05-12

    To explore the risk factors of portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) in patients with hepatitis B associated cirrhosis and establish a Logistic regression model of noninvasive prediction. The clinical data of 234 hospitalized patients with hepatitis B associated cirrhosis from March 2012 to March 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. The dependent variable was the occurrence of PHG while the independent variables were screened by binary Logistic analysis. Multivariate Logistic regression was used for further analysis of significant noninvasive independent variables. Logistic regression model was established and odds ratio was calculated for each factor. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of model were evaluated by the curve of receiver operating characteristic (ROC). According to univariate Logistic regression, the risk factors included hepatic dysfunction, albumin (ALB), bilirubin (TB), prothrombin time (PT), platelet (PLT), white blood cell (WBC), portal vein diameter, spleen index, splenic vein diameter, diameter ratio, PLT to spleen volume ratio, esophageal varices (EV) and gastric varices (GV). Multivariate analysis showed that hepatic dysfunction (X1), TB (X2), PLT (X3) and splenic vein diameter (X4) were the major occurring factors for PHG. The established regression model was Logit P=-2.667+2.186X1-2.167X2+0.725X3+0.976X4. The accuracy of model for PHG was 79.1% with a sensitivity of 77.2% and a specificity of 80.8%. Hepatic dysfunction, TB, PLT and splenic vein diameter are risk factors for PHG and the noninvasive predicted Logistic regression model was Logit P=-2.667+2.186X1-2.167X2+0.725X3+0.976X4.

  17. Molecular Genetic Changes Associated With Colorectal Carcinogenesis Are Not Prognostic for Tumor Regression Following Preoperative Chemoradiation of Rectal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zauber, N. Peter; Marotta, Steven P.; Berman, Errol; Grann, Alison; Rao, Maithili; Komati, Naga; Ribiero, Kezia; Bishop, D. Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Preoperative chemotherapy and radiation has become the standard of care for many patients with rectal cancer. The therapy may have toxicity and delays definitive surgery. It would therefore be desirable to identify those cancers that will not regress with preoperative therapy. We assessed a series of rectal cancers for the molecular changes of loss of heterozygosity of the APC and DCC genes, K-ras mutations, and microsatellite instability, changes that have clearly been associated with rectal carcinogenesis. Methods and Materials: Diagnostic colonoscopic biopsies from 53 patients who received preoperative chemotherapy and radiation were assayed using polymerase chain reaction techniques followed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing. Regression of the primary tumor was evaluated using the surgically removed specimen. Results: Twenty-three lesions (45%) were found to have a high degree of regression. None of the molecular changes were useful as indicators of regression. Conclusions: Recognized molecular changes critical for rectal carcinogenesis including APC and DCC loss of heterozygosity, K-ras mutations, and microsatellite instability are not useful as indicators of tumor regression following chemoradiation for rectal carcinoma.

  18. Genomic regression of claw keratin, taste receptor and light-associated genes provides insights into biology and evolutionary origins of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerling, Christopher A

    2017-10-01

    Regressive evolution of anatomical traits often corresponds with the regression of genomic loci underlying such characters. As such, studying patterns of gene loss can be instrumental in addressing questions of gene function, resolving conflicting results from anatomical studies, and understanding the evolutionary history of clades. The evolutionary origins of snakes involved the regression of a number of anatomical traits, including limbs, taste buds and the visual system, and by analyzing serpent genomes, I was able to test three hypotheses associated with the regression of these features. The first concerns two keratins that are putatively specific to claws. Both genes that encode these keratins are pseudogenized/deleted in snake genomes, providing additional evidence of claw-specificity. The second hypothesis is that snakes lack taste buds, an issue complicated by conflicting results in the literature. I found evidence that different snakes have lost one or more taste receptors, but all snakes examined retained at least one gustatory channel. The final hypothesis addressed is that the earliest snakes were adapted to a dim light niche. I found evidence of deleted and pseudogenized genes with light-associated functions in snakes, demonstrating a pattern of gene loss similar to other dim light-adapted clades. Molecular dating estimates suggest that dim light adaptation preceded the loss of limbs, providing some bearing on interpretations of the ecological origins of snakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Factors Associated with Stress Check Attendance: Possible Effect of Timing of Annual Health Examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Hattori, Michihiro; Nagata, Masako; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Watanabe, Seiji; Mori, Koji

    2018-01-01

    The stress check program has been part of annual employees' health screening since 2015. Employees are recommended, but not obliged, to undergo the stress check offered. This study was designed to examine the factors associated with stress check attendance. A total of 31,156 Japanese employees who underwent an annual health examination and a stress check service at an Occupational Health Service Center in 2016 participated in this study. Data from the annual health examination and stress check service included stress check attendance, date of attendance (if implemented), gender, age, workplace industry, number of employees at the workplace, and tobacco and alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. The mean rate of stress check attendance was 90.8%. A higher rate of stress check attendance was associated with a lower duration from the annual health examination, age ≥30 years, construction and transport industry, and 50-999 employees at the workplace. A lower rate of stress check attendance was associated with medical and welfare industry and ≥1,000 employees at the workplace. These findings provide insights into developing strategies for improving the rate of stress check attendance. In particular, stress check attendance may improve if the stress check service and annual health examination are conducted simultaneously.

  20. A comparison of Cox and logistic regression for use in genome-wide association studies of cohort and case-cohort design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, James R; Jones, Edmund; Kaptoge, Stephen; Butterworth, Adam S; Sweeting, Michael J; Wood, Angela M; Howson, Joanna M M

    2017-06-01

    Logistic regression is often used instead of Cox regression to analyse genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and disease outcomes with cohort and case-cohort designs, as it is less computationally expensive. Although Cox and logistic regression models have been compared previously in cohort studies, this work does not completely cover the GWAS setting nor extend to the case-cohort study design. Here, we evaluated Cox and logistic regression applied to cohort and case-cohort genetic association studies using simulated data and genetic data from the EPIC-CVD study. In the cohort setting, there was a modest improvement in power to detect SNP-disease associations using Cox regression compared with logistic regression, which increased as the disease incidence increased. In contrast, logistic regression had more power than (Prentice weighted) Cox regression in the case-cohort setting. Logistic regression yielded inflated effect estimates (assuming the hazard ratio is the underlying measure of association) for both study designs, especially for SNPs with greater effect on disease. Given logistic regression is substantially more computationally efficient than Cox regression in both settings, we propose a two-step approach to GWAS in cohort and case-cohort studies. First to analyse all SNPs with logistic regression to identify associated variants below a pre-defined P-value threshold, and second to fit Cox regression (appropriately weighted in case-cohort studies) to those identified SNPs to ensure accurate estimation of association with disease.

  1. Dual Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Spady, Richard; Stouli, Sami

    2012-01-01

    We propose dual regression as an alternative to the quantile regression process for the global estimation of conditional distribution functions under minimal assumptions. Dual regression provides all the interpretational power of the quantile regression process while avoiding the need for repairing the intersecting conditional quantile surfaces that quantile regression often produces in practice. Our approach introduces a mathematical programming characterization of conditional distribution f...

  2. Major regression of radioinduced uterine aftereffects by pentoxifylline-tocopherol association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delanian, S.; Letur-Kornisch, H.

    2000-01-01

    For the young woman who wants to have a child, the association pentoxifylline-tocopherol allows to reduce the aftereffects of uterus irradiated during childhood. The endometrial and myometrial growth allows to give chance of embryo implantation. (N.C.)

  3. LD Score regression distinguishes confounding from polygenicity in genome-wide association studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan K.; Loh, Po-Ru; Finucane, Hilary K.

    2015-01-01

    Both polygenicity (many small genetic effects) and confounding biases, such as cryptic relatedness and population stratification, can yield an inflated distribution of test statistics in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, current methods cannot distinguish between inflation from...

  4. Factors Associated with Increased Pain in Primary Dysmenorrhea: Analysis Using a Multivariate Ordered Logistic Regression Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Rodríguez, María I; Palazón-Bru, Antonio; Martínez-St John, Damian R J; Navarro-Cremades, Felipe; Toledo-Marhuenda, José V; Gil-Guillén, Vicente F

    2017-04-01

    In the literature about primary dysmenorrhea (PD), either a pain gradient has been studied just in women with PD or pain was assessed as a binary variable (presence or absence). Accordingly, we decided to carry out a study in young women to determine possible factors associated with intense pain. A cross-sectional observational study. A Spanish University in 2016. A total of 306 women, aged 18-30 years. A questionnaire was filled in by the participants to assess associated factors with dysmenorrhoea. Our outcome measure was the Andersch and Milsom scale (grade from 0 to 3). grade 0 (menstruation is not painful and daily activity is unaffected), grade 1 (menstruation is painful but seldom inhibits normal activity, analgesics are seldom required, and mild pain), grade 2 (daily activity affected, analgesics required and give relief so that absence from work or school is unusual, and moderate pain), and grade 3 (activity clearly inhibited, poor effect of analgesics, vegetative symptoms and severe pain). Factors significantly associated with more extreme pain: a higher menstrual flow (odds ratio [OR], 2.11; P < .001), a worse quality of life (OR, 0.97; P < .001) and use of medication for PD (OR, 8.22; P < .001). We determined factors associated with extreme pain in PD in a novel way. Further studies are required to corroborate our results. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Spatial Association Between Federally Qualified Health Centers and County-Level Reported Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Spatial Regression Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Gift, Thomas L; Leichliter, Jami S; Romaguera, Raul A

    2018-02-01

    The number of categorical sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics is declining in the United States. Federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) have the potential to supplement the needed sexually transmitted infection (STI) services. In this study, we describe the spatial distribution of FQHC sites and determine if reported county-level nonviral STI morbidity were associated with having FQHC(s) using spatial regression techniques. We extracted map data from the Health Resources and Services Administration data warehouse on FQHCs (ie, geocoded health care service delivery [HCSD] sites) and extracted county-level data on the reported rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea and, primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis (2008-2012) from surveillance data. A 3-equation seemingly unrelated regression estimation procedure (with a spatial regression specification that controlled for county-level multiyear (2008-2012) demographic and socioeconomic factors) was used to determine the association between reported county-level STI morbidity and HCSD sites. Counties with HCSD sites had higher STI, poverty, unemployment, and violent crime rates than counties with no HCSD sites (P < 0.05). The number of HCSD sites was associated (P < 0.01) with increases in the temporally smoothed rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and P&S syphilis, but there was no significant association between the number of HCSD per 100,000 population and reported STI rates. There is a positive association between STI morbidity and the number of HCSD sites; however, this association does not exist when adjusting by population size. Further work may determine the extent to which HCSD sites can meet unmet needs for safety net STI services.

  6. Differentiating regressed melanoma from regressed lichenoid keratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Aegean H; Shulman, Kenneth J; Lee, Bonnie A

    2017-04-01

    Distinguishing regressed lichen planus-like keratosis (LPLK) from regressed melanoma can be difficult on histopathologic examination, potentially resulting in mismanagement of patients. We aimed to identify histopathologic features by which regressed melanoma can be differentiated from regressed LPLK. Twenty actively inflamed LPLK, 12 LPLK with regression and 15 melanomas with regression were compared and evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining as well as Melan-A, microphthalmia transcription factor (MiTF) and cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) immunostaining. (1) A total of 40% of regressed melanomas showed complete or near complete loss of melanocytes within the epidermis with Melan-A and MiTF immunostaining, while 8% of regressed LPLK exhibited this finding. (2) Necrotic keratinocytes were seen in the epidermis in 33% regressed melanomas as opposed to all of the regressed LPLK. (3) A dense infiltrate of melanophages in the papillary dermis was seen in 40% of regressed melanomas, a feature not seen in regressed LPLK. In summary, our findings suggest that a complete or near complete loss of melanocytes within the epidermis strongly favors a regressed melanoma over a regressed LPLK. In addition, necrotic epidermal keratinocytes and the presence of a dense band-like distribution of dermal melanophages can be helpful in differentiating these lesions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Examining associations between adolescent binge eating and binge eating in parents and friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wall, Melanie M; Choo, Tse-Hwei J; Bruening, Meg; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-04-01

    Binge eating is prevalent among adolescents, but little is known about how parents and friends may influence such behaviors. This study examined associations between adolescent binge eating behaviors, and similar behaviors in their parents and friends. Participants were 2,770 target adolescent boys and girls who had at least one friend and/or parent who also participated. Logistic regression, stratified by gender, examined associations between parents' and friends' self-reported binge eating, and similar behaviors in target adolescents. Girls' binge eating was associated with their male friends' (odds ratio = 2.33; p = 0.03) and fathers' binge eating (odds ratio = 3.38; p = 0.02), but not with their female friends' or mothers' binge eating (p > 0.05). For boys, binge eating was not associated with parents' or friends' behavior. Adolescent girls' binge eating is associated with similar behaviors in their other-sex parents and friends. Results should be replicated, and mechanisms explaining this relation should be further explored. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Celiac Disease Associated with a Benign Granulomatous Mass Demonstrating Self-Regression after Initiation of a Gluten-Free Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Abhinav; Sharma, Himani; Qamar, Khola; Khan, Zubair; Darr, Umar; Renno, Anas; Nawras, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Celiac disease is a chronic immune-mediated enteropathy in which dietary gluten induces an inflammatory reaction predominantly in the duodenum. Celiac disease is known to be associated with benign small bowel thickening and reactive lymphadenopathy that often regresses after the institution of a gluten-free diet. A 66-year-old male patient with celiac disease presented with abdominal pain and diarrheal illness. Computerized tomography of the abdomen revealed a duodenal mass. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of the mass revealed bizarre stromal cells which represent a nonspecific tissue reaction to inflammation. This inflammatory mass regressed after the institution of a gluten-free diet. This case report describes a unique presentation of celiac disease in the form of a granulomatous self-regressing mass. Also, this is the first reported case of bizarre stromal cells found in association with celiac disease. In addition to lymphoma and small bowel adenocarcinoma, celiac disease can present with a benign inflammatory mass, which should be serially monitored for resolution with a gluten-free diet.

  9. Celiac Disease Associated with a Benign Granulomatous Mass Demonstrating Self-Regression after Initiation of a Gluten-Free Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Tiwari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a chronic immune-mediated enteropathy in which dietary gluten induces an inflammatory reaction predominantly in the duodenum. Celiac disease is known to be associated with benign small bowel thickening and reactive lymphadenopathy that often regresses after the institution of a gluten-free diet. A 66-year-old male patient with celiac disease presented with abdominal pain and diarrheal illness. Computerized tomography of the abdomen revealed a duodenal mass. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of the mass revealed bizarre stromal cells which represent a nonspecific tissue reaction to inflammation. This inflammatory mass regressed after the institution of a gluten-free diet. This case report describes a unique presentation of celiac disease in the form of a granulomatous self-regressing mass. Also, this is the first reported case of bizarre stromal cells found in association with celiac disease. In addition to lymphoma and small bowel adenocarcinoma, celiac disease can present with a benign inflammatory mass, which should be serially monitored for resolution with a gluten-free diet.

  10. The N400 as a snapshot of interactive processing: evidence from regression analyses of orthographic neighbor and lexical associate effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszlo, Sarah; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2010-01-01

    Linking print with meaning tends to be divided into subprocesses, such as recognition of an input's lexical entry and subsequent access of semantics. However, recent results suggest that the set of semantic features activated by an input is broader than implied by a view wherein access serially follows recognition. EEG was collected from participants who viewed items varying in number and frequency of both orthographic neighbors and lexical associates. Regression analysis of single item ERPs replicated past findings, showing that N400 amplitudes are greater for items with more neighbors, and further revealed that N400 amplitudes increase for items with more lexical associates and with higher frequency neighbors or associates. Together, the data suggest that in the N400 time window semantic features of items broadly related to inputs are active, consistent with models in which semantic access takes place in parallel with stimulus recognition. PMID:20624252

  11. Association between physical activity and kidney function: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Marquis S; Sevick, Mary Ann; Richardson, Caroline R; Fried, Linda F; Arena, Vincent C; Kriska, Andrea M

    2011-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a condition characterized by the deterioration of the kidney's ability to remove waste products from the body. Although treatments to slow the progression of the disease are available, chronic kidney disease may eventually lead to a complete loss of kidney function. Previous studies have shown that physical activities of moderate intensity may have renal benefits. Few studies have examined the effects of total movement on kidney function. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between time spent at all levels of physical activity intensity and sedentary behavior and kidney function. Data were obtained from the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional study of a complex, multistage probability sample of the US population. Physical activity was assessed using an accelerometer and questionnaire. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study formula. To assess linear associations between levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior with log-transformed estimated GFR (eGFR), linear regression was used. In general, physical activity (light and total) was related to log eGFR in females and males. For females, the association between light and total physical activity with log eGFR was consistent regardless of diabetes status. For males, the association between light and total physical activity and log eGFR was only significant in males without diabetes. When examining the association between physical activity, measured objectively with an accelerometer, and kidney function, total and light physical activities were found to be positively associated with kidney function.

  12. Reported Theory Use by Digital Interventions for Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Consumption, and Association With Effectiveness: Meta-Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, David; Brown, Jamie; Kaner, Eileen; Beyer, Fiona; Muirhead, Colin; Hickman, Matthew; Redmore, James; de Vocht, Frank; Beard, Emma; Michie, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Background Applying theory to the design and evaluation of interventions is likely to increase effectiveness and improve the evidence base from which future interventions are developed, though few interventions report this. Objective The aim of this paper was to assess how digital interventions to reduce hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption report the use of theory in their development and evaluation, and whether reporting of theory use is associated with intervention effectiveness. Methods Randomized controlled trials were extracted from a Cochrane review on digital interventions for reducing hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Reporting of theory use within these digital interventions was investigated using the theory coding scheme (TCS). Reported theory use was analyzed by frequency counts and descriptive statistics. Associations were analyzed with meta-regression models. Results Of 41 trials involving 42 comparisons, half did not mention theory (50% [21/42]), and only 38% (16/42) used theory to select or develop the intervention techniques. Significant heterogeneity existed between studies in the effect of interventions on alcohol reduction (I2=77.6%, Ptheory use and intervention effectiveness in unadjusted models, though the meta-regression was underpowered to detect modest associations. Conclusions Digital interventions offer a unique opportunity to refine and develop new dynamic, temporally sensitive theories, yet none of the studies reported refining or developing theory. Clearer selection, application, and reporting of theory use is needed to accurately assess how useful theory is in this field and to advance the field of behavior change theories. PMID:29490895

  13. Regression Association Analysis of Yield-Related Traits with RAPD Molecular Markers in Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Mirzaei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pistachio (Pistacia vera, a member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East. The tree produces seeds that are widely consumed as food. Pistacia vera often is confused with other species in the genus Pistacia that are also known as pistachio. These other species can be distinguished by their geographic distributions and their seeds which are much smaller and have a soft shell. Continual advances in crop improvement through plant breeding are driven by the available genetic diversity. Therefore, the recognition and measurement of such diversity is crucial to breeding programs. In the past 20 years, the major effort in plant breeding has changed from quantitative to molecular genetics with emphasis on quantitative trait loci (QTL identification and marker assisted selection (MAS. The germplasm-regression-combined association studies not only allow mapping of genes/QTLs with higher level of confidence, but also allow detection of genes/QTLs, which will otherwise escape detection in linkage-based QTL studies based on the planned populations. The development of the marker-based technology offers a fast, reliable, and easy way to perform multiple regression analysis and comprise an alternative approach to breeding in diverse species of plants. The availability of many makers and morphological traits can help to regression analysis between these markers and morphological traits. Materials and Methods: In this study, 20 genotypes of Pistachio were studied and yield related traits were measured. Young well-expanded leaves were collected for DNA extraction and total genomic DNA was extracted. Genotyping was performed using 15 RAPD primers and PCR amplification products were visualized by gel electrophoresis. The reproducible RAPD fragments were scored on the basis of present (1 or absent (0 bands and a binary matrix constructed using each molecular marker. Association analysis between

  14. Psychosocial predictors of breast self-examination behavior among female students: an application of the health belief model using logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didarloo, Alireza; Nabilou, Bahram; Khalkhali, Hamid Reza

    2017-11-03

    Breast cancer is a life-threatening condition affecting women around the world. The early detection of breast lumps using a breast self-examination (BSE) is important for the prevention and control of this disease. The aim of this study was to examine BSE behavior and its predictive factors among female university students using the Health Belief Model (HBM). This investigation was a cross-sectional survey carried out with 334 female students at Urmia University of Medical Sciences in the northwest of Iran. To collect the necessary data, researchers applied a valid and reliable three-part questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a chi-square test, in addition to multivariate logistic regression statistics in SPSS software version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The results indicated that 82 of the 334 participants (24.6%) reported practicing BSEs. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that high perceived severity [OR = 2.38, 95% CI = (1.02-5.54)], high perceived benefits [OR = 1.94, 95% CI = (1.09-3.46)], and high perceived self-efficacy [OR = 13.15, 95% CI = (3.64-47.51)] were better predictors of BSE behavior (P < 0.05) than low perceived severity, benefits, and self-efficacy. The findings also showed that a high level of knowledge compared to a low level of knowledge [OR = 5.51, 95% CI = (1.79-16.86)] and academic undergraduate and graduate degrees compared to doctoral degrees [OR = 2.90, 95% CI = (1.42-5.92)] of the participants were predictors of BSE performance (P < 0.05). The study revealed that the HBM constructs are able to predict BSE behavior. Among these constructs, self-efficacy was the most important predictor of the behavior. Interventions based on the constructs of perceived self-efficacy, benefits, and severity are recommended for increasing women's regular screening for breast cancer.

  15. Examination of factors associated in motorcycle crashes in work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the factors associated with motorcycle crashes in work zones. This analysis was completed : through the collection and inspection of three types of data: 1) practices used throughout the country on this topic, : 2) crash reports a...

  16. [Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis on the association between consumption of fried food and both esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L W; Liu, S Z; Zhang, M; Chen, Q; Zhang, S K; Sun, X B

    2017-12-10

    Objective: To investigate the effect of fried food intake on the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions. Methods: From 2005 to 2013, all the residents aged 40-69 years from 11 counties (cities) where cancer screening of upper gastrointestinal cancer had been conducted in rural areas of Henan province, were recruited as the subjects of study. Information on demography and lifestyle was collected. The residents under study were screened with iodine staining endoscopic examination and biopsy samples were diagnosed pathologically, under standardized criteria. Subjects with high risk were divided into the groups based on their different pathological degrees. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the frequency of fried food intake and esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions. Results: A total number of 8 792 cases with normal esophagus, 3 680 with mild hyperplasia, 972 with moderate hyperplasia, 413 with severe hyperplasia carcinoma in situ, and 336 cases of esophageal cancer were recruited. Results from multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, when compared with those who did not eat fried food, the intake of fried food (food appeared a risk factor for both esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions.

  17. Using reduced rank regression methods to identify dietary patterns associated with obesity: a cross-country study among European and Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, Inge; Lioret, Sandrine; Mouratidou, Theodora; Gunter, Marc J; Manios, Yannis; Kersting, Mathilde; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Anthony; De Henauw, Stefaan; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Widhalm, Kurt; Gonzales-Gross, Marcela; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine repeatability of reduced rank regression (RRR) methods in calculating dietary patterns (DP) and cross-sectional associations with overweight (OW)/obesity across European and Australian samples of adolescents. Data from two cross-sectional surveys in Europe (2006/2007 Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study, including 1954 adolescents, 12-17 years) and Australia (2007 National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, including 1498 adolescents, 12-16 years) were used. Dietary intake was measured using two non-consecutive, 24-h recalls. RRR was used to identify DP using dietary energy density, fibre density and percentage of energy intake from fat as the intermediate variables. Associations between DP scores and body mass/fat were examined using multivariable linear and logistic regression as appropriate, stratified by sex. The first DP extracted (labelled 'energy dense, high fat, low fibre') explained 47 and 31 % of the response variation in Australian and European adolescents, respectively. It was similar for European and Australian adolescents and characterised by higher consumption of biscuits/cakes, chocolate/confectionery, crisps/savoury snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages, and lower consumption of yogurt, high-fibre bread, vegetables and fresh fruit. DP scores were inversely associated with BMI z-scores in Australian adolescent boys and borderline inverse in European adolescent boys (so as with %BF). Similarly, a lower likelihood for OW in boys was observed with higher DP scores in both surveys. No such relationships were observed in adolescent girls. In conclusion, the DP identified in this cross-country study was comparable for European and Australian adolescents, demonstrating robustness of the RRR method in calculating DP among populations. However, longitudinal designs are more relevant when studying diet-obesity associations, to prevent reverse causality.

  18. Reported Theory Use by Digital Interventions for Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Consumption, and Association With Effectiveness: Meta-Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Claire; Crane, David; Brown, Jamie; Kaner, Eileen; Beyer, Fiona; Muirhead, Colin; Hickman, Matthew; Redmore, James; de Vocht, Frank; Beard, Emma; Michie, Susan

    2018-02-28

    Applying theory to the design and evaluation of interventions is likely to increase effectiveness and improve the evidence base from which future interventions are developed, though few interventions report this. The aim of this paper was to assess how digital interventions to reduce hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption report the use of theory in their development and evaluation, and whether reporting of theory use is associated with intervention effectiveness. Randomized controlled trials were extracted from a Cochrane review on digital interventions for reducing hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Reporting of theory use within these digital interventions was investigated using the theory coding scheme (TCS). Reported theory use was analyzed by frequency counts and descriptive statistics. Associations were analyzed with meta-regression models. Of 41 trials involving 42 comparisons, half did not mention theory (50% [21/42]), and only 38% (16/42) used theory to select or develop the intervention techniques. Significant heterogeneity existed between studies in the effect of interventions on alcohol reduction (I 2 =77.6%, Ptheory use and intervention effectiveness in unadjusted models, though the meta-regression was underpowered to detect modest associations. Digital interventions offer a unique opportunity to refine and develop new dynamic, temporally sensitive theories, yet none of the studies reported refining or developing theory. Clearer selection, application, and reporting of theory use is needed to accurately assess how useful theory is in this field and to advance the field of behavior change theories. ©Claire Garnett, David Crane, Jamie Brown, Eileen Kaner, Fiona Beyer, Colin Muirhead, Matthew Hickman, James Redmore, Frank de Vocht, Emma Beard, Susan Michie. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 28.02.2018.

  19. Examining the Association Between School Vending Machines and Children's Body Mass Index by Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Jeffrey K; Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between vending machine availability in schools and body mass index (BMI) among subgroups of children based on gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status classifications. First-difference multivariate regressions were estimated using longitudinal fifth- and eighth-grade data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. The specifications were disaggregated by gender, race/ethnicity, and family socioeconomic status classifications. Vending machine availability had a positive association (P < .10) with BMI among Hispanic male children and low-income Hispanic children. Living in an urban location (P < .05) and hours watching television (P < .05) were also positively associated with BMI for these subgroups. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program enrollment was negatively associated with BMI for low-income Hispanic students (P < .05). These findings were not statistically significant when using Bonferroni adjusted critical values. The results suggest that the school food environment could reinforce health disparities that exist for Hispanic male children and low-income Hispanic children. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pathways-driven sparse regression identifies pathways and genes associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in two Asian cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Silver

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Standard approaches to data analysis in genome-wide association studies (GWAS ignore any potential functional relationships between gene variants. In contrast gene pathways analysis uses prior information on functional structure within the genome to identify pathways associated with a trait of interest. In a second step, important single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs or genes may be identified within associated pathways. The pathways approach is motivated by the fact that genes do not act alone, but instead have effects that are likely to be mediated through their interaction in gene pathways. Where this is the case, pathways approaches may reveal aspects of a trait's genetic architecture that would otherwise be missed when considering SNPs in isolation. Most pathways methods begin by testing SNPs one at a time, and so fail to capitalise on the potential advantages inherent in a multi-SNP, joint modelling approach. Here, we describe a dual-level, sparse regression model for the simultaneous identification of pathways and genes associated with a quantitative trait. Our method takes account of various factors specific to the joint modelling of pathways with genome-wide data, including widespread correlation between genetic predictors, and the fact that variants may overlap multiple pathways. We use a resampling strategy that exploits finite sample variability to provide robust rankings for pathways and genes. We test our method through simulation, and use it to perform pathways-driven gene selection in a search for pathways and genes associated with variation in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in two separate GWAS cohorts of Asian adults. By comparing results from both cohorts we identify a number of candidate pathways including those associated with cardiomyopathy, and T cell receptor and PPAR signalling. Highlighted genes include those associated with the L-type calcium channel, adenylate cyclase, integrin, laminin, MAPK

  1. Pathways-Driven Sparse Regression Identifies Pathways and Genes Associated with High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Two Asian Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Matt; Chen, Peng; Li, Ruoying; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien-Yin; Tai, E-Shyong; Teo, Yik-Ying; Montana, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Standard approaches to data analysis in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) ignore any potential functional relationships between gene variants. In contrast gene pathways analysis uses prior information on functional structure within the genome to identify pathways associated with a trait of interest. In a second step, important single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or genes may be identified within associated pathways. The pathways approach is motivated by the fact that genes do not act alone, but instead have effects that are likely to be mediated through their interaction in gene pathways. Where this is the case, pathways approaches may reveal aspects of a trait's genetic architecture that would otherwise be missed when considering SNPs in isolation. Most pathways methods begin by testing SNPs one at a time, and so fail to capitalise on the potential advantages inherent in a multi-SNP, joint modelling approach. Here, we describe a dual-level, sparse regression model for the simultaneous identification of pathways and genes associated with a quantitative trait. Our method takes account of various factors specific to the joint modelling of pathways with genome-wide data, including widespread correlation between genetic predictors, and the fact that variants may overlap multiple pathways. We use a resampling strategy that exploits finite sample variability to provide robust rankings for pathways and genes. We test our method through simulation, and use it to perform pathways-driven gene selection in a search for pathways and genes associated with variation in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in two separate GWAS cohorts of Asian adults. By comparing results from both cohorts we identify a number of candidate pathways including those associated with cardiomyopathy, and T cell receptor and PPAR signalling. Highlighted genes include those associated with the L-type calcium channel, adenylate cyclase, integrin, laminin, MAPK signalling and immune

  2. Regression Phalanxes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hongyang; Welch, William J.; Zamar, Ruben H.

    2017-01-01

    Tomal et al. (2015) introduced the notion of "phalanxes" in the context of rare-class detection in two-class classification problems. A phalanx is a subset of features that work well for classification tasks. In this paper, we propose a different class of phalanxes for application in regression settings. We define a "Regression Phalanx" - a subset of features that work well together for prediction. We propose a novel algorithm which automatically chooses Regression Phalanxes from high-dimensi...

  3. [Milk yield and environmental factors: Multiple regression analysis of the association between milk yield and udder health, fertility data and replacement rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fölsche, C; Staufenbiel, R

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between milk yield and both fertility and general animal health in dairy herds is discussed from opposing viewpoints. The hypothesis (1) that raising the herd milk yield would decrease fertility results, the number of milk cells as an indicator for udder health and the replacement rate as a global indicator for animal health as well as increasing the occurrence of specific diseases as a herd problem was compared to the opposing hypotheses that there is no relationship (2) or that there is a differentiated and changing relationship (3). A total of 743 herd examinations, considered independent, were performed in 489 herds between 1995 and 2010. The milk yield, fertility rate, milk cell count, replacement rate, categorized herd problems and management information were recorded. The relationship between the milk yield and both the fertility data and animal health was evaluated using simple and multiple regression analyses. The period between calving and the first service displayed no significant relationship to the herd milk yield. Simple regression analysis showed that the period between calving and gestation, the calving interval and the insemination number were significantly positively associated with the herd milk yield. This positive correlation was lost in multiple regression analysis. The milk cell count and replacement rate using both the simple and multiple regression analyses displayed a significant negative relationship to the milk yield. The alternative hypothesis (3) was confirmed. A higher milk yield has no negative influence on the milk cell count and the replacement rate in terms of the udder and general health. When parameterizing the fertility, the herd milk yield should be considered. Extending the resting time may increase the milk yield while preventing a decline in the insemination index.

  4. Examining the association between male circumcision and sexual function: evidence from a British probability survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homfray, Virginia; Tanton, Clare; Mitchell, Kirstin R; Miller, Robert F; Field, Nigel; Macdowall, Wendy; Wellings, Kaye; Sonnenberg, Pam; Johnson, Anne M; Mercer, Catherine H

    2015-07-17

    Despite biological advantages of male circumcision in reducing HIV/sexually transmitted infection acquisition, concern is often expressed that it may reduce sexual enjoyment and function. We examine the association between circumcision and sexual function among sexually active men in Britain using data from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3). Natsal-3 asked about circumcision and included a validated measure of sexual function, the Natsal-SF, which takes into account not only sexual difficulties but also the relationship context and overall level of satisfaction. A stratified probability survey of 6293 men and 8869 women aged 16-74 years, resident in Britain, undertaken 2010-2012, using computer-assisted face-to-face interviewing with computer-assisted self-interview for the more sensitive questions. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) to examine the association between reporting male circumcision and aspects of sexual function among sexually active men (n = 4816). The prevalence of male circumcision in Britain was 20.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 19.3-21.8]. There was no association between male circumcision and, being in the lowest quintile of scores for the Natsal-SF, an indicator of poorer sexual function (adjusted OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.76-1.18). Circumcised men were as likely as uncircumcised men to report the specific sexual difficulties asked about in Natsal-3, except that a larger proportion of circumcised men reported erectile difficulties. This association was of borderline statistical significance after adjusting for age and relationship status (adjusted OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.99-1.63). Data from a large, nationally representative British survey suggest that circumcision is not associated with men's overall sexual function at a population level.

  5. On the use of Cox regression to examine the temporal clustering of flooding and heavy precipitation across the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallakpour, Iman; Villarini, Gabriele; Jones, Michael P.; Smith, James A.

    2017-08-01

    The central United States is plagued by frequent catastrophic flooding, such as the flood events of 1993, 2008, 2011, 2013, 2014 and 2016. The goal of this study is to examine whether it is possible to describe the occurrence of flood and heavy precipitation events at the sub-seasonal scale in terms of variations in the climate system. Daily streamflow and precipitation time series over the central United States (defined here to include North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan) are used in this study. We model the occurrence/non-occurrence of a flood and heavy precipitation event over time using regression models based on Cox processes, which can be viewed as a generalization of Poisson processes. Rather than assuming that an event (i.e., flooding or precipitation) occurs independently of the occurrence of the previous one (as in Poisson processes), Cox processes allow us to account for the potential presence of temporal clustering, which manifests itself in an alternation of quiet and active periods. Here we model the occurrence/non-occurrence of flood and heavy precipitation events using two climate indices as time-varying covariates: the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the Pacific-North American pattern (PNA). We find that AO and/or PNA are important predictors in explaining the temporal clustering in flood occurrences in over 78% of the stream gages we considered. Similar results are obtained when working with heavy precipitation events. Analyses of the sensitivity of the results to different thresholds used to identify events lead to the same conclusions. The findings of this work highlight that variations in the climate system play a critical role in explaining the occurrence of flood and heavy precipitation events at the sub-seasonal scale over the central United States.

  6. Predictive factors of esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiation therapy for locally advanced esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atsumi, Kazushige; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Katsumasa

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to clarify the predictive factors correlated with esophageal stenosis within three months after radiation therapy for locally advanced esophageal cancer. We enrolled 47 patients with advanced esophageal cancer with T2-4 and stage II-III who were treated with definitive radiation therapy and achieving complete response of primary lesion at Kyushu University Hospital between January 1998 and December 2005. Esophagography was performed for all patients before treatment and within three months after completion of the radiation therapy, the esophageal stenotic ratio was evaluated. The stenotic ratio was used to define four levels of stenosis: stenosis level 1, stenotic ratio of 0-25%; 2, 25-50%; 3, 50-75%; 4, 75-100%. We then estimated the correlation between the esophageal stenosis level after radiation therapy and each of numerous factors. The numbers and total percentages of patients at each stenosis level were as follows: level 1: n=14 (30%); level 2: 8 (17%); level 3: 14 (30%); and level 4: 11 (23%). Esophageal stenosis in the case of full circumference involvement tended to be more severe and more frequent. Increases in wall thickness tended to be associated with increases in esophageal stenosis severity and frequency. The extent of involved circumference and wall thickness of tumor region were significantly correlated with esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiation therapy (p=0.0006, p=0.005). For predicting the possibility of esophageal stenosis with tumor regression within three months in radiation therapy, the extent of involved circumference and esophageal wall thickness of the tumor region may be useful. (author)

  7. Regression-based approach for testing the association between multi-region haplotype configuration and complex trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Hongbo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is quite common that the genetic architecture of complex traits involves many genes and their interactions. Therefore, dealing with multiple unlinked genomic regions simultaneously is desirable. Results In this paper we develop a regression-based approach to assess the interactions of haplotypes that belong to different unlinked regions, and we use score statistics to test the null hypothesis of non-genetic association. Additionally, multiple marker combinations at each unlinked region are considered. The multiple tests are settled via the minP approach. The P value of the "best" multi-region multi-marker configuration is corrected via Monte-Carlo simulations. Through simulation studies, we assess the performance of the proposed approach and demonstrate its validity and power in testing for haplotype interaction association. Conclusion Our simulations showed that, for binary trait without covariates, our proposed methods prove to be equal and even more powerful than htr and hapcc which are part of the FAMHAP program. Additionally, our model can be applied to a wider variety of traits and allow adjustment for other covariates. To test the validity, our methods are applied to analyze the association between four unlinked candidate genes and pig meat quality.

  8. Association of Fellowship Training With Otolaryngology Training Examination Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinboyewa, Ibukun; Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    No prior studies have evaluated whether residents who pursue fellowship training achieve higher performance on the Otolaryngology Training Examination (OTE) and whether a specific fellowship will demonstrate a correlation with the corresponding specialty-specific OTE score. To determine whether residents pursuing fellowship training achieve higher performance on the OTE and whether fellowship choice is correlated with higher scores on the related subspecialty section of the OTE. This retrospective analysis included 35 residents training in an academic otolaryngology residency program from July 1, 2003, to June 30, 2014. The OTE scores for postgraduate years 2 through 5 and the type of fellowship were collected for all residents meeting inclusion criteria. Data were collected from September 1 to October 15, 2014, and analyzed from October 16 to December 1, 2014. Residents were divided by whether they pursued fellowship training and by the type of fellowship chosen. Outcome measures included comparison of scores between residents who pursued vs those who did not pursue fellowship training and comparison of subspecialty OTE scores between residents who pursued the corresponding fellowship and those who did not. Of the 35 residents who met the inclusion criteria (24 men and 11 women), 17 (49%) pursued fellowship training. The 3 most common fellowship choices were facial plastic and reconstructive surgery, pediatric otolaryngology, and rhinology (4 residents each [24%]). For all residents, mean scores on the OTE improved each subsequent training year, but this difference was only significant between postgraduate years 2 and 3 (from 60.9% to 68.6% correct; P otolaryngology, 72.9% vs 71.3% [P = .79]; and for rhinology, 72.2% vs 71.2% [P = .91]). Residents who pursued fellowship training did not achieve higher scores on the OTE in any examination year compared with residents who did not pursue fellowship training and did not achieve higher scores within the OTE

  9. Sequences of Regressions Distinguish Nonmechanical from Mechanical Associations between Metabolic Factors, Body Composition, and Bone in Healthy Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Trapala, Ivonne; Schoenmakers, Inez; Goldberg, Gail R; Prentice, Ann; Ward, Kate A

    2016-03-09

    There is increasing recognition of complex interrelations between the endocrine functions of bone and fat tissues or organs. The objective was to describe nonmechanical and mechanical links between metabolic factors, body composition, and bone with the use of graphical Markov models. Seventy postmenopausal women with a mean ± SD age of 62.3 ± 3.7 y and body mass index (in kg/m 2 ) of 24.9 ± 3.8 were recruited. Bone outcomes were peripheral quantitative computed tomography measures of the distal and diaphyseal tibia, cross-sectional area (CSA), volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and cortical CSA. Biomarkers of osteoblast and adipocyte function were plasma concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, osteocalcin, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (UCOC), and phylloquinone. Body composition measurements were lean and percent fat mass, which were derived with the use of a 4-compartment model. Sequences of Regressions, a subclass of graphical Markov models, were used to describe the direct (nonmechanical) and indirect (mechanical) interrelations between metabolic factors and bone by simultaneously modeling multiple bone outcomes and their relation with biomarker outcomes with lean mass, percent fat mass, and height as intermediate explanatory variables. The graphical Markov models showed both direct and indirect associations linking plasma leptin and adiponectin concentrations with CSA and vBMD. At the distal tibia, lean mass, height, and adiponectin-UCOC interaction were directly explanatory of CSA (R 2 = 0.45); at the diaphysis, lean mass, percent fat mass, leptin, osteocalcin, and age-adiponectin interaction were directly explanatory of CSA (R 2 = 0.49). The regression models exploring direct associations for vBMD were much weaker, with R 2 = 0.15 and 0.18 at the distal and diaphyseal sites, respectively. Lean mass and UCOC were associated, and the global Markov property of the graph indicated that this association was explained by osteocalcin. This study, to our

  10. Regression analysis by example

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Samprit

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Fourth Edition: ""This book is . . . an excellent source of examples for regression analysis. It has been and still is readily readable and understandable."" -Journal of the American Statistical Association Regression analysis is a conceptually simple method for investigating relationships among variables. Carrying out a successful application of regression analysis, however, requires a balance of theoretical results, empirical rules, and subjective judgment. Regression Analysis by Example, Fifth Edition has been expanded

  11. Examination of the association between male gender and preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettell, Rachel; Yeh, Peter S; Impey, Lawrence W M

    2008-12-01

    To examine possible reasons why a male fetus constitutes a risk factor for preterm delivery. Retrospective study of deliveries from hospital database in a UK teaching hospital. The population comprised all deliveries >23 weeks over an 11-year period, excluding multiples, terminations and pregnancies with major abnormalities including indeterminate gender. Obstetric variables and outcomes were initially compared in male and female babies for preterm births in different gestation bands, extreme (pathways that might explain the male excess were tested. 75,725 deliveries occurred, of which 4003 (5.3%) were preterm. Males delivered preterm more frequently (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06-1.20). This was due to spontaneous (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.19-1.42) but not iatrogenic (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.87-1.05) preterm birth. There was an increased risk of pre eclampsia among preterm females. Although males were larger, and male pregnancies were more frequently nulliparous and affected by some other obstetric complications (abruption, urinary tract infection), these did not account for their increased risk. Any effect of growth restriction could not be properly determined. Being male carries an increased risk of spontaneous but not iatrogenic preterm birth. The reasons behind this remain obscure.

  12. Factors Associated with Hemorrhoids in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Background Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common anal diseases among Koreans, risk factors for hemorrhoids have not been well identified. Methods We analyzed the data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2007 and 2009. Study subjects were 17,228 participants of KNHANES who were aged 19 years or older. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between hemorrhoids and probable risk factors. Results Overall prevalence of hemorrhoids among study subjects was 14.4%, being more prevalent among women (15.7%) than among men (13.0%). Obesity and abdominal obesity were associated with a higher risk of hemorrhoids with odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals, 95% CI) of 1.13 (1.01 to 1.26) and 1.16 (1.04 to 1.30), respectively. Both self-reported depression (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.62 to 2.08) and physician diagnosed depression (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.17) were associated with significantly higher risk of hemorrhoids. No regular walking (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.23) and experience of pregnancy (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.25) for women were also associated with higher risk of hemorrhoids. However, educational level, alcohol consumption, physical activities, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, fiber, fat intake, and energy intake were not associated with a risk of hemorrhoids. Low quality of life assessed with EuroQol-5 Dimension and EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale was significantly associated with hemorrhoids. Conclusion This nationwide cross-sectional study of Korean adults suggests that obesity, abdominal obesity, depression, and past pregnancy may be risk factors for hemorrhoids and hemorrhoids affect quality of life negatively. PMID:25309703

  13. Examining the association between livestock ownership typologies and child nutrition in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Sarah E; Kassa, Lea; Young, Sera L; Travis, Alexander J

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the association between livestock ownership and dietary diversity, animal-source food consumption, height-for-age z-score, and stunting among children living in wildlife "buffer zones" of Zambia's Luangwa Valley using a novel livestock typology approach. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 838 children aged 6-36 months. Households were categorized into typologies based on the types and numbers of animals owned, ranging from no livestock to large numbers of mixed livestock. We used multilevel mixed-effects linear and logistic regression to examine the association between livestock typologies and four nutrition-related outcomes of interest. Results were compared with analyses using more common binary and count measures of livestock ownership. No measure of livestock ownership was significantly associated with children's odds of animal-source food consumption, child height-for-age z-score, or stunting odds. Livestock ownership Type 2 (having a small number of poultry) was surprisingly associated with decreased child dietary diversity (β = -0.477; p<0.01) relative to owning no livestock. Similarly, in comparison models, chicken ownership was negatively associated with dietary diversity (β = -0.320; p<0.01), but increasing numbers of chickens were positively associated with dietary diversity (β = 0.022; p<0.01). Notably, neither child dietary diversity nor animal-source food consumption was significantly associated with height, perhaps due to unusually high prevalences of morbidities. Our novel typologies methodology allowed for an efficient and a more in-depth examination of the differential impact of livestock ownership patterns compared to typical binary or count measures of livestock ownership. We found that these patterns were not positively associated with child nutrition outcomes in this context. Development and conservation programs focusing on livestock must carefully consider the complex, context-specific relationship between livestock

  14. Examining the association between livestock ownership typologies and child nutrition in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Dumas

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between livestock ownership and dietary diversity, animal-source food consumption, height-for-age z-score, and stunting among children living in wildlife "buffer zones" of Zambia's Luangwa Valley using a novel livestock typology approach.We conducted a cross-sectional study of 838 children aged 6-36 months. Households were categorized into typologies based on the types and numbers of animals owned, ranging from no livestock to large numbers of mixed livestock. We used multilevel mixed-effects linear and logistic regression to examine the association between livestock typologies and four nutrition-related outcomes of interest. Results were compared with analyses using more common binary and count measures of livestock ownership.No measure of livestock ownership was significantly associated with children's odds of animal-source food consumption, child height-for-age z-score, or stunting odds. Livestock ownership Type 2 (having a small number of poultry was surprisingly associated with decreased child dietary diversity (β = -0.477; p<0.01 relative to owning no livestock. Similarly, in comparison models, chicken ownership was negatively associated with dietary diversity (β = -0.320; p<0.01, but increasing numbers of chickens were positively associated with dietary diversity (β = 0.022; p<0.01. Notably, neither child dietary diversity nor animal-source food consumption was significantly associated with height, perhaps due to unusually high prevalences of morbidities.Our novel typologies methodology allowed for an efficient and a more in-depth examination of the differential impact of livestock ownership patterns compared to typical binary or count measures of livestock ownership. We found that these patterns were not positively associated with child nutrition outcomes in this context. Development and conservation programs focusing on livestock must carefully consider the complex, context-specific relationship between

  15. Association between resting-state brain network topological organization and creative ability: Evidence from a multiple linear regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Bingqing; Zhang, Delong; Liang, Aiying; Liang, Bishan; Wang, Zengjian; Li, Junchao; Cai, Yuxuan; Gao, Mengxia; Gao, Zhenni; Chang, Song; Huang, Ruiwang; Liu, Ming

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated a tight linkage between resting-state functional connectivity of the human brain and creative ability. This study aimed to further investigate the association between the topological organization of resting-state brain networks and creativity. Therefore, we acquired resting-state fMRI data from 22 high-creativity participants and 22 low-creativity participants (as determined by their Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking scores). We then constructed functional brain networks for each participant and assessed group differences in network topological properties before exploring the relationships between respective network topological properties and creative ability. We identified an optimized organization of intrinsic brain networks in both groups. However, compared with low-creativity participants, high-creativity participants exhibited increased global efficiency and substantially decreased path length, suggesting increased efficiency of information transmission across brain networks in creative individuals. Using a multiple linear regression model, we further demonstrated that regional functional integration properties (i.e., the betweenness centrality and global efficiency) of brain networks, particularly the default mode network (DMN) and sensorimotor network (SMN), significantly predicted the individual differences in creative ability. Furthermore, the associations between network regional properties and creative performance were creativity-level dependent, where the difference in the resource control component may be important in explaining individual difference in creative performance. These findings provide novel insights into the neural substrate of creativity and may facilitate objective identification of creative ability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sequential Participation in a Multi-Institutional Mock Oral Examination Is Associated With Improved American Board of Surgery Certifying Examination First-Time Pass Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingeret, Abbey L; Arnell, Tracey; McNelis, John; Statter, Mindy; Dresner, Lisa; Widmann, Warren

    We sought to determine whether sequential participation in a multi-institutional mock oral examination affected the likelihood of passing the American Board of Surgery Certifying Examination (ABSCE) in first attempt. Residents from 3 academic medical centers were able to participate in a regional mock oral examination in the fall and spring of their fourth and fifth postgraduate year from 2011 to 2014. Candidate׳s highest composite score of all mock orals attempts was classified as risk for failure, intermediate, or likely to pass. Factors including United States Medical Licensing Examination steps 1, 2, and 3, number of cases logged, American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination performance, American Board of Surgery Qualifying Examination (ABSQE) performance, number of attempts, and performance in the mock orals were assessed to determine factors predictive of passing the ABSCE. A total of 128 mock oral examinations were administered to 88 (71%) of 124 eligible residents. The overall first-time pass rate for the ABSCE was 82%. There was no difference in pass rates between participants and nonparticipants. Of them, 16 (18%) residents were classified as at risk, 47 (53%) as intermediate, and 25 (29%) as likely to pass. ABSCE pass rate for each group was as follows: 36% for at risk, 84% for intermediate, and 96% for likely pass. The following 4 factors were associated with first-time passing of ABSCE on bivariate analysis: mock orals participation in postgraduate year 4 (p = 0.05), sequential participation in mock orals (p = 0.03), ABSQE performance (p = 0.01), and best performance on mock orals (p = 0.001). In multivariable logistic regression, the following 3 factors remained associated with ABSCE passing: ABSQE performance, odds ratio (OR) = 2.9 (95% CI: 1.3-6.1); mock orals best performance, OR = 1.7 (1.2-2.4); and participation in multiple mock oral examinations, OR = 1.4 (1.1-2.7). Performance on a multi-institutional mock oral examination can identify

  17. Multiple Linear Regression Analysis Indicates Association of P-Glycoprotein Substrate or Inhibitor Character with Bitterness Intensity, Measured with a Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Kentaro; Mita, Suzune; Morimoto, Kaori; Haraguchi, Tamami; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Miyako; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Uchida, Takahiro; Ogihara, Takuo

    2015-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) regulates absorption of many drugs in the gastrointestinal tract and their accumulation in tumor tissues, but the basis of substrate recognition by P-gp remains unclear. Bitter-tasting phenylthiocarbamide, which stimulates taste receptor 2 member 38 (T2R38), increases P-gp activity and is a substrate of P-gp. This led us to hypothesize that bitterness intensity might be a predictor of P-gp-inhibitor/substrate status. Here, we measured the bitterness intensity of a panel of P-gp substrates and nonsubstrates with various taste sensors, and used multiple linear regression analysis to examine the relationship between P-gp-inhibitor/substrate status and various physical properties, including intensity of bitter taste measured with the taste sensor. We calculated the first principal component analysis score (PC1) as the representative value of bitterness, as all taste sensor's outputs shared significant correlation. The P-gp substrates showed remarkably greater mean bitterness intensity than non-P-gp substrates. We found that Km value of P-gp substrates were correlated with molecular weight, log P, and PC1 value, and the coefficient of determination (R(2) ) of the linear regression equation was 0.63. This relationship might be useful as an aid to predict P-gp substrate status at an early stage of drug discovery. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  18. Examining the association of smoking with work productivity and associated costs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwa, Kiyomi; Flores, Natalia M; Yoshikawa, Reiko; Goto, Rei; Vietri, Jeffrey; Igarashi, Ataru

    2017-09-01

    Smoking is associated with significant health and economic burden globally, including an increased risk of many leading causes of mortality and significant impairments in work productivity. This burden is attenuated by successful tobacco cessation, including reduced risk of disease and improved productivity. The current study aimed to show the benefits of smoking cessation for workplace productivity and decreased costs associated with loss of work impairment. The data source was the 2011 Japan National Health and Wellness Survey (n = 30,000). Respondents aged 20-64 were used in the analyses (n = 23,738) and were categorized into: current smokers, former smokers, and never smokers. Generalized linear models controlling for demographics and health characteristics examined the relationship of smoking status with the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire (WPAI-GH) endpoints, as well as estimated indirect costs. Current smokers reported the greatest overall work impairment, including absenteeism (i.e. work time missed) and presenteeism (i.e. impairment while at work); however, after controlling for covariates, there were no significant differences between former smokers and never smokers on overall work impairment. Current smokers and former smokers had greater activity impairment (i.e. impairment in daily activities) than never smokers. Current smokers reported the highest indirect costs (i.e. costs associated with work impairment); however, after controlling for covariates, there were no significant differences between former smokers and never smokers on indirect costs. Smoking exerts a large health and economic burden; however, smoking cessation attenuates this burden. The current study provides important further evidence of this association, with former smokers appearing statistically indistinguishable from never smokers in terms of work productivity loss and associated indirect costs among a large representative sample of Japanese workers

  19. Is ovarian hyperstimulation associated with higher blood pressure in 4-year-old IVF offspring? Part I: multivariable regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seggers, Jorien; Haadsma, Maaike L; La Bastide-Van Gemert, Sacha; Heineman, Maas Jan; Middelburg, Karin J; Roseboom, Tessa J; Schendelaar, Pamela; Van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2014-03-01

    Does ovarian hyperstimulation, the in vitro procedure, or a combination of these two negatively influence blood pressure (BP) and anthropometrics of 4-year-old children born following IVF? Higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) percentiles were found in 4-year-old children born following conventional IVF with ovarian hyperstimulation compared with children born following IVF without ovarian hyperstimulation. Increasing evidence suggests that IVF, which has an increased incidence of preterm birth and low birthweight, is associated with higher BP and altered body fat distribution in offspring but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We performed a prospective, assessor-blinded follow-up study in which 194 children were assessed. The attrition rate up until the 4-year-old assessment was 10%. We measured BP and anthropometrics of 4-year-old singletons born following conventional IVF with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH-IVF, n = 63), or born following modified natural cycle IV (MNC-IVF, n = 52), or born to subfertile couples who conceived naturally (Sub-NC, n = 79). Both IVF and ICSI were performed. Primary outcome measures were the SBP percentiles and diastolic BP (DBP) percentiles. Anthropometric measures included triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness. Several multivariable regression analyses were applied in order to correct for subsets of confounders. The value 'B' is the unstandardized regression coefficient. SBP percentiles were significantly lower in the MNC-IVF group (mean 59, SD 24) than in the COH-IVF (mean 68, SD 22) and Sub-NC groups (mean 70, SD 16). The difference in SBP between COH-IVF and MNC-IVF remained significant after correction for current, early life and parental characteristics (B: 14.09; 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.39-22.79), whereas the difference between MNC-IVF and Sub-NC did not. DBP percentiles did not differ between groups. After correction for early life factors, subscapular skinfold thickness was thicker in the

  20. Association between sleep quality and C-reactive protein: results from national health and nutrition examination survey, 2005-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to explore the association between poor sleep quality and hs_CRP in an adult U.S. population. METHODS: This study focused on 9,317 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES from 2005-2008 who were aged 20-85 years, completed a sleep disorder questionnaire, and had available information on serum hs_CRP. Sleep quality was classified into three categories (good, moderate, poor based on the responses of participants to the NHANES sleep disorder questionnaire. High CRP was defined as hs-CRP >1 md/dL. Linear regression model was applied to investigate the association between poor sleep quality and log-transformed hs_CRP. And logistic regression model was fitted to evaluate the association between sleep quality and the risk of high CRP. RESULTS: Females were more likely to report poor sleep quality than males (26% vs. 19%, p<0.0001. Each sleep disorder was significantly associated with increased hs_CRP and correlative to other sleep disorders. In fully-adjusted linear regression model, poor sleep quality was significantly associated with elevated hs_CRP (log transformed among the overall sample and in females only (β = 0.10, se = 0.03, p<0.01 and β = 0.13, se = 0.04, p<0.01, respectively. In fully-adjusted logistics regression model, poor sleep quality was linked with risk of high CRP(OR: 1.42, 95%CI: 1.15-1.76 in overall sample and OR: 1.59, 95%CI: 1.18-2.14 in females, respectively. CONCLUSION: We found that poor sleep quality was independently associated with elevated hs_CRP in females but not in males in a U.S. adult population.

  1. A Two-Stage Penalized Logistic Regression Approach to Case-Control Genome-Wide Association Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyuan Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a two-stage penalized logistic regression approach to case-control genome-wide association studies. This approach consists of a screening stage and a selection stage. In the screening stage, main-effect and interaction-effect features are screened by using L1-penalized logistic like-lihoods. In the selection stage, the retained features are ranked by the logistic likelihood with the smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD penalty (Fan and Li, 2001 and Jeffrey’s Prior penalty (Firth, 1993, a sequence of nested candidate models are formed, and the models are assessed by a family of extended Bayesian information criteria (J. Chen and Z. Chen, 2008. The proposed approach is applied to the analysis of the prostate cancer data of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS project in the National Cancer Institute, USA. Simulation studies are carried out to compare the approach with the pair-wise multiple testing approach (Marchini et al. 2005 and the LASSO-patternsearch algorithm (Shi et al. 2007.

  2. Factors associated with trait anger level of juvenile offenders in Hubei province: A binary logistic regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li-Na; Ye, Xiao-Zhou; Yan, Qiu-Ge; Chang, Hong-Juan; Ma, Yu-Qiao; Liu, De-Bin; Li, Zhi-Gen; Yu, Yi-Zhen

    2017-02-01

    The risk factors of high trait anger of juvenile offenders were explored through questionnaire study in a youth correctional facility of Hubei province, China. A total of 1090 juvenile offenders in Hubei province were investigated by self-compiled social-demographic questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-II (STAXI-II). The risk factors were analyzed by chi-square tests, correlation analysis, and binary logistic regression analysis with SPSS 19.0. A total of 1082 copies of valid questionnaires were collected. High trait anger group (n=316) was defined as those who scored in the upper 27th percentile of STAXI-II trait anger scale (TAS), and the rest were defined as low trait anger group (n=766). The risk factors associated with high level of trait anger included: childhood emotional abuse, childhood sexual abuse, step family, frequent drug abuse, and frequent internet using (P0.05). It was suggested that traumatic experience in childhood and unhealthy life style may significantly increase the level of trait anger in adulthood. The risk factors of high trait anger and their effects should be taken into consideration seriously.

  3. Comparison of linear and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models for appraisal of risk factors associated with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Manu; Shah, Aasim Farooq; Rajput, Prashant; Shah, Ishrat Aasim

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries among children has been described as a pandemic disease with a multifactorial nature. Various sociodemographic factors and oral hygiene practices are commonly tested for their influence on dental caries. In recent years, a recent statistical model that allows for covariate adjustment has been developed and is commonly referred zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models. To compare the fit of the two models, the conventional linear regression (LR) model and ZINB model to assess the risk factors associated with dental caries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1138 12-year-old school children in Moradabad Town, Uttar Pradesh during months of February-August 2014. Selected participants were interviewed using a questionnaire. Dental caries was assessed by recording decayed, missing, or filled teeth (DMFT) index. To assess the risk factor associated with dental caries in children, two approaches have been applied - LR model and ZINB model. The prevalence of caries-free subjects was 24.1%, and mean DMFT was 3.4 ± 1.8. In LR model, all the variables were statistically significant. Whereas in ZINB model, negative binomial part showed place of residence, father's education level, tooth brushing frequency, and dental visit statistically significant implying that the degree of being caries-free (DMFT = 0) increases for group of children who are living in urban, whose father is university pass out, who brushes twice a day and if have ever visited a dentist. The current study report that the LR model is a poorly fitted model and may lead to spurious conclusions whereas ZINB model has shown better goodness of fit (Akaike information criterion values - LR: 3.94; ZINB: 2.39) and can be preferred if high variance and number of an excess of zeroes are present.

  4. Identification and validation of a logistic regression model for predicting serious injuries associated with motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononen, Douglas W; Flannagan, Carol A C; Wang, Stewart C

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate logistic regression model, based upon National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) data for calendar years 1999-2008, was developed to predict the probability that a crash-involved vehicle will contain one or more occupants with serious or incapacitating injuries. These vehicles were defined as containing at least one occupant coded with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of greater than or equal to 15, in planar, non-rollover crash events involving Model Year 2000 and newer cars, light trucks, and vans. The target injury outcome measure was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-led National Expert Panel on Field Triage in their recent revision of the Field Triage Decision Scheme (American College of Surgeons, 2006). The parameters to be used for crash injury prediction were subsequently specified by the National Expert Panel. Model input parameters included: crash direction (front, left, right, and rear), change in velocity (delta-V), multiple vs. single impacts, belt use, presence of at least one older occupant (≥ 55 years old), presence of at least one female in the vehicle, and vehicle type (car, pickup truck, van, and sport utility). The model was developed using predictor variables that may be readily available, post-crash, from OnStar-like telematics systems. Model sensitivity and specificity were 40% and 98%, respectively, using a probability cutpoint of 0.20. The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for the final model was 0.84. Delta-V (mph), seat belt use and crash direction were the most important predictors of serious injury. Due to the complexity of factors associated with rollover-related injuries, a separate screening algorithm is needed to model injuries associated with this crash mode. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Long Term Association of Tropospheric Trace gases over Pakistan by exploiting satellite observations and development of Econometric Regression based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Naila; Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad; Khan, Saud Ahmed; Noreen, Asma; Murtaza, Rabbia

    2017-04-01

    . Furthermore to explore causal relation, regression analysis is employed to estimate model for CO and TOC. This model numerically estimated the long term association of trace gases over the region.

  6. Using Gamma and Quantile Regressions to Explore the Association between Job Strain and Adiposity in the ELSA-Brasil Study: Does Gender Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Juvanhol, Leidjaira Lopes; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Griep, Rosane Härter; Alves, Márcia Guimarães de Mello; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Giatti, Luana; Nunes, Maria Angélica; Aquino, Estela M L; Chor, Dóra

    2017-11-17

    This paper explores the association between job strain and adiposity, using two statistical analysis approaches and considering the role of gender. The research evaluated 11,960 active baseline participants (2008-2010) in the ELSA-Brasil study. Job strain was evaluated through a demand-control questionnaire, while body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were evaluated in continuous form. The associations were estimated using gamma regression models with an identity link function. Quantile regression models were also estimated from the final set of co-variables established by gamma regression. The relationship that was found varied by analytical approach and gender. Among the women, no association was observed between job strain and adiposity in the fitted gamma models. In the quantile models, a pattern of increasing effects of high strain was observed at higher BMI and WC distribution quantiles. Among the men, high strain was associated with adiposity in the gamma regression models. However, when quantile regression was used, that association was found not to be homogeneous across outcome distributions. In addition, in the quantile models an association was observed between active jobs and BMI. Our results point to an association between job strain and adiposity, which follows a heterogeneous pattern. Modelling strategies can produce different results and should, accordingly, be used to complement one another.

  7. Autistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    Autistic regression is one of the many mysteries in the developmental course of autism and pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Various definitions of this phenomenon have been used, further clouding the study of the topic. Despite this problem, some efforts at establishing prevalence have been made. The purpose of…

  8. The Association Between Barium Examination and Subsequent Appendicitis: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao-Ming; Yeh, Lee-Ren; Huang, Ying-Kai; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and association between appendicitis and barium examination (BE) remain unclear. Such potential risk may be omitted. We conducted a longitudinal, nationwide, population-based cohort study to investigate the association between BE and appendicitis risk. From the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, a total of 24,885 patients who underwent BE between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 were enrolled in a BE cohort; an additional 98,384 subjects without BE exposure were selected as a non-BE cohort, matched by age, sex, and index date. The cumulative incidences of subsequent appendicitis in the BE and non-BE cohorts were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were employed to calculate the appendicitis risk between the groups. The cumulative incidence of appendicitis was higher in the BE cohort than in the non-BE cohort (P = .001). The overall incidence rates of appendicitis for the BE and non-BE cohorts were 1.19 and 0.80 per 1000 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for sex, age, and comorbidities, the risk of appendicitis was higher in the BE cohort (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.23-1.73) compared with the non-BE cohort, especially in the first 2 months (adjusted hazard ratio = 9.72, 95% confidence interval = 4.65-20.3). BE was associated with an increased, time-dependent appendicitis risk. Clinicians should be aware of this potential risk to avoid delayed diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Longitudinal changes in telomere length and associated genetic parameters in dairy cattle analysed using random regression models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise A Seeker

    Full Text Available Telomeres cap the ends of linear chromosomes and shorten with age in many organisms. In humans short telomeres have been linked to morbidity and mortality. With the accumulation of longitudinal datasets the focus shifts from investigating telomere length (TL to exploring TL change within individuals over time. Some studies indicate that the speed of telomere attrition is predictive of future disease. The objectives of the present study were to 1 characterize the change in bovine relative leukocyte TL (RLTL across the lifetime in Holstein Friesian dairy cattle, 2 estimate genetic parameters of RLTL over time and 3 investigate the association of differences in individual RLTL profiles with productive lifespan. RLTL measurements were analysed using Legendre polynomials in a random regression model to describe TL profiles and genetic variance over age. The analyses were based on 1,328 repeated RLTL measurements of 308 female Holstein Friesian dairy cattle. A quadratic Legendre polynomial was fitted to the fixed effect of age in months and to the random effect of the animal identity. Changes in RLTL, heritability and within-trait genetic correlation along the age trajectory were calculated and illustrated. At a population level, the relationship between RLTL and age was described by a positive quadratic function. Individuals varied significantly regarding the direction and amount of RLTL change over life. The heritability of RLTL ranged from 0.36 to 0.47 (SE = 0.05-0.08 and remained statistically unchanged over time. The genetic correlation of RLTL at birth with measurements later in life decreased with the time interval between samplings from near unity to 0.69, indicating that TL later in life might be regulated by different genes than TL early in life. Even though animals differed in their RLTL profiles significantly, those differences were not correlated with productive lifespan (p = 0.954.

  10. New approaches for examining associations with latent categorical variables: applications to substance abuse and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Alan; Tiberio, Stacey S; Capaldi, Deborah M

    2014-03-01

    Assessments of substance use behaviors often include categorical variables that are frequently related to other measures using logistic regression or chi-square analysis. When the categorical variable is latent (e.g., extracted from a latent class analysis [LCA]), classification of observations is often used to create an observed nominal variable from the latent one for use in a subsequent analysis. However, recent simulation studies have found that this classical 3-step analysis championed by the pioneers of LCA produces underestimates of the associations of latent classes with other variables. Two preferable but underused alternatives for examining such linkages-each of which is most appropriate under certain conditions-are (a) 3-step analysis, which corrects the underestimation bias of the classical approach, and (b) 1-step analysis. The purpose of this article is to dissuade researchers from conducting classical 3-step analysis and to promote the use of the 2 newer approaches that are described and compared. In addition, the applications of these newer models-for use when the independent, the dependent, or both categorical variables are latent-are illustrated through substantive analyses relating classes of substance abusers to classes of intimate partner aggressors.

  11. Understanding logistic regression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sperandei, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Logistic regression is used to obtain odds ratio in the presence of more than one explanatory variable. The procedure is quite similar to multiple linear regression, with the exception that the response variable is binomial. The result is the impact of each variable on the odds ratio of the observed event of interest. The main advantage is to avoid confounding effects by analyzing the association of all variables together. In this article, we explain the logistic regression procedure using ex...

  12. Linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, David J

    2017-01-01

    This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...

  13. Multivariate and semiparametric kernel regression

    OpenAIRE

    Härdle, Wolfgang; Müller, Marlene

    1997-01-01

    The paper gives an introduction to theory and application of multivariate and semiparametric kernel smoothing. Multivariate nonparametric density estimation is an often used pilot tool for examining the structure of data. Regression smoothing helps in investigating the association between covariates and responses. We concentrate on kernel smoothing using local polynomial fitting which includes the Nadaraya-Watson estimator. Some theory on the asymptotic behavior and bandwidth selection is pro...

  14. Association between response rates and survival outcomes in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. A systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainou, Maria; Madenidou, Anastasia-Vasiliki; Liakos, Aris; Paschos, Paschalis; Karagiannis, Thomas; Bekiari, Eleni; Vlachaki, Efthymia; Wang, Zhen; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Kumar, Shaji; Tsapas, Apostolos

    2017-06-01

    We performed a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of randomized control trials to investigate the association between response to initial treatment and survival outcomes in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). Response outcomes included complete response (CR) and the combined outcome of CR or very good partial response (VGPR), while survival outcomes were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). We used random-effect meta-regression models and conducted sensitivity analyses based on definition of CR and study quality. Seventy-two trials were included in the systematic review, 63 of which contributed data in meta-regression analyses. There was no association between OS and CR in patients without autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) (regression coefficient: .02, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.06, 0.10), in patients undergoing ASCT (-.11, 95% CI -0.44, 0.22) and in trials comparing ASCT with non-ASCT patients (.04, 95% CI -0.29, 0.38). Similarly, OS did not correlate with the combined metric of CR or VGPR, and no association was evident between response outcomes and PFS. Sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. This meta-regression analysis suggests that there is no association between conventional response outcomes and survival in patients with newly diagnosed MM. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. An Examination of the Association between Seeing Smoking in Films and Tobacco Use in Young Adults in the West of Scotland: Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Sargent, James; Lewars, Heather; Cin, Sonya Dal; Worth, Keilah

    2009-01-01

    The objective is to examine the association between the amount of smoking seen in films and current smoking in young adults living in the west of Scotland in the UK. Cross-sectional analyses (using multivariable logistic regression) of data collected at age 19 (2002-04) from a longitudinal cohort originally surveyed at age 11 (1994-95) were…

  16. A regression model using sediment chemistry for the evaluation of marine environmental impacts associated with salmon aquaculture cage wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.L.; Haya, K.; Paon, L.A.; Moffatt, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to develop an approach for modelling changes of sediment chemistry related to the accumulation of aquaculture waste. Metal composition of sediment Al, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, and Zn; organic carbon and 2 =0.945 compared to R 2 =0.653 for the regression model using unadjusted EMP for assessing the environmental conditions

  17. Development of Land Use Regression models for particulate matter and associated components in a low air pollutant concentration airshed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirgawati, Mila; Heyworth, Jane S.; Wheeler, Amanda J.; McCaul, Kieran A.; Blake, David; Boeyen, Jonathon; Cope, Martin; Yeap, Bu Beng; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Hinwood, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Perth, Western Australia represents an area where pollutant concentrations are considered low compared with international locations. Land Use Regression (LUR) models for PM10, PM2.5 and PM2.5 Absorbance (PM2.5Abs) along with their elemental components: Fe, K, Mn, V, S, Zn and Si were developed for

  18. Family characteristics and parents' and children's health behaviour are associated with public health nurses' concerns at children's health examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutiainen, Hannele; Hakulinen, Tuovi; Mäki, Päivi; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2016-12-01

    The study aimed to establish whether family characteristics and the health behaviour and illnesses of parents and children are associated with public health nurses' (PHNs') concerns about children's physical health and psychosocial development in the context of health examinations. Factors affecting children's health and well-being should be identified as early as possible to provide children and families appropriate support. In 2007-2009, a cross-sectional study in Finland collected information about PHNs' concerns, children's health and well-being as well as the background factors affecting them during health examinations of preschool-age children and school-aged children (n = 4795). Associations between family characteristics, parents' and children's behaviour and diseases, and PHNs' concerns were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Overweight in children, the long-term illnesses of both children and parents, and parental smoking were the factors most strongly associated with PHNs' concerns about a child's physical health whereas non-nuclear family types, the father's low educational level and unemployment, the child's lack of sleep, and bullying were associated with concerns about the child's psychosocial development. The connections found demonstrate that health examinations should address factors that affect the whole family's well-being so as to comprehensively promote children's health, growth and development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Examining the association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders: A familial risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Amy M; Martelon, MaryKate; Faraone, Stephen V; Carrellas, Nicholas; Wilens, Timothy E; Biederman, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to use familial risk analysis to examine the association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) attending to sex effects and the specificity of alcohol and drug use disorder risks. Subjects were derived from two longitudinal case-control family studies of probands aged 6-17 years with and without DSM-III-R ADHD of both sexes and their first degree relatives followed from childhood onto young adult years. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate rates of ADHD and SUDs (any SUD, alcohol dependence, and drug dependence). Logistic regression was used to test both co-segregation and assortative mating. Our sample included 404 probands (ADHD: 112 boys and 96 girls; Control: 105 boys and 91 girls) and their 1336 relatives. SUDs in probands increased the risk for SUDs in relatives irrespective of ADHD status. The risk for dependence to drug or alcohol in relatives was non-specific. There was evidence that even in the absence of a SUD in the proband, ADHD by itself increased the risk of SUDs in relatives. Proband sex did not moderate the familial relationship between ADHD and SUDs. There was evidence of co-segregation between ADHD and SUD. Findings indicate that various independent pathways are involved in the transmission of SUD in ADHD and that these risks were not moderated by proband sex. ADHD children and siblings should benefit from preventive and early intervention strategies to decrease their elevated risk for developing a SUD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Scrub typhus islands in the Taiwan area and the association between scrub typhus disease and forest land use and farmer population density: geographically weighted regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Taiwan area comprises the main island of Taiwan and several small islands located off the coast of the Southern China. The eastern two-thirds of Taiwan are characterized by rugged mountains covered with tropical and subtropical vegetation. The western region of Taiwan is characterized by flat or gently rolling plains. Geographically, the Taiwan area is diverse in ecology and environment, although scrub typhus threatens local human populations. In this study, we investigate the effects of seasonal and meteorological factors on the incidence of scrub typhus infection among 10 local climate regions. The correlation between the spatial distribution of scrub typhus and cultivated forests in Taiwan, as well as the relationship between scrub typhus incidence and the population density of farm workers is examined. Methods We applied Pearson’s product moment correlation to calculate the correlation between the incidence of scrub typhus and meteorological factors among 10 local climate regions. We used the geographically weighted regression (GWR) method, a type of spatial regression that generates parameters disaggregated by the spatial units of analysis, to detail and map each regression point for the response variables of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR)-district scrub typhus. We also applied the GWR to examine the explanatory variables of types of forest-land use and farm worker density in Taiwan in 2005. Results In the Taiwan Area, scrub typhus endemic areas are located in the southeastern regions and mountainous townships of Taiwan, as well as the Pescadore, Kinmen, and Matou Islands. Among these islands and low-incidence areas in the central western and southwestern regions of Taiwan, we observed a significant correlation between scrub typhus incidence and surface temperature. No similar significant correlation was found in the endemic areas (e.g., the southeastern region and the mountainous area of Taiwan). Precipitation correlates positively

  1. The association between dietary patterns derived by reduced rank regression and depressive symptoms over time: the Invecchiare in Chianti (InCHIANTI) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, E.; Stronks, K.; Visser, M de; Brouwer, I.A.; Schene, A.H.; Mocking, R.J.T.; Colpo, M.; Bandinelli, S.; Ferrucci, L.; Nicolaou, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify dietary patterns using reduced rank regression (RRR) and to explore their associations with depressive symptoms over 9 years in the Invecchiare in Chianti study. At baseline, 1362 participants (55.4 % women) aged 18-102 years (mean age 68 (sd 15.5) years) were included

  2. The association between dietary patterns derived by reduced rank regression and depressive symptoms over time : the Invecchiare in Chianti (InCHIANTI) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Esther; Stronks, Karien; Visser, Marjolein; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Schene, Aart H; Mocking, Roel J T; Colpo, Marco; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; Nicolaou, Mary

    This study aimed to identify dietary patterns using reduced rank regression (RRR) and to explore their associations with depressive symptoms over 9 years in the Invecchiare in Chianti study. At baseline, 1362 participants (55·4 % women) aged 18-102 years (mean age 68 (sd 15·5) years) were included

  3. Land use regression modeling of oxidative potential of fine particles, NO2, PM2.5 mass and association to type two diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellack, Bryan; Sugiri, Dorothea; Schins, Roel P. F.; Schikowski, Tamara; Krämer, Ursula; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A. J.; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    While land use regression models (LUR) are commonly used, e.g. for the prediction of spatially variable air pollutant mass concentrations, they are scarcely used for predicting the oxidative potential (OP), a suggested unifying predictor of health effects. Therefore a LUR model was developed to examine if long-term OP of fine particulate exposure can be reasonably predicted by LUR modeling and whether it is related to health effects in a study region comprised of urban and rural areas. Four 14-day sampling periods over 1 year at 40 sites in the western Ruhr Area and adjacent northern rural area, Germany, in 2002/2003 were conducted and annual Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), fine particles (PM2.5), and OP were calculated. LUR models were developed to estimate spatially-resolved annual OP, NO2 and PM2.5 concentrations. The model performance was checked by leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) and cox regression was used to analyze the association of modeled residential OP and NO2 with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in 1784 elderly women during a mean follow-up of 16 years (baseline 1985-1994). The measured OP and NO2 concentrations were moderately correlated (rSpearman 0.57). The LUR models explained 62% and 92% of the OP and NO2 variance (adjusted LOOCV R2 57% and 90%). PM10 emission from combustion in a 5000 m buffer was the most important predictor for OP and NO2. Modeled pollutants were highly correlated (rSpearman 0.87). Model quality for OP was sensitive to the inclusion of a single influential measurement site. For PM2.5 mass only an insufficient model with a low explained variance of 22% (adjusted R2) was developed so no health effects analyses were conducted with estimated PM2.5. Increases in OP and NO2 were associated with an increase in risk of T2DM by a hazard ratio of 1.38 (95% CI 1.06-1.80) and 1.39 (95% CI 1.07-1.81) per interquartile range of OP and NO2, respectively. We conclude that spatially-resolved OP can be predicted by LUR modeling, but

  4. Applied logistic regression

    CERN Document Server

    Hosmer, David W; Sturdivant, Rodney X

    2013-01-01

     A new edition of the definitive guide to logistic regression modeling for health science and other applications This thoroughly expanded Third Edition provides an easily accessible introduction to the logistic regression (LR) model and highlights the power of this model by examining the relationship between a dichotomous outcome and a set of covariables. Applied Logistic Regression, Third Edition emphasizes applications in the health sciences and handpicks topics that best suit the use of modern statistical software. The book provides readers with state-of-

  5. Examining the associations between emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, and eating disorder severity among inpatients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynos, Ann F; Roberto, Christina A; Attia, Evelyn

    2015-07-01

    There is growing interest in the role of emotion regulation in anorexia nervosa (AN). Although anxiety is also hypothesized to impact symptoms of AN, little is known about how emotion regulation, anxiety, and eating disorder symptoms interact in AN. In this study, we examined the associations between emotion regulation, anxiety, and eating disorder symptom severity in AN. Questionnaires and interviews assessing emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, eating disorder symptoms, and eating disorder-related clinical impairment were collected from group of underweight individuals with AN (n=59) at admission to inpatient treatment. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine the associations of emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, and the interaction of these constructs with eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related clinical impairment. Emotion regulation difficulties were significantly positively associated with eating disorder symptoms and related clinical impairment only when anxiety levels were low and anxiety was significantly positively associated with eating disorder symptoms and related clinical impairment only when emotion regulation problems were not elevated. This study adds to a growing literature suggesting that emotion regulation deficits are associated with eating disorder symptoms in AN. Certain individuals with AN may especially benefit from a focus on developing emotion regulation skills in the acute stages of illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Age-Related Imbalance Is Associated With Slower Walking Speed: An Analysis From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanjun J; Liu, Elizabeth Y; Anson, Eric R; Agrawal, Yuri

    Walking speed is an important dimension of gait function and is known to decline with age. Gait function is a process of dynamic balance and motor control that relies on multiple sensory inputs (eg, visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular) and motor outputs. These sensory and motor physiologic systems also play a role in static postural control, which has been shown to decline with age. In this study, we evaluated whether imbalance that occurs as part of healthy aging is associated with slower walking speed in a nationally representative sample of older adults. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the previously collected 1999 to 2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data to evaluate whether age-related imbalance is associated with slower walking speed in older adults aged 50 to 85 years (n = 2116). Balance was assessed on a pass/fail basis during a challenging postural task-condition 4 of the modified Romberg Test-and walking speed was determined using a 20-ft (6.10 m) timed walk. Multivariable linear regression was used to evaluate the association between imbalance and walking speed, adjusting for demographic and health-related covariates. A structural equation model was developed to estimate the extent to which imbalance mediates the association between age and slower walking speed. In the unadjusted regression model, inability to perform the NHANES balance task was significantly associated with 0.10 m/s slower walking speed (95% confidence interval: -0.13 to -0.07; P imbalance mediates 12.2% of the association between age and slower walking speed in older adults. In a nationally representative sample, age-related balance limitation was associated with slower walking speed. Balance impairment may lead to walking speed declines. In addition, reduced static postural control and dynamic walking speed that occur with aging may share common etiologic origins, including the decline in visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular sensory and

  7. Examining the Associations Among Home-School Dissonance, Amotivation, and Classroom Disruptive Behavior for Urban High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth M; Graves, Scott L; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Mulder, Shambra

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the association among home-school dissonance, amotivation, and classroom disruptive behavior among 309 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southern region of the country. Students completed two subscales of the Patterns of Learning Activities Scales (PALS) and one subscale of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). ANCOVA analyses revealed significant differences in classroom disruptive behaviors for the gender independent variable. Controlling for gender in the multiple hierarchical regression analyses, it was revealed that home-school dissonance significantly predicted both amotivation and classroom disruptive behavior. In addition, a Sobel mediation analysis showed that amotivation was a significant mediator of the association between home-school dissonance and classroom disruptive behavior. Findings and limitations are discussed.

  8. Examining the Associations Among Home–School Dissonance, Amotivation, and Classroom Disruptive Behavior for Urban High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth M.; Graves, Scott L.; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Mulder, Shambra

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the association among home–school dissonance, amotivation, and classroom disruptive behavior among 309 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southern region of the country. Students completed two subscales of the Patterns of Learning Activities Scales (PALS) and one subscale of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). ANCOVA analyses revealed significant differences in classroom disruptive behaviors for the gender independent variable. Controlling for gender in the multiple hierarchical regression analyses, it was revealed that home–school dissonance significantly predicted both amotivation and classroom disruptive behavior. In addition, a Sobel mediation analysis showed that amotivation was a significant mediator of the association between home–school dissonance and classroom disruptive behavior. Findings and limitations are discussed. PMID:27081213

  9. Understanding logistic regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandei, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Logistic regression is used to obtain odds ratio in the presence of more than one explanatory variable. The procedure is quite similar to multiple linear regression, with the exception that the response variable is binomial. The result is the impact of each variable on the odds ratio of the observed event of interest. The main advantage is to avoid confounding effects by analyzing the association of all variables together. In this article, we explain the logistic regression procedure using examples to make it as simple as possible. After definition of the technique, the basic interpretation of the results is highlighted and then some special issues are discussed.

  10. Canonical variate regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chongliang; Liu, Jin; Dey, Dipak K; Chen, Kun

    2016-07-01

    In many fields, multi-view datasets, measuring multiple distinct but interrelated sets of characteristics on the same set of subjects, together with data on certain outcomes or phenotypes, are routinely collected. The objective in such a problem is often two-fold: both to explore the association structures of multiple sets of measurements and to develop a parsimonious model for predicting the future outcomes. We study a unified canonical variate regression framework to tackle the two problems simultaneously. The proposed criterion integrates multiple canonical correlation analysis with predictive modeling, balancing between the association strength of the canonical variates and their joint predictive power on the outcomes. Moreover, the proposed criterion seeks multiple sets of canonical variates simultaneously to enable the examination of their joint effects on the outcomes, and is able to handle multivariate and non-Gaussian outcomes. An efficient algorithm based on variable splitting and Lagrangian multipliers is proposed. Simulation studies show the superior performance of the proposed approach. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in an [Formula: see text] intercross mice study and an alcohol dependence study. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The Association of Metabolic Syndrome with Diabetic Retinopathy: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Kyong Kim

    Full Text Available To explore gender differences and associations between metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components, and diabetic retinopathy (DR in Korean adults aged 40 years and older with diabetes.We analyzed data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2012. In total, 2,576 type 2 diabetic participants, aged 40 and older, were evaluated. Seven standard retinal fundus photographs were obtained after pupil dilation in both eyes. DR was graded using the modified Airlie House classification system. Vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR included proliferative diabetic retinopathy and clinically significant macular edema. MetS was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement, proposed in 2009, by the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between MetS and its individual components with DR and VTDR.After controlling for confounders, MetS was not associated with DR in men or women. Moreover, the risk for DR or VTDR did not increase with increasing MetS components. However, high waist circumference was significantly inversely associated with VTDR (adjusted odds ratio = 0.36; 95% confidence interval = 0.14-0.93 only in men.MetS was not associated with DR or VTDR in a Korean diabetic population. However, among MetS components, it seems that abdominal obesity was inversely associated with VTDR in Korean diabetic men.

  12. Examining Associations between Narcissism, Behavior Problems, and Anxiety in Non-Referred Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.; Kunimatsu, Melissa M.; Fassnacht, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined associations between narcissism (total, adaptive, and maladaptive), self-esteem, and externalizing and internalizing problems in 157 non-referred adolescents (aged 14 to 18). Consistent with previous research, narcissism was positively associated with self-reported delinquency, overt aggression, and relational…

  13. Association Between Chewing Difficulty and Symptoms of Depression in Adults: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hye-Sun; Ahn, Yong-Soon; Lim, Do-Seon

    2016-12-01

    To assess the association between chewing difficulty and symptoms of depression in a representative sample of the Korean population. Cross-sectional. Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). KNHANES participants (N = 5,158). Chewing difficulty was assessed according to the self-reported presence of chewing problems using a structured questionnaire. Symptoms of depression were defined as having feelings of sadness or depression consecutively over 2 weeks during the last 12 months. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the associations between chewing difficulty and symptoms of depression, adjusted for age; sex; monthly household income; education; number of teeth; number of decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth; periodontitis; state of dentition; tooth brushing frequency; regular dental visits; smoking status; alcohol consumption; hypertension; diabetes mellitus; and obesity. The interaction effects between chewing difficulty and confounders were evaluated, and age- and sex-stratified analyses were performed. There was a significant positive association between chewing difficulty and symptoms of depression in the fully adjusted model (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.48-2.33). The strength of the association was highest in men aged 60 and older (AOR = 3.28, 95% CI = 1.54-7.00). Chewing difficulty was independently associated with symptoms of depression in a representative sample of Korean adults. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. Comorbid anxiety disorders alter the association between cardiovascular diseases and depression: the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Phillip J; Baune, Bernhard T

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to examine whether specific anxiety disorder comorbidity alters the purported association between depression and specific cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In 4,181 representative German participants of the general population, 12-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders was assessed through the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and CVDs by physician verified diagnosis. Adjusting for conventional risk factors logistic regression analyzed the association between CVDs (peripheral vascular disease (PVD), hypertension, cerebrovascular disease and heart disease) and combinations of comorbidity between depression and anxiety disorder types (panic disorder, specific phobia, social phobia and generalized anxiety). There were 770 cases of hypertension (18.4 %), 763 cases of cerebrovascular disease (18.2 %), 748 cases of PVD (17.9 %), and 1,087 cases of CVD (26.0 %). In adjusted analyses phobia comorbid with depression was associated with cerebrovascular disease (odds ratio (OR) 1.61; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-2.50) as was panic disorder (OR 2.89; 95 % CI 1.47-5.69). PVD was significantly associated with panic disorder (adjusted OR 2.97; 95 % CI 1.55-5.69). Panic disorder was associated with CVDs (adjusted OR 2.28; 95 % CI 1.09-4.77) as was phobia (adjusted OR 1.35; 95 % CI 1.04-1.78). Classification of anxiety and depression according to comorbidity groups showed discrete effects for panic disorder and specific phobia with CVDs, independent from covariates and depression.

  15. Logistic regression analysis of factors associated with avascular necrosis of the femoral head following femoral neck fractures in middle-aged and elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Zi-Sheng; Gao, You-Shui; Sun, Yuan; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Chang-Qing; Jiang, Cheng-Hua

    2013-03-01

    Risk factors for femoral neck fracture-induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head have not been elucidated clearly in middle-aged and elderly patients. Moreover, the high incidence of screw removal in China and its effect on the fate of the involved femoral head require statistical methods to reflect their intrinsic relationship. Ninety-nine patients older than 45 years with femoral neck fracture were treated by internal fixation between May 1999 and April 2004. Descriptive analysis, interaction analysis between associated factors, single factor logistic regression, multivariate logistic regression, and detailed interaction analysis were employed to explore potential relationships among associated factors. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head was found in 15 cases (15.2 %). Age × the status of implants (removal vs. maintenance) and gender × the timing of reduction were interactive according to two-factor interactive analysis. Age, the displacement of fractures, the quality of reduction, and the status of implants were found to be significant factors in single factor logistic regression analysis. Age, age × the status of implants, and the quality of reduction were found to be significant factors in multivariate logistic regression analysis. In fine interaction analysis after multivariate logistic regression analysis, implant removal was the most important risk factor for avascular necrosis in 56-to-85-year-old patients, with a risk ratio of 26.00 (95 % CI = 3.076-219.747). The middle-aged and elderly have less incidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head following femoral neck fractures treated by cannulated screws. The removal of cannulated screws can induce a significantly high incidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head in elderly patients, while a high-quality reduction is helpful to reduce avascular necrosis.

  16. Impact of performance grading on annual numbers of acute myocardial infarction-associated emergency department visits in Taiwan: Results of segmented regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, I-Shiang; Liu, Su-Hsun; Chen, Kuan-Fu; Wu, Chin-Chieh; Chen, Jih-Chang

    2016-10-01

    To reduce patient boarding time at the emergency department (ED) and to improve the overall quality of the emergent care system in Taiwan, the Minister of Health and Welfare of Taiwan (MOHW) piloted the Grading Responsible Hospitals for Acute Care (GRHAC) audit program in 2007-2009.The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the GRHAC audit program on the identification and management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI)-associated ED visits by describing and comparing the incidence of AMI-associated ED visits before (2003-2007), during (2007-2009), and after (2009-2012) the initial audit program implementation.Using aggregated data from the MOHW of Taiwan, we estimated the annual incidence of AMI-associated ED visits by Poisson regression models. We used segmented regression techniques to evaluate differences in the annual rates and in the year-to-year changes in AMI-associated ED visits between 2003 and 2012. Medical comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and hypertensive disease were considered as potential confounders.Overall, the number of AMI-associated patient visits increased from 8130 visits in 2003 to 12,695 visits in 2012 (P-value for trend capacity for timely and correctly diagnosing and managing patients presenting with AMI-associated symptoms or signs at the ED.

  17. Cox proportional hazards models have more statistical power than logistic regression models in cross-sectional genetic association studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Net, Jeroen B.; Janssens, A. Cecile J. W.; Eijkemans, Marinus J. C.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.

    2008-01-01

    Cross-sectional genetic association studies can be analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models with age as time scale, if age at onset of disease is known for the cases and age at data collection is known for the controls. We assessed to what degree and under what conditions Cox proportional

  18. Adverse Events Following Immunization in Brazil: Age of Child and Vaccine-Associated Risk Analysis Using Logistic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia R.C. Lopes

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vaccines are effective in controlling and eradicating infectious diseases. However, adverse events following immunization (AEFI can occur in susceptible individuals. The objective of this study was to analyze the Brazilian AEFI database and compare eight vaccines in order to profile risks of AEFIs related to the mandated pediatric schedule of immunization, considering the age and sex of the child, type of vaccine, and reported adverse events. Methods: We analyzed the Brazilian AEFI database integrating reports between 2005 and 2010 for children less than 10-years old immunized with eight mandated vaccines: diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (TETRA; diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP; Bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG; oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV; measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR; oral rotavirus vaccine (ORV; hepatitis B (HB; and yellow fever (YF. We compared the children’s age regarding types of AEFI, evaluated AEFI factors associated with the chance of hospitalization of the child, and estimated the chance of notification of an AEFI as a function of the type of vaccine. In total, 47,105 AEFIs were observed for the mandated vaccines. Results: The highest AEFI rate was for the TETRA vaccine and the lowest was for the OPV vaccine, with 60.1 and 2.3 events per 100,000 inoculations, respectively. The TETRA vaccine showed the highest rate of hypotonic hyporesponsive episode, followed by convulsion and fever. The MMR and YF vaccines were associated with generalized rash. BCG was associated with enlarged lymph glands but showed the largest negative (protective association with hyporesponsive events and seizures. Compared with children aged 5–9-years old, young children (<1 year showed significantly higher odds of hospitalization. Conclusions: The Brazilian AEFI registry is useful to compare the magnitude and certain characteristics of adverse events associated with mandated pediatric vaccines.

  19. Association of vegetables and fruits consumption with sarcopenia in older adults: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Yunhwan; Kye, Seunghee; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2015-01-01

    several studies have found nutrients, including antioxidants, to be associated with sarcopenia. However, whether specific foods, such as vegetables and fruits, are associated with sarcopenia has not been studied. to examine the association of the frequency of vegetables and fruits consumption with sarcopenia in older people. this study used cross-sectional data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008-09. Subjects were community-dwelling 823 men and 1,089 women aged ≥65 years. Frequency of food group consumption was obtained by using the food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and sarcopenia was defined as appendicular lean mass adjusted for height and fat mass. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of the frequency of food group consumption with sarcopenia, controlling for sociodemographics and health-related variables. dietary intake of vegetables, fruits and both vegetables and fruits was associated with a significantly reduced risk of sarcopenia after controlling for covariates in men (P = 0.026 for trend, P = 0.012 for trend, P = 0.003 for trend, respectively). Men in the highest quintile, compared with those in the lowest quintile, of vegetables [odds ratio (OR) = 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.24-0.95], fruits (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.13-0.70) and vegetables and fruits consumption (OR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.16-0.67) demonstrated a lower risk of sarcopenia. In women, high consumption of fruits demonstrated a lower risk of sarcopenia (OR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18-0.83). frequent vegetables and fruits consumption was inversely associated with sarcopenia in older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A regression tree for identifying combinations of fall risk factors associated to recurrent falling: a cross-sectional elderly population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeshova, A; Annweiler, C; Fantino, B; Philip, T; Gromov, V A; Launay, C P; Beauchet, O

    2014-06-01

    Regression tree (RT) analyses are particularly adapted to explore the risk of recurrent falling according to various combinations of fall risk factors compared to logistic regression models. The aims of this study were (1) to determine which combinations of fall risk factors were associated with the occurrence of recurrent falls in older community-dwellers, and (2) to compare the efficacy of RT and multiple logistic regression model for the identification of recurrent falls. A total of 1,760 community-dwelling volunteers (mean age ± standard deviation, 71.0 ± 5.1 years; 49.4 % female) were recruited prospectively in this cross-sectional study. Age, gender, polypharmacy, use of psychoactive drugs, fear of falling (FOF), cognitive disorders and sad mood were recorded. In addition, the history of falls within the past year was recorded using a standardized questionnaire. Among 1,760 participants, 19.7 % (n = 346) were recurrent fallers. The RT identified 14 nodes groups and 8 end nodes with FOF as the first major split. Among participants with FOF, those who had sad mood and polypharmacy formed the end node with the greatest OR for recurrent falls (OR = 6.06 with p falls (OR = 0.25 with p factors for recurrent falls, the combination most associated with recurrent falls involving FOF, sad mood and polypharmacy. The FOF emerged as the risk factor strongly associated with recurrent falls. In addition, RT and multiple logistic regression were not sensitive enough to identify the majority of recurrent fallers but appeared efficient in detecting individuals not at risk of recurrent falls.

  1. Enhanced left ventricular mass regression after aortic valve replacement in patients with aortic stenosis is associated with improved long-term survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ayyaz; Patel, Amit; Ali, Ziad; Abu-Omar, Yasir; Saeed, Amber; Athanasiou, Thanos; Pepper, John

    2011-08-01

    Aortic valve replacement in patients with aortic stenosis is usually followed by regression of left ventricular hypertrophy. More complete resolution of left ventricular hypertrophy is suggested to be associated with superior clinical outcomes; however, its translational impact on long-term survival after aortic valve replacement has not been investigated. Demographic, operative, and clinical data were obtained retrospectively through case note review. Transthoracic echocardiography was used to measure left ventricular mass preoperatively and at annual follow-up visits. Patients were classified according to their reduction in left ventricular mass at 1 year after the operation: group 1, less than 25 g; group 2, 25 to 150 g; and group 3, more than 150 g. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox regression were used. A total of 147 patients were discharged from the hospital after aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis between 1991 and 2001. Preoperative left ventricular mass was 279 ± 98 g in group 1 (n = 47), 347 ± 104 g in group 2 (n = 62), and 491 ± 183 g in group 3 (n = 38) (P regression such as ischemic heart disease or hypertension, valve type, or valve size used. Ten-year actuarial survival was not statistically different in patients with enhanced left ventricular mass regression when compared with the log-rank test (group 1, 51% ± 9%; group 2, 54% ± 8%; and group 3, 72% ± 10%) (P = .26). After adjustment, left ventricular mass reduction of more than 150 g was demonstrated as an independent predictor of improved long-term survival on multivariate analysis (P = .02). Our study is the first to suggest that enhanced postoperative left ventricular mass regression, specifically in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis, may be associated with improved long-term survival. In view of these findings, strategies purported to be associated with superior left ventricular mass regression should be considered when undertaking

  2. Defects of the central nervous system in Finland. IV. Associations with diagnostic x-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granroth, G.

    1979-01-01

    Based on the Finnish Register of Congenital Malformations a search was undertaken to find possible associations between defects of the CNS and diagnostic x-ray examinations of the mother during pregnancy as well as pelvic x-ray examinations prior to pregnancy. Time-area-matched pregnancies and polydactylic children were used as controls. The risk of having a microcephalic child was increased for mothers with pelvic x-ray prior to pregnancy, but the number of discordant pairs was small. Of the examinations performed during pregnancy, fetal x-ray was significantly more common among mothers who delivered a CNS-defective child. No associations were observed for other kinds of examinations

  3. The Association between Food Insecurity and Obesity in Children-The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasbir; Lamb, Molly M; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2015-05-01

    Food insecurity can put children at greater risk of obesity because of altered food choices and nonuniform consumption patterns. We examined the association between obesity and both child-level food insecurity and personal food insecurity in US children. Data from 9,701 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2010, aged 2 to 11 years were analyzed. Child-level food insecurity was assessed with the US Department of Agriculture's Food Security Survey Module based on eight child-specific questions. Personal food insecurity was assessed with five additional questions. Obesity was defined, using physical measurements, as body mass index (calculated as kg/m²) greater than or equal to the age- and sex-specific 95th percentile of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Logistic regressions adjusted for sex, race/ethnic group, poverty level, and survey year were conducted to describe associations between obesity and food insecurity. Obesity was significantly associated with personal food insecurity for children aged 6 to 11 years (odds ratio=1.81; 95% CI 1.33 to 2.48), but not in children aged 2 to 5 years (odds ratio=0.88; 95% CI 0.51 to 1.51). Child-level food insecurity was not associated with obesity among 2- to 5-year-olds or 6- to 11-year-olds. Personal food insecurity is associated with an increased risk of obesity only in children aged 6 to 11 years. Personal food-insecurity measures may give different results than aggregate food-insecurity measures in children. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Regression Analysis to Identify Factors Associated with Urinary Iodine Concentration at the Sub-National Level in India, Ghana, and Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Jacky; Kupka, Roland; Dumble, Sam; Garrett, Greg S.; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Touré, Ndeye Khady; Foriwa Amoaful, Esi; Gorstein, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Single and multiple variable regression analyses were conducted using data from stratified, cluster sample design, iodine surveys in India, Ghana, and Senegal to identify factors associated with urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among women of reproductive age (WRA) at the national and sub-national level. Subjects were survey household respondents, typically WRA. For all three countries, UIC was significantly different (p regression analysis, UIC was significantly associated with strata and household salt iodine category in India and Ghana (p < 0.001). Estimated UIC was 1.6 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.3, 2.0) times higher (India) and 1.4 (95% CI 1.2, 1.6) times higher (Ghana) among WRA from households using adequately iodised salt than among WRA from households using non-iodised salt. Other significant associations with UIC were found in India, with having heard of iodine deficiency (1.2 times higher; CI 1.1, 1.3; p < 0.001) and having improved dietary diversity (1.1 times higher, CI 1.0, 1.2; p = 0.015); and in Ghana, with the level of tomato paste consumption the previous week (p = 0.029) (UIC for highest consumption level was 1.2 times lowest level; CI 1.1, 1.4). No significant associations were found in Senegal. Sub-national data on iodine status are required to assess equity of access to optimal iodine intake and to develop strategic responses as needed. PMID:29690505

  5. An Examination of the Situational Factors Associated with the Misuse of Prescription Analgesics among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, Andrew R.; Wynveen, Chris; Hackman, Christine; Meyer, Andrew; Usdan, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the effect that students' educational environment has on the prevalence and motivations associated with the misuse of prescription analgesics (MPA). A sample of 893 undergraduate students was recruited from one religiously affiliated private university and one public university in the Southern United States. Participants…

  6. Fraternity Membership and Sexual Aggression: An Examination of Mediators of the Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingree, Jeffrey B.; Thompson, Martie P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This prospective study examined attitudes (ie, hostility toward women, acceptance of rape myths), peer influences (ie, peer pressure to have sex, peer approval of forced sex), and risky behaviors (ie, high-risk alcohol use, number of sexual partners) as possible mediators of the association between fraternity membership and sexual…

  7. Examining Associations between Reading Motivation and Inference Generation beyond Reading Comprehension Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between reading motivation and inference generation while reading. Undergraduate participants (N = 69) read two science articles while thinking aloud, completed a standardized reading comprehension assessment, and self reported their habitual reading motivation. Findings indicate that…

  8. Informant Effects on Behavioral and Academic Associations: A Latent Variable Longitudinal Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konold, Timothy R.; Shukla, Kathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancies among informants' ratings of a given child's behavior complicate the study of linkages between child behavior and academic achievement. In the current study, we examined the potential moderating effect of informant type on associations between behavior and two types of achievement in a longitudinal growth model that…

  9. Association of volume of patient encounters with residents' in-training examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Christopher P; Stenerson, Matthew B; Halvorsen, Andrew J; Homme, Jason H; McDonald, Furman S

    2013-08-01

    Patient care and medical knowledge are Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies. The correlation between amount of patient contact and knowledge acquisition is not known. To determine if a correlation exists between the number of patient encounters and in-training exam (ITE) scores in internal medicine (IM) and pediatric residents at a large academic medical center. Retrospective cohort study Resident physicians at Mayo Clinic from July 2006 to June 2010 in IM (318 resident-years) and pediatrics (66 resident-years). We tabulated patient encounters through review of clinical notes in an electronic medical record during post graduate year (PGY)-1 and PGY-2. Using linear regression models, we investigated associations between ITE score and number of notes during the previous PGY, adjusted for previous ITE score, gender, medical school origin, and conference attendance. For IM, PGY-2 admission and consult encounters in the hospital and specialty clinics had a positive linear association with ITE-3 % score (β = 0.02; p = 0.004). For IM, PGY-1 conference attendance is positively associated with PGY-2 ITE performance. We did not detect a correlation between PGY-1 patient encounters and subsequent ITE scores for IM or pediatric residents. No association was found between IM PGY-2 ITE score and inpatient, outpatient, or total encounters in the first year of training. Resident continuity clinic and total encounters were not associated with change in PGY-3 ITE score. We identified a positive association between hospital and subspecialty encounters during the second year of IM training and subsequent ITE score, such that each additional 50 encounters were associated with an increase of 1 % correct in PGY-3 ITE score after controlling for previous ITE performance and continuity clinic encounters. We did not find a correlation for volume of encounters and medical knowledge for IM PGY-1 residents or the pediatric cohort.

  10. Is energy imparted a good measure of the radiation risk associated with CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, W.

    1984-01-01

    The dose distribution in a Rando phantom has been measured for typical EMI 5005 CT scans of the head, chest, abdomen and pelvis. These dose distributions have been used to generate quantitative estimates of the somatic and genetic radiation risks associated with these CT examinations and also to measure the total energy imparted during each scan. A comparison has been made between the radiation risk estimates and the energy imparted measurements. The energy imparted measurements are not a good indicator of the somatic and/or genetic risks when one type of CT scan is compared with another. However, for a given type of scan, the energy imparted may be a reasonable indicator of the relative somatic risks associated with different CT examinations. Considerable care should be taken when interpreting and using any measured value of energy imparted in a radiological examination since published values of the risk per unit energy imparted can significantly underestimate the radiation risk. (author)

  11. Performance in the FRCR (UK) Part 2B examination: Analysis of factors associated with success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawtin, K.E.; Williams, H.R.T.; McKnight, L.; Booth, T.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess factors that influence pass rates and examination scores in the Fellowship of the Royal College of Radiologists (FRCR) 2B examination. Materials and methods: 2238 attempts at the FRCR 2B examination were evaluated between Spring 2006 and Spring 2010. Pass rates and examination scores were analysed by gender and ethnicity, and the influence of factors such as radiology training (UK versus non-UK), sitting (Spring versus Autumn), and the presence of an undergraduate or postgraduate degree were examined. Results: 1571 candidates made 2238 examination attempts, with an overall pass rate of 59.4% (63.1% at first attempt). 66.2% entrants were male; 48.8% attempts were by candidates from a UK radiology training scheme. UK candidates were significantly more likely to pass than non-UK candidates (p < 0.0001). White candidates were more likely to pass at first or second attempt than non-white candidates (p < 0.0001), but when restricted to UK entrants ethnicity did not influence success at first attempt. Overall, females were more successful than males (p < 0.001). Presence of an undergraduate (p = 0.19) or postgraduate (p = 0.80) degree did not affect pass rate at first attempt for UK candidates. However, logistic regression demonstrated that the only significant factor influencing pass rates at first attempt was whether radiology training was undertaken in the UK (p < 0.0001). A trend towards increased pass rates in autumn sittings was seen (p = 0.06), but ethnicity (p = 0.99) and gender (p = 0.41) were not significant factors. Conclusion: The FRCR 2B examination is non-discriminatory for UK candidates with respect to gender and ethnicity. Poorer performance of non-UK trained candidates is a consistent outcome in the literature. - Highlights: • Factors influencing pass rates and scores in FRCR 2B examination were assessed. • UK candidates are more likely to pass than non-UK candidates. • There is no effect of gender or ethnicity on UK

  12. An examination of bullying in georgia schools: demographic and school climate factors associated with willingness to intervene in bullying situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldammer, Lori; Swahn, Monica H; Strasser, Sheryl M; Ashby, Jeffrey S; Meyers, Joel

    2013-08-01

    Research dedicated to identification of precursors to cases of aggravated bullying in schools has led to enhanced knowledge of risk factors for both victimization and perpetration. However, characteristics among those who are more likely to intervene in such situations are less understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations between demographic characteristics, school climate and psychosocial factors, and willingness to intervene in a bullying situation among middle and high school students in Georgia. We computed analyses using cross-sectional data from the Georgia Student Health Survey II (GSHS 2006) administered to public school students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 (n=175,311). We used logistic regression analyses to determine the demographic, school climate and psychosocial factors associated with a willingness to intervene in a bullying situation. Students who were white and who were girls were most likely to report willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Several school-climate factors, such as feeling safe at school, liking school, feeling successful at school and perceiving clear rules at school, were associated with willingness to intervene, while youth who reported binge drinking were less willing to intervene. These findings, while preliminary, indicate that girls, students who are white, and students who experience a relatively positive school climate and adaptive psychosocial factors are more likely to report that they would intervene in bullying situations. These findings may guide how bullying is addressed in schools and underscore the importance of safe school climates.

  13. The Spatial Distribution of Hepatitis C Virus Infections and Associated Determinants--An Application of a Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression for Evidence-Based Screening Interventions in Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhl, Boris; Heil, Jeanne; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Schweikart, Jürgen; Krafft, Thomas; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H T M

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infections are a major cause for liver diseases. A large proportion of these infections remain hidden to care due to its mostly asymptomatic nature. Population-based screening and screening targeted on behavioural risk groups had not proven to be effective in revealing these hidden infections. Therefore, more practically applicable approaches to target screenings are necessary. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and spatial epidemiological methods may provide a more feasible basis for screening interventions through the identification of hotspots as well as demographic and socio-economic determinants. Analysed data included all HCV tests (n = 23,800) performed in the southern area of the Netherlands between 2002-2008. HCV positivity was defined as a positive immunoblot or polymerase chain reaction test. Population data were matched to the geocoded HCV test data. The spatial scan statistic was applied to detect areas with elevated HCV risk. We applied global regression models to determine associations between population-based determinants and HCV risk. Geographically weighted Poisson regression models were then constructed to determine local differences of the association between HCV risk and population-based determinants. HCV prevalence varied geographically and clustered in urban areas. The main population at risk were middle-aged males, non-western immigrants and divorced persons. Socio-economic determinants consisted of one-person households, persons with low income and mean property value. However, the association between HCV risk and demographic as well as socio-economic determinants displayed strong regional and intra-urban differences. The detection of local hotspots in our study may serve as a basis for prioritization of areas for future targeted interventions. Demographic and socio-economic determinants associated with HCV risk show regional differences underlining that a one-size-fits-all approach even within small geographic

  14. Sarcopenia exacerbates obesity-associated insulin resistance and dysglycemia: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Srikanthan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia often co-exists with obesity, and may have additive effects on insulin resistance. Sarcopenic obese individuals could be at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. We performed a study to determine whether sarcopenia is associated with impairment in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in obese and non-obese individuals.We performed a cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III data utilizing subjects of 20 years or older, non-pregnant (N = 14,528. Sarcopenia was identified from bioelectrical impedance measurement of muscle mass. Obesity was identified from body mass index. Outcomes were homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA IR, glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1C, and prevalence of pre-diabetes (6.0≤ HbA1C<6.5 and not on medication and type 2 diabetes. Covariates in multiple regression were age, educational level, ethnicity and sex.Sarcopenia was associated with insulin resistance in non-obese (HOMA IR ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.26 to 1.52 and obese individuals (HOMA-IR ratio 1.16, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.18. Sarcopenia was associated with dysglycemia in obese individuals (HbA1C ratio 1.021, 95% CI 1.011 to 1.043 but not in non-obese individuals. Associations were stronger in those under 60 years of age. We acknowledge that the cross-sectional study design limits our ability to draw causal inferences.Sarcopenia, independent of obesity, is associated with adverse glucose metabolism, and the association is strongest in individuals under 60 years of age, which suggests that low muscle mass may be an early predictor of diabetes susceptibility. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, further research is urgently needed to develop interventions to prevent sarcopenic obesity and its metabolic consequences.

  15. Associations between formative practice quizzes and summative examination outcomes in a medical anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, John A; Espiritu, Baltazar R; Hoyt, Amy E; Ensminger, David C; Chandrasekhar, Arcot J

    2015-01-01

    Formative practice quizzes have become common resources for self-evaluation and focused reviews of course content in the medical curriculum. We conducted two separate studies to (1) compare the effects of a single or multiple voluntary practice quizzes on subsequent summative examinations and (2) examine when students are most likely to use practice quizzes relative to the summative examinations. In the first study, providing a single on-line practice quiz followed by instructor feedback had no effect on examination average grades compared to the previous year or student performances on similar questions. However, there were significant correlations between student performance on each practice quiz and each summative examination (r = 0.42 and r = 0.24). When students were provided multiple practice quizzes with feedback (second study), there were weak correlations between the frequency of use and performance on each summative examination (r = 0.17 and r = 0.07). The frequency with which students accessed the practice quizzes was greatest the day before each examination. In both studies, there was a decline in the level of student utilization of practice quizzes over time. We conclude that practice quizzes provide some predictive value for performances on summative examinations. Second, making practice quizzes available for longer periods prior to summative examinations does not promote the use of the quizzes as a study strategy because students appear to use them mostly to assess knowledge one to two days prior to examinations. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Sociocultural factors associated with breast self-examination among Iranian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abolhasan Naghibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the ways to fight breast cancer and reduce deaths hazard due to early detection is one of early detection programs in women's breast self- examination. Examining breast by oneself increase individuals knowledge of her breast health that helps in detecting breast cancer early. Different cultural, social, family and individual factors play roles in women's behavior about breast self- examination applying PEN-3 model in this study is to analyze factors influencing on breast self-examination. The research is a descriptive- analytical, cross-sectional type. Research community consists of women at fertility age of 20-49 in sari. Sample volume is 415 individuals and sampling method is cluster method. In this study, a 50-item questionnaire based on PEN-3 was used. Questions were answered by Likert scoring method. Questionnaire was gathered by personal presence of questioners. Data was analyzed via descriptive statistics and logistic regression methods. Based on the study findings, the most significant positive behaviors related to perceptual factors included effectiveness of disease background in family and relatives (73%, believing in breast self- examination for pursuing health (93% and the most important negative behaviors were shyness and modesty (83.9% and increased worry (78.9%. The most remarkable positive behaviors regarding enabling factors covered the skill to do breast examination oneself (35.2%, the availability of health and therapeutic centers (80.7% and the most significant negative behavior was being busy and lack of time (85.3%. The most important positive behavior about nurturing factors included family consent (68.9% and the most significant negative one was the inappropriate treatment of health and therapeutic personnel (61.8%. In this study, there is a meaningful difference between employment ages, education with PEN-3 model constituents. Since behaviors due to enabling and nurturing perceptual factors have been important in

  17. Where are weather-suicide associations valid? An examination of nine US counties with varying seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, P. Grady; Kalkstein, Adam J.

    2018-05-01

    There has been much research on the associations between weather variables and suicide rates. However, the state of understanding has remained rather stagnant due to many contradictory findings. The purpose of this project is to examine a larger database of suicides that includes a longer and more recent period of record (1975-2010) across numerous locations in the USA. In all, we examine nine total counties (and the primary city associated with them) with a special effort made to compare locations with varying degrees of temperature seasonality: Cook (Chicago), Fulton (Atlanta), King (Seattle), Los Angeles (Los Angeles), Maricopa (Phoenix), Miami-Dade (Miami), Philadelphia (Philadelphia), Salt Lake (Salt Lake City), and St. Louis (St. Louis). We first examine the unique seasonal cycle in suicides evident in each locale and then use distributed lag nonlinear modeling (DLNM) to relate the suicide data to daily surface temperatures. Results suggest that a late spring/summer peak generally exists in suicide rates, and above average temperatures are associated with increased suicide risk in almost all study counties. Further, it appears that these associations can be found in both mid-latitude and sub-tropical climate types.

  18. Association of Stressful Life Events with Psychological Problems: A Large-Scale Community-Based Study Using Grouped Outcomes Latent Factor Regression with Latent Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Hassanzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The current study is aimed at investigating the association between stressful life events and psychological problems in a large sample of Iranian adults. Method. In a cross-sectional large-scale community-based study, 4763 Iranian adults, living in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Grouped outcomes latent factor regression on latent predictors was used for modeling the association of psychological problems (depression, anxiety, and psychological distress, measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, as the grouped outcomes, and stressful life events, measured by a self-administered stressful life events (SLEs questionnaire, as the latent predictors. Results. The results showed that the personal stressors domain has significant positive association with psychological distress (β=0.19, anxiety (β=0.25, depression (β=0.15, and their collective profile score (β=0.20, with greater associations in females (β=0.28 than in males (β=0.13 (all P<0.001. In addition, in the adjusted models, the regression coefficients for the association of social stressors domain and psychological problems profile score were 0.37, 0.35, and 0.46 in total sample, males, and females, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion. Results of our study indicated that different stressors, particularly those socioeconomic related, have an effective impact on psychological problems. It is important to consider the social and cultural background of a population for managing the stressors as an effective approach for preventing and reducing the destructive burden of psychological problems.

  19. HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections and associated risk factors among drug users in southwestern China: a township-level ecological study incorporating spatial regression.

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    Yi-Biao Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV are major public health problems. Many studies have been performed to investigate the association between demographic and behavioral factors and HIV or HCV infection. However, some of the results of these studies have been in conflict. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The data of all entrants in the 11 national methadone clinics in the Yi Autonomous Prefecture from March 2004 to December 2012 were collected from the national database. Several spatial regression models were used to analyze specific community characteristics associated with the prevalence of HIV and HCV infection at the township level. The study enrolled 6,417 adult patients. The prevalence of HIV infection, HCV infection and co-infection was 25.4%, 30.9%, and 11.0%, respectively. Prevalence exhibited stark geographical variations in the area studied. The four regression models showed Yi ethnicity to be associated with both the prevalence of HIV and of HIV/HCV co-infection. The male drug users in some northwestern counties had greater odds of being infected with HIV than female drug users, but the opposite was observed in some eastern counties. The 'being in drug rehabilitation variable was found to be positively associated with prevalence of HCV infection in some southern townships, however, it was found to be negatively associated with it in some northern townships. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The spatial modeling creates better representations of data such that public health interventions must focus on areas with high frequency of HIV/HCV to prevent further transmission of both HIV and HCV.

  20. Association of Stressful Life Events with Psychological Problems: A Large-Scale Community-Based Study Using Grouped Outcomes Latent Factor Regression with Latent Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Heidari, Zahra; Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Ammar; Afshar, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Objective The current study is aimed at investigating the association between stressful life events and psychological problems in a large sample of Iranian adults. Method In a cross-sectional large-scale community-based study, 4763 Iranian adults, living in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Grouped outcomes latent factor regression on latent predictors was used for modeling the association of psychological problems (depression, anxiety, and psychological distress), measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), as the grouped outcomes, and stressful life events, measured by a self-administered stressful life events (SLEs) questionnaire, as the latent predictors. Results The results showed that the personal stressors domain has significant positive association with psychological distress (β = 0.19), anxiety (β = 0.25), depression (β = 0.15), and their collective profile score (β = 0.20), with greater associations in females (β = 0.28) than in males (β = 0.13) (all P < 0.001). In addition, in the adjusted models, the regression coefficients for the association of social stressors domain and psychological problems profile score were 0.37, 0.35, and 0.46 in total sample, males, and females, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion Results of our study indicated that different stressors, particularly those socioeconomic related, have an effective impact on psychological problems. It is important to consider the social and cultural background of a population for managing the stressors as an effective approach for preventing and reducing the destructive burden of psychological problems. PMID:29312459

  1. Examining patterns of association with defensive information processing about colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Amy; Swank, Paul R; Vernon, Sally W

    2014-11-01

    To reduce negative psychological affect from information or behavior that is inconsistent with one's positive self-concept, individuals use a variety of defensive strategies. It is unknown whether correlates differ across defenses. We examined correlates of four levels of defensive information processing about colorectal cancer screening. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by a convenience sample of 287 adults aged 50-75 years. Defenses measures were more consistently associated with individual differences (especially avoidant coping styles); however, situational variables involving health-care providers also were important. Future research should examine changes in defenses after risk communication and their relative impact on colorectal cancer screening. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Unsupportive social interactions and affective states: examining associations of two oxytocin-related polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, Opal A; McQuaid, Robyn J; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2017-01-01

    Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on oxytocin-related genes, specifically the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) rs53576 and the CD38 rs3796863 variants, have been associated with alterations in prosocial behaviors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate students (N = 476) to examine associations between the OXTR and CD38 polymorphisms and unsupportive social interactions and mood states. Results revealed no association between perceived levels of unsupportive social interactions and the OXTR polymorphism. However, A carriers of the CD38 polymorphism, a variant previously associated with elevated oxytocin, reported greater perceived peer unsupportive interactions compared to CC carriers. As expected, perceived unsupportive interactions from peers was associated with greater negative affect, which was moderated by the CD38 polymorphism. Specifically, this relation was stronger among CC carriers of the CD38 polymorphism (a variant thought to be linked to lower oxytocin). When examining whether the OXTR polymorphism moderated the relation between unsupportive social interactions from peers and negative affect there was a trend toward significance, however, this did not withstand multiple testing corrections. These findings are consistent with the perspective that a variant on an oxytocin polymorphism that may be tied to lower oxytocin is related to poor mood outcomes in association with negative social interactions. At the same time, having a genetic constitution presumed to be associated with higher oxytocin was related to increased perceptions of unsupportive social interactions. These seemingly paradoxical findings could be related to previous reports in which variants associated with prosocial behaviors were also tied to relatively more effective coping styles to deal with challenges.

  3. Emergency department documentation templates: variability in template selection and association with physical examination and test ordering in dizziness presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meurer William J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical documentation systems, such as templates, have been associated with process utilization. The T-System emergency department (ED templates are widely used but lacking are analyses of the templates association with processes. This system is also unique because of the many different template options available, and thus the selection of the template may also be important. We aimed to describe the selection of templates in ED dizziness presentations and to investigate the association between items on templates and process utilization. Methods Dizziness visits were captured from a population-based study of EDs that use documentation templates. Two relevant process outcomes were assessed: head computerized tomography (CT scan and nystagmus examination. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the probability of each outcome for patients who did or did not receive a relevant-item template. Propensity scores were also used to adjust for selection effects. Results The final cohort was 1,485 visits. Thirty-one different templates were used. Use of a template with a head CT item was associated with an increase in the adjusted probability of head CT utilization from 12.2% (95% CI, 8.9%-16.6% to 29.3% (95% CI, 26.0%-32.9%. The adjusted probability of documentation of a nystagmus assessment increased from 12.0% (95%CI, 8.8%-16.2% when a nystagmus-item template was not used to 95.0% (95% CI, 92.8%-96.6% when a nystagmus-item template was used. The associations remained significant after propensity score adjustments. Conclusions Providers use many different templates in dizziness presentations. Important differences exist in the various templates and the template that is used likely impacts process utilization, even though selection may be arbitrary. The optimal design and selection of templates may offer a feasible and effective opportunity to improve care delivery.

  4. Association between Patient History and Physical Examination and Osteoarthritis after Ankle Sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ochten, John M; de Vries, Anja D; van Putte, Nienke; Oei, Edwin H G; Bindels, Patrick J E; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; van Middelkoop, Marienke

    2017-09-01

    Structural abnormalities on MRI are frequent after an ankle sprain. To determine the association between patient history, physical examination and early osteoarthritis (OA) in patients after a previous ankle sprain, 98 patients with persistent complaints were selected from a cross-sectional study. Patient history taking and physical examination were applied and MRI was taken. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to test possible associations. Signs of OA (cartilage loss, osteophytes and bone marrow edema) were seen in the talocrural joint (TCJ) in 40% and the talonavicular joint (TNJ) in 49%. Multivariable analysis showed a significant positive association between swelling (OR 3.58, 95%CI 1.13;11.4), a difference in ROM of passive plantar flexion (OR 1.09, 95%CI 1.01;1.18) and bone edema in the TCJ. A difference in ROM of passive plantar flexion (OR 1.07, 95%CI 1.00;1.15) and pain at the end range of dorsiflexion/plantar flexion (OR 5.23, 95%CI 1.88;14.58) were associated with osteophytes in the TNJ. Pain at the end of dorsiflexion/plantar flexion, a difference in ROM of passive plantar flexion and swelling seem to be associated with features of OA (bone marrow edema, osteophytes) in the TCJ and TNJ. Our findings may guide physicians to predict structural joint abnormalities as signs of osteoarthritis. 1b. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Analysis of stress fractures associated with lameness in Thoroughbred flat racehorses training on different track surfaces undergoing nuclear scintigraphic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, M C; Bonder, D; Boston, R C; Ross, M W

    2015-05-01

    There is limited information regarding the impact of training track surface on the occurrence of stress fractures. To evaluate the impact of training track surface on the proportion of long bone and pelvic stress fractures associated with lameness in Thoroughbred horses in flat race training undergoing nuclear scintigraphic examination. Retrospective study. Scintigraphic examinations of Thoroughbred flat racehorses were evaluated from 2 hospitals (hospital A [Toronto Equine Hospital], 2003-2009, and hospital B [George D. Widener Hospital for Large Animals, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania], 1994-2006). Horses admitted to hospital A trained at a single track, at which the main training surface changed from dirt to synthetic on 27 August 2006. Two distinct populations existed at hospital B: horses that trained on dirt (numerous trainers) and those that trained on turf (single trainer). All scintigraphic images were evaluated by a blinded reviewer. Fisher's exact test and logistic regression were used when appropriate, and significance was set at Pfractures detected in scintigraphic examinations from horses training on a synthetic surface (31.7%) in comparison to scintigraphic examinations from horses training on a dirt surface (23.0%) at an earlier point in time (P = 0.03). There was a greater proportion of hindlimb/pelvic and tibial stress fractures diagnosed in horses from the synthetic surface-trained group than from the dirt-trained group at hospital A (Pfractures diagnosed, but other factors, such as training philosophy, appear to be important. Future prospective investigations to fully elucidate the relationship between training track surface and the proportion of stress fractures and other nonfatal musculoskeletal injuries are warranted. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  6. Ordinary least square regression, orthogonal regression, geometric mean regression and their applications in aerosol science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng Ling; Zhang Tianyi; Kleinman, Lawrence; Zhu Wei

    2007-01-01

    Regression analysis, especially the ordinary least squares method which assumes that errors are confined to the dependent variable, has seen a fair share of its applications in aerosol science. The ordinary least squares approach, however, could be problematic due to the fact that atmospheric data often does not lend itself to calling one variable independent and the other dependent. Errors often exist for both measurements. In this work, we examine two regression approaches available to accommodate this situation. They are orthogonal regression and geometric mean regression. Comparisons are made theoretically as well as numerically through an aerosol study examining whether the ratio of organic aerosol to CO would change with age

  7. The digital divide: Examining socio-demographic factors associated with health literacy, access and use of internet to seek health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estacio, Emee Vida; Whittle, Rebecca; Protheroe, Joanne

    2017-02-01

    This article aims to examine the socio-demographic characteristics associated with access and use of Internet for health-related purposes and its relationship with health literacy. Data were drawn from a health literacy survey ( N = 1046) and analysed using logistic regression. Results show a strong association between health literacy, internet access and use. Socio-demographic characteristics particularly age, education, income, perceived health and social isolation also predict internet access. Thus, in addition to widening access, the movement towards digitisation of health information and services should also consider digital skills development to enable people to utilise digital technology more effectively, especially among traditionally hard-to-reach communities.

  8. Regression Analysis to Identify Factors Associated with Urinary Iodine Concentration at the Sub-National Level in India, Ghana, and Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Knowles

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Single and multiple variable regression analyses were conducted using data from stratified, cluster sample design, iodine surveys in India, Ghana, and Senegal to identify factors associated with urinary iodine concentration (UIC among women of reproductive age (WRA at the national and sub-national level. Subjects were survey household respondents, typically WRA. For all three countries, UIC was significantly different (p < 0.05 by household salt iodine category. Other significant differences were by strata and by household vulnerability to poverty in India and Ghana. In multiple variable regression analysis, UIC was significantly associated with strata and household salt iodine category in India and Ghana (p < 0.001. Estimated UIC was 1.6 (95% confidence intervals (CI 1.3, 2.0 times higher (India and 1.4 (95% CI 1.2, 1.6 times higher (Ghana among WRA from households using adequately iodised salt than among WRA from households using non-iodised salt. Other significant associations with UIC were found in India, with having heard of iodine deficiency (1.2 times higher; CI 1.1, 1.3; p < 0.001 and having improved dietary diversity (1.1 times higher, CI 1.0, 1.2; p = 0.015; and in Ghana, with the level of tomato paste consumption the previous week (p = 0.029 (UIC for highest consumption level was 1.2 times lowest level; CI 1.1, 1.4. No significant associations were found in Senegal. Sub-national data on iodine status are required to assess equity of access to optimal iodine intake and to develop strategic responses as needed.

  9. Examining the Association Between Different Aspects of Socioeconomic Status, Race, and Disability in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Jason; Davis, James; Taira, Deborah Ann

    2018-02-20

    Socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity are known to be associated with health disparities. This study used data (2010-2014) from the American Community Survey. Respondents over age 30 from Hawaii were included (n = 44,921). Outcome variables were self-reported disability in vision, hearing, ambulatory function, self-care, independent living, or cognitive function. Four measures of socioeconomic status were personal income, average income for the area, income inequality for area, and education. This study used multivariable logistic regression to predict disability by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, controlling for age and gender. All four measures of socioeconomic status were significant predictors of at least one type of disability after adjustment for age, gender, and other measures of socioeconomic status. Higher education was significantly related to having every type of disability. Similarly, people with high personal income were less likely to have each type of disability than those with middle income, and those with low income were more likely to have all disabilities except hearing. Income inequality was significantly associated with half the disabilities. Low area income was significantly associated with increased vision-related disability, while high income was associated with less likelihood of hearing-related disability. Native Hawaiians were significantly more likely to report having a disability than Filipinos and Chinese for all six types of disability, Japanese for four, and whites for two, after adjustment. These results suggest that in order to reduce health disparities for Native Hawaiians, as well as other ethnic groups, a range of socioeconomic factors need to be addressed.

  10. A Systematic Examination of the Association between Parental and Child Obesity across Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Min, Jungwon; Khuri, Jacob; Li, Miao

    2017-05-01

    Childhood obesity has become a global epidemic. Parents can have an important influence on their children's health behaviors and weight status. Many studies have examined the association between parental and childhood weight status. However, much heterogeneity between studies exists, and the parent-child (P-C) association in obesity has varied. The purpose of this systematic examination and meta-analysis was to examine the strength and variation of the P-C association in obesity and to identify factors (e.g., demographic characteristics and country's economic level) that may influence this association. PubMed was searched for relevant studies published between January 2000 and July 2015. Thirty-two studies from 21 countries met inclusion criteria; 27 reported ORs for the P-C obesity association and were included in a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed a strong P-C obesity association (pooled OR: 2.22; 95% CI: 2.09, 2.36), which varied by type of P-C pair (i.e., parents-child, father-child, and mother-child), child age, parent and child weight status, and the country's economic level. Stronger associations were shown in older children than in younger children (β ± SE: 0.02 ± 0.01), in both parents than in father only (β ± SE: 0.51 ± 0.11) or mother only (β ± SE: 0.38 ± 0.11), in parental obesity (β ± SE: 0.26 ± 0.10) and child obesity (β ± SE: 0.28 ± 0.12) than in parental and child overweight, and in high- than in middle-income countries (β ± SE: 0.23 ± 0.08). Thus, research from multiple countries shows significant P-C associations in weight status, but this association varies by child age, type of P-C pair, weight status, and the country's economic level. Results suggest that families and parents should be a key target for obesity intervention efforts. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. An examination of the association between chronic sleep restriction and electrocortical arousal in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Sarah; Trujillo, Logan T; Sherman, Stephanie M; Carter, Patricia; Matthews, Michael D; Schnyer, David M

    2015-03-01

    The deleterious neurocognitive effects of laboratory-controlled short-term sleep deprivation are well-known. The present study investigated neurocognitive changes arising from chronic sleep restriction outside the laboratory. Sleep patterns of 24 undergraduates were tracked via actigraphy across a 15-week semester. At the semester beginning, at a midpoint, and a week before finals, students performed the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) and cortical arousal was measured via event-related potentials (ERP) and resting state electroencephalography (EEG). Average daily sleep decreased between Session 1 and Sessions 2 and 3. Calculated circadian rhythm measures indicated nighttime movement increased and sleep quality decreased from Sessions 1 and 2 to Session 3. Parallel to the sleep/activity measures, PVT reaction time increased between Session 1 and Sessions 2 and 3 and resting state alpha EEG reactivity magnitude and PVT-evoked P3 ERP amplitude decreased between Session 1 and Sessions 2 and 3. Cross-sectional regressions showed PVT reaction time was negatively associated with average daily sleep, alpha reactivity, and P3 changes; sleep/circadian measures were associated with alpha reactivity and/or P3 changes. Small, but persistent sleep deficits reduced cortical arousal and impaired vigilant attention. Chronic sleep restriction impacts neurocognition in a manner similar to laboratory controlled sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. All rights reserved.

  12. Regression: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Regression, another mechanism studied by Sigmund Freud, has had much research, e.g., hypnotic regression, frustration regression, schizophrenic regression, and infra-human-animal regression (often directly related to fixation). Many investigators worked with hypnotic age regression, which has a long history, going back to Russian reflexologists.…

  13. Examining the Factors Associated with Paid Employment of Clients Enrolled in First Episode of Psychosis Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn S. Dewa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating mental disorders. For a significant portion of individuals who suffer from this disorder, onset occurs in young adulthood, arresting important social and educational development that is necessary for future successful labor force participation. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature about clients enrolled in first episode psychosis programs and psychosocial outcomes by examining the factors associated with paid employment among young adults who have experienced their first psychotic episodes. In this paper, we consider the association of socioeconomic factors to employment. Our results suggest that in addition to treatment, socioeconomic factors such as receipt of public disability benefits and educational attainment are associated with employment status. These results can help to inform future directions for the enhancement of psychosocial programs in FEP models to promote paid employment.

  14. Cerebral white matter changes are associated with abnormalities on neurological examination in non-disabled elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral white matter changes (WMC) are associated with motor, cognitive, mood, urinary disturbances, and disability, but little is known about the prevalence of neurological signs in patients with these brain lesions. We assessed the presence and occurrence of neurological abnormalities over a 3......-year period and their possible associations with WMC in a cohort of initially non-disabled elderly subjects. Data from the multicenter Leukoaraiosis And DISability study were used. A standard neurological examination was performed at baseline and at each of the annual follow-up visits. A standard MRI...... associated with the presence and the occurrence of neurological signs, independently of other vascular brain lesions, confirming that these lesions have clinical relevance....

  15. An examination of the association between demographic and educational factors and African American achievement in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottledge, Michael Christopher

    American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. H02: There will be no significant statistical association between the educational factors teacher certification type (composite or content specific) and teacher certification pathway and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. H03: There will be no significant statistical association between a teachers' demographic factors, educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. The researcher employed the assistance of the human resource departments of participating districts to generate a demographic report identifying the sex, years of experience, certification types and pathways of the teachers of record for African American male students who took the 10th grade Science TAKS during the 2009-2010 school year. Data ascertained from the demographic report was entered in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software (SPSS). A linear regression statistical analysis was used to establish the following: 1). the degree of association between demographic factors and the percent passing rate of their African American male students on the 10th grade science TAKS , 2) the degree of association between educational factors and the percent passing rate of their African American male students on the 10th grade science TAKS, 3) the degree of association between demographic and educational factors and the percent passing rate of their African American male students on the 10th grade science TAKS Conclusion: Constantine et al (2009) concluded that although individual teachers appear to have an effect on student achievement, their study could not identify what about a teacher affects student achievement. Similar to Constatine, the researcher did not find any association between the demographic and educational factors of teachers and the science academic achievement of African American males

  16. Challenges Associated with Estimating Utility in Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Novel Regression Analysis to Capture the Bilateral Nature of the Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Robert; Reason, Timothy; Trueman, David; Wickstead, Rose; Kusel, Jeanette; Jasilek, Adam; Claxton, Lindsay; Taylor, Matthew; Pulikottil-Jacob, Ruth

    2017-10-01

    The estimation of utility values for the economic evaluation of therapies for wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a particular challenge. Previous economic models in wet AMD have been criticized for failing to capture the bilateral nature of wet AMD by modelling visual acuity (VA) and utility values associated with the better-seeing eye only. Here we present a de novo regression analysis using generalized estimating equations (GEE) applied to a previous dataset of time trade-off (TTO)-derived utility values from a sample of the UK population that wore contact lenses to simulate visual deterioration in wet AMD. This analysis allows utility values to be estimated as a function of VA in both the better-seeing eye (BSE) and worse-seeing eye (WSE). VAs in both the BSE and WSE were found to be statistically significant (p regression analysis provides a possible source of utility values to allow future economic models to capture the quality of life impact of changes in VA in both eyes. Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Limited.

  17. Nicotine dependence matters: examining longitudinal association between smoking and physical activity among Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Asbridge, Mark

    2013-11-01

    A number of studies point to the inverse relationship between physical activity and smoking; however, none has examined the role of nicotine dependence in physical activity participation among smokers. This study examined whether levels of nicotine dependence modify the association between leisure time physical activity and smoking status. The study used longitudinal data on 6795 adults from the Canadian National Population Health Survey (2004-2010). Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between physical activity, smoking, and nicotine dependence. We found that nicotine dependent smokers were significantly less likely to be physically active compared to non-smokers. Specifically, using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, nicotine dependent smokers (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.55-0.76) were less likely to be physically active while no significant difference was found for non-dependent smokers (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.80-1.02) compared to non-smokers. Nicotine dependence matters in shaping engagement in physical activity among daily smokers. Efforts directed at promoting smoking cessation through nicotine dependence treatment intervention may provide additional benefits to health and well-being through an increased participation in physical activity. © 2013.

  18. Trans-ethnic meta-regression of genome-wide association studies accounting for ancestry increases power for discovery and improves fine-mapping resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mägi, Reedik; Horikoshi, Momoko; Sofer, Tamar; Mahajan, Anubha; Kitajima, Hidetoshi; Franceschini, Nora; McCarthy, Mark I; Morris, Andrew P

    2017-09-15

    Trans-ethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) across diverse populations can increase power to detect complex trait loci when the underlying causal variants are shared between ancestry groups. However, heterogeneity in allelic effects between GWAS at these loci can occur that is correlated with ancestry. Here, a novel approach is presented to detect SNP association and quantify the extent of heterogeneity in allelic effects that is correlated with ancestry. We employ trans-ethnic meta-regression to model allelic effects as a function of axes of genetic variation, derived from a matrix of mean pairwise allele frequency differences between GWAS, and implemented in the MR-MEGA software. Through detailed simulations, we demonstrate increased power to detect association for MR-MEGA over fixed- and random-effects meta-analysis across a range of scenarios of heterogeneity in allelic effects between ethnic groups. We also demonstrate improved fine-mapping resolution, in loci containing a single causal variant, compared to these meta-analysis approaches and PAINTOR, and equivalent performance to MANTRA at reduced computational cost. Application of MR-MEGA to trans-ethnic GWAS of kidney function in 71,461 individuals indicates stronger signals of association than fixed-effects meta-analysis when heterogeneity in allelic effects is correlated with ancestry. Application of MR-MEGA to fine-mapping four type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci in 22,086 cases and 42,539 controls highlights: (i) strong evidence for heterogeneity in allelic effects that is correlated with ancestry only at the index SNP for the association signal at the CDKAL1 locus; and (ii) 99% credible sets with six or fewer variants for five distinct association signals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Examining the association between exposure to mass media and health insurance enrolment in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansanga, Moses Mosonsieyiri; Asumah Braimah, Joseph; Antabe, Roger; Sano, Yuji; Kyeremeh, Emmanuel; Luginaah, Isaac

    2018-02-12

    Although previous studies have explored the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana, very little attention is paid to the influence of mass media exposure on NHIS enrolment. Yet, understanding this linkage is important, particularly due to the critical role of mass media in disseminating health information and shaping people's health perceptions and choices. Using data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, we employed logistic regression analysis to understand the relationship between NHIS enrolment and exposure to print media, radio, and television. Our findings indicate that women with more exposure to radio (OR = 1.23, P NHIS than those with no exposure. For men, more exposure to print media was associated with higher odds of enrolling in the NHIS (OR = 1.41, P NHIS enrolment in Ghana. However, given that the relationship between media exposure and enrolment in the NHIS was gendered, we recommend that policymakers should pay attention to these dynamics to ensure effective targeting in NHIS media campaigns for increased enrolment into the scheme. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. An examination of the environmental, driver and vehicle factors associated with the serious and fatal crashes of older rural drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J P; Baldock, M R J; Mathias, J L; Wundersitz, L N

    2013-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes involving rural drivers aged 75 years and over are more than twice as likely to result in a serious or fatal injury as those involving their urban counterparts. The current study examined some of the reasons for this using a database of police-reported crashes (2004-2008) to identify the environmental (lighting, road and weather conditions, road layout, road surface, speed limit), driver (driver error, crash type), and vehicle (vehicle age) factors that are associated with the crashes of older rural drivers. It also determined whether these same factors are associated with an increased likelihood of serious or fatal injury in younger drivers for whom frailty does not contribute to the resulting injury severity. A number of environmental (i.e., undivided, unsealed, curved and inclined roads, and areas with a speed limit of 100km/h or greater) and driver (i.e., collision with a fixed object and rolling over) factors were more frequent in the crashes of older rural drivers and additionally associated with increased injury severity in younger drivers. Moreover, when these environmental factors were entered into a logistic regression model to predict whether older drivers who were involved in crashes did or did not sustain a serious or fatal injury, it was found that each factor independently increased the likelihood of a serious or fatal injury. Changes, such as the provision of divided and sealed roads, greater protection from fixed roadside objects, and reduced speed limits, appear to be indicated in order to improve the safety of the rural driving environment for drivers of all ages. Additionally, older rural drivers should be encouraged to reduce their exposure to these risky circumstances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Association between Chronic Laryngitis and Particulate Matter Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Hoon Joo

    Full Text Available Chronic laryngitis (CL has been described as chronic inflammation of the larynx. CL have various causes such as long-term smoking, acid reflux, voice overuse, bronchitis, allergies, pneumonia, excessive exposure to toxic chemicals and complications from the flu or a chronic cold. However, the prevalence of CL and role of air pollution in the etiology is uncertain.The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between CL and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10 in South Korea using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES during 2008-2012.KNHANES is a cross-sectional survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of South Korea (n = 21,116. A field survey team that included an otolaryngologist moved with a mobile examination unit and performed interviews and physical examinations. The mean annual concentrations of ambient PM10, SO2, O3, NO2, and CO levels in Korea were determined from monitoring station data. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the relationship of air pollution to CL.Among the population ≥ 19 years of age, the weighted prevalence of CL was 3.37 ± 0.30% (95% confidence interval, 2.79-3.95%. CL was more prevalent in men, current smokers, and those with lower household income and prevalence increased with age. A significant decrease over time was observed in the prevalence of CL (P for trend = 0.0049 and the annual average concentrations of PM10 (P for trend < 0.0001 from 2008 to 2012. In a multivariate model, the factors associated with CL included PM10 (odds ratio [OR], 1.378, p = 0.0457, age (OR, 1.020, p<0.0001, sex (OR, 0.734, p = 0.0179, and smoking status (OR, 1.438, p = 0.0054.Elevated PM10 exposures could be associated with increased risk of CL in South Koreans. Further epidemiological and experimental studies are necessary to clarify the impact of chronic PM10 exposure on CL.

  2. Examining the Risk Factors Associated With Hypertension Among the Elderly in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Godfred Odei; Luginaah, Isaac N; Taabazuing, Mary-Margaret

    2015-10-01

    This study sought to examine the risk factors associated with hypertension among the elderly in Ghana. We focused on the association between chronic diseases, socioeconomic factors, and being hypertensive. Data for the study were drawn from Wave 1 of the 2007/2008 Ghana Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE). A binary logit model was used to estimate the effect of other noncommunicable diseases, psychosocial factors, lifestyle factors, and sociocultural and biosocial factors on the elderly being hypertensive. Elderly Ghanaians who had been diagnosed with arthritis, angina, diabetes, and asthma were significantly more likely to be hypertensive. Additionally, those depressed were found to be 1.22 times more likely to be hypertensive. Prevention and control of hypertension are complex and demand multistakeholder collaboration including governments, educational institutions, media, food and beverage industry, and a conscious focus on personal lifestyle factors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Examination of HFE associations with childhood leukemia risk and extension to other iron regulatory genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Amy E; Kamdar, Kala Y; Lupo, Philip J; Okcu, M Fatih; Scheurer, Michael E; Baum, Marianna K; Dorak, M Tevfik

    2014-09-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HFE) variants correlating with body iron levels have shown associations with cancer risk, including childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Using a multi-ethnic sample of cases and controls from Houston, TX, we examined two HFE variants (rs1800562 and rs1799945), one transferrin receptor gene (TFRC) variant (rs3817672) and three additional iron regulatory gene (IRG) variants (SLC11A2 rs422982; TMPRSS6 rs855791 and rs733655) for their associations with childhood ALL. Being positive for either of the HFE variants yielded a modestly elevated odds ratio (OR) for childhood ALL risk in males (1.40, 95% CI=0.83-2.35), which increased to 2.96 (95% CI=1.29-6.80) in the presence of a particular TFRC genotype for rs3817672 (P interaction=0.04). The TFRC genotype also showed an ethnicity-specific association, with increased risk observed in non-Hispanic Whites (OR=2.54, 95% CI=1.05-6.12; P interaction with ethnicity=0.02). The three additional IRG SNPs all showed individual risk associations with childhood ALL in males (OR=1.52-2.60). A polygenic model based on the number of variant alleles in five IRG SNPs revealed a linear increase in risk among males with the increasing number of variants possessed (OR=2.0 per incremental change, 95% CI=1.29-3.12; P=0.002). Our results replicated previous HFE risk associations with childhood ALL in a US population and demonstrated novel associations for IRG SNPs, thereby strengthening the hypothesis that iron excess mediated by genetic variants contributes to childhood ALL risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bronchoscopic examinations for evaluating chest abnormal shadows associated with hematological disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Masayuki; Bando, Masashi; Kobayashi, Akira; Yamasawa, Hideaki; Ohno, Shoji; Sugiyama, Yukihiko

    2006-01-01

    Hematological diseases cause various respiratory complications, but their differentiation only by blood tests and chest radiology is often difficult. To clarify the characteristics of respiratory complications associated with hematological diseases and the diagnostic usefulness of bronchoscopic examinations for these complications, we clinically evaluated mainly underlying diseases, chest radiological findings, and bronchoscopic findings in 31 patients in whom we performed bronchoscopy for chest abnormal shadows associated with hematological disease during the past 13-year period. Among hematological disease, leukemia was most frequently observed, followed by malignant lymphoma and myelodysplastic syndrome. The most frequently observed chest CT findings were localized consolidation and diffuse Ground-glass opacity. Bronchoscopic examinations provided a definitive diagnosis in 20 patients (64.5%), and the most frequent diagnosis was pulmonary invasion by neoplastic cells (7 patients). Pulmonary invasion by neoplastic cells showed various images, and transbronchial lung biopsy : TBLB was useful for definitive diagnosis. After consideration of the general condition of patients and the risk of complications, bronchoscopy including TBLB should be performed when possible. (author)

  5. Estimation of organ doses and risk of cancer associated with CT examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Nagla Nooraldaim

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study to estimate the organ closes and risk of cancer associated with CT examinations in Khartoum state, where the study conducted in three hospitals; Alzytouna , royal scan and Royal Care. From April to November 2017, and the data collected from 120 patients, 40 patents from each hospital undergoing CT brain and abdomen examinations. The data were entered to CT - Expo version 2.4 software for calculation the effective dose and organ dose and by Xray risk web site for calculate the risk factor associated with CT examinations. Results have shown the values of effective dose that found 9.73 mSv for all patients and for female and male 9.9 mSv respectively. The effective dose from Brain examinations in three hospitals Alzytouna Royal scan and Royal Care was 16.9 mSv, 3.7 mSv, 3.8 mSv respectively, and from abdomen examinations was 4.2 mSv, 7.6 mSv, 22.2 mSv respectively. Comparing te effective dose from the hospitals, for Ct. Brain in Alzytouna hospital was higher than other hospitals; and for CT Abdomen in Royal Care hospital was higher than other hospitals, but still under the risk levels according to the ICRP report. For organ doses results, the most organs exposed from CT. brain was brain, salivary gland, thyroid gland, Bone marrow, Bone surface, Extra thoracic tissue, Eye lens and oral mucosa received ( 70,2, 66.4,15.04, 10.9, 24.9, 14.8,89.5,65.07) mSv respectively. The most organs exposed from CT. Abdomen were liver, stomach, low, Large intestine, Bladder, Bone surface, upper , Large intestine, spleen, kidney, small intestine and prostate received (16.53, 12.8, 33.43, 41.01,20.5, 38.4, 14.7, 28.9, 37.5,30.5 ) mSv respectively. This study found that te ability of cancer induced i the female was higher from the male; dut to body component of the female. (Author)

  6. Prosthetic alignment after total knee replacement is not associated with dissatisfaction or change in Oxford Knee Score: A multivariable regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijbregts, Henricus J T A M; Khan, Riaz J K; Fick, Daniel P; Jarrett, Olivia M; Haebich, Samantha

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 18% of the patients are dissatisfied with the result of total knee replacement. However, the relation between dissatisfaction and prosthetic alignment has not been investigated before. We retrospectively analysed prospectively gathered data of all patients who had a primary TKR, preoperative and one-year postoperative Oxford Knee Scores (OKS) and postoperative computed tomography (CT). The CT protocol measures hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle, and coronal, sagittal and axial component alignment. Satisfaction was defined using a five-item Likert scale. We dichotomised dissatisfaction by combining '(very) dissatisfied' and 'neutral/not sure'. Associations with dissatisfaction and change in OKS were calculated using multivariable logistic and linear regression models. 230 TKRs were implanted in 105 men and 106 women. At one year, 12% were (very) dissatisfied and 10% neutral. Coronal alignment of the femoral component was 0.5 degrees more accurate in patients who were satisfied at one year. The other alignment measurements were not different between satisfied and dissatisfied patients. All radiographic measurements had a P-value>0.10 on univariate analyses. At one year, dissatisfaction was associated with the three-months OKS. Change in OKS was associated with three-months OKS, preoperative physical SF-12, preoperative pain and cruciate retaining design. Neither mechanical axis, nor component alignment, is associated with dissatisfaction at one year following TKR. Patients get the best outcome when pain reduction and function improvement are optimal during the first three months and when the indication to embark on surgery is based on physical limitations rather than on a high pain score. 2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Regression Analysis to Identify Factors Associated with Household Salt Iodine Content at the Sub-National Level in Bangladesh, India, Ghana and Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Jacky; Kupka, Roland; Dumble, Sam; Garrett, Greg S.; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Nahar, Baitun; Touré, Ndeye Khady; Amoaful, Esi Foriwa; Gorstein, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Regression analyses of data from stratified, cluster sample, household iodine surveys in Bangladesh, India, Ghana and Senegal were conducted to identify factors associated with household access to adequately iodised salt. For all countries, in single variable analyses, household salt iodine was significantly different (p < 0.05) between strata (geographic areas with representative data, defined by survey design), and significantly higher (p < 0.05) among households: with better living standard scores, where the respondent knew about iodised salt and/or looked for iodised salt at purchase, using salt bought in a sealed package, or using refined grain salt. Other country-level associations were also found. Multiple variable analyses showed a significant association between salt iodine and strata (p < 0.001) in India, Ghana and Senegal and that salt grain type was significantly associated with estimated iodine content in all countries (p < 0.001). Salt iodine relative to the reference (coarse salt) ranged from 1.3 (95% CI 1.2, 1.5) times higher for fine salt in Senegal to 3.6 (95% CI 2.6, 4.9) times higher for washed and 6.5 (95% CI 4.9, 8.8) times higher for refined salt in India. Sub-national data are required to monitor equity of access to adequately iodised salt. Improving household access to refined iodised salt in sealed packaging, would improve iodine intake from household salt in all four countries in this analysis, particularly in areas where there is significant small-scale salt production. PMID:29671774

  8. Regression Analysis to Identify Factors Associated with Household Salt Iodine Content at the Sub-National Level in Bangladesh, India, Ghana and Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Knowles

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Regression analyses of data from stratified, cluster sample, household iodine surveys in Bangladesh, India, Ghana and Senegal were conducted to identify factors associated with household access to adequately iodised salt. For all countries, in single variable analyses, household salt iodine was significantly different (p < 0.05 between strata (geographic areas with representative data, defined by survey design, and significantly higher (p < 0.05 among households: with better living standard scores, where the respondent knew about iodised salt and/or looked for iodised salt at purchase, using salt bought in a sealed package, or using refined grain salt. Other country-level associations were also found. Multiple variable analyses showed a significant association between salt iodine and strata (p < 0.001 in India, Ghana and Senegal and that salt grain type was significantly associated with estimated iodine content in all countries (p < 0.001. Salt iodine relative to the reference (coarse salt ranged from 1.3 (95% CI 1.2, 1.5 times higher for fine salt in Senegal to 3.6 (95% CI 2.6, 4.9 times higher for washed and 6.5 (95% CI 4.9, 8.8 times higher for refined salt in India. Sub-national data are required to monitor equity of access to adequately iodised salt. Improving household access to refined iodised salt in sealed packaging, would improve iodine intake from household salt in all four countries in this analysis, particularly in areas where there is significant small-scale salt production.

  9. The association of lung function and St. George's respiratory questionnaire with exacerbations in COPD: a systematic literature review and regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Amber L; Marvel, Jessica; Fahrbach, Kyle; Cadarette, Sarah M; Wilcox, Teresa K; Donohue, James F

    2016-04-16

    This study investigated the relationship between changes in lung function (as measured by forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1]) and the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and economically significant outcomes of exacerbations and health resource utilization, with an aim to provide insight into whether the effects of COPD treatment on lung function and health status relate to a reduced risk for exacerbations. A systematic literature review was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify randomized controlled trials of adult COPD patients published in English since 2002 in order to relate mean change in FEV1 and SGRQ total score to exacerbations and hospitalizations. These predictor/outcome pairs were analyzed using sample-size weighted regression analyses, which estimated a regression slope relating the two treatment effects, as well as a confidence interval and a test of statistical significance. Sixty-seven trials were included in the analysis. Significant relationships were seen between: FEV1 and any exacerbation (time to first exacerbation or patients with at least one exacerbation, p = 0.001); between FEV1 and moderate-to-severe exacerbations (time to first exacerbation, patients with at least one exacerbation, or annualized rate, p = 0.045); between SGRQ score and any exacerbation (time to first exacerbation or patients with at least one exacerbation, p = 0.0002) and between SGRQ score and moderate-to-severe exacerbations (time to first exacerbation or patients with at least one exacerbation, p = 0.0279; annualized rate, p = 0.0024). Relationships between FEV1 or SGRQ score and annualized exacerbation rate for any exacerbation or hospitalized exacerbations were not significant. The regression analysis demonstrated a significant association between improvements in FEV1 and SGRQ score and lower risk for COPD exacerbations. Even in cases of non-significant relationships

  10. Comparison of 4 established DASH diet indexes: examining associations of index scores and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige E; Cross, Amanda J; Subar, Amy F; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Park, Yikyung; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany; Hollenbeck, Albert; Reedy, Jill

    2013-09-01

    Multiple diet indexes have been developed to capture the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern and examine relations with health outcomes but have not been compared within the same study population to our knowledge. We compared 4 established DASH indexes and examined associations with colorectal cancer. Scores were generated from a food-frequency questionnaire in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (n = 491,841). Separate indexes defined by Dixon (7 food groups, saturated fat, and alcohol), Mellen (9 nutrients), Fung (7 food groups and sodium), and Günther (8 food groups) were used. HRs and 95% CIs for colorectal cancer were generated by using Cox proportional hazard models. From 1995 through 2006, 6752 incident colorectal cancer cases were ascertained. In men, higher scores were associated with reduced colorectal cancer incidence by comparing highest to lowest quintiles for all indexes as follows: Dixon (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.87), Mellen (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.86), Fung (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.83), and Günther (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.90). Higher scores in women were inversely associated with colorectal cancer incidence by using methods defined by Mellen (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.91), Fung (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.96), and Günther (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73.0.97) but not Dixon (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.28). The consistency in findings, particularly in men, suggests that all indexes capture an underlying construct inherent in the DASH dietary pattern, although the specific index used can affect results.

  11. Comparison of 4 established DASH diet indexes: examining associations of index scores and colorectal cancer123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Amanda J; Subar, Amy F; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Park, Yikyung; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany; Hollenbeck, Albert; Reedy, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multiple diet indexes have been developed to capture the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern and examine relations with health outcomes but have not been compared within the same study population to our knowledge. Objective: We compared 4 established DASH indexes and examined associations with colorectal cancer. Design: Scores were generated from a food-frequency questionnaire in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (n = 491,841). Separate indexes defined by Dixon (7 food groups, saturated fat, and alcohol), Mellen (9 nutrients), Fung (7 food groups and sodium), and Günther (8 food groups) were used. HRs and 95% CIs for colorectal cancer were generated by using Cox proportional hazard models. Results: From 1995 through 2006, 6752 incident colorectal cancer cases were ascertained. In men, higher scores were associated with reduced colorectal cancer incidence by comparing highest to lowest quintiles for all indexes as follows: Dixon (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.87), Mellen (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.86), Fung (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.83), and Günther (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.90). Higher scores in women were inversely associated with colorectal cancer incidence by using methods defined by Mellen (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.91), Fung (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.96), and Günther (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73.0.97) but not Dixon (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.28). Conclusion: The consistency in findings, particularly in men, suggests that all indexes capture an underlying construct inherent in the DASH dietary pattern, although the specific index used can affect results. PMID:23864539

  12. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy....... investment. We conclude by stressing the need for more theoretical work before this kind of cross-country regressions are used for policy purposes.......This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy...

  13. Association between dental pain and depression in Korean adults using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S E; Park, Y G; Han, K; Min, J A; Kim, S Y

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the prevalence of depression and dental pain using a well characterised, nationally representative, population-based study. This study analysed data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 4886). Oral health status was assessed using the oral health questionnaire, and oral examination was performed by trained dentists. Depression was defined as the participant having been diagnosed as depression during the previous year. Logistic regression was applied to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for a range of covariates. Results demonstrated that participants included in 'root canal treatment is necessary' showed higher prevalence of self-reported dental pain; in particular, participants with depression presented more dental pain than those without depression. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, self-reported dental pain increased in participants with depression. The AOR (95% CI) for having self-reported dental pain was 1·58 (1·08-2·33) in dentists' diagnosis of no dental pain/depression group, 1·62 (1·32-1·98) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/no depression group and 2·84 (1·10-7·37) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/depression group. It was concluded that depression was associated with dental pain after adjustment for potential confounders in Korean adults. Thus, dentists should consider the possible presence of psychopathology when treating patients with dental pain. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Cumulative effective dose associated with computed tomography examinations in adolescent trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Joon; Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Hyung Sik; Choi, Hye-Young; Cho, Jinseong; Yang, Hyuk Jun; Chung, Yong Eun

    2014-07-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze cumulative effective dose (cED) and to assess lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer due to radiation exposure during computed tomography (CT) examinations in adolescent trauma patients. Between January 2010 and May 2011, the adolescent patients with trauma were enrolled in this study. Numbers of CT examinations and body regions examined were collated, and cEDs were calculated using dose-length product values and conversion factors. Lifetime attributable risk for cancer incidence and cancer-associated mortality were quantified based on the studies of survivors of the atomic bombs on Japan. Data were stratified according to severity of trauma: minor trauma, injury severity score of less than 16; and major trauma, injury severity score of 16 or greater. A total of 698 CT scans were obtained on the following regions of 484 adolescent patients: head CT, n = 647; rest of the body, n = 41; and thorax, n = 10. Mean cED per patient was 3.4 mSv, and mean LARs for cancer incidence and mortality were 0.05% and 0.02%, respectively. The majority of patients (98.4%) experienced minor trauma, and their mean cED and LARs for cancer incidence and mortality (3.0 mSv and 0.04% and 0.02%, respectively) were significantly lower than those of patients with major trauma (24.3 mSv and 0.31% and 0.15%, respectively, all P values trauma was found to be relatively low in adolescent patients. However, adolescent patients with major trauma were exposed to a substantial amount of radiation during multiple CT examinations.

  15. Nursing students' attitudes toward statistics: Effect of a biostatistics course and association with examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekkas, Panagiotis; Panagiotarou, Aliki; Malja, Alvaro; Tahirai, Daniela; Zykai, Rountina; Bakalis, Nick; Stefanopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-12-01

    Although statistical knowledge and skills are necessary for promoting evidence-based practice, health sciences students have expressed anxiety about statistics courses, which may hinder their learning of statistical concepts. To evaluate the effects of a biostatistics course on nursing students' attitudes toward statistics and to explore the association between these attitudes and their performance in the course examination. One-group quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design. Undergraduate nursing students of the fifth or higher semester of studies, who attended a biostatistics course. Participants were asked to complete the pre-test and post-test forms of The Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics (SATS)-36 scale at the beginning and end of the course respectively. Pre-test and post-test scale scores were compared, while correlations between post-test scores and participants' examination performance were estimated. Among 156 participants, post-test scores of the overall SATS-36 scale and of the Affect, Cognitive Competence, Interest and Effort components were significantly higher than pre-test ones, indicating that the course was followed by more positive attitudes toward statistics. Among 104 students who participated in the examination, higher post-test scores of the overall SATS-36 scale and of the Affect, Difficulty, Interest and Effort components were significantly but weakly correlated with higher examination performance. Students' attitudes toward statistics can be improved through appropriate biostatistics courses, while positive attitudes contribute to higher course achievements and possibly to improved statistical skills in later professional life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dynamic Regression Model for Evaluating the Association Between Atmospheric Conditions and Deaths due to Respiratory Diseases in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla dos Santos Gomes

    Full Text Available Abstract The article reports the modeling of mortality due to respiratory diseases emanating from atmospheric conditions, capturing significant associations and verifying the ability of stochastic modeling to predict deaths arising from the relationship between weather conditions and air pollution. The statistical methods used in the analysis were cross-correlation and pre-whitening, in addition to dynamic regression modeling combining the dynamics of time series and the effect of explanatory variables. The results show there are significant associations between mortality and sulfur dioxide, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, and autoregressive structure. The cross-correlations captured significant lags between atmospheric variables and deaths, of two months for SO2 and relative humidity, eleven months for PM10, seven months for O3, and eight months for air temperature and the cross-correlation without lag with NO2. With CO variables, precipitation and atmospheric pressure, cross-correlations were not detected. Stochastic modeling showed that deaths due to respiratory diseases can be predicted from the combination of meteorological and air pollution variables, especially considering the existing trend and seasonality.

  17. Examining the associations between overeating, disinhibition, and hunger in a nonclinical sample of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, Geneviève; Bergeron, Sophie; Meilleur, Dominique; D'Antono, Bianca; Dubé, Isabelle

    2014-04-01

    Binge eating (BE) has long been identified as a correlate of overweight and obesity. However, less empirical attention has been given to overeating with and without loss of control (LOC) in nonclinical samples. The goal of the present study was to examine the association of (1) established correlates of BE, namely, weight and shape concerns, dietary restraint, and negative affect, and (2) three additional correlates, disinhibition, hunger, and interoceptive awareness (IA), to overeating in a nonclinical sample of college women. Female students (n = 1,447) aged 18 to 21 years recruited from colleges in three Canadian metropolitan areas completed self-report questionnaires in class to assess sociodemographic and anthropomorphic characteristics, overeating, LOC, dietary restraint, negative affect, weight and shape concerns, IA, disinhibition, and hunger. The established correlates of BE were significant correlates of all types of overeating and explained 33 % of the variance. Disinhibition was the most strongly associated correlate of overeating. Findings suggest that established correlates of BE are associated with other types of overeating such as objective overeating (OOE), as are disinhibition and hunger.

  18. Examining Associations of Environmental Characteristics with Recreational Cycling Behaviour by Street-Level Strava Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yeran; Du, Yunyan; Wang, Yu; Zhuang, Liyuan

    2017-06-15

    Policymakers pay much attention to effectively increasing frequency of people's cycling in the context of developing sustainable and green cities. Investigating associations of environmental characteristics and cycling behaviour could offer implications for changing urban infrastructure aiming at encouraging active travel. However, earlier examinations of associations between environmental characteristics and active travel behaviour are limited by low spatial granularity and coverage of traditional data. Crowdsourced geographic information offers an opportunity to determine the fine-grained travel patterns of people. Particularly, Strava Metro data offer a good opportunity for studies of recreational cycling behaviour as they can offer hourly, daily or annual cycling volumes with different purposes (commuting or recreational) in each street across a city. Therefore, in this study, we utilised Strava Metro data for investigating associations between environmental characteristics and recreational cycling behaviour at a large spatial scale (street level). In this study, we took account of population density, employment density, road length, road connectivity, proximity to public transit services, land use mix, proximity to green space, volume of motor vehicles and traffic accidents in an empirical investigation over Glasgow. Empirical results reveal that Strava cyclists are more likely to cycle for recreation on streets with short length, large connectivity or low volume of motor vehicles or on streets surrounded by residential land.

  19. The association between leisure time physical activity and smoking in adolescence: an examination of potential mediating and moderating factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, K.T.; Nielsen, G.A.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Although physical activity has been associated negatively with smoking in adolescence, the association is not well understood. Purpose: This study examines the relationship between adolescents' leisure time physical activity and smoking behavior, while considering BMI, weight concern, sense of

  20. The Association between leisure time physical activity and smoking in adolescence: an examination of potential mediating and moderating factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verkooijen, Kirsten; Nielsen, Gert A; Kremers, Stef P J

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although physical activity has been associated negatively with smoking in adolescence, the association is not well understood. PURPOSE: This study examines the relationship between adolescents' leisure time physical activity and smoking behavior, while considering BMI, weight concern,...

  1. Examining confounding by diet in the association between perfluoroalkyl acids and serum cholesterol in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuladottir, Margret; Ramel, Alfons; Rytter, Dorte; Haug, Line Småstuen; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have consistently been associated with higher cholesterol levels in cross sectional studies. Concerns have, however, been raised about potential confounding by diet and clinical relevance. Objective: To examine the association between concentrations of PFOS and PFOA and total cholesterol in serum during pregnancy taking into considerations confounding by diet. Methods: 854 Danish women who gave birth in 1988–89 and provided a blood sample and reported their diet in week 30 of gestation. Results: Mean serum PFOS, PFOA and total cholesterol concentrations were 22.3 ng/mL, 4.1 ng/mL and 7.3 mmol/L, respectively. Maternal diet was a significant predictor of serum PFOS and PFOA concentrations. In particular intake of meat and meat products was positively associated while intake of vegetables was inversely associated (P for trend <0.01) with relative difference between the highest and lowest quartile in PFOS and PFOA concentrations ranging between 6% and 25% of mean values. After adjustment for dietary factors both PFOA and PFOS were positively and similarly associated with serum cholesterol (P for trend ≤0.01). For example, the mean increase in serum cholesterol was 0.39 mmol/L (95%CI: 0.09, 0.68) when comparing women in the highest to lowest quintile of PFOA concentrations. In comparison the mean increase in serum cholesterol was 0.61 mmol/L (95%CI: 0.17, 1.05) when comparing women in the highest to lowest quintile of saturated fat intake. Conclusion: In this study associations between PFOS and PFOA with serum cholesterol appeared unrelated to dietary intake and were similar in magnitude as the associations between saturated fat intake and serum cholesterol. - Highlights: • PFOS and PFOA have consistently been linked with raised serum cholesterol • Clinical relevance remains uncertain and confounding by diet has been suggested • The aim of this study was to address these issues in

  2. Examining confounding by diet in the association between perfluoroalkyl acids and serum cholesterol in pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuladottir, Margret; Ramel, Alfons [Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland); Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali National University Hospital, Reykjavik (Iceland); Rytter, Dorte [Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Haug, Line Småstuen; Sabaredzovic, Azemira [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Bech, Bodil Hammer [Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Henriksen, Tine Brink [Pediatric Department, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Olsen, Sjurdur F. [Center for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Halldorsson, Thorhallur I., E-mail: tih@hi.is [Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland); Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali National University Hospital, Reykjavik (Iceland); Center for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-11-15

    Background: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have consistently been associated with higher cholesterol levels in cross sectional studies. Concerns have, however, been raised about potential confounding by diet and clinical relevance. Objective: To examine the association between concentrations of PFOS and PFOA and total cholesterol in serum during pregnancy taking into considerations confounding by diet. Methods: 854 Danish women who gave birth in 1988–89 and provided a blood sample and reported their diet in week 30 of gestation. Results: Mean serum PFOS, PFOA and total cholesterol concentrations were 22.3 ng/mL, 4.1 ng/mL and 7.3 mmol/L, respectively. Maternal diet was a significant predictor of serum PFOS and PFOA concentrations. In particular intake of meat and meat products was positively associated while intake of vegetables was inversely associated (P for trend <0.01) with relative difference between the highest and lowest quartile in PFOS and PFOA concentrations ranging between 6% and 25% of mean values. After adjustment for dietary factors both PFOA and PFOS were positively and similarly associated with serum cholesterol (P for trend ≤0.01). For example, the mean increase in serum cholesterol was 0.39 mmol/L (95%CI: 0.09, 0.68) when comparing women in the highest to lowest quintile of PFOA concentrations. In comparison the mean increase in serum cholesterol was 0.61 mmol/L (95%CI: 0.17, 1.05) when comparing women in the highest to lowest quintile of saturated fat intake. Conclusion: In this study associations between PFOS and PFOA with serum cholesterol appeared unrelated to dietary intake and were similar in magnitude as the associations between saturated fat intake and serum cholesterol. - Highlights: • PFOS and PFOA have consistently been linked with raised serum cholesterol • Clinical relevance remains uncertain and confounding by diet has been suggested • The aim of this study was to address these issues in

  3. Retro-regression--another important multivariate regression improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randić, M

    2001-01-01

    We review the serious problem associated with instabilities of the coefficients of regression equations, referred to as the MRA (multivariate regression analysis) "nightmare of the first kind". This is manifested when in a stepwise regression a descriptor is included or excluded from a regression. The consequence is an unpredictable change of the coefficients of the descriptors that remain in the regression equation. We follow with consideration of an even more serious problem, referred to as the MRA "nightmare of the second kind", arising when optimal descriptors are selected from a large pool of descriptors. This process typically causes at different steps of the stepwise regression a replacement of several previously used descriptors by new ones. We describe a procedure that resolves these difficulties. The approach is illustrated on boiling points of nonanes which are considered (1) by using an ordered connectivity basis; (2) by using an ordering resulting from application of greedy algorithm; and (3) by using an ordering derived from an exhaustive search for optimal descriptors. A novel variant of multiple regression analysis, called retro-regression (RR), is outlined showing how it resolves the ambiguities associated with both "nightmares" of the first and the second kind of MRA.

  4. Sociodemographic Differences in the Association Between Obesity and Stress: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Leigh, J Paul

    2015-01-01

    Few population-based studies have used an econometric approach to understand the association between two cancer risk factors, obesity and stress. This study investigated sociodemographic differences in the association between obesity and stress among Korean adults (6,546 men and 8,473 women). Data were drawn from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2008, 2009, and 2010. Ordered logistic regression models and propensity score matching methods were used to examine the associations between obesity and stress, stratified by gender and age groups. In women, the stress level of the obese group was found to be 27.6% higher than the nonobese group in the ordered logistic regression; the obesity effect on stress was statistically significant in the propensity score-matched analysis. Corresponding evidence for the effect of obesity on stress was lacking among men. Participants who were young, well-educated, and working were more likely to report stress. In Korea, obesity causes stress in women but not in men. Young women are susceptible to a disproportionate level of stress. More cancer prevention programs targeting young and obese women are encouraged in developed Asian countries.

  5. Population-based cohort study examining the association between splenectomy and empyema in adults in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsien-Feng; Liao, Kuan-Fu; Chang, Ching-Mei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lai, Shih-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the association between splenectomy and empyema in Taiwan. Methods A population-based cohort study was conducted using the hospitalisation dataset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. A total of 13 193 subjects aged 20–84 years who were newly diagnosed with splenectomy from 2000 to 2010 were enrolled in the splenectomy group and 52 464 randomly selected subjects without splenectomy were enrolled in the non-splenectomy group. Both groups were matched by sex, age, comorbidities and the index year of undergoing splenectomy. The incidence of empyema at the end of 2011 was calculated. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the HR with 95% CI of empyema associated with splenectomy and other comorbidities. Results The overall incidence rate of empyema was 2.56-fold higher in the splenectomy group than in the non-splenectomy group (8.85 vs 3.46 per 1000 person-years). The Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a higher cumulative incidence of empyema in the splenectomy group than in the non-splenectomy group (6.99% vs 3.37% at the end of follow-up). After adjusting for confounding variables, the adjusted HR of empyema was 2.89 for the splenectomy group compared with that for the non-splenectomy group. Further analysis revealed that HR of empyema was 4.52 for subjects with splenectomy alone. Conclusion The incidence rate ratio between the splenectomy and non-splenectomy groups reduced from 2.87 in the first 5 years of follow-up to 1.73 in the period following the 5 years. Future studies are required to confirm whether a longer follow-up period would further reduce this average ratio. For the splenectomy group, the overall HR of developing empyema was 2.89 after adjusting for age, sex and comorbidities, which was identified from previous literature. The risk of empyema following splenectomy remains high despite the absence of these comorbidities. PMID:28947439

  6. Relational Intimacy Mediates Sexual Outcomes Associated With Impaired Sexual Function: Examination in a Clinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherow, Marta Parkanyi; Chandraiah, Shambhavi; Seals, Samantha R; Sarver, Dustin E; Parisi, Kathryn E; Bugan, Antal

    2017-06-01

    Relational intimacy is hypothesized to underlie the association between female sexual functioning and various sexual outcomes, and married women and women with sexual dysfunction have been generally absent from prior studies investigating these associations, thus restricting generalizability. To investigate whether relational intimacy mediates sexual outcomes (sexual satisfaction, coital frequency, and sexual distress) in a sample of married women with and without impaired sexual functioning presenting in clinical settings. Using a cross-sectional design, 64 heterosexual married women with (n = 44) and without (n = 20) impaired sexual functioning completed a battery of validated measurements assessing relational intimacy, sexual dysfunction, sexual frequency, satisfaction, and distress. Intimacy measurements were combined using latent factor scores before analysis. Bias-corrected mediation models of the indirect effect were used to test mediation effects. Moderated mediation models examined whether indirect effects were influenced by age and marital duration. Patients completed the Female Sexual Function Index, the Couple's Satisfaction Index, the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women, the Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale, and the Miller Social Intimacy Test. Mediation models showed that impaired sexual functioning is associated with all sexual outcomes directly and indirectly through relational intimacy. Results were predominantly independent of age and marital duration. Findings have important treatment implications for modifying interventions to focus on enhancing relational intimacy to improve the sexual functioning of women with impaired sexual functioning. The importance of the role relational intimacy plays in broad sexual outcomes of women with impaired sexual functioning is supported in clinically referred and married women. Latent factor scores to improve estimation of study constructs and the use of contemporary mediation analysis also are

  7. Examining structural and clinical factors associated with implementation of standing orders for adult immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonas, Michael A; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Zimmerman, Richard K; Ahmed, Faruque; Albert, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    A proven method to increase vaccination rates in primary care is a standing orders program (SOP) for nonphysician staff to assess and vaccinate eligible individuals without a specific written physician order. This study describes a mixed methods approach to examining physicians' beliefs and attitudes about and adoption of SOPs for adult immunizations, specifically, influenza and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Focus groups and in-depth interviews of physicians, nurses, practice managers, and the medical director of a managed care health plan were conducted. Results were used to enrich a concise survey based on the Awareness-to-Adherence model of physician behavior and previous research, which was mailed to 1,640 general internists and family physicians nationwide. Barriers to SOPs identified through qualitative methods were lack of interest in changing the status quo, a physician-dominated hierarchy, and fear of malpractice. Facilitators included having an electronic medical record and a practice culture that was open to change. The survey (response rate 67%) confirmed the facilitators and further identified patient, physician, and practice factors that served as barriers to establishing and maintaining SOPs. This mixed methods approach provided the opportunity to develop a tailored and practice-oriented survey for examining the contextual factors influencing clinical providers' decisions to implement SOPs for adult immunization. © 2011 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  8. Reduced Rank Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating...

  9. Examining the association between motivations for induced abortion and method safety among women in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biney, Adriana A E; Atiglo, D Yaw

    2017-10-01

    This article draws on data from 552 women interviewed in the 2007 Ghana Maternal Health Survey to examine the association between motivations for women's pregnancy terminations and the safety of methods used. Women's reasons for induced abortions represented their vulnerability types at the critical time of decision making. Different motivations can result in taking various forms of action with the most vulnerable potentially resorting to the most harmful behaviors. Analysis of survey data pointed to spacing/delaying births as the main reason for abortion. Furthermore, women were more likely to terminate pregnancies unsafely if their main motivation for abortion was financial constraints. Especially among rural women, abortions for any reason were more likely associated with safe methods than if for financial reasons. These findings suggest a theme of vulnerability, resulting from poverty, as the motivations for women to resort to harmful abortion methods. Therefore, interventions formulated to reduce instances of unsafe pregnancy terminations should target reducing poverty and capacity building with the aim of economic advancement, in addition to curbing the root of the problem: unintended pregnancy.

  10. Association between socioeconomic status and oral health behaviors: The 2008-2010 Korea national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Beom; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu; Ko, Youngkyung

    2016-10-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) has been reported to be associated with oral health behavior. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the relationship between SES and oral health behaviors in a large sample of the Korean population. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted between 2008 and 2010 by the Division of Chronic Disease Surveillance under the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare, were used in the present study. Daily tooth brushing frequency and the use of secondary oral products according to demographic variables and anthropometric characteristics of the participants were assessed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the associations between daily tooth brushing frequency and the use of secondary oral products, and SES, urban/rural residence, body mass index (BMI), alcohol intake and smoking. An association between SES and tooth brushing frequency and the use of secondary oral products was detected after adjustment. Following adjustment for age, gender, BMI, smoking, drinking, exercise, energy intake, fat intake, periodontal treatment needs and education or income, the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of tooth brushing ≥3 per day in the highest income group were 1.264 (95% CI, 1.094-1.460) and 2.686 (95% CI, 2.286-3.155) for highest education level group. The adjusted odds ratios for the use of secondary oral products in the highest income and highest education groups were 1.835 (95% CI, 1.559-2.161) and 5.736 (95% CI, 4.734-6.951), respectively, after adjustment for age, gender, smoking, BMI, exercise, calorie intake, periodontal treatment requirements or income. The present study demonstrated an association between SES and oral health behaviors in a large sample of the Korean population. Within the limits of the present study, income and education were suggested as potential risk indicators

  11. An Empirical Examination of Symptom Substitution Associated with Behavior Therapy for Tourette's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Alan L.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W.; Walkup, John T.; Hatch, John P.; Villarreal, Robert; Scahill, Lawrence

    2018-01-01

    Over the past 6 decades, behavior therapy has been a major contributor to the development of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments. However, a longstanding concern with behavior therapy among many nonbehavioral clinicians has been the potential risk for symptom substitution. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate symptom substitution in response to behavioral treatments, largely due to measurement and definitional challenges associated with treated psychiatric symptoms. Given the overt motor and vocal tics associated with Tourette’s disorder, it presents an excellent opportunity to empirically evaluate the potential risk for symptom substitution associated with behavior therapy. The present study examined the possible presence of symptom substitution using 4 methods: (1) the onset of new tic symptoms; (2) the occurrence of adverse events; (3) change in tic medications; and (4) worsening of co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. Two hundred twenty-eight participants with Tourette’s disorder or persistent motor or vocal tic disorders were randomly assigned to receive behavioral therapy or supportive therapy for tics. Both therapies consisted of 8 sessions over 10 weeks. Results indicated that participants treated with behavior therapy were not more likely to have an onset of new tic symptoms, experience adverse events, increase tic medications, or have an exacerbation in co-occurring psychiatric symptoms relative to participants treated with supportive therapy. Further analysis suggested that the emergence of new tics was attributed with the normal waxing and waning nature of Tourette’s disorder. Findings provide empirical support to counter the longstanding concern of symptom substitution in response to behavior therapy for individuals with Tourette's Disorder. PMID:26763495

  12. Examining associations between sexual behaviours and quality of life in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Taylor-Jane; Gow, Alan J

    2015-09-01

    while sexual behaviours are potentially important for quality of life in older adults, they are under-researched. The current study examined associations between frequency and importance of sexual behaviours and quality of life in older adults. one hundred and thirty-three participants (mean 74 years, SD = 7.1) provided information about the frequency with which they participated in six sexual behaviours and the perceived importance of these: touching/holding hands, embracing/hugging, kissing, mutual stroking, masturbating and intercourse. Participants also completed the WHO Quality of Life scale, providing an overall quality of life score, in addition to the domains of physical health, psychological health, social relationships and environment. Participants provided information on their marital status, living arrangements and self-reported health. both the frequency and importance of sexual behaviours were moderately positively correlated with quality of life (r = 0.52 and 0.47, respectively, both P sexual behaviours was a significant predictor of quality of life in the social relationships domain (β = 0.225, P sexual behaviours was associated with the psychological domain (β = 0.151, P ageing trends, a broader understanding of the factors that influence quality of life in older adults is increasingly important. The current findings suggest that aspects of sexual behaviour and quality of life were positively associated. Researchers are encouraged to consider aspects of sex and sexuality when exploring determinants of well-being in later life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Examination of association to autism of common genetic variationin genes related to dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B M; Schnetz-Boutaud, N; Bartlett, J; Wright, H H; Abramson, R K; Cuccaro, M L; Gilbert, J R; Pericak-Vance, M A; Haines, J L

    2008-12-01

    Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a triad of complications. Autistic individuals display significant disturbances in language and reciprocal social interactions, combined with repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. Prevalence studies suggest that autism is more common than originally believed, with recent estimates citing a rate of one in 150. Although multiple genetic linkage and association studies have yielded multiple suggestive genes or chromosomal regions, a specific risk locus has yet to be identified and widely confirmed. Because many etiologies have been suggested for this complex syndrome, we hypothesize that one of the difficulties in identifying autism genes is that multiple genetic variants may be required to significantly increase the risk of developing autism. Thus, we took the alternative approach of examining 14 prominent dopamine pathway candidate genes for detailed study by genotyping 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Although we did observe a nominally significant association for rs2239535 (P=0.008) on chromosome 20, single-locus analysis did not reveal any results as significant after correction for multiple comparisons. No significant interaction was identified when Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction was employed to test specifically for multilocus effects. Although genome-wide linkage scans in autism have provided support for linkage to various loci along the dopamine pathway, our study does not provide strong evidence of linkage or association to any specific gene or combination of genes within the pathway. These results demonstrate that common genetic variation within the tested genes located within this pathway at most play a minor to moderate role in overall autism pathogenesis.

  14. An Empirical Examination of Symptom Substitution Associated With Behavior Therapy for Tourette's Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Alan L; McGuire, Joseph F; Wilhelm, Sabine; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W; Walkup, John T; Hatch, John P; Villarreal, Robert; Scahill, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Over the past six decades, behavior therapy has been a major contributor to the development of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments. However, a long-standing concern with behavior therapy among many nonbehavioral clinicians has been the potential risk for symptom substitution. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate symptom substitution in response to behavioral treatments, largely due to measurement and definitional challenges associated with treated psychiatric symptoms. Given the overt motor and vocal tics associated with Tourette's disorder, it presents an excellent opportunity to empirically evaluate the potential risk for symptom substitution associated with behavior therapy. The present study examined the possible presence of symptom substitution using four methods: (a) the onset of new tic symptoms, (b) the occurrence of adverse events, (c) change in tic medications, and (d) worsening of co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. Two hundred twenty-eight participants with Tourette's disorder or persistent motor or vocal tic disorders were randomly assigned to receive behavioral therapy or supportive therapy for tics. Both therapies consisted of eight sessions over 10 weeks. Results indicated that participants treated with behavior therapy were not more likely to have an onset of new tic symptoms, experience adverse events, increase tic medications, or have an exacerbation in co-occurring psychiatric symptoms relative to participants treated with supportive therapy. Further analysis suggested that the emergence of new tics was attributed with the normal waxing and waning nature of Tourette's disorder. Findings provide empirical support to counter the long-standing concern of symptom substitution in response to behavior therapy for individuals with Tourette's disorder. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Examining the profile of high-potency cannabis and its association with severity of cannabis dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, T P; Winstock, A R

    2015-11-01

    Cannabis use is decreasing in England and Wales, while demand for cannabis treatment in addiction services continues to rise. This could be partly due to an increased availability of high-potency cannabis. Adults residing in the UK were questioned about their drug use, including three types of cannabis (high potency: skunk; low potency: other grass, resin). Cannabis types were profiled and examined for possible associations between frequency of use and (i) cannabis dependence, (ii) cannabis-related concerns. Frequent use of high-potency cannabis predicted a greater severity of dependence [days of skunk use per month: b = 0.254, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.161-0.357, p effect became stronger as age decreased (b = -0.006, 95% CI -0.010 to -0.002, p = 0.004). By contrast, use of low-potency cannabis was not associated with dependence (days of other grass use per month: b = 0.020, 95% CI -0.029 to 0.070, p = 0.436; days of resin use per month: b = 0.025, 95% CI -0.019 to 0.067, p = 0.245). Frequency of cannabis use (all types) did not predict severity of cannabis-related concerns. High-potency cannabis was clearly distinct from low-potency varieties by its marked effects on memory and paranoia. It also produced the best high, was preferred, and most available. High-potency cannabis use is associated with an increased severity of dependence, especially in young people. Its profile is strongly defined by negative effects (memory, paranoia), but also positive characteristics (best high, preferred type), which may be important when considering clinical or public health interventions focusing on cannabis potency.

  16. Type I error rates of rare single nucleotide variants are inflated in tests of association with non-normally distributed traits using simple linear regression methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Sung, Heejong; Sabourin, Jeremy A; Justice, Cristina M; Sorant, Alexa J M; Wilson, Alexander F

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of (a) the minor allele frequency of the single nucleotide variant (SNV), (b) the degree of departure from normality of the trait, and (c) the position of the SNVs on type I error rates were investigated in the Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW) 19 whole exome sequence data. To test the distribution of the type I error rate, 5 simulated traits were considered: standard normal and gamma distributed traits; 2 transformed versions of the gamma trait (log 10 and rank-based inverse normal transformations); and trait Q1 provided by GAW 19. Each trait was tested with 313,340 SNVs. Tests of association were performed with simple linear regression and average type I error rates were determined for minor allele frequency classes. Rare SNVs (minor allele frequency < 0.05) showed inflated type I error rates for non-normally distributed traits that increased as the minor allele frequency decreased. The inflation of average type I error rates increased as the significance threshold decreased. Normally distributed traits did not show inflated type I error rates with respect to the minor allele frequency for rare SNVs. There was no consistent effect of transformation on the uniformity of the distribution of the location of SNVs with a type I error.

  17. The Health Extension Program and Its Association with Change in Utilization of Selected Maternal Health Services in Tigray Region, Ethiopia: A Segmented Linear Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Tesfay Gebregzabher; San Sebastian, Miguel; Edin, Kerstin; Goicolea, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2003, the Ethiopian Ministry of Health established the Health Extension Program (HEP), with the goal of improving access to health care and health promotion activities in rural areas of the country. This paper aims to assess the association of the HEP with improved utilization of maternal health services in Northern Ethiopia using institution-based retrospective data. Methods Average quarterly total attendances for antenatal care (ANC), delivery care (DC) and post-natal care (PNC) at health posts and health care centres were studied from 2002 to 2012. Regression analysis was applied to two models to assess whether trends were statistically significant. One model was used to estimate the level and trend changes associated with the immediate period of intervention, while changes related to the post-intervention period were estimated by the other. Results The total number of consultations for ANC, DC and PNC increased constantly, particularly after the late-intervention period. Increases were higher for ANC and PNC at health post level and for DC at health centres. A positive statistically significant upward trend was found for DC and PNC in all facilities (p<0.01). The positive trend was also present in ANC at health centres (p = 0.04), but not at health posts. Conclusion Our findings revealed an increase in the use of antenatal, delivery and post-natal care after the introduction of the HEP. We are aware that other factors, that we could not control for, might be explaining that increase. The figures for DC and PNC are however low and more needs to be done in order to increase the access to the health care system as well as the demand for these services by the population. Strengthening of the health information system in the region needs also to be prioritized. PMID:26218074

  18. The Health Extension Program and Its Association with Change in Utilization of Selected Maternal Health Services in Tigray Region, Ethiopia: A Segmented Linear Regression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Tesfay Gebregzabher; San Sebastian, Miguel; Edin, Kerstin; Goicolea, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, the Ethiopian Ministry of Health established the Health Extension Program (HEP), with the goal of improving access to health care and health promotion activities in rural areas of the country. This paper aims to assess the association of the HEP with improved utilization of maternal health services in Northern Ethiopia using institution-based retrospective data. Average quarterly total attendances for antenatal care (ANC), delivery care (DC) and post-natal care (PNC) at health posts and health care centres were studied from 2002 to 2012. Regression analysis was applied to two models to assess whether trends were statistically significant. One model was used to estimate the level and trend changes associated with the immediate period of intervention, while changes related to the post-intervention period were estimated by the other. The total number of consultations for ANC, DC and PNC increased constantly, particularly after the late-intervention period. Increases were higher for ANC and PNC at health post level and for DC at health centres. A positive statistically significant upward trend was found for DC and PNC in all facilities (pintroduction of the HEP. We are aware that other factors, that we could not control for, might be explaining that increase. The figures for DC and PNC are however low and more needs to be done in order to increase the access to the health care system as well as the demand for these services by the population. Strengthening of the health information system in the region needs also to be prioritized.

  19. Efficient tumor regression by adoptively transferred CEA-specific CAR-T cells associated with symptoms of mild cytokine release syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linan; Ma, Ning; Okamoto, Sachiko; Amaishi, Yasunori; Sato, Eiichi; Seo, Naohiro; Mineno, Junichi; Takesako, Kazutoh; Kato, Takuma; Shiku, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a cell surface antigen highly expressed in various cancer cell types and in healthy tissues. It has the potential to be a target for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T-cell therapy; however, the safety of this approach in terms of on-target/off-tumor effects needs to be determined. To address this issue in a clinically relevant model, we used a mouse model in which the T cells expressing CEA-specific CAR were transferred into tumor-bearing CEA-transgenic (Tg) mice that physiologically expressed CEA as a self-antigen. The adoptive transfer in conjunction with lymphodepleting and myeloablative preconditioning mediated significant tumor regression but caused weight loss in CEA-Tg, but not in wild-type mice. The weight loss was not associated with overt inflammation in the CEA-expressing gastrointestinal tract but was associated with malnutrition, reflected in elevated systemic levels of cytokines linked to anorexia, which could be controlled by the administration of an anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody without compromising efficacy. The apparent relationship between lymphodepleting and myeloablative preconditioning, efficacy, and off-tumor toxicity of CAR-T cells would necessitate the development of CEA-specific CAR-T cells with improved signaling domains that require less stringent preconditioning for their efficacy. Taken together, these results suggest that CEA-specific CAR-based adoptive T-cell therapy may be effective for patients with CEA + solid tumors. Distinguishing the fine line between therapeutic efficacy and off-tumor toxicity would involve further modifications of CAR-T cells and preconditioning regimens.

  20. Forecasting with Dynamic Regression Models

    CERN Document Server

    Pankratz, Alan

    2012-01-01

    One of the most widely used tools in statistical forecasting, single equation regression models is examined here. A companion to the author's earlier work, Forecasting with Univariate Box-Jenkins Models: Concepts and Cases, the present text pulls together recent time series ideas and gives special attention to possible intertemporal patterns, distributed lag responses of output to input series and the auto correlation patterns of regression disturbance. It also includes six case studies.

  1. Association of Individual and Neighborhood Factors with Home Food Availability: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Weiwen; Fan, Jessie X; Wen, Ming

    2018-05-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests the important role of the home food environment in an individual's dietary intake. This study examined the associations of individual and neighborhood-level factors with the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in the home using a nationally representative sample from the 2007 to 2008 and 2009 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). A cross-sectional study design was used with NHANES merged with the 2000 census data. Food availability was measured through self-report questionnaire regarding the frequency of foods or drinks available in the home. The analysis included 8,975 participants aged 19 to 65 years. Associations of individual and neighborhood factors with home food availability (always or most of the time available) were assessed using logistic regression modeling accounting for NHANES' complex survey design and weights. Individual-level and neighborhood-level factors were simultaneously included in the analysis. Family income-to-needs ratio was positively associated with the availability of dark green vegetables (odds ratio [OR]=1.07; 95% CI=1.00 to 1.13), fat-free or low-fat milk (OR=1.16; 95% CI=1.07 to 1.25), and salty snacks (OR=1.12; 95% CI=1.04 to 1.20) in the home. College graduates were more likely to have fruits (OR=1.96, 95% CI=1.48 to 2.60), vegetables (OR=1.48; 95% CI=1.16 to 1.88), and fat-free or low-fat milk (OR=1.81; 95% CI=1.55 to 2.12) and less likely to have salty snacks (OR=0.77; 95% CI=0.63 to 0.95) and sugary drinks (OR=0.46, 95% CI=0.37 to 0.57) available compared with non-college graduates. Tract socioeconomic status (SES) scores were positively associated with fruit (OR=1.15; 95% CI=1.02 to 1.29), vegetable (OR=1.14; 95% CI=1.03 to 1.26), and fat-free or low-fat milk (OR=1.25; 95% CI=1.10 to 1.42) availability. Urban residents were associated with greater availability of fruits (OR=1.47; 95% CI=1.05 to 2.08) and fat-free or low-fat milk (OR=1.33; 95% CI=1.02 to 1

  2. True phosphorus digestibility and the endogenous phosphorus outputs associated with brown rice for weanling pigs measured by the simple linear regression analysis technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Li, A K; Yin, Y L; Li, T J; Wang, Z R; Wu, G; Huang, R L; Kong, X F; Yang, C B; Kang, P; Deng, J; Wang, S X; Tan, B E; Hu, Q; Xing, F F; Wu, X; He, Q H; Yao, K; Liu, Z J; Tang, Z R; Yin, F G; Deng, Z Y; Xie, M Y; Fan, M Z

    2007-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine true phosphorus (P) digestibility, degradability of phytate-P complex and the endogenous P outputs associated with brown rice feeding in weanling pigs by using the simple linear regression analysis technique. Six barrows with an average initial body weight of 12.5 kg were fitted with a T-cannula and fed six diets according to a 6 × 6 Latin-square design. Six maize starch-based diets, containing six levels of P at 0.80, 1.36, 1.93, 2.49, 3.04, and 3.61 g/kg per kg dry-matter (DM) intake (DMI), were formulated with brown rice. Each experimental period lasted 10 days. After a 7-day adaptation, all faecal samples were collected on days 8 and 9. Ileal digesta samples were collected for a total of 24 h on day 10. The apparent ileal and faecal P digestibility values of brown rice were affected ( P Linear relationships ( P simple regression analysis technique. There were no differences ( P>0.05) in true P digestibility values (57.7 ± 5.4 v. 58.2 ± 5.9%), phytate P degradability (76.4 ± 6.7 v. 79.0 ± 4.4%) and the endogenous P outputs (0.812 ± 0..096 v. 0.725 ± 0.083 g/kg DMI) between the ileal and the faecal levels. The endogenous faecal P output represented 14 and 25% of the National Research Council (1998) recommended daily total and available P requirements in the weanling pig, respectively. About 58% of the total P in brown rice could be digested and absorbed by the weanling pig. Our results suggest that the large intestine of the weanling pigs does not play a significant role in the digestion of P in brown rice. Diet formulation on the basis of total or apparent P digestibility with brown rice may lead to P overfeeding and excessive P excretion in pigs.

  3. Modifiable variables in physical therapy education programs associated with first-time and three-year National Physical Therapy Examination pass rates in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Cook

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to examine the modifiable programmatic characteristics reflected in the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE Annual Accreditation Report for all accredited programs that reported pass rates on the National Physical Therapist Examination, and to build a predictive model for first-time and three-year ultimate pass rates. Methods: This observational study analyzed programmatic information from the 185 CAPTE-accredited physical therapy programs in the United States and Puerto Rico out of a total of 193 programs that provided the first-time and three-year ultimate pass rates in 2011. Fourteen predictive variables representing student selection and composition, clinical education length and design, and general program length and design were analyzed against first-time pass rates and ultimate pass rates on the NPTE. Univariate and multivariate multinomial regression analysis for first-time pass rates and logistic regression analysis for three-year ultimate pass rates were performed. Results: The variables associated with the first-time pass rate in the multivariate analysis were the mean undergraduate grade point average (GPA and the average age of the cohort. Multivariate analysis showed that mean undergraduate GPA was associated with the three-year ultimate pass rate. Conclusions: Mean undergraduate GPA was found to be the only modifiable predictor for both first-time and three-year pass rates among CAPTE-accredited physical therapy programs.

  4. An Examination of Reciprocal Associations Between Social Preference, Popularity, and Friendship during Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotsky, Miriam T; Bowker, Julie C

    2018-04-03

    Getting along with peers becomes increasingly important to health and well-being during early adolescence (10-14 years). Young adolescents may succeed with peers when they are well-liked by and popular among the larger peer group (or at the group-level of social complexity). They might also fare well with peers when they are able to form numerous mutual and high quality friendships (at the dyadic-level of social complexity). Theory emphasizes the interrelatedness of different types of peer experiences, but few longitudinal studies have examined the interplay among and between group- and dyadic-level peer experiences in the same study. As a result, it is not known whether group-level peer experiences are predictors of dyadic-level peer experiences, and/or vice versa. To address this limitation, this study examined the prospective and reciprocal relations between four indices of peer experiences, preference (or being highly liked and not disliked by peers), popularity (or having a reputation as popular), friendship quantity (or having many mutual friends), and friendship or relationship quality, during early adolescence. Participants were 271 adolescents (49% girls; M age  = 11.52 years) who completed peer nominations of preference and popularity, a self-report measure of friendship quality, and nominated friends at two waves (Wave 1: November, Grade 6; Wave 2: October, Grade 7). Structural equation modeling indicated that friendship quantity predicted increases in preference and popularity and that friendship quality predicted increases in friendship quantity. Initial popularity was associated with decreases in preference. The importance of these findings for future research is discussed along with study limitations.

  5. Stress associated with caregiving: an examination of the stress process model among Kenyan Luo elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, Gillian H; Sadruddin, Aalyia F A; Vagedes, Amy; Yogo, Jaja; Juma, Elizabeth

    2012-06-01

    Globally, a growing number of grandparents are caring for their grandchildren. The impact and burden associated with increases in custodial grandparenting, however, may differ by culture. In the United States, the caregiving role has been shown to be a significant source of stress for older adults. In cultures in which grandparents are more commonly involved in the care of young children, however, increasing caregiving roles may not be viewed as stressful. This study examines the impact of caregiving on perceived and physiological measures of stress among 640 Luo elders (60+) in western Kenya, where high HIV prevalence among younger-to-middle aged adults has led to a heavy burden of orphan care. Perceived stress levels were measured using the Luo Perceived Stress Scale (LPSS). Salivary cortisol and casual blood pressure were used as biomarkers of stress. Results were analyzed using random mixed effects models. Overall this study showed that caregivers have higher levels of perceived stress than non-caregivers. For women, household composition, including the number of orphans and adults in the homestead impacted perceived stress. Among men, those who perceived caregiving as burdensome had higher perceived stress. Despite the association between caregiving and perceived stress, there was a minimal relationship between caregiving and the two biomarkers of stress. This may be because caregiving is superimposed onto other stressors and therefore has a minimal physiological impact. These results highlight the importance of local context in determining the impact of the caregiving role on older adult well-being. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical strength is associated with Mini-Mental State Examination scores in Spanish institutionalized elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrero-Chamizo, Raquel; Albers, Ulrike; Tobaruela, José L; Meléndez, Agustín; Castillo, Manuel J; González-Gross, Marcela

    2013-10-01

    The present cross-sectional study aimed at assessing muscle strength of hands, the dominant arm and legs in Spanish institutionalized elderly people according to sex, age and cognitive status. A total of 153 elderly subjects (102 females, 51 males, mean age 83.6 ± 6.8 years) living in the region of Madrid were measured for handgrip strength (kg) with a Takei TKK 5101 digital dynamometer (range 5-100 kg, precision 0.1 kg), and arm and leg endurance strength (repetitions) according to the Rikli and Jones tests. Cognitive status was determined with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The values for men and women were, respectively: 23.5 ± 7.3 kg and 11.6 ± 4.6 kg (right handgrip), 22.0 ± 7.8 kg and 10.7 ± 4.8 kg (left handgrip), 13 ± 5 and 10 ± 5 repetitions (arm strength), 8 ± 5 and 5 ± 4 repetitions (legs strength), and 21 ± 6 and 17 ± 7 (MMSE score). All parameters were significantly higher for men (P ≤ 0.01), but strength decline with age was less pronounced in women. In all MMSE groups, lower strength was associated with lower cognitive status. Strength values were lower in older subjects in both sexes; this difference was higher in men than in women. Higher strength values were associated with better cognitive status, which was the most influencing variable, even more than sex and age. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. Examining the Associations between Daily Caregiving Discontinuity and Children’s Social-Emotional Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Vi-Nhuan; Schaack, Diana; Setodji, Claude Messan

    2015-01-01

    Many child care centers temporarily move children and teachers in and out of their assigned classrooms throughout the day. Such practices create frequent discontinuity in children’s experiences in child care, including discontinuity in their peer and teacher relationships. This study examined the prevalence and patterns of teacher and child movement between classrooms, the characteristics of teachers and children who were more likely to move between classrooms on a daily basis, and the associations between children’s and teachers’ rate of daily movement between classrooms with children’s social-emotional outcomes. A moderate to high prevalence of child and teacher movement between classrooms was observed (29% and 83%, respectively). Children who were younger, considered solitary, and who had been enrolled in their classroom for shorter periods of time were less likely to transition between classrooms. Children’s rate of movement was a positive predictor of teachers’ perceived conflict with children in their care, and a negative predictor of teachers’ perceived closeness. In addition, the more frequently teachers moved, the less children were inclined to indicate liking their teachers or centers. However, the more frequently children moved, the more likely children were to indicate liking their peers and for their peers to indicate liking them. Results are interpreted in light of additional research avenues that can inform sensible daily teacher continuity practices. PMID:25822893

  8. Examining the associations between daily caregiving discontinuity and children's social-emotional outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Vi-Nhuan; Schaack, Diana; Setodji, Claude Messan

    2015-05-01

    Many child care centers temporarily move children and teachers in and out of their assigned classrooms throughout the day. Such practices create frequent discontinuity in children's experiences in child care, including discontinuity in their peer and teacher relationships. This study examined the prevalence and patterns of teacher and child movement between classrooms, the characteristics of teachers and children who were more likely to move between classrooms on a daily basis, and the associations between children's and teachers' rate of daily movement between classrooms with children's social-emotional outcomes. A moderate to high prevalence of child and teacher movement between classrooms was observed (29% and 83%, respectively). Children who were younger, considered solitary, and who had been enrolled in their classroom for shorter periods of time were less likely to transition between classrooms. Children's rate of movement was a positive predictor of teachers' perceived conflict with children in their care, and a negative predictor of teachers' perceived closeness. In addition, the more frequently teachers moved, the less children were inclined to indicate liking their teachers or centers. However, the more frequently children moved, the more likely children were to indicate liking their peers and for their peers to indicate liking them. Results are interpreted in light of additional research avenues that can inform sensible daily teacher continuity practices. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Examining Profiles of Family Functioning in Pediatric Asthma: Longitudinal Associations With Child Adjustment and Asthma Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al G Hriwati, Nour; Winter, Marcia A; Everhart, Robin S

    2017-05-01

    Identify profiles of functioning in families of children with asthma and examine whether profile membership predicts subsequent child mental and physical well-being. Primary caregivers and children ( N  = 1,030) from the Childhood Asthma Management Program completed questionnaires assessing family functioning and child adaptation at five time points. Asthma severity was also assessed via spirometry. Latent profile analyses identified a four-profile solution as best fitting the data: cohesive, permissive, controlling/disengaged, and controlling/enmeshed families. Distal outcome analyses using Bolck-Croon-Hagenaars techniques suggested that children from families that were more cohesive had fewer internalizing and externalizing symptoms. These associations remained stable across time. Family profiles did not differ with regards to child asthma severity. Results highlight the importance of looking beyond the effects of distinct components of family functioning and instead using pattern-based approaches. Recommendations for incorporating screenings and services for families in pediatric care settings are provided. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Requesting diagnostic imaging examinations: a position paper of the Canadian Association of Radiologists. Special article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolberg, H.O.; Hynes, D.M.; Rainbow, A.J.; Moran, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    The present document is directed at physicians who request diagnostic imaging examinations. Many of the imaging examinations currently requested are not useful in managing clinical problems. The intention is to provide general guidelines for the prescription of appropriate imaging examinations. This document does not address the use of specific imaging modalities in particular clinical situations. The purpose is to help doctors make the best use of the imaging examination by providing general guidelines to assist in deciding upon the most appropriate situation in which to use the examination. Similar guidelines for the prescription of diagnostic x-ray examinations have been suggested previously. (author). 19 refs.,

  11. Logic regression and its extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwender, Holger; Ruczinski, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    Logic regression is an adaptive classification and regression procedure, initially developed to reveal interacting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetic association studies. In general, this approach can be used in any setting with binary predictors, when the interaction of these covariates is of primary interest. Logic regression searches for Boolean (logic) combinations of binary variables that best explain the variability in the outcome variable, and thus, reveals variables and interactions that are associated with the response and/or have predictive capabilities. The logic expressions are embedded in a generalized linear regression framework, and thus, logic regression can handle a variety of outcome types, such as binary responses in case-control studies, numeric responses, and time-to-event data. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to the logic regression methodology, list some applications in public health and medicine, and summarize some of the direct extensions and modifications of logic regression that have been proposed in the literature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A case-control study to examine the association between breastfeeding during late pregnancy and risk of a small-for-gestational-age birth in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Rossina G; Marquis, Grace S; Penny, Mary E; Dixon, Philip M

    2015-04-01

    Excessive demands on maternal nutritional status may be a risk factor for poor birth outcomes. This study examined the association between breastfeeding during late pregnancy (≥ 28 weeks) and the risk of having a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborn, using a matched case-control design (78 SGA cases: birthweight project midwives visited daily three government hospitals in Lima, Peru and identified cases and matched controls based on hospital, gestational age, and inter-gestational period. Mothers were interviewed and clinical chart extractions were completed. Factors associated with risk of SGA were assessed by their adjusted odds ratios (aOR) from conditional logistic regression. Exposure to an overlap of breastfeeding during late pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of having a SGA newborn [aOR=0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10-3.30]. However, increased risk was associated with having a previous low-birthweight birth (aOR=6.53; 95% CI: 1.43-29.70) and a low intake of animal source foods (power are needed to definitively examine this possible association and clarify whether there are other risks to the new baby, the toddler and the pregnant woman. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Association Between Arterial Hyperoxia and Outcome in Subsets of Critical Illness: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Meta-Regression of Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmerhorst, Hendrik J F; Roos-Blom, Marie-José; van Westerloo, David J; de Jonge, Evert

    2015-07-01

    Oxygen is vital during critical illness, but hyperoxia may harm patients. Our aim was to systematically evaluate the methodology and findings of cohort studies investigating the effects of hyperoxia in critically ill adults. A meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis of cohort studies published between 2008 and 2015 was conducted. Electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science were systematically searched for the keywords hyperoxia and mortality or outcome. Publications assessing the effect of arterial hyperoxia on outcome in critically ill adults (≥ 18 yr) admitted to critical care units were eligible. We excluded studies in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, extracorporeal life support or hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and animal studies. Due to a lack of data, no studies dedicated to patients with acute lung injury, sepsis, shock, or multiple trauma could be included. Studies were included independent of admission diagnosis and definition of hyperoxia. The primary outcome measure was in-hospital mortality, and results were stratified for relevant subgroups (cardiac arrest, traumatic brain injury, stroke, post-cardiac surgery, and any mechanical ventilation). The effects of arterial oxygenation on functional outcome, long-term mortality, and discharge variables were studied as secondary outcomes. Twenty-four studies were included of which five studies were only for a subset of the analyses. Nineteen studies were pooled for meta-analyses and showed that arterial hyperoxia during admission increases hospital mortality: adjusted odds ratio, 1.21 (95% CI, 1.08-1.37) (p = 0.001). Functional outcome measures were diverse and generally showed a more favorable outcome for normoxia. In various subsets of critically ill patients, arterial hyperoxia was associated with poor hospital outcome. Considering the substantial heterogeneity of included studies and the lack of a clinical definition, more evidence is needed to provide optimal oxygen

  14. Tumor regression patterns in retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, S.N.; Siddique, S.N.; Zaheer, N.

    2016-01-01

    To observe the types of tumor regression after treatment, and identify the common pattern of regression in our patients. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from October 2011 to October 2014. Methodology: Children with unilateral and bilateral retinoblastoma were included in the study. Patients were referred to Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, for chemotherapy. After every cycle of chemotherapy, dilated funds examination under anesthesia was performed to record response of the treatment. Regression patterns were recorded on RetCam II. Results: Seventy-four tumors were included in the study. Out of 74 tumors, 3 were ICRB group A tumors, 43 were ICRB group B tumors, 14 tumors belonged to ICRB group C, and remaining 14 were ICRB group D tumors. Type IV regression was seen in 39.1% (n=29) tumors, type II in 29.7% (n=22), type III in 25.6% (n=19), and type I in 5.4% (n=4). All group A tumors (100%) showed type IV regression. Seventeen (39.5%) group B tumors showed type IV regression. In group C, 5 tumors (35.7%) showed type II regression and 5 tumors (35.7%) showed type IV regression. In group D, 6 tumors (42.9%) regressed to type II non-calcified remnants. Conclusion: The response and success of the focal and systemic treatment, as judged by the appearance of different patterns of tumor regression, varies with the ICRB grouping of the tumor. (author)

  15. What are patient factors associated with the quality of diabetes care?: results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Ki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently there has been a growing interest in healthcare quality control in Korea. We examined the association between patient factors and quality indicators of diabetic care among Korean adults with diabetes. Methods We obtained a sample of 335 adults aged 20 or older diagnosed with diabetes from the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Patient factors were divided into two categories: socioeconomic position and health-related factors. Quality indicators for diabetes care were defined as receiving preventive care services for diabetes complications (e.g., fundus examination, microalbuminuria examination, diabetes education and diabetes-related clinical outcomes (e.g., HbA1c, blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses for each quality indicator. Results We found that people with lower education levels or shorter duration of diabetes illness were less likely to receive preventive care services for diabetes complications. Women or people with longer duration of diabetes were less likely to reach the glycemic target. Obese diabetic patients were less likely to accomplish adequate control of blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol. Conclusions Several factors of patients with diabetes, such as education level, duration of illness, gender, and obesity grade are associated with the quality of diabetes care. These findings can help inform policy makers about subpopulations at risk in developing a public health strategy in the future.

  16. Examination of factors associated with use rates after transition from a universal to partial motorcycle helmet use law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Brendan J; Barrette, Timothy P; Morden, Jeffery; Savolainen, Peter T; Gates, Timothy J

    2017-01-02

    Motorcycle riders account for a disproportionately high number of traffic injuries and fatalities compared to occupants of other vehicle types. Though research has demonstrated the benefits of helmet use in preventing serious and fatal injuries in the event of a crash, helmet use has remained relatively stable in the United States, where the most recent national estimates show a 64% use rate. Use rates have been markedly lower among those states that do not have a universal helmet law for all riders. In 2012, the state of Michigan repealed its longstanding mandatory helmet use law. In order to gain insights as to the effects of this legislative change, a study was conducted to examine short-term changes in helmet use and identify factors associated with use rates. A statewide direct observation survey was conducted 1 year after the transition from a universal helmet law to a partial helmet law. A random parameters logistic regression model was estimated to identify motorcyclist, roadway, and environmental characteristics associated with helmet use. This modeling framework accounts for both intravehicle correlation (between riders and passengers on the same motorcycle) as well as unobserved heterogeneity across riders due to important unobserved factors. Helmet use was shown to vary across demographic segments of the motorcyclist population. Use rates were higher among Caucasian riders, as well as among those age 60 and above. No significant difference was observed between male and female riders. Use was also found to vary geographically, temporally, and with respect to various environmental characteristics. Geographically, helmet use rates tended to be correlated with historical restraint use trends, which may be reflective of riding environment and general differences in the riding population. To this end, rates were also highly variable based upon the type of motorcycle and whether the motorcyclist was wearing high-visibility gear. The study results demonstrate

  17. Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

  18. Quantile Regression Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzenberger, Bernd; Wilke, Ralf Andreas

    2015-01-01

    if the mean regression model does not. We provide a short informal introduction into the principle of quantile regression which includes an illustrative application from empirical labor market research. This is followed by briefly sketching the underlying statistical model for linear quantile regression based......Quantile regression is emerging as a popular statistical approach, which complements the estimation of conditional mean models. While the latter only focuses on one aspect of the conditional distribution of the dependent variable, the mean, quantile regression provides more detailed insights...... by modeling conditional quantiles. Quantile regression can therefore detect whether the partial effect of a regressor on the conditional quantiles is the same for all quantiles or differs across quantiles. Quantile regression can provide evidence for a statistical relationship between two variables even...

  19. Inverse association between insulin resistance and gait speed in nondiabetic older men: results from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yau-Hua

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have revealed the associations between insulin resistance (IR and geriatric conditions such as frailty and cognitive impairment. However, little is known about the relation of IR to physical impairment and limitation in the aging process, eg. slow gait speed and poor muscle strength. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of IR in performance-based physical function, specifically gait speed and leg strength, among nondiabetic older adults. Methods Cross-sectional data were from the population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2002. A total of 1168 nondiabetic adults (≥ 50 years with nonmissing values in fasting measures of insulin and glucose, habitual gait speed (HGS, and leg strength were analyzed. IR was assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR, whereas HGS and peak leg strength by the 20-foot timed walk test and an isokinetic dynamometer, respectively. We used multiple linear regression to examine the association between IR and performance-based physical function. Results IR was inversely associated with gait speed among the men. After adjusting demographics, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking status, chronic co-morbidities, and markers of nutrition and cardiovascular risk, each increment of 1 standard deviation in the HOMA-IR level was associated with a 0.04 m/sec decrease (p = 0.003 in the HGS in men. We did not find such association among the women. The IR-HGS association was not changed after further adjustment of leg strength. Last, HOMA-IR was not demonstrated in association with peak leg strength. Conclusion IR is inversely associated with HGS among older men without diabetes. The results suggest that IR, an important indicator of gait function among men, could be further investigated as an intervenable target to prevent walking limitation.

  20. Association between performance on Neurology In-Training and Certification Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Frederick G.; Gutmann, Laurie; Pascuzzi, Robert M.; Webb, Lynn; Massey, Janice M.; DeKosky, Steven T.; Foertsch, Mary; Faulkner, Larry R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study analyzed the relationship between performance on the American Academy of Neurology Residency In-Service Training Examination (RITE) and subsequent performance on the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) Certification Examination. Methods: Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between performance on the RITE and the Certification Examination for 2 cohorts of adult neurologists and 2 cohorts of child neurologists. The 2 cohorts represented test takers for 2008 and 2009. Results: For adult neurologists, the correlation between the total RITE and the Certification Examination scores was 0.77 (p < 0.01) in 2008 and 0.65 (p < 0.01) in 2009. For child neurologists, it was 0.74 (p < 0.01) in 2008 and 0.56 (p < 0.01) in 2009. Discussion: For 2 consecutive years, there was a significant correlation between performance on the RITE and performance on the ABPN Certification Examination for both adult and child neurologists. The RITE is a self-assessment examination, and performance on the test is a positive predictor of future performance on the ABPN Certification Examination. PMID:23296130

  1. Association Between American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination Scores and Resident Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Juliet J; Sznol, Joshua A; Teisch, Laura F; Meizoso, Jonathan P; Allen, Casey J; Namias, Nicholas; Pizano, Louis R; Sleeman, Danny; Spector, Seth A; Schulman, Carl I

    2016-01-01

    The American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) is designed to measure progress, applied medical knowledge, and clinical management; results may determine promotion and fellowship candidacy for general surgery residents. Evaluations are mandated by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education but are administered at the discretion of individual institutions and are not standardized. It is unclear whether the ABSITE and evaluations form a reasonable assessment of resident performance. To determine whether favorable evaluations are associated with ABSITE performance. Cross-sectional analysis of preliminary and categorical residents in postgraduate years (PGYs) 1 through 5 training in a single university-based general surgery program from July 1, 2011, through June 30, 2014, who took the ABSITE. Evaluation overall performance and subset evaluation performance in the following categories: patient care, technical skills, problem-based learning, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, systems-based practice, and medical knowledge. Passing the ABSITE (≥30th percentile) and ranking in the top 30% of scores at our institution. The study population comprised residents in PGY 1 (n = 44), PGY 2 (n = 31), PGY 3 (n = 26), PGY 4 (n = 25), and PGY 5 (n = 24) during the 4-year study period (N = 150). Evaluations had less variation than the ABSITE percentile (SD = 5.06 vs 28.82, respectively). Neither annual nor subset evaluation scores were significantly associated with passing the ABSITE (n = 102; for annual evaluation, odds ratio = 0.949; 95% CI, 0.884-1.019; P = .15) or receiving a top 30% score (n = 45; for annual evaluation, odds ratio = 1.036; 95% CI, 0.964-1.113; P = .33). There was no difference in mean evaluation score between those who passed vs failed the ABSITE (mean [SD] evaluation score, 91.77 [5.10] vs 93.04 [4.80], respectively; P = .14) or between those who

  2. Examining the association between suicidal behaviors and referral for mental health services among children involved in the child welfare system in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiden, Philip; Fallon, Barbara

    2018-05-01

    Although various studies have investigated factors associated with mental health service utilization, few studies have examined factors associated with referral for mental health services among maltreated children. The objective of this study was to examine the association between suicidal thoughts and self-harming behavior and referral for mental health services among children involved in the Child Welfare System in Ontario, Canada. Data for this study were obtained from the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2013. An estimate 57,798 child maltreatment investigations was analyzed using binary logistic regression with referral for mental health service as the outcome variable. Of the 57,798 cases, 4709 (8.1%), were referred for mental health services. More than seven out of ten maltreated children who engaged in self-harming behavior and two out of three maltreated children who expressed suicidal thoughts were not referred for mental health services. In the multivariate logistic regression model, children who expressed suicidal thoughts had 2.39 times higher odds of being referred for mental health services compared to children with no suicidal thoughts (AOR = 2.39, 99% C.I. 2.05-2.77) and children who engaged in self-harming behavior had 1.44 times higher odds of being referred for mental health services compared to children who did not engage in self-harming behavior (AOR = 1.44, 99% C.I. 1.24-1.67), both after controlling for child demographic characteristics, maltreatment characteristics, and child functioning concerns. Given that referral is the initial step towards mental health service utilization, it is important that child welfare workers receive the necessary training so as to carefully assess and refer children in care who expressed suicidal thoughts or engaged in self-harming behavior for appropriate mental health services. The paper discusses the results and their implications for child welfare policy and practice

  3. Study of problems associated with the ultrasonic examination of repeatedly repaired austenitic stainless steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbaratnam, R.; Palaniappan, M.; Baskaran, A.; Chandramohan, R.

    1994-01-01

    In recent years the ultrasonic examination of austenitic stainless steel weldments has gained increased importance as an NDE technique for the volumetric examination in the nuclear power plant construction and other industries. A study has been undertaken to evaluate the effects of multiple repairs on austenitic stainless steel weldments, for the successful ultrasonic examination. The test welds have been subjected to repeated welding cycles and the ultrasonic parameters including the defect characterization have been evaluated for analysis. The paper discusses the approach followed, analysis, results obtained and the recommendations based on the above. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  4. Gender differences in the associations between urinary bisphenol A and body composition among American children: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: As an endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A (BPA exposure has been implicated as a potential risk factor in childhood obesity, which is defined using percentiles of body mass index for age. We aimed to examine the associations between BPA exposure, reflected by urinary BPA concentration, and body composition in American children. Methods: Data of 1860 children aged 8–19 years who participated in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were analyzed in this study. Urinary BPA concentration (ng/mL was used to indicate BPA status in the body. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Multivariate linear regression models were fitted using survey procedures to investigate the associations between urinary BPA level and body composition separately for boys and girls. Results: After adjusting for demographic and lifestyle covariates, higher quartiled and log-transformed urinary BPA levels were significantly associated with elevated lean body mass index (LBMI z-scores in boys (p < 0.05, and significantly associated with elevated fat mass index (FMI z-scores in girls (p < 0.05. Lower urinary BPA concentration was associated with lower percentage of trunk fat in girls (compared to 1st quartile, 2nd-quartile: β = 2.85, 95% CI, 0.92–4.78; 3rd-quartile: β = 2.57, 95% CI, 0.28–4.85; 4th-quartile: β = 2.79, 95% CI, 0.44–5.14; all p < 0.05. Such patterns were not observed in boys. Conclusions: Higher BPA levels may be associated with elevated LBM in boys, but not in girls, while higher BPA levels may be associated with elevated FM in girls, but not in boys.

  5. [Association between daily lifestyle and the risk of metabolic syndrome among young adults in Japan. An analysis of Kobe city young adult health examination data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Youji; Shirai, Chika; Ijichi, Akihiro

    2013-02-01

    Appropriate lifestyle modifications through health guidance and other methods are known to be effective in preventing lifestyle-related diseases. Furthermore, early intervention is key. To examine the association between daily lifestyle and the risk of metabolic syndrome among young adults in Japan, we analyzed data from the Kobe City Young Adult Health Examination. We examined 4,912 adults aged 30 to 39 years to identify the association between daily lifestyle and the risk of metabolic syndrome. Daily lifestyle was assessed from 11 lifestyle-related items in the questionnaire administered during the health exam. The Standard Health Exam and Guidance Program by the Ministry of Health and Labor was used to determine the risks of abdominal obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. Having a risk related to metabolic syndrome was defined as having a risk of abdominal obesity combined with a risk of hypertension, diabetes, or hypercholesterolemia. We also evaluated the stages of behavioral change in those who possessed a risk of metabolic syndrome, as well as their willingness to receive health guidance. Eating quickly had a significantly greater association with-risk of metabolic syndrome, for both sexes, than eating slowly or at a normal pace. For women, smoking, skipping breakfast more than three days a week, and eating supper within two hours before going to bed for more than three days a week were associated with risk of metabolic syndrome. A multiple regression analysis showed that skipping breakfast (P adults in their thirties in Kobe, irregular eating habits seemed to be associated with risk of metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, their intention to/awareness of the need to change their behavior and their willingness to receive health guidance were rather strong. Thus, for the "Tokutei kenshin (specific national health checkup system)" to achieve its objective of preventing lifestyle-related diseases more effectively than at present, the target

  6. Introduction to regression graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, R Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Covers the use of dynamic and interactive computer graphics in linear regression analysis, focusing on analytical graphics. Features new techniques like plot rotation. The authors have composed their own regression code, using Xlisp-Stat language called R-code, which is a nearly complete system for linear regression analysis and can be utilized as the main computer program in a linear regression course. The accompanying disks, for both Macintosh and Windows computers, contain the R-code and Xlisp-Stat. An Instructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all the problems in the book is ava

  7. Alternative Methods of Regression

    CERN Document Server

    Birkes, David

    2011-01-01

    Of related interest. Nonlinear Regression Analysis and its Applications Douglas M. Bates and Donald G. Watts ".an extraordinary presentation of concepts and methods concerning the use and analysis of nonlinear regression models.highly recommend[ed].for anyone needing to use and/or understand issues concerning the analysis of nonlinear regression models." --Technometrics This book provides a balance between theory and practice supported by extensive displays of instructive geometrical constructs. Numerous in-depth case studies illustrate the use of nonlinear regression analysis--with all data s

  8. Racial and Ethnic Minority College Students' Stigma Associated with Seeking Psychological Help: Examining Psychocultural Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Kwan, Kwong-Liem Karl; Sevig, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Many college students underuse professional psychological help for mental health difficulties. The stigma associated with seeking such help appears to be one of the reasons for this underuse. Levels of psychological distress and past use of counseling/psychotherapy have been found to be important correlates of stigma associated with seeking…

  9. Examining the causal association of fasting glucose with blood pressure in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goharian, T S; Andersen, Lars Bo; Franks, P W

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether genetically raised fasting glucose (FG) levels are associated with blood pressure (BP) in healthy children and adolescents. We used 11 common genetic variants of FG discovered in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including the rs560887 single...

  10. Interrelated harms: Examining the associations between victimization, accidents, and criminal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, Marianne; van der Heijden, Peter; Keane, Carl

    2001-01-01

    Problem. This study investigated the existence of positive associations between criminal behavior (‘offending’), traffic accidents, falls and tripping, and being the victim of a crime. The motivation for the study was that the finding of positive associations would support the thesis that there may

  11. Interrelated harms: Examining the associations among victimization, accidental injuries, and criminal offending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, M.; Keane, C.; Van der Heijden, P.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Problem. This study investigated the existence of positive associations between criminal behavior (‘offending’), traffic accidents, falls and tripping, and being the victim of a crime. The motivation for the study was that the finding of positive associations would support the thesis that there may

  12. Iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008–2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2009 on the distribution of blood cadmium levels and their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods: Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0 μg/L), low normal (15.0–30.0 μg/L for women and 15.0–50.0 for men), and normal (≥30.0 μg/L for women and ≥50.0 for men), and its association with blood cadmium level was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Geometric means of blood cadmium in the low serum ferritin group in women, men, and all participants were significantly higher than in the normal group. Additionally, multiple regression analysis after adjusting for various covariates showed that blood cadmium was significantly higher in the low-ferritin group in women, men, and all participants compared with the normal group. We also found an association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium among never-smoking participants. Discussion: We found, similar to other recent population-based studies, an association between iron deficiency and increased blood cadmium in men and women, independent of smoking status. The results of the present study show that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the general population.

  13. Nonparametric Mixture of Regression Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mian; Li, Runze; Wang, Shaoli

    2013-07-01

    Motivated by an analysis of US house price index data, we propose nonparametric finite mixture of regression models. We study the identifiability issue of the proposed models, and develop an estimation procedure by employing kernel regression. We further systematically study the sampling properties of the proposed estimators, and establish their asymptotic normality. A modified EM algorithm is proposed to carry out the estimation procedure. We show that our algorithm preserves the ascent property of the EM algorithm in an asymptotic sense. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to examine the finite sample performance of the proposed estimation procedure. An empirical analysis of the US house price index data is illustrated for the proposed methodology.

  14. A simple program to reduce the stress associated with NRC nuclear operator examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajwau, T.; Chardos, S.

    1988-01-01

    The NRC license for nuclear reactor operators requires periodic written examinations to demonstrate ongoing technical competency. Poor performance raises a competency question and can affect the individuals' careers. Accordingly, the exams can be highly stressful events. Stress has been demonstrated to affect memory, perception, other cognitive attitudes, and test performance. The phenomenon of test anxiety is well known. Instead of a generic, broadly focused stress management approach, a sharply focused, two-part program was developed for TVA operators scheduled to take the NRC examination. The first part was presented early in preparatory training, and the second part was given just prior to the examination. The first part consisted of a simple model of stress found in exams, early warning signs of test stress, and tactics of stress management that were practical to use during the NRC exam itself

  15. Disentangling the correlates of drug use: A regression analysis of the associations between frequency of drug use, years-of-school, impulsivity, working memory, and psychiatric symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene M Heyman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Years-of-school is negatively correlated with illicit drug use. However, educational attainment is positively correlated with IQ and negatively correlated with impulsivity, two traits that are also correlated with drug use. Thus, the negative correlation between education and drug use may reflect the correlates of schooling, not schooling itself. To help disentangle these relations we obtained measures of working memory, simple memory, IQ, disposition (impulsivity and psychiatric status, years-of-school and frequency of illicit and licit drug use in methadone clinic and community drug users. We found strong zero-order correlations between all measures, including IQ, impulsivity, years-of- school, psychiatric symptoms and drug use. However, multiple regression analyses revealed a different picture. The significant predictors of illicit drug use were gender, involvement in a methadone clinic, and years-of-school. That is, psychiatric symptoms, impulsivity, cognition, and IQ no longer predicted illicit drug use in the multiple regression analyses. Moreover, high risk subjects ( low IQ and/or high impulsivity who spent 14 or more years in school used stimulants and opiates less than did low risk subjects who had spent less than 14 years in school. Smoking and drinking had a different correlational structure. IQ and years-of-school predicted whether someone ever became a smoker, whereas impulsivity predicted the frequency of drinking bouts, but years-of-school did not. Many subjects reported no use of one or more drugs, resulting in a large number of zeroes in the data sets. Cragg’s Double-Hurdle regression method proved the best approach for dealing with this problem. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that years-of-school predicts lower levels of illicit drug use after controlling for IQ and impulsivity. This paper also highlights the advantages of Double-Hurdle regression methods for analyzing the correlates of drug use in

  16. Associations between Food Security Status and Dietary Inflammatory Potential within Lower-Income Adults from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Cycles 2007 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmans, Rachel S; Palta, Mari; Robert, Stephanie A; Berger, Lawrence M; Ehrenthal, Deborah B; Malecki, Kristen M

    2018-06-01

    Evidence suggests both that chronic inflammation mediates the association of food insecurity with adverse health outcomes and that diet may be a significant source of inflammation among food insecure individuals. To examine whether food security status is associated with dietary inflammatory potential. Cross-sectional data came from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), cycles 2007 to 2014 (n=10,630). The analysis sample is representative of noninstitutionalized US adults with an income-to-poverty ratio ≤3.00. Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) score, calculated using the average of two 24-hour dietary recalls, was the main outcome measure. Type III F tests or χ 2 tests compared population characteristics by food security status, defined using the US Food Security Survey Module. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the association between food security status and the DII score and moderation by demographic factors. Survey weighting procedures accounted for the effects of stratification and clustering used in the NHANES study design. When accounting for socioeconomic status, demographic factors, and health status, DII score was higher at greater levels of food insecurity (P=0.0033). Those with very low food security had a 0.31 (95% CI=0.12 to 0.49) higher DII score than those with high food security. Age moderated the association between food security status and DII score (interaction P=0.0103), where the magnitude of the association between DII score and severity of food insecurity was higher for those >65 years than for younger age groups. Food security status may be associated with dietary inflammatory potential, which is hypothesized to play a role in multiple chronic health conditions. Further research is needed to determine the causal nature of this relationship and evaluate how best to implement programs designed to address health disparities within food insecure populations. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and

  17. Factors Associated with Success in a Calculus Course: An Examination of Personal Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubuz, Behiye

    2011-01-01

    This study examined relationships between students' personal variables (gender, prior achievements, age and academic major) and their success in the first year undergraduate calculus course. The study sample consisted of 59 first year undergraduate students taking Math 154 Calculus II course. A written test about integral, sequence and series…

  18. Spontaneous regression of a congenital melanocytic nevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiya Kumar Nath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital melanocytic nevus (CMN may rarely regress which may also be associated with a halo or vitiligo. We describe a 10-year-old girl who presented with CMN on the left leg since birth, which recently started to regress spontaneously with associated depigmentation in the lesion and at a distant site. Dermoscopy performed at different sites of the regressing lesion demonstrated loss of epidermal pigments first followed by loss of dermal pigments. Histopathology and Masson-Fontana stain demonstrated lymphocytic infiltration and loss of pigment production in the regressing area. Immunohistochemistry staining (S100 and HMB-45, however, showed that nevus cells were present in the regressing areas.

  19. Boosted beta regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schmid

    Full Text Available Regression analysis with a bounded outcome is a common problem in applied statistics. Typical examples include regression models for percentage outcomes and the analysis of ratings that are measured on a bounded scale. In this paper, we consider beta regression, which is a generalization of logit models to situations where the response is continuous on the interval (0,1. Consequently, beta regression is a convenient tool for analyzing percentage responses. The classical approach to fit a beta regression model is to use maximum likelihood estimation with subsequent AIC-based variable selection. As an alternative to this established - yet unstable - approach, we propose a new estimation technique called boosted beta regression. With boosted beta regression estimation and variable selection can be carried out simultaneously in a highly efficient way. Additionally, both the mean and the variance of a percentage response can be modeled using flexible nonlinear covariate effects. As a consequence, the new method accounts for common problems such as overdispersion and non-binomial variance structures.

  20. Association of individual and community factors with C-reactive protein and 25-hydroxyvitamin D: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwen Chai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many individual and community/neighborhood factors may contribute to inflammation and vitamin D deficiency leading to the development of chronic diseases. This study examined the associations of serum C-reactive protein (CRP and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] levels with individual and community/neighborhood (tract-level or county-level factors using a nationally representative sample from 2001–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. Data from the 2001–2006 waves of the continuous NHANES was merged with the 2000 census and other neighborhood data sources constructed using geographic information system. Associations between multilevel factors and biomarker levels were assessed using multilevel random-intercept regression models. 6643 participants aged 19–65 (3402 men and 3241 women were included in the analysis. Family income-to-needs ratio was inversely associated with CRP (P=0.002 and positively associated with 25(OHD levels (P=0.0003. County crime rates were positively associated with CRP (P=0.007 and inversely associated with 25(OHD levels (P=0.0002. The associations with income-to-needs ratio were significant in men [CRP, P=0.005; 25(OHD, P=0.005] but not in women. For county crime rates, the association was only significant in women for CRP (P=0.004 and was significant in both men (P=0.01 and women (P=0.001 for 25(OHD. Additionally, overall CRP was positively associated with age (P<0.0001, female sex (P<0.0001, Hispanic race/ethnicity (P=0.0001, current smokers (P<0.0001, body mass index (BMI, P<0.0001, and participants who were US-born (P=0.02. Non-Hispanic black (P<0.0001 and Hispanic race/ethnicity (P<0.0001, current smoker (P=0.047, and higher BMI (P<0.0001 were associated with lower serum 25(OHD levels. No significant associations were observed between other community/neighborhood variables and serum CRP and 25(OHD levels. The current results suggest that family income-to-needs ratio and county crime rate may

  1. Examining Associations among ADHD, Homework Behavior, and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Callie W.; Hart, Sara A.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    Previous literature has indicated an important association between reading comprehension and both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and homework habits. This investigation sought to extend previous knowledge by providing information about how ADHD and homework behavior (i.e., completing homework regularly) may jointly influence…

  2. Exploring Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism in Youth: Examination of Associations with Antisocial Behavior and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.

    2013-01-01

    We sought to explore the differential associations of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, narcissistic traits, and Machiavellian traits with overt aggression, relational aggression, delinquency, behavioral dysregulation, and emotional dysregulation in a community sample of boys and girls (ages 11-17). Results indicated that the three personality…

  3. The Association of Social Work Boards' Licensure Examinations: A Review of Reliability and Validity Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Stephen M.; DeAngelis, Donna; Mittal, Nisha

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this article is to create transparency for the psychometric methods employed for the development of the Association of Social Work Boards' (ASWB) exams. Results: The article includes an assessment of the macro (political) and micro (statistical) environments of testing social work competence. The seven-step process used…

  4. Applied linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Weisberg, Sanford

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ""...this is an excellent book which could easily be used as a course text...""-International Statistical Institute The Fourth Edition of Applied Linear Regression provides a thorough update of the basic theory and methodology of linear regression modeling. Demonstrating the practical applications of linear regression analysis techniques, the Fourth Edition uses interesting, real-world exercises and examples. Stressing central concepts such as model building, understanding parameters, assessing fit and reliability, and drawing conclusions, the new edition illus

  5. The association of Socio-demographics characteristics and social support from family and community with depression: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfan Ayubi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims & objectives: Protective effect of social support networks on depressive symptoms has been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and social support from family and community using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005-2006. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional population-based study of 10,348 people participating in the NHANES 2005-2006. Participants were interviewed on their level of social support and depressive symptoms. Logistic regression and analysis of variance was used to assess the effects of demographic variables and social support with depression. Results: Bing married and having a high education level is inversely related to depressive symptoms. Also social supports from family had protective effect on depression symptoms and impacts of each family member were different. It also became clear that family support in associated with social support had a protective effect on the emergence of depressive symptoms. In this effect, the interaction between spouse and professional support on depressive symptoms were more prominent. In addition to, interaction between children’s emotional support and religious practices was important. Conclusion: The result of this study adherent with the protective theory of social support on depression.

  6. The association of Socio-demographics characteristics and social support from family and community with depression: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Dinesh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims & objectives: Protective effect of social support networks on depressive symptoms has been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and social support from family and community using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005-2006. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional population-based study of 10,348 people participating in the NHANES 2005-2006. Participants were interviewed on their level of social support and depressive symptoms. Logistic regression and analysis of variance was used to assess the effects of demographic variables and social support with depression. Results: Bing married and having a high education level is inversely related to depressive symptoms. Also social supports from family had protective effect on depression symptoms and impacts of each family member were different. It also became clear that family support in associated with social support had a protective effect on the emergence of depressive symptoms. In this effect, the interaction between spouse and professional support on depressive symptoms were more prominent. In addition to, interaction between children’s emotional support and religious practices was important. Conclusion: The result of this study adherent with the protective theory of social support on depression.

  7. Diet Quality Associated with Total Sodium Intake among US Adults Aged ≥18 Years-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Carla I; Cogswell, Mary E; Perrine, Cria G; Gillespie, Cathleen

    2017-10-25

    Diet quality or macronutrient composition of total daily sodium intake (dNa) <2300 mg/day in the United States (US) is unknown. Using data from 2011-2014 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), we examined 24-h dietary recalls ( n = 10,142) from adults aged ≥18 years and investigated how diet composition and quality are associated with dNa. Diet quality was assessed using components of macronutrients and Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Associations were tested using linear regression analysis adjusted for total energy (kcal), age, gender, and race/ethnicity. One-day dNa in the lower quartiles were more likely reported among women, older adults (≥65 years old), and lower quartiles of total energy (kcal) ( p -values ≤ 0.001). With increasing dNa, there was an increase in the mean protein, fiber, and total fat densities, while total carbohydrates densities decreased. As dNa increased, meat protein, refined grains, dairy, and total vegetables, greens and beans densities increased; while total fruit and whole fruit densities decreased. Modified HEI-2010 total score (total score without sodium component) increased as dNa increased (adjusted coefficient: 0.11, 95% confidence interval = 0.07, 0.15). Although diet quality, based on modified HEI-2010 total score, increased on days with greater dNa, there is much room for improvement with mean diet quality of about half of the optimal level.

  8. Characteristics of utility cyclists in Queensland, Australia: an examination of the associations between individual, social, and environmental factors and utility cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlqvist, Shannon L; Heesch, Kristiann C

    2012-08-01

    Initiatives to promote utility cycling in countries like Australia and the US, which have low rates of utility cycling, may be more effective if they first target recreational cyclists. This study aimed to describe patterns of utility cycling and examine its correlates, among cyclists in Queensland, Australia. An online survey was administered to adult members of a state-based cycling community and advocacy group (n=1813). The survey asked about demographic characteristics and cycling behavior, motivators and constraints. Utility cycling patterns were described, and logistic regression modeling was used to examine associations between utility cycling and other variables. Forty-seven percent of respondents reported utility cycling: most did so to commute (86%). Most journeys (83%) were >5 km. Being male, younger, employed full-time, or university-educated increased the likelihood of utility cycling (P<.05). Perceiving cycling to be a cheap or a convenient form of transport was associated with utility cycling (P<.05). The moderate rate of utility cycling among recreational cyclists highlights a potential to promote utility cycling among this group. To increase utility cycling, strategies should target female and older recreational cyclists and focus on making cycling a cheap and convenient mode of transport.

  9. Diet Quality Associated with Total Sodium Intake among US Adults Aged ≥18 Years—National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla I. Mercado

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet quality or macronutrient composition of total daily sodium intake (dNa <2300 mg/day in the United States (US is unknown. Using data from 2011–2014 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined 24-h dietary recalls (n = 10,142 from adults aged ≥18 years and investigated how diet composition and quality are associated with dNa. Diet quality was assessed using components of macronutrients and Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010. Associations were tested using linear regression analysis adjusted for total energy (kcal, age, gender, and race/ethnicity. One-day dNa in the lower quartiles were more likely reported among women, older adults (≥65 years old, and lower quartiles of total energy (kcal (p-values ≤ 0.001. With increasing dNa, there was an increase in the mean protein, fiber, and total fat densities, while total carbohydrates densities decreased. As dNa increased, meat protein, refined grains, dairy, and total vegetables, greens and beans densities increased; while total fruit and whole fruit densities decreased. Modified HEI-2010 total score (total score without sodium component increased as dNa increased (adjusted coefficient: 0.11, 95% confidence interval = 0.07, 0.15. Although diet quality, based on modified HEI-2010 total score, increased on days with greater dNa, there is much room for improvement with mean diet quality of about half of the optimal level.

  10. Physiologic changes associated with violence and abuse exposure: an examination of related medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeshin, Brooks R; Cronholm, Peter F; Strawn, Jeffrey R

    2012-01-01

    Although the extant evidence is replete with data supporting linkages between exposure to violence or abuse and the subsequent development of medical illnesses, the underlying mechanisms of these relationships are poorly defined and understood. Physiologic changes occurring in violence- or abuse-exposed individuals point to potentially common biological pathways connecting traumatic exposures with medical outcomes. Herein, the evidence describing the long-term physiologic changes in abuse- and violence-exposed populations and associated medical illnesses are reviewed. Current data support that (a) specific neurobiochemical changes are associated with exposure to violence and abuse; (b) several biological pathways have the potential to lead to the development of future illness; and (c) common physiologic mechanisms may moderate the severity, phenomenology, or clinical course of medical illnesses in individuals with histories of exposure to violence or abuse. Importantly, additional work is needed to advance our emerging understanding of the biological mechanisms connecting exposure to violence and abuse and negative health outcomes.

  11. An Empirical Examination of Symptom Substitution Associated with Behavior Therapy for Tourette's Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Alan L.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W.; Walkup, John T.; Hatch, John P.; Villarreal, Robert; Scahill, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 6 decades, behavior therapy has been a major contributor to the development of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments. However, a longstanding concern with behavior therapy among many nonbehavioral clinicians has been the potential risk for symptom substitution. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate symptom substitution in response to behavioral treatments, largely due to measurement and definitional challenges associated with treated psychiatric symptoms. Given the overt...

  12. An examination of the perceptions of social network characteristics associated with grandiose and vulnerable narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkin, Joanna; Clifton, Allan; Campbell, W Keith; Miller, Joshua D

    2014-04-01

    Two dimensions of narcissism exist, grandiose and vulnerable, which are thought to be associated with distinctly different patterns of interpersonal behavior. Social network analysis is a way of quantifying and analyzing interpersonal interactions that may prove useful for characterizing the networks associated with these narcissism dimensions. In the current study, participants (N = 148) completed scales assessing both narcissism dimensions and a measure of the five-factor model of personality. Egocentric network information about participants' 30 closest friends and family members (i.e., "alters") was also obtained. Both narcissism dimensions were characterized by negative perceptions of the individuals who comprise one's social networks, and many of these relations were mediated by individuals' higher levels of antagonism. Grandiose narcissism also interacted with alter centrality (i.e., importance to the network) such that individuals low on grandiose narcissism were less likely to perceive central alters in a negative light and were more attuned to central alters than were individuals high on grandiose narcissism. Overall, both narcissism dimensions were associated with perceiving one's overall social environment negatively because of the high levels of antagonism that characterize both narcissism dimensions. Individuals high on grandiose narcissism, however, appear to be more insensitive to the relative importance of individuals in their social networks. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  13. An intercalated BSc degree is associated with higher marks in subsequent medical school examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Hazel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare medical students on a modern MBChB programme who did an optional intercalated degree with their peers who did not intercalate; in particular, to monitor performance in subsequent undergraduate degree exams. Methods This was a retrospective, observational study of anonymised databases of medical student assessment outcomes. Data were accessed for graduates, University of Aberdeen Medical School, Scotland, UK, from the years 2003 to 2007 (n = 861. The main outcome measure was marks for summative degree assessments taken after intercalating. Results Of 861 medical students, 154 (17.9% students did an intercalated degree. After adjustment for cohort, maturity, gender and baseline (3rd year performance in matching exam type, having done an IC degree was significantly associated with attaining high (18–20 common assessment scale (CAS marks in three of the six degree assessments occurring after the IC students rejoined the course: the 4th year written exam (p th year OSCE (p = 0.001 and the 5th year Elective project (p = 0.010. Conclusion Intercalating was associated with improved performance in Years 4 and 5 of the MBChB. This improved performance will further contribute to higher academic ranking for Foundation Year posts. Long-term follow-up is required to identify if doing an optional intercalated degree as part of a modern medical degree is associated with following a career in academic medicine.

  14. Understanding poisson regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Matthew J; Higgins, Melinda

    2014-04-01

    Nurse investigators often collect study data in the form of counts. Traditional methods of data analysis have historically approached analysis of count data either as if the count data were continuous and normally distributed or with dichotomization of the counts into the categories of occurred or did not occur. These outdated methods for analyzing count data have been replaced with more appropriate statistical methods that make use of the Poisson probability distribution, which is useful for analyzing count data. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the Poisson distribution and its use in Poisson regression. Assumption violations for the standard Poisson regression model are addressed with alternative approaches, including addition of an overdispersion parameter or negative binomial regression. An illustrative example is presented with an application from the ENSPIRE study, and regression modeling of comorbidity data is included for illustrative purposes. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Understanding the association between maltreatment history and adolescent risk behavior by examining popularity motivations and peer group control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how peer group processes of pressure and control and individual motivations for popularity would add to, and moderate the relationship between, childhood maltreatment and risky behavior in adolescence. A total of 1558 youth (804 girls) from three high schools in Ontario, Canada (M age = 15.02 years, SD = .86) reported on their alcohol use, delinquent behavior, childhood experiences of physical and emotional maltreatment and neglect, peer group processes involving control and individual popularity motivations. Regression analyses showed that, beyond the significant contributions of childhood maltreatment, peer group control predicted risky alcohol use and delinquent behavior. Peer group control and popularity motivations exacerbated the negative effect of physical maltreatment on delinquent behavior. Boys' experiences of peer group control were more strongly linked to alcohol use and delinquent behavior than girls'. These results suggest that there is a significant window of opportunity during adolescence where the peer group context can exacerbate or buffer childhood experiences.

  16. Examining the associations between sex trade involvement, rape, and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Harris, Jennie; Lorvick, Jennifer; Cheng, Helen; Wenger, Lynn D; Bourgois, Philippe; Kral, Alex H

    2015-07-01

    The high prevalence of rape and sexual trauma symptomatology among women involved in street-based sex trades is well-established. Because prior research has lacked appropriate, non-sex trade involved comparison groups, it is unknown whether differences exist among similarly situated women who do and do not trade sex. This article explores experiences of childhood and adult rape and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma among a community-based sample of 322 women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco, California, 61% of whom were involved in the sex trade. Study participants were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and eligible if they were cisgender women, aged 18 or older, current methamphetamine users, and sexually active with at least one cisgender man in the past 6 months. The dependent variable was sexual abuse trauma symptomatology, as measured by the Sexual Abuse Trauma Index (SATI) subscale of the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40), and the explanatory variable was sex trade involvement. Potential covariates were age, current homelessness, methamphetamine dependence, and experiences of childhood and adult rape. Sixty-one percent of participants had a SATI subscale score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. The overall prevalence of rape in childhood and adulthood was 52% and 73%, respectively. In bivariate analysis, sex trade involvement and all of the potential covariates except for homelessness and age were associated with a SATI score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. In multivariate models controlling for significant covariates, there was no longer a statistically significant association between sex trade involvement or childhood rape and an elevated SATI score. Elevated levels of psychological dependence on methamphetamine and experiences of rape as an adult were still associated with a high SATI score. These findings highlight that urban poor women, regardless of sex trade involvement, suffer high levels of rape and related trauma

  17. The Application of Strength of Association Statistics to the Item Analysis of an In-Training Examination in Diagnostic Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, James J.; McCormick, Janet

    1986-01-01

    Using item responses from an in-training examination in diagnostic radiology, the application of a strength of association statistic to the general problem of item analysis is illustrated. Criteria for item selection, general issues of reliability, and error of measurement are discussed. (Author/LMO)

  18. Examination of the Nonlinear Dynamic Systems Associated with Science Student Cognition While Engaging in Science Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Richard; Cavagnetto, Andy; Akmal, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    A critical problem with the examination of learning in education is that there is an underlying assumption that the dynamic systems associated with student information processing can be measured using static linear assessments. This static linear approach does not provide sufficient ability to characterize learning. Much of the modern research…

  19. Being Mum's Confidant, a Boon or Bane? Examining Gender Differences in the Association of Maternal Disclosure with Adolescents' Depressive Feelings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Finkenauer, Catrin; van de Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal study investigating gender differences in the association between maternal disclosure and adolescents' depressive symptoms. Little research has examined the relationship of parental disclosure to adolescents' depressive symptoms and research on sex differences is particularly lacking. In a sample of 428…

  20. Adolescent Peer Victimization, Peer Status, Suicidal Ideation, and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Examining Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, Nicole; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations among peer victimization, peer status, and self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (i.e., suicidal ideation and nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI]) over a 2-year period. A community sample of 493 adolescents (51% girls) in Grades 6-8 participated in the study. Participants completed measures…

  1. An Updated Examination of Aviation Accidents Associated with Turbulence, Wind Shear and Thunderstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2014-01-01

    One of the technical challenges within the Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies (AEST) Project of the Aviation Safety Program was to "improve and expand remote sensing and mitigation of hazardous atmospheric environments and phenomena"1. In 2012, the author performed an analysis comparing various characteristics of accidents associated with different types of atmospheric hazard environments2. This document reports an update to that analysis which was done in preparation for presenting these findings at the 2015 annual meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Specifically, an additional three years of data were available, and a time-trend analysis was added.

  2. Examination of the geology and seismology associated with area 410 at the Nevada test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, W.J.; McKague, H.L.

    1975-01-01

    This report summarizes regional and local geology at the Nevada Test Site and identifies major tectonic features and active faults. Sufficient information is given to perform seismic safety analyses of present and future critical construction at the Super Kukla Site and Sites A and B in Area 410. However, examination of local minor faults and joints and soil thickness studies should be undertaken at construction time. The Cane Spring Fault is identified as the most significant geologic feature from the viewpoint of the potential seismic risk. Predictions of the peak ground acceleration (0.9 g), the response spectra for the Safe Shutdown Earthquake, and the maximum displacement across the Cane Spring Fault are made. (U.S.)

  3. Alcoholism, associated risk factors, and harsh parenting among fathers: Examining the role of marital aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Brent; Kachadourian, Lorig K; Molnar, Danielle S; Eiden, Rina D; Edwards, Ellen P; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2010-06-01

    This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers' harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n = 89) and non-alcoholic (n = 94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12 months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36 months. Moreover, after controlling for prior parenting, marital aggression was predictive of harsher parenting at kindergarten. Alcoholism and psychopathology were not directly predictive of harsh parenting with marital aggression included in the model, thus indicating that marital aggression is mediating the relation between paternal risk factors and parenting outcome. Results of this study suggest that one pathway linking fathers' alcohol diagnosis to harsh parenting is via marital aggression. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An Examination of the Carbon Isotope Effects Associated with Amino Acid Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James H.; O'Brien, Diane M.; Emerson, David; Sun, Henry; McDonald, Gene D.; Salgado, Antonio; Fogel, Marilyn L.

    2006-12-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) were determined for alanine, proline, phenylalanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartate (aspartic acid and asparagine), glutamate (glutamic acid and glutamine), lysine, serine, glycine, and threonine from metabolically diverse microorganisms. The microorganisms examined included fermenting bacteria, organotrophic, chemolithotrophic, phototrophic, methylotrophic, methanogenic, acetogenic, acetotrophic, and naturally occurring cryptoendolithic communities from the Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Here we demonstrated that reactions involved in amino acid biosynthesis can be used to distinguish amino acids formed by life from those formed by nonbiological processes. The unique patterns of δ13C imprinted by life on amino acids produced a biological bias. We also showed that, by applying discriminant function analysis to the δ13C value of a pool of amino acids formed by biological activity, it was possible to identify key aspects of intermediary carbon metabolism in the microbial world. In fact, microorganisms examined in this study could be placed within one of three metabolic groups: (1) heterotrophs that grow by oxidizing compounds containing three or more carbon-to-carbon bonds (fermenters and organotrophs), (2) autotrophs that grow by taking up carbon dioxide (chemolitotrophs and phototrophs), and (3) acetoclastic microbes that grow by assimilation of formaldehyde or acetate (methylotrophs, methanogens, acetogens, and acetotrophs). Furthermore, we demonstrated that cryptoendolithic communities from Antarctica grouped most closely with the autotrophs, which indicates that the dominant metabolic pathways in these communities are likely those utilized for CO2 fixation. We propose that this technique can be used to determine the dominant metabolic types in a community and reveal the overall flow of carbon in a complex ecosystem.

  5. Examination of craniofacial bones associated with auricular anomaly using three-dimensional computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Ichiro; Ohura, Takehiko; Iwao, Fumiya

    1989-01-01

    Three-dimensional computer tomography (3D-CT) was performed in 60 patients with auricular anomaly to determine the site and severity of deformity in the hemifacial microsomia. Auricular anomaly, underdevelopment and malposition of the cranium, temporo-mandibular joint, zygoma, maxilla and mandible were observed in almost all of the patients; however, the severity of these malformations varied from patient to patient. Regarding severest deformity, there were positional differences among patients. According to impairment sites, hemifacial microsomia fell into the following five types: (1) cranium type, (2) maxillary alveolar process type, (3) localized mandibular ramus type, (4) overall mandibular type, and (5) complex type (combination of the aforementioned types). Facial asymmetry accompanied by auricular anomaly was associated with various pathologic conditions. The temporomandibular joint was often deviated towards the anteromedial side for localized mandibular ramus type and overall mandibular type. Posterial deviation was predominant for cranium type. In patients with hemifacial microsomia of the cranium type associated with protrusion mainly in the occipital region on the affected side, deformity was considered attributable to underdevelopment of the temporal bone and delay in closure of the temporo-occipital suture. The deformity for cranium type may be defined as the second branchial syndrome. In conclusion, hemifacial microsomia have various deformities and may fall into five categories. Craniofacial microsomia and hemi-auriculo-temporo-mandibular dysplastic syndrome give a more precise concept for auricular anomaly. (N.K.)

  6. Examination of craniofacial bones associated with auricular anomaly using three-dimensional computer tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Ichiro; Ohura, Takehiko; Iwao, Fumiya (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1989-07-01

    Three-dimensional computer tomography (3D-CT) was performed in 60 patients with auricular anomaly to determine the site and severity of deformity in the hemifacial microsomia. Auricular anomaly, underdevelopment and malposition of the cranium, temporo-mandibular joint, zygoma, maxilla and mandible were observed in almost all of the patients; however, the severity of these malformations varied from patient to patient. Regarding severest deformity, there were positional differences among patients. According to impairment sites, hemifacial microsomia fell into the following five types: (1) cranium type, (2) maxillary alveolar process type, (3) localized mandibular ramus type, (4) overall mandibular type, and (5) complex type (combination of the aforementioned types). Facial asymmetry accompanied by auricular anomaly was associated with various pathologic conditions. The temporomandibular joint was often deviated towards the anteromedial side for localized mandibular ramus type and overall mandibular type. Posterial deviation was predominant for cranium type. In patients with hemifacial microsomia of the cranium type associated with protrusion mainly in the occipital region on the affected side, deformity was considered attributable to underdevelopment of the temporal bone and delay in closure of the temporo-occipital suture. The deformity for cranium type may be defined as the second branchial syndrome. In conclusion, hemifacial microsomia have various deformities and may fall into five categories. Craniofacial microsomia and hemi-auriculo-temporo-mandibular dysplastic syndrome give a more precise concept for auricular anomaly. (N.K.).

  7. Impact of Partial-Mouth Periodontal Examination Protocols on the Association Between Gingival Bleeding and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediani Machado, Michely; Tomazoni, Fernanda; Ruffo Ortiz, Fernanda; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Zanatta, Fabricio Batistin

    2017-07-01

    It is not clear how using partial-mouth periodontal examination (PMPE) protocols affects estimates of the association between gingival bleeding (GB) and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The aim of the present study is to assess impact of different PMPEs on the association between GB and OHRQoL in 12-year-old adolescents. A total of 1,134 adolescents were evaluated for clinical and subjective variables. GB was determined by full-mouth examination (FME) of six sites (disto-buccal [DB], mid-buccal [B], mesio-buccal [MB], disto-lingual [DL], mid-lingual, and mesio-lingual [ML]) and different PMPEs were calculated using a 15% cut-off point: 1) full-mouth (MB-B-DB/MB-B-DL); 2) two diagonal quadrants (six sites/MB-B-DB/MB-B-DL); 3) two randomly selected half-mouth quadrants (six sites/MB-B-DB/ MB-B-DL/MB-DB-ML-DL); and 4) the community periodontal index. OHRQoL was assessed using the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ 11-14 ). Adjusted negative binomial regression models were used to calculate the rate ratio of CPQ 11-14 scores for each PMPE. Adolescents with GB showed significantly poorer OHRQoL than their counterparts when FME was used. In contrast, more than half of PMPE protocols did not detect significant associations between GB and CPQ 11-14 scores in the adjusted analysis. Using PMPE to assess GB in adolescents significantly affects associations with OHRQoL outcomes, depending on the protocol used. PMPEs that evaluated MB-B-DL sites of randomly selected half-mouth quadrants (1 or 2 and 3 or 4) achieved results closer to those obtained with FME.

  8. Examining the association between participation in late-life leisure activities and cognitive function in community-dwelling elderly Chinese in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Grace T Y; Fung, Ada W T; Tam, Cindy W C; Lui, Victor W C; Chiu, Helen F K; Chan, W M; Lam, Linda C W

    2010-02-01

    Growing evidence suggests that participation in late-life leisure activity may have beneficial effects on cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between leisure activity participation and cognitive function in an elderly population of community-dwelling Hong Kong Chinese. 512 participants were assessed in the follow-up study of a population-based community survey of the prevalence of cognitive impairment among Hong Kong Chinese aged 60 years and over. Leisure activities were classified into four categories (physical, intellectual, social and recreational). Information regarding leisure activity participation, cognitive function and other variables was collected. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to examine the association between leisure activity participation and cognitive function. A higher level of late-life leisure activity participation, particularly in intellectual activities, was significantly associated with better cognitive function in the elderly, as reflected by the results of the Cantonese Mini-mental State Examination (p = 0.007, 0.029 and 0.005), the Category Verbal Fluency Test (p = 0.027, 0.003 and 0.005) and digit backward span (p = 0.031, 0.002 and 0.009), as measured by the total frequency, total hours per week and total number of subtypes, respectively; the Chinese Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (p = 0.045) and word list learning (p = 0.003), as measured by the total number of subtypes; and digit forward span (p = 0.007 and 0.015), as measured by the total hours per week and total number of subtypes, respectively. Late-life intellectual activity participation was associated with better cognitive function among community-dwelling Hong Kong elderly Chinese.

  9. Examining the association between late-life leisure activity participation and global cognitive decline in community-dwelling elderly Chinese in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Grace Tak Yu; Fung, Ada Wai Tung; Tam, Cindy Woon Chi; Lui, Victor Wing Cheong; Chiu, Helen Fung Kum; Chan, Wai Man; Lam, Linda Chiu Wa

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the association between late-life leisure activity participation and global cognitive decline in community-dwelling elderly Chinese in Hong Kong. Five hundred and five participants, not clinically demented at the baseline, were analysed in the follow-up study of a population-based community survey among Hong Kong Chinese aged 60 and over. Information regarding leisure activity participation, global cognitive function and important sociodemographic variables was collected. Late life leisure activity profiles were classified into intellectual, social, physical and recreational categories, and were measured by total hours per week, total frequency and total number of subtypes. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between leisure activity participation at the baseline and the incidence of global cognitive decline at the 22-month follow-up. The incidence of global cognitive decline was defined as a one-point drop in z-score of the Cantonese version of the mini-mental state examination (CMMSE). At the follow-up, a higher level of participation in intellectual activities was significantly associated with a lower incidence of global cognitive decline as measured by both the total hours per week (multivariate-adjusted OR 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-0.99, p=0.003)), and the total number of subtypes (multivariate-adjusted OR 0.74 (95% CI 0.58-0.95, p=0.018)). A higher level of late-life intellectual activity participation was associated with less global cognitive decline among community-dwelling elderly Chinese in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The association between long working hours and the metabolic syndrome: evidences from the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2010 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Uk; Jeon, Man Joong; Sakong, Joon

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the association between the working hours of Korean employees and the metabolic syndrome and the effects of long working hours on metabolic syndrome based on the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012). Based on the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012), 4,456 Korean employees without shift work, aged over 15, who work 30 hours or more per week were targeted in this study. The association between the general characteristics, including age, smoking, alcohol drinking, exercise, and the metabolic syndrome criteria defined by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and weekly working hours were analyzed. In addition, the association between weekly working hours and the metabolic syndrome of the subjects stratified by gender was analyzed through multiple logistic regression analyses and generalized linear mixed model after adjusting the general characteristics. In the results of stratified analysis by gender, in male subjects, in comparison with the 30-39 weekly working hours group, there were no significant adjusted odds ratios to the other working hours groups. In female subjects, in comparison with the 30-39 weekly working hours group, there were no significant adjusted odds ratios to the other working hours groups. In addition, no trend associations were observed among weekly working hour groups in both stratified genders. No significant differences in prevalence of metabolic syndrome of the subjects stratified by gender were found according to weekly increasing working hours. However, due to some limitations of this study, further prospective studies may be necessary for verification.

  11. High peer popularity longitudinally predicts adolescent health risk behavior, or does it?: an examination of linear and quadratic associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinstein, Mitchell J; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia C; Helms, Sarah W; Brechwald, Whitney A; Rancourt, Diana

    2011-10-01

    In contrast to prior work, recent theory suggests that high, not low, levels of adolescent peer popularity may be associated with health risk behavior. This study examined (a) whether popularity may be uniquely associated with cigarette use, marijuana use, and sexual risk behavior, beyond the predictive effects of aggression; (b) whether the longitudinal association between popularity and health risk behavior may be curvilinear; and (c) gender moderation. A total of 336 adolescents, initially in 10-11th grades, reported cigarette use, marijuana use, and number of sexual intercourse partners at two time points 18 months apart. Sociometric peer nominations were used to examine popularity and aggression. Longitudinal quadratic effects and gender moderation suggest that both high and low levels of popularity predict some, but not all, health risk behaviors. New theoretical models can be useful for understanding the complex manner in which health risk behaviors may be reinforced within the peer context.

  12. Association between Smoking and Periodontal Disease in Korean Adults: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010 and 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ah-Young; Lee, Jung-Kwon; Shin, Jin-Young; Lee, Hae-Young

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate an association between smoking, smoking cessation, and periodontal disease in Korean adults. The data were collected from 8,336 participants, aged between 20 and 64 years, who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination (2010 and 2012). Smoking status was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Periodontal disease was defined as a community periodontal index ≥3 points. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate an association between smoking, smoking cessation, and periodontal disease after adjusting for age, sex, education, monthly income, diabetes, obesity, alcohol intake, and frequency of tooth brushing. The risk of periodontal disease was higher among current smokers (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.83) than never smokers. Among current smokers, the risk of periodontal disease was increased in smokers of ≥10 cigarettes/d, ≥20 years duration, and >10 pack-years compared with never smokers (Pperiodontal disease after 10 years since cessation declined to 0.56 (95% CI, 0.42-0.75) compared with current smokers and was indistinguishable statistically from never smokers. Periodontal disease is significantly associated with smoking status in Korean adults.

  13. Shy, but funny? Examining peer-valued characteristics as moderators of the associations between anxious-withdrawal and peer outcomes during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Andrea; Bowker, Julie C

    2015-04-01

    Research has revealed significant heterogeneity in the group-level peer outcomes associated with anxious-withdrawal, but little is known about possible sources of this heterogeneity during early adolescence. This study of 271 young adolescents (49 % female; M age = 11.54 years) examined whether the concurrent and short-term longitudinal (3 month period) associations between peer-nominated anxious-withdrawn behaviors and three group-level peer outcomes (overt victimization, peer acceptance, popularity) varied as a function of peer-valued characteristics (humor, prosocial behavior, physical attractiveness, athletic ability) and gender, after accounting for the effects of involvement in mutual friendships. Regression analyses revealed that the associations between anxious-withdrawal and peer outcomes were moderated by peer-valued characteristics and, in many cases, gender. For example, anxious-withdrawal was related positively to overt victimization for all adolescents who were high in prosocial behavior. But, anxious-withdrawal was related negatively to popularity for adolescent boys who were high in prosocial behavior and adolescent girls who were low in prosocial behavior. Anxious-withdrawal also predicted increases in acceptance for adolescent girls who were high in humor, but decreases in acceptance for adolescent boys who were high in humor. Several additional moderator effects were found for boys only. The findings highlight the importance of considering the unique constellation of characteristics displayed by anxious-withdrawn young adolescents in studies on peer experiences at the group-level of social complexity.

  14. Is one's usual dinner companion associated with greater odds of depression? Using data from the 2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ah; Park, Eun-Cheol; Ju, Yeong Jun; Nam, Jin Young; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Support from one's family has been reported to have a positive effect on depression severity. Hence, family dinnertimes, when whole family can gather together, can be effective to depression by providing support from family. We investigate the association between the dinner companion and depression, and the differences in this association by gender, living arrangement and household composition. We used the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014 data. A total of 4,181 individuals were included. We classified participants by their dinner companions as follows: dinner with family, dinner with others and eating alone. Depression was measured by using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association. Those who ate dinner alone (odds ratio (OR): 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-2.25) had higher depression rate compared to those who had dinner with family. The subgroup analysis indicated that men, those who live with others and those living in a second-generation household who ate dinner alone had greater odds of having depressive symptoms. Those who usually eat dinner alone have greater odds of developing depression compared to those who have dinner with their family. As such, family dinnertimes may help to alleviate depressive moods. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Association between long working hours and serum gamma-glutamyltransferase levels in female workers: data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung-Gwon; Lee, Yong-Jin; Ham, Jung-Oh; Jang, Eun-Chul; Kim, Seong-Woo; Park, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the association between long working hours and serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels, a factor influencing the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011) were used to analyze 1,809 women. Subjects were divided into three groups based on the number of weekly working hours: ≤29, 30-51, and ≥52 hours per week. Complex samples logistic regression was performed after adjusting for general and occupational factors to determine the association between long working hours and high serum GGT levels. The prevalence of high serum GGT levels in groups with ≤29, 30-51, and ≥52 working hours per week was 22.0%, 16.9%, and 26.6%, respectively. Even after adjusting for general and occupational factors, those working 30-51 hours per week had the lowest prevalence of high serum GGT levels. Compared to those working 30-51 hours per week, the odds ratios (OR) of having high serum GGT levels in the groups with ≥52 and ≤29 working hours per week were 1.56 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-2.23) and 1.53 (95% CI, 1.05-2.24), respectively. Long working hours were significantly associated with high serum GGT levels in Korean women.

  16. Racial and ethnic minority college students' stigma associated with seeking psychological help: Examining psychocultural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Kwan, Kwong-Liem Karl; Sevig, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Many college students underuse professional psychological help for mental health difficulties. The stigma associated with seeking such help appears to be one of the reasons for this underuse. Levels of psychological distress and past use of counseling/psychotherapy have been found to be important correlates of stigma associated with seeking psychological help (Obasi & Leong, 2009; Vogel, Wade, & Haake, 2006). For racial and ethnic minorities, the hindering effects of self-stigma and perceived stigmatization by others on treatment seeking may further be compounded by their relationships with their own ethnic groups, with other ethnic groups, and with the dominant society. This study used structural equation modeling (SEM) to test a model that explored the effects of psychological distress and psychocultural variables (i.e., ethnic identity, other-group orientation, perceived discrimination) on perceived stigmatization by others and self-stigma for seeking psychological help, controlling for past use of counseling/psychotherapy. The sample consisted of 260 African American, 166 Asian American, and 183 Latino American students. SEM multigroup analyses indicated measurement invariance, but partial structural invariance, across racial/ethnic groups. Across all 3 groups, higher levels of psychological distress and perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, respectively, predicted higher levels of perceived stigmatization by others for seeking psychological help, which, in turn, predicted greater self-stigma for seeking psychological help. Higher levels of other-group orientation predicted lower levels of self-stigma of seeking psychological help across groups. Higher levels of ethnic identity predicted lower levels of self-stigma of seeking psychological help only for African Americans. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. An Examination of Aviation Accidents Associated with Turbulence, Wind Shear and Thunderstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2013-01-01

    The focal point of the study reported here was the definition and examination of turbulence, wind shear and thunderstorm in relation to aviation accidents. NASA project management desired this information regarding distinct subgroups of atmospheric hazards, in order to better focus their research portfolio. A seven category expansion of Kaplan's turbulence categories was developed, which included wake turbulence, mountain wave turbulence, clear air turbulence, cloud turbulence, convective turbulence, thunderstorm without mention of turbulence, and low altitude wind shear, microburst or turbulence (with no mention of thunderstorms).More than 800 accidents from flights based in the United States during 1987-2008 were selected from a National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database. Accidents were selected for inclusion in this study if turbulence, thunderstorm, wind shear or microburst was considered either a cause or a factor in the accident report, and each accident was assigned to only one hazard category. This report summarizes the differences between the categories in terms of factors such as flight operations category, aircraft engine type, the accident's geographic location and time of year, degree of injury to aircraft occupants, aircraft damage, age and certification of the pilot and the phase of flight at the time of the accident.

  18. Voluntary Medication Error Reporting by ED Nurses: Examining the Association With Work Environment and Social Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Amany; Blegen, Mary; Gedney-Lose, Amalia; Lose, Daniel; Perkhounkova, Yelena

    2017-05-01

    Medication errors are one of the most frequently occurring errors in health care settings. The complexity of the ED work environment places patients at risk for medication errors. Most hospitals rely on nurses' voluntary medication error reporting, but these errors are under-reported. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among work environment (nurse manager leadership style and safety climate), social capital (warmth and belonging relationships and organizational trust), and nurses' willingness to report medication errors. A cross-sectional descriptive design using a questionnaire with a convenience sample of emergency nurses was used. Data were analyzed using descriptive, correlation, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal-Wallis statistics. A total of 71 emergency nurses were included in the study. Emergency nurses' willingness to report errors decreased as the nurses' years of experience increased (r = -0.25, P = .03). Their willingness to report errors increased when they received more feedback about errors (r = 0.25, P = .03) and when their managers used a transactional leadership style (r = 0.28, P = .01). ED nurse managers can modify their leadership style to encourage error reporting. Timely feedback after an error report is particularly important. Engaging experienced nurses to understand error root causes could increase voluntary error reporting. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. An attachment theory perspective in the examination of relational processes associated with coach-athlete dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Louise; Jowett, Sophia; Lafrenière, Marc-André K

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine actor and partner effects of (a) athletes' and coaches' attachment styles (avoidant and anxious) on the quality of the coach-athlete relationship, and (b) athletes' and coaches' quality of the coach-athlete relationship on relationship satisfaction employing the actor-partner interdependence model (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006). Coaches (N = 107) and athletes (N = 107) completed a questionnaire related to attachment styles, relationship quality, and relationship satisfaction. Structural equation model analyses revealed (a) actor effects for coaches' and athletes' avoidant attachment styles on their own perception of relationship quality and coaches' and athletes' perception of relationship quality on their own perception of relationship satisfaction, and (b) partner effects for athletes' avoidant attachment style on coaches' perceptions of relationship quality and for coaches' perceptions of relationship quality on athletes' perceptions of relationship satisfaction. The findings highlight that attachments styles can help us understand the processes involved in the formation and maintenance of quality relational bonds between coaches and athletes.

  20. Vector regression introduced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mok Tik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study formulates regression of vector data that will enable statistical analysis of various geodetic phenomena such as, polar motion, ocean currents, typhoon/hurricane tracking, crustal deformations, and precursory earthquake signals. The observed vector variable of an event (dependent vector variable is expressed as a function of a number of hypothesized phenomena realized also as vector variables (independent vector variables and/or scalar variables that are likely to impact the dependent vector variable. The proposed representation has the unique property of solving the coefficients of independent vector variables (explanatory variables also as vectors, hence it supersedes multivariate multiple regression models, in which the unknown coefficients are scalar quantities. For the solution, complex numbers are used to rep- resent vector information, and the method of least squares is deployed to estimate the vector model parameters after transforming the complex vector regression model into a real vector regression model through isomorphism. Various operational statistics for testing the predictive significance of the estimated vector parameter coefficients are also derived. A simple numerical example demonstrates the use of the proposed vector regression analysis in modeling typhoon paths.

  1. Toward a panoramic perspective of the association between environmental factors and cardiovascular disease: An environment-wide association study from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaodong; Guo, Yue; Ni, Ao; Yang, Daya; Liao, Lizhen; Zhang, Shaozhao; Zhou, Huimin; Sun, Xiuting; Wang, Lichun; Wang, Xueqin; Liao, Xinxue

    2018-06-04

    An environment-wide association study (EWAS) may be useful to comprehensively test and validate associations between environmental factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in an unbiased manner. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2014) were randomly 50:50 spilt into training set and testing set. CVD was ascertained by a self-reported diagnosis of myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease or stroke. We performed multiple linear regression analyses associating 203 environmental factors and 132 clinical phenotypes with CVD in training set (false discovery rate multicollinearity elimination and variable importance ranking. Discriminative power of factors for CVD was calculated by area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC). Overall, 43,568 participants with 4084 (9.4%) CVD were included. After adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, blood pressure and socio-economic level, we identified 5 environmental variables and 19 clinical phenotypes associated with CVD in training and testing dataset. Top five factors in RF importance ranking were: waist, glucose, uric acid, and red cell distribution width and glycated hemoglobin. AUROC of the RF model was 0.816 (top 5 factors) and 0.819 (full model). Sensitivity analyses reveal no specific moderators of the associations. Our systematic evaluation provides new knowledge on the complex array of environmental correlates of CVD. These identified correlates may serve as a complementary approach to CVD risk assessment. Our findings need to be probed in further observational and interventional studies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Examining the bleeding incidences associated with targeted therapies used in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, MacKenzie; Hansen, Elizabeth; Chablani, Lipika; Guancial, Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    A systematic review was conducted to illustrate the bleeding risks associated with targeted therapies used in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Eligible studies included phase II, III, or IV clinical trials using pazopanib, sunitinib, cabozantinib, lenvatinib, everolimus, temsirolimus, bevacizumab, axitinib, and/or sorafenib in the setting of mRCC. Types of bleeding event(s), bleeding event frequency, and incidence of thrombocytopenia were collected from the relevant articles. ClinicalTrials.gov was also searched for incidence of "Serious bleeding adverse effects" reported in these trials. The incidences of bleeding events ranged from 1 to 36%, and incidences of thrombocytopenia ranged from 2 to 78%. Available serious bleeding adverse events ranged from 1 to 7%. The highest percentage of bleeding incidences were seen with bevacizumab, while the lowest percentage of bleeding incidences were seen with axitinib. All of the included trials were of high quality per Jadad scoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Examining the Association of Antidepressant Prescriptions With First Abortion and First Childbirth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinberg, Julia R; Laursen, Thomas M; Adler, Nancy E

    2018-01-01

    : IRR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.05-1.18). The fully adjusted IRRs that compared women who gave birth with women who did not give birth were lower in the year before childbirth (IRR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.43-0.50) compared with the year after childbirth (IRR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.88-0.98) (P ... with women who did not have an abortion were not statistically different in the year before the abortion (IRR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.38-1.54) and the year after the abortion (IRR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.45-1.62) (P = .10) and decreased as time from the abortion increased (1-5 years: IRR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.19-1.29; >5 years...... from the childbirth increased (1-5 years: IRR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.47-1.56; >5 years: IRR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.91-2.09). Across all women in the sample, the strongest risk factors associated with antidepressant use in the fully adjusted model were having a previous psychiatric contact (IRR, 3.70; 95% CI, 3...

  4. An Examination of Personality Traits Associated with Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredborg, Beverley; Clark, Jim; Smith, Stephen D

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) is a perceptual condition in which the presentation of particular audio-visual stimuli triggers intense, pleasurable tingling sensations in the head and neck regions, which may spread to the periphery of the body. These triggering stimuli are often socially intimate in nature, and usually involve repetition of movements and/or sounds (e.g., hearing whispering, watching someone brush her hair). Reports of ASMR experiences first appeared in online communities in 2010; since this time, these communities have expanded, with some groups consisting of over 100,000 members. However, despite the apparent prevalence of ASMR, there is currently no research on the personality characteristics that co-occur with this condition. In the current study, 290 individuals with ASMR and 290 matched controls completed the Big Five Personality Inventory (BFI; John et al., 1991); participants with ASMR also completed a questionnaire related to their ASMR phenomenology. Individuals with ASMR demonstrated significantly higher scores on Openness-to-Experience and Neuroticism, and significantly lower levels of Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Agreeableness compared to matched controls. Further, ratings of subjective ASMR intensity in response to 14 common ASMR stimuli were positively correlated with the Openness-to-Experience and Neuroticism dimensions of the BFI. These results provide preliminary evidence that ASMR is associated with specific personality traits and suggest avenues for further investigation.

  5. Examining factors associated with elevated Lie Scale responding on the Child Abuse Potential Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Amanda H; Shook, Natalie J; Wallace, Nancy M; McNeil, Cheryl B

    2018-02-01

    Child maltreatment remains a serious public health issue in the United States. Therefore, it is important to engage in quality control of the assessment, prevention, and treatment services for families affected by maltreatment. Parenting capacity assessments (PCAs) are typically an integral part of service delivery for families affected by maltreatment and can carry serious consequences for the referred parent. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) is a measure that is widely used in PCAs; however, socially desirable responding on the CAPI can serve to invalidate the important information derived from this assessment, as well as lead to negative impressions of the parent. Using data collected via multiple methods (including a non-face valid behavioral measure, intelligence screening, and self-report) from a predominantly at-risk sample of parents, the aim of this study was to better understand factors that may predict socially desirable responding on the CAPI. Results indicated that lower parental intelligence, a "positivity bias" (i.e., the tendency to learn and attend to positive over negative information during the non-face valid behavioral task), and lower reported depressive symptoms were associated with higher socially desirable responding. These findings suggest that assessors should thoughtfully consider the possibility that invalid CAPI scores may be more related to low intelligence and a positivity bias than to psychopathy and manipulation (e.g., purposefully trying to present oneself in a positive light to gain favor in a PCA). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Multicollinearity and Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Jamal I.

    2017-12-01

    In regression analysis it is obvious to have a correlation between the response and predictor(s), but having correlation among predictors is something undesired. The number of predictors included in the regression model depends on many factors among which, historical data, experience, etc. At the end selection of most important predictors is something objective due to the researcher. Multicollinearity is a phenomena when two or more predictors are correlated, if this happens, the standard error of the coefficients will increase [8]. Increased standard errors means that the coefficients for some or all independent variables may be found to be significantly different from In other words, by overinflating the standard errors, multicollinearity makes some variables statistically insignificant when they should be significant. In this paper we focus on the multicollinearity, reasons and consequences on the reliability of the regression model.

  7. A prospective cohort study to examine the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms in older Chinese people in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Chan

    Full Text Available Dietary patterns are culturally specific and there is limited data on the association of dietary patterns with late-life depression in Chinese. This study examined the associations between dietary patterns and baseline and subsequent depressive symptoms in community-dwelling Chinese older people in Hong Kong.Participants aged ≥65 year participating in a cohort study examining the risk factors for osteoporosis completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline between 2001 and 2003. Factor analysis was used to identify three dietary patterns: "vegetables-fruits" pattern, "snacks-drinks-milk products" pattern, and "meat-fish" pattern. Depressive symptoms were measured at baseline and 4-year using the validated Geriatric Depression Scale. Multiple logistic regression was used for cross-sectional analysis (n = 2,902 to assess the associations between dietary patterns and the presence of depressive symptoms, and for longitudinal analysis (n = 2,211 on their associations with 4-year depressive symptoms, with adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors.The highest quartile of "vegetables-fruits" pattern score was associated with reduced likelihood of depressive symptoms [Adjusted OR = 0.55 (95% CI: 0.36-0.83, ptrend = 0.017] compared to the lowest quartile at baseline. Similar inverse trend was observed for the highest quartile of "snacks-drinks-milk products" pattern score [Adjusted OR = 0.41 (95% CI: 0.26-0.65, ptrend<0.001] compared to the lowest quartile. There was no association of "meat-fish" pattern with the presence of depressive symptoms at baseline. None of the dietary patterns were associated with subsequent depressive symptoms at 4-year.Higher "vegetables-fruits" and "snacks-drinks-milk products" pattern scores were associated with reduced likelihood of baseline depressive symptoms in Chinese older people in Hong Kong. The longitudinal analyses failed to show any causal relationship between

  8. Minimax Regression Quantiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Stefan Holst

    A new and alternative quantile regression estimator is developed and it is shown that the estimator is root n-consistent and asymptotically normal. The estimator is based on a minimax ‘deviance function’ and has asymptotically equivalent properties to the usual quantile regression estimator. It is......, however, a different and therefore new estimator. It allows for both linear- and nonlinear model specifications. A simple algorithm for computing the estimates is proposed. It seems to work quite well in practice but whether it has theoretical justification is still an open question....

  9. riskRegression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozenne, Brice; Sørensen, Anne Lyngholm; Scheike, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In the presence of competing risks a prediction of the time-dynamic absolute risk of an event can be based on cause-specific Cox regression models for the event and the competing risks (Benichou and Gail, 1990). We present computationally fast and memory optimized C++ functions with an R interface...... for predicting the covariate specific absolute risks, their confidence intervals, and their confidence bands based on right censored time to event data. We provide explicit formulas for our implementation of the estimator of the (stratified) baseline hazard function in the presence of tied event times. As a by...... functionals. The software presented here is implemented in the riskRegression package....

  10. Normalization Ridge Regression in Practice I: Comparisons Between Ordinary Least Squares, Ridge Regression and Normalization Ridge Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulcock, J. W.

    The problem of model estimation when the data are collinear was examined. Though the ridge regression (RR) outperforms ordinary least squares (OLS) regression in the presence of acute multicollinearity, it is not a problem free technique for reducing the variance of the estimates. It is a stochastic procedure when it should be nonstochastic and it…

  11. Mitigating Litigating: An Examination of Psychosocial Impacts of Compensation Processes Associated with the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Liesel A; Gill, Duane A; Long, Michael A

    2018-01-31

    During the past four decades, a number of social science scholars have conceptualized technological disasters as a social problem. More specifically, research in this arena has identified individual and collective stress as a secondary trauma of processes intended to provide compensation and economic relief from disasters in general and, more specifically, technological disasters. Based on data from a 2013 household telephone survey of 1,216 residents of coastal Alabama, this article examines the relationship between psychosocial stress and compensation processes related to the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill. We examine involvement with claims, settlement, and litigation activities; vulnerability and exposure to the spill; ties to resources; resource loss and gain; perceptions of risk and recreancy; and intrusive stress and avoidance behaviors as measured by the impact of event scale. Regression analysis reveals that the strongest contributors to intrusive stress were being part of the compensation process, resource loss, concerns about air quality, and income. Although being involved with compensation processes was a significant predictor of avoidance behaviors, the strongest contributors to avoidance behaviors were resource loss, air quality concern, income, being male, minority status, and community attachment. Beliefs that the compensation process was as distressing as the oil spill also significantly contributed to intrusive stress and avoidance behaviors. This research represents a step toward filling a gap in empirical evidence regarding the extent to which protracted compensation processes exacerbate adverse psychosocial impacts of disasters and hinder community recovery. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Cognitive Outcomes of Children Born Extremely or Very Preterm Since the 1990s and Associated Risk Factors : A Meta-analysis and Meta-regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twilhaar, E Sabrina; Wade, Rebecca M; de Kieviet, Jorrit F; van Goudoever, Johannes B; van Elburg, Ruurd M; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2018-01-01

    Importance: Despite apparent progress in perinatal care, children born extremely or very preterm (EP/VP) remain at high risk for cognitive deficits. Insight into factors contributing to cognitive outcome is key to improve outcomes after EP/VP birth. Objective: To examine the cognitive abilities of

  13. An association of health behaviors with depression and metabolic risks: Data from 2007 to 2014 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Ozodiegwu, Ifeoma D; Yu, Yang; Hess, Rick; Bie, Ronghai

    2017-08-01

    Both depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS) confer an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence suggests healthy behaviors are crucial to maintain, improve and manage chronical disease and mental health; and unhealthy diet and sedentary behavior were found two major risk factors of MetS. The objective of this study was to investigate whether health behaviors (alcohol consumption, smoking, diet and recreational physical activity) are associated with depression and metabolic syndrome simultaneously. This study included 1300 participants aged 20 years and over who had answered mental health-depression screener questions (PHQ-9) and finished examinations and laboratory tests related to five risk factors of MetS during the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2014. A set of series of weighted logistic regression models were used to investigate the aforementioned relationship. The prevalence of depression among U.S. adults is 15.08%. The two most often reported depression symptoms were "Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much" and "Feeling tired or having little energy", with rates of14.68% and 13.09%, respectively. Participants who engaged in only light physical activity were more likely to have been identified as experiencing depression and MetS than those who engaged in vigorous physical activity with odd ratios 3.18 (95% CI: 1.59, 6.37) and 3.50 (95%CI: 2.17, 5.63), respectively. Individuals in the study having poor diets were more likely to suffer from depression than those eating good diets (OR=2.17, 95%CI: 1.47, 3.22). Physical activity is strongly and inversely associated with depression and MetS. Diet is significantly associated with depression rather than MetS in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cross-sectional associations of active transport, employment status and objectively measured physical activity: analyses from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Hu, Liang; Hipp, J Aaron; Imm, Kellie R; Schutte, Rudolph; Stubbs, Brendon; Colditz, Graham A; Smith, Lee

    2018-05-05

    To investigate associations between active transport, employment status and objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a representative sample of US adults. Cross-sectional analyses of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 5180 adults (50.2 years old, 49.0% men) were classified by levels of active transportation and employment status. Outcome measure was weekly time spent in MVPA as recorded by the Actigraph accelerometer. Associations between active transport, employment status and objectively measured MVPA were examined using multivariable linear regression models adjusted for age, body mass index, race and ethnicity, education level, marital status, smoking status, working hour duration (among the employed only) and self-reported leisure time physical activity. Patterns of active transport were similar between the employed (n=2897) and unemployed (n=2283), such that 76.0% employed and 77.5% unemployed engaged in no active transport. For employed adults, those engaging in high levels of active transport (≥90 min/week) had higher amount of MVPA than those who did not engage in active transport. This translated to 40.8 (95% CI 15.7 to 65.9) additional minutes MVPA per week in men and 57.9 (95% CI 32.1 to 83.7) additional minutes MVPA per week in women. Among the unemployed adults, higher levels of active transport were associated with more MVPA among men (44.8 min/week MVPA, 95% CI 9.2 to 80.5) only. Findings from the present study support interventions to promote active transport to increase population level physical activity. Additional strategies are likely required to promote physical activity among unemployed women. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Association of Magnesium Intake with High Blood Pressure in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Bae, Yun Jung

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnesium is known to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies on its relationship with hypertension, a single and common cause of various chronic diseases, are limited and their findings are not consistent. The purpose of the present study is to identify the relationship between magnesium intake and high blood pressure (HBP) risk in Koreans. Methods This research is a cross-sectional study based on the 2007~2009 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey data. This study investigated 11,685 adults aged over 20 to examine their general characteristics, anthropometry and blood pressure. Daily magnesium intake was analyzed using the 24-hour dietary recall method. To calculate the odds ratio (OR) of HBP risk (130/85 mmHg or over) according to the quartile of magnesium intake (mg/1000kcal) together with its 95% confidence interval (CI), multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. Results No significant association between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of HBP was found. In obese women, particularly, after adjusting relevant factors, the adjusted odds ratio of HBP prevalence in the highest magnesium intake quartile was 0.40 compared with the lowest magnesium intake quartile (95% CI = 0.25~0.63, P for trend = 0.0014). Women, especially obese women, were found to have a negative relationship of magnesium intake with HBP. Conclusions The present results indicate that sufficient magnesium intake could be useful in decreasing the high blood pressure risk of obese women. PMID:26075385

  16. Multiple linear regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, T. R.

    1980-01-01

    Program rapidly selects best-suited set of coefficients. User supplies only vectors of independent and dependent data and specifies confidence level required. Program uses stepwise statistical procedure for relating minimal set of variables to set of observations; final regression contains only most statistically significant coefficients. Program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on NOVA 1200.

  17. Bayesian logistic regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Erp, H.R.N.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a Bayesian logistic regression analysis. It is found that if one wishes to derive the posterior distribution of the probability of some event, then, together with the traditional Bayes Theorem and the integrating out of nuissance parameters, the Jacobian transformation is an

  18. Linear Regression Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Seber, George A F

    2012-01-01

    Concise, mathematically clear, and comprehensive treatment of the subject.* Expanded coverage of diagnostics and methods of model fitting.* Requires no specialized knowledge beyond a good grasp of matrix algebra and some acquaintance with straight-line regression and simple analysis of variance models.* More than 200 problems throughout the book plus outline solutions for the exercises.* This revision has been extensively class-tested.

  19. Nonlinear Regression with R

    CERN Document Server

    Ritz, Christian; Parmigiani, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    R is a rapidly evolving lingua franca of graphical display and statistical analysis of experiments from the applied sciences. This book provides a coherent treatment of nonlinear regression with R by means of examples from a diversity of applied sciences such as biology, chemistry, engineering, medicine and toxicology.

  20. Bayesian ARTMAP for regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasu, L M; Andonie, R

    2013-10-01

    Bayesian ARTMAP (BA) is a recently introduced neural architecture which uses a combination of Fuzzy ARTMAP competitive learning and Bayesian learning. Training is generally performed online, in a single-epoch. During training, BA creates input data clusters as Gaussian categories, and also infers the conditional probabilities between input patterns and categories, and between categories and classes. During prediction, BA uses Bayesian posterior probability estimation. So far, BA was used only for classification. The goal of this paper is to analyze the efficiency of BA for regression problems. Our contributions are: (i) we generalize the BA algorithm using the clustering functionality of both ART modules, and name it BA for Regression (BAR); (ii) we prove that BAR is a universal approximator with the best approximation property. In other words, BAR approximates arbitrarily well any continuous function (universal approximation) and, for every given continuous function, there is one in the set of BAR approximators situated at minimum distance (best approximation); (iii) we experimentally compare the online trained BAR with several neural models, on the following standard regression benchmarks: CPU Computer Hardware, Boston Housing, Wisconsin Breast Cancer, and Communities and Crime. Our results show that BAR is an appropriate tool for regression tasks, both for theoretical and practical reasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bounded Gaussian process regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Larsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We extend the Gaussian process (GP) framework for bounded regression by introducing two bounded likelihood functions that model the noise on the dependent variable explicitly. This is fundamentally different from the implicit noise assumption in the previously suggested warped GP framework. We...... with the proposed explicit noise-model extension....

  2. and Multinomial Logistic Regression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work presented the results of an experimental comparison of two models: Multinomial Logistic Regression (MLR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for classifying students based on their academic performance. The predictive accuracy for each model was measured by their average Classification Correct Rate (CCR).

  3. Mechanisms of neuroblastoma regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, Garrett M.; Bagatell, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    Recent genomic and biological studies of neuroblastoma have shed light on the dramatic heterogeneity in the clinical behaviour of this disease, which spans from spontaneous regression or differentiation in some patients, to relentless disease progression in others, despite intensive multimodality therapy. This evidence also suggests several possible mechanisms to explain the phenomena of spontaneous regression in neuroblastomas, including neurotrophin deprivation, humoral or cellular immunity, loss of telomerase activity and alterations in epigenetic regulation. A better understanding of the mechanisms of spontaneous regression might help to identify optimal therapeutic approaches for patients with these tumours. Currently, the most druggable mechanism is the delayed activation of developmentally programmed cell death regulated by the tropomyosin receptor kinase A pathway. Indeed, targeted therapy aimed at inhibiting neurotrophin receptors might be used in lieu of conventional chemotherapy or radiation in infants with biologically favourable tumours that require treatment. Alternative approaches consist of breaking immune tolerance to tumour antigens or activating neurotrophin receptor pathways to induce neuronal differentiation. These approaches are likely to be most effective against biologically favourable tumours, but they might also provide insights into treatment of biologically unfavourable tumours. We describe the different mechanisms of spontaneous neuroblastoma regression and the consequent therapeutic approaches. PMID:25331179

  4. Regression models of discharge and mean velocity associated with near-median streamflow conditions in Texas: utility of the U.S. Geological Survey discharge measurement database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, William H.

    2014-01-01

    A database containing more than 16,300 discharge values and ancillary hydraulic attributes was assembled from summaries of discharge measurement records for 391 USGS streamflow-gauging stations (streamgauges) in Texas. Each discharge is between the 40th- and 60th-percentile daily mean streamflow as determined by period-of-record, streamgauge-specific, flow-duration curves. Each discharge therefore is assumed to represent a discharge measurement made for near-median streamflow conditions, and such conditions are conceptualized as representative of midrange to baseflow conditions in much of the state. The hydraulic attributes of each discharge measurement included concomitant cross-section flow area, water-surface top width, and reported mean velocity. Two regression equations are presented: (1) an expression for discharge and (2) an expression for mean velocity, both as functions of selected hydraulic attributes and watershed characteristics. Specifically, the discharge equation uses cross-sectional area, water-surface top width, contributing drainage area of the watershed, and mean annual precipitation of the location; the equation has an adjusted R-squared of approximately 0.95 and residual standard error of approximately 0.23 base-10 logarithm (cubic meters per second). The mean velocity equation uses discharge, water-surface top width, contributing drainage area, and mean annual precipitation; the equation has an adjusted R-squared of approximately 0.50 and residual standard error of approximately 0.087 third root (meters per second). Residual plots from both equations indicate that reliable estimates of discharge and mean velocity at ungauged stream sites are possible. Further, the relation between contributing drainage area and main-channel slope (a measure of whole-watershed slope) is depicted to aid analyst judgment of equation applicability for ungauged sites. Example applications and computations are provided and discussed within a real-world, discharge

  5. A snapshot of patients' awareness of radiation dose and risks associated with medical imaging examinations at an Australian radiology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N; Mohacsy, A; Connell, D A; Schneider, M E

    2017-05-01

    Cumulative radiation exposure is linked to increasing the lifetime attributable risk of cancer. To avoid unnecessary radiation exposure and facilitate shared decision making, patients should be aware of these issues. This paper examines patients' awareness of radiation dose and risks associated with medical imaging examinations. Consecutive patients attending a private radiology clinic over a nine week period in 2014 in Metropolitan Melbourne were surveyed while waiting to undergo an imaging examination. Patients who were under 18 years of age, did not speak English and/or were referred for interventional imaging procedures were excluded from participation. Survey questions addressed patients' awareness of radiation dose associated with various imaging modalities' and patients' experience and preferences regarding communication of information about radiation. Data was analysed using SPSS (Ver 20.1). A total of 242 surveys were completed. Most participants were male (143/239, 59.8%) and aged between 33 and 52 years (109/242, 45%). Over half of participants were not concerned about radiation from medical imaging (130/238, 54.6%). Only a third of participants (80/234, 34.2%) correctly reported that CT has a higher radiation dose than X-ray. Very few participants correctly identified mammography, DEXA, PET and PET/CT as radiation emitting examinations. The majority of participants (202/236, 85.6%) indicated that they were not informed about radiation dose and risks by their referring doctor in advance. This paper provides information relevant to a single private radiology clinic in Australia. Nevertheless, our results have shown that patients presenting for medical imaging have little awareness of radiation dose and risks associated with these examinations and received little information by their referring physicians or staff at the radiology clinic. Copyright © 2016 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Non-trauma-associated additional findings in whole-body CT examinations in patients with multiple trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffstetter, P.; Herold, T.; Daneschnejad, M.; Zorger, N.; Jung, E.M.; Feuerbach, S.; Schreyer, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: whole-body CT scans for patients with multiple trauma represent an increasingly accepted first diagnostic tool. The multidetector approach in particular provides appropriate diagnostic algorithms for detecting nearly all relevant traumatic findings in a short time with a high grade of sensitivity and specificity. Non-trauma-associated additional findings are commonly depicted based on these CT examinations. The aim of this study is to evaluate the number and quality of these additional findings in consecutive patients with multiple trauma. Materials and methods: between 3/04 and 8/06 we scanned 304 patients according to our dedicated multiple trauma protocol. The examination protocol includes a head scan without intravenous contrast followed by a whole-body scan including the neck, thorax and abdomen acquired by a 16-row CT Scanner (Siemens, Sensation 16). The CT scans were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists with respect to non-trauma-associated findings. Lesions were assessed according to their clinical relevance (highly relevant, moderately relevant, not relevant). For patients with highly relevant findings, additional follow-up research was performed. Results: The average age was 43 years (range 3 - 92). 236 of the patients were male (77.6%), 68 female (22.4%). 153 patients (50.3%) had additional non-trauma-associated findings. In 20 cases (6.6%) lesions with high clinical relevance were detected (e.g. carcinoma of the kidney or the ovary). In 71 patients (23.4%) findings with moderate relevance were described. In 63 patients (20.7%) additional findings without major relevance were diagnosed. Conclusion: Whole-body CT scans of patients randomized by a trauma show a considerable number of non-trauma-associated additional findings. In about 30% of cases, these findings are clinically relevant because further diagnostic workup or treatment in the short or medium-term is needed. The results of these analyses emphasize the diagnostic value of CT

  7. Examining the Associations Among Home–School Dissonance, Amotivation, and Classroom Disruptive Behavior for Urban High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth M.; Graves, Scott L.; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Mulder, Shambra

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the association among home–school dissonance, amotivation, and classroom disruptive behavior among 309 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southern region of the country. Students completed two subscales of the Patterns of Learning Activities Scales (PALS) and one subscale of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). ANCOVA analyses revealed significant differences in classroom disruptive behaviors for the gender independent variable. Control...

  8. Suppression Situations in Multiple Linear Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes alternative expressions for the two most prevailing definitions of suppression without resorting to the standardized regression modeling. The formulation provides a simple basis for the examination of their relationship. For the two-predictor regression, the author demonstrates that the previous results in the literature are…

  9. Gibrat’s law and quantile regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Distante, Roberta; Petrella, Ivan; Santoro, Emiliano

    2017-01-01

    The nexus between firm growth, size and age in U.S. manufacturing is examined through the lens of quantile regression models. This methodology allows us to overcome serious shortcomings entailed by linear regression models employed by much of the existing literature, unveiling a number of important...

  10. EBV-associated post-transplantation B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder following allogenic stem cell transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: tumor regression after reduction of immunosuppression - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niedobitek Gerald

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-associated B-cell post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD is a severe complication following stem cell transplantation. This is believed to occur as a result of iatrogenic immunosuppression leading to a relaxation of T-cell control of EBV infection and thus allowing viral reactivation and proliferation of EBV-infected B-lymphocytes. In support of this notion, reduction of immunosuppressive therapy may lead to regression of PTLD. We present a case of an 18-year-old male developing a monomorphic B-cell PTLD 2 months after receiving an allogenic stem cell transplant for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Reduction of immunosuppressive therapy led to regression of lymphadenopathy. Nevertheless, the patient died 3 months afterwards due to extensive graft-vs.-host-disease and sepsis. As a diagnostic lymph node biopsy was performed only after reduction of immunosuppressive therapy, we are able to study the histopathological changes characterizing PTLD regression. We observed extensive apoptosis of blast cells, accompanied by an abundant infiltrate comprising predominantly CD8-positive, Granzyme B-positive T-cells. This observation supports the idea that regression of PTLD is mediated by cytotoxic T-cells and is in keeping with the observation that T-cell depletion, represents a major risk factor for the development of PTLD.

  11. Regression of uveal malignant melanomas following cobalt-60 plaque. Correlates between acoustic spectrum analysis and tumor regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, D.J.; Lizzi, F.L.; Silverman, R.H.; Ellsworth, R.M.; Haik, B.G.; Abramson, D.H.; Smith, M.E.; Rondeau, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Parameters derived from computer analysis of digital radio-frequency (rf) ultrasound scan data of untreated uveal malignant melanomas were examined for correlations with tumor regression following cobalt-60 plaque. Parameters included tumor height, normalized power spectrum and acoustic tissue type (ATT). Acoustic tissue type was based upon discriminant analysis of tumor power spectra, with spectra of tumors of known pathology serving as a model. Results showed ATT to be correlated with tumor regression during the first 18 months following treatment. Tumors with ATT associated with spindle cell malignant melanoma showed over twice the percentage reduction in height as those with ATT associated with mixed/epithelioid melanomas. Pre-treatment height was only weakly correlated with regression. Additionally, significant spectral changes were observed following treatment. Ultrasonic spectrum analysis thus provides a noninvasive tool for classification, prediction and monitoring of tumor response to cobalt-60 plaque

  12. The role of a local mammography workshop, considered from the results of reading examinations and associated questionnaires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunami, Nobuki; Tatsuta, Masayuki; Nishi, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    The mammography workshop group for the southern Osaka prefectural area (Hannan Mammography Workshop Group) started in April, 2001, and reading examinations have been carried out periodically since the 9th workshop held in April, 2004, in order to promote mammography breast cancer screening and improve quality control. Questionnaire studies were performed in association with the 3rd (December, 2006) and 4th (March, 2008) reading examinations in order to analyze the role of the local workshop. The questionnaires included items inquiring about the examinee's sex, age, institution location, type of occupation, attendance at mammography training courses provided by the Central Committee for Quality Control, the number of attendances at the local workshop, performance of breast cancer screening, experience of recall examinations, and the number of readings performed. In addition, the questions that yielded varied interpretations at reading examinations were carefully checked in order to better manage subsequent workshops. Examinees who had attended the workshops more than 6 times tended to have a high category sensitivity (62.2% at the 3rd reading examination, and 58.9% at the 4th). Test cases that showed a low conformity rate of category judgment were as follows: judgment of typically benign calcifications, distinction between amorphous or indistinct calcifications and pleomorphic or heterogeneous calcifications, judgment of focal asymmetric density (FAD) and architectural distortion. We intend to use these results to improve the quality control of breast cancer screening through our local mammography workshop activity. (author)

  13. Prevalence of microalbuminuria and its associated cardiometabolic risk factors in Korean youth: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeyeon Cho

    Full Text Available Microalbuminuria is a known early predictive factor for renal and cardiovascular diseases, not only for patients with diabetes mellitus or hypertension but also in the general population. However, the prevalence and risk factors associated with microalbuminuria in Korean youth are unknown.The aims of this study are to evaluate the prevalence of microalbuminuria and the association between microalbuminuria and obesity or cardiometabolic risk factors in Korean children and adolescents without diabetes.This study examines data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (between 2011 and 2014. It includes a total of 1,976 participants aged between 10 and 19 years (boys 1,128 and girls 848. Microalbuminuria was defined as a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR of ≥ 30 mg/g and < 300 mg/g. Association between microalbuminuria and the risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases including insulin resistance was evaluated.The prevalence of microalbuminuria was found to be 3.0% in Korean children and adolescents over this time period. The mean UACR for non-obese youth was significantly greater than that found in obese youth (3.2 ± 0.1 mg/g in the non-obese group vs. 2.1 ± 0.2 mg/g in the obese group; P < 0.001. In multiple logistic regression analysis, microalbuminuria was associated with hyperglycemia (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.09-6.30 and hemoglobin A1c (OR 3.34, 95% CI 1.09-10.17 in the non-obese group and hypertension (OR 14.10, 95% CI 1.12-177.98 and HbA1c (OR 6.68, 95% CI 1.87-23.95 in the obese group.The prevalence of microalbuminuria is not prominent in obese children and adolescents. Our findings demonstrated that the presence of hypertension and hyperglycemia was associated with microalbuminuria. Especially Hemoglobin A1c was associated with microalbuminuria in youths regardless of weight status. Microalbuminuria in pediatric population can be a helpful marker for the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  14. When parents talk about college drinking: an examination of content, frequency, and associations with students' dangerous drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegatos, Lisa; Lederman, Linda C; Floyd, Kory

    2016-01-01

    This project examines alcohol messages exchanged between college students and their parents, as well as how such messages associate with college students' dangerous drinking. Undergraduate students ages 18 to 25 years were recruited for the study and asked to recruit a parent. The sample included 198 students and 188 parents, all of whom completed an online survey. This study found parents tended to emphasize the negative aspects of drinking, particularly the dangers of drinking and driving and the academic consequences of too much partying. Results indicated that parent-student alcohol communication has various dimensions, including negative aspects of drinking, rules about drinking, drinking in moderation, and benefits of drinking. Parents' reports of discussing alcohol rules had a significant, negative association with students' alcohol consumption, whereas parents' reports of discussing the negative aspects of alcohol use had significant, positive associations with students' dangerous drinking.

  15. Examining word association networks: A cross-country comparison of women's perceptions of HPV testing and vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd C Schmid

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the perceptual associations women hold with regard to cervical cancer testing and vaccination across two countries, the U.S. and Australia. In a large-scale online survey, we presented participants with 'trigger' words, and asked them to state sequentially other words that came to mind. We used this data to construct detailed term co-occurrence network graphs, which we analyzed using basic topological ranking techniques. The results showed that women hold divergent perceptual associations regarding trigger words relating to cervical cancer screening tools, i.e. human papillomavirus (HPV testing and vaccination, which indicate health knowledge deficiencies with non-HPV related associations emerging from the data. This result was found to be consistent across the country groups studied. Our findings are critical in optimizing consumer education and public service announcements to minimize misperceptions relating to HPV testing and vaccination in order to maximize adoption of cervical cancer prevention tools.

  16. Alternative regression models to assess increase in childhood BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansmann Ulrich

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI data usually have skewed distributions, for which common statistical modeling approaches such as simple linear or logistic regression have limitations. Methods Different regression approaches to predict childhood BMI by goodness-of-fit measures and means of interpretation were compared including generalized linear models (GLMs, quantile regression and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS. We analyzed data of 4967 children participating in the school entry health examination in Bavaria, Germany, from 2001 to 2002. TV watching, meal frequency, breastfeeding, smoking in pregnancy, maternal obesity, parental social class and weight gain in the first 2 years of life were considered as risk factors for obesity. Results GAMLSS showed a much better fit regarding the estimation of risk factors effects on transformed and untransformed BMI data than common GLMs with respect to the generalized Akaike information criterion. In comparison with GAMLSS, quantile regression allowed for additional interpretation of prespecified distribution quantiles, such as quantiles referring to overweight or obesity. The variables TV watching, maternal BMI and weight gain in the first 2 years were directly, and meal frequency was inversely significantly associated with body composition in any model type examined. In contrast, smoking in pregnancy was not directly, and breastfeeding and parental social class were not inversely significantly associated with body composition in GLM models, but in GAMLSS and partly in quantile regression models. Risk factor specific BMI percentile curves could be estimated from GAMLSS and quantile regression models. Conclusion GAMLSS and quantile regression seem to be more appropriate than common GLMs for risk factor modeling of BMI data.

  17. Alternative regression models to assess increase in childhood BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Fahrmeir, Ludwig; Mansmann, Ulrich; Toschke, André M

    2008-09-08

    Body mass index (BMI) data usually have skewed distributions, for which common statistical modeling approaches such as simple linear or logistic regression have limitations. Different regression approaches to predict childhood BMI by goodness-of-fit measures and means of interpretation were compared including generalized linear models (GLMs), quantile regression and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). We analyzed data of 4967 children participating in the school entry health examination in Bavaria, Germany, from 2001 to 2002. TV watching, meal frequency, breastfeeding, smoking in pregnancy, maternal obesity, parental social class and weight gain in the first 2 years of life were considered as risk factors for obesity. GAMLSS showed a much better fit regarding the estimation of risk factors effects on transformed and untransformed BMI data than common GLMs with respect to the generalized Akaike information criterion. In comparison with GAMLSS, quantile regression allowed for additional interpretation of prespecified distribution quantiles, such as quantiles referring to overweight or obesity. The variables TV watching, maternal BMI and weight gain in the first 2 years were directly, and meal frequency was inversely significantly associated with body composition in any model type examined. In contrast, smoking in pregnancy was not directly, and breastfeeding and parental social class were not inversely significantly associated with body composition in GLM models, but in GAMLSS and partly in quantile regression models. Risk factor specific BMI percentile curves could be estimated from GAMLSS and quantile regression models. GAMLSS and quantile regression seem to be more appropriate than common GLMs for risk factor modeling of BMI data.

  18. Ridge Regression Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Mark R.

    1990-01-01

    The introduction of the Global Positioning System (GPS) into the National Airspace System (NAS) necessitates the development of Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) techniques. In order to guarantee a certain level of integrity, a thorough understanding of modern estimation techniques applied to navigational problems is required. The extended Kalman filter (EKF) is derived and analyzed under poor geometry conditions. It was found that the performance of the EKF is difficult to predict, since the EKF is designed for a Gaussian environment. A novel approach is implemented which incorporates ridge regression to explain the behavior of an EKF in the presence of dynamics under poor geometry conditions. The basic principles of ridge regression theory are presented, followed by the derivation of a linearized recursive ridge estimator. Computer simulations are performed to confirm the underlying theory and to provide a comparative analysis of the EKF and the recursive ridge estimator.

  19. Subset selection in regression

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Originally published in 1990, the first edition of Subset Selection in Regression filled a significant gap in the literature, and its critical and popular success has continued for more than a decade. Thoroughly revised to reflect progress in theory, methods, and computing power, the second edition promises to continue that tradition. The author has thoroughly updated each chapter, incorporated new material on recent developments, and included more examples and references. New in the Second Edition:A separate chapter on Bayesian methodsComplete revision of the chapter on estimationA major example from the field of near infrared spectroscopyMore emphasis on cross-validationGreater focus on bootstrappingStochastic algorithms for finding good subsets from large numbers of predictors when an exhaustive search is not feasible Software available on the Internet for implementing many of the algorithms presentedMore examplesSubset Selection in Regression, Second Edition remains dedicated to the techniques for fitting...

  20. The Association between Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong Eun; Lee, Hong Soo; Lee, Sang Wha; Shim, Kyung Won; Byun, A Ri; Kim, Jung Hwa; An, Hee Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Background The sodium intake of Koreans was higher than that recommended by the World Health Organization. Urinary sodium, which is correlated with sodium intake, can be easily calculated by the Tanaka's equation. This study aimed to evaluate the association between urinary sodium and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults using the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Methods A total of 5,870 participants from the 2010–2011 KNHANES were included in this study. Twenty-four hour urinary sodium was calculated by the Tanaka's equation using spot urine. Participants were divided into tertiles based on urinary sodium levels. The association between urinary sodium and metabolic syndrome was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of metabolic syndrome for the 2nd and 3rd tertile of urinary sodium levels was 1.51 (1.16–1.97) and 1.56 (1.23–1.97) compared to the lowest tertile of urinary sodium in men. The ORs and 95% CIs of metabolic syndrome in women were 1.20 (0.95–1.51) for the 2nd tertile and 2.16 (1.68–2.78) for the 3rd tertile. These associations remained statistically significant, even after adjusting for multiple covariates such as age, education, regular exercise, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Conclusion These findings indicate that urinary sodium is significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. PMID:28775809

  1. Sarcopenia Is Independently Associated with Cardiovascular Disease in Older Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Sang Ouk; Rhee, Sang Youl; Chon, Suk; Hwang, You-Cheol; Jeong, In-Kyung; Oh, Seungjoon; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Woo, Jeong-taek; Kim, Sung-Woon; Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Young Seol; Ahn, Hong-Yup

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between sarcopenia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in elderly people has not been adequately assessed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CVD is more prevalent in subjects with sarcopenia independent of other well-established cardiovascular risk factors in older Korean adults. Method This study utilized the representative Korean population data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) which was conducted in 2009. Subjects older than 65 years of age with appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were selected. The prevalence of sarcopenia in the older Korean adults was investigated, and it was determined whether sarcopenia is associated with CVD independent of other well-known risk factors. Results 1,578 subjects aged 65 years and older with the data for ASM were selected, and the overall prevalence of sarcopenia was 30.3% in men and 29.3% in women. Most of the risk factors for CVD such as age, waist circumference, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose and total cholesterol showed significant negative correlations with the ratio between appendicular skeletal muscle mass and body weight. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that sarcopenia was associated with CVD independent of other well-documented risk factors, renal function and medications (OR, 1.768; 95% CI, 1.075–2.909, P = 0.025). Conclusions Sarcopenia was associated with the presence of CVD independent of other cardiovascular risk factors after adjusting renal function and medications. PMID:23533671

  2. Sarcopenia is independently associated with cardiovascular disease in older Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ouk Chin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between sarcopenia and cardiovascular disease (CVD in elderly people has not been adequately assessed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CVD is more prevalent in subjects with sarcopenia independent of other well-established cardiovascular risk factors in older Korean adults. METHOD: This study utilized the representative Korean population data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES which was conducted in 2009. Subjects older than 65 years of age with appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were selected. The prevalence of sarcopenia in the older Korean adults was investigated, and it was determined whether sarcopenia is associated with CVD independent of other well-known risk factors. RESULTS: 1,578 subjects aged 65 years and older with the data for ASM were selected, and the overall prevalence of sarcopenia was 30.3% in men and 29.3% in women. Most of the risk factors for CVD such as age, waist circumference, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose and total cholesterol showed significant negative correlations with the ratio between appendicular skeletal muscle mass and body weight. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that sarcopenia was associated with CVD independent of other well-documented risk factors, renal function and medications (OR, 1.768; 95% CI, 1.075-2.909, P = 0.025. CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia was associated with the presence of CVD independent of other cardiovascular risk factors after adjusting renal function and medications.

  3. Better Autologistic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Wolters

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Autologistic regression is an important probability model for dichotomous random variables observed along with covariate information. It has been used in various fields for analyzing binary data possessing spatial or network structure. The model can be viewed as an extension of the autologistic model (also known as the Ising model, quadratic exponential binary distribution, or Boltzmann machine to include covariates. It can also be viewed as an extension of logistic regression to handle responses that are not independent. Not all authors use exactly the same form of the autologistic regression model. Variations of the model differ in two respects. First, the variable coding—the two numbers used to represent the two possible states of the variables—might differ. Common coding choices are (zero, one and (minus one, plus one. Second, the model might appear in either of two algebraic forms: a standard form, or a recently proposed centered form. Little attention has been paid to the effect of these differences, and the literature shows ambiguity about their importance. It is shown here that changes to either coding or centering in fact produce distinct, non-nested probability models. Theoretical results, numerical studies, and analysis of an ecological data set all show that the differences among the models can be large and practically significant. Understanding the nature of the differences and making appropriate modeling choices can lead to significantly improved autologistic regression analyses. The results strongly suggest that the standard model with plus/minus coding, which we call the symmetric autologistic model, is the most natural choice among the autologistic variants.

  4. Regression in organizational leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernberg, O F

    1979-02-01

    The choice of good leaders is a major task for all organizations. Inforamtion regarding the prospective administrator's personality should complement questions regarding his previous experience, his general conceptual skills, his technical knowledge, and the specific skills in the area for which he is being selected. The growing psychoanalytic knowledge about the crucial importance of internal, in contrast to external, object relations, and about the mutual relationships of regression in individuals and in groups, constitutes an important practical tool for the selection of leaders.

  5. Classification and regression trees

    CERN Document Server

    Breiman, Leo; Olshen, Richard A; Stone, Charles J

    1984-01-01

    The methodology used to construct tree structured rules is the focus of this monograph. Unlike many other statistical procedures, which moved from pencil and paper to calculators, this text's use of trees was unthinkable before computers. Both the practical and theoretical sides have been developed in the authors' study of tree methods. Classification and Regression Trees reflects these two sides, covering the use of trees as a data analysis method, and in a more mathematical framework, proving some of their fundamental properties.

  6. Logistic regression models

    CERN Document Server

    Hilbe, Joseph M

    2009-01-01

    This book really does cover everything you ever wanted to know about logistic regression … with updates available on the author's website. Hilbe, a former national athletics champion, philosopher, and expert in astronomy, is a master at explaining statistical concepts and methods. Readers familiar with his other expository work will know what to expect-great clarity.The book provides considerable detail about all facets of logistic regression. No step of an argument is omitted so that the book will meet the needs of the reader who likes to see everything spelt out, while a person familiar with some of the topics has the option to skip "obvious" sections. The material has been thoroughly road-tested through classroom and web-based teaching. … The focus is on helping the reader to learn and understand logistic regression. The audience is not just students meeting the topic for the first time, but also experienced users. I believe the book really does meet the author's goal … .-Annette J. Dobson, Biometric...

  7. Quantile Regression With Measurement Error

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Ying

    2009-08-27

    Regression quantiles can be substantially biased when the covariates are measured with error. In this paper we propose a new method that produces consistent linear quantile estimation in the presence of covariate measurement error. The method corrects the measurement error induced bias by constructing joint estimating equations that simultaneously hold for all the quantile levels. An iterative EM-type estimation algorithm to obtain the solutions to such joint estimation equations is provided. The finite sample performance of the proposed method is investigated in a simulation study, and compared to the standard regression calibration approach. Finally, we apply our methodology to part of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project growth data, a longitudinal study with an unusual measurement error structure. © 2009 American Statistical Association.

  8. The anxious heart in whose mind? A systematic review and meta-regression of factors associated with anxiety disorder diagnosis, treatment and morbidity risk in coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Phillip J; Cosh, Suzanne M; Baumeister, Harald

    2014-12-01

    To (1) report the prognostic association between anxiety disorder subtypes and major adverse cardiac events (MACE), (2) report anxiety disorder prevalence in coronary heart disease (CHD), and (3) report the efficacy of anxiety disorder treatments in CHD. A comprehensive electronic database search was performed in November 2013 for studies reporting anxiety disorder prevalence according to structured interview in CHD samples or MACE, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing anxiety disorder treatment with placebo or usual care. From 4041 articles 42 samples were selected for extraction (8 for MACE prognosis, 39 for prevalence, no RCTs were eligible). Five generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) studies reported 883 MACE events (combined n=2851). There was a non-significant association between GAD and MACE (risk ratio=1.20, 95% CI .86-1.68, P=.28) however the effect size was highly significant in outpatient samples (adjusted hazard ratio=1.94, 95% CI 1.45-2.60, Pversus DSM-IV taxonomies. The paucity of extant anxiety disorder RCTs, alongside MACE risk for GAD outpatients, should stimulate further anxiety disorder intervention in CHD populations. Research should focus on depression and anxiety, thereby unraveling disorder specific and more generic pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Examining the Association of Economic Development with Intercity Multimodal Transport Demand in China: A Focus on Spatial Autoregressive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbao Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is generally perceived as a catalyst for economic development. This has been highlighted in previous studies. However, less attention has been paid to examine the relationship between economy and transport demand by exploring spatially cross-sectional data, especially for countries with significant regional economic imbalance, like China. In this article, we assess the economic influence of intercity multimodal transport demand at the prefecture level in China. Spatial autoregressive regression models are used to examine the impact of transport demand on economy by deep analysis of transport modes (land, air, and water and regions (eastern, central, and western. Through contrasting results from spatial lag model and spatial error model with those from the ordinary least square, this study finds that the estimation results can become more accurate by controlling for spatial autocorrelation, especially at the national level. Through rigorous analysis it is identified that except for water passenger traffic, all other intercity transport demand significantly contribute to a city’s economic development level in gross domestic product. In particular, air transport demands distribute more evenly and are estimated with the highest beta coefficients at both national and regional levels. In addition, the beta coefficients for land, air and water transportation are estimated with different magnitudes and significances at the national and regional levels. This study contributes to the ongoing discussion on the relationship between intercity multimodal transport demand and economic development level. Findings from this paper provide planning makers with valid and efficient strategies to better develop the economy by leveraging the special “⊣” cluster pattern of economic development and the benefits of air transportation.

  10. Examination of the association between lifestyle behavior changes and weight outcomes in preschoolers receiving treatment for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Elizabeth S; Clifford, Lisa M; Bandstra, Nancy F; Filigno, Stephanie S; Yeomans-Maldonado, Gloria; Rausch, Joseph R; Stark, Lori J

    2014-01-01

    Preschoolers (ages 2-5 years) have been significantly underrepresented in the obesity treatment outcome literature, despite estimates that 12.1% are already obese. As such, little is known about the most important intervention targets for weight management within this age group. The aims of this study were (a) to examine lifestyle behavior changes for 30 obese preschoolers participating in a weight-control intervention and (b) to explore which lifestyle behavior changes predicted changes in body mass index (BMI) z score. Preschooler height, weight, diet (three 24-hr recalls), physical activity (accelerometry), and television use (parent report) were measured at baseline and posttreatment (6 months). A linear regression was conducted to examine pre- to posttreatment changes in diet (i.e., intake of calories, sugar-sweetened beverages, fruits and vegetables, and sweet and salty snacks) and activity (i.e., moderate-to-vigorous activity and television use) behaviors on changes in BMI z score. Despite significant reductions in sugar-sweetened beverage intake and television use, and increases in fruit and vegetable intake, only reductions in absolute caloric intake significantly predicted reductions in BMI z score. Our findings suggest that attaining healthy caloric goals may be the most important component of weight-control interventions for preschoolers. Future research using innovative methodologies, such as the Multiphase Optimization Strategy, may be helpful to prospectively identifying the lifestyle behavior changes that are most effective in helping families to achieve healthy weight outcomes for preschoolers and thereby improve intervention efficiency and decrease treatment burden for families. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Association Between Inflammatory Markers and Progression to Kidney Dysfunction: Examining Different Assessment Windows in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nathaniel L; Hunt, Kelly J; Stevens, Danielle R; Jarai, Gabor; Rosen, Glenn D; Klein, Richard L; Virella, Gabriel; Lopes-Virella, Maria F

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are associated with the development of kidney dysfunction and the time frame of their association. Biomarkers were measured at four time points during 28 years of treatment and follow-up in patients with type 1 diabetes in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) cohort. In addition to traditional biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen), we measured interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 (sTNFR-1/2), markers of endothelial dysfunction (soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin [sE-selectin]), and fibrinolysis (total and active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1]). Renal outcomes were defined as progression to incident chronic kidney disease (stage 3 or more severe) or macroalbuminuria (albumin excretion rate ≥300 mg/24 h). Prospective multivariate event-time analyses were used to determine the association of each biomarker with each subsequent event within prespecified intervals (3-year and 10-year windows). Multivariate event-time models indicated that several markers of inflammation (sTNFR-1/2), endothelial dysfunction (sE-selectin), and clotting/fibrinolysis (fibrinogen and PAI-1) are significantly associated with subsequent development of kidney dysfunction. Although some markers showed variations in the associations between the follow-up windows examined, the results indicate that biomarkers (sTNFR-1/2, sE-selectin, PAI-1, and fibrinogen) are associated with progression to chronic kidney disease in both the 3-year and the 10-year windows. Plasma markers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and clotting/fibrinolysis are associated with progression to kidney dysfunction in type 1 diabetes during both short-term and long-term follow-up. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  12. Associated factors for falls among the community-dwelling older people assessed by annual geriatric health examinations.

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    Chung-Hao Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Falls are very common among the older people. Nearly one-third older people living in a community fall each year. However, few studies have examined factors associated with falls in a community-dwelling population of older Taiwanese adults. OBJECTIVES: To identify the associated factors for falls during the previous 12 months among the community-dwelling Taiwanese older people receiving annual geriatric health examinations. PARTICIPANTS: People aged sixty-five years or older, living in the community, assessed by annual geriatric health examinations METHODS: 1377 community-dwellers aged ≥65 years who received annual geriatric health examinations at one hospital in northern Taiwan between March and November of 2008. They were asked about their history of falls during the year prior to their most recent health examination. RESULTS: The average age of the 1377 participants was 74.9±6.8 years, 48.9% of which were women. Three-hundred and thirteen of the participants (22.7% had at least one fall during the previous year. Multivariate analysis showed that odds ratio for the risk of falling was 1.94 (95% CI 1.36-2.76 when the female gender group is compared with the male gender group. The adjusted odds ratios of age and waist circumference were 1.03 (95% CI 1.00-1.06 and 1.03 (95% CI 1.01-1.05 respectively. The adjusted odds ratios of visual acuity, Karnofsky scale, and serum albumin level were 0.34 (95% CI 0.15-0.76, 0.94 (95% CI 0.89-0.98, and 0.37 (95% CI 0.18-0.76 respectively. Larger waist circumference, older age, female gender, poorer visual acuity, lower score on the Karnofsky Performance Scale, and lower serum albumin level were the independent associated factors for falls. CONCLUSION: In addition to other associated factors, waist circumference should be included as a novel risk factor for falls.

  13. Regression of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy or strain is associated with lower incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients independent of blood pressure reduction - A LIFE review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Casper N; Devereux, Richard B; Okin, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Cornell product criteria, Sokolow-Lyon voltage criteria and electrocardiographic (ECG) strain (secondary ST-T abnormalities) are markers for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and adverse prognosis in population studies. However, the relationship of regression of ECG LVH and strain during antihypertensive therapy to cardiovascular (CV) risk was unclear before the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study. We reviewed findings on ECG LVH regression and strain over time in 9193 hypertensive patients with ECG LVH at baseline enrolled in the LIFE study. The composite endpoint of CV death, nonfatal MI, or stroke occurred in 1096 patients during 4.8±0.9years follow-up. In Cox multivariable models adjusting for randomized treatment, known risk factors including in-treatment blood pressure, and for severity ECG LVH by Cornell product and Sokolow-Lyon voltage, baseline ECG strain was associated with a 33% higher risk of the LIFE composite endpoint (HR. 1.33, 95% CI [1.11-1.59]). Development of new ECG strain between baseline and year-1 was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of the composite endpoint (HR. 2.05, 95% CI [1.51-2.78]), whereas the risk associated with regression or persistence of ECG strain was attenuated and no longer statistically significant (both p>0.05). After controlling for treatment with losartan or atenolol, for baseline Framingham risk score, Cornell product, and Sokolow-Lyon voltage, and for baseline and in-treatment systolic and diastolic blood pressure, 1 standard deviation (SD) lower in-treatment Cornell product was associated with a 14.5% decrease in the composite endpoint (HR. 0.86, 95% CI [0.82-0.90]). In a parallel analysis, 1 SD lower in-treatment Sokolow-Lyon voltage was associated with a 16.6% decrease in the composite endpoint (HR. 0.83, 95% CI [0.78-0.88]). The LIFE study shows that evaluation of both baseline and in-study ECG LVH defined by Cornell product criteria, Sokolow-Lyon voltage criteria or

  14. A Simulation Investigation of Principal Component Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David E.

    Regression analysis is one of the more common analytic tools used by researchers. However, multicollinearity between the predictor variables can cause problems in using the results of regression analyses. Problems associated with multicollinearity include entanglement of relative influences of variables due to reduced precision of estimation,…

  15. Attachment avoidance, alexithymia, and gender: Examining their associations with distress disclosure tendencies and event-specific disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Julia I; Cox, Daniel W; Kahn, Jeffrey H; Wu, Amery D

    2018-01-01

    Distress disclosure has been linked with reduced psychological distress, increased wellbeing, and successful psychotherapeutic outcome. Because of the importance of distress disclosure, researchers have worked to develop and improve theoretical models of disclosure to facilitate counseling practices that reduce impediments to disclosure. Presently, we conducted a 2-part study to investigate distress disclosure's associations with attachment avoidance, gender, and alexithymia-3 constructs frequently linked with disclosure. In Part 1, we examined the extent to which attachment avoidance, alexithymia, and gender predicted general disclosure tendencies. In Part 2, we examined the extent to which attachment avoidance, alexithymia, and gender predicted event-specific disclosure. Participants were recruited from a crowdsourcing website (N = 178 in Part 1; N = 108 in Part 2). In Part 1, alexithymia partially mediated the association between attachment avoidance and disclosure tendencies, and the link between attachment avoidance and alexithymia was stronger for men than women. In Part 2, the association between distress intensity and event-specific disclosure was weaker for people with high levels of alexithymia. Implications for counseling theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Associations Between Periodontitis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: The 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Ho; Hwang, Hee-Jin; Kim, Sun-Hyun; Kim, Tae Ho

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether oral hygiene and self-care, particularly in periodontal health, are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the Korean population. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012 were used to assess the community periodontal index (CPI) of 5,878 participants (normal lung function: n = 5,181; obstructive spirometric pattern: n = 697) aged ≥40 years, who underwent spirometry. Participants with COPD brushed their teeth less frequently and used the following less frequently: 1) dental floss and/or interdental brush; 2) mouthwash; and 3) electric toothbrush (P periodontitis in patients with COPD (58.1%) was significantly higher than in those without COPD (34.0%, P periodontal severity. Periodontitis (CPI 3 and 4) was associated in males with COPD after adjustment for: 1) age; 2) income; 3) education; 4) smoking; 5) alcohol consumption; 6) exercise; 7) body mass index; 8) toothbrushing frequency; 9) diabetes mellitus; and 10) number of teeth (CPI 3: relative risk [RR] = 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12 to 2.05; CPI 4: RR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.56). Findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that COPD in males may be associated with severe periodontitis and indicates the importance of promoting dental care in patients with COPD.

  17. Association between psoriasis and leisure-time physical activity: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Young Kyung; Lakhani, Naheed; Malhotra, Rahul; Halstater, Brian; Theng, Colin; Østbye, Truls

    2015-02-01

    Despite evidence that physical activity can reduce the cardiometabolic risk of patients with psoriasis, these patients may engage in less physical activity than those without psoriasis. The aim of this study was to examine the association of the extent of psoriatic skin lesions with the likelihood of participating in leisure-time moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and metabolic equivalent task (MET)-minutes of MVPA amongst those who participated. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a population-based survey among U.S. adults. A total of 6549 persons aged 20-59 years responded to the 2003-2006 NHANES dermatology questionnaires, which asked about participation in leisure-time MVPA and MET-minutes of MVPA amongst those who participated. Compared with individuals without psoriasis, those with psoriasis were less likely to have engaged in leisure MVPA in the past 30 days, although this association was not statistically significant. Amongst those who participated in leisure-time MVPA, MET-minutes of leisure-time MVPA were lower on average for patients currently having few to extensive cutaneous lesions (but not for those currently having little or no psoriatic patches), relative to individuals never diagnosed with psoriasis by approximately 30%. Clinicians should encourage patients with psoriasis, especially those with more severe disease, to be more physically active; they should help identify and address possible psychological and physical barriers to their patients' physical activity. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  18. Association between Body Weight Changes and Menstrual Irregularity: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyung Min; Han, Kyungdo; Chung, Youn Jee; Yoon, Kun Ho; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2017-06-01

    Menstrual irregularity is an indicator of endocrine disorders and reproductive health status. It is associated with various diseases and medical conditions, including obesity and underweight. We aimed to assess the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity in Korean women. A total of 4,621 women 19 to 54 years of age who participated in the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect medical information assessing menstrual health status and body weight changes. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to evaluate the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity. Significantly higher ORs (95% CI) were observed in the association between menstrual irregularity and both weight loss (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.48) and weight gain (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.86) after adjusting for age, body mass index, current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, calorie intake, education, income, metabolic syndrome, age of menarche, parity, and stress perception. Of note, significant associations were only observed in subjects with obesity and abdominal obesity, but not in non-obese or non-abdominally obese subjects. U-shaped patterns were demonstrated in both obese and abdominally obese subjects, indicating that greater changes in body weight are associated with higher odds of menstrual irregularity. We found a U-shaped pattern of association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity among obese women in the general Korean population. This result indicates that not only proper weight management but also changes in body weight may influence the regulation of the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2017 Korean Endocrine Society

  19. Association between Body Weight Changes and Menstrual Irregularity: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Min Ko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMenstrual irregularity is an indicator of endocrine disorders and reproductive health status. It is associated with various diseases and medical conditions, including obesity and underweight. We aimed to assess the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity in Korean women.MethodsA total of 4,621 women 19 to 54 years of age who participated in the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect medical information assessing menstrual health status and body weight changes. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated to evaluate the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity.ResultsSignificantly higher ORs (95% CI were observed in the association between menstrual irregularity and both weight loss (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.48 and weight gain (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.86 after adjusting for age, body mass index, current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, calorie intake, education, income, metabolic syndrome, age of menarche, parity, and stress perception. Of note, significant associations were only observed in subjects with obesity and abdominal obesity, but not in non-obese or non-abdominally obese subjects. U-shaped patterns were demonstrated in both obese and abdominally obese subjects, indicating that greater changes in body weight are associated with higher odds of menstrual irregularity.ConclusionWe found a U-shaped pattern of association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity among obese women in the general Korean population. This result indicates that not only proper weight management but also changes in body weight may influence the regulation of the menstrual cycle.

  20. "Just how graphic are graphic novels?" An examination of aggression portrayals in manga and associations with aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Callister, Mark; Stockdale, Laura; Coutts, Holly; Collier, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Manga, a type of graphic novel, represent a widely popular literary genre worldwide and are one of the fastest growing areas of the publishing arena aimed at adolescents in the United States. However, to our knowledge, there has been almost no empirical research examining content or effects of reading manga. This article consists of 2 studies. Study 1 represents a content analysis of aggressive behavior in best-selling manga aimed at adolescents. Results revealed that aggression was common and was often portrayed in ways that may influence subsequent behavior. Study 2 examined the relationship between reading manga and aggressive behavior in 223 adolescents. Manga readers were more physically aggressive than non-manga readers and also reported more peer relationships with lonely individuals and smaller groups. In addition, reading manga with particularly high levels of aggression was associated with physical aggression even after controlling for media violence exposure in other media. Implications regarding these findings are discussed.

  1. Examining gray matter structure associated with academic performance in a large sample of Chinese high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song; Zhou, Ming; Chen, Taolin; Yang, Xun; Chen, Guangxiang; Wang, Meiyun; Gong, Qiyong

    2017-04-18

    Achievement in school is crucial for students to be able to pursue successful careers and lead happy lives in the future. Although many psychological attributes have been found to be associated with academic performance, the neural substrates of academic performance remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the relationship between brain structure and academic performance in a large sample of high school students via structural magnetic resonance imaging (S-MRI) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach. The whole-brain regression analyses showed that higher academic performance was related to greater regional gray matter density (rGMD) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which is considered a neural center at the intersection of cognitive and non-cognitive functions. Furthermore, mediation analyses suggested that general intelligence partially mediated the impact of the left DLPFC density on academic performance. These results persisted even after adjusting for the effect of family socioeconomic status (SES). In short, our findings reveal a potential neuroanatomical marker for academic performance and highlight the role of general intelligence in explaining the relationship between brain structure and academic performance.

  2. Steganalysis using logistic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubenko, Ivans; Ker, Andrew D.

    2011-02-01

    We advocate Logistic Regression (LR) as an alternative to the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers commonly used in steganalysis. LR offers more information than traditional SVM methods - it estimates class probabilities as well as providing a simple classification - and can be adapted more easily and efficiently for multiclass problems. Like SVM, LR can be kernelised for nonlinear classification, and it shows comparable classification accuracy to SVM methods. This work is a case study, comparing accuracy and speed of SVM and LR classifiers in detection of LSB Matching and other related spatial-domain image steganography, through the state-of-art 686-dimensional SPAM feature set, in three image sets.

  3. SEPARATION PHENOMENA LOGISTIC REGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikaro Daniel de Carvalho Barreto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an application of concepts about the maximum likelihood estimation of the binomial logistic regression model to the separation phenomena. It generates bias in the estimation and provides different interpretations of the estimates on the different statistical tests (Wald, Likelihood Ratio and Score and provides different estimates on the different iterative methods (Newton-Raphson and Fisher Score. It also presents an example that demonstrates the direct implications for the validation of the model and validation of variables, the implications for estimates of odds ratios and confidence intervals, generated from the Wald statistics. Furthermore, we present, briefly, the Firth correction to circumvent the phenomena of separation.

  4. riskRegression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozenne, Brice; Sørensen, Anne Lyngholm; Scheike, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In the presence of competing risks a prediction of the time-dynamic absolute risk of an event can be based on cause-specific Cox regression models for the event and the competing risks (Benichou and Gail, 1990). We present computationally fast and memory optimized C++ functions with an R interface......-product we obtain fast access to the baseline hazards (compared to survival::basehaz()) and predictions of survival probabilities, their confidence intervals and confidence bands. Confidence intervals and confidence bands are based on point-wise asymptotic expansions of the corresponding statistical...

  5. Adaptive metric kernel regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Kernel smoothing is a widely used non-parametric pattern recognition technique. By nature, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is usually difficult to apply to high input dimensions. In this contribution, we propose an algorithm that adapts the input metric used in multivariate...... regression by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms...

  6. Adaptive Metric Kernel Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Kernel smoothing is a widely used nonparametric pattern recognition technique. By nature, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is usually difficult to apply to high input dimensions. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that adapts the input metric used in multivariate regression...... by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows one to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms the standard...

  7. Iron deficiency is associated with food insecurity in pregnant females in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Clara Y; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2014-12-01

    Food-insecure pregnant females may be at greater risk of iron deficiency (ID) because nutrition needs increase and more resources are needed to secure food during pregnancy. This may result in a higher risk of infant low birth weight and possibly cognitive impairment in the neonate. The relationships of food insecurity and poverty income ratio (PIR) with iron intake and ID among pregnant females in the United States were investigated using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 data (n=1,045). Food security status was classified using the US Food Security Survey Module. One 24-hour dietary recall and a 30-day supplement recall were used to assess iron intake. Ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, or total body iron classified ID. Difference of supplement intake prevalence, difference in mean iron intake, and association of ID and food security status or PIR were assessed using χ(2) analysis, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis (adjusted for age, race, survey year, PIR/food security status, education, parity, trimester, smoking, C-reactive protein level, and health insurance coverage), respectively. Mean dietary iron intake was similar among groups. Mean supplemental and total iron intake were lower, whereas odds of ID, classified by ferritin status, were 2.90 times higher for food-insecure pregnant females compared with food-secure pregnant females. Other indicators of ID were not associated with food security status. PIR was not associated with iron intake or ID. Food insecurity status may be a better indicator compared with income status to identify populations at whom to direct interventions aimed at improving access and education regarding iron-rich foods and supplements. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Association of hexachlorobenzene in the serum and adipose tissue with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis and meta-regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mosallanejad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of metabolic disease type 2 diabetes is increasing. Numerous studies have to take into consideration in addition to the factors such as low mobility, nutrition and inheritance, environmental factors such as hexachlorobenzene in creation of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it was tried in this study to obtain an exact result regarding the association of hexachlorobenzene with type 2 diabetes by doing a systematic review and metaanalysis of the cross-sectional and prospective studies which were received till 2 March 2016. After searching in the databases SID, Irandoc, Pubmed, Scopus, Ovid, Embase, ISI and Cochrane, 10 studies with 19 subgroups were considered in final assessment. Geometric mean concentration of Hexachlorobenzene was 12.7 ng/ml and 64.77 ng/g lipids in serum and adipose tissues, respectively. The heterogeneity index of I2 :25.95% (I2<50% and t2 :0.075 were low and hence fixed model was used for meta-analysis of studies' results. The Pearson correlation coefficient between concentrations of hexachlorobenzene in serum and adipose tissue with the odds ratio of type 2 diabetes were R2 :0.27, P value=0.57 and R2 :0.25, P value=0.18, respectively. The highest and lowest odds ratios of type 2 diabetes was [OR:6.2 (0.6-68.1] and [OR:0.99 (0.3-2.6], respectively. Overall, the odds ratio for type 2 diabetes induced to hexachlorobenzene was OR:2.33 (1.82-2.74 P value<0.001. Results of this study supported the role of hexachlorobenzene significantly as an environmental risk factor in type 2 diabetes (P<0.001.

  9. Examining the Nature of the Association Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Nicotine Dependence: A Familial Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Petty, Carter R.; Hammerness, Paul; Woodworth, K. Yvonne; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The main aim of this study was to use familial risk analysis to examine the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and nicotine dependence. Methods Subjects were children with (n = 257) and without (n = 229) ADHD of both sexes ascertained form pediatric and psychiatric referral sources and their first-degree relatives (N = 1627). Results Nicotine dependence in probands increased the risk for nicotine dependence in relatives irrespective of ADHD status. There was no evidence of cosegregation or assortative mating between these disorders. Patterns of familial risk analysis suggest that the association between ADHD and nicotine dependence is most consistent with the hypothesis of independent transmission of these disorders. Conclusions These findings may have important implications for the identification of a subgroup of children with ADHD at high risk for nicotine dependence based on parental history of nicotine dependence. PMID:23461889

  10. Association of the 2011 ACGME resident duty hour reform with general surgery patient outcomes and with resident examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Ravi; Chung, Jeanette W; Jones, Andrew T; Cohen, Mark E; Dahlke, Allison R; Ko, Clifford Y; Tarpley, John L; Lewis, Frank R; Hoyt, David B; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2014-12-10

    In 2011, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) restricted resident duty hour requirements beyond those established in 2003, leading to concerns about the effects on patient care and resident training. To determine if the 2011 ACGME duty hour reform was associated with a change in general surgery patient outcomes or in resident examination performance. Quasi-experimental study of general surgery patient outcomes 2 years before (academic years 2009-2010) and after (academic years 2012-2013) the 2011 duty hour reform. Teaching and nonteaching hospitals were compared using a difference-in-differences approach adjusted for procedural mix, patient comorbidities, and time trends. Teaching hospitals were defined based on the proportion of cases at which residents were present intraoperatively. Patients were those undergoing surgery at hospitals participating in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP). General surgery resident performance on the annual in-training, written board, and oral board examinations was assessed for this same period. National implementation of revised resident duty hour requirements on July 1, 2011, in all ACGME accredited residency programs. Primary outcome was a composite of death or serious morbidity; secondary outcomes were other postoperative complications and resident examination performance. In the main analysis, 204,641 patients were identified from 23 teaching (n = 102,525) and 31 nonteaching (n = 102,116) hospitals. The unadjusted rate of death or serious morbidity improved during the study period in both teaching (11.6% [95% CI, 11.3%-12.0%] to 9.4% [95% CI, 9.1%-9.8%], P adverse outcome. Mean (SD) in-training examination scores did not significantly change from 2010 to 2013 for first-year residents (499.7 [ 85.2] to 500.5 [84.2], P = .99), for residents from other postgraduate years, or for first-time examinees taking the written or oral board

  11. Prenatal particulate air pollution exposure and body composition in urban preschool children: Examining sensitive windows and sex-specific associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Wilson, Ander; Coull, Brent A; Pendo, Mathew P; Baccarelli, Andrea; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O; Taveras, Elsie M; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-10-01

    Evolving animal studies and limited epidemiological data show that prenatal air pollution exposure is associated with childhood obesity. Timing of exposure and child sex may play an important role in these associations. We applied an innovative method to examine sex-specific sensitive prenatal windows of exposure to PM 2.5 on anthropometric measures in preschool-aged children. Analyses included 239 children born ≥ 37 weeks gestation in an ethnically-mixed lower-income urban birth cohort. Prenatal daily PM 2.5 exposure was estimated using a validated satellite-based spatio-temporal model. Body mass index z-score (BMI-z), fat mass, % body fat, subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness, waist and hip circumferences and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were assessed at age 4.0 ± 0.7 years. Using Bayesian distributed lag interaction models (BDLIMs), we examined sex differences in sensitive windows of weekly averaged PM 2.5 levels on these measures, adjusting for child age, maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and pre-pregnancy BMI. Mothers were primarily Hispanic (55%) or Black (26%), had ≤ 12 years of education (66%) and never smoked (80%). Increased PM 2.5 exposure 8-17 and 15-22 weeks gestation was significantly associated with increased BMI z-scores and fat mass in boys, but not in girls. Higher PM 2.5 exposure 10-29 weeks gestation was significantly associated with increased WHR in girls, but not in boys. Prenatal PM 2.5 was not significantly associated with other measures of body composition. Estimated cumulative effects across pregnancy, accounting for sensitive windows and within-window effects, were 0.21 (95%CI = 0.01-0.37) for BMI-z and 0.36 (95%CI = 0.12-0.68) for fat mass (kg) in boys, and 0.02 (95%CI = 0.01-0.03) for WHR in girls, all per µg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 . Increased prenatal PM 2.5 exposure was more strongly associated with indices of increased whole body size in boys and with an indicator of body shape in girls. Methods to better characterize

  12. When Traits Match States: Examining the Associations between Self-Report Trait and State Mindfulness following a State Mindfulness Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Adrian J; Pearson, Matthew R; Wilson, Adam D; Witkiewitz, Katie

    2018-02-01

    Previous research has found inconsistent relationships between trait mindfulness and state mindfulness. To extend previous research, we sought to examine the unique associations between self-report trait mindfulness and state mindfulness by levels of meditation experience (meditation-naïve vs. meditation-experienced) and by mindfulness induction (experimentally induced mindful state vs. control group). We recruited 299 college students (93 with previous mindfulness meditation experience) to participate in an experiment that involved the assessment of five facets of trait mindfulness (among other constructs), followed by a mindfulness induction (vs. control), followed by the assessment of state mindfulness of body and mind. Correlational analyses revealed limited associations between trait mindfulness facets and facets of state mindfulness, and demonstrated that a brief mindfulness exercise focused on bodily sensations and the breath elicited higher state mindfulness of body but not state mindfulness of mind. We found significant interactions such that individuals with previous meditation experience and higher scores on the observing facet of trait mindfulness had the highest levels of state mindfulness of body and mind. Among individuals with meditation experience, the strengths of the associations between observing trait mindfulness and the state mindfulness facets increased with frequency of meditation practice. Some other interactions ran counter to expectations. Overall, the relatively weak associations between trait and state mindfulness demonstrates the need to improve our operationalizations of mindfulness, advance our understanding of how to best cultivate mindfulness, and reappraise the ways in which mindfulness can manifest as a state and as a trait.

  13. Association between serum triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and sarcopenia in elderly Korean males: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae-Ha; Kwon, Yu-Jin; Shim, Jae-Yong; Lee, Yong-Jae

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the association between the triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL) ratio and sarcopenia in elderly Korean males. We examined the relationship between the TG/HDL ratio and sarcopenia in 879 elderly males ≥60years who participated in the 2010-2011 KNHANES. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) divided by the weight (%), which is >1 SD below the mean for young adults. The odds ratios (ORs) for sarcopenia were calculated using multiple logistic regression across the TG/HDL ratio quartiles (Q1: ≤1.4, Q2: 1.5-2.4, Q3: 2.5-3.8 and Q4: ≥3.9) after adjusting for confounding variables. The prevalence of sarcopenia significantly increased in accordance with TG/HDL ratio quartiles. Compared with the lowest quartile of the TG/HDL ratio, the corresponding OR (95% CI) of the highest quartile of the TG/HDL ratio for sarcopenia was 2.10 (1.12-3.91) after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity. TG/HDL ratio was positively related with a higher risk of sarcopenia in elderly Korean males. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Weight-related actual and ideal self-states, discrepancies, and shame, guilt, and pride: examining associations within the process model of self-conscious emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Andree L; Brunet, Jennifer; Ferguson, Leah; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between women's actual:ideal weight-related self-discrepancies and experiences of weight-related shame, guilt, and authentic pride using self-discrepancy (Higgins, 1987) and self-conscious emotion (Tracy & Robins, 2004) theories as guiding frameworks. Participants (N=398) completed self-report questionnaires. Main analyses involved polynomial regressions, followed by the computation and evaluation of response surface values. Actual and ideal weight self-states were related to shame (R2 = .35), guilt (R2 = .25), and authentic pride (R2 = .08). When the discrepancy between actual and ideal weights increased, shame and guilt also increased, while authentic pride decreased. Findings provide partial support for self-discrepancy theory and the process model of self-conscious emotions. Experiencing weight-related self-discrepancies may be important cognitive appraisals related to shame, guilt, and authentic pride. Further research is needed exploring the relations between self-discrepancies and a range of weight-related self-conscious emotions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Examining the Association between Intervention-Related Changes in Diet, Physical Activity, and Weight as Moderated by the Food and Physical Activity Environments among Rural, Southern Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Keyserling, Thomas C; Johnston, Larry F; Evenson, Kelly R; McGuirt, Jared T; Gizlice, Ziya; Whitt, Olivia R; Ammerman, Alice S

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have been conducted in rural areas assessing the influence of community-level environmental factors on residents' success improving lifestyle behaviors. Our aim was to examine whether 6-month changes in diet, physical activity, and weight were moderated by the food and physical activity environment in a rural adult population receiving an intervention designed to improve diet and physical activity. We examined associations between self-reported and objectively measured changes in diet, physical activity, and weight, and perceived and objectively measured food and physical activity environments. Participants were followed for 6 months. Participants were enrolled in the Heart Healthy Lenoir Project, a lifestyle intervention study conducted in Lenoir County, located in rural southeastern North Carolina. Sample sizes ranged from 132 to 249, depending on the availability of the data. Participants received four counseling sessions that focused on healthy eating (adapted Mediterranean diet pattern) and increasing physical activity. Density of and distance to food and physical activity venues, modified food environment index, Walk Score, crime, and perceived nutrition and physical activity neighborhood barriers were the potential mediating factors. Diet quality, physical activity, and weight loss were the outcomes measured. Statistical analyses included correlation and linear regression and controlling for potential confounders (baseline values of the dependent variables, age, race, education, and sex). In adjusted analysis, there was an inverse association between weight change and the food environment, suggesting that participants who lived in a less-healthy food environment lost more weight during the 6-month intervention period (P=0.01). Also, there was a positive association between self-reported physical activity and distance to private gyms (P=0.04) and an inverse association between private gym density and pedometer-measured steps (P=0.03), indicating

  16. Association of Previous Clinical Breast Examination With Reduced Delays and Earlier-Stage Breast Cancer Diagnosis Among Women in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanoff, Anya; Constant, Tara Hayes; Johnson, Kay M; Guadiamos, Manuel Cedano; Vega, Ana María Burga; Zunt, Joseph; Anderson, Benjamin O

    2017-11-01

    Mammographic screening is impractical in most of the world where breast cancers are first identified based on clinical signs and symptoms. Clinical breast examination may improve early diagnosis directly by finding breast cancers at earlier stages or indirectly by heightening women's awareness of breast health concerns. To investigate factors that influence time to presentation and stage at diagnosis among patients with breast cancer to determine whether history of previous clinical breast examination is associated with earlier presentation and/or earlier cancer stage at diagnosis. In this cross-sectional analysis of individual patient interviews using a validated Breast Cancer Delay Questionnaire, 113 (71.1%) of 159 women with breast cancer treated at a federally funded tertiary care referral cancer center in Trujillo, Peru, from February 1 through May 31, 2015, were studied. Method of breast cancer detection and factors that influence time to and stage at diagnosis. Of 113 women with diagnosed cancer (mean [SD] age, 54 [10.8] years; age range, 32-82 years), 105 (92.9%) had self-detected disease. Of the 93 women for whom stage was documented, 45 (48.4%) were diagnosed with early-stage disease (American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC] stage 0, I, or II), and 48 (51.6%) were diagnosed with late-stage disease (AJCC stage III or IV). Mean (SD) total delay from symptom onset to initiation of treatment was 407 (665) days because of patient (mean [SD], 198 [449] days) and health care system (mean [SD], 241 [556] days) delay. Fifty-two women (46.0%) had a history of clinical breast examination, and 23 (20.4%) had undergone previous mammography. Women who underwent a previous clinical breast examination were more likely to have shorter delays from symptom development to presentation compared with women who had never undergone a previous clinical breast examination (odds ratio, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.30-6.60; P = .01). Women diagnosed with shorter patient delay were more

  17. Sources of stress for breast cancer survivors involved in dragon boating: examining associations with treatment characteristics and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadd, Valerie; Sabiston, Catherine M; McDonough, Meghan H; Crocker, Peter R E

    2010-07-01

    This study sought to (1) identify common stressors faced by breast cancer survivors involved in dragon boating, (2) examine the conceptual and statistical factor groupings of the stressors, (3) identify differences in stressor factors based on treatment characteristics, and (4) examine the associations between stressor factors and two indicators of self-esteem. Survivors (n = 470) involved in dragon boating completed a survey assessing stressor frequency, stressor intensity, stressor valence, physical self-worth, and global self-esteem, along with demographic and cancer treatment information. An exploratory factor analyses (EFA) using maximum likelihood extraction with oblique rotation revealed a four-factor solution that included physical, emotional, social, and exercise-related stressors. Exercise-related stressors were reported more frequently and intensely but were appraised positively by most survivors. The physical, emotional, and social stressors were perceived predominantly as negative. Findings also revealed that physical and emotional stressors and exercise-related stressors were correlates of physical self-worth (R(2) = 0.26). Emotional, social, and exercise-related stressors were significant correlates of global self-esteem (R(2) = 0.11). Cancer treatments were also associated with the experience of stressors, with the strongest effects reported for chemotherapy treatment. Overall, the results demonstrate that participants experienced many stressors but that exercise-related stressors were viewed as more adaptive and were positive correlates of self-esteem processes.

  18. NSAID is inversely associated with asymptomatic gastric ulcer: local health examination data from the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Man; Cho, Jae Hee; Choi, Jin Yi; Chun, Song Wook; Kim, Yu Jin; Cho, Hyeon Geun; Song, Si Young; Han, Ki Jun

    2013-12-01

    BACKGROUND. Silent peptic ulcer has been considered to be associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The recent studies have reported no relationship between them. AIM. We attempted to investigate an association between asymptomatic peptic ulcer and NSAID in Korean adults. METHODS. The subjects were enrolled from participants visiting Myongji Hospital for health examination program of the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation. The questionnaires were designed to investigate individual medical information and gastroduodenal symptoms. RESULTS. From May 2005 to March 2009, 5459 participants were enrolled and 299 participants were excluded. Of 5160 participants, 3144 (60.9%) participants were asymptomatic and 424 (8.2%) participants had peptic ulcer. Among 3144 asymptomatic participants, NSAID-taking participants had the odds ratio of 1.4 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7-2.6, p = 0.339] for the risk of peptic ulcer. Among 424 peptic ulcer patients, 247 (58.3%) were asymptomatic. They had lower prevalence of NSAID use (4.9% vs. 14.7%). The asymptomatic gastric ulcer patients had smaller size and more frequent healing stage than the symptomatic gastric ulcer patients. In multivariable analysis of 424 peptic ulcer patients, NSAID patients had the odds ratio of 0.249 (95%CI: 0.115-0.536, p < 0.05) for asymptomatic peptic ulcer. In subgroup analysis of 284 gastric ulcer patients, NSAID-taking patients had the odds ratio of 0.263 (95% CI: 0.105-0.657, p = 0.004) for asymptomatic peptic ulcer. CONCLUSION. NSAID has an inverse association with asymptomatic patients with gastric peptic ulcer, but has no association with gastroduodenal symptoms in duodenal ulcer patients. These suggest that NSAID may be associated with gastroduodenal symptoms rather than masking symptoms, at least in gastric ulcer patients.

  19. A cohort study examining headaches among veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan wars: Associations with traumatic brain injury, PTSD, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Carlos A; Eapen, Blessen C; McGeary, Cindy A; McGeary, Donald D; Robinson, Jedediah; Amuan, Megan; Pugh, Mary Jo

    2016-03-01

    To describe the prevalence and persistence of headache and associated conditions in an inception cohort of U.S. veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans (IAV) suffer from persistent and difficult-to-treat headaches that have been found to co-occur with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and other deployment related comorbidities. This longitudinal retrospective cohort study used data from the national Veterans Health Administration (VA) data repository for IAV who first received VA care in 2008 (baseline) and also received care each year in 2009, 2010, and 2011. We used ICD-9-CM codes, to identify those treated for headache each year (2008-2011). Individuals with headache diagnosed each year were classified as having persistent headache. We also identified comorbidities that may be associated with baseline headache using algorithms validated for use with ICD-9-CM codes. Comorbidities included TBI, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and conditions associated with these diagnoses (anxiety, memory/attention/cognition, neck pain, tinnitus/hyperacusis, photosensitivity/photo blurring, insomnia, malaise/fatigue, and vertigo/dizziness). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine characteristics associated with baseline headache as well as those associated with persistent headache. Among all IAV, 38,426 received their first year of VA care in 2008 and had care each year 2009-2011: 13.7% of these were diagnosed with headache in 2008. Veterans diagnosed with headache in 2008 were more likely than those without a headache diagnosis to also have a diagnosis of TBI alone (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] 6.75; 95% CI 5.79-7.86), TBI + depression (AOR 7.09; 95% CI 5.23-9.66), TBI + PTSD (AOR 10.16; 95% CI 8.96-11.53), TBI + PTSD + depression (AOR 9.40; 95% CI 8.12-10.09), and neck pain (AOR 2.44; 95% CI 2.14-2.77). Among those with headache diagnosis in 2008, 24.3% had a headache diagnosis each of the

  20. Association Between Serum Antibodies to Periodontal Bacteria and Rheumatoid Factor in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Charlene E; Kopp, Jacob; Papapanou, Panos N; Molitor, Jerry A; Demmer, Ryan T

    2016-10-01

    Alterations in the microbiome, including the periodontal microbiome, may be a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Most studies that have analyzed this association are relatively small, focus primarily on a single periodontal pathogen (Porphyromonas gingivalis), and are not population based. This study was undertaken to investigate the association between elevated serum levels of IgG antibodies to 19 periodontal species and the prevalence of rheumatoid factor (RF) in a large nationally representative sample of adults. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III) is a cross-sectional sample of the noninstitutionalized US population (n = 33,994). Our study population included all dentate participants who were 60 years and older, did not have RA as defined by a modified version of the American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria, and had complete data for both serum IgG antibodies against periodontal bacteria and serum RF antibody titer (n = 2,461). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) summarizing the relationship between the 19 periodontal serum IgG antibodies and RF seropositivity ranged from 0.53 (95% CI 0.29-0.97) to 1.27 (95% CI 0.79-2.06), and 17 of the 19 observed ORs were periodontal bacteria are mostly unassociated with RF seropositivity in the nationally representative NHANES-III. Elevated levels of antibodies to P intermedia and C ochracea are associated with lower odds of RF seropositivity. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  1. Examining the direct and indirect effects of visual-verbal paired associate learning on Chinese word reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George; Liu, Cuina; Xu, Shiyang

    2017-08-01

    Associative learning, traditionally measured with paired associate learning (PAL) tasks, has been found to predict reading ability in several languages. However, it remains unclear whether it also predicts word reading in Chinese, which is known for its ambiguous print-sound correspondences, and whether its effects are direct or indirect through the effects of other reading-related skills such as phonological awareness and rapid naming. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of visual-verbal PAL on word reading in an unselected sample of Chinese children followed from the second to the third kindergarten year. A sample of 141 second-year kindergarten children (71 girls and 70 boys; mean age=58.99months, SD=3.17) were followed for a year and were assessed at both times on measures of visual-verbal PAL, rapid naming, and phonological awareness. In the third kindergarten year, they were also assessed on word reading. The results of path analysis showed that visual-verbal PAL exerted a significant direct effect on word reading that was independent of the effects of phonological awareness and rapid naming. However, it also exerted significant indirect effects through phonological awareness. Taken together, these findings suggest that variations in cross-modal associative learning (as measured by visual-verbal PAL) place constraints on the development of word recognition skills irrespective of the characteristics of the orthography children are learning to read. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Spontaneous regression of pulmonary bullae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, H.; Ishikawa, H.; Ohtsuka, M.; Sekizawa, K.

    2002-01-01

    The natural history of pulmonary bullae is often characterized by gradual, progressive enlargement. Spontaneous regression of bullae is, however, very rare. We report a case in which complete resolution of pulmonary bullae in the left upper lung occurred spontaneously. The management of pulmonary bullae is occasionally made difficult because of gradual progressive enlargement associated with abnormal pulmonary function. Some patients have multiple bulla in both lungs and/or have a history of pulmonary emphysema. Others have a giant bulla without emphysematous change in the lungs. Our present case had treated lung cancer with no evidence of local recurrence. He had no emphysematous change in lung function test and had no complaints, although the high resolution CT scan shows evidence of underlying minimal changes of emphysema. Ortin and Gurney presented three cases of spontaneous reduction in size of bulla. Interestingly, one of them had a marked decrease in the size of a bulla in association with thickening of the wall of the bulla, which was observed in our patient. This case we describe is of interest, not only because of the rarity with which regression of pulmonary bulla has been reported in the literature, but also because of the spontaneous improvements in the radiological picture in the absence of overt infection or tumor. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  3. Factors and common conditions associated with adolescent dietary supplement use: an analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Roger B

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the prevalence of dietary supplement (DS use in American adolescents. We conducted this study to analyze the prevalence of DS use and factors associated with this use in a national population-based sample. Methods We used data from the 1999 – 2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES for adolescents age 11 to 19. Using weighted logistic regression, we identified demographic and clinical factors associated with the use of any DS, vitamins or minerals, herbs and other DS. Results Among the 5,306 responses representing approximately 36 million Americans 11–19 years old, 27% reported use of one or more DS in the prior month. The most commonly used DS were: multivitamins (16% and vitamin C (6%. In the multivariable analysis, African American [adjusted odds ratio 0.40 (0.31–0.50 95% CI] and Mexican American [0.55 (0.44–0.69] adolescents were less likely to use DS compared with non-Hispanic whites. DS use was more common in those who used prescription medications [1.37 (1.10–1.72] and among those who had a diagnosis of chronic headaches [1.25 (1.04–1.50]. DS use was less common among those reporting fair or poor health status [0.59 (0.40–0.88]. Conclusion Twenty seven percent of American adolescents use DS. DS use is higher among teens that use prescription medications; physicians and pharmacists should be aware of this, ask patients, and check for potential interactions.

  4. Neighborhood social capital and crime victimization: comparison of spatial regression analysis and hierarchical regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Daisuke; Ikeda, Ken'ichi; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-11-01

    Crime is an important determinant of public health outcomes, including quality of life, mental well-being, and health behavior. A body of research has documented the association between community social capital and crime victimization. The association between social capital and crime victimization has been examined at multiple levels of spatial aggregation, ranging from entire countries, to states, metropolitan areas, counties, and neighborhoods. In multilevel analysis, the spatial boundaries at level 2 are most often drawn from administrative boundaries (e.g., Census tracts in the U.S.). One problem with adopting administrative definitions of neighborhoods is that it ignores spatial spillover. We conducted a study of social capital and crime victimization in one ward of Tokyo city, using a spatial Durbin model with an inverse-distance weighting matrix that assigned each respondent a unique level of "exposure" to social capital based on all other residents' perceptions. The study is based on a postal questionnaire sent to 20-69 years old residents of Arakawa Ward, Tokyo. The response rate was 43.7%. We examined the contextual influence of generalized trust, perceptions of reciprocity, two types of social network variables, as well as two principal components of social capital (constructed from the above four variables). Our outcome measure was self-reported crime victimization in the last five years. In the spatial Durbin model, we found that neighborhood generalized trust, reciprocity, supportive networks and two principal components of social capital were each inversely associated with crime victimization. By contrast, a multilevel regression performed with the same data (using administrative neighborhood boundaries) found generally null associations between neighborhood social capital and crime. Spatial regression methods may be more appropriate for investigating the contextual influence of social capital in homogeneous cultural settings such as Japan. Copyright

  5. Modified Regression Correlation Coefficient for Poisson Regression Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaengthong, Nattacha; Domthong, Uthumporn

    2017-09-01

    This study gives attention to indicators in predictive power of the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) which are widely used; however, often having some restrictions. We are interested in regression correlation coefficient for a Poisson regression model. This is a measure of predictive power, and defined by the relationship between the dependent variable (Y) and the expected value of the dependent variable given the independent variables [E(Y|X)] for the Poisson regression model. The dependent variable is distributed as Poisson. The purpose of this research was modifying regression correlation coefficient for Poisson regression model. We also compare the proposed modified regression correlation coefficient with the traditional regression correlation coefficient in the case of two or more independent variables, and having multicollinearity in independent variables. The result shows that the proposed regression correlation coefficient is better than the traditional regression correlation coefficient based on Bias and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE).

  6. Clinical implications from daily physiotherapy examination of 131 acute hamstring injuries and their association with running speed and rehabilitation progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Rod; van Dyk, Nicol; Wangensteen, Arnlaug; Hansen, Clint

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the association of daily clinical measures and the progression of rehabilitation and perceived running effort. A cohort of 131 athletes with an MRI-confirmed acute hamstring injury underwent a standardised criteria-based rehabilitation protocol. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to investigate the association between daily clinical subjective and objective measures and both the progression of rehabilitation and perceived running effort. These measures included different strength, palpation, flexibility and functional tests. Inter-rater and intrarater reliability and minimal detectable change were established for the clinical measures of strength and flexibility by examining measures taken on consecutive days for the uninjured leg. The progression of the daily measures was seen to be non-linear and varied according to the measure. Intra-rater reliability for the strength and flexibility measures were excellent (95% CI ≥0.85 for all measures). Strength (in the outer range position) and flexibility (in maximum hip flexion with active knee extension (MHFAKE) in supine) were best associated with rehabilitation progression and perceived running effort. Additionally, length of pain on palpation was usefully associated with rehabilitation progression. At lower perceived running effort there was a large variation in actual running speed. Daily physical measures of palpation pain, outer range strength, MHFAKE and reported pain during daily activity are useful to inform the progression of rehabilitation. NCT01812564 and NCT02104258. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Application of 16S rDNA-DGGE to examine the microbial ecology associated with a social wasp Vespula germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeson, A F; Jankovic, T; Kasper, M L; Rogers, S; Austin, A D

    2003-02-01

    Invertebrates host numerous bacteria, with interactions ranging from pathogenesis to symbiosis. While certain symbiotic relationships have been well studied, little is known about the dynamics of these bacterial communities. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to examine the bacterial microflora associated with the eusocial wasp Vespula germanica. DGGE profiles of larval guts revealed a variable microflora, suggesting that V. germanica is not dependent on a particular suite of mutualists. The variation in profiles was not related to season, nest size or macrohabitat. Sequences corresponding to Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, a novel Leuconostoc and two Rickettsiella grylli strains were obtained. DGGE proved to be a useful technique for characterizing the wasp microflora. Given the importance of microbial communities to invertebrates, there is much to be gained from the application of such techniques.

  8. Examining Socio-Cultural and Neighborhood Factors Associated with Trajectories of Mexican-Origin Mothers' Education-Related Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Sakshi; Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y; Witherspoon, Dawn P; Pomerantz, Eva M; Robins, Richard W

    2017-08-01

    Parental involvement in education is an important determinant of youth's academic success. Yet, there is limited knowledge on how Latino parents' education-related involvement changes over time. Using data from a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin families (mother-adolescent dyad; M age of child at Wave 1=10.4, SD = 0.60), we examined trajectories of parental involvement from 5 th to 11 th grade and the effects of socio-cultural (e.g., family SES and acculturation) and contextual (e.g., neighborhood) factors on these trajectories. Results showed that mothers reduced two aspects of the educational involvement: home-based involvement and academic aspirations, but increased on a third aspect of involvement, resource seeking. Furthermore, family SES, acculturation, and neighborhood context were differentially associated with mothers' involvement at 5 th grade and predicted changes in involvement across elementary and high school.

  9. International note: what factors are associated with reading, mathematics, and science literacy of Indian adolescents? A multilevel examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2014-06-01

    A sample of 15-year-olds in India took part in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) for the first time in 2010. The PISA reading, mathematics, and science literacy scores of Indian adolescents were considerably lower than their counterparts in most PISA participating countries. In order to explore potential reasons for this, the present study, therefore, drawing on data from the fourth cycle of PISA and employing multilevel modeling, examined the relations of student- and school-level factors to reading, mathematics, and science literacy among 4826 15-year-old students from 213 schools in India. Gender, metacognitive learning strategies, students' positive attitudes toward school, and students' positive perceptions of classroom climate were found to be significantly associated with Indian adolescents' performance on the PISA assessment. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Examining the Associations of Racism, Sexism, and Stressful Life Events on Psychological Distress among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B.

    2013-01-01

    African American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations between racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African American women, and are correlated both with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. PMID:25313434

  11. Examining the associations of racism, sexism, and stressful life events on psychological distress among African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B

    2014-10-01

    African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Association of meal frequency with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults: from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chan-Hee; Lee, Ji Sung; Ahn, Hee Jung; Choi, Jin-Sun; Noh, Min Young; Lee, Ji Jeung; Lee, Eun Young; Lim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Young Ran; Yoon, So Yoon; Kim, Chong Hwa; Cho, Dong-Hyeok; Choi, Young Sik; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2017-01-01

    Although previous studies have established a close relationship between caloric intake and metabolic syndrome, there is limited research exploring the impact of meal frequency adjusted by caloric intake on metabolic syndrome (MetS). To evaluate the association of meal frequency and MetS after adjusting for confounding factors including caloric intake in Korean men and women. We analyzed the national representative data of a total 12,389 adults (5171 men, 7218 women) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012. Subjects were categorized as eating 3 meals/day (MF3) or 2 or fewer meals/day (MF ≤ 2). Daily caloric intake was calculated using CAN-Pro 4.0 (The Korean Nutrition Society, Seoul, Korea). The prevalence of components of MetS differed significantly according to meal frequency in both men and women. In an unadjusted analysis, the prevalence of MetS in women was significantly higher in the MF3 group than the MF ≤ 2 group (27.5% vs. 17.8%, P  meal frequency did not affect the risk of metabolic syndrome in women after adjusting for confounding factors including caloric intake (OR = 1.09, 95%, CI = 0.90-1.31). This study suggests that lower meal frequency adjusted for caloric intake, physical activity, age, smoking, alcohol, income, and education may be associated with increased risk of MetS in Korean men.

  13. The Prevalence of "Drinking and Biking" and Associated Risk Factors: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Se Hwan; Ahn, Ma Rhip; Han, Kyung Do; Lee, Jung Ho

    2017-09-01

    With the steady rise of health and environmental awareness, the number of bicyclists is increasing. However, there are few epidemiologic studies on bicycling under the influence (BUI). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of BUI and the associated risk factors in a representative Korean population. The data of 4,833 adult bicyclists who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012) were analyzed. Among the 4,833 participants investigated in this study, 586 (12.1%) had experienced BUI. As participants' age increased, so did the prevalence of BUI (P < 0.001), with the participants who were aged 60-69 showing the highest prevalence of BUI (19.6%). With regard to BUI and drinking habits, the likelihood of being a heavy or high-risk drinker increased with the frequency of BUI (P < 0.001). In addition, there was a positive relationship between the frequency of BUI and alcohol use disorder identification score level. Finally, those who had previous experiences of BUI were significantly more likely to drive and ride motorcycles under the influence (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the prevalence of BUI was 12.1% and several associated risk factors for BUI were elucidated in this study. The development of specific preventive strategies and educational programs aimed at deterring individuals at a high risk of engaging in BUI is expected to reduce the number of alcohol-related bicycle injuries. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  14. Validation of a Theory of Planned Behavior-Based Questionnaire to Examine Factors Associated With Milk Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yeon K; Dinour, Lauren M

    2017-11-01

    A proper assessment of multidimensional needs for breastfeeding mothers in various settings is crucial to facilitate and support breastfeeding and its exclusivity. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has been used frequently to measure factors associated with breastfeeding. Full utility of the TPB requires accurate measurement of theory constructs. Research aim: This study aimed to develop and confirm the psychometric properties of an instrument, Milk Expression on Campus, based on the TPB and to establish the reliability and validity of the instrument. In spring 2015, 218 breastfeeding (current or in the recent past) employees and students at one university campus in northern New Jersey completed the online questionnaire containing demography and theory-based items. Internal consistency (α) and split-half reliability ( r) tests and factor analyses established and confirmed the reliability and construct validity of this instrument. Milk Expression on Campus showed strong and significant reliabilities as a full scale (α = .78, r = .74, p theory construct subscales. Validity was confirmed as psychometric properties corresponded to the factors extracted from the scale. Four factors extracted from the direct construct subscales accounted for 79.49% of the total variability. Four distinct factors from the indirect construct subscales accounted for 73.68% of the total variability. Milk Expression on Campus can serve as a model TPB-based instrument to examine factors associated with women's milk expression behavior. The utility of this instrument extends to designing effective promotion programs to foster breastfeeding and milk expression behaviors in diverse settings.

  15. Examining the Role of Voluntary Associations in Environmental Management: The Case of the Sam Houston National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiaying; Schuett, Michael A.

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of voluntary associations involved in forest management. The specific areas examined in this study include organizational attributes, membership profile, attitudes toward forest-management priorities, and concerns about forest-management issues. To achieve this purpose, data were collected using a case study approach with mixed-methods (document reviews, personal interviews, and a Web survey) at a national forest in Texas, USA. Overall, the voluntary associations in this study can be described as place-based, small to moderate in scale, activity-oriented, and active groups that are adaptive to sociopolitical and environmental changes. General group members placed high importance on aesthetic, ecological, and recreation management of the national forest. In addition, this study showed five key forest management issues: (1) limited recreation access; (2) financial challenges for forest management; (3) conflict among recreation user groups; (4) inadequate communication by the United States Forest Service to the general public, and (5) sustainability of the forest. Theoretical and managerial implications of the results are discussed.

  16. Examination of the association between mental health, morbidity, and mortality in late life: findings from longitudinal community surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Richard A; Butterworth, Peter; Browning, Colette; Byles, Julie; Luszcz, Mary; Mitchell, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2015-05-01

    Physical health has been demonstrated to mediate the mental health and mortality risk association. The current study examines an alternative hypothesis that mental health mediates the effect of physical health on mortality risk. Participants (N = 14,019; women = 91%), including eventual decedents (n = 3,752), were aged 70 years and older, and drawn from the Dynamic Analyses to Optimise Ageing (DYNOPTA) project. Participants were observed on two to four occasions, over a 10-year period. Mediation analysis compared the converse mediation of physical and mental health on mortality risk. For men, neither physical nor mental health was associated with mortality risk. For women, poor mental health reported only a small effect on mortality risk (Hazard Risk (HR) = 1.01; p physical health (HR = 1.04; p effects were observed. Mental health effects on mortality were fully attenuated by physical health in men, and partially so in women. Neither mental nor physical health mediated the effect of each other on mortality risk for either gender. We conclude that physical health is a stronger predictor of mortality risk than mental health.

  17. The association of physical examination abnormalities and carboxyhemoglobin concentrations in 21 dogs trapped in a kennel fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Elizabeth A; Mazzaferro, Elisa M; McKiernan, Brendan C; Drobatz, Kenneth J

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate physical examination findings and their association with carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) concentrations in 21 dogs that were exposed to smoke during a kennel fire. Twenty-one dogs were exposed to a kennel fire. Physical exam findings, presenting, and posttherapy COHb concentrations as well as therapeutic interventions were evaluated. COHb concentrations upon presentation were increased in all smoke inhalation exposed dogs. These dogs were compared to a small set of clinically normal staff-owned dogs who were not exposed to fire. Physical parameters significantly associated with higher COHb concentrations included lower body temperature, increased respiratory effort, abnormal respiratory auscultation, altered neurologic status, and length of hospital stay. Oxygen therapy resulted in a more rapid decline in COHb concentrations although 5 dogs still had mildly increased COHb concentrations 24-hour postadmission. This study describes the relationship of admitting clinical findings of dogs exposed to a kennel fire with their initial blood COHb concentrations. It also describes the resolution of increased COHb concentrations with use of oxygen therapy and hospitalization. Additionally, COHb concentrations for a control group of dogs was evaluated and compared to the dogs exposed to smoke inhalation. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  18. Affect and subsequent physical activity: An ambulatory assessment study examining the affect-activity association in a real-life context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eNiermann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cognitive, motivational and volitional determinants have been used to explain and predict health behaviors such as physical activity. Recently, the role of affect in influencing and regulating health behaviors received more attention. Affects as internal cues may automatically activate unconscious processes of behavior regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the association between affect and physical activity in daily life. In addition, we studied the influence of the habit of being physically active on this relationship.An ambulatory assessment study in 89 persons (33.7% male, 25 to 65 years, M=45.2, SD=8.1 was conducted. Affect was assessed in the afternoon on 5 weekdays using smartphones. Physical activity was measured continuously objectively using accelerometers and subjectively using smartphones in the evening. Habit strength was assessed at the beginning of the diary period. The outcomes were objectively and subjectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA performed after work. Multilevel regression models were used to analyze the association between affect and after work MVPA. In addition, the cross-level interaction of habit strength and affect on after work MVPA was tested.Positive affect was positively related to objectively measured and self-reported after work MVPA: the greater the positive affect the more time persons subsequently spent on MVPA. An inverse relationship was found for negative affect: the greater the negative affect the less time persons spent on MVPA. The cross-level interaction effect was significant only for objectively measured MVPA. A strong habit seems to strengthen both the positive influence of positive affect and the negative influence of negative affect.The results of this study confirm previous results and indicate that affect plays an important role for the regulation of physical activity behavior in daily life. The results for positive affect were consistent

  19. Affect and Subsequent Physical Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Study Examining the Affect-Activity Association in a Real-Life Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niermann, Christina Y N; Herrmann, Christian; von Haaren, Birte; van Kann, Dave; Woll, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, cognitive, motivational, and volitional determinants have been used to explain and predict health behaviors such as physical activity. Recently, the role of affect in influencing and regulating health behaviors received more attention. Affects as internal cues may automatically activate unconscious processes of behavior regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the association between affect and physical activity in daily life. In addition, we studied the influence of the habit of being physically active on this relationship. An ambulatory assessment study in 89 persons (33.7% male, 25 to 65 years, M = 45.2, SD = 8.1) was conducted. Affect was assessed in the afternoon on 5 weekdays using smartphones. Physical activity was measured continuously objectively using accelerometers and subjectively using smartphones in the evening. Habit strength was assessed at the beginning of the diary period. The outcomes were objectively and subjectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) performed after work. Multilevel regression models were used to analyze the association between affect and after work MVPA. In addition, the cross-level interaction of habit strength and affect on after work MVPA was tested. Positive affect was positively related to objectively measured and self-reported after work MVPA: the greater the positive affect the more time persons subsequently spent on MVPA. An inverse relationship was found for negative affect: the greater the negative affect the less time persons spent on MVPA. The cross-level interaction effect was significant only for objectively measured MVPA. A strong habit seems to strengthen both the positive influence of positive affect and the negative influence of negative affect. The results of this study confirm previous results and indicate that affect plays an important role for the regulation of physical activity behavior in daily life. The results for positive affect were consistent. However, in

  20. Intake of added sugars is not associated with weight measures in children 6 to 18 years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies examining an association between consumption of added sugars (AS) and weight measures in children are inconclusive. This study examined the association between intake of AS and 5 measures of weight or adiposity using a nationally recent representative sample of children. National Health and ...

  1. Cohort profile for the Nurture Observational Study examining associations of multiple caregivers on infant growth in the Southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Østbye, Truls; Bennett, Gary G; Kravitz, Richard M; Clancy, Shayna M; Stroo, Marissa; Iversen, Edwin; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2017-02-08

    Childcare has been associated with obesity in children in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, although some observed no association. Few studies have focused on care during infancy, a period when children may be especially vulnerable. The Nurture Study is an observational birth cohort designed to assess longitudinal associations of childcare and the presence of multiple caregivers on infant adiposity and weight trajectories throughout the first year of life. We examine as potential mediators feeding, physical activity, sleep and stress. We completed recruitment in 2015. Of the 860 women who enrolled during pregnancy, 799 delivered a single live infant who met our inclusion criteria. Of those, 666 mothers (77.4%) agreed to participate in the study for themselves and their infants. Among the 666 women in the study, 472 (71%) identified as black, 127 (19%) as white, 7 (1%) as Asian or Asian American, 6 (1%) as Native American and 49 (7%) as other race or more than one race; 43 (7%) identified as Hispanic/Latina. Just under half (48%) had a high school diploma or less, 61% had household incomes <$20 000/year and 59% were married or living with a partner. The mean (SD) infant gestational age was 41.28 weeks (2.29) and birth weight for gestational age z-score was -0.31 (0.93). Just under half (49%) of infants were females, 69% received some human milk and 40% were exclusively breast fed at hospital discharge. Data collection began in 2013, is currently underway, and is scheduled to conclude in late 2016. Results will help assess the magnitude of associations between childcare in infancy and subsequent obesity. Findings will also inform intervention and policy efforts to improve childcare environments and help prevent obesity in settings where many infants spend time. Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01788644. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, S J

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin predominantly affecting elderly Caucasians. It has a high rate of local recurrence and regional lymph node metastases. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Complete spontaneous regression of Merkel cell carcinoma has been reported but is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here we present a case of complete spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma demonstrating a markedly different pattern of events from those previously published.

  3. Polynomial regression analysis and significance test of the regression function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhengming; Zhao Juan; He Shengping

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze the decay heating power of a certain radioactive isotope per kilogram with polynomial regression method, the paper firstly demonstrated the broad usage of polynomial function and deduced its parameters with ordinary least squares estimate. Then significance test method of polynomial regression function is derived considering the similarity between the polynomial regression model and the multivariable linear regression model. Finally, polynomial regression analysis and significance test of the polynomial function are done to the decay heating power of the iso tope per kilogram in accord with the authors' real work. (authors)

  4. Recursive Algorithm For Linear Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanasi, S. V.

    1988-01-01

    Order of model determined easily. Linear-regression algorithhm includes recursive equations for coefficients of model of increased order. Algorithm eliminates duplicative calculations, facilitates search for minimum order of linear-regression model fitting set of data satisfactory.

  5. Examining anxiety sensitivity as a mediator of the association between PTSD symptoms and suicide risk among women firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-08-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are associated with increased suicide risk. Anxiety sensitivity (AS)-the fear of anxiety-related sensations-is both a vulnerability factor for and consequence of PTSD symptoms. AS also predicts suicide risk. To our knowledge, no study has examined whether AS concerns account for the association between PTSD symptoms and suicide risk. A total of 254 women firefighters completed a web-based mental health survey. The Life Events Checklist for DSM-5 (LEC-5) was administered as a prelude to the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) to assess for exposure to a Criterion A event. The PCL-5, Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), and Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) were utilized to assess PTSD symptoms, AS concerns, and suicide risk, respectively. Bootstrap mediation analyses were conducted, controlling for depression symptoms as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Revised (CESD-R). Global and cognitive AS concerns, but neither physical nor social AS concerns, were statistically significant mediators of the relationship between PTSD symptoms (total score, re-experiencing and numbing clusters) and suicide risk. Alternate mediation models testing PTSD symptoms as a mediator of the relationship between AS concerns and suicide risk were not statistically significant, supporting the specificity of our proposed model. Anxiety sensitivity concerns-specifically, cognitive AS concerns-account for the link between PTSD symptoms and suicide risk among women firefighters. Among firefighters with elevated PTSD symptoms, interventions that address cognitive AS concerns may thwart the trajectory to suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Factors associated with activities of daily living (ADL) in independently living elderly persons in a community: a baseline examination of a large scale cohort study, Fujiwara-kyo study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Masayo; Nezu, Satoko; Tomioka, Kimiko; Hazaki, Kan; Harano, Akihiro; Morikawa, Masayuki; Takagi, Masahiro; Yamada, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Iwamoto, Junko; Ishizuka, Rika; Saeki, Keigo; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kurumatani, Norio

    2013-01-01

    To investigate factors associated with activities of daily living in independently living elderly persons in a community. The potential subjects were 4,472 individuals aged 65 years and older who voluntarily participated in a large cohort study, the Fujiwara-kyo study. We used self-administered questionnaires consisting of an activities of daily living (ADL) questionnaire with the Physical Fitness Test established by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (12 ADL items) to determine the index of higher-level physical independence, demographics, Geriatric Depression Scale, and so on. Mini-mental state examination, measurement of physical fitness, and blood tests were also carried out. A lower ADL level was defined as having a total score of the 12 ADL items (range, 12-36 points) that was below the first quartile of a total score for all the subjects. Factors associated with a low ADL level were examined by multiple logistic regression. A total of 4,198 remained as subjects for analysis. The male, female and 5-year-old groups showed significant differences in the median score of 12 ADL items between any two groups. The highest odds ratio among factors associated with lower ADL level by multiple logistic regression with mutually adjusted independent variables was 4.49 (95%CI: 2.82-7.17) in the groups of "very sharp pain" or "strong pain" during the last month. Low physical ability, self-awareness of limb weakness, a BMI of over 25, low physical activity, cerebrovascular disorder, depression, low cognitive function, unable "to see normally", unable "to hear someone", "muscle, bone and joint pain" were independently associated with lower ADL level. Multiple factors are associated with lower ADL level assessed on the basis of the 12 ADL items.

  7. Examining the associations between DSM-5 section III antisocial personality disorder traits and psychopathy in community and university samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jaime L; Sellbom, Martin; Wygant, Dustin B; Salekin, Randall T; Krueger, Robert F

    2014-10-01

    The current investigation examined the associations between personality traits representing DSM-5 Section III Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD), its psychopathy specifier, and contemporary models of psychopathic personality disorder. We used two samples consisting of university students (n = 463) and community-dwelling participants (n = 148) recruited for subclinical psychopathic proclivities. Both samples were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (Krueger et al., 2012), Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (Patrick, 2010), and versions of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005). University students also completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders-Personality Questionnaire (First, Gibbon, Spitzer, Williams, & Benjamin, 1997). Across both samples, the Section III ASPD traits were moderately strongly correlated with psychopathy measures, except the fearless-dominance/boldness domain. However, as would be expected, traits representing the Section III psychopathy specifier accounted for a substantial amount of variance within this domain. Furthermore, additional DSM-5 Section III personality traits augmented the characterization of psychopathy from the PPI and Triarchic perspectives.

  8. Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zura Kakushadze

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.

  9. Regression in autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanatos, Gerry A

    2008-12-01

    A significant proportion of children diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder experience a developmental regression characterized by a loss of previously-acquired skills. This may involve a loss of speech or social responsitivity, but often entails both. This paper critically reviews the phenomena of regression in autistic spectrum disorders, highlighting the characteristics of regression, age of onset, temporal course, and long-term outcome. Important considerations for diagnosis are discussed and multiple etiological factors currently hypothesized to underlie the phenomenon are reviewed. It is argued that regressive autistic spectrum disorders can be conceptualized on a spectrum with other regressive disorders that may share common pathophysiological features. The implications of this viewpoint are discussed.

  10. The Association between Stress Level in Daily Life and Age at Natural Menopause in Korean Women: Outcomes of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byoung-O; Lee, Yeon-Ji; Choi, Ji-Ho; Cho, Se-Wook; Im, Hyun-Jung; An, Jee-Eun

    2015-11-01

    Although several risk factors associated with reduced age at natural menopause (ANM) have been investigated, the results are inconsistent. Excessive stress, which leads to elevation of stress hormones, can also negatively affect reproductive ability, including by accelerating menopause. However, a direct association between stress level and ANM has not yet been demonstrated. Therefore, the object of this study was to investigate the association between stress level and ANM in Korean women. Study participants were Korean women between 40 and 70 years old who were in natural menopause during the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n=3,176). The level of stress in daily life was estimated based on data from the mental health topics of the survey. We used the t-test and one-way analysis of variance to analyze the correlation between stress level and ANM. Regression (β) coefficients calculated by multiple regression analysis were used to estimate various factors affecting ANM. Women who experienced a high level of stress in daily life had a lower mean ANM than women with a low stress level (50.17±3.7 and 50.58±3.5 years, respectively), with a statistically significant correlation (Page, body mass index, menstrual regularity, and personal income (Page who are in natural menopause, there is a statistically significant correlation between stress level and ANM. In particular, women who experience a high level of stress in daily life have reduced ANM.

  11. Linear regression in astronomy. I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Takashi; Feigelson, Eric D.; Akritas, Michael G.; Babu, Gutti Jogesh

    1990-01-01

    Five methods for obtaining linear regression fits to bivariate data with unknown or insignificant measurement errors are discussed: ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression of Y on X, OLS regression of X on Y, the bisector of the two OLS lines, orthogonal regression, and 'reduced major-axis' regression. These methods have been used by various researchers in observational astronomy, most importantly in cosmic distance scale applications. Formulas for calculating the slope and intercept coefficients and their uncertainties are given for all the methods, including a new general form of the OLS variance estimates. The accuracy of the formulas was confirmed using numerical simulations. The applicability of the procedures is discussed with respect to their mathematical properties, the nature of the astronomical data under consideration, and the scientific purpose of the regression. It is found that, for problems needing symmetrical treatment of the variables, the OLS bisector performs significantly better than orthogonal or reduced major-axis regression.

  12. Online Reviews as Health Data: Examining the Association Between Availability of Health Care Services and Patient Star Ratings Exemplified by the Yelp Academic Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nam N; Lee, Joon

    2017-07-12

    There have been public health interventions that aim to reduce barriers to health care access by extending opening hours of health care facilities. However, the impact of opening hours from the patient's perspective is not well understood. This study aims to investigate the relationship between temporal accessibility of health care services and how patients rate the providers on Yelp, an online review website that is popular in the United States. Using crowdsourced open Internet data, such as Yelp, can help circumvent the traditional survey method. From Yelp's limited academic dataset, this study examined the pattern of visits to health care providers and performed a secondary analysis to examine the association between patient rating (measured by Yelp's rating) and temporal accessibility of health care services (measured by opening hours) using ordinal logistic regression models. Other covariates included were whether an appointment was required, the type of health care service, the region of the health care service provider, the number of reviews the health care service provider received in the past, the number of nearby competitors, the mean rating of competitors, and the standard deviation of competitors' ratings. From the 2085 health care service providers identified, opening hours during certain periods, the type of health care service, and the variability of competitors' ratings showed an association with patient rating. Most of the visits to health care service providers took place between normal working hours (9 AM-5 PM) from Sunday to Thursday, and the least on Saturday. A model fitted to the entire sample showed that increasing hours during normal working hours on Monday (OR 0.926, 95% CI 0.880-0.973, P=0.03), Saturday (OR 0.897, 95% CI 0.860-0.935, P<0.001), Sunday (OR 0.904, 95% CI 0.841-0.970, P=0.005), and outside normal working hours on Friday (OR 0.872, 95% CI 0.760-0.998, P=0.048) was associated with receiving lower ratings. But increasing hours

  13. Advanced statistics: linear regression, part I: simple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marill, Keith A

    2004-01-01

    Simple linear regression is a mathematical technique used to model the relationship between a single independent predictor variable and a single dependent outcome variable. In this, the first of a two-part series exploring concepts in linear regression analysis, the four fundamental assumptions and the mechanics of simple linear regression are reviewed. The most common technique used to derive the regression line, the method of least squares, is described. The reader will be acquainted with other important concepts in simple linear regression, including: variable transformations, dummy variables, relationship to inference testing, and leverage. Simplified clinical examples with small datasets and graphic models are used to illustrate the points. This will provide a foundation for the second article in this series: a discussion of multiple linear regression, in which there are multiple predictor variables.

  14. Longer sitting time and low physical activity are closely associated with chronic low back pain in population over 50 years of age: a cross-sectional study using the sixth korea national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Min; Kim, Ho-Joong; Jeong, Hyunseok; Kim, Hyoungmin; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Yeom, Jin S

    2018-04-17

    There is increasing evidence supporting an association between sitting time and low back pain (LBP). However, the degree of the association between the total daily sitting time and LBP in the general population is poorly understood. (1) To analyze the association between the duration of sitting time and LBP, and (2) to examine this association according to the degree of physical activity in population over 50 years of age with a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. A cross-sectional study PATIENT SAMPLE: Data from version VI-2, 3 of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) performed in 2014 and 2015. Multiple logistic regression was performed to find the rates of association between chronic LBP, level of sitting time, and physical activity. Nationwide Health surveys and examinations were conducted in general Korean representative populations (n = 7,550 in 2014, n = 7,380 in 2015). Chronic LBP was defined as self-reported LBP lasting for more than 30 days during the past 3 months in a health survey. Sitting time and daily physical activity were evaluated using the long version of the international physical activity questionnaires (IPAQ). The duration of sitting time was divided into 2 categories according to the median value (7 hours), and further divided into 4 categories using quartiles. Physical activity was also divided into low and high physical activity according to duration of mid- to high-intensity activities. There were no sources of funding and no conflicts of interest associated with this study. On multiple logistic regression analysis, sitting time more than 7 hours/day was significantly associated with LBP (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 1.33, pphysical activity, the duration of sitting time showed more positive association with LBP than that in all the participants and participants with high levels of physical activity. Longer duration of sitting time is a risk factor for LBP. Furthermore, long duration of sitting

  15. Colorectal cancer screening at US community health centers: Examination of sociodemographic disparities and association with patient-provider communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sue C; McKinley, Duane; Sripipatana, Alek; Makaroff, Laura

    2017-11-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates are low among underserved populations. High-quality patient-physician communication potentially influences patients' willingness to undergo CRC screening. Community health centers (HCs) provide comprehensive primary health care to underserved populations. This study's objectives were to ascertain national CRC screening rates and to explore the relations between sociodemographic characteristics and patient-provider communication on the receipt of CRC screening among HC patients. Using 2014 Health Center Patient Survey data, bivariate and multivariate analyses examined the association of sociodemographic variables (sex, race/ethnicity, age, geography, preferred language, household income, insurance, and employment status) and patient-provider communication with the receipt of CRC screening. Patients between the ages of 65 and 75 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-4.64) and patients not in the labor force (aOR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.37-3.94) had higher odds of receiving CRC screening, whereas patients who were uninsured (aOR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.18-0.61) and patients who were non-English-speaking (aOR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18-0.99) had lower odds. Patient-provider communication was not associated with the receipt of CRC screening. The CRC screening rate for HC patients was 57.9%, whereas the rate was 65.1% according to the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and 58.2% according to the 2013 National Health Interview Survey. The high ratings of patient-provider communication, regardless of the screening status, suggest strides toward a patient-centered medical home practice transformation that will assist in a positive patient experience. Addressing the lack of insurance, making culturally and linguistically appropriate patient education materials available, and training clinicians and care teams in cultural competency are critical for increasing future CRC screening rates. Cancer 2017

  16. An Examination of the Association of Social Media Use with the Satisfaction with Daily Routines and Healthy Lifestyle Habits for Undergraduate and Graduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Melanie Austin-McCain

    2017-01-01

    Background: Social media use has become an integral daily occupation of college and graduate students. In the United States, 90% of adults aged 18 to 29 years use social media (Pew Internet, 2015). Positive and negative data has been found which examined associations between social media use and other daily occupations (activities) that impact emotional and physical health. The purpose of this study is to examine the association of social media use with the satisfaction of daily r...

  17. Linear regression in astronomy. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Babu, Gutti J.

    1992-01-01

    A wide variety of least-squares linear regression procedures used in observational astronomy, particularly investigations of the cosmic distance scale, are presented and discussed. The classes of linear models considered are (1) unweighted regression lines, with bootstrap and jackknife resampling; (2) regression solutions when measurement error, in one or both variables, dominates the scatter; (3) methods to apply a calibration line to new data; (4) truncated regression models, which apply to flux-limited data sets; and (5) censored regression models, which apply when nondetections are present. For the calibration problem we develop two new procedures: a formula for the intercept offset between two parallel data sets, which propagates slope errors from one regression to the other; and a generalization of the Working-Hotelling confidence bands to nonstandard least-squares lines. They can provide improved error analysis for Faber-Jackson, Tully-Fisher, and similar cosmic distance scale relations.

  18. Time-adaptive quantile regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Madsen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    and an updating procedure are combined into a new algorithm for time-adaptive quantile regression, which generates new solutions on the basis of the old solution, leading to savings in computation time. The suggested algorithm is tested against a static quantile regression model on a data set with wind power......An algorithm for time-adaptive quantile regression is presented. The algorithm is based on the simplex algorithm, and the linear optimization formulation of the quantile regression problem is given. The observations have been split to allow a direct use of the simplex algorithm. The simplex method...... production, where the models combine splines and quantile regression. The comparison indicates superior performance for the time-adaptive quantile regression in all the performance parameters considered....

  19. The MIDAS Touch: Mixed Data Sampling Regression Models

    OpenAIRE

    Ghysels, Eric; Santa-Clara, Pedro; Valkanov, Rossen

    2004-01-01

    We introduce Mixed Data Sampling (henceforth MIDAS) regression models. The regressions involve time series data sampled at different frequencies. Technically speaking MIDAS models specify conditional expectations as a distributed lag of regressors recorded at some higher sampling frequencies. We examine the asymptotic properties of MIDAS regression estimation and compare it with traditional distributed lag models. MIDAS regressions have wide applicability in macroeconomics and �nance.

  20. Quantile regression theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Davino, Cristina; Vistocco, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    A guide to the implementation and interpretation of Quantile Regression models This book explores the theory and numerous applications of quantile regression, offering empirical data analysis as well as the software tools to implement the methods. The main focus of this book is to provide the reader with a comprehensivedescription of the main issues concerning quantile regression; these include basic modeling, geometrical interpretation, estimation and inference for quantile regression, as well as issues on validity of the model, diagnostic tools. Each methodological aspect is explored and

  1. Regression: The Apple Does Not Fall Far From the Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Thomas R; Schober, Patrick

    2018-05-15

    Researchers and clinicians are frequently interested in either: (1) assessing whether there is a relationship or association between 2 or more variables and quantifying this association; or (2) determining whether 1 or more variables can predict another variable. The strength of such an association is mainly described by the correlation. However, regression analysis and regression models can be used not only to identify whether there is a significant relationship or association between variables but also to generate estimations of such a predictive relationship between variables. This basic statistical tutorial discusses the fundamental concepts and techniques related to the most common types of regression analysis and modeling, including simple linear regression, multiple regression, logistic regression, ordinal regression, and Poisson regression, as well as the common yet often underrecognized phenomenon of regression toward the mean. The various types of regression analysis are powerful statistical techniques, which when appropriately applied, can allow for the valid interpretation of complex, multifactorial data. Regression analysis and models can assess whether there is a relationship or association between 2 or more observed variables and estimate the strength of this association, as well as determine whether 1 or more variables can predict another variable. Regression is thus being applied more commonly in anesthesia, perioperative, critical care, and pain research. However, it is crucial to note that regression can identify plausible risk factors; it does not prove causation (a definitive cause and effect relationship). The results of a regression analysis instead identify independent (predictor) variable(s) associated with the dependent (outcome) variable. As with other statistical methods, applying regression requires that certain assumptions be met, which can be tested with specific diagnostics.

  2. Return-Volatility Relationship: Insights from Linear and Non-Linear Quantile Regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); A.K. Singh (Abhay); R.J. Powell (Robert); M.J. McAleer (Michael); J. Taylor (James); L. Thomas (Lyn)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this paper is to examine the asymmetric relationship between price and implied volatility and the associated extreme quantile dependence using linear and non linear quantile regression approach. Our goal in this paper is to demonstrate that the relationship between the

  3. Examination of Growth Hormone (GH) Gene Polymorphism and its Association with Body Weight and Selected Body Dimensions in Ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurowski, Artur; Frieske, Anna; Kokoszynski, Dariusz; Mroczkowski, Sławomir; Bernacki, Zenon; Wilkanowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess the polymorphism in intron 2 of the GH gene and its association with some morphological traits (body weight--BW, length of trunk with neck--LTN, length of trunk--LT, chest girth--CG, length of breast bone--LBB, length of shank--LS). Polymorphism in intron 2 of the GH gene was evaluated for four duck populations (Pekin ducks AF51, Muscovy ducks from a CK and CRAMMLCFF mother and Mulard ducks). Genetic polymorphism was determined with the PCR-RFLP method using the BsmFI restriction enzyme. In the studied duck sample two alleles (GH(C) and GH(T)) and three genotypes (GH/TT, GH/CT, GH/CC) were found at locus GH/BsmFI. In both groups of Muscovies and in Mulards the dominant allele was GH(T). On the contrary in Pekin ducks AF51, the frequency of both alleles was found to be similar. The most frequent genotype in the examined ducks was GH/TT. In Pekin ducks AF51 three genotypes were observed, while in Mulard ducks and in male Muscovy ducks from a mother marked as CK, two genotypes (GH/TT and GH/CT) were identified. Muscovy duck females from a CK mother and all males and females of Muscovy duck from a CRAMMLCFF mother were monomorphic with only the GH/TTgenotype detected. The results showed that males of Pekin duck AF51 with the GH/TT genotype were characterized by higher (P ducks AF51, this same trend was observed; individuals with GH/TT genotype were superior (P ducks with the GH/TT genotype were distinguished by higher values of all evaluated traits compared to ducks with GH/CT and GH/CC genotypes, however most of the recorded differences were not significant. The only trait markedly impacted (P < 0.05) by the polymorphism of the GH gene intron 2 was the LS value in males.

  4. Snacking is associated with reduced risk of overweight and reduced abdominal obesity in adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snacking is common in adolescents; however, it is unclear if there is an association between snacking and overweight or obesity within the context of the overall diet. This study examined the associations of snacking with weight status and abdominal obesity in adolescents 12–18 y of age (n = 5811). ...

  5. Superquantile Regression: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, Va 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington DC 20503. 1...Navy submariners, reliability engineering, uncertainty quantification, and financial risk management . Superquantile, superquantile regression...Royset Carlos F. Borges Associate Professor of Operations Research Dissertation Supervisor Professor of Applied Mathematics Lyn R. Whitaker Javier

  6. Panel Smooth Transition Regression Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González, Andrés; Terasvirta, Timo; Dijk, Dick van

    We introduce the panel smooth transition regression model. This new model is intended for characterizing heterogeneous panels, allowing the regression coefficients to vary both across individuals and over time. Specifically, heterogeneity is allowed for by assuming that these coefficients are bou...

  7. Testing discontinuities in nonparametric regression

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wenlin

    2017-01-19

    In nonparametric regression, it is often needed to detect whether there are jump discontinuities in the mean function. In this paper, we revisit the difference-based method in [13 H.-G. Müller and U. Stadtmüller, Discontinuous versus smooth regression, Ann. Stat. 27 (1999), pp. 299–337. doi: 10.1214/aos/1018031100

  8. Testing discontinuities in nonparametric regression

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wenlin; Zhou, Yuejin; Tong, Tiejun

    2017-01-01

    In nonparametric regression, it is often needed to detect whether there are jump discontinuities in the mean function. In this paper, we revisit the difference-based method in [13 H.-G. Müller and U. Stadtmüller, Discontinuous versus smooth regression, Ann. Stat. 27 (1999), pp. 299–337. doi: 10.1214/aos/1018031100

  9. Logistic Regression: Concept and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokluk, Omay

    2010-01-01

    The main focus of logistic regression analysis is classification of individuals in different groups. The aim of the present study is to explain basic concepts and processes of binary logistic regression analysis intended to determine the combination of independent variables which best explain the membership in certain groups called dichotomous…

  10. Associations between Young Adult Romantic Relationship Quality and Problem Behaviors: An Examination of Personality-Environment Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined person-environment interplay by testing interaction effects between adolescent personality type (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, and resilients) and young adult romantic relationship quality on young adult delinquency and anxiety. The study employed six

  11. Associations between young adult romantic relationship quality and problem behaviors : An examination of personality-environment interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, W.H.J.

    This longitudinal study examined person–environment interplay by testing interaction effects between adolescent personality type (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, and resilients) and young adult romantic relationship quality on young adult delinquency and anxiety. The study employed six

  12. Examining the design and developmental factors associated with crashes involving pedestrians, cyclists, and motorists in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    "Using a parcel-level database of crash incidence and urban form developed for the San Antonio-Bexar : County metropolitan region, this study examined how urban form-related variables affect the incidence of : crashes involving pedestrians, bicyclist...

  13. Is past life regression therapy ethical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Past life regression therapy is used by some physicians in cases with some mental diseases. Anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and gender dysphoria have all been treated using life regression therapy by some doctors on the assumption that they reflect problems in past lives. Although it is not supported by psychiatric associations, few medical associations have actually condemned it as unethical. In this article, I argue that past life regression therapy is unethical for two basic reasons. First, it is not evidence-based. Past life regression is based on the reincarnation hypothesis, but this hypothesis is not supported by evidence, and in fact, it faces some insurmountable conceptual problems. If patients are not fully informed about these problems, they cannot provide an informed consent, and hence, the principle of autonomy is violated. Second, past life regression therapy has the great risk of implanting false memories in patients, and thus, causing significant harm. This is a violation of the principle of non-malfeasance, which is surely the most important principle in medical ethics.

  14. 100% orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy, decreased risk for obesity, and improved biomarkers of health in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Rampersaud, Gail C; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2012-12-12

    Consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ) has been positively associated with nutrient adequacy and diet quality, with no increased risk of overweight/obesity in children; however, no one has examined these factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of 100% OJ consumption with nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a nationally representative sample of adults. Data from adults 19+ years of age (n = 8,861) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 were used. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the usual intake (UI) of 100% OJ consumption, selected nutrients, and food groups. Percentages of the population below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or above the Adequate Intake (AI) were determined. Diet quality was measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Covariate adjusted logistic regression was used to determine if consumers had a lower odds ratio of being overweight or obese or having risk factors of MetS or MetS. Usual per capita intake of 100% OJ was 50.3 ml/d. Among consumers (n = 2,310; 23.8%), UI was 210.0 ml/d. Compared to non-consumers, consumers had a higher (p juice, whole fruit, and whole grain. Consumers had a lower (p diet.

  15. Fungible weights in logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeff A; Waller, Niels G

    2016-06-01

    In this article we develop methods for assessing parameter sensitivity in logistic regression models. To set the stage for this work, we first review Waller's (2008) equations for computing fungible weights in linear regression. Next, we describe 2 methods for computing fungible weights in logistic regression. To demonstrate the utility of these methods, we compute fungible logistic regression weights using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (2010) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey, and we illustrate how these alternate weights can be used to evaluate parameter sensitivity. To make our work accessible to the research community, we provide R code (R Core Team, 2015) that will generate both kinds of fungible logistic regression weights. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The Association Between Long Working Hours and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Older Aged Individuals: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongin; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul

    2018-05-22

    To show the association of hs-CRP level with working hours in different age groups. We used data from Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of variables for elevated hs-CRP (> 3.0 mg/L) were generated with logistic regression models. Significant variables were verified with an adjusted multivariate logistic model after stratification of age groups. Working for more than 55 hours per week was associated with elevated hs-CRP level in the old-ages group (≥ 60 years old: OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.07-4.45). Working for 40-55 hours per week was associated with decreased hs-CRP in the young-ages group (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37-0.93). Working hours appear to influence the levels of hs-CRP in individuals aged older than 60 years.

  17. A very accurate method for sentinel lymph node investigation: Gamma detecting probe associated with SPECT examination for depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascoli, G.; Cinti, P.; Nonni, M.; Rossi, B.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: aim of this study is to magnify the lymphoscintigraphy examination by gamma probe with SPECT acquisition for very accurate detection of depth of axilla node in patients affected by melanoma. Methods: according to physiological peculiarities the lymphatic system plays a very important role and represents the most important barrier to neoplastic cells spreading. The 'sentinel node' is the first lymph node draining the affected area. The tendency for surgery is a 'preventive' axillary dissection, even in presence of a clinically negative examination. In fact a high percentage of clinically negative lymph node shows a positive histology (presence of metastatic cells). The nuclear medicine method for researching 'sentinel node' is represented by a regional lymphoscintigraphy with normal gamma camera with a large field of view followed by examination with gamma detecting probe and, in following day, controlled in operating room to confirm the presence of the node early identified. We have completed this protocol with SPECT examination of affected axilla by use of injected laboratory capillary around axilla to perform an exact investigation of node depth. Discussion: Our experience in 150 cases in 18 months shows 100% of axilla 'sentinel node' detection, 25 cases with positive histologic examination and subsequently axillary dissection. Conclusions: In conclusion the scintigraphic examination with lymphoscintigraphy represents a good tool for management of patient with melanoma and the use of ''targeting' with collimated SPECT represent a very aid for the surgeon in reduction time for detection and dissection of lymph node, with high reduction of anesthesia duration

  18. Is breakfast skipping associated with physical activity among U.S. adolescents? A cross-sectional study of adolescents aged 12-19 years, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Jordan E; Huber, Larissa R; Warren-Findlow, Jan; Racine, Elizabeth F; Dmochowski, Jacek

    2014-04-01

    To examine the association between breakfast skipping and physical activity among US adolescents aged 12-19 years. A cross-sectional study of nationally representative 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Breakfast skipping was assessed by two 24 h dietary recalls. Physical activity was self-reported by participants and classified based on meeting national recommendations for physical activity for the appropriate age group. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to model the association between breakfast skipping and physical activity while controlling for confounders. A total of 936 adolescents aged 12-19 years in the USA. After adjusting for family income, there was no association between breakfast skipping and meeting physical activity guidelines for age among adolescents aged 12-19 years (OR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.56, 1.32). Findings from the study differ from previous research findings on breakfast skipping and physical activity. Therefore, further research that uses large, nationally representative US samples and national recommended guidelines for physical activity is needed.

  19. Regression to Causality : Regression-style presentation influences causal attribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordacconi, Mats Joe; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2014-01-01

    of equivalent results presented as either regression models or as a test of two sample means. Our experiment shows that the subjects who were presented with results as estimates from a regression model were more inclined to interpret these results causally. Our experiment implies that scholars using regression...... models – one of the primary vehicles for analyzing statistical results in political science – encourage causal interpretation. Specifically, we demonstrate that presenting observational results in a regression model, rather than as a simple comparison of means, makes causal interpretation of the results...... more likely. Our experiment drew on a sample of 235 university students from three different social science degree programs (political science, sociology and economics), all of whom had received substantial training in statistics. The subjects were asked to compare and evaluate the validity...

  20. Regression analysis with categorized regression calibrated exposure: some interesting findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjartåker Anette

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regression calibration as a method for handling measurement error is becoming increasingly well-known and used in epidemiologic research. However, the standard version of the method is not appropriate for exposure analyzed on a categorical (e.g. quintile scale, an approach commonly used in epidemiologic studies. A tempting solution could then be to use the predicted continuous exposure obtained through the regression calibration method and treat it as an approximation to the true exposure, that is, include the categorized calibrated exposure in the main regression analysis. Methods We use semi-analytical calculations and simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach compared to the naive approach of not correcting for measurement error, in situations where analyses are performed on quintile scale and when incorporating the original scale into the categorical variables, respectively. We also present analyses of real data, containing measures of folate intake and depression, from the Norwegian Women and Cancer study (NOWAC. Results In cases where extra information is available through replicated measurements and not validation data, regression calibration does not maintain important qualities of the true exposure distribution, thus estimates of variance and percentiles can be severely biased. We show that the outlined approach maintains much, in some cases all, of the misclassification found in the observed exposure. For that reason, regression analysis with the corrected variable included on a categorical scale is still biased. In some cases the corrected estimates are analytically equal to those obtained by the naive approach. Regression calibration is however vastly superior to the naive method when applying the medians of each category in the analysis. Conclusion Regression calibration in its most well-known form is not appropriate for measurement error correction when the exposure is analyzed on a

  1. Advanced statistics: linear regression, part II: multiple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marill, Keith A

    2004-01-01

    The applications of simple linear regression in medical research are limited, because in most situations, there are multiple relevant predictor variables. Univariate statistical techniques such as simple linear regression use a single predictor variable, and they often may be mathematically correct but clinically misleading. Multiple linear regression is a mathematical technique used to model the relationship between multiple independent predictor variables and a single dependent outcome variable. It is used in medical research to model observational data, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic studies in which the outcome is dependent on more than one factor. Although the technique generally is limited to data that can be expressed with a linear function, it benefits from a well-developed mathematical framework that yields unique solutions and exact confidence intervals for regression coefficients. Building on Part I of this series, this article acquaints the reader with some of the important concepts in multiple regression analysis. These include multicollinearity, interaction effects, and an expansion of the discussion of inference testing, leverage, and variable transformations to multivariate models. Examples from the first article in this series are expanded on using a primarily graphic, rather than mathematical, approach. The importance of the relationships among the predictor variables and the dependence of the multivariate model coefficients on the choice of these variables are stressed. Finally, concepts in regression model building are discussed.

  2. Friendship networks of inner-city adults: a latent class analysis and multi-level regression of supporter types and the association of supporter latent class membership with supporter and recipient drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, Amy S B; German, Danielle; Knowlton, Amy R; Latkin, Carl A

    2010-03-01

    Social support is a multi-dimensional construct that is important to drug use cessation. The present study identified types of supportive friends among the social network members in a community-based sample and examined the relationship of supporter-type classes with supporter, recipient, and supporter-recipient relationship characteristics. We hypothesized that the most supportive network members and their support recipients would be less likely to be current heroin/cocaine users. Participants (n=1453) were recruited from low-income neighborhoods with a high prevalence of drug use. Participants identified their friends via a network inventory, and all nominated friends were included in a latent class analysis and grouped based on their probability of providing seven types of support. These latent classes were included as the dependent variable in a multi-level regression of supporter drug use, recipient drug use, and other characteristics. The best-fitting latent class model identified five support patterns: friends who provided Little/No Support, Low/Moderate Support, High Support, Socialization Support, and Financial Support. In bivariate models, friends in the High, Low/Moderate, and Financial Support were less likely to use heroin or cocaine and had less conflict with and were more trusted by the support recipient than friends in the Low/No Support class. Individuals with supporters in those same support classes compared to the Low/No Support class were less likely to use heroin or cocaine, or to be homeless or female. Multivariable models suggested similar trends. Those with current heroin/cocaine use were less likely to provide or receive comprehensive support from friends. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Spare the Rod, Destroy the Child: Examining the Speculative Association of Corporal Punishment and Deviant Behavior among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to examine the relationship between the utilization of corporal punishment and its relationship to subsequent deviant behavior among youth. Fundamental aspects regarding corporal punishment (e.g. definition of corporal punishment, supportive and opposing arguments, etc.) are discussed. Socio-demographic factors…

  4. The Relationship between Bullying Victimization and School Avoidance: An Examination of Direct Associations, Protective Influences, and Aggravating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzell, Kirsten L.; Payne, Allison Ann

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the impact of bullying victimization on school avoidance by proposing the following hypotheses: (1) Net of other factors, students who have experienced bullying victimization are more likely to engage in school avoidance behaviors; (2) There are protective factors that will decrease this relationship between bullying…

  5. An Examination of the Associations among Multiple Memory Systems, Past Tense, and Vocabulary in Typically Developing 5-Year-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Kidd, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Considerable research has investigated the role of verbal working memory in language development in children with and without language problems. Much less is currently known about the relationship between language and the declarative and procedural memory systems. This study examined whether these 2 memory systems were related to…

  6. Estimation of breast doses and breast cancer risk associated with repeated fluoroscopic chest examinations of women with tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, J.D. Jr.; Rosenstein, M.; Trout, E.D.

    1978-01-01

    A methodology is presented to estimate cumulative breast dose and breast cancer risk for women exposed to repeated fluoroscopic chest examinations during air collapse therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis. Medical record abstraction, physician interview, patient contact, machine exposure measurements, and absorbed dose computations were combined to estimate average breast doses for 1047 Massachusetts women who were treated between 1930 and 1954. The methodology presented considers breast size and composition, patient orientation, x-ray field size and location, beam quality, type of examination, machine exposure rate, and exposure time during fluoroscopic examinations. The best estimate for the risk of radiation-induced cancer for the women living longer than 10 years after initial fluoroscopic exposure is 6.2 excess breast cancers per million woman-year-rad with 90% confidence limits of 2.8 and 10.7 cancers/10 6 WY-rad. When breast cancer risk is considered as a function of absorbed dose in the breast, instead of as a function of the number of fluoroscopic examinations, a linear dose--response relationship over the range of estimated doses is consistent with the data. However, because of the uncertainty due to small-sample variability and because of the wide range of assumptions regarding certain fluoroscopy conditions, other dose--response relationships are compatible with the data

  7. A simple approach to power and sample size calculations in logistic regression and Cox regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, Michael; Skovlund, Eva

    2004-06-15

    For a given regression problem it is possible to identify a suitably defined equivalent two-sample problem such that the power or sample size obtained for the two-sample problem also applies to the regression problem. For a standard linear regression model the equivalent two-sample problem is easily identified, but for generalized linear models and for Cox regression models the situation is more complicated. An approximately equivalent two-sample problem may, however, also be identified here. In particular, we show that for logistic regression and Cox regression models the equivalent two-sample problem is obtained by selecting two equally sized samples for which the parameters differ by a value equal to the slope times twice the standard deviation of the independent variable and further requiring that the overall expected number of events is unchanged. In a simulation study we examine the validity of this approach to power calculations in logistic regression and Cox regression models. Several different covariate distributions are considered for selected values of the overall response probability and a range of alternatives. For the Cox regression model we consider both constant and non-constant hazard rates. The results show that in general the approach is remarkably accurate even in relatively small samples. Some discrepancies are, however, found in small samples with few events and a highly skewed covariate distribution. Comparison with results based on alternative methods for logistic regression models with a single continuous covariate indicates that the proposed method is at least as good as its competitors. The method is easy to implement and therefore provides a simple way to extend the range of problems that can be covered by the usual formulas for power and sample size determination. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Cross species association examination of UCN3 and CRHR2 as potential pharmacological targets for antiobesity drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity now constitutes a leading global public health problem. Studies have shown that insulin resistance affiliated with obesity is associated with intramyocellular lipid (IMCL accumulation. Therefore, identification of genes associated with the phenotype would provide a clear target for pharmaceutical intervention and care for the condition. We hypothesized that urocortin 3 (UCN3 and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2 (CRHR2 are associated with IMCL and subcutaneous fat depth (SFD, because the corticotropin-releasing hormone family of peptides are capable of strong anorectic and thermogenic effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We annotated both bovine UCN3 and CRHR2 genes and identified 12 genetic mutations in the former gene and 5 genetic markers in the promoter region of the latter gene. Genotyping of these 17 markers on Wagyu times Limousin F(2 progeny revealed significant associations between promoter polymorphisms and SFD (P = 0.0203-0.0685 and between missense mutations of exon 2 and IMCL (P = 0.0055-0.0369 in the bovine UCN3 gene. The SFD associated promoter SNPs caused a gain/loss of 12 potential transcription regulatory binding sites, while the IMCL associated coding SNPs affected the secondary structure of UCN3 mRNA. However, none of five polymorphisms in CRHR2 gene clearly co-segregated with either trait in the population (P>0.6000. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because UCN3 is located on human chromosome 10p15.1 where quantitative trait loci for obesity have been reported, our cross species study provides further evidence that it could be proposed as a potential target for developing antiobesity drugs. None of the markers in CRHR2 was associated with obesity-type traits in cattle, which is consistent with findings in human. Therefore, CRHR2 does not lend itself to the development of antiobesity drugs.

  9. An epidemiological analysis of potential associations between C-reactive protein, inflammation, and prostate cancer in the male US population using the 2009 - 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Hill, Catherine; Lutfiyya, M. Nawal

    2015-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in US males, yet much remains to be learned about the role of inflammation in its etiology. We hypothesized that preexisting exposure to chronic inflammatory conditions caused by infectious agents or inflammatory diseases increase the risk of prostate cancer. Using the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined the relationships between demographic variables, inflammation, infection, circulating plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), and the risk of occurrence of prostate cancer in US men over 18 years of age. Using IBM SPSS, we performed bivariate and logistic regression analyses using high CRP values as the dependent variable and five study covariates including prostate cancer status. From 2009 - 2010, an estimated 5,448,373 men reported having prostate cancer of which the majority were Caucasian (70.1%) and were aged 40 years and older (62.7%). Bivariate analyses demonstrated that high CRP was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Greater odds of having prostate cancer were revealed for men that had inflammation related to disease (OR = 1.029, CI 1.029-1.029) and those who were not taking drugs to control inflammation (OR = 1.330, CI 1.324-1.336). Men who did not have inflammation resulting from non-infectious diseases had greater odds of not having prostate cancer (OR = 1.031, CI 1.030-1.031). Logistic regression analysis yielded that men with the highest CRP values had greater odds of having higher household incomes and lower odds of having received higher education, being aged 40 years or older, being of a race or ethnicity different from other, and of having prostate cancer. Our results show that chronic inflammation of multiple etiologies is a risk factor for prostate cancer and that CRP is not associated with this increased risk. Further research is needed to elucidate the complex interactions between inflammation and prostate cancer.

  10. Quantile Regression With Measurement Error

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Ying; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    . The finite sample performance of the proposed method is investigated in a simulation study, and compared to the standard regression calibration approach. Finally, we apply our methodology to part of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project growth data, a

  11. An examination of the association of selected toxic metals with total and central obesity indices: NHANES 99-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A; Elobeid, Mai; Ruden, Douglas M; Allison, David B

    2010-09-01

    It is conceivable that toxic metals contribute to obesity by influencing various aspects of metabolism, such as by substituting for essential micronutrients and vital metals, or by inducing oxidative stress. Deficiency of the essential metal zinc decreases adiposity in humans and rodent models, whereas deficiencies of chromium, copper, iron, and magnesium increases adiposity. This study utilized the NHANES 99-02 data to explore the association between waist circumference and body mass index with the body burdens of selected toxic metals (barium, cadmium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, lead, antimony, thallium, and tungsten). Some of the associations were significant direct relationships (barium and thallium), and some of the associations were significant inverse relationships (cadmium, cobalt, cesium, and lead). Molybdenum, antimony, and tungsten had mostly insignificant associations with waist circumference and body mass index. This is novel result for most of the toxic metals studied, and a surprising result for lead because high stored lead levels have been shown to correlate with higher rates of diabetes, and obesity may be a key risk factor for developing diabetes. These associations suggest the possibility that environmental exposure to metals may contribute to variations in human weight gain/loss. Future research, such as prospective studies rather than the cross-sectional studies presented here, is warranted to confirm these findings.

  12. An Examination of the Association of Selected Toxic Metals with Total and Central Obesity Indices: NHANES 99-02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Ruden

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available It is conceivable that toxic metals contribute to obesity by influencing various aspects of metabolism, such as by substituting for essential micronutrients and vital metals, or by inducing oxidative stress. Deficiency of the essential metal zinc decreases adiposity in humans and rodent models, whereas deficiencies of chromium, copper, iron, and magnesium increases adiposity. This study utilized the NHANES 99-02 data to explore the association between waist circumference and body mass index with the body burdens of selected toxic metals (barium, cadmium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, lead, antimony, thallium, and tungsten. Some of the associations were significant direct relationships (barium and thallium, and some of the associations were significant inverse relationships (cadmium, cobalt, cesium, and lead. Molybdenum, antimony, and tungsten had mostly insignificant associations with waist circumference and body mass index. This is novel result for most of the toxic metals studied, and a surprising result for lead because high stored lead levels have been shown to correlate with higher rates of diabetes, and obesity may be a key risk factor for developing diabetes. These associations suggest the possibility that environmental exposure to metals may contribute to variations in human weight gain/loss. Future research, such as prospective studies rather than the cross-sectional studies presented here, is warranted to confirm these findings.

  13. From Rasch scores to regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang

    2006-01-01

    Rasch models provide a framework for measurement and modelling latent variables. Having measured a latent variable in a population a comparison of groups will often be of interest. For this purpose the use of observed raw scores will often be inadequate because these lack interval scale propertie....... This paper compares two approaches to group comparison: linear regression models using estimated person locations as outcome variables and latent regression models based on the distribution of the score....

  14. Testing Heteroscedasticity in Robust Regression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 4 (2011), s. 25-28 ISSN 2045-3345 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA402/09/0557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : robust regression * heteroscedasticity * regression quantiles * diagnostics Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics , Operational Research http://www.researchjournals.co.uk/documents/Vol4/06%20Kalina.pdf

  15. Regression methods for medical research

    CERN Document Server

    Tai, Bee Choo

    2013-01-01

    Regression Methods for Medical Research provides medical researchers with the skills they need to critically read and interpret research using more advanced statistical methods. The statistical requirements of interpreting and publishing in medical journals, together with rapid changes in science and technology, increasingly demands an understanding of more complex and sophisticated analytic procedures.The text explains the application of statistical models to a wide variety of practical medical investigative studies and clinical trials. Regression methods are used to appropriately answer the

  16. Association between Nutrition Label Reading and Nutrient Intake in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2007-2009 (KNHANES IV)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min-Gyou; Oh, Seung-Won; Han, Na-Rae; Song, Dong-Ju; Um, Jae-Yean; Bae, Su-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuktae; Lee, Cheol-Min; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Hong, Sung-woo

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutrition labels provide various information on the nutrient contents of food. However, despite the recent increase in the interest in dietary intake and expansion of related policies, studies on the association between nutrition label reading and dietary intake are lacking in Korea. Methods This study analyzed the 2007-2009 KNHANES (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data. To examine macronutrients and micronutrients intake according to nutrition label readin...

  17. Examining the psychological factors associated with involvement in fantasy sports: An analysis of participants’ motivations and constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Young Ik Suh; Choonghoon Lim; Dae Hee Kwak; Paul M. Pedersen

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how fantasy sport participants’ motives and constraints influence their attitudes toward fantasy sports participation. Furthermore, the study attempted to develop a reliable and valid model through which researchers can measure fantasy sports participation-related motivations and constraints. The proposed model for motivations consisted of 21 items with seven dimensions (i.e., economic, social interaction, escape, fantasy, achievement, knowledge, and pass time) and the mod...

  18. Associations of Undergoing a Routine Medical Examination or Not with Prevalence Rates of Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lingling; Tian, Danping; Li, Li; Deng, Xin; Deng, Jing; Ning, Peishan; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-06-23

    Undergoing a routine medical examination may be associated with the prevalence rate of chronic diseases from a population-based household interview survey. However, this important issue has not been examined so far. Data came from the first health service household interview of Hunan province, China, in 2013. A Rao-Scott chi-square test was performed to examine the difference in prevalence rates between subgroups. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) was calculated using the PROC SURVEYLOGISTIC procedure of SAS9.1 statistical software. In total, 24,282 residents of 8400 households were surveyed. A higher proportion of elderly adults had undergone a medical examination within the prior 12 months compared with young adults (≥65 years, 60%; 45-64 years, 46%; 18-44 years, 37%). After controlling for location, sex, and household income per capita, undergoing a medical examination was significantly associated with high prevalence rates of hypertension (adjusted OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.5) and of diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.7-6.5) for young adults aged 18-44 years. The associations were not statistically significant for age groups 45-64 years and 65 years or older. The prevalence rates of hypertension and diabetes mellitus may be seriously underestimated for young adults not undergoing a routine medical examination in a health household interview survey.

  19. The prevalence of and factors associated with high-risk alcohol consumption in Korean adults: The 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Won Hong

    Full Text Available The consequences of alcohol consumption on health outcomes are largely determined by two separate, but related, dimensions of drinking: the total volume of alcohol consumed and the pattern of drinking. Most epidemiological studies focus on the amount of alcohol consumed and do not consider the pattern of drinking.This study evaluated the prevalence of and factors associated with high-risk and heavy alcohol drinking in Korean adults.This study analyzed 15,215 of the 28,009 participants in the 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. High-risk alcohol drinking was defined as Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT scores ≥16, which provides a framework for intervention to identify hazardous and harmful drinking patterns as the cause of alcohol-use disorders, according to World Health Organization guidelines.The prevalence of high-risk drinking was 15.1%, with the highest prevalence of 17.2% in middle-aged adults (45-64 years. In men, the prevalence of high-risk alcohol drinking was 23.7%, with the highest prevalence found in middle-aged adults. In women, the prevalence of high-risk alcohol drinking was 4.2%, with the highest prevalence found in younger adults. Men had higher weighted mean AUDIT scores than women (10.0 vs. 4.0, P<0.001, and age was negatively associated with the AUDIT score (P<0.001. Elementary school graduates had higher mean AUDIT scores than senior high school (P = 0.003 or college (P<0.001 graduates. Regarding occupation, clerical support workers (P = 0.002 and service and sales workers (P<0.001 had higher mean AUDIT scores than managers and professionals. Logistic regression analyses of high-risk alcohol drinking using sex, age, education level, number of family members, household income, and occupation as covariates was performed. Women had a lower risk of high-risk alcohol drinking (odds ratio (OR 0.14, 95% CI: 0.13-0.16, P<0.001 than men. Regarding age, compared to control

  20. Cerebral white matter changes are associated with abnormalities on neurological examination in non-disabled elderly: the LADIS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poggesi, A.; Gouw, A.A.; van der Flier, W.M.; Pracucci, G.; Chabriat, H.; Erkinjuntti, T.; Fazekas, F.; Ferro, J.M.; Hennerici, M.; Langhorne, P.; O'Brien, J. T.; Visser, M.C.; Wahlund, L.O.; Waldemar, G.; Wallin, A.; Scheltens, P.; Inzitari, D.; Pantoni, L.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral white matter changes (WMC) are associated with motor, cognitive, mood, urinary disturbances, and disability, but little is known about the prevalence of neurological signs in patients with these brain lesions. We assessed the presence and occurrence of neurological abnormalities over a

  1. Giving Christian Universities a Scarlet Letter: Examining the Canadian Association of University Teachers' Opposition to Faith-Based Hiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008 the Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT) has launched investigations into five Canadian faith-based universities to determine if they violate CAUT's particular understanding of academic freedom. The source of the violation concerns the universities' faith-based hiring requirements, which CAUT maintains violates the…

  2. Examining a possible association between human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and migraine: results of a cohort study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M.S.-V. Klooster (T. M. Schurink-van’t); M.A.J. de Ridder (Maria); J.M. Kemmeren (Jeanet); J. van der Lei (Johan); F.W. Dekker (Friedo); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); H.E. de Melker (Hester)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSince the introduction of the bivalent human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine in the Netherlands, migraine has been reported as a notable event in the passive safety surveillance system. Research on the association between HPV vaccination and migraine is needed. Therefore, potential

  3. An Empirical Examination of the Association between Multiple Intelligences and Language Learning Self-Efficacy among TEFL University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moafian, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the association between multiple intelligences and language learning efficacy expectations among TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) university students. To fulfill the aim of the study, 108 junior and senior TEFL students were asked to complete the "Multiple Intelligence Developmental Assessment…

  4. The Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale: An Examination of the Personality Traits and Disorders Associated with the LSRP Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Pryor, Lauren R.

    2008-01-01

    There are several self-report measures of psychopathy, most of which use a two-factor structure. There is debate regarding the convergence of these factors, particularly with regard to Factor 1 (F1), which is related to the interpersonal and affective aspects of psychopathy; Factor 2 (F2) is related to the social deviance associated with…

  5. Examining Associations among Motivation, Physical Activity and Health in Chinese College Students: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenxi; Li, Xianxiong; Zeng, Nan; Ayyub, Mohammad; Xiong, Shanying; Tao, Kun; Peng, Qingwen

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the associations among motives and physical activity behaviors and health in urban college students in China. Eight hundred and eighty-seven college students (521 females; M[subscript age] = 20.51, SD = ± 1.67) were recruited from four universities in South and South-central China. Participants' motives…

  6. Examining the Use of a Social Media Campaign to Increase Engagement for the American Heart Association 2017 Resuscitation Science Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Marion; McGovern, Shaun; Dainty, Katie N; Doshi, Ankur A; Blewer, Audrey L; Kurz, Michael C; Rittenberger, Jon C; Hazinski, Mary Fran; Reynolds, Joshua C

    2018-04-13

    The Resuscitation Science Symposium (ReSS) is the dedicated international forum for resuscitation science at the American Heart Association's Scientific Sessions. In an attempt to increase curated content and social media presence during ReSS 2017, the Journal of the American Heart Association (JAHA) coordinated an inaugural social media campaign. Before ReSS, 8 resuscitation science professionals were recruited from a convenience sample of attendees at ReSS 2017. Each blogger was assigned to either a morning or an afternoon session, responsible for "live tweeting" with the associated hashtags #ReSS17 and #AHA17. Twitter analytics from the 8 bloggers were collected from November 10 to 13, 2017. The primary outcome was Twitter impressions. Secondary outcomes included Twitter engagement and Twitter engagement rate. In total, 8 bloggers (63% male) generated 591 tweets that garnered 261 050 impressions, 8013 engagements, 928 retweets, 1653 likes, 292 hashtag clicks, and a median engagement rate of 2.4%. Total engagement, likes, and hashtag clicks were highest on day 2; total impressions were highest on day 3, and retweets were highest on day 4. Total impressions were highly correlated with the total number of tweets ( r =0.87; P =0.005) and baseline number of Twitter followers for each blogger ( r =0.78; P =0.02). In this inaugural social media campaign for the 2017 American Heart Association ReSS, the degree of online engagement with this content by end users was quite good when evaluated by social media standards. Benchmarks for end-user interactions in the scientific community are undefined and will require further study. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  7. Examining signs of driver sleepiness, usage of sleepiness countermeasures and the associations with sleepy driving behaviours and individual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Christopher N; Armstrong, Kerry A; Radun, Igor

    2015-12-01

    The impairing effect from sleepiness is a major contributor to road crashes. The ability of a sleepy driver to perceive their level of sleepiness is an important consideration for road safety as well as the type of sleepiness countermeasure used by drivers as some sleepiness countermeasures are more effective than others. The aims of the current study were to determine the extent that the signs of driver sleepiness were associated with sleepy driving behaviours, as well as determining which individual factors (demographic, work, driving, and sleep-related factors) were associated with using a roadside or in-vehicle sleepiness countermeasure. A sample of 1518 Australian drivers from the Australian State of New South Wales and the neighbouring Australian Capital Territory took part in the study. The participants' experiences with the signs of sleepiness were reasonably extensive. A number of the early signs of sleepiness (e.g., yawning, frequent eye blinks) were related with continuing to drive while sleepy, with the more advanced signs of sleepiness (e.g., difficulty keeping eyes open, dreamlike state of consciousness) associated with having a sleep-related close call. The individual factors associated with using a roadside sleepiness countermeasure included age (being older), education (tertiary level), difficulties getting to sleep, not continuing to drive while sleepy, and having experienced many signs of sleepiness. The results suggest that these participants have a reasonable awareness and experience with the signs of driver sleepiness. Factors related to previous experiences with sleepiness were associated with implementing a roadside countermeasure. Nonetheless, the high proportions of drivers performing sleepy driving behaviours suggest that concerted efforts are needed with road safety campaigns regarding the dangers of driving while sleepy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between insulin resistance-associated metabolic parameters and anthropometric measurements with sugar-sweetened beverage intake and physical activity levels in US adolescents: findings from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Andrew A; Auinger, Peggy; Byrd, Robert S

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between insulin resistance-associated metabolic parameters and anthropometric measurements with sugar-sweetened beverage intake and physical activity levels. A cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. Nationally representative samples of US adolescents participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during the years 1999-2004. A total of 6967 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and physical activity levels. Glucose and insulin concentrations, a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, triglyceride concentrations, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) percentile for age and sex. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that increased sugar-sweetened beverage intake was independently associated with increased HOMA-IR, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index percentile for age and sex and decreased HDL cholesterol concentrations; alternatively, increased physical activity levels were independently associated with decreased HOMA-IR, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, and triglyceride concentrations and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Furthermore, low sugar-sweetened beverage intake and high physical activity levels appear to modify each others' effects of decreasing HOMA-IR and triglyceride concentrations and increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake and physical activity levels are each independently associated with insulin resistance-associated metabolic parameters and anthropometric measurements in adolescents. Moreover, low sugar

  9. Association of insulin resistance with near peak bone mass in the femur and lumbar spine of Korean adults aged 25-35: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Soo Choo

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between insulin resistance and the bone mineral density (BMD of femur and lumbar spine in Korean adults who are expected to exhibit near peak bone mass.Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010 were analyzed. A total of 2,750 participants aged 25-35 years were included. Insulin resistance was assessed using a homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and serum fasting insulin.In a multivariate linear regression analysis, the HOMA-IR was significantly inversely associated with the BMD of the total hip (TH, β = -0.052, P = 0.002, femoral neck (FN, β = -0.072, P<0.001, femoral trochanter (FTr, β = -0.055, P = 0.003, femoral intertrochanter (FITr, β = -0.041, P = 0.015, and lumbar spine (LS, β = -0.063, P = 0.001 among all study subjects after adjustment for gender, age, height, weight, whole body fat mass percentage, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, vitamin D, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, education level, and household income in both genders as well as labor, the use of oral contraceptives, and age at menarche in females. The serum fasting insulin was significantly inversely associated with the BMD of the TH (β = -0.055, P = 0.001, FN (β = -0.072, P<0.001, FTr (β = -0.055, P = 0.003, FITr (β = -0.045, P = 0.009, and LS (β = -0.064, P = 0.001 among all subjects in a multivariate linear regression analysis.Our results suggest that insulin resistance may be independently and inversely associated with the near peak bone mass of the femur and lumbar spine.

  10. Assessing risk factors for periodontitis using regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL≥4mm/≥25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.

  11. Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008–2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yangho; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008–2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium and mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were −2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m² (95% CI: −3.803 to −1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was −3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m² (95% CI: −5.730 to −1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 μg/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

  12. Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yangho [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung-Kook, E-mail: bklee@sch.ac.kr [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium and mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

  13. The associations between smoking and occupational categories: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungroul; Kim, Junhyoung

    2015-03-01

    The implementation of smoke-free policies for workplaces and their impacts have been far from satisfactory. We investigated smoking prevalence in various occupations using data (n = 9283) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey collected from 2008 to 2010. Young adults who were working in the occupation categories of "service and sales," "skilled agricultural, fishery, and forest workers," and "crafts and machine operation" for men and "service and sales" for women showed 1.8 to 7.1 and 3.7 times higher (P Korea, and evidence supporting the improvement of prevention by the concomitant reduction of risk factors. © 2012 APJPH