HyungJoon Cho
2009-03-01
Full Text Available In vivo knowledge of the spatial distribution of viable, necrotic, and hypoxic areas can provide prognostic information about the risk of developing metastases and regional radiation sensitivity and may be used potentially for localized dose escalation in radiation treatment. In this study, multimodality in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and positron emission tomography (PET imaging using stereotactic fiduciary markers in the Dunning R3327AT prostate tumor were performed, focusing on the relationship between dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE MRI using Magnevist (Gd-DTPA and dynamic 18F-fluoromisonidazole (18F-Fmiso PET. The noninvasive measurements were verified using tumor tissue sections stained for hematoxylin/eosin and pimonidazole. To further validate the relationship between 18F-Fmiso and pimonidazole uptake, 18F digital autoradiography was performed on a selected tumor and compared with the corresponding pimonidazole-stained slices. The comparison of Akep values (kep = rate constant of movement of Gd-DTPA between the interstitial space and plasma and A = amplitude in the two-compartment model (Hoffmann U, Brix G, Knopp MV, Hess T and Lorenz WJ (1995. Magn Reson Med 33, 506– 514 derived from DCE-MRI studies and from early 18F-Fmiso uptake PET studies showed that tumor vasculature is a major determinant of early 18F-Fmiso uptake. A negative correlation between the spatial map of Akep and the slope map of late (last 1 hour of the dynamic PET scan 18F-Fmiso uptake was observed. The relationships between DCE-MRI and hematoxylin/eosin slices and between 18F-Fmiso PET and pimonidazole slices confirm the validity of MRI/PET measurements to image the tumor microenvironment and to identify regions of tumor necrosis, hypoxia, and well-perfused tissue.
Ultrafast magnetization dynamics
Woodford, S.
2008-01-01
This thesis addresses ultrafast magnetization dynamics from a theoretical perspective. The manipulation of magnetization using the inverse Faraday effect has been studied, as well as magnetic relaxation processes in quantum dots. The inverse Faraday effect – the generation of a magnetic field by nonresonant, circularly polarized light – offers the possibility to control and reverse magnetization on a timescale of a few hundred femtoseconds. This is important both for the technological advant...
Ultrafast Magnetization Dynamics
Woodford, S.
2008-01-01
This thesis addresses ultrafast magnetization dynamics from a theoretical perspective. The manipulation of magnetization using the inverse Faraday effect has been studied, as well as magnetic relaxation processes in quantum dots. The inverse Faraday effect – the generation of a magnetic field by nonresonant, circularly polarized light – offers the possibility to control and reverse magnetization on a timescale of a few hundred femtoseconds. This is important both for the technological advant...
Continuous data stream FIFO magnetic bubble domain shift register
Chen, Thomas T. (Inventor)
1977-01-01
There is described a simple first-in, first out (FIFO) magnetic bubble domain shift register which has continuous data storage capability. In a preferred embodiment, two parallel detector branches are associated with a main storage loop. The bubbles in the storage loop are replicated toward each detector branch by passive replicators in the storage loop. Annihilators associated with each of the replicators and each of the detectors are arranged an appropriate distance from the replicators so that selective energization of the annihilators permits certain bits to propagate to one detector and other bits to propagate to the other detector. Connection of the detectors in an appropriate bridge circuit permits full data rate reclamation.
Efficient and controlled domain wall nucleation for magnetic shift registers.
Alejos, Oscar; Raposo, Víctor; Sanchez-Tejerina, Luis; Martinez, Eduardo
2017-09-19
Ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with high perpendicular anisotropy have been proposed for the development of memory devices where the information is coded in tiny domains separated by domain walls. The design of practical devices requires creating, manipulating and detecting domain walls in ferromagnetic strips. Recent observations have shown highly efficient current-driven domain wall dynamics in multilayers lacking structural symmetry, where the walls adopt a chiral structure and can be driven at high velocities. However, putting such a device into practice requires the continuous and synchronous injection of domain walls as the first step. Here, we propose and demonstrate an efficient and simple scheme for nucleating domain walls using the symmetry of the spin orbit torques. Trains of short sub-nanosecond current pulses are injected in a double bit line to generate a localized longitudinal Oersted field in the ferromagnetic strip. Simultaneously, other current pulses are injected through the heavy metal under the ferromagnetic strip. Notably, the Slonczewski-like spin orbit torque assisted by the Oersted field allows the controlled injection of a series of domain walls, giving rise to a controlled manner for writing binary information and, consequently, to the design of a simple and efficient domain wall shift register.
Model of THz Magnetization Dynamics
Bocklage, Lars
2016-01-01
Magnetization dynamics can be coherently controlled by THz laser excitation, which can be applied in ultrafast magnetization control and switching. Here, transient magnetization dynamics are calculated for excitation with THz magnetic field pulses. We use the ansatz of Smit and Beljers, to formulate dynamic properties of the magnetization via partial derivatives of the samples free energy density, and extend it to solve the Landau-Lifshitz-equation to obtain the THz transients of the magnetization. The model is used to determine the magnetization response to ultrafast multi- and single-cycle THz pulses. Control of the magnetization trajectory by utilizing the THz pulse shape and polarization is demonstrated. PMID:26956997
Nonlinear magnetization dynamics in nanosystems
Mayergoyz, Isaak D; Serpico, Claudio
2014-01-01
As data transfer rates increase within the magnetic recording industry, improvements in device performance and reliability crucially depend on the thorough understanding of nonlinear magnetization dynamics at a sub-nanoscale level. This book offers a modern, stimulating approach to the subject of nonlinear magnetization dynamics by discussing important aspects such as the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation, analytical solutions, and the connection between the general topological and structural aspects of dynamics. An advanced reference for the study and understanding of non
Ultrafast magnetization dynamics in diluted magnetic semiconductors
Morandi, O [INRIA Nancy Grand-Est and Institut de Recherche en Mathematiques Avancees, 7 rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg (France); Hervieux, P-A; Manfredi, G [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg (France)], E-mail: morandi@dipmat.univpm.it
2009-07-15
We present a dynamical model that successfully explains the observed time evolution of the magnetization in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum wells after weak laser excitation. Based on the pseudo-fermion formalism and a second-order many-particle expansion of the exact p-d exchange interaction, our approach goes beyond the usual mean-field approximation. It includes both the sub-picosecond demagnetization dynamics and the slower relaxation processes that restore the initial ferromagnetic order in a nanosecond timescale. In agreement with experimental results, our numerical simulations show that, depending on the value of the initial lattice temperature, a subsequent enhancement of the total magnetization may be observed within the timescale of a few hundred picoseconds.
Dynamic model of production enterprises based on accounting registers and its identification
Sirazetdinov, R. T.; Samodurov, A. V.; Yenikeev, I. A.; Markov, D. S.
2016-06-01
The report focuses on the mathematical modeling of economic entities based on accounting registers. Developed the dynamic model of financial and economic activity of the enterprise as a system of differential equations. Created algorithms for identification of parameters of the dynamic model. Constructed and identified the model of Russian machine-building enterprises.
Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail
Slavin, James A.
2010-01-01
The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.
Spin Switch and Qubit Register from a Spin Particle Controlled by a Time-Dependent Magnetic Field
WANG Shun-Jin; JIA Cheng-Long; AN Jun-Hong; LUO Hong- Gang
2004-01-01
@@ A spin particle subjected to any time-dependent magnetic field is investigated in detail at different magnetic field configurations. Spin flip probability, spin alignment, cyclic and noncyclic nonadiabatic geometric phases are calculated exactly and their analytical expressions are presented. Our theoretical study shows that a spin particle controlled by a resonant time-dependent magnetic field can be used as efficient controllable devices of spin switch or qubit register.
Real-time dynamic display of registered 4D cardiac MR and ultrasound images using a GPU
Zhang, Q.; Huang, X.; Eagleson, R.; Guiraudon, G.; Peters, T. M.
2007-03-01
In minimally invasive image-guided surgical interventions, different imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and real-time three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US), can provide complementary, multi-spectral image information. Multimodality dynamic image registration is a well-established approach that permits real-time diagnostic information to be enhanced by placing lower-quality real-time images within a high quality anatomical context. For the guidance of cardiac procedures, it would be valuable to register dynamic MRI or CT with intraoperative US. However, in practice, either the high computational cost prohibits such real-time visualization of volumetric multimodal images in a real-world medical environment, or else the resulting image quality is not satisfactory for accurate guidance during the intervention. Modern graphics processing units (GPUs) provide the programmability, parallelism and increased computational precision to begin to address this problem. In this work, we first outline our research on dynamic 3D cardiac MR and US image acquisition, real-time dual-modality registration and US tracking. Then we describe image processing and optimization techniques for 4D (3D + time) cardiac image real-time rendering. We also present our multimodality 4D medical image visualization engine, which directly runs on a GPU in real-time by exploiting the advantages of the graphics hardware. In addition, techniques such as multiple transfer functions for different imaging modalities, dynamic texture binding, advanced texture sampling and multimodality image compositing are employed to facilitate the real-time display and manipulation of the registered dual-modality dynamic 3D MR and US cardiac datasets.
Magnetic droplets and dynamical skyrmions
Akerman, Johan
2015-03-01
Nanocontact spin-torque oscillators (NC-STOs) provide an excellent environment for studying nano-magnetic phenomena such as localized and propagating auto-oscillatory spin wave (SW) modes. The recent experimental observation of magnetic droplet solitons in NC-STOs with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) free layers, and the numerical and experimental demonstrations of spin transfer torque (STT) nucleated skyrmions in similar magnetic thin films add two interesting and useful nanoscale magnetic objects. Due to the competition between exchange, anisotropy, and, in the case of skyrmions, the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI), the droplet and the skyrmion are extremely compact, on the order of 10-100 nm. One of the main differences between a magnetic dissipative droplet soliton and a skyrmion is that the former is a dynamical object with all its spins precessing around an effective field and stabilized by STT, exchange, and PMA, while the latter has static spins and an internal structure stabilized by DMI, exchange, and PMA. The dissipative droplet is furthermore a non-topological soliton, while the skyrmion is topologically protected. In this work I will report on our most recent droplet experiments, including droplet collapse at very high fields, droplets excited in nano-wire based NC-STOs, and studies of the field-current droplet nucleation boundary. I will also demonstrate numerically and analytically that STT driven precession can stabilize so-called dynamical skyrmions even in the absence of DMI, and I will describe their very promising properties in detail. From a more fundamental perspective, precession is hence a third independent possibility to stabilize a skyrmion, without the need for the conventional stabilization from either dipolar energy or DMI.
Effects of heat current on magnetization dynamics
Vetro, Francesco Antonio; Brechet, Sylvain; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe
The work is aimed at investigating the interplay between spin dynamics and heat currents in single-crystal Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG). The irreversible thermodynamics for a continuous medium predicts that a thermal gradient, in the presence of magnetization waves, produces a magnetic induction field, thus a magnetic analog of the well-known Seebeck effect. Time-resolved transmission measurements revealed a change in the attenuation of magnetization waves propagating along the thermal gradient when the gradient is reversed. This magnetic damping change can be accounted for by the Magnetic Seebeck effect. In order to characterize this effect further, we have conducted studies on magnetization dynamic in YIG single crystal samples placed in various geometrical configurations, e.g. with YIG disks in which magnetic vortices might be present. Various magnetic resonance schemes were used, e.g. local probes and cavities.
Dynamics of Rotating, Magnetized Neutron Stars
Liebling, Steven L.
2010-01-01
Using a fully general relativistic implementation of ideal magnetohydrodynamics with no assumed symmetries in three spatial dimensions, the dynamics of magnetized, rigidly rotating neutron stars are studied. Beginning with fully consistent initial data constructed with Magstar, part of the Lorene project, we study the dynamics and stability of rotating, magnetized polytropic stars as models of neutron stars. Evolutions suggest that some of these rotating, magnetized stars may be minimally uns...
Surface magnetic domains dynamic in machined steel
Blažek D.
2014-07-01
Full Text Available This contribution deals with an observation of the magnetic dynamic of different types of the machined surface of bearing steel. The Bakhausen noise (BN measurements are presented here as commonly introduced in industry for quality control due to the extremely sensitivity of the magnetic domains wall dynamics to the microstructure of material. The results of magneto-optical measurements are presented with the goal to explain the observed BN anisotropy. It is shown that BN anisotropy is associated with uniaxal magnetic anisotropy introduced by hard milling which causes the principally different magnetic reversals processes in orthogonal directions.
Undulator with dynamic compensation of magnetic forces
Gluskin, Efim; Trakhtenberg, Emil; Xu, Joseph Z.
2016-05-31
A method and apparatus for implementing dynamic compensation of magnetic forces for undulators are provided. An undulator includes a respective set of magnet arrays, each attached to a strongback, and placed on horizontal slides and positioned parallel relative to each other with a predetermined gap. Magnetic forces are compensated by a set of compensation springs placed along the strongback. The compensation springs are conical springs having exponential-force characteristics that substantially match undulator magnetic forces independently of the predetermined gap. The conical springs are positioned along the length of the magnets.
Undulator with dynamic compensation of magnetic forces
Gluskin, Efim; Trakhtenberg, Emil; Xu, Joseph Z.
2016-05-31
A method and apparatus for implementing dynamic compensation of magnetic forces for undulators are provided. An undulator includes a respective set of magnet arrays, each attached to a strongback, and placed on horizontal slides and positioned parallel relative to each other with a predetermined gap. Magnetic forces are compensated by a set of compensation springs placed along the strongback. The compensation springs are conical springs having exponential-force characteristics that substantially match undulator magnetic forces independently of the predetermined gap. The conical springs are positioned along the length of the magnets.
Dynamics of Permanent-Magnet Biased Active Magnetic Bearings
Fukata, Satoru; Yutani, Kazuyuki
1996-01-01
Active magnetic radial bearings are constructed with a combination of permanent magnets to provide bias forces and electromagnets to generate control forces for the reduction of cost and the operating energy consumption. Ring-shaped permanent magnets with axial magnetization are attached to a shaft and share their magnet stators with the electromagnets. The magnet cores are made of solid iron for simplicity. A simplified magnetic circuit of the combined magnet system is analyzed with linear circuit theory by approximating the characteristics of permanent magnets with a linear relation. A linearized dynamical model of the control force is presented with the first-order approximation of the effects of eddy currents. Frequency responses of the rotor motion to disturbance inputs and the motion for impulsive forces are tested in the non-rotating state. The frequency responses are compared with numerical results. The decay of rotor speed due to magnetic braking is examined. The experimental results and the presented linearized model are similar to those of the all-electromagnetic design.
Nonlinear Dynamics of A Damped Magnetic Oscillator
Kim, S Y
1999-01-01
We consider a damped magnetic oscillator, consisting of a permanent magnet in a periodically oscillating magnetic field. A detailed investigation of the dynamics of this dissipative magnetic system is made by varying the field amplitude $A$. As $A$ is increased, the damped magnetic oscillator, albeit simple looking, exhibits rich dynamical behaviors such as symmetry-breaking pitchfork bifurcations, period-doubling transitions to chaos, symmetry-restoring attractor-merging crises, and saddle-node bifurcations giving rise to new periodic attractors. Besides these familiar behaviors, a cascade of ``resurrections'' (i.e., an infinite sequence of alternating restabilizations and destabilizations) of the stationary points also occurs. It is found that the stationary points restabilize (destabilize) through alternating subcritical (supercritical) period-doubling and pitchfork bifurcations. We also discuss the critical behaviors in the period-doubling cascades.
Dynamical properties of unconventional magnetic systems
Helgesen, G. [ed.
1997-05-01
The Advanced Study Institute addressed the current experimental and theoretical knowledge of the dynamical properties of unconventional magnetic systems including low-dimensional and mesoscopic magnetism, unconventional ground state, quantum magnets and soft matter. The main approach in this Advanced Study Institute was to obtain basic understanding of co-operative phenomena, fluctuations and excitations in the wide range unconventional magnetic systems now being fabricated or envisioned. The report contains abstracts for lectures, invited seminars and posters, together with a list of the 95 participants from 24 countries with e-mail addresses
Dynamic shielding of the magnetic fields
RAU, M.
2010-11-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study of the methods used to control and compensate the direct and alternative magnetic fields. Two frequently used methods in the electromagnetic compatibility of the complex biomagnetism installations were analyzed. The two methods refer to the use of inductive magnetic field sensors (only for alternative fields and of fluxgate magnetometers as active transducers which measures both the direct and alternative components of the magnetic field. The applications of the dynamic control of the magnetic field are: control of the magnetic field of the military ships, control of parasite magnetic field produced by power transformers and the electrical networks, protection of the mass spectrometers, electronic microscopes, SQUID and optical pumping magnetometers for applications in biomagnetism.
Dynamical quenching of tunneling in molecular magnets
José Santander, María, E-mail: maria.jose.noemi@gmail.com [Recursos Educativos Quántica, Santiago (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile and CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Nunez, Alvaro S., E-mail: alnunez@dfi.uchile.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 487-3, Santiago (Chile); Roldán-Molina, A. [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Universidad 330, Curauma, Valparaíso (Chile); Troncoso, Roberto E., E-mail: r.troncoso.c@gmail.com [Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología, CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago 9170124 (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avenida España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile)
2015-12-15
It is shown that a single molecular magnet placed in a rapidly oscillating magnetic field displays the phenomenon of quenching of tunneling processes. The results open a way to manipulate the quantum states of molecular magnets by means of radiation in the terahertz range. Our analysis separates the time evolution into slow and fast components thereby obtaining an effective theory for the slow dynamics. This effective theory presents quenching of the tunnel effect, in particular, stands out its difference with the so-called coherent destruction of tunneling. We support our prediction with numerical evidence based on an exact solution of Schrödinger's equation. - Highlights: • Single molecular magnets under rapidly oscillating magnetic fields is studied. • It is shown that this system displays the quenching of tunneling processes. • Our findings provide a control of quantum molecular magnets via terahertz radiation.
Magnetic Field Control of Combustion Dynamics
Barmina, I.; Valdmanis, R.; Zake, M.; Kalis, H.; Marinaki, M.; Strautins, U.
2016-08-01
Experimental studies and mathematical modelling of the effects of magnetic field on combustion dynamics at thermo-chemical conversion of biomass are carried out with the aim of providing control of the processes developing in the reaction zone of swirling flame. The joint research of the magnetic field effect on the combustion dynamics includes the estimation of this effect on the formation of the swirling flame dynamics, flame temperature and composition, providing analysis of the magnetic field effects on the flame characteristics. The results of experiments have shown that the magnetic field exerts the influence on the flow velocity components by enhancing a swirl motion in the flame reaction zone with swirl-enhanced mixing of the axial flow of volatiles with cold air swirl, by cooling the flame reaction zone and by limiting the thermo-chemical conversion of volatiles. Mathematical modelling of magnetic field effect on the formation of the flame dynamics confirms that the electromagnetic force, which is induced by the electric current surrounding the flame, leads to field-enhanced increase of flow vorticity by enhancing mixing of the reactants. The magnetic field effect on the flame temperature and rate of reactions leads to conclusion that field-enhanced increase of the flow vorticity results in flame cooling by limiting the chemical conversion of the reactants.
Spin Dynamics in Confined Magnetic Structures III
Hillebrands, Burkard
2006-01-01
This third volume of Spin Dynamics in Confined Magnetic Structures addresses central aspects of spin-dynamic phenomena, including recent new developments, on a tutorial level. Researchers will find a comprehensive compilation of the current work in the field. Introductory chapters help newcomers to understand the basic concepts. The more advanced chapters give the current state of the art of spin dynamic issues ranging from the femtosecond to the microsecond regime. This volume concentrates on new experimental techniques such as ferromagnetic-resonance-force microscopy and two-photon photoemission, as well as on aspects of precessional switching, spin-wave excitation, vortex dynamics, spin relaxation, domain-wall dynamics in nanowires and their applications to magnetic logic devices. An important chapter is devoted to the presently very hot subject of the spin-transfer torque, combining the physics of electronic transport and micromagnetics. The comprehensive presentation of these developments makes this volu...
A functional calculus for the magnetization dynamics
Tranchida, Julien; Nicolis, Stam
2016-01-01
A functional calculus approach is applied to the derivation of evolution equations for the moments of the magnetization dynamics of systems subject to stochastic fields. It allows us to derive a general framework for obtaining the master equation for the stochastic magnetization dynamics, that is applied to both, Markovian and non-Markovian dynamics. The formalism is applied for studying different kinds of interactions, that are of practical relevance and hierarchies of evolution equations for the moments of the distribution of the magnetization are obtained. In each case, assumptions are spelled out, in order to close the hierarchies. These closure assumptions are tested by extensive numerical studies, that probe the validity of Gaussian or non--Gaussian closure Ans\\"atze.
Magnetism From Fundamentals to Nanoscale Dynamics
Stöhr, Joachim
2006-01-01
The present text book gives an comprehensive account of magnetism, spanning the historical development, the physical foundations and the continuing research underlying the field, one of the oldest yet still vibrant field of physics. It covers both the classical and quantum mechanical aspects of magnetism and novel experimental techniques. Perhaps uniquely, it also discusses spin transport and magnetization dynamics phenomena associated with atomically and spin engineered nano-structures against the backdrop of spintronics and magnetic storage and memory applications. Despite the existence of various books on the topic, a fresh text book that reviews the fundamental physical concepts and uses them in a coherent fashion to explain some of the forefront problems and applications today was thought useful by the authors and their colleagues. Magnetism is written for students on the late undergraduate and the graduate levels and should also serve as a state-of-the-art reference for scientists in academia and resear...
Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar
2014-01-01
Passive magnetic bearings are known due to the excellent characteristics in terms of friction and no requirement of additional energy sources to work. However, passive magnetic bearings do not provide damping, are not stable and, depending on their design, may also introduce magnetic eccentricity....... Such magnetic eccentricities are generated by discrepancies in magnet fabrication. In this framework the main focus of the work is the theoretical as well as experimental investigation of the nonlinear dynamics of a rotor-bearing system with strong emphasis on the magnetic eccentricities and non......-linear stiffness. In this investigation passive magnetic bearings using axially- aligned neodymium cylinder magnets are investigated. The cylinder magnets are axially magnetised for rotor as well as bearings. Compared to bearings with radial magnetisation, the magnetic stiffness of axially-aligned bearings...
Mito, Masaki; Matsui, Hideaki; Tsuruta, Kazuki; Deguchi, Hiroyuki; Kishine, Jun-ichiro; Inoue, Katsuya; Kousaka, Yusuke; Yano, Shin-ichiro; Nakao, Yuya; Akimitsu, Jun
2015-10-01
The nonlinear and linear magnetic responses to an ac magnetic field H are useful for the study of the magnetic dynamics of both magnetic domains and their constituent spins. In particular, the third-harmonic magnetic response M3ω reflects the dynamics of magnetic domains. Furthermore, by considering the ac magnetic response as a function of H, we can evaluate the degree of magnetic nonlinearity, which is closely related to M3ω. In this study, a series of approaches was used to examine the itinerant magnet MnP, in which both ferromagnetic and helical phases are present. On the basis of this investigation, we systematize the diagnostic approach to evaluating nonlinearity in magnetic responses.
Chiarelli, Antonio M.; Maclin, Edward L.; Low, Kathy A.; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele
2015-01-01
Functional brain imaging techniques require accurate co-registration to anatomical images to precisely identify the areas being activated. Many of them, including diffuse optical imaging, rely on scalp-placed recording sensors. Fiducial alignment is an effective and rapid method for co-registering scalp sensors onto anatomy, but is quite sensitive to placement errors. Surface Euclidean distance minimization using the Levenberq-Marquart algorithm (LMA) has been shown to be very accurate when based on good initial guesses, such as precise fiducial alignment, but its accuracy drops substantially with fiducial placement errors. Here we compared fiducial and LMA co-registration methods to a new procedure, the iterative closest point-to-plane (ICP2P) method, using simulated and real data. An advantage of ICP2P is that it eliminates the need to identify fiducials and is, therefore, entirely automatic. We show that, typically, ICP2P is as accurate as fiducial-based LMA, but is less sensitive to initial placement errors. However, ICP2P is more sensitive to spatially correlated noise in the description of the head surface. Hence, the best technique for co-registration depends on the type of data available to describe the scalp and the surface defined by the recording sensors. Under optimal conditions, co-registration error using surface-fitting procedures can be reduced to ˜3 mm.
Large-scale dynamics of magnetic helicity
Linkmann, Moritz; Dallas, Vassilios
2016-11-01
In this paper we investigate the dynamics of magnetic helicity in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent flows focusing at scales larger than the forcing scale. Our results show a nonlocal inverse cascade of magnetic helicity, which occurs directly from the forcing scale into the largest scales of the magnetic field. We also observe that no magnetic helicity and no energy is transferred to an intermediate range of scales sufficiently smaller than the container size and larger than the forcing scale. Thus, the statistical properties of this range of scales, which increases with scale separation, is shown to be described to a large extent by the zero flux solutions of the absolute statistical equilibrium theory exhibited by the truncated ideal MHD equations.
The Origin and Dynamics of Solar Magnetism
Thompson, M. J; Culhane, J. L; Nordlund, Å; Solanki, S. K; Zahn, J.-P
2009-01-01
The articles collected in this volume present all aspects of solar magnetism: from its origin in the solar dynamo to its evolution and dynamics that create the variability of solar phenomena, its well-known 11-year activity cycle that leads to the ever-changing pattern of sunspots and active regions on the Sun. Several contributions deal with the solar dynamo, the driver of many solar phenomena. Other contributions treat the transport and emergence of the magnetic flux through the outer layers of the Sun. The coupling of magnetic fields from the surface to the solar corona and beyond is also described, together with current studies on the predictability of solar activity. This book is aimed at researchers and graduate students working in solar physics and space science. It provides a full review of our current understanding of solar magnetism by the foremost experts in the field.
Molecular dynamics simulations of magnetized dusty plasmas
Piel, Alexander; Reichstein, Torben; Wilms, Jochen
2012-10-01
The combination of the electric field that confines a dust cloud with a static magnetic field generally leads to a rotation of the dust cloud. In weak magnetic fields, the Hall component of the ion flow exerts a drag force that sets the dust in rotation. We have performed detailed molecular-dynamics simulations of the dynamics of torus-shaped dust clouds in anodic plasmas. The stationary flow [1] is characterized by a shell structure in the laminar dust flow and by the spontaneous formation of a shear-flow around a stationary vortex. Here we present new results on dynamic phenomena, among them fluctuations due to a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear-flow. The simulations are compared with experimental results. [4pt] [1] T. Reichstein, A. Piel, Phys. Plasmas 18, 083705 (2011)
Multiscale Dynamics of Solar Magnetic Structures
Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.
2012-01-01
Multiscale topological complexity of the solar magnetic field is among the primary factors controlling energy release in the corona, including associated processes in the photospheric and chromospheric boundaries.We present a new approach for analyzing multiscale behavior of the photospheric magnetic flux underlying these dynamics as depicted by a sequence of high-resolution solar magnetograms. The approach involves two basic processing steps: (1) identification of timing and location of magnetic flux origin and demise events (as defined by DeForest et al.) by tracking spatiotemporal evolution of unipolar and bipolar photospheric regions, and (2) analysis of collective behavior of the detected magnetic events using a generalized version of the Grassberger-Procaccia correlation integral algorithm. The scale-free nature of the developed algorithms makes it possible to characterize the dynamics of the photospheric network across a wide range of distances and relaxation times. Three types of photospheric conditions are considered to test the method: a quiet photosphere, a solar active region (NOAA 10365) in a quiescent non-flaring state, and the same active region during a period of M-class flares. The results obtained show (1) the presence of a topologically complex asymmetrically fragmented magnetic network in the quiet photosphere driven by meso- and supergranulation, (2) the formation of non-potential magnetic structures with complex polarity separation lines inside the active region, and (3) statistical signatures of canceling bipolar magnetic structures coinciding with flaring activity in the active region. Each of these effects can represent an unstable magnetic configuration acting as an energy source for coronal dissipation and heating.
Dynamic Characterization of Thin Film Magnetic Materials
Gu, Wei
A broadband dynamic method for characterizing thin film magnetic material is presented. The method is designed to extract the permeability and linewidth of thin magnetic films from measuring the reflection coefficient (S11) of a house-made and short-circuited strip line testing fixture with or without samples loaded. An adaptive de-embedding method is applied to remove the parasitic noise of the housing. The measurements were carried out with frequency up to 10GHz and biasing magnetic fields up to 600 Gauss. Particular measurement setup and 3-step experimental procedures are described in detail. The complex permeability of a 330nm thick continuous FeGaB, 435nm thick laminated FeGaB film and a 100nm thick NiFe film will be induced dynamically in frequency-biasing magnetic field spectra and compared with a theoretical model based on Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equations and eddy current theories. The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) phenomenon can be observed among these three magnetic materials investigated in this thesis.
Dynamic Assembly of Magnetic Colloidal Vortices
Mohorič, Tomaž; Kokot, Gašper; Osterman, Natan; Snezhko, Alexey; Vilfan, Andrej; Babič, Dušan; Dobnikar, Jure
2016-04-29
Magnetic colloids in external time-dependent fields are subject to complex induced many-body interactions governing their self-assembly into a variety of equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium structures such as chains, networks, suspended membranes, and colloidal foams. Here, we report experiments, simulations, and theory probing the dynamic assembly of superparamagnetic colloids in precessing external magnetic fields. Within a range of field frequencies, we observe dynamic large-scale structures such as ordered phases composed of precessing chains, ribbons, and rotating fluidic vortices. We show that the structure formation is inherently coupled to the buildup of torque, which originates from internal relaxation of induced dipoles and from transient correlations among the particles as a result of short-lived chain formation. We discuss in detail the physical properties of the vortex phase and demonstrate its potential in particle-coating applications.
Multiscale Model Approach for Magnetization Dynamics Simulations
De Lucia, Andrea; Tretiakov, Oleg A; Kläui, Mathias
2016-01-01
Simulations of magnetization dynamics in a multiscale environment enable rapid evaluation of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in a mesoscopic sample with nanoscopic accuracy in areas where such accuracy is required. We have developed a multiscale magnetization dynamics simulation approach that can be applied to large systems with spin structures that vary locally on small length scales. To implement this, the conventional micromagnetic simulation framework has been expanded to include a multiscale solving routine. The software selectively simulates different regions of a ferromagnetic sample according to the spin structures located within in order to employ a suitable discretization and use either a micromagnetic or an atomistic model. To demonstrate the validity of the multiscale approach, we simulate the spin wave transmission across the regions simulated with the two different models and different discretizations. We find that the interface between the regions is fully transparent for spin waves with f...
Nambu mechanics for stochastic magnetization dynamics
Thibaudeau, Pascal; Nicolis, Stam
2016-01-01
The Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation describes the dynamics of a damped magnetization vector that can be understood as a generalization of Larmor spin precession. The LLG equation cannot be deduced from the Hamiltonian framework, by introducing a coupling to a usual bath, but requires the introduction of additional constraints. It is shown that these constraints can be formulated elegantly and consistently in the framework of dissipative Nambu mechanics. This has many consequences for both the variational principle and for topological aspects of hidden symmetries that control conserved quantities. We particularly study how the damping terms of dissipative Nambu mechanics affect the consistent interaction of magnetic systems with stochastic reservoirs and derive a master equation for the magnetization. The proposals are supported by numerical studies using symplectic integrators that preserve the topological structure of Nambu equations. These results are compared to computations performed by direct samp...
Dynamical magnetic effects in photoexcited ferromagnetic semiconductors
Chovan, J. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, P. O. Box 1527, 711 10 Heraklion (Greece); Kavousanaki, E.G. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P. O. Box 2208, 710 03 Heraklion (Greece); Perakis, I.E. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, P. O. Box 1527, 711 10 Heraklion (Greece); Department of Physics, University of Crete, P. O. Box 2208, 710 03 Heraklion (Greece)
2006-08-15
We develop a theory of photoinduced dynamical magnetic effects in III-Mn-V ferromagnetic semiconductors valid in presence of strong carrier spin relaxation and dephasing. We treat relaxation by using the Lindblad semigroup method and calculate the nonlinear response numerically. We predict Mn-spin relaxation and precession towards the direction determined by nonlinear optical polarization. These effects occur during the pulse. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Ivanova, Vera; Kurkin, Vladimir
2016-07-01
Earth's ionosphere is dynamical steadily changed medium. On a level with daily and seasonal variations of ionospheric parameters there are irregular components connected with wave motions in neutral atmosphere. F2 ionosphere region disturbances are developed in global scale during geomagnetic storms and characterized considerable variations in F2-region critical frequencies and heights. High frequency oblique-incidence sounding method allows us to diagnose ionospheric parameters variations in regions poorly equipped with vertical sounding stations. In this work we provide the analysis of large-scale and medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LS and MS TID's accordingly) registered during experiments from 2006 till 2011 which carried out by means of the monthly duration sets with 5-min intervals over oblique-incidence sounding paths located in the north-eastern region of Russian Federation. For the analysis we have been chosen experimental data obtained during minor and moderate geomagnetic storms. After ionograms processing maximum observed frequencies (MOF) deviations from median values were calculated. Using MOF deviations from medians the analysis of LS TID's appearance cases was carried out. Studied MOF deviations from medians can be caused by cusps on ionograms also. These cusps move with the course of time through the sequences of ionograms along upper rays from region with higher delays to region with lower delays. Such cusps on ionograms are caused by MS TID's. In this work the analysis of MS TID events registration by these cusps on ionograms was carried out. Then the comparison between LS and MS TID's appearance probability was performed. It is shown that registered MOF variations are caused by superposition of wave-like processes of different scales taken place in ionosphere during magnetic storms. This work was supported by the RFBR grants No 14-05-00259-a and No 14-05-00578-a.
Domain wall dynamics of magnetically bistable microwires
Ipatov M.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available We studied domain wall propagation of magnetically-bistable Fe- Co-rich microwires paying attention on effect of applied and internal stresses. We measured hysteresis loops and domain wall propagation in various magnetic Fe- Co-rich amorphous microwires with metallic nucleus diameters (from 12 □m till 22 □m using Sixtus Tonks-like experiments. Application of tensile stresses results in decreasing of domain wall velocity. We discussed magnetoelastic contribution in dynamics of domain wall propagation. We observed, that microwires with different geometries exhibit v(H dependences with different slopes. Application of stresses resulted in decrease of DW velocity, v, and DW mobility S. Quite fast DW propagation (v till 2500 m/s at H about 30 A/m has been observed in low magnetostrictive magnetically bistable Co56Fe8Ni10Si110B16 microwires. Consequently, we can assume that generally magnetoelastic energy affects DW dynamics: decreasing magnetoelastic energy, Kme, DW velocity increases.
Coupled spin, elastic and charge dynamics in magnetic nanostructures
Kamra, A.
2015-01-01
In this Thesis, I address the interaction of magnetic degrees of freedom with charge current and elastic dynamics in hybrid systems composed of magnetic and non-magnetic materials. The objective, invariably, is to control and study spin dynamics using charge and elastic degrees of freedom. In certai
Magnetization dynamics of imprinted non-collinear spin textures
Streubel, Robert, E-mail: r.streubel@ifw-dresden.de; Kopte, Martin; Makarov, Denys, E-mail: d.makarov@ifw-dresden.de [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Fischer, Peter [Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physics Department, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Schmidt, Oliver G. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Material Systems for Nanoelectronics, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)
2015-09-14
We study the magnetization dynamics of non-collinear spin textures realized via imprint of the magnetic vortex state in soft permalloy into magnetically hard out-of-plane magnetized Co/Pd nanopatterned heterostructures. Tuning the interlayer exchange coupling between soft- and hard-magnetic subsystems provides means to tailor the magnetic state in the Co/Pd stack from being vortex- to donut-like with different core sizes. While the imprinted vortex spin texture leads to the dynamics similar to the one observed for vortices in permalloy disks, the donut-like state causes the appearance of two gyrofrequencies characteristic of the early and later stages of the magnetization dynamics. The dynamics are described using the Thiele equation supported by the full scale micromagnetic simulations by taking into account an enlarged core size of the donut states compared to magnetic vortices.
Dynamic Elasticity of a Magnetic Fluid Column in a Strong Magnetic Field
Polunin, V. M.; Ryapolov, P. A.; Shel'deshova, E. V.; Kuz'ko, A. E.; Aref'ev, I. M.
2017-07-01
The elastomagnetic parameters of a magnetic fluid kept by magnetic levitation in a tube placed horizontally in a strong magnetic field are measured, including the oscillation frequency, the ponderomotive and dynamic elasticity coefficients, the magnetization curve, and the magnetic field strength and its gradient. Results of calculations for the model of ponderomotive elasticity for the examined sample of the magnetic fluid corrected for the resistance of the moving viscous fluid are in good agreement with the experimental magnetization curve. The described method is of interest for a study of magnetophoresis, nanoparticle aggregations, viscosity, and their time dependences in magnetic colloids.
Thermally induced dynamics in ultrathin magnetic tunnel junctions
Ogrodnik, P.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Xia, K.
2013-01-01
We consider the magnetization dynamics induced by thermally induced spin transfer torques in thin Fe|MgO|Fe tunnel junctions. The magnetization dynamics is described by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, including the thermal torques as computed from first principles. We show that the angular ske
Dynamic Analysis of Axial Magnetic Forces for DVD Spindle Motors
2000-01-01
The axial magnetic force, induced by the complicated flux linkage distribution from rotor magnet and stator slotted, is constructed by different relative heights and calculated by 3D finite element method (FEM) to analyze the dynamic characteristics for a DVD spindle motor. The axial magnetic force is designed to provide an axial stiffness and govern the natural frequency of the dynamic performance. According to the simulation results and experimental measurements, the dynamic behaviors are significantly improved with a variation of relative height of rotor magnet and stator slotted on a DVD spindle motor.
Dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles in viscoelastic media
Remmer, Hilke; Roeben, Eric; Schmidt, Annette M.; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank
2017-04-01
We compare different models for the description of the complex susceptibility of magnetic nanoparticles in an aqueous gelatin solution representing a model system for a Voigt-Kelvin scheme. The analysis of susceptibility spectra with the numerical model by Raikher et al. [7] is compared with the analysis applying a phenomenological, modified Debye model. The fit of the models to the measured data allows one to extract the viscoelastic parameter dynamic viscosity η and shear modulus G. The experimental data were recorded on single-core thermally blocked CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in an aqueous solution with 2.5 wt% gelatin. Whereas the dynamic viscosities obtained by fitting the model - extended by distributions of hydrodynamic diameters and viscosities - agree very well, the derived values for the shear modulus show the same temporal behavior during the gelation process, but vary approximately by a factor of two. To verify the values for viscosity and shear modulus obtained from nanorheology, macrorheological measurements are in progress.
Electrical detection of magnetization dynamics via spin rectification effects
Harder, Michael; Gui, Yongsheng; Hu, Can-Ming
2016-11-01
The purpose of this article is to review the current status of a frontier in dynamic spintronics and contemporary magnetism, in which much progress has been made in the past decade, based on the creation of a variety of micro and nanostructured devices that enable electrical detection of magnetization dynamics. The primary focus is on the physics of spin rectification effects, which are well suited for studying magnetization dynamics and spin transport in a variety of magnetic materials and spintronic devices. Intended to be intelligible to a broad audience, the paper begins with a pedagogical introduction, comparing the methods of electrical detection of charge and spin dynamics in semiconductors and magnetic materials respectively. After that it provides a comprehensive account of the theoretical study of both the angular dependence and line shape of electrically detected ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), which is summarized in a handbook format easy to be used for analysing experimental data. We then review and examine the similarity and differences of various spin rectification effects found in ferromagnetic films, magnetic bilayers and magnetic tunnel junctions, including a discussion of how to properly distinguish spin rectification from the spin pumping/inverse spin Hall effect generated voltage. After this we review the broad applications of rectification effects for studying spin waves, nonlinear dynamics, domain wall dynamics, spin current, and microwave imaging. We also discuss spin rectification in ferromagnetic semiconductors. The paper concludes with both historical and future perspectives, by summarizing and comparing three generations of FMR spectroscopy which have been developed for studying magnetization dynamics.
The Effect of Varying Magnetic Field Gradient on Combustion Dynamic
Suzdalenko, Vera; Zake, Maija; Barmina, Inesa; Gedrovics, Martins
2011-01-01
The focus of the recent experimental research is to provide control of the combustion dynamics and complex measurements (flame temperature, heat production rate, and composition of polluting emissions) for pelletized wood biomass using a non-uniform magnetic field that produces magnetic force interacting with magnetic moment of paramagnetic oxygen. The experimental results have shown that a gradient magnetic field provides enhanced mixing of the flame compounds by increasing combustion efficiency and enhancing the burnout of volatiles.
Claesson, E.M.; Erne, B.H.; Philipse, A.P.
2007-01-01
The weak permanent magnetic dipole moment of cobalt ferrite-doped colloidal silica spheres was increased by exposure to a saturating magnetic field. The resulting change of the rotational dynamics of the magnetic microspheres in a weak alternating field was measured from low to high volume fraction
Investigation of Dynamics of Self-Similarly Evolving Magnetic Clouds
Dalakishvili, Giorgi; Lapenta, Giovanni; Poedts, Stefaan
2010-01-01
Magnetic clouds (MCs) are "magnetized plasma clouds" moving in the solar wind. MCs transport magnetic flux and helicity away from the Sun. These structures are not stationary but feature temporal evolution. Commonly, simplified MC models are considered. The goal of the present study is to investigate the dynamics of more general, radially expanding MCs. They are considered as cylindrically symmetric magnetic structures with low plasma {\\beta}. In order to study MC`evolution the self-similar approach method and a numerical approach are used. It is shown that the forces are balanced in the considered self-similarly evolving, cylindrically symmetric magnetic structures. Explicit analytical expressions for magnetic field, plasma velocity, density and pressure within MCs are derived. These solutions are characterized by conserved values of magnetic flux and helicity. We also investigate the dynamics of self-similarly evolving MCs by means of the numerical code "Graale". In addition, their expansion in a medium wit...
Mukai, Y; Yamamoto, T; Kageyama, H; Tanaka, K
2016-01-01
We report on the nonlinear magnetization dynamics of a HoFeO3 crystal induced by a strong terahertz magnetic field resonantly enhanced with a split ring resonator and measured with magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy. The terahertz magnetic field induces a large change (~40%) in the spontaneous magnetization. The frequency of the antiferromagnetic resonance decreases in proportion to the square of the magnetization change. A modified Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation with a phenomenological nonlinear damping term quantitatively reproduced the nonlinear dynamics.
Sierra-Bermúdez, Sergio [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 9000 Mayaguez, PR 00681 PR (United States); Maldonado-Camargo, Lorena P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, 1006 Center Drive, Gainesville, FL 32603 (United States); Orange, François [Department of Physics and Nanoscopy Facility, College of Natural Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, PO Box 70377, San Juan, PR 00936-8377 (United States); Guinel, Maxime J.-F. [Department of Physics and Nanoscopy Facility, College of Natural Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, PO Box 70377, San Juan, PR 00936-8377 (United States); Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, PO Box 70377, San Juan, PR 00936-8377 (United States); Rinaldi, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.rinaldi@bme.ufl.edu [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, PO Box 116131, Gainesville, FL 32611-6131 (United States)
2015-03-15
Aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles in polymer melts was assessed using dynamic magnetic susceptibility measurements. Magnetic nanocomposites consisting of polybutadiene/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and polystyrene/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} mixtures were prepared using different techniques and characterized using dynamic magnetic susceptibility measurements. The presence of nanoparticle aggregates determined using magnetic measurements was confirmed with transmission electron microscopy examinations. The results were in good agreement with predictions from the Flory–Huggins interaction parameters. - Highlights: • Oleic acid coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were dispersed in polymer melts. • MNPs dispersed well in polybutadiene but not in polystyrene. • Dynamic magnetic susceptibility (DMS) measurements assessed presence of aggregates. • DMS predictions were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. • The Flory-Huggins interaction parameter correlated with MNP dispersion.
Abdullaev, Sadrilla
2014-01-01
This is the first book to systematically consider the modern aspects of chaotic dynamics of magnetic field lines and charged particles in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The analytical models describing the generic features of equilibrium magnetic fields and magnetic perturbations in modern fusion devices are presented. It describes mathematical and physical aspects of onset of chaos, generic properties of the structure of stochastic magnetic fields, transport of charged particles in tokamaks induced by magnetic perturbations, new aspects of particle turbulent transport, etc. The presentation is based on the classical and new unique mathematical tools of Hamiltonian dynamics, like the action--angle formalism, classical perturbation theory, canonical transformations of variables, symplectic mappings, the Poincaré-Melnikov integrals. They are extensively used for analytical studies as well as for numerical simulations of magnetic field lines, particle dynamics, their spatial structures and statisti...
Reluctance Network Based Dynamic Analysis in Power Magnetics
Nakamura, Kenji; Ichinokura, Osamu
This paper describes a reluctance network based dynamic analysis method used in the field of power magnetics, which is called reluctance network analysis (RNA). It is based on the magnetic circuit method and has some advantages for simulating electrical machinery such as a simple analytical model, high calculation accuracy, and easy to combine with an electric circuit, motion and thermal dynamics. First, the basis of the magnetic circuit method is described. Next, two case studies of RNA, one is a permanent magnet (PM) motor and the another is a switched reluctance (SR) motor, are presented.
Ultrafast magnetization dynamics of lanthanide metals and alloys
Sultan, Muhammad
2012-05-14
In this study, the laser-induced magnetization dynamics of the lanthanide ferromagnets Gadolinium (Gd), Terbium (Tb) and their alloys is investigated using femtosecond (fs) time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and magnetic second harmonic generation (MSHG). The magnetization dynamics is analyzed from the time scale of a few fs up to several hundred picoseconds (ps). The contributions of electrons, phonons, spin fluctuations, as well as the temporal regimes corresponding to the spin-orbit and exchange interactions are disentangled. In addition to possible applications in magnetic storage devices, understanding magnetization dynamics in lanthanides is also important because of their different magnetic structure compared to well-studied itinerant ferromagnets. Lanthanides are model Heisenberg-ferromagnets with localized 4f magnetic moments and long range magnetic ordering through indirect exchange interaction. By optical excitation of the conduction electrons, which mediate the exchange interaction, and studying the induced dynamics of the localized 4f and delocalized 5d6s magnetic moments, one can obtain insight into the angular momentum transfer at ultrafast time scales. Moreover, lanthanides offer the possibility to tune spin-lattice coupling via the 4f shell occupation and the concomitant changes in the 4f spin and orbital moments due to Hund's rules. Utilizing this fact, the importance of spin-lattice coupling in laser-induced demagnetization is also analyzed by comparing the magnetization dynamics in Gd and Tb. By investigating the magnetization dynamics of localized 4f moments of Gd and Tb using time-resolved XMCD, it is found that the demagnetization proceeds in both metals in two time scales, following fs laser excitation, which are classified as: (i) non-equilibrium (t
Dynamics of disordered and frustrated magnets
Woo, Na Yoon
Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG) is an insulating Heisenberg antiferromagnet. It is highly frustrated owing to its garnet structure, which is composed of elementary triangles with dominant antiferromagnetic interactions. We studied the effect of disorder in this geometrically frustrated system by changing the level of disorder in GGG:Ndx with x ranging from 0 to 1%. We measured the AC magnetic susceptibility in both the linear and nonlinear regimes and characterized the low temperature phases. As a result, we observed signatures of short range order in the 0% and 0.1% crystals, but not in the 1% sample, indicating that the order is suppressed in the 1% sample because of increasing frustration. The Nd doping compensates for the Gd-Ga off stoichiometry and pushes the system to a more perfectly frustrated state. We used the non-linear response to characterize the evolution of isolated spin clusters as a function of x. The Nd doping effectively relieves the net disorder. Hence the sample with the highest doping presents the smallest net correlated moments and the smallest onset field to activate the clusters from the background spin bath. The second project we report addresses the nonequilibrium dynamics of two related spin glasses. The model systems are the Ising magnets LiHo xY1--xF4 with x = 0.167 and 0.198. Although both systems undergo spin glass transitions, the mechanism that drives the phase transition is known to be different. The diluted sample is more affected by entanglement and in the concentrated system, the random field plays a more important role. In this thesis, we performed preliminary thermal and quantum aging experiments to compare the two systems. In the classical aging measurement, with temperature as the pertinent variable, the decay is exponential and measures primarily the response of the lattice. However quantum aging measurements using transverse field probe the spin relaxation character. The x = 0.167 and 0.198 crystals decay in opposite directions
Vehicle Dynamics due to Magnetic Launch Propulsion
Galaboff, Zachary J.; Jacobs, William; West, Mark E.; Montenegro, Justino (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
The field of Magnetic Levitation Lind Propulsion (MagLev) has been around for over 30 years, primarily in high-speed rail service. In recent years, however, NASA has been looking closely at MagLev as a possible first stage propulsion system for spacecraft. This approach creates a variety of new problems that don't currently exist with the present MagLev trains around the world. NASA requires that a spacecraft of approximately 120,000 lbs be accelerated at two times the acceleration of gravity (2g's). This produces a greater demand on power over the normal MagLev trains that accelerate at around 0.1g. To be able to store and distribute up to 3,000 Mega Joules of energy in less than 10 seconds is a technical challenge. Another problem never addressed by the train industry and, peculiar only to NASA, is the control of a lifting body through the acceleration of and separation from the MagLev track. Very little is understood about how a lifting body will react with external forces, Such as wind gusts and ground effects, while being propelled along on soft springs such as magnetic levitators. Much study needs to be done to determine spacecraft control requirements as well as what control mechanisms and aero-surfaces should be placed on the carrier. Once the spacecraft has been propelled down the track another significant event takes place, the separation of the spacecraft from the carrier. The dynamics involved for both the carrier and the spacecraft are complex and coupled. Analysis of the reaction of the carrier after losing, a majority of its mass must be performed to insure control of the carrier is maintained and a safe separation of the spacecraft is achieved. The spacecraft angle of attack required for lift and how it will affect the carriage just prior to separation, along with the impacts of around effect and aerodynamic forces at ground level must be modeled and analyzed to define requirements on the launch vehicle design. Mechanisms, which can withstand the
Brownian Dynamics of charged particles in a constant magnetic field
Hou, L J; Piel, A; Shukla, P K
2009-01-01
Numerical algorithms are proposed for simulating the Brownian dynamics of charged particles in an external magnetic field, taking into account the Brownian motion of charged particles, damping effect and the effect of magnetic field self-consistently. Performance of these algorithms is tested in terms of their accuracy and long-time stability by using a three-dimensional Brownian oscillator model with constant magnetic field. Step-by-step recipes for implementing these algorithms are given in detail. It is expected that these algorithms can be directly used to study particle dynamics in various dispersed systems in the presence of a magnetic field, including polymer solutions, colloidal suspensions and, particularly complex (dusty) plasmas. The proposed algorithms can also be used as thermostat in the usual molecular dynamics simulation in the presence of magnetic field.
On the magnetism and dynamics of prominence legs hosting tornadoes
Gonzalez, M J Martinez; Arregui, I; Collados, M; Beck, C; Rodriguez, J de la Cruz
2016-01-01
Solar tornadoes are dark vertical filamentary structures observed in the extreme ultraviolet associated with prominence legs and filament barbs. Their true nature and relationship to prominences requires understanding their magnetic structure and dynamic properties. Recently, a controversy has arisen: is the magnetic field organized forming vertical, helical structures or is it dominantly horizontal? And concerning their dynamics, are tornadoes really rotating or is it just a visual illusion? Here, we analyze four consecutive spectropolarimetric scans of a prominence hosting tornadoes on its legs which help us shed some light on their magnetic and dynamical properties. We show that the magnetic field is very smooth in all the prominence, probably an intrinsic property of the coronal field. The prominence legs have vertical helical fields that show slow temporal variation probably related to the motion of the fibrils. Concerning the dynamics, we argue that 1) if rotation exists, it is intermittent, lasting no ...
Protein dynamics from nuclear magnetic relaxation.
Charlier, Cyril; Cousin, Samuel F; Ferrage, Fabien
2016-05-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance is a ubiquitous spectroscopic tool to explore molecules with atomic resolution. Nuclear magnetic relaxation is intimately connected to molecular motions. Many methods and models have been developed to measure and interpret the characteristic rates of nuclear magnetic relaxation in proteins. These approaches shed light on a rich and diverse range of motions covering timescales from picoseconds to seconds. Here, we introduce some of the basic concepts upon which these approaches are built and provide a series of illustrations.
Magnetic Dynamics of Fine Particles Studied by Inelastic Neutron Scattering
Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen;
2000-01-01
We give an introduction to inelastic neutron scattering and the dynamic scattering function for magnetic nanoparticles. Differences between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic nanoparticles are discussed and we give a review of recent results on ferromagnetic Fe nanoparticles and canted antiferro......We give an introduction to inelastic neutron scattering and the dynamic scattering function for magnetic nanoparticles. Differences between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic nanoparticles are discussed and we give a review of recent results on ferromagnetic Fe nanoparticles and canted...
Instability in magnetic materials with a dynamical axion field.
Ooguri, Hirosi; Oshikawa, Masaki
2012-04-20
It has been pointed out that axion electrodynamics exhibits instability in the presence of a background electric field. We show that the instability leads to a complete screening of an applied electric field above a certain critical value and the excess energy is converted into a magnetic field. We clarify the physical origin of the screening effect and discuss its possible experimental realization in magnetic materials where magnetic fluctuations play the role of the dynamical axion field.
Incoherent magnetization dynamics in strain mediated switching of magnetostrictive nanomagnets
Bhattacharya, Dhritiman; Mamun Al-Rashid, Md; D'Souza, Noel; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha
2017-01-01
Micromagnetic studies of the magnetization change in magnetostrictive nanomagnets subjected to stress are performed for nanomagnets of different sizes. The interplay between demagnetization, exchange and stress anisotropy energies is used to explain the rich physics of size-dependent magnetization dynamics induced by modulating stress anisotropy in planar nanomagnets. These studies have important implications for strain mediated ultralow energy magnetization control in nanomagnets and its application in energy-efficient nanomagnetic computing devices.
Models for the dynamics of interacting magnetic nanoparticles
Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Mørup, Steen
1998-01-01
A critical review of models for the dynamics of interacting magnetic nanoparticles is given. It is shown that the basic assumptions in the Dormann-Bessais-Fiorani model are unrealistic. The experimental observations on systems of interacting magnetic nanoparticles can, at least qualitatively...
Nigam, R; Pan, A V; Dou, S X
2011-11-02
In this work, we present magnetic phase diagrams of a RuSr(2)Eu(1.5)Ce(0.5)Cu(2)O(10-δ) (Ru-1222) superconducting ferromagnet derived from its static and dynamic magnetic responses, measured by temperature and field dependences of dc magnetization and nonlinear ac susceptibility in both low and high magnetic fields. Comparison of magnetic phase diagrams of phase pure and impure samples singles out the intrinsic and extrinsic magnetic features, naturally proposing a unified model of Ru-1222 magnetic behaviour. The results considered within the proposed interpretation indicate full agreement between static and dynamic properties which, if measured in combination, effectively complement each other, uncovering existing ambiguities.
Magnetization dynamics induced by Rashba effect in a Permalloy nanodisk
Li, Huanan; Hua, Zhong; Li, Dongfei
2017-02-01
Magnetic vortex dynamics mediated by spin-polarized ac current of different amplitudes and frequencies are investigated by micromagnetic simulations in a system lacking structure inversion symmetry. Micromagnetic calculations reveal that the critical current density required to induce vortex core reversal may be decreased to below 1010 A m-2 due to strong transverse magnetic field by Rashba effect. We also find the spin torque of ac current plays a trivial role in magnetic vortex dynamics in a broken inversion symmetry system when the current density is on the order of 1010 A m-2 and the current with frequency close to the vortex eigenfrequency is the most efficient for reversal.
Structure and dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles
Clausen, K.N.; Bødker, F.; Hansen, M.F.
2000-01-01
In this paper we present X-ray and neutron diffraction data illustrating aspects of crystal and magnetic structures of ferromagnetic alpha-Fe and antiferromagnetic NiO nanoparticles, as well as inelastic neutron scattering studies of the magnetic fluctuations in NiO and in canted antiferromagneti...... alpha-Fe2O3. In the inelastic case we make use of the fact that we can study both the superparamagnetic relaxation and collective magnetic excitations of the whole particle moment at the antiferromagnetic Bragg positions. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....
Magnetic dynamics of weakly and strongly interacting hematite nanoparticles
Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Bender Koch, Christian; Mørup, Steen
2000-01-01
The magnetic dynamics of two differently treated samples of hematite nanoparticles from the same batch with a particle size of about 20 nm have been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy. The dynamics of the first sample, in which the particles are coated and dispersed in water, is in accordance.......3(-0.8)(+1.0) x 10(-10) s for a rotation of the sublattice magnetization directions in the rhombohedral (111) plane. The corresponding median superparamagnetic blocking temperature is about 150 K. The dynamics of the second, dry sample, in which the particles are uncoated and thus allowed to aggregate, is slowed...... down by interparticle interactions and a magnetically split spectrum is retained at room temperature. The temperature variation or the magnetic hyperfine field, corresponding to different quantiles in the hyperfine field distribution, can be consistently described by a mean field model...
Exploring the Origin and Dynamics of Solar Magnetic Fields
Hazra, Soumitra
2016-01-01
The Sun is a magnetically active star and is the source of the solar wind, electromagnetic radiation and energetic particles which affect the heliosphere and the Earths atmosphere. The magnetic field of the Sun is responsible for most of the dynamic activity of the Sun. This thesis research seeks to understand solar magnetic field generation and the role that magnetic fields play in the dynamics of the solar atmosphere. Specifically, this thesis focuses on two themes: in the first part, we study the origin and behaviour of solar magnetic fields using magnetohydrodynamic dynamo theory and modelling, and in the second part, utilizing observations and data analysis we study two major problems in solar physics, namely, the coronal heating problem and initiation mechanisms of solar flares.
Edge states and skyrmion dynamics in nanostripes of frustrated magnets
Leonov, A. O.; Mostovoy, M.
2017-01-01
Magnetic skyrmions are particle-like topological excitations recently discovered in chiral magnets. Their small size, topological protection and the ease with which they can be manipulated by electric currents generated much interest in using skyrmions for information storage and processing. Recently, it was suggested that skyrmions with additional degrees of freedom can exist in magnetically frustrated materials. Here, we show that dynamics of skyrmions and antiskyrmions in nanostripes of frustrated magnets is strongly affected by complex spin states formed at the stripe edges. These states create multiple edge channels which guide the skyrmion motion. Non-trivial topology of edge states gives rise to complex current-induced dynamics, such as emission of skyrmion–antiskyrmion pairs. The edge-state topology can be controlled with an electric current through the exchange of skyrmions and antiskyrmions between the edges of a magnetic nanostructure. PMID:28240226
Magnetization dynamics and spin pumping induced by standing elastic waves
Azovtsev, A. V.; Pertsev, N. A.
2016-11-01
The magnetization dynamics induced by standing elastic waves excited in a thin ferromagnetic film is described with the aid of micromagnetic simulations taking into account the magnetoelastic coupling between spins and lattice strains. Our calculations are based on the numerical solution of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation comprising the damping term and the effective magnetic field with all relevant contributions. The simulations have been performed for 2-nm-thick F e81G a19 film dynamically strained by longitudinal and transverse standing waves with various frequencies, which span a wide range around the resonance frequency νres of coherent magnetization precession in unstrained F e81G a19 film. It is found that standing elastic waves give rise to complex local magnetization dynamics and spatially inhomogeneous dynamic patterns in the form of standing spin waves with the same wavelength. Remarkably, the amplitude of magnetization precession does not go to zero at nodes of these spin waves, which cannot be precisely described by simple analytical formulae. In the steady-state regime, magnetization oscillates with the frequency of the elastic wave, except in the case of longitudinal waves with frequencies well below νres, where the magnetization precesses with variable frequency strongly exceeding the wave frequency. The results obtained for the magnetization dynamics driven by elastic waves are used to calculate the spin current pumped from the dynamically strained ferromagnet into adjacent paramagnetic metal. Numerical calculations demonstrate that the transverse charge current in the paramagnetic layer, which is created by the spin current via inverse spin Hall effect, is high enough to be measured experimentally.
Research on Dynamic Model's Building of Active Magnetic Suspension Systems
SHI Jian; YAN Guo-zheng; LI Li-chuan; WANG Kun-dong
2006-01-01
An experimental method is introduced in this paper to build the dynamics of AMSS (the active magnetic suspension system), which doesn't depend on system's physical parameters. The rotor can be reliably suspended under the unit feedback control system designed with the primary dynamic model obtained. Online identification in frequency domain is processed to give the precise model. Comparisons show that the experimental method is much closer to the precise model than the theoretic method based on magnetic circuit law. So this experimental method is a good choice to build the primary dynamic model of AMSS.
Magnetic dynamics of ferrofluids: mathematical models and experimental investigations
Wu, Kai; Tu, Liang; Su, Diqing; Wang, Jian-Ping
2017-03-01
Magnetite ferrofluids with unique magnetic behaviors are attractive for biomedical applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia and magnetic particle imaging. A precise nanoparticle-specific characterization by theoretical models and experiments to predict dynamics of ferrofluids and optimize their behaviors for emerging biomedical applications is necessary. In this paper, combining experiments and modeling, we have uncovered interesting magnetic dynamics of nanoparticles that are dependent on magnetic field strength, polymer coating of nanoparticles, viscosity of ferrofluid, and dipolar interactions. It is concluded that either by changing the magnitude of magnetic field or the concentrations of nanoparticles, we are able to convert the dominating relaxation process of magnetic nanoparticles from Néel to Brownian, and vice versa. Polymer coatings on nanoparticles and viscosity of ferrofluids are demonstrated to have varying degrees of influence on effective relaxation times of nanoparticles with different sizes and under different field strengths. Our theoretical models are used to predict the magnetic response of ferrofluid consisting of 35 nm magnetite nanoparticles under alternating magnetic fields, and it turns out that our theoretical data fits well with the experimental data.
Dynamical Axion Field in a Magnetic Topological Insulator Superlattice
Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng
We propose that the dynamical axion field can be realized in a magnetic topological insulator superlattice or a topological paramagnetic insulator. The magnetic fluctuations of these systems produce a pseudoscalar field which has an axionic coupling to the electromagnetic field, and thus it gives a condensed-matter realization of the axion electrodynamics. Compared to the previously proposed dynamical axion materials where a long range antiferromagnetic order is required, the systems proposed here have the advantage that only an uniform magnetization or a paramagnetic state is needed for the dynamic axion. We further propose several experiments to detect such a dynamical axion field. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515.
Van de Wiele, Ben; Leliaert, Jonathan; Franke, Kévin; van Dijken, Sebastiaan
2016-01-01
Strong coupling of magnetic domain walls onto straight ferroelastic boundaries of a ferroelectric layer enables full and reversible electric-field control of magnetic domain wall motion. In this paper, the dynamics of this new driving mechanism is analyzed using micromagnetic simulations. We show that transverse domain walls with a near-180° spin structure are stabilized in magnetic nanowires and that electric fields can move these walls with high velocities. Above a critical velocity, which ...
Magnetization reversal dynamics in antiferromagnetically coupled magnetic recording media
Schabes, Manfred
2002-03-01
Antiferromagnetically coupled (AFC) media have been shown to provide an important extension of longitudinal magnetic data storage at high bit densities.[1,2] In this work we report the results of micromagnetic calculations to examine the magnetization reversal mechanism in two-layer AFC media as a function of bottom layer thickness and interfacial exchange coupling. It is shown that the magnetization reversal in the top and bottom layers can proceed at rather different time scales, if the interfacial energy density is small or the bottom layer thickness is large. In this case the reversal of the bottom layer may involve spin wave like oscillations that require time periods for damping that are large compared to the reversal time of the top layer. Detailed solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz-Langevin[2] equations are discussed to study these novel oscillatory excitations in AFC media at a temperature of 350 K. [1] E.E. Fullerton et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.77, (2000),3806. [2] M.E. Schabes et al., IEEE Trans. Mag. MAG-37, (2001), 1432.
Magnetic-flux dynamics of high-Tc superconductors in weak magnetic fields
Il’ichev, E. V.; Jacobsen, Claus Schelde
1994-01-01
Aspects of magnetic-flux dynamics in different types of samples of the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3Ox have been investigated in magnetic fields below 1 Oe and at 77 K. The experiments were carried out in an arrangement including a field coil, a flat sample perpendicular to the field...
Hamiltonian and Lagrangian Dynamical Matrix Approaches Applied to Magnetic Nanostructures
Roberto Zivieri
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Two micromagnetic tools to study the spin dynamics are reviewed. Both approaches are based upon the so-called dynamical matrix method, a hybrid micromagnetic framework used to investigate the spin-wave normal modes of confined magnetic systems. The approach which was formulated first is the Hamiltonian-based dynamical matrix method. This method, used to investigate dynamic magnetic properties of conservative systems, was originally developed for studying spin excitations in isolated magnetic nanoparticles and it has been recently generalized to study the dynamics of periodic magnetic nanoparticles. The other one, the Lagrangian-based dynamical matrix method, was formulated as an extension of the previous one in order to include also dissipative effects. Such dissipative phenomena are associated not only to intrinsic but also to extrinsic damping caused by injection of a spin current in the form of spin-transfer torque. This method is very accurate in identifying spin modes that become unstable under the action of a spin current. The analytical development of the system of the linearized equations of motion leads to a complex generalized Hermitian eigenvalue problem in the Hamiltonian dynamical matrix method and to a non-Hermitian one in the Lagrangian approach. In both cases, such systems have to be solved numerically.
Morphology and dynamics of photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields
Wöger, F; Rimmele, T
2009-01-01
We use joint observations obtained with the Hinode space observatory and the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) installed at the DST of the NSO/SP to investigate the morphology and dynamics of (a) non-magnetic and (b) magnetic regions in the fluctosphere. In inter-network regions with no significant magnetic flux contributions above the detection limit of IBIS, we find intensity structures with similar characteristics as those seen in numerical simulations by Wedemeyer-B\\"ohm (2008). The magnetic flux elements in the network are stable and seem to resemble the spatially extended counterparts to the underlying photospheric magnetic elements. We will explain some of the difficulties in deriving the magnetic field vector from observations of the fluctosphere.
Dynamically controlled energy dissipation for fast magnetic vortex switching
Badea, R.; Berezovsky, J.
2017-09-01
Manipulation of vortex states in magnetic media provides new routes towards information storage and processing technology. The typical slow relaxation times (˜100 ns) of magnetic vortex dynamics may present an obstacle to the realization of these applications. Here, we investigate how a vortex state in a ferromagnetic microdisk can be manipulated in a way that translates the vortex core while enhancing energy dissipation to rapidly damp the vortex dynamics. We use time-resolved differential magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy to measure the motion of the vortex core in response to applied magnetic fields. We first map out how the vortex core becomes sequentially trapped by pinning sites as it translates across the disk. After applying a fast magnetic field step to translate the vortex from one pinning site to another, we observe long-lived dynamics of the vortex as it settles to the new equilibrium. We then demonstrate how the addition of a short (magnetic field pulse can induce additional energy dissipation, strongly damping the long-lived dynamics. A model of the vortex dynamics using the Thiele equation of motion explains the mechanism behind this effect.
Semiclassical dynamics and magnetic Weyl calculus
Lein, Maximilian Stefan
2011-01-19
Weyl quantization and related semiclassical techniques can be used to study conduction properties of crystalline solids subjected to slowly-varying, external electromagnetic fields. The case where the external magnetic field is constant, is not covered by existing theory as proofs involving usual Weyl calculus break down. This is the regime of the so-called quantum Hall effect where quantization of transverse conductance is observed. To rigorously derive semiclassical equations of motion, one needs to systematically develop a magnetic Weyl calculus which contains a semiclassical parameter. Mathematically, the operators involved in the analysis are magnetic pseudodifferential operators, a topic which by itself is of interest for the mathematics and mathematical physics community alike. Hence, we will devote two additional chapters to further understanding of properties of those operators. (orig.)
Ultrafast magnetization dynamics of lanthanide metals and alloys
Sultan, Muhammad
2012-05-14
In this study, the laser-induced magnetization dynamics of the lanthanide ferromagnets Gadolinium (Gd), Terbium (Tb) and their alloys is investigated using femtosecond (fs) time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and magnetic second harmonic generation (MSHG). The magnetization dynamics is analyzed from the time scale of a few fs up to several hundred picoseconds (ps). The contributions of electrons, phonons, spin fluctuations, as well as the temporal regimes corresponding to the spin-orbit and exchange interactions are disentangled. In addition to possible applications in magnetic storage devices, understanding magnetization dynamics in lanthanides is also important because of their different magnetic structure compared to well-studied itinerant ferromagnets. Lanthanides are model Heisenberg-ferromagnets with localized 4f magnetic moments and long range magnetic ordering through indirect exchange interaction. By optical excitation of the conduction electrons, which mediate the exchange interaction, and studying the induced dynamics of the localized 4f and delocalized 5d6s magnetic moments, one can obtain insight into the angular momentum transfer at ultrafast time scales. Moreover, lanthanides offer the possibility to tune spin-lattice coupling via the 4f shell occupation and the concomitant changes in the 4f spin and orbital moments due to Hund's rules. Utilizing this fact, the importance of spin-lattice coupling in laser-induced demagnetization is also analyzed by comparing the magnetization dynamics in Gd and Tb. By investigating the magnetization dynamics of localized 4f moments of Gd and Tb using time-resolved XMCD, it is found that the demagnetization proceeds in both metals in two time scales, following fs laser excitation, which are classified as: (i) non-equilibrium (t
Five-Axis, Three-Magnetic-Bearing Dynamic Spin Rig
Morrison, Carlos R.; Provenza, Andrew; Kurkov, Anatole; Mehmed, Oral; Johnson, Dexter; Montague, Gerald; Duffy, Kirsten; Jansen, Ralph
2005-01-01
The Five-Axis, Three-Magnetic-Bearing Dynamic Spin Rig is an apparatus for vibration testing of turbomachine blades in a vacuum at rotational speeds from 0 to 40,000 rpm. This rig includes (1) a vertically oriented shaft on which is mounted an assembly comprising a rotor holding the blades to be tested, (2) two actively controlled heteropolar radial magnetic bearings at opposite ends of the shaft, and (3) an actively controlled magnetic thrust bearing at the upper end of the shaft. This rig is a more capable successor to a prior apparatus, denoted the Dynamic Spin Rig (DSR), that included a vertically oriented shaft with a mechanical thrust bearing at the upper end and a single actively controlled heteropolar radial magnetic bearing at the lower end.
Dynamics of molecular superrotors in external magnetic field
Korobenko, Aleksey
2015-01-01
We excite diatomic oxygen and nitrogen to high rotational states with an optical centrifuge and study their dynamics in external magnetic field. Ion imaging is employed to directly visualize, and follow in time, the rotation plane of molecular superrotors. The two different mechanisms of interaction between the magnetic field and the molecular angular momentum in paramagnetic oxygen and non-magnetic nitrogen lead to the qualitatively different behaviour. In nitrogen, we observe the precession of the molecular angular momentum around the field vector. In oxygen, strong spin-rotation coupling results in faster and richer dynamics, encompassing the splitting of the rotation plane in three separate components. As the centrifuged molecules evolve with no significant dispersion of the molecular wave function, the observed magnetic interaction presents an efficient mechanism for controlling the plane of molecular rotation.
Staff Association
2015-01-01
In recent decades, family patterns have changed significantly. National laws have taken these changes into account, recognizing new forms of unions, different to heterosexual marriage. Indeed, recently some countries have given the possibility to same-sex couples to enter into various forms of unions. Staff regulations of international organizations are not directly affected by national laws, but in the context of diversity policies, the lack of recognition of these new forms of unions, may appear to discriminate based on sexual orientation and to limit the freedom of choosing marital status. A study by the International Service for Remunerations and Pensions (iSRP) of the OECD in January 2015 (PROS Report (1015) 04) shows that in comparison with other international organizations, CERN offers the least favorable social conditions for its Staff with in a registered partnership. As part of the Five-year review in 2015, it is important that CERN aligns itself with the practice of these other organizations...
Field-driven magnetization dynamics of nanoparticles and nanowires
Lu, Jie
This thesis is about micromagnetism in confined magnetic microstructures. The field-driven magnetization dynamics of nanoparticles and nanowires is systematically discussed following a clear thread of thought: from "macrospin" to "microspin". At the same time, four topics are raised and investigated. First, inspired by the traditional ferromagnetic resonance technique, two strategies for measuring the Gilbert damping coefficient using the magnetic circular dichroism effect are presented and discussed. The investigation is performed within a framework of the linear response of the macrospin in 2-D magnetic films to external time-dependent fields. The object of the study then turns to Stoner particles, which are single-domain magnetic nanoparticles, that are quasi 0-D systems and still assumed to be macrospins. The field-driven magnetization reversal in multi-axial Stoner particles is investigated and the corresponding Eular equations are presented. The Eular equations provide a unified framework for research of this kind. After that, the macrospin assumption itself is examined. The study of when and how it fails results in the famous "nucleation problem" in micromagnetism, thus the discussion then moves into the microspin category. The nucleation problem of single-domain cuboid permalloy nanowires, which are quasi 1-D systems, is investigated and a magnetization reversal mode named "domain formation and domain wall propagation" is revealed. Field-driven magnetic domain wall propagation is an excellent example of microspin behavior, and has been a hot issue in recent spintronic research. The effects of transverse magnetic anisotropies on field-driven transverse wall propagation in narrow magnetic nanowires are systematically investigated. These results should not only deepen the understanding of the domain wall dynamics in magnetic nanowires, but also offer inspiration for further developments of ultrafast nano-devices with higher integration levels.
Solar dynamics and magnetism from the interior to the atmosphere
Kosovichev, Alexander; Komm, Rudolf; Longcope, Dana
2014-01-01
NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission has provided a large amount of new data on solar dynamics and magnetic activities during the rising phase of the current and highly unusual solar cycle. These data are complemented by the continuing SOHO mission, and by ground-based observatories that include the GONG helioseismology network and the New Solar Telescope. Also, the observations are supported by realistic numerical simulations on supercomputers. This unprecedented amount of data provides a unique opportunity for multi-instrument investigations that address fundamental problems of the origin of solar magnetic activity at various spatial and temporal scales. This book demonstrates that the synergy of high-resolution multi-wavelength observations and simulations is a key to uncovering the long-standing puzzles of solar magnetism and dynamics. This volume is aimed at researchers and graduate students active in solar physics and space science. Previously published in Solar Physics journal, Vol. 287/1-2,...
Optimal control of stochastic magnetization dynamics by spin current
Wang, Yong; Zhang, Fu-Chun
2013-05-01
Fluctuation-induced stochastic magnetization dynamics plays an important role in spintronics devices. Here we propose that it can be optimally controlled by spin currents to minimize or maximize the Freidlin-Wentzell action functional of the system hence to increase or decrease the probability of the large fluctuations. We apply this method to study the thermally activated magnetization switching problem and to demonstrate the merits of the optimal control strategy.
Dynamical localization: Hydrogen atoms in magnetic and microwave fields
Benvenuto, F.; Casati, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica dellUniversita, Via Castelnuovo 7, 22100 Como (Italy); Shepelyansky, D.L. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, UMR C5626 du CNRS, Universite Paul Sabatier, 31062, Toulouse (France)
1997-03-01
We show that dynamical localization for excited hydrogen atoms in magnetic and microwave fields takes place at quite low microwave frequency ({omega}n{sup 3}{lt}1). Estimates of the localization length are given for different parameter regimes, showing that the quantum delocalization border drops significantly as compared to the case of zero magnetic field. This opens up broad possibilities for laboratory investigations. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Nakano, T.; Oogane, M.; Furuichi, T.; Ando, Y.
2017-01-01
We developed CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with a perpendicularly magnetized synthetic antiferromagnetic (p-SAF) reference layer for magnetic sensor applications. The MTJs exhibited linear tunnel magnetoresistance curves to out-of-plane applied magnetic fields with dynamic ranges more than ±2.5 kOe, which are wider than those in CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB-MTJs reported to date. The performance metrics of MTJ sensors, i.e., sensitivity and nonlinearity, depend significantly on the anisotropy field of the free layer. We explained the dependences by a simple model based on the Stoner-Wohlfarth and Slonczewski models, which gives us a guideline to design the sensor performance metrics. These findings demonstrated that MTJs with a p-SAF reference layer are promising candidates for wide-dynamic-range magnetic sensors.
Dobák, Samuel; Füzer, Ján; Kollár, Peter; Fáberová, Mária; Bureš, Radovan
2017-03-01
This study sheds light on the dynamic magnetization process in iron/resin soft magnetic composites from the viewpoint of quantitative decomposition of their complex permeability spectra into the viscous domain wall motion and magnetization rotation. We present a comprehensive view on this phenomenon over the broad family of samples with different average particles dimension and dielectric matrix content. The results reveal the pure relaxation nature of magnetization processes without observation of spin resonance. The smaller particles and higher amount of insulating resin result in the prevalence of rotations over domain wall movement. The findings are elucidated in terms of demagnetizing effects rising from the heterogeneity of composite materials.
Berry curvature and dynamics of a magnetic bubble
Koshibae, Wataru; Nagaosa, Naoto
2016-04-01
Magnetic bubbles have been the subject of intensive studies aiming to investigate their applications to memory devices. A bubble can be regarded as the closed domain wall and is characterized by the winding number of the in-plane components or the skyrmion number N sk , which are related to the number of Bloch lines (BLs). For the magnetic bubbles without BLs, the Thiele equation assuming no internal distortion describes the center-of-mass motion of the bubbles very well. For the magnetic bubbles with BLs, on the other hand, their dynamics is affected seriously by that of BLs along the domain wall. Here we show theoretically, that the distribution of the Berry curvature b z , i.e., the solid angle formed by the magnetization vectors, in the bubble plays the key role in the dynamics of a bubble with {N}{sk}=0 in a dipolar magnet. In this case, the integral of b z over the space is zero, while the nonuniform distribution of b z and associated Magnus force induce several nontrivial coupled dynamics of the internal deformation and center-of-mass motion as explicitly demonstrated by numerical simulations of Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. These findings give an alternative view and will pave a new route to design the bubble dynamics.
Dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles in a viscous fluid driven by rotating magnetic fields
Usadel, Klaus D.
2017-03-01
The rotational dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles in rotating magnetic fields in the presence of thermal noise is studied both theoretically and by performing numerical calculations. Equations for the dynamics of particles with uniaxial magnetic anisotropy are studied and the phase lag between the rotating magnetic moment and the driving field is obtained. It is shown that for large enough anisotropy energy the magnetic moment is locked to the anisotropy axis so that the particle behaves like a rotating magnetic dipole. The corresponding rigid dipole model is analyzed both numerically by solving the appropriate Fokker-Planck equation and analytically by applying an effective field method. In the special case of a rotating magnetic field applied analytic results are obtained in perfect agreement with numerical results based on the Fokker-Planck equation. The analytic formulas derived are not restricted to small magnetic fields or low frequencies and are therefore important for applications. The illustrative numerical calculations presented are performed for magnetic parameters typical for iron oxide.
Vertically polarizing undulator with dynamic compensation of magnetic forces
Strelnikov, N.; Vasserman, I.; Xu, J.; Jensen, D.; Schmidt, O.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Suthar, K.; Moog, E. R.; Pile, G.; Gluskin, E.
2017-01-01
As part of the R&D program of the LCLS-II project, a novel 3.4-meter-long undulator prototype with horizontal magnetic field and dynamic force compensation has recently been developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Previous steps in this development were the shorter 0.8-meter-long and 2.8-meter-long prototypes. Extensive mechanical and magnetic testing were carried out for each prototype, and each prototype was magnetically tuned using magnetic shims. The resulting performance of the 3.4-meter-long undulator prototype meets all requirements for the LCLS-II insertion device, including limits on the field integrals, phase errors, higher-order magnetic moments, and electron-beam trajectory for all operational gaps, as well as the reproducibility and accuracy of the gap settings.
Vertically Polarizing Undulator with Dynamic Compensation of Magnetic Forces
Strelnikov, N.; Vasserman, I.; Xu, J.; Jensen, D.; Schmidt, O.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Suthar, K.; Moog, E. R.; Pile, G.; Gluskin, E.
2017-01-20
As part of the R&D program of the LCLS-II project, a novel 3.4-meter-long undulator prototype with horizontal magnetic field and dynamic force compensation has recently been developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Previous steps in this development were the shorter 0.8-meter-long and 2.8-meter-long prototypes. Extensive mechanical and magnetic testing was carried out for each prototype, and each prototype was magnetically tuned using magnetic shims. The resulting performance of the 3.4-meter-long undulator prototype meets all requirements for the LCLS-II insertion device, including limits on the field integrals, phase errors, higher-order magnetic moments, and electron-beam trajectory for all operational gaps, as well as the reproducibility and accuracy of the gap settings.
Dynamics of whistler spheromaks in magnetized plasmas.
Eliasson, B; Shukla, P K
2007-11-16
Recent laboratory experiments [Stenzel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 095004 (2006)10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.095004] have demonstrated interesting phenomena of propagating nonlinear whistler structures (spheromaks) and stationary field-reversed configurations, whose magnetic fields exceed the ambient magnetic field strength. Our objective here is to present simulation studies for these nonlinear whistler structures based on the three-dimensional nonlinear electron magnetohydrodynamic equations. The robustness and longevity of the propagating whistler spheromaks found in the experiments are confirmed numerically. Varying the toroidal field of the spheromak in the initial conditions, we find that the polarity and the amplitude of the toroidal field determine the propagation direction and speed of the spheromak. Our simulation results are in excellent agreement with those observed in the laboratory experiments.
Global dynamics of dust grains in magnetic planets
Inarrea, Manuel [Universidad de La Rioja, Area de Fisica Aplicada, 26006 Logrono (Spain)]. E-mail: manuel.inarrea@dq.unirioja.es; Lanchares, Victor [Universidad de La Rioja, Departamento de Matematicas y Computacion, 26004 Logrono (Spain); Palacian, Jesus F. [Universidad Publica de Navarra, Departamento de Matematica e Informatica, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Pascual, Ana I. [Universidad de La Rioja, Departamento de Matematicas y Computacion, 26004 Logrono (Spain); Salas, J. Pablo [Universidad de La Rioja, Area de Fisica Aplicada, 26006 Logrono (Spain); Yanguas, Patricia [Universidad Publica de Navarra, Departamento de Matematica e Informatica, 31006 Pamplona (Spain)
2005-05-02
We study the dynamics of a charged particle orbiting a rotating magnetic planet. The system is modelled by the Hamiltonian of the two-body problem perturbed by an axially-symmetric potential. The perturbation consists in a magnetic dipole field and a corotational electric field. After an averaging process we arrive at a one degree of freedom Hamiltonian system for which we obtain its relative equilibria and bifurcations. It is shown that the system exhibits a complex and rich dynamics. In particular, dramatic changes in the phase flow take place in the vicinity of a circular equatorial orbit, that in the case of Saturn is located inside the E-ring.
Catalysis of dynamical symmetry breaking by a magnetic field
Miransky, V A
1995-01-01
A constant magnetic field in 3+1 and 2+1 dimensions is a strong catalyst of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, leading to the generation of a fermion mass even at the weakest attractive interaction between fermions. The essence of this effect is the dimensional reduction D/rightarrow D-2 in the dynamics of fermion pairing in a magnetic field. The effect is illustrated in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model and QED. Possible applications of this effect and its extension to inhomogeneous field configurations are discussed.
Dynamic magnetic hysteresis and nonlinear susceptibility of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles
Kalmykov, Yuri P.; Ouari, Bachir; Titov, Serguey V.
2016-08-01
The nonlinear ac stationary response of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles subjected to both external ac and dc fields of arbitrary strength and orientation is investigated using Brown's continuous diffusion model. The nonlinear complex susceptibility and dynamic magnetic hysteresis (DMH) loops of an individual antiferromagnetic nanoparticle are evaluated and compared with the linear regime for extensive ranges of the anisotropy, the ac and dc magnetic fields, damping, and the specific antiferromagnetic parameter. It is shown that the shape and area of the DMH loops of antiferromagnetic particles are substantially altered by applying a dc field that permits tuning of the specific magnetic power loss in the nanoparticles.
Dynamic analysis of magnetic nanoparticles crossing cell membrane
Pedram, Maysam Z.; Shamloo, Amir; Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim; Alasty, Aria
2017-01-01
Nowadays, nanoparticles (NPs) are used in a variety of biomedical applications including brain disease diagnostics and subsequent treatments. Among the various types of NPs, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been implemented by many research groups for an array of life science applications. In this paper, we studied MNPs controlled delivery into the endothelial cells using a magnetic field. Dynamics equations of MNPs were defined in the continuous domain using control theory methods and were applied to crossing the cell membrane. This study, dedicated to clinical and biomedical research applications, offers a guideline for the generation of a magnetic field required for the delivery of MNPs.
Dynamic Accuracy of Inertial Magnetic Sensor Modules
2016-12-01
interpolate function to replace the repeating values to ensure the RMS value was only calculated with the ground truth data obtained directly from...DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Magnetic, angular rate, and gravity (MARG) sensor modules have extensive applications in inertial...and gravity , MARG, micro-electro-mechanical systems, MEMS, quaternion 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 147 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF
Takahashi, Kin'ya; Goya, Kana; Goya, Saya
2014-12-01
Generally, time-delay systems are regarded as multi-attractor systems. We investigate mode selection rules for two-delay systems considering which oscillation mode is first excited by the Hopf bifurcation with increasing a bifurcation parameter. In particular, we focus on the case that the strength of the short time delay α1 is lower than that of the long time delay α2. In a certain range of α1/α2 in which it is sufficiently small but still not negligible, the third-harmonic mode occupies a particular range of the ratio of the two delay times such that 2 < tR2/tR1 < 4, where tR1 and tR2 denote the short and long delay times, respectively. This is the key for understanding the function of the register hole on the clarinet, which is smaller in radius than the other tone holes, but works well to raise the pitch of first register notes in a wide range more than an octave by a twelfth (19 semitones), i.e., generating third harmonics, when opened. This is confirmed using a simple model of the clarinet with two delays: short and long time delays are regarded as delayed reflections caused by the register hole and the open end of the pipe, respectively. The working range of the register hole roughly corresponds to the particular range of the third-harmonic mode for two-delay systems (2 < tR2/tR1 < 4).
Monitoring the Earth's Dynamic Magnetic Field
Love, Jeffrey J.; Applegate, David; Townshend, John B.
2008-01-01
The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey's Geomagnetism Program is to monitor the Earth's magnetic field. Using ground-based observatories, the Program provides continuous records of magnetic field variations covering long timescales; disseminates magnetic data to various governmental, academic, and private institutions; and conducts research into the nature of geomagnetic variations for purposes of scientific understanding and hazard mitigation. The program is an integral part of the U.S. Government's National Space Weather Program (NSWP), which also includes programs in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Defense (DOD), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSWP works to provide timely, accurate, and reliable space weather warnings, observations, specifications, and forecasts, and its work is important for the U.S. economy and national security. Please visit the National Geomagnetism Program?s website, http://geomag.usgs.gov, where you can learn more about the Program and the science of geomagnetism. You can find additional related information at the Intermagnet website, http://www.intermagnet.org.
LIU Bang-gui; ZHANG Kai-cheng; LI Ying
2007-01-01
The Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method based on the transition-state theory, powerful and famous for sim-ulating atomic epitaxial growth of thin films and nanostruc-tures, was used recently to simulate the nanoferromagnetism and magnetization dynamics of nanomagnets with giant mag-netic anisotropy. We present a brief introduction to the KMC method and show how to reformulate it for nanoscale spin systems. Large enough magnetic anisotropy, observed exper-imentally and shown theoretically in terms of first-principle calculation, is not only essential to stabilize spin orientation but also necessary in making the transition-state barriers dur-ing spin reversals for spin KMC simulation. We show two applications of the spin KMC method to monatomic spin chains and spin-polarized-current controlled composite nano-magnets with giant magnetic anisotropy. This spin KMC method can be applied to other anisotropic nanomagnets and composite nanomagnets as long as their magnetic anisotropy energies are large enough.
Static and dynamic critical behavior of thin magnetic Ising films
Sabogal-Suárez, D.; Alzate-Cardona, J. D.; Restrepo-Parra, E.
2015-09-01
This work presents a study of the effect of film thickness on the static and dynamic critical behavior of thin magnetic Ising films. Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff algorithm were performed to determine the static and dynamic critical exponents of the films. A dimensionality crossover from 2D to 3D (due to the finiteness of the films) in the static and dynamic critical behavior was observed as the film thickness increases. In addition, a slight increase in the effective dimension deff and a considerable increase in the critical temperature Tc(∞) were found. Small values for the dynamic critical exponents were obtained, indicating that the Wolff algorithm is a very efficient method for these magnetic systems.
Magnetic Nanostructures Spin Dynamics and Spin Transport
Farle, Michael
2013-01-01
Nanomagnetism and spintronics is a rapidly expanding and increasingly important field of research with many applications already on the market and many more to be expected in the near future. This field started in the mid-1980s with the discovery of the GMR effect, recently awarded with the Nobel prize to Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg. The present volume covers the most important and most timely aspects of magnetic heterostructures, including spin torque effects, spin injection, spin transport, spin fluctuations, proximity effects, and electrical control of spin valves. The chapters are written by internationally recognized experts in their respective fields and provide an overview of the latest status.
Spin dynamics in highly frustrated pyrochlore magnets
Petit, Sylvain; Guitteny, Solène; Robert, Julien; Bonville, Pierre; Decorse, Claudia; Ollivier, Jacques; Mutka, Hannu; Mirebeau, Isabelle
2015-01-01
This paper aims at showing the complementarity between time-of-flight and triple-axis neutron scattering experiments, on the basis of two topical examples in the field of geometrical magnetic frustration. Rare earth pyrochlore magnets R2Ti2O7 (R is a rare earth) play a prominent role in this field, as they form model systems showing a rich variety of ground states, depending on the balance between dipolar, exchange interactions and crystal field. We first review the case of the XY antiferromagnet Er2 Ti2 O7. Here a transition towards a Néel state is observed, possibly induced by an order-by-disorder mechanism. Effective exchange parameters can be extracted from S(Q,ω). We then examine the case of the spin liquid Tb2 Ti2 O7. Recent experiments reveal a complex ground state characterized by "pinch points" and supporting a low energy excitation. These studies demonstrate the existence of a coupling between crystal field transitions and a transverse acoustic phonon mode.
Ultrafast domain wall dynamics in magnetic nanotubes and nanowires
Hertel, R.
2016-12-01
The dynamic properties of magnetic domain walls in nanotubes and in cylindrical nanowires can be significantly different from the well known domain wall dynamics in thin films and in flat thin strips. The main differences are the occurrence of chiral symmetry breaking and, perhaps more importantly, the possibility to obtain magnetic domain walls that are stable against the usual Walker breakdown. This stability enables the magnetic field-driven propagation of the domain walls in nanotubes and nanocylinders at constant velocities which are significantly higher than the usual propagation speeds of the domain walls. Simulations predict that the ultrafast motion of magnetic domain walls at velocities in a range above 1000 m s-1 can lead to the spontaneous excitation of spin waves in a process that is the magnetic analog of the Cherenkov effect. In the case of solid cylindrical wires, the domain wall can contain a micromagnetic point singularity. We discuss the current knowledge on the ultrafast dynamics of such Bloch points, which remains still largely unexplored.
Magnetic dynamics of fine particles studied by inelastic neutron scattering
Hansen, M F; Moerup, S; Lefmann, K; Clausen, K N; Lindgaard, P A
2000-01-01
We give an introduction to inelastic neutron scattering and the dynamic scattering function for magnetic nanoparticles. Differences between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic nanoparticles are discussed and we give a review of recent results on ferromagnetic Fe nanoparticles and canted antiferromagnetic alpha-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 nanoparticles.
Magnetic string contribution to hadron dynamics in QCD
Simonov, YA; Tjon, JA
2000-01-01
The dynamics of a light quark in the field of a static source (heavy-light meson) is studied using the nonlinear Dirac equation, derived recently. Special attention is paid to the contribution of the magnetic correlators and it is found that it yields a significant increase of string tension at inte
Impact of Dynamic Magnetic fields on the CLIC Main Beam
Snuverink, J; Jach, C; Jeanneret, JB; Schulte, D; Stulle, F
2010-01-01
The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) accelerator has strong precision requirements on the position of the beam. The beam position will be sensitive to external dynamic magnetic fields (stray fields) in the nanotesla regime. The impact of these fields on the CLIC main beam has been studied by performing simulations on the lattices and tolerances have been determined. Several mitigation techniques will be discussed.
Magnetic string contribution to hadron dynamics in QCD /
Simonov, Yu. A.; Tjon, J. A.
2000-01-01
Published in: Phys. Rev., D 62 (2000) 094511 citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: Dynamics of a light quark in the field of static source (heavy-light meson) is studied using the nonlinear Dirac equation, derived recently. Special attention is paid to the contribution of magnetic
Current-induced magnetization dynamics in disordered itinerant ferromagnets
Tserkovnyak, Y.; Skadsem, H.J.; Brataas, A.; Bauer, G.E.W.
2006-01-01
Current-driven magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic metals is studied in a self-consistent adiabatic local-density approximation in the presence of spin-conserving and spin-dephasing impurity scattering. Based on a quantum kinetic equation, we derive Gilbert damping and spin-transfer torques ente
Spin currents and magnetization dynamics in multilayer systems
van der Bijl, E.
2014-01-01
In this Thesis the interplay between spin currents and magnetization dynamics is investigated theoretically. With the help of a simple model the relevant physical phenomena are introduced. From this model it can be deduced that in systems with small spin-orbit coupling, current-induced torques on
Vertically polarizing undulator with dynamic compensation of magnetic forces
Strelnikov, N; Vasserman, I; Xu, J; Jensen, D; Schmidt, O; Trakhtenberg, E; Suthar, K; Moog, E. R; Pile, G; Gluskin, E
2017-01-01
As part of the R&D program of the LCLS-II project, a novel 3.4-meter-long undulator prototype with horizontal magnetic field and dynamic force compensation has recently been developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS...
Dynamically important magnetic fields near accreting supermassive black holes.
Zamaninasab, M; Clausen-Brown, E; Savolainen, T; Tchekhovskoy, A
2014-06-05
Accreting supermassive black holes at the centres of active galaxies often produce 'jets'--collimated bipolar outflows of relativistic particles. Magnetic fields probably play a critical role in jet formation and in accretion disk physics. A dynamically important magnetic field was recently found near the Galactic Centre black hole. If this is common and if the field continues to near the black hole event horizon, disk structures will be affected, invalidating assumptions made in standard models. Here we report that jet magnetic field and accretion disk luminosity are tightly correlated over seven orders of magnitude for a sample of 76 radio-loud active galaxies. We conclude that the jet-launching regions of these radio-loud galaxies are threaded by dynamically important fields, which will affect the disk properties. These fields obstruct gas infall, compress the accretion disk vertically, slow down the disk rotation by carrying away its angular momentum in an outflow and determine the directionality of jets.
Spin motive force driven by skyrmion dynamics in magnetic nanodisks
Shimada, Yuhki; Ohe, Jun-ichiro
2015-05-01
The spin motive force driven by the dynamics of the skyrmion structure formed in a nanomagnetic disk is numerically investigated. Due to the existence of the magnetic structure along the disk edge, the collective mode of the magnetization is modified from that of the bulk skyrmion lattice obtained by using the periodic boundary condition. For a single-skyrmion disk, the dynamics of the skyrmion core and the edge magnetization induce the spin motive force, and a measurable AC voltage is obtained by two probes on the disk. For a multi-skyrmions disk, the phase-locked collective mode of skyrmions is found in the lowest resonant frequency where the amplitude of the AC voltage is enhanced by the cascade effect of the spin motive force. We also investigate the effect of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the spin motive force.
Dynamics of a self-gravitating magnetized neutron source
Paret, D Manreza
2008-01-01
The dynamics of a self-gravitating neutron gas in presence of a magnetic field is being studied taking the equation of state of a magnetized neutron gas obtained in a previous study [1]. We work in a Bianchi I spacetime characterized by a Kasner metric, this metric allow us to take into account the anisotropy that introduces the magnetic field. The set of Einstein-Maxwell field equations for this gas becomes a dynamical system in a 4-dimensional phase space. We get numerical solutions of the system. In particular there is a unique point like solution for different initial conditions. Physically this singular solution may be associated with the collapse of a local volume of neutron material within a neutron star.
Nishimura, Seiya, E-mail: n-seiya@kobe-kosen.ac.jp [Kobe City College of Technology, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2194 (Japan)
2014-12-15
Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) produce magnetic islands in toroidal plasmas. Self-healing (annihilation) of RMP-induced magnetic islands has been observed in helical systems, where a possible mechanism of the self-healing is shielding of RMP penetration by plasma flows, which is well known in tokamaks. Thus, fundamental physics of RMP shielding is commonly investigated in both tokamaks and helical systems. In order to check this mechanism, detailed informations of magnetic island phases are necessary. In experiments, measurement of radial magnetic responses is relatively easy. In this study, based on a theoretical model of rotating magnetic islands, behavior of radial magnetic fields during the self-healing is investigated. It is confirmed that flips of radial magnetic fields are typically observed during the self-healing. Such behavior of radial magnetic responses is also observed in LHD experiments.
Fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields
Coronel-Escamilla, A.; Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Guerrero-Ramírez, G. V.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.
2016-02-01
In many physical applications the electrons play a relevant role. For example, when a beam of electrons accelerated to relativistic velocities is used as an active medium to generate Free Electron Lasers (FEL), the electrons are bound to atoms, but move freely in a magnetic field. The relaxation time, longitudinal effects and transverse variations of the optical field are parameters that play an important role in the efficiency of this laser. The electron dynamics in a magnetic field is a means of radiation source for coupling to the electric field. The transverse motion of the electrons leads to either gain or loss energy from or to the field, depending on the position of the particle regarding the phase of the external radiation field. Due to the importance to know with great certainty the displacement of charged particles in a magnetic field, in this work we study the fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields. Newton’s second law is considered and the order of the fractional differential equation is (0;1]. Based on the Grünwald-Letnikov (GL) definition, the discretization of fractional differential equations is reported to get numerical simulations. Comparison between the numerical solutions obtained on Euler’s numerical method for the classical case and the GL definition in the fractional approach proves the good performance of the numerical scheme applied. Three application examples are shown: constant magnetic field, ramp magnetic field and harmonic magnetic field. In the first example the results obtained show bistability. Dissipative effects are observed in the system and the standard dynamic is recovered when the order of the fractional derivative is 1.
The large-scale dynamics of magnetic helicity
Linkmann, Moritz
2016-01-01
In this Letter we investigate the dynamics of magnetic helicity in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent flows focusing at scales larger than the forcing scale. Our results show a non-local inverse cascade of magnetic helicity, which occurs directly from the forcing scale into the largest scales of the magnetic fields. We also observe that no magnetic helicity and no energy is transferred to an intermediate range of scales sufficiently smaller than the container size and larger than the forcing scale. Thus, the statistical properties of this range of scales, which increases with scale separation, is shown to be described to a large extent by the zero-flux solutions of the absolute statistical equilibrium theory exhibited by the truncated ideal MHD equations.
Dynamical structure of magnetized dissipative accretion flow around black holes
Sarkar, Biplob
2016-01-01
We study the global structure of optically thin, advection dominated, magnetized accretion flow around black holes. We consider the magnetic field to be turbulent in nature and dominated by the toroidal component. With this, we obtain the complete set of accretion solutions for dissipative flows where bremsstrahlung process is regarded as the dominant cooling mechanism. We show that rotating magnetized accretion flow experiences virtual barrier around black hole due to centrifugal repulsion that can trigger the discontinuous transition of the flow variables in the form of shock waves. We examine the properties of the shock waves and find that the dynamics of the post-shock corona (PSC) is controlled by the flow parameters, namely viscosity, cooling rate and strength of the magnetic field, respectively. We separate the effective region of the parameter space for standing shock and observe that shock can form for wide range of flow parameters. We obtain the critical viscosity parameter that allows global accret...
Dynamics of Chromospheric Upflows and Underlying Magnetic Fields
Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Goode, Phil
2013-01-01
We used \\ha-0.1 nm and magnetic field (at 1.56$\\mu$) data obtained with the New Solar Telescope to study the origin of the disk counterparts to type II spicules, so-called rapid blueshifted excursions (RBEs). The high time cadence of our chromospheric (10 s) and magnetic field (45 s) data allowed us to generate x-t plots using slits parallel to the spines of the RBEs. These plots, along with potential field extrapolation, led us to suggest that the occurrence of RBEs is generally correlated with the appearance of new, mixed or unipolar fields in close proximity to network fields. RBEs show a tendency to occur at the interface between large-scale fields and small-scale dynamic magnetic loops and thus are likely to be associated with existence of a magnetic canopy. Detection of kinked and/or inverse "Y" shaped RBEs further confirm this conclusion.
Photospheric and Subphotospheric Dynamics of Emerging Magnetic Flux
Kosovichev, A. G.
2009-04-01
Magnetic fields emerging from the Sun’s interior carry information about physical processes of magnetic field generation and transport in the convection zone. Soon after appearance on the solar surface the magnetic flux gets concentrated in sunspot regions and causes numerous active phenomena on the Sun. This paper discusses some properties of the emerging magnetic flux observed on the solar surface and in the interior. A statistical analysis of variations of the tilt angle of bipolar magnetic regions during the emergence shows that the systematic tilt with respect to the equator (the Joy’s law) is most likely established below the surface. However, no evidence of the dependence of the tilt angle on the amount of emerging magnetic flux, predicted by the rising magnetic flux rope theories, is found. Analysis of surface plasma flows in a large emerging active region reveals strong localized upflows and downflows at the initial phase of emergence but finds no evidence for large-scale flows indicating future appearance a large-scale magnetic structure. Local helioseismology provides important tools for mapping perturbations of the wave speed and mass flows below the surface. Initial results from SOHO/MDI and GONG reveal strong diverging flows during the flux emergence, and also localized converging flows around stable sunspots. The wave speed images obtained during the process of formation of a large active region, NOAA 10488, indicate that the magnetic flux gets concentrated in strong field structures just below the surface. Further studies of magnetic flux emergence require systematic helioseismic observations from the ground and space, and realistic MHD simulations of the subsurface dynamics.
Taub-NUT Dynamics with a Magnetic Field
Jante, Rogelio
2015-01-01
We study classical and quantum dynamics on the Euclidean Taub-NUT geometry coupled to an abelian gauge field with self-dual curvature and show that, even though Taub-NUT has neither bounded orbits nor quantum bound states, the magnetic binding via the gauge field produces both. The conserved Runge-Lenz vector of Taub-NUT dynamics survives, in a modified form, in the gauged model and allows for an essentially algebraic computation of classical trajectories and energies of quantum bound states. We also compute scattering cross sections and find a surprising electric-magnetic duality. Finally, we exhibit the dynamical symmetry behind the conserved Runge-Lenz and angular momentum vectors in terms of a twistorial formulation of phase space.
Taub-NUT dynamics with a magnetic field
Jante, Rogelio; Schroers, Bernd J.
2016-06-01
We study classical and quantum dynamics on the Euclidean Taub-NUT geometry coupled to an abelian gauge field with self-dual curvature and show that, even though Taub-NUT has neither bounded orbits nor quantum bound states, the magnetic binding via the gauge field produces both. The conserved Runge-Lenz vector of Taub-NUT dynamics survives, in a modified form, in the gauged model and allows for an essentially algebraic computation of classical trajectories and energies of quantum bound states. We also compute scattering cross sections and find a surprising electric-magnetic duality. Finally, we exhibit the dynamical symmetry behind the conserved Runge-Lenz and angular momentum vectors in terms of a twistorial formulation of phase space.
Ab initio theory for ultrafast magnetization dynamics with a dynamic band structure
Mueller, B. Y.; Haag, M.; Fähnle, M.
2016-09-01
Laser-induced modifications of magnetic materials on very small spatial dimensions and ultrashort timescales are a promising field for novel storage and spintronic devices. Therefore, the contribution of electron-electron spin-flip scattering to the ultrafast demagnetization of ferromagnets after an ultrashort laser excitation is investigated. In this work, the dynamical change of the band structure resulting from the change of the magnetization in time is taken into account on an ab initio level. We find a large influence of the dynamical band structure on the magnetization dynamics and we illustrate the thermalization and relaxation process after laser irradiation. Treating the dynamical band structure yields a demagnetization comparable to the experimental one.
Ultrafast Magnetism Dynamics Measure Using Tabletop Ultrafast EUV Sources
Silva, Thomas J. [NIST; Murnane, Margaret [University of Colorado
2013-08-21
In our work to date, we made two significant advances. First we demonstrated element-selective demagnetization dynamics for the first time, with a record time resolution for x-ray probing of 55 fs. Second, in new work, we were able to probe the timescale of the exchange interaction in magnetic materials, also for the first time. Our measurements were made using the transverse magneto-optic Kerr effect (T-MOKE) geometry, since the reflectivity of a magnetic material changes with the direction of the magnetization vector of a surface. In our experiment, we periodically reversed the magnetization direction of a grating structure made of Permalloy (Ni80Fe20) using an external magnetic field. To achieve maximum contrast, we used HHG light spanning the M-shell (3p) absorption edges of Fe and Ni. Our characterization of the static magnetization of a Permalloy sample shows high magnetic asymmetry at photon energies just above and below the absorption edges at 55 eV and 65 eV, respectively. This result is in excellent agreement with measurements done on the same using a synchrotron source.
Betancur, Julian; Simon, Antoine; Langella, Bernard; Leclercq, Christophe; Hernandez, Alfredo; Garreau, Mireille
2016-09-01
The synchronization and registration of dynamic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the heart is required to perform a combined analysis of their complementary information. We propose a novel method that synchronizes and registers intrapatient dynamic CT and cine-MRI short axis view (SAX). For the synchronization step, a normalized cross-correlation curve is computed from each image sequence to describe the global cardiac dynamics. The time axes of these curves are then warped using an adapted dynamic time warping (DTW) procedure. The adaptation constrains the time deformation to obtain a coherent warping function. The registration step then computes the rigid transformation that maximizes the multiimage normalized mutual information of DTW-synchronized images. The DTW synchronization and the multiimage registration were evaluated using dynamic CT and cine-SAX acquisitions from nine patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy. The distance between the end-systolic phases after DTW was used to evaluate the synchronization. Mean errors, expressed as a percentage of the RR-intervals, were 3.9% and 3.7% after adapted DTW synchronization against 10.8% and 11.3% after linear synchronization, for dynamic CT and cine-SAX, respectively. This suggests that the adapted DTW synchronization leads to a coherent warping of cardiac dynamics. The multiimage registration was evaluated using fiducial points. Compared to a monoimage and a two-image registration, the multiimage registration of DTW-synchronized images obtained the lowest mean fiducial error showing that the use of dynamic voxel intensity information improves the registration.
Dynamic material strength measurement utilizing magnetically applied pressure-shear
Alexander C.S.
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Magnetically applied pressure-shear (MAPS is a recently developed technique used to measure dynamic material strength developed at Sandia National Laboratories utilizing magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD drive pulsed power systems. MHD drive platforms generate high pressures by passing a large current through a pair of parallel plate conductors which, in essence, form a single turn magnet coil. Lorentz forces resulting from the interaction of the self-generated magnetic field and the drive current repel the plates and result in a high pressure ramp wave propagating in the conductors. This is the principle by which the Sandia Z Machine operates for dynamic material testing. MAPS relies on the addition of a second, external magnetic field applied orthogonally to both the drive current and the self-generated magnetic field. The interaction of the drive current and this external field results in a shear wave being induced directly in the conductors. Thus both longitudinal and shear stresses are generated. These stresses are coupled to a sample material of interest where shear strength is probed by determining the maximum transmissible shear stress in the state defined by the longitudinal compression. Both longitudinal and transverse velocities are measured via a specialized velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR. Pressure and shear strength of the sample are calculated directly from the VISAR data. Results of tests on several materials at modest pressures (∼10GPa will be presented and discussed.
Observations of Magnetic Reconnection and Plasma Dynamics in Mercury's Magnetosphere
DiBraccio, Gina A.
Mercury's magnetosphere is formed as a result of the supersonic solar wind interacting with the planet's intrinsic magnetic field. The combination of the weak planetary dipole moment and intense solar wind forcing of the inner heliosphere creates a unique space environment, which can teach us about planetary magnetospheres. In this work, we analyze the first in situ orbital observations at Mercury, provided by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. Magnetic reconnection and the transport of plasma and magnetic flux are investigated using MESSENGER Magnetometer and Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer measurements. Here, we report our results on the effect of magnetic reconnection and plasma dynamics on Mercury's space environment: (1) Mercury's magnetosphere is driven by frequent, intense magnetic reconnection observed in the form of magnetic field components normal to the magnetopause, BN, and as helical bundles of flux, called magnetic flux ropes, in the cross-tail current sheet. The high reconnection rates are determined to be a direct consequence of the low plasma beta, the ratio of plasma to magnetic pressure, in the inner heliosphere. (2) As upstream solar wind conditions vary, we find that reconnection occurs at Mercury's magnetopause for all orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field, independent of shear angle. During the most extreme solar wind forcing events, the influence of induction fields generated within Mercury's highly conducting core are negated by erosion due to persistent magnetopause reconnection. (3) We present the first observations of Mercury's plasma mantle, which forms as a result of magnetopause reconnection and allows solar wind plasma to enter into the high-latitude magnetotail through the dayside cusps. The energy dispersion observed in the plasma mantle protons is used to infer the cross-magnetosphere electric field, providing a direct measurement of solar wind momentum
A review of dynamic characteristics of magnetically levitated vehicle systems
Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.
1995-11-01
The dynamic response of magnetically levitated (maglev) ground transportation systems has important consequences for safety and ride quality, guideway design, and system costs. Ride quality is determined by vehicle response and by environmental factors such as humidity and noise. The dynamic response of the vehicles is the key element in determining ride quality, while vehicle stability is an important safety-related element. To design a guideway that provides acceptable ride quality in the stable region, vehicle dynamics must be understood. Furthermore, the trade-off between guideway smoothness and levitation and control systems must be considered if maglev systems are to be economically feasible. The link between the guideway and the other maglev components is vehicle dynamics. For a commercial maglev system, vehicle dynamics must be analyzed and tested in detail. This report, which reviews various aspects of the dynamic characteristics, experiments and analysis, and design guidelines for maglev systems, discusses vehicle stability, motion dependent magnetic force components, guideway characteristics, vehicle/ guideway interaction, ride quality, suspension control laws, aerodynamic loads and other excitations, and research needs.
Simulation of dynamics of a permanent magnet linear actuator
Yatchev, Ivan; Ritchie, Ewen
2010-01-01
Comparison of two approaches for the simulation of the dynamic behaviour of a permanent magnet linear actuator is presented. These are full coupled model, where the electromagnetic field, electric circuit and mechanical motion problems are solved simultaneously, and decoupled model, where first...... a set of static magnetic filed analysis is carried out and then the electric circuit and mechanical motion equations are solved employing bi-cubic spline approximations of the field analysis results. The results show that the proposed decoupled model is of satisfactory accuracy and gives more...
Xijun Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A dual scanning laser speckle interferometry experiment was designed to observe the dynamic behavior of the magnetic fluid actuated by a magnetic field. In order to improve the spatial resolution of the dynamic speckle measurement, the phase delay scanning was used to compensate the additional phase variation which was caused by the transverse scanning. The correlation coefficients corresponding to the temporal dynamic speckle patterns within the same time interval scattering from the nanoparticles were calculated in the experiment on nanoscale magnetic clusters. In the experiment, the speckle of the magnetic nanoparticle fluid movement has been recorded by the lens unmounted CCD within the interferometry strips, although the speckle led to the distinguished annihilation of the light coherence. The results have showed that the nanoparticle fluid dynamic properties appeared synergistically in the fringe speckles. The analyses of the nanoparticle's relative speed and the speckle pattern moving amount in the fringes have proved the nanoparticle’s movement in a laminar flow in the experiment.
Effect of alignment of easy axes on dynamic magnetization of immobilized magnetic nanoparticles
Yoshida, Takashi; Matsugi, Yuki; Tsujimura, Naotaka; Sasayama, Teruyoshi; Enpuku, Keiji; Viereck, Thilo; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank
2017-04-01
In some biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), the particles are physically immobilized. In this study, we explore the effect of the alignment of the magnetic easy axes on the dynamic magnetization of immobilized MNPs under an AC excitation field. We prepared three immobilized MNP samples: (1) a sample in which easy axes are randomly oriented, (2) a parallel-aligned sample in which easy axes are parallel to the AC field, and (3) an orthogonally aligned sample in which easy axes are perpendicular to the AC field. First, we show that the parallel-aligned sample has the largest hysteresis in the magnetization curve and the largest harmonic magnetization spectra, followed by the randomly oriented and orthogonally aligned samples. For example, 1.6-fold increase was observed in the area of the hysteresis loop of the parallel-aligned sample compared to that of the randomly oriented sample. To quantitatively discuss the experimental results, we perform a numerical simulation based on a Fokker-Planck equation, in which probability distributions for the directions of the easy axes are taken into account in simulating the prepared MNP samples. We obtained quantitative agreement between experiment and simulation. These results indicate that the dynamic magnetization of immobilized MNPs is significantly affected by the alignment of the easy axes.
Improvement in dynamic magnetic resonance imaging thermometry
Guo, Jun-Yu
This dissertation is focused on improving MRI Thermometry (MRIT) techniques. The application of the spin-lattice relaxation constant is investigated in which T1 is used as indicator to measure the temperature of flowing fluid such as blood. Problems associated with this technique are evaluated, and a new method to improve the consistency and repeatability of T1 measurements is presented. The new method combines curve fitting with a measure of the curve null point to acquire more accurate and consistent T1 values. A novel method called K-space Inherited Parallel Acquisition (KIPA) is developed to achieve faster dynamic temperature measurements. Localized reconstruction coefficients are used to achieve higher reduction factors, and lower noise and artifact levels compared to that of GeneRalized Autocalibrating Partially Parallel Acquisition (GRAPPA) reconstruction. Artifacts in KIPA images are significantly reduced, and SNR is largely improved in comparison with that in GRAPPA images. The Root-Mean-Square (RMS) error of temperature for GRAPPA is 2 to 5 times larger than that for KIPA. Finally, the accuracy and comparison of the effects of motion on three parallel imaging methods: SENSE (SENSitivity Encoding), VSENSE (Variable-density SENSE) and KIPA are estimated. According to the investigation, KIPA is the most accurate and robust method among all three methods for studies with or without motion. The ratio of the normalized RMS (NRMS) error for SENSE to that for KIPA is within the range from 1 to 3.7. The ratio of the NRMS error for VSENSE to that for KIPA is about 1 to 2. These factors change with the reduction factor, motion and subject. In summary, the new strategy and method for the fast noninvasive measurement of T1 of flowing blood are proposed to improve stability and precision. The novel parallel reconstruction algorithm, KIPA, is developed to improve the temporal and spatial resolution for the PRF method. The motion effects on the KIPA method are also
Kamatani, Takashi; Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Okada, Takemichi; Yamazaki, Hitoshi; Tsunoda, Hidekazu; Watanabe, Masaaki; Oda, Masaya; Ohbu, Makoto; Yokomori, Hiroaki
2014-10-01
Hepatic angiosarcoma is a very rare disease, accounting for only 2% of primary liver malignancy. An 82-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of jaundice and weight loss. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse and multiple space-occupying lesions. On gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI, the tumor was not enhanced intensely in the arterial phase following contrast injection, and was then gradually enhanced homogeneously. In the delayed phase and hepatobiliary phase, the tumor was completely washed out. Whole-body (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/CT fusion scanning confirmed metabolic activity with maximum uptake value of 3.64 in the lesions. A liver biopsy showed spindle-shaped tumor cells proliferating along sinusoids, with elongated and hyperchromatic nuclei. Immunohistochemical studies showed tumor cells positive for von Willebrand factor and CD34. These findings were consistent with angiosarcoma of the liver. This case report is the first description of co-registered FDG-PET/CT images and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI of primary hepatic angiosarcoma.
Nonlinear dynamic susceptibilities of interacting and noninteracting magnetic nanoparticles
Joensson, P; García-Palacios, J L; Svedlindh, P
2000-01-01
The linear and cubic dynamic susceptibilities of solid dispersions of nanosized maghemite gamma-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 particles have been measured for three samples with a volume concentration of magnetic particles ranging from 0.3% to 17%, in order to study the effect of dipole-dipole interactions. Significant differences between the dynamic response of the samples are observed. While the linear and cubic dynamic susceptibilities of the most dilute sample compare reasonably well with the corresponding expressions proposed by Raikher and Stepanov for noninteracting particles, the nonlinear dynamic response of the most concentrated sample exhibits at low temperatures similar features as observed in a Ag(11 at% Mn) spin glass.
Computational Analysis of Static and Dynamic Behaviour of Magnetic Suspensions and Magnetic Bearings
Britcher, Colin P. (Editor); Groom, Nelson J.
1996-01-01
Static modelling of magnetic bearings is often carried out using magnetic circuit theory. This theory cannot easily include nonlinear effects such as magnetic saturation or the fringing of flux in air-gaps. Modern computational tools are able to accurately model complex magnetic bearing geometries, provided some care is exercised. In magnetic suspension applications, the magnetic fields are highly three-dimensional and require computational tools for the solution of most problems of interest. The dynamics of a magnetic bearing or magnetic suspension system can be strongly affected by eddy currents. Eddy currents are present whenever a time-varying magnetic flux penetrates a conducting medium. The direction of flow of the eddy current is such as to reduce the rate-of-change of flux. Analytic solutions for eddy currents are available for some simplified geometries, but complex geometries must be solved by computation. It is only in recent years that such computations have been considered truly practical. At NASA Langley Research Center, state-of-the-art finite-element computer codes, 'OPERA', 'TOSCA' and 'ELEKTRA' have recently been installed and applied to the magnetostatic and eddy current problems. This paper reviews results of theoretical analyses which suggest general forms of mathematical models for eddy currents, together with computational results. A simplified circuit-based eddy current model proposed appears to predict the observed trends in the case of large eddy current circuits in conducting non-magnetic material. A much more difficult case is seen to be that of eddy currents in magnetic material, or in non-magnetic material at higher frequencies, due to the lower skin depths. Even here, the dissipative behavior has been shown to yield at least somewhat to linear modelling. Magnetostatic and eddy current computations have been carried out relating to the Annular Suspension and Pointing System, a prototype for a space payload pointing and vibration
Quantum Dynamics of Magnetic and Electric Dipoles and Berry's Phase
Furtado, C; Furtado, Claudio
2003-01-01
We study the quantum dynamics of neutral particle that posseses a permanent magnetic and electric dipole moments in the presence of an electromagnetic field. The analysis of this dynamics demonstrates the appearance of a quantum phase that combines the Aharonov-Casher effect and the He-Mckellar-Wilkens effect. We demonstrate that this phase is a special case of the Berry's quantum phase. A series of field configurations where this phase would be found are presented. A generalized Casella-type effect is found in one these configurations. A physical scenario for the quantum phase in an interferometric experiment is proposed.
Phase-space dynamics of runaway electrons in magnetic fields
Guo, Zehua; McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu
2017-04-01
Dynamics of runaway electrons in magnetic fields are governed by the competition of three dominant physics: parallel electric field acceleration, Coulomb collision, and synchrotron radiation. Examination of the energy and pitch-angle flows reveals that the presence of local vortex structure and global circulation is crucial to the saturation of primary runaway electrons. Models for the vortex structure, which has an O-point to X-point connection, and the bump of runaway electron distribution in energy space have been developed and compared against the simulation data. Identification of these velocity-space structures opens a new venue to re-examine the conventional understanding of runaway electron dynamics in magnetic fields.
Dynamical supersymmetry breaking on magnetized tori and orbifolds
Hiroyuki Abe
2016-10-01
Full Text Available We construct several dynamical supersymmetry breaking (DSB models within a single ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang–Mills (SYM theory, compactified on magnetized tori with or without orbifolding. We study the case that the supersymmetry breaking is triggered by a strong dynamics of SU(NC SYM theory with NF flavors contained in the four-dimensional effective theory. We show several configurations of magnetic fluxes and orbifolds, those potentially yield, below the compactification scale, the field contents and couplings required for triggering DSB. We especially find a class of self-complete DSB models on orbifolds, where all the extra fields are eliminated by the orbifold projection and DSB successfully occurs within the given framework. Comments on some perspectives for associating the obtained DSB models with the other sectors, such as the visible sector and another hidden sector for, e.g., stabilizing moduli, are also given.
Quantifying Chiral Magnetic Effect from Anomalous-Viscous Fluid Dynamics
Jiang, Yin; Yin, Yi; Liao, Jinfeng
2016-01-01
Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) is the macroscopic manifestation of the fundamental chiral anomaly in a many-body system of chiral fermions, and emerges as anomalous transport current in the fluid dynamics framework. Experimental observation of CME is of great interest and has been reported in Dirac and Weyl semimetals. Significant efforts have also been made to search for CME in heavy ion collisions. Encouraging evidence of CME-induced charge separation in those collisions has been reported, albeit with ambiguity due to background contamination. Crucial for addressing such issue, is the need of quantitative predictions for CME signal with sophisticated modelings. In this paper we develop such a tool, the Anomalous Viscous Fluid Dynamics (AVFD) framework, which simulates the evolution of fermion currents in QGP on top of the data-validated VISHNU bulk hydrodynamic flow. With realistic initial conditions and magnetic field lifetime, the AVFD-predicted CME signal could be quantitatively consistent with measured ch...
Ultrafast element-specific decoupling of magnetization dynamics in permalloy
Grychtol, Patrik [Department of Physics, JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States); Institute of Solid State Research, IFF-9, Research Center Juelich, 52425, Juelich (Germany); La-O-Vorakiat, Chan; Siemens, Mark; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret [Department of Physics, JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States); Mathias, Stefan [Department of Physics, JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States); University of Kaiserslautern, Research Center OPTIMAS, 67663, Kaiserslautern (Germany); Shaw, Justin; Nembach, Hans; Silva, Tom [Electromagnetics Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305-3328 (United States); Adam, Roman; Schneider, Claus M. [Institute of Solid State Research, IFF-9, Research Center Juelich, 52425, Juelich (Germany); Eich, Steffen; Aeschlimann, Martin [University of Kaiserslautern, Research Center OPTIMAS, 67663, Kaiserslautern (Germany)
2011-07-01
Elucidating the dynamic behavior of complex magnetic systems far from their thermal equilibrium is a topic of utmost scientific interest. In our work, we employ soft x-ray pulses from high-harmonic-generation to probe the dynamic response of thin permalloy films during an ultrafast optically driven demagnetization process. We find that the demagnetization times for the elements Fe and Ni differ significantly, despite their strong exchange coupling in the thermodynamic equilibrium. We ascribe this difference to a breakdown of exchange interaction on the femtosecond timescale, a process that we further enhance by alloying permalloy with Cu. Our data shows that, in general, a site-specific spin environment must be considered to correctly describe ultrafast magnetization processes in compounds.
Dynamical supersymmetry breaking on magnetized tori and orbifolds
Abe, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Sumita, Keigo
2016-10-01
We construct several dynamical supersymmetry breaking (DSB) models within a single ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory, compactified on magnetized tori with or without orbifolding. We study the case that the supersymmetry breaking is triggered by a strong dynamics of SU (NC) SYM theory with NF flavors contained in the four-dimensional effective theory. We show several configurations of magnetic fluxes and orbifolds, those potentially yield, below the compactification scale, the field contents and couplings required for triggering DSB. We especially find a class of self-complete DSB models on orbifolds, where all the extra fields are eliminated by the orbifold projection and DSB successfully occurs within the given framework. Comments on some perspectives for associating the obtained DSB models with the other sectors, such as the visible sector and another hidden sector for, e.g., stabilizing moduli, are also given.
Dynamical supersymmetry breaking on magnetized tori and orbifolds
Abe, Hiroyuki; Sumita, Keigo
2016-01-01
We construct several dynamical supersymmetry breaking (DSB) models within a single ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory, compactified on magnetized tori with or without orbifolding. We study the case that the supersymmetry breaking is triggered by a strong dynamics of $SU(N_C)$ SYM theory with $N_F$ flavors contained in the four-dimensional effective theory. We show several configurations of magnetic fluxes and orbifolds, those potentially yield, below the compactification scale, the field contents and couplings required for triggering DSB. We especially find a class of self-complete DSB models on orbifolds, where all the extra fields are eliminated by the orbifold projection and DSB successfully occurs within the given framework. Comments on some perspectives for associating the obtained DSB models with the other sectors, such as the visible sector and another hidden sector for, e.g., stabilizing moduli, are also given.
Magnetic Flux Dynamics in Horizontally Cooled Superconducting Cavities
Martinello, M; Grassellino, A; Crawford, A C; Melnychuk, O; Romanenko, A; Sergatkov, D A
2015-01-01
Previous studies on magnetic flux expulsion as a function of cooling details have been performed for superconducting niobium cavities with the cavity beam axis placed parallel respect to the helium cooling flow, and findings showed that for sufficient cooling thermogradients all magnetic flux could be expelled and very low residual resistance could be achieved. In this paper we investigate the flux trapping and its impact on radio frequency surface resistance when the resonators are positioned perpendicularly to the helium cooling flow, which is representative of how superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities are cooled in an accelerator. We also extend the studies to different directions of applied magnetic field surrounding the resonator. Results show that in the cavity horizontal configuration there is a different impact of the various field components on the final surface resistance, and that several parameters have to be considered to understand flux dynamics. A newly discovered phenomenon of concent...
Noise-induced bifurcations in magnetization dynamics of uniaxial nanomagnets
Serpico, C., E-mail: serpico@unina.it; Perna, S.; Quercia, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica e delle Tecnologie dell' Informazione, Università di Napoli “Federico II,” I-80125 Napoli (Italy); Bertotti, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, I-10135 Torino (Italy); D' Aquino, M. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Università di Napoli “Parthenope,” I-80143 Napoli (Italy); Mayergoyz, I. D. [ECE Department and UMIACS, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)
2015-05-07
Stochastic magnetization dynamics in uniformly magnetized nanomagnets is considered. The system is assumed to have rotational symmetry as the anisotropy axis, the applied field, and the spin polarization are all aligned along an axis of symmetry. By appropriate integration of the Fokker-Planck equation associated to the problem, the stochastic differential equation governing the evolution of the angle between the magnetization orientation and the symmetry axis is derived. The drift terms present in this equation contain a noise-induced drift term, which, in combination with drift terms of deterministic origin, can be written as the derivative of an effective potential. Superparamagnetic-like transitions are studied in connections with the bifurcations of the effective potential as temperature and excitation conditions are varied.
Single-Particle Quantum Dynamics in a Magnetic Lattice
Venturini, Marco
2001-02-01
We study the quantum dynamics of a spinless charged-particle propagating through a magnetic lattice in a transport line or storage ring. Starting from the Klein-Gordon equation and by applying the paraxial approximation, we derive a Schroedinger-like equation for the betatron motion. A suitable unitary transformation reduces the problem to that of a simple harmonic oscillator. As a result we are able to find an explicit expression for the particle wavefunction.
Spin dynamics of an ultra-small nanoscale molecular magnet
Ciftja Orion
2007-01-01
Full Text Available AbstractWe present mathematical transformations which allow us to calculate the spin dynamics of an ultra-small nanoscale molecular magnet consisting of a dimer system of classical (high Heisenberg spins. We derive exact analytic expressions (in integral form for the time-dependent spin autocorrelation function and several other quantities. The properties of the time-dependent spin autocorrelation function in terms of various coupling parameters and temperature are discussed in detail.
Simulation of dynamics of a permanent magnet linear actuator
Yatchev, Ivan; Ritchie, Ewen
2010-01-01
Comparison of two approaches for the simulation of the dynamic behaviour of a permanent magnet linear actuator is presented. These are full coupled model, where the electromagnetic field, electric circuit and mechanical motion problems are solved simultaneously, and decoupled model, where first...... flexibility when the actuator response is required to be estimated for different external conditions, e.g. external circuit parameters or mechanical loads....
Pulsed field probe of real time magnetization dynamics in magnetic nanoparticle systems
Foulkes, T.; Syed, M.; Taplin, T.
2015-05-01
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are extensively used in biotechnology. These applications rely on magnetic properties that are a keen function of MNP size, distribution, and shape. Various magneto-optical techniques, including Faraday Rotation (FR), Cotton-Mouton Effect, etc., have been employed to characterize magnetic properties of MNPs. Generally, these measurements employ AC or DC fields. In this work, we describe the results from a FR setup that uses pulsed magnetic fields and an analysis technique that makes use of the entire pulse shape to investigate size distribution and shape anisotropy. The setup employs a light source, polarizing components, and a detector that are used to measure the rotation of light from a sample that is subjected to a pulsed magnetic field. This magnetic field "snapshot" is recorded alongside the intensity pulse of the sample's response. This side by side comparison yields useful information about the real time magnetization dynamics of the system being probed. The setup is highly flexible with variable control of pulse length and peak magnitude. Examining the raw data for the response of bare Fe3O4 and hybrid Au and Fe3O4 nanorods reveals interesting information about Brownian relaxation and the hydrodynamic size of these nanorods. This analysis exploits the self-referencing nature of this measurement to highlight the impact of an applied field on creating a field induced transparency for a longitudinal measurement. Possible sources for this behavior include shape anisotropy and field assisted aggregate formation.
Dynamics of ferromagnetic nanowires in a rotating magnetic field
Lixin Yang
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Manipulating nanowires with external magnetic fields has emerged as a powerful tool in various engineering applications, which prompts an urgent need to better understand the dynamics of nanowire rotation under different control conditions. In this article, the motion of ferromagnetic nickel (Ni nanowires under a rotating magnetic field was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The synchronous and asynchronous rotations were characterized in detail. Analytical models were developed for the major modes of motion by solving the governing equations of rotation. Particularly, a selection of theoretical formula for fluid viscous torque on nanowires of large aspect ratios was made based on the computational fluid dynamics simulation results. The comparisons of the theoretical prediction and the experimental data showed very good agreement. The effects of various system variables, such as the strength and rotating frequency of the magnetic field and the nanowire aspect ratio, were examined. Hence, the insights gained from this work can be applied to future exploration of magnetic manipulation of nanowires.
Schavkan, Alexander
2017-05-15
This thesis investigates structural properties and the underlying microscopic dynamics of suspensions of α-FeOOH goethite platelets in water under the influence of magnetic fields. Goethite particles show unusual physical properties and a rich phase diagram, which makes their suspensions an object of high interest for research in the area of ''smart nanoparticles''. Five nanoparticle concentrations were chosen such that different liquid crystal phases could be studied. The suspensions of platelets of these chosen concentrations were exposed to magnetic fields of varying strength. Small angle X-ray scattering and X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy data were taken and evaluated. The appearing phases and phase transitions were studied as a function of concentration and applied magnetic field. For this purpose, order parameters, ellipticity, radial and azimuthal peak positions and widths of scattering features were investigated to clarify the structural properties in detail. For the analysis of the underlying dynamics, the relaxation rates and the shape of measured time correlation functions were evaluated. The results show that with increasing magnetic field a partial realignment of the platelets occurs. This realignment is connected to the magnetic properties of the particles. The dynamics of the corresponding phases revealed a dependence on the concentration of nanoparticles in the suspension. At a concentration of c=20 vol% the transition from the nematic to the anti-nematic phase traverses a mixed state. The nematic and anti-nematic phases show ballistic motion and very similar properties, even though a realignment of the particles from an orientation with the long axis parallel to the applied magnetic field in the nematic phase to an orientation with the long axis perpendicular to the magnetic field in the anti-nematic phase occurs. The mixed state of 20 vol%-suspension exhibits a diffusive motion of the particles and different
Dynamics of Solid Body in Magnetic Suspension under Periodic Excitation
A. M. Gouskov
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The article studies dynamics of ferromagnetic body in hybrid magnetic suspension (HMS. The body is supposed to have one degree of freedom and a nonlinear magnetic force dependence on the current and displacement. The magnetic force induced in the HMS is divided into a passive component and an active one. Specifying the law of current variation in the coil allows us to generate nonlinear oscillations under electromagnet action. To provide periodic excitation the appropriate law of the current variation in the electromagnet coil is proposed. The mathematical model includes external periodic step-excitation. The equation of motion is formed. The scales of similarity are highlighted in the system, and the equation of motion is reduced to dimensionless form.The motion dynamics is studied numerically. The relaxation method was used to determine the periodic motions at different values of dimensionless frequency of the electromagnet excitation as well as to estimate the influence of other dimensionless parameters on the system dynamics. The amplitude-frequency curve analysis allows us to come to conclusion that the nature of system nonlinearity is rigid. Adding the external periodic step-excitation leads to the qualitative change in the nature of movement. This points to the occurrence of bifurcation.
Dynamics of resonant magnetic field penetration and plasma rotation
Ivanov, N. V.; Kakurin, A. M.
2017-01-01
Results of calculations and analysis of the penetration of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) into tokamak plasma are presented. The TEAR code used for the calculations is based on a two-fluid magnetohydrodynamics approximation that gives coupled diffusion-type equations for the magnetic flux perturbation and for plasma rotation velocities in toroidal and poloidal directions. The radial distribution of the magnetic flux perturbation is calculated taking account of an externally applied RMP and magnetic perturbation generated by an eddy current in the resistive-vacuum vessel. The decoupling of magnetic-island velocity from the velocity of plasma rotation is employed in the calculations according to available experimental evidence and corresponding theoretical understanding. The account of this decoupling, as well as of plasma rotation in the poloidal direction in addition to the toroidal one, reduces the RMP penetration threshold and accelerates the penetration process. The main attention is paid to the dependences of the RMP penetration dynamics on the simulation conditions. The simulation findings are compared with available experimental data. Some predictions of the penetration threshold values for ITER conditions are presented.
Magnon-phonon interconversion in a dynamically reconfigurable magnetic material
Guerreiro, Sergio C.; Rezende, Sergio M.
2015-12-01
The ferrimagnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG) is an important material in the field of magnon spintronics, mainly because of its low magnetic losses. YIG also has very low acoustic losses, and for this reason the conversion of a state of magnetic excitation (magnons) into a state of lattice vibration (phonons), or vice versa, broadens its possible applications in spintronics. Since the magnetic parameters can be varied by some external action, the magnon-phonon interconversion can be tuned to perform a desired function. We present a quantum theory of the interaction between magnons and phonons in a ferromagnetic material subject to a dynamic variation of the applied magnetic field. It is shown that when the field gradient at the magnetoelastic crossover region is much smaller than a critical value, an initial elastic excitation can be completely converted into a magnetic excitation, or vice versa. This occurs with conservation of linear momentum and spin angular momentum, implying that phonons created by the conversion of magnons have spin angular momentum and carry spin current. It is shown further that if the system is initially in a quantum coherent state, its coherence properties are maintained regardless of the time dependence of the field.
Simulations of Energetic Particles Interacting with Dynamical Magnetic Turbulence
Hussein, M.; Shalchi, A.
2016-02-01
We explore the transport of energetic particles in interplanetary space by using test-particle simulations. In previous work such simulations have been performed by using either magnetostatic turbulence or undamped propagating plasma waves. In the current paper we simulate for the first time particle transport in dynamical turbulence. To do so we employ two models, namely the damping model of dynamical turbulence and the random sweeping model. We compute parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients and compare our numerical findings with solar wind observations. We show that good agreement can be found between simulations and the Palmer consensus range for both dynamical turbulence models if the ratio of turbulent magnetic field and mean field is δB/B0 = 0.5.
Wilkens, Rune; Peters, David A; Nielsen, Agnete Hedemann
2017-01-01
Purpose e Cross-sectional imaging methods are important for objective evaluationof small intestinal inflammationinCrohn'sdisease(CD).The primary aim was to compare relative parameters of intestinal perfusion between contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic...
Dynamical structure of magnetized dissipative accretion flow around black holes
Sarkar, Biplob; Das, Santabrata
2016-09-01
We study the global structure of optically thin, advection dominated, magnetized accretion flow around black holes. We consider the magnetic field to be turbulent in nature and dominated by the toroidal component. With this, we obtain the complete set of accretion solutions for dissipative flows where bremsstrahlung process is regarded as the dominant cooling mechanism. We show that rotating magnetized accretion flow experiences virtual barrier around black hole due to centrifugal repulsion that can trigger the discontinuous transition of the flow variables in the form of shock waves. We examine the properties of the shock waves and find that the dynamics of the post-shock corona (PSC) is controlled by the flow parameters, namely viscosity, cooling rate and strength of the magnetic field, respectively. We separate the effective region of the parameter space for standing shock and observe that shock can form for wide range of flow parameters. We obtain the critical viscosity parameter that allows global accretion solutions including shocks. We estimate the energy dissipation at the PSC from where a part of the accreting matter can deflect as outflows and jets. We compare the maximum energy that could be extracted from the PSC and the observed radio luminosity values for several supermassive black hole sources and the observational implications of our present analysis are discussed.
Partial volume effects in dynamic contrast magnetic resonance renal studies
Gutierrez, D. Rodriguez, E-mail: drodriguez@biotronics3d.co [CVSSP, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey (United Kingdom); Wells, K., E-mail: k.wells@surrey.ac.u [CVSSP, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey (United Kingdom); Diaz Montesdeoca, O., E-mail: o.diaz.montesdeoca@gmail.co [EUITT, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Moran Santana, A. [EUITT, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Mendichovszky, I.A., E-mail: iosifm@hotmail.co [Radiology and Physics Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH (United Kingdom); Gordon, I., E-mail: i.gordon@ich.ucl.ac.u [Radiology and Physics Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH (United Kingdom)
2010-08-15
This is the first study of partial volume effect in quantifying renal function on dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Dynamic image data were acquired for a cohort of 10 healthy volunteers. Following respiratory motion correction, each voxel location was assigned a mixing vector representing the 'overspilling' contributions of each tissue due to the convolution action of the imaging system's point spread function. This was used to recover the true intensities associated with each constituent tissue. Thus, non-renal contributions from liver, spleen and other surrounding tissues could be eliminated from the observed time-intensity curves derived from a typical renal cortical region of interest. This analysis produced a change in the early slope of the renal curve, which subsequently resulted in an enhanced glomerular filtration rate estimate. This effect was consistently observed in a Rutland-Patlak analysis of the time-intensity data: the volunteer cohort produced a partial volume effect corrected mean enhancement of 36% in relative glomerular filtration rate with a mean improvement of 7% in r{sup 2} fitting of the Rutland-Patlak model compared to the same analysis undertaken without partial volume effect correction. This analysis strongly supports the notion that dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of kidneys is substantially affected by the partial volume effect, and that this is a significant obfuscating factor in subsequent glomerular filtration rate estimation.
Kinks and Rotons in a Magnetic Cactus: Dynamical Phyllotaxis.
Nisoli, Cristiano; Monroe Gabor, Nathaniel; Crespi, Vincent Henry; Decatur Maynard, Julian
2004-03-01
The disposition of the leaves on a stem, spines on a cactus, seeds in a sunflower and other self-organized arrangements of repeated units in plant morphology, are denoted as phyllotaxis. Phyllotactic patterns are also found in polypeptide chains, cells of Bernard convection, and flux lattices in layered superconductors. Here we describe a "magnetic cactus," a model of interacting magnetic dipoles disposed along a cylindrical stem, based on the mechanical theory of phyllotaxis proposed by S. L. Levitov (1991). While the appearance of phyllotactic patterns in the static properties is well predicted by current theory, the dynamics bring new physics beyond that possible in biological systems: we demonstrate the formation and propagation of domain walls between stable structures, the number-theoretical properties that regulate their vibrational spectra, and show the appearence of what to our knowledge is the first example of classical rotons.
Fast domain wall dynamics in amorphous and nanocrystalline magnetic microwires
Varga, R., E-mail: rvarga@upjs.sk [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, UPJS, Park Angelinum 9, 041 54, Kosice (Slovakia); Klein, P.; Richter, K. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, UPJS, Park Angelinum 9, 041 54, Kosice (Slovakia); Zhukov, A. [Dept. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimica, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian (Spain); Vazquez, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)
2012-10-15
We have studied the effect of thermal treatment on the domain wall dynamics of FeSiB and FeCoMoB microwires. It was shown that annealing in transversal magnetic field increases the domain wall mobility as well as the domain wall velocity. Annealing under the tensile stress hinders the appearance of the monodomain structure but application of tensile stress leads to the magnetic bistability having the domain wall mobility twice higher that in as-cast state. Further increase of the tensile stress reduces the domain wall mobility but the domain wall velocity increases as a result of the decrease of critical propagation field. Annealing of the FeCoMoB microwire by Joule heating leads to introduction of the circular anisotropy that favors the vortex domain wall. Such treatment increases the domain wall mobility as well as the maximum domain wall velocity.
Van de Wiele, Ben; Leliaert, Jonathan; Franke, Kévin J. A.; van Dijken, Sebastiaan
2016-03-01
Strong coupling of magnetic domain walls onto straight ferroelastic boundaries of a ferroelectric layer enables full and reversible electric-field control of magnetic domain wall motion. In this paper, the dynamics of this new driving mechanism is analyzed using micromagnetic simulations. We show that transverse domain walls with a near-180° spin structure are stabilized in magnetic nanowires and that electric fields can move these walls with high velocities. Above a critical velocity, which depends on material parameters, nanowire geometry and the direction of domain wall motion, the magnetic domain walls depin abruptly from the ferroelastic boundaries. Depinning evolves either smoothly or via the emission and annihilation of a vortex or antivortex core (Walker breakdown). In both cases, the magnetic domain wall slows down after depinning in an oscillatory fashion and eventually comes to a halt. The simulations provide design rules for hybrid ferromagnetic-ferroelectric domain-wall-based devices and indicate that material disorder and structural imperfections only influence Walker-breakdown-like depinning at high domain wall velocities.
Dynamics of Magnetized Plasma Jets and Bubbles Launched into a Background Magnetized Plasma
Wallace, B.; Zhang, Y.; Fisher, D. M.; Gilmore, M.
2016-10-01
The propagation of dense magnetized plasma, either collimated with mainly azimuthal B-field (jet) or toroidal with closed B-field (bubble), in a background plasma occurs in a number of solar and astrophysical cases. Such cases include coronal mass ejections moving in the background solar wind and extragalactic radio lobes expanding into the extragalactic medium. Understanding the detailed MHD behavior is crucial for correctly modeling these events. In order to further the understanding of such systems, we are investigating the injection of dense magnetized jets and bubbles into a lower density background magnetized plasma using a coaxial plasma gun and a background helicon or cathode plasma. In both jet and bubble cases, the MHD dynamics are found to be very different when launched into background plasma or magnetic field, as compared to vacuum. In the jet case, it is found that the inherent kink instability is stabilized by velocity shear developed due to added magnetic tension from the background field. In the bubble case, rather than directly relaxing to a minimum energy Taylor state (spheromak) as in vacuum, there is an expansion asymmetry and the bubble becomes Rayleigh-Taylor unstable on one side. Recent results will be presented. Work supported by the Army Research Office Award No. W911NF1510480.
Nicolas Garraud
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The design and validation of a magnetic particle spectrometer (MPS system used to study the linear and nonlinear behavior of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions is presented. The MPS characterizes the suspension dynamic response, both due to relaxation and saturation effects, which depends on the magnetic particles and their environment. The system applies sinusoidal excitation magnetic fields varying in amplitude and frequency and can be configured for linear measurements (1 mT at up to 120 kHz and nonlinear measurements (50 mT at up to 24 kHz. Time-resolved data acquisition at up to 4 MS/s combined with hardware and software-based signal processing allows for wide-band measurements up to 50 harmonics in nonlinear mode. By cross-calibrating the instrument with a known sample, the instantaneous sample magnetization can be quantitatively reconstructed. Validation of the two MPS modes are performed for iron oxide and cobalt ferrite suspensions, exhibiting Néel and Brownian relaxation, respectively.
Dust formation and dynamic in magnetized and non-magnetized microwave discharge
Ouaras, Karim; Lombardi, Guillaume; Hassouni, Khaled
2016-09-01
Dusty plasmas studies are conducted for several decades to answer to various issues from microelectronic, nanotechnology, astrophysics and thermonuclear fusion devices. These studies are usually conducted in RF discharges at low pressure in which the major physics concerning dust formation mechanisms and dynamic is now well known. In our case, we focus on dust formation and dynamic in (i) microwave plasma under typical pressure conditions of RF discharges (50 Pa) and (ii) in magnetized (ECR: Electron Cyclotron Resonance) microwave plasma under very low pressure condition (0.1 to 1 Pa). The aim of this study is not only for fundamental purpose but also for respond to some issues concerning dust in fusion devices. Thus, we investigate the dust formation mechanisms and dynamic using laser extinction method and laser light scattering imaging coupling with SEM imaging in hydrocarbon plasma and with PVD system with using tungsten target (according to fusion device). We observed that dust formation occurs even if the very low pressure conditions are generally not suitable for nucleation growth in gas phase (the influence of the magnetic field will be discussed). We will also discuss about the particular dust dynamic behavior in microwave discharge in comparison with RF discharge.
Voltage-induced magnetization dynamics in CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions
Miura, Katsuya; Yabuuchi, Shin; Yamada, Masaki; Ichimura, Masahiko; Rana, Bivas; Ogawa, Susumu; Takahashi, Hiromasa; Fukuma, Yasuhiro; Otani, Yoshichika
2017-01-01
Recent progress in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with a perpendicular easy axis consisting of CoFeB and MgO stacking structures has shown that magnetization dynamics are induced due to voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA), which will potentially lead to future low-power-consumption information technology. For manipulating magnetizations in MTJs by applying voltage, it is necessary to understand the coupled magnetization motion of two magnetic (recording and reference) layers. In this report, we focus on the magnetization motion of two magnetic layers in MTJs consisting of top layers with an in-plane easy axis and bottom layers with a perpendicular easy axis, both having perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. According to rectified voltage (Vrec) measurements, the amplitude of the magnetization motion depends on the initial angles of the magnetizations with respect to the VCMA direction. Our numerical simulations involving the micromagnetic method based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation of motion indicate that the magnetization motion in both layers is induced by a combination of VCMA and transferred angular momentum, even though the magnetic easy axes of the two layers are different. Our study will lead to the development of voltage-controlled MTJs having perpendicular magnetic anisotropy by controlling the initial angle between magnetizations and VCMA directions. PMID:28209976
Voltage-induced magnetization dynamics in CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions
Miura, Katsuya; Yabuuchi, Shin; Yamada, Masaki; Ichimura, Masahiko; Rana, Bivas; Ogawa, Susumu; Takahashi, Hiromasa; Fukuma, Yasuhiro; Otani, Yoshichika
2017-02-01
Recent progress in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with a perpendicular easy axis consisting of CoFeB and MgO stacking structures has shown that magnetization dynamics are induced due to voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA), which will potentially lead to future low-power-consumption information technology. For manipulating magnetizations in MTJs by applying voltage, it is necessary to understand the coupled magnetization motion of two magnetic (recording and reference) layers. In this report, we focus on the magnetization motion of two magnetic layers in MTJs consisting of top layers with an in-plane easy axis and bottom layers with a perpendicular easy axis, both having perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. According to rectified voltage (Vrec) measurements, the amplitude of the magnetization motion depends on the initial angles of the magnetizations with respect to the VCMA direction. Our numerical simulations involving the micromagnetic method based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation of motion indicate that the magnetization motion in both layers is induced by a combination of VCMA and transferred angular momentum, even though the magnetic easy axes of the two layers are different. Our study will lead to the development of voltage-controlled MTJs having perpendicular magnetic anisotropy by controlling the initial angle between magnetizations and VCMA directions.
High Dynamic Range Processing for Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Sukerkar, Preeti A.; Meade, Thomas J.
2013-01-01
Purpose To minimize feature loss in T1- and T2-weighted MRI by merging multiple MR images acquired at different TR and TE to generate an image with increased dynamic range. Materials and Methods High Dynamic Range (HDR) processing techniques from the field of photography were applied to a series of acquired MR images. Specifically, a method to parameterize the algorithm for MRI data was developed and tested. T1- and T2-weighted images of a number of contrast agent phantoms and a live mouse were acquired with varying TR and TE parameters. The images were computationally merged to produce HDR-MR images. All acquisitions were performed on a 7.05 T Bruker PharmaScan with a multi-echo spin echo pulse sequence. Results HDR-MRI delineated bright and dark features that were either saturated or indistinguishable from background in standard T1- and T2-weighted MRI. The increased dynamic range preserved intensity gradation over a larger range of T1 and T2 in phantoms and revealed more anatomical features in vivo. Conclusions We have developed and tested a method to apply HDR processing to MR images. The increased dynamic range of HDR-MR images as compared to standard T1- and T2-weighted images minimizes feature loss caused by magnetization recovery or low SNR. PMID:24250788
High dynamic range processing for magnetic resonance imaging.
Andy H Hung
Full Text Available To minimize feature loss in T1- and T2-weighted MRI by merging multiple MR images acquired at different TR and TE to generate an image with increased dynamic range.High Dynamic Range (HDR processing techniques from the field of photography were applied to a series of acquired MR images. Specifically, a method to parameterize the algorithm for MRI data was developed and tested. T1- and T2-weighted images of a number of contrast agent phantoms and a live mouse were acquired with varying TR and TE parameters. The images were computationally merged to produce HDR-MR images. All acquisitions were performed on a 7.05 T Bruker PharmaScan with a multi-echo spin echo pulse sequence.HDR-MRI delineated bright and dark features that were either saturated or indistinguishable from background in standard T1- and T2-weighted MRI. The increased dynamic range preserved intensity gradation over a larger range of T1 and T2 in phantoms and revealed more anatomical features in vivo.We have developed and tested a method to apply HDR processing to MR images. The increased dynamic range of HDR-MR images as compared to standard T1- and T2-weighted images minimizes feature loss caused by magnetization recovery or low SNR.
Biosensor based on measurements of the clustering dynamics of magnetic particles
2014-01-01
Disclosed herein is a biosensor for optical detection of Brownian relaxation dynamics of magnetic particles measured by light transmission. The magnetic particles can be functionalized with biological ligands for the detection of target analytes in a sample.......Disclosed herein is a biosensor for optical detection of Brownian relaxation dynamics of magnetic particles measured by light transmission. The magnetic particles can be functionalized with biological ligands for the detection of target analytes in a sample....
Resonant magnetic perturbation effect on tearing mode dynamics
Frassinetti, L.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.
2010-03-01
The effect of a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) on the tearing mode (TM) dynamics is experimentally studied in the EXTRAP T2R device. EXTRAP T2R is equipped with a set of sensor coils and active coils connected by a digital controller allowing a feedback control of the magnetic instabilities. The recently upgraded feedback algorithm allows the suppression of all the error field harmonics but keeping a selected harmonic to the desired amplitude, therefore opening the possibility of a clear study of the RMP effect on the corresponding TM. The paper shows that the RMP produces two typical effects: (1) a weak oscillation in the TM amplitude and a modulation in the TM velocity or (2) a strong modulation in the TM amplitude and phase jumps. Moreover, the locking mechanism of a TM to a RMP is studied in detail. It is shown that before the locking, the TM dynamics is characterized by velocity modulation followed by phase jumps. Experimental results are reasonably explained by simulations obtained with a model.
Dust Particle Dynamics in The Presence of Highly Magnetized Plasmas
Lynch, Brian; Konopka, Uwe; Thomas, Edward; Merlino, Robert; Rosenberg, Marlene
2016-10-01
Complex plasmas are four component plasmas that contain, in addition to the usual electrons, ions, and neutral atoms, macroscopic electrically charged (nanometer to micrometer) sized ``dust'' particles. These macroscopic particles typically obtain a net negative charge due to the higher mobility of electrons compared to that of ions. Because the electrons, ions, and dust particles are charged, their dynamics may be significantly modified by the presence of electric and magnetic fields. Possible consequences of this modification may be the charging rate and the equilibrium charge. For example, in the presence of a strong horizontal magnetic field (B >1 Tesla), it may be possible to observe dust particle gx B deflection and, from that deflection, determine the dust grain charge. In this poster, we present recent data from performing multiple particle dropping experiments to characterize the g x B deflection in the Magnetized Dusty Plasma Experiment (MDPX). This work is supported by funding from the U. S. Department of Energy Grant Number DE - SC0010485 and the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory, JPL-1543114.
Magnetization dynamics in rare earth doped NiFe films
Kiessling, Matthias; Woltersdorf, Georg; Back, Christian [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D- 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Thiele, Jan-Ulrich; Schabes, Manfred [Hitachi Global Storage Technologies, 3403 Yerba Buena Road, San Jose, CA 95135 (United States)
2007-07-01
The influence of rare earth dopants on the damping parameter and the resulting possibility to control this parameter were investigated. In our experiments NiFe films were doped with Dysprosium, Holmium, Terbium, and Gadolinium. The magnetization dynamics of these rare earth doped films was mainly studied by means of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and network-analyzer ferromagnetic resonance. It is demonstrated that the doping of a NiFe film by a small amount of rare earth elements (Holmium, Terbium and Dysprosium) greatly effects its magnetic relaxation rate. This additional damping is proportional to the doping level. Compared to the pure NiFe film it is possible to increase the damping parameter of the magnetic film by two orders of magnitude. On the other hand Gadolinium as a dopant has no influence on the damping parameter. For small dopant concentrations the in and out-of-plane FMR measurements at various frequencies can be well described by the same damping parameter. This is expected for the Gilbert damping term in the equation of motion. Therefore the increased damping can be attributed to an increased rate of transfer of angular momentum from the spin system to the lattice.
Adelnia, Fatemeh; Lascialfari, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano and INSTM, Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Pavia and INSTM, Pavia (Italy); Mariani, Manuel [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Ammannato, Luca; Caneschi, Andrea; Rovai, Donella [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Firenze and INSTM, Firenze (Italy); Winpenny, Richard; Timco, Grigore [School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Corti, Maurizio, E-mail: maurizio.corti@unipv.it; Borsa, Ferdinando [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Pavia and INSTM, Pavia (Italy)
2015-05-07
We present the room temperature proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (NSLR) results in two 1D spin chains: the Heisenberg antiferromagnetic (AFM) Eu(hfac){sub 3}NITEt and the magnetically frustrated Gd(hfac){sub 3}NITEt. The NSLR as a function of external magnetic field can be interpreted very well in terms of high temperature spin dynamics dominated by a long time persistence of the decay of the two-spin correlation function due to the conservation of the total spin value for isotropic Heisenberg chains. The high temperature spin dynamics are also investigated in Heisenberg AFM molecular rings. In both Cr{sub 8} closed ring and in Cr{sub 7}Cd and Cr{sub 8}Zn open rings, i.e., model systems for a finite spin segment, an enhancement of the low frequency spectral density is found consistent with spin diffusion but the high cut-off frequency due to intermolecular anisotropic interactions prevents a detailed analysis of the spin diffusion regime.
Dynamic characteristics of multi-walled carbon nanotubes under a transverse magnetic field
S Li; H J Xie; X Wang
2011-02-01
This paper reports the results of an investigation into the effect of transverse magnetic fields on dynamic characteristics of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Couple dynamic equations of MWNTs subjected to a transverse magnetic field are derived and solved by considering the Lorentz magnetic forces induced by a transverse magnetic field exerted on MWCNTs. Results show that the transverse magnetic field exerted on MWNTs makes the lowest frequency of the MWNTs nonlinearly decrease and the highest frequency, changeless. When the strength of applied transverse magnetic fields is larger than a given value the two walls of MWNTs appear in the radial and axial coaxial vibration phenomena.
Xiang, Changle; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hui; Han, Lijin; Zhang, Xun
2016-06-01
Unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) plays a key role in nonlinear dynamic behaviors of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) in electric vehicles. Based on Jeffcott rotor model, the stiffness characteristics of the rotor system of the PMSM are analyzed and the nonlinear dynamic behaviors influenced by UMP are investigated. In free vibration study, eigenvalue-based stability analysis for multiple equilibrium points is performed which offers an insight in system stiffness. Amplitude modulation effects are discovered of which the mechanism is explained and the period of modulating signal is carried out by phase analysis and averaging method. The analysis indicates that the effects are caused by the interaction of the initial phases of forward and backward whirling motions. In forced vibration study, considering dynamic eccentricity, frequency characteristics revealing softening type are obtained by harmonic balance method, and the stability of periodic solution is investigated by Routh-Hurwitz criterion. The frequency characteristics analysis indicates that the response amplitude is limited in the range between the amplitudes of the two kinds of equilibrium points. In the vicinity of the continuum of equilibrium points, the system hardly provides resistance to bending, and hence external disturbances easily cause loss of stability. It is useful for the design of the PMSM with high stability and low vibration and acoustic noise.
Mischenko, I.; Chuev, M.
2016-12-01
Principal difference of magnetic nanoparticles from the bulk matter which cannot be ignored when constructing upon them combined metamaterials and modern devices is the essential influence on their behavior thermal fluctuations of the environment. These disturbances lead to specific distributions of the particles characteristics and to stochastic reorientations of their magnetic moments. On the basis of quantum-mechanical representation of the particle possessing intrinsic magnetic anisotropy and being placed onto the external magnetic field we developed general approach to describe equilibrium magnetization curves and relaxation Mössbauer spectra of magnetic nanoparticles for diagnostics of magnetic nanomaterials in the whole temperature or external field ranges. This approach has universal character and may be applied not only to the systems under thermal equilibrium, but may in principle describe macroscopic dynamical phenomena such as magnetization reversal.
Dynamics of Exploding Plasma Within a Magnetized Plasma
Dimonte, G; Dipeso, G; Hewett, D
2002-02-01
This memo describes several possible laboratory experiments on the dynamics of an exploding plasma in a background magnetized plasma. These are interesting scientifically and the results are applicable to energetic explosions in the earth's ionosphere (DOE Campaign 7 at LLNL). These proposed experiments are difficult and can only be performed in the new LAPD device at UCLA. The purpose of these experiments would be to test numerical simulations, theory and reduced models for systems performance codes. The experiments are designed to investigate the affect of the background plasma on (1) the maximum diamagnetic bubble radius given by Eq. 9; and (2) the Alfven wave radiation efficiency produced by the induced current J{sub A} (Eqs. 10-12) These experiments involve measuring the bubble radius using a fast gated optical imager as in Ref [1] and the Alfven wave profile and intensity as in Ref [2] for different values of the exploding plasma energy, background plasma density and temperature, and background magnetic field. These experiments extend the previously successful experiments [2] on Alfven wave coupling. We anticipate that the proposed experiments would require 1-2 weeks of time on the LAPD. We would perform PIC simulations in support of these experiments in order to validate the codes. Once validated, the PIC simulations would then be able to be extended to realistic ionospheric conditions with various size explosions and altitudes. In addition to the Alfven wave coupling, we are interested in the magnetic containment and transport of the exploding ''debris'' plasma to see if the shorting of the radial electric field in the magnetic bubble would allow the ions to propagate further. This has important implications in an ionospheric explosion because it defines the satellite damage region. In these experiments, we would field fast gated optical cameras to obtain images of the plasma expansion, which could then be correlated with magnetic
Magnetic soft x-ray microscopy-imaging fast spin dynamics inmagnetic nanostructures
Fischer, Peter; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Mesler, Brooke L.; Chao, Weilun; Sakdinawat, Anne E.; Anderson, Erik H.
2007-06-01
Magnetic soft X-ray microscopy combines 15nm spatial resolution with 70ps time resolution and elemental sensitivity. Fresnel zone plates are used as X-ray optics and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism serves as magnetic contrast mechanism. Thus scientifically interesting and technologically relevant low dimensional nanomagnetic systems can be imaged at fundamental length and ultrafast time scales in a unique way. Studies include magnetization reversal in magnetic multilayers, nanopatterned systems, vortex dynamics in nanoelements and spin current induced phenomena.
Emam, A.N.; Girgis, E.; Mostafa, A.A. [National Research Center, Dokki, Giza (Egypt); Guirguis, O.W. [Biophysics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Mohamed, M.B., E-mail: monabmohamed@gmail.com [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); NanoTech Egypt for Photoelectronics, Dreamland, Giza (Egypt)
2015-07-15
A series of colloidal CdSe quantum dots doped with different concentration of cobalt ions has been prepared via organometallic pyrolysis of a mixture of cadmium stearate and cobalt dithiocarbazate. The conditions required for successful doping depend on the source of cobalt ions and the dopant concentration. The structure and morphology of the prepared nanocrystals have been characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Slight shift in the interplaner space was observed in the XRD pattern of the doped nanocrystals. Formation of separate cobalt nanoclusters has been observed in the TEM images upon increasing the cobalt concentration more than 2% of the original cadmium concentration. This was confirmed by magnetic measurements of the prepared samples. Room-temperature ferromagnetism has been observed, in which the switching field increases as the cobalt ratio increases. Increasing the cobalt ratio more than 5% increases the coercivity due to formation of Co{sup 0} nanoclusters. Moreover, the presence of localized magnetic ions in semiconductor QDs leads to strong exchange interactions between sp band electrons and the magnetic ions d electrons. This would influence the optical properties such as absorption, emission, as well as nanosecond relaxation dynamics. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Hybrid semiconductor-magnetic nanostructure was prepared via chemical method. • Room-temperature ferromagnetism for hybrid CdSe–Co quantum dots has been observed. • Co{sup +2} ions induces slight shift in the interplaner space distance of the doped QDs. • Hybrid CdSe–Co QDs have better quantum yield than pure CdSe QDs. • Hybrid CdSe–Co nanocrystals have faster electron-hole dynamics than pure CdSe QDs.
Zhang, Huiliang; Ku, Mark J. H.; Han, Minyong; Casola, Francesco; van der Sar, Toeno; Yacoby, Amir; Walsworth, Ronald L.
2016-05-01
Understanding magnetization dynamics induced by electric current is of great interest for both fundamental and practical reasons. Great endeavor has been dedicated to spin-orbit torques (SOT) in metallic structures, while quantitative study of analogous phenomena in magnetic insulators remains challenging where transport measurements are not feasible. Recently we have developed techniques using nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond to probe few-nanometre-scale correlated-electron magnetic excitations (i.e., spin waves). Here we demonstrate how this powerful tool can be implemented to study magnetization dynamics inside ferromagnetic insulator, Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) with spin injection from electrical current through normal metal (Platinum in our case). Particularly our work will focus on NV magnetic detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of coherent auto-oscillations in Pt/YIG microdisc. Magnetic fluctuations and local temperature measurements, both with nearby NV centers, will also be interesting topics relevant to SOT physics in Pt/YIG hybrid system.
Membrane proteins structure and dynamics by nuclear magnetic resonance.
Maltsev, Sergey; Lorigan, Gary A
2011-10-01
Membrane proteins represent a challenging class of biological systems to study. They are extremely difficult to crystallize and in most cases they retain their structure and functions only in membrane environments. Therefore, commonly used diffraction methods fail to give detailed molecular structure and other approaches have to be utilized to obtain biologically relevant information. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, however, can provide powerful structural and dynamical constraints on these complicated systems. Solution- and solid-state NMR are powerful methods for investigating membrane proteins studies. In this work, we briefly review both solution and solid-state NMR techniques for membrane protein studies and illustrate the applications of these methods to elucidate proteins structure, conformation, topology, dynamics, and function. Recent advances in electronics, biological sample preparation, and spectral processing provided opportunities for complex biological systems, such as membrane proteins inside lipid vesicles, to be studied faster and with outstanding quality. New analysis methods therefore have emerged, that benefit from the combination of sample preparation and corresponding specific high-end NMR techniques, which give access to more structural and dynamic information.
Meyerspeer, M.; Scheenen, T.W.J.; Schmid, A.I.; Mandl, T.; Unger, E.; Moser, E.
2011-01-01
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can benefit from increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of high magnetic fields. In this work, the SNR gain of dynamic 31P MRS at 7 T was invested in temporal and spatial resolution. Using conventional slice selective excitation combined with localization by adia
Spin Dynamics simulations of the dynamic properties of classical models for magnetic materials
Bunker, Alex; Landau, D. P.
1998-03-01
The Spin Dynamics simulation technique, which has had considerable success for the study of critical properties of classical Heisenberg antiferromagnets(A. Bunker, K. Chen, and D. P. Landau Phys. Rev. B) \\underline54, 9259 (1996), has been used to determine more general properties for a wider range of materials. A general spin dynamics program has been developed which can determine the dynamic structure factor, S(q,ω), in the [100], [110], and [111] directions for a wide range of classical magnetic models at any temperature desired. We have simulated the magnetic dynamics in the ordered phase of the isotropic Heisenberg model with both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic coupling on L×L×L BCC and SC lattices. Outside of the critical regime relatively small lattice sizes of L = 12, 24 could be used. From our simulation we have determined the stiffness coefficient and the spin relaxation rate which were compared to both experimental(J. Als-Nielsen in Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena), ed. C. Domb, M. S. Green, Academic Press, (1976) and theoretical results. We have performed the same simulation with anisotropy appropriate for MnF2 and FeF_2. Research supported in part by the NSF
张翔
2001-01-01
利用Delphi中的Tinifile类和Tregistry类封装的各种函数和过程实现对INI文件和注册表的动态读写.%The functions and procedures encapsulated by Tinifile and Tregistry Class of Delphi are used to realize the dynamic reading and writing for INI file and register table.
National Register Historic Districts
Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Analysis and Optimisation of Pulse Dynamics for Magnetic Stimulation
Goetz, Stefan M; Gerhofer, Manuel G; Weyh, Thomas; Herzog, Hans-Georg
2011-01-01
Magnetic stimulation is a standard tool in brain research and many fields of neurology, as well as psychiatry. From a physical perspective, one key aspect of this method is the inefficiency of available setups. Whereas the spatial field properties have been studied rather intensively with coil designs, the dynamics have been neglected almost completely for a long time. Instead, the devices and their technology defined the waveform. Here, an analysis of the waveform space is performed. Based on these data, an appropriate optimisation approach is outlined which makes use of a modern nonlinear axon description of a mammalian motor nerve. The approach is based on a hybrid global-local method; different coordinate systems for describing the continuous waveforms in a limited parameter space are defined for sufficient stability. The results of the numeric setup suggest that there is plenty of room for waveforms with higher efficiency than the traditional shapes. One class of such pulses is analysed further. Although...
DYNAMIC COMPACTION OF PURE COPPER POWDER USING PULSED MAGNETIC FORCE
无
2007-01-01
The compaction of pure Cu powder was carried out through a series of experiments using dynamic magnetic pulse compaction, and the effects of process parameters, such as discharge energy and compacting direction, on the homogeneity and the compaction density of compacted specimens were presented and discussed. The results indicated that the compaction density of specimens increased with the augment of discharge voltage and time. During unidirectional compaction, there was a density gradient along the loading direction in the compacted specimen, and the minimum compaction density was localized to the center of the bottom of the specimen. The larger the aspect ratio of a powder body, the higher the compaction density of the compacted specimen. And high conductivity drivers were beneficial to the increase of the compaction density. The iterative and the double direction compaction were efficient means to manufacture the homogeneous and high-density powder parts.
Dynamic RKKY interaction between magnetic moments in graphene nanoribbons
Guimarães, F. S. M.; Duffy, J.; Costa, A. T.; Muniz, R. B.; Ferreira, M. S.
2016-12-01
Graphene has been identified as a promising material with numerous applications, particularly in spintronics. In this paper we investigate the peculiar features of spin excitations of magnetic units deposited on graphene nanoribbons and how they can couple through a dynamical interaction mediated by spin currents. We examine in detail the spin lifetimes and identify a pattern caused by vanishing density of states sites in pristine ribbons with armchair borders. Impurities located on these sites become practically invisible to the interaction but can be made accessible by a gate voltage or doping. We also demonstrate that the coupling between impurities can be turned on or off using this characteristic, which may be used to control the transfer of information in transistorlike devices.
SPILADY: A parallel CPU and GPU code for spin-lattice magnetic molecular dynamics simulations
Ma, Pui-Wai; Dudarev, S. L.; Woo, C. H.
2016-10-01
Spin-lattice dynamics generalizes molecular dynamics to magnetic materials, where dynamic variables describing an evolving atomic system include not only coordinates and velocities of atoms but also directions and magnitudes of atomic magnetic moments (spins). Spin-lattice dynamics simulates the collective time evolution of spins and atoms, taking into account the effect of non-collinear magnetism on interatomic forces. Applications of the method include atomistic models for defects, dislocations and surfaces in magnetic materials, thermally activated diffusion of defects, magnetic phase transitions, and various magnetic and lattice relaxation phenomena. Spin-lattice dynamics retains all the capabilities of molecular dynamics, adding to them the treatment of non-collinear magnetic degrees of freedom. The spin-lattice dynamics time integration algorithm uses symplectic Suzuki-Trotter decomposition of atomic coordinate, velocity and spin evolution operators, and delivers highly accurate numerical solutions of dynamic evolution equations over extended intervals of time. The code is parallelized in coordinate and spin spaces, and is written in OpenMP C/C++ for CPU and in CUDA C/C++ for Nvidia GPU implementations. Temperatures of atoms and spins are controlled by Langevin thermostats. Conduction electrons are treated by coupling the discrete spin-lattice dynamics equations for atoms and spins to the heat transfer equation for the electrons. Worked examples include simulations of thermalization of ferromagnetic bcc iron, the dynamics of laser pulse demagnetization, and collision cascades.
Dynamic magnetic susceptibility of systems with long-range magnetic order
Vannette, Matthew Dano [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2009-01-01
The utility of the TDR as an instrument in the study of magnetically ordered materials has been expanded beyond the simple demonstration purposes. Results of static applied magnetic field dependent measurements of the dynamic magnetic susceptibility, χ, of various ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials showing a range of transition temperatures (1-800 K) are presented. Data was collected primarily with a tunnel diode resonator (TDR) at different radio-frequencies (~10-30 MHz). In the vicinity of T_{C} local moment ferromagnets show a very sharp, narrow peak in χ which is suppressed in amplitude and shifted to higher temperatures as the static bias field is increased. Unexpectedly, critical scaling analysis fails for these data. It is seen that these data are frequency dependent, however there is no simple method whereby measurement frequency can be changed in a controllable fashion. In contrast, itinerant ferromagnets show a broad maximum in χ well below T_{C} which is suppressed and shifts to lower temperatures as the dc bias field is increased. The data on itinerant ferromagnets is fitted to a semi-phenomenological model that suggests the sample response is dominated by the uncompensated minority spins in the conduction band. Concluding remarks suggest possible scenarios to achieve frequency resolved data using the TDR as well as other fields in which the apparatus may be exploited.
Bifurcation magnetic resonance in films magnetized along hard magnetization axis
Vasilevskaya, Tatiana M., E-mail: t_vasilevs@mail.ru [Ulyanovsk State University, Leo Tolstoy 42, 432017 Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Sementsov, Dmitriy I.; Shutyi, Anatoliy M. [Ulyanovsk State University, Leo Tolstoy 42, 432017 Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation)
2012-09-15
We study low-frequency ferromagnetic resonance in a thin film magnetized along the hard magnetization axis performing an analysis of magnetization precession dynamics equations and numerical simulation. Two types of films are considered: polycrystalline uniaxial films and single-crystal films with cubic magnetic anisotropy. An additional (bifurcation) resonance initiated by the bistability, i.e. appearance of two closely spaced equilibrium magnetization states is registered. The modification of dynamic modes provoked by variation of the frequency, amplitude, and magnetic bias value of the ac field is studied. Both steady and chaotic magnetization precession modes are registered in the bifurcation resonance range. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An additional bifurcation resonance arises in a case of a thin film magnetized along HMA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bifurcation resonance occurs due to the presence of two closely spaced equilibrium magnetization states. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both regular and chaotic precession modes are realized within bifurcation resonance range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Appearance of dynamic bistability is typical for bifurcation resonance.
Kinch, K.M.; Merrison, J.P.; Gunnlaugsson, H.P.;
2006-01-01
Motivated by questions raised by the magnetic properties experiments on the NASA Mars Pathfinder and Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions, we have studied in detail the capture of airborne magnetic dust by permanent magnets using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model supported by laboratory...
Attitude dynamics of gyrostat-satellites under control by magnetic actuators at small perturbations
Doroshin, Anton V.
2017-08-01
The angular motion of gyrostat-satellites with one axial rotor is considered under control by magnetic actuators and at the action of small polyharmonic perturbations of the own dipole magnetic moment's components which are created proportionally to components of the angular velocity of the satellite. The attitude dynamics is investigated in conditions of the coincidence of the vector of magnetic induction of the external magnetic field and the initial angular momentum vector of the satellite. General and heteroclinic analytical solutions are obtained for dynamical parameters at the relative smallness of the magnetic torques. The chaotic regimes are examined on the base of the Melnikov method and Poincaré sections.
DYNAMIC MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING: PRELIMINARY PRESENTATION OF A TECHNIQUE
BRUNO DA COSTA ANCHESCHI
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate morphometric variations of the cervical spine in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in neutral, flexion and extension positions. Methods: This is a prospective study of patients with CSM secondary to degenerative disease of the cervical spine. The morphometric parameters were evaluated using T2-weighted MRI sequences in the sagittal plane in neutral, flexion and extension position of the neck. The parameters studied were the anterior length of the spinal cord (ALSC, the posterior length of the spinal cord (PLSC, the diameter of the vertebral canal (DVC and the diameter of the spinal cord (DSC. Results: The ALSC and PLSC were longer in flexion than in extension and neutral position, with statistically significant difference between the flexion and extension position. The DVC and the DSC were greater in flexion than in extension and neutral position, however, there was no statistically significant difference when they were compared in the neutral, flexion and extension positions. Conclusion: Dynamic MRI allows to evaluate morphometric variations in the cervical spinal canal in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy.
Krykunov, Mykhaylo; Autschbach, Jochen
2007-01-14
We report implementations and results of time-dependent density functional calculations (i) of the frequency-dependent magnetic dipole-magnetic dipole polarizability, (ii) of the (observable) translationally invariant linear magnetic response, and (iii) of a linear intensity differential (LID) which includes the dynamic dipole magnetizability. The density functional calculations utilized density fitting. For achieving gauge-origin independence we have employed time-periodic magnetic-field-dependent basis functions as well as the dipole velocity gauge, and have included explicit density-fit related derivatives of the Coulomb potential. We present the results of calculations of static and dynamic magnetic dipole-magnetic dipole polarizabilities for a set of small molecules, the LID for the SF6 molecule, and dispersion curves for M-hexahelicene of the origin invariant linear magnetic response as well as of three dynamic polarizabilities: magnetic dipole-magnetic dipole, electric dipole-electric dipole, and electric dipole-magnetic dipole. We have also performed comparison of the linear magnetic response and magnetic dipole-magnetic dipole polarizability over a wide range of frequencies for H2O and SF6.
Pastor, Nina; Amero, Carlos
2015-01-01
Proteins participate in information pathways in cells, both as links in the chain of signals, and as the ultimate effectors. Upon ligand binding, proteins undergo conformation and motion changes, which can be sensed by the following link in the chain of information. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations represent powerful tools for examining the time-dependent function of biological molecules. The recent advances in NMR and the availability of faster computers have opened the door to more detailed analyses of structure, dynamics, and interactions. Here we briefly describe the recent applications that allow NMR spectroscopy and MD simulations to offer unique insight into the basic motions that underlie information transfer within and between cells. PMID:25999971
Nina ePastor
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Proteins participate in information pathways in cells, both as links in the chain of signals, and as the ultimate effectors. Upon ligand binding, proteins undergo conformation and motion changes, which can be sensed by the following link in the chain of information. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD simulations represent powerful tools for examining the time-dependent function of biological molecules. The recent advances in NMR and the availability of faster computers have opened the door to more detailed analyses of structure, dynamics and interactions. Here we briefly describe the recent applications that allow NMR spectroscopy and MD simulations to offer unique insight into the basic motions that underlie information transfer within and between cells.
Teich, Lisa; Schröder, Christian
2015-11-13
The development of magnetoresistive sensors based on magnetic nanoparticles which are immersed in conductive gel matrices requires detailed information about the corresponding magnetoresistive properties in order to obtain optimal sensor sensitivities. Here, crucial parameters are the particle concentration, the viscosity of the gel matrix and the particle structure. Experimentally, it is not possible to obtain detailed information about the magnetic microstructure, i.e., orientations of the magnetic moments of the particles that define the magnetoresistive properties, however, by using numerical simulations one can study the magnetic microstructure theoretically, although this requires performing classical spin dynamics and molecular dynamics simulations simultaneously. Here, we present such an approach which allows us to calculate the orientation and the trajectory of every single magnetic nanoparticle. This enables us to study not only the static magnetic microstructure, but also the dynamics of the structuring process in the gel matrix itself. With our hybrid approach, arbitrary sensor configurations can be investigated and their magnetoresistive properties can be optimized.
Ma, Yanhong; Zhang, Qicheng; Zhang, Dayi; Hu, Wenzhong; Hong, Jie
2017-05-01
This work describes the dynamic characteristics of a novel soft magnetic entangled metallic wire material(SM-EMWM) by the dynamic tests for the first time. The mechanical properties of three batches of SM-EMWMs with different porosities have been investigated under different dynamic loads in different magnetic field intensities. The result shows that its properties (storage modulus and loss factor) have commendably controllable magnetic responses in the magnetic field. In particular, the dynamic damping is more remarkable than its quasi-static performance, and the loss factor can be improved above 50% in the magnetic field of 500 mT. The results indicate that SM-EMWM as a magneto-sensitive smart material possesses a considerable application prospect for the active vibration control with variable stiffness and damping.
Kyvik, K O; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, A;
1996-01-01
BACKGROUND: Population based twin registers represent a valuable tool for genetic epidemiological research, since twin studies aim at separating the effect of genes and environment for complex traits. The Danish Twin Register's history, size, ascertainment and completeness of data, as well as data...... accessibility and availability are described. RESULTS: The Danish Twin Register comprises 14,051 twin pairs born 1870-1930, representing all twins surviving to age six years, and 20,888 twin pairs born 1953-1982, representing 75% of those born 1953-1967 and 95% of those born 1968-1982. The birth cohorts 1931......-1952 og 1983-1993 are being ascertained at the moment. The register is available for research given certain conditions are fulfilled. CONCLUSION: This register will in a few years be the most comprehensive twin register in the world. It is a very valuable Danish research resource....
Kyvik, K O; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, A
1996-01-01
BACKGROUND: Population based twin registers represent a valuable tool for genetic epidemiological research, since twin studies aim at separating the effect of genes and environment for complex traits. The Danish Twin Register's history, size, ascertainment and completeness of data, as well as data...... accessibility and availability are described. RESULTS: The Danish Twin Register comprises 14,051 twin pairs born 1870-1930, representing all twins surviving to age six years, and 20,888 twin pairs born 1953-1982, representing 75% of those born 1953-1967 and 95% of those born 1968-1982. The birth cohorts 1931......-1952 og 1983-1993 are being ascertained at the moment. The register is available for research given certain conditions are fulfilled. CONCLUSION: This register will in a few years be the most comprehensive twin register in the world. It is a very valuable Danish research resource....
Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics
Barrall, Geoffrey Alden [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
1995-09-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample`s density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques.
Vlasov simulations of electron hole dynamics in inhomogeneous magnetic field
Kuzichev, Ilya; Vasko, Ivan; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mozer, Forrest; Artemyev, Anton
2017-04-01
Electron holes (EHs) or phase space vortices are solitary electrostatic waves existing due to electrons trapped within EH electrostatic potential. Since the first direct observation [1], EHs have been widely observed in the Earth's magnetosphere: in reconnecting current sheets [2], injection fronts [3], auroral region [4], and many other space plasma systems. EHs have typical spatial scales up to tens of Debye lengths, electric field amplitudes up to hundreds of mV/m and propagate along magnetic field lines with velocities of about electron thermal velocity [5]. The role of EHs in energy dissipation and supporting of large-scale potential drops is under active investigation. The accurate interpretation of spacecraft observations requires understanding of EH evolution in inhomogeneous plasma. The critical role of plasma density gradients in EH evolution was demonstrated in [6] using PIC simulations. Interestingly, up to date no studies have addressed a role of magnetic field gradients in EH evolution. In this report, we use 1.5D gyrokinetic Vlasov code to demonstrate the critical role of magnetic field gradients in EH dynamics. We show that EHs propagating into stronger (weaker) magnetic field are decelerated (accelerated) with deceleration (acceleration) rate dependent on the magnetic field gradient. Remarkably, the reflection points of decelerating EHs are independent of the average magnetic field gradient in the system and depend only on the EH parameters. EHs are decelerated (accelerated) faster than would follow from the "quasi-particle" concept assuming that EH is decelerated (accelerated) entirely due to the mirror force acting on electrons trapped within EH. We demonstrate that EH propagation in inhomogeneous magnetic fields results in development of a net potential drop along an EH, which depends on the magnetic field gradient. The revealed features will be helpful for interpreting spacecraft observations and results of advanced particle simulations. In
Gao, Ya; Hu, Jia-Mian; Wu, Liang; Nan, C. W.
2015-12-01
Voltage control of magnetism in multiferroic heterostructures provides a promising solution to the excessive heating in spintronic devices. Direct observation of voltage-modulated magnetic domain evolution dynamics is desirable for studying the mechanism of the voltage control of magnetism at mesoscale, but has remained challenging. Here we explored a characterization method for the dynamic in situ evolution of pure voltage modulated magnetic domains in the heterostructures by employing the scanning Kerr microscopy function in the magneto optic Kerr effect system. The local magnetization reorientation of a Ni/PMN-PT heterostructure were characterized under sweeping applied voltage on the PMN-PT single crystal, and the results show that the magnetization rotation angle in the local regions is much greater than that obtained from macroscopic magnetization hysteresis loops.
Image fusion for dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging
Leach Martin O
2004-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Multivariate imaging techniques such as dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI have been shown to provide valuable information for medical diagnosis. Even though these techniques provide new information, integrating and evaluating the much wider range of information is a challenging task for the human observer. This task may be assisted with the use of image fusion algorithms. Methods In this paper, image fusion based on Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA is proposed for the first time. It is demonstrated that a priori knowledge about the data domain can be easily incorporated into the parametrisation of the KPCA, leading to task-oriented visualisations of the multivariate data. The results of the fusion process are compared with those of the well-known and established standard linear Principal Component Analysis (PCA by means of temporal sequences of 3D MRI volumes from six patients who took part in a breast cancer screening study. Results The PCA and KPCA algorithms are able to integrate information from a sequence of MRI volumes into informative gray value or colour images. By incorporating a priori knowledge, the fusion process can be automated and optimised in order to visualise suspicious lesions with high contrast to normal tissue. Conclusion Our machine learning based image fusion approach maps the full signal space of a temporal DCE-MRI sequence to a single meaningful visualisation with good tissue/lesion contrast and thus supports the radiologist during manual image evaluation.
Electron dynamics in collisionless magnetic reconnection with a PIC simulation
GUO Jun
2009-01-01
Two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is used to investigate electron dynamics in colli-sionless magnetic reconnection, and the proton/electron mass ratio is taken to be ml/me = 256. The results show that the presence of a strong initial guide field will change the direction of the electron flow. The electron density cavities and the parallel electric field can be found in the electron inflow re-gion along the separatrix, and the electron inflow and density cavities only appear in the second and fourth quadrants. What is different from the results with a smaller mass ratio is that new structures appear in the diffusion region near the X line: (1) Narrow regions of density enhancement and density cavities can be found synchronously in this region; and (2) corresponding to the electron density changes near the X line, the strong parallel electric fields are found to occur in the first and third quadrants. These electric fields perhaps play a more important role in acceleration and heating elec-trons than those fields located in the density cavities.
Assessing Tumor Angiogenesis with Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Esparza-Coss, Emilio; Jackson, Edward F.
2006-09-01
Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is a method able of assessing microvascular changes at high spatial resolution and without ionizing radiation. The microcirculation and structure of tumors are fundamentally chaotic in that tumor-derived factors stimulate the endothelial cells to form new small vessels (angiogenesis) and this vasculature deviates markedly from normal hierarchical branching patterns. The tumor-induced microvascular changes lead to blood flow that is both spatially and temporally more heterogeneous than the efficient and uniform perfusion of normal organs and tissues. DCE-MRI allows for the assessment of perfusion and permeability of the tumor microvasculature, including the network of vessels with diameters less than 100 μm, which are beyond the resolution of conventional angiograms. The microvessel permeability to small molecular weight contrast media as well as measures of tumor response can be assessed with different analysis techniques ranging from simple measures of enhancement to pharmacokinetic models. In this work, such DCE-MRI analysis techniques are discussed.
Local Dynamics and Global Size Coupling during Magnetic Reconnection
Jacobson, C. M.; Breslau, J. A.; Jardin, S. C.; Ji, H.
2008-11-01
Magnetic reconnection is an important physical process not only in small systems such as laboratory plasmas, but also in large systems such as solar flares. The reconnection rate increases with resistivity η and decreases with the current sheet length L. Recent experimental results suggest that these parameters are not independent, but anti-correlate such that ηL is kept roughly constant; thus the reconnection rate is a function of both local dynamics and global size [1]. In order to verify these results and further extend the system size, a numerical MHD model [2] is used. This code allows simulation of either two-fluid or single-fluid resistive MHD reconnection of colliding flux tubes on a 2D grid. The resistivity and system size are systematically varied, and scalings of the ion skin depth, collisionality, and reconnection rate due to these quantities are presented. Results are compared to experimental data, and findings are projected to solar flare scales. [1] A. Kuritsyn et al. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L16106 (2007) [2] J. A. Breslau and S. C. Jardin, Comput. Phys. Commun. 151, 8 (2003)
Nonlinear dynamics of magnetic islands imbedded in small-scale turbulence.
Muraglia, M; Agullo, O; Benkadda, S; Garbet, X; Beyer, P; Sen, A
2009-10-02
The nonlinear dynamics of magnetic tearing islands imbedded in a pressure gradient driven turbulence is investigated numerically in a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model. The study reveals regimes where the linear and nonlinear phases of the tearing instability are controlled by the properties of the pressure gradient. In these regimes, the interplay between the pressure and the magnetic flux determines the dynamics of the saturated state. A secondary instability can occur and strongly modify the magnetic island dynamics by triggering a poloidal rotation. It is shown that the complex nonlinear interaction between the islands and turbulence is nonlocal and involves small scales.
Nonlinear Dynamics of Magnetic Islands Imbedded in Small-Scale Turbulence
Muraglia, Magali; Benkadda, Sadruddin; Garbet, Xavier; Beyer, P; Sen, Abhijit; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.145001
2011-01-01
The nonlinear dynamics of magnetic tearing islands imbedded in a pressure gradient driven turbulence is investigated numerically in a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model. The study reveals regimes where the linear and nonlinear phases of the tearing instability are controlled by the properties of the pressure gradient. In these regimes, the interplay between the pressure and the magnetic flux determines the dynamics of the saturated state. A secondary instability can occur and strongly modify the magnetic island dynamics by triggering a poloidal rotation. It is shown that the complex nonlinear interaction between the islands and turbulence is nonlocal and involves small scales.
Arthroplasty register for Germany
Hagen, Anja
2009-10-01
Full Text Available Scientific background: The annual number of joint replacement operations in Germany is high. The introduction of an arthroplasty register promises an important contribution to the improvement of the quality of patient’s care. Research questions: The presented report addresses the questions on organization and functioning, benefits and cost-benefits as well as on legal, ethical and social aspects of the arthroplasty registers. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2008 in the medical databases MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. and was complemented with a hand search. Documents describing arthroplasty registers and/or their relevance as well as papers on legal, ethical and social aspects of such registers were included in the evaluation. The most important information was extracted and analysed. Results: Data concerning 30 arthroplasty registers in 19 countries as well as one international arthroplasty register were identified. Most of the arthroplasty registers are maintained by national orthopedic societies, others by health authorities or by their cooperation. Mostly, registries are financially supported by governments and rarely by other sources.The participation of the orthopedists in the data collection process of the arthroplasty registry is voluntary in most countries. The consent of the patients is usually required. The unique patient identification is ensured in nearly all registers.Each data set consists of patient and clinic identification numbers, data on diagnosis, the performed intervention, the operation date and implanted prostheses. The use of clinical scores, patient-reported questionnaires and radiological documentation is rare. Methods for data documentation and transfer are paper form, electronic entry as well as scanning of the data using bar codes. The data are mostly being checked for their completeness and validity. Most registers offer results of the data evaluation to the treating orthopedists and
Kovalev, A S
2003-01-01
A plaquette spin system in a vortex configuration is considered analytically and numerically to treat theoretically the vortex switching in magnetic nanodots due to the action of external circular magnetic field. The initial (linear) stage of the switching is analyzed. The analytical results obtained confirm the numerical data on the plaquette dynamics. Both the numerical analysis and the analytical consideration of the initial activation stage show the importance of taking into account the system azimuthal modes. At the frequencies of these modes the most rapid amplification of the vortex energy and the total out-of-plane magnetization occurs. The growth of the modes amplitudes gives rise to a parametrical activation of the low-frequency symmetric mode, and in turn causes the vortex switching. The results obtained provide a qualitative explanation of the numerical data on vortex switching in large-sized magnetic systems and may be used in experiments on guided effect on vortex polarization in magnetic nanodo...
A dynamic macromodel for distributed parameter magnetic microactuators
Fang Yu-Ming; Huang Qing-An; Li Wei-Hua
2008-01-01
This paper presents a reduced-order model to describe the mechanical behaviour of microbeam-based magnetic devices.The integration for magnetic force is calculated by dividing the microbeam into several segments,and the nonlinear equation set has been developed based on the magnetic circuit principle.In comparison with previous models,the present macromodel accounts for both the micro-magnetic-core reluctance and the coupling between the beam deflection and magnetic force.This mazromodel is validated by comparing with the experimental results available in some papers and finite-element solutions.
Exploring the magnetization dynamics of NiFe/Pt multilayers in flexible substrates
Corrêa, M.A., E-mail: marciocorrea@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Dutra, R.; Marcondes, T.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, Urca, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mori, T.J.A. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro, 1000, Guará, 13083-100 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Bohn, F. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Sommer, R.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, Urca, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2016-09-15
Highlights: • Magnetic properties of multilayers grown onto flexible substrates were investigated. • Experimental and theoretical magnetization dynamics results are presented. • The flexible substrates become promising candidate for rf-frequency devices. - Abstract: We investigate the structural and magnetic properties, and the magnetization dynamics in Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19}/Pt multilayer systems grown onto rigid and flexible substrates. The structural characterization shows evidence of a superlattice behavior, while the quasi-static magnetization characterization reveal a weak magnetic anisotropy induced in the multilayers. The magnetization dynamics is investigated through the magnetoimpedance effect. We employ a theoretical approach to describe the experimental magnetoimpedance effect and verify the influence of the effective damping parameter on the magnetization dynamics. Experimental data and theoretical results are in agreement and suggest that the multilayers present high effective damping parameter. Moreover, our experiments raise an interesting issue on the possibility of achieving considerable MI% values, even for systems with weak magnetic anisotropy and high damping parameter grown onto flexible substrates.
Registered Nurse (Associate Degree).
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.
This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…
Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
2011-01-01
The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia.......The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia....
Bjerregaard, Beth; Larsen, Ole B
2011-01-01
The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established.......The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established....
Photospheric and Subphotospheric Dynamics of Emerging Magnetic Flux
Kosovichev, A G
2009-01-01
Magnetic fields emerging from the Sun's interior carry information about physical processes of magnetic field generation and transport in the convection zone. Soon after appearance on the solar surface the magnetic flux gets concentrated in sunspot regions and causes numerous active phenomena on the Sun. This paper discusses some properties of the emerging magnetic flux observed on the solar surface and in the interior. A statistical analysis of variations of the tilt angle of bipolar magnetic regions during the emergence shows that the systematic tilt with respect to the equator (the Joy's law) is most likely established below the surface. However, no evidence of the dependence of the tilt angle on the amount of emerging magnetic flux, predicted by the rising magnetic flux rope theories, is found. Analysis of surface plasma flows in a large emerging active region reveals strong localized upflows and downflows at the initial phase of emergence but finds no evidence for large-scale flows indicating future appe...
Russo, Alessandro; Bianchi, Michele; Sartori, Maria; Parrilli, Annapaola; Panseri, Silvia; Ortolani, Alessandro; Sandri, Monica; Boi, Marco; Salter, Donald M; Maltarello, Maria Cristina; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Fini, Milena; Dediu, Valentin; Tampieri, Anna; Marcacci, Maurilio
2016-03-01
The fascinating prospect to direct tissue regeneration by magnetic activation has been recently explored. In this study we investigate the possibility to boost bone regeneration in an experimental defect in rabbit femoral condyle by combining static magnetic fields and magnetic biomaterials. NdFeB permanent magnets are implanted close to biomimetic collagen/hydroxyapatite resorbable scaffolds magnetized according to two different protocols . Permanent magnet only or non-magnetic scaffolds are used as controls. Bone tissue regeneration is evaluated at 12 weeks from surgery from a histological, histomorphometric and biomechanical point of view. The reorganization of the magnetized collagen fibers under the effect of the static magnetic field generated by the permanent magnet produces a highly-peculiar bone pattern, with highly-interconnected trabeculae orthogonally oriented with respect to the magnetic field lines. In contrast, only partial defect healing is achieved within the control groups. We ascribe the peculiar bone regeneration to the transfer of micro-environmental information, mediated by collagen fibrils magnetized by magnetic nanoparticles, under the effect of the static magnetic field. These results open new perspectives on the possibility to improve implant fixation and control the morphology and maturity of regenerated bone providing "in site" forces by synergically combining static magnetic fields and biomaterials.
Final Report: Nanoscale Dynamical Heterogeneity in Complex Magnetic Materials
Kevan, Stephen [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)
2016-05-27
A magnetic object can be demagnetized by dropping it on a hard surface, but what does ‘demagnetized’ actually mean? In 1919 Heinrich Barkhausen proved the existence of magnetic domains, which are regions of uniform magnetization that are much larger than atoms but much smaller than a macroscopic object. A material is fully magnetized when domain magnetizations are aligned, while it is demagnetized when the domain magnetizations are randomly oriented and the net magnetization is zero. The heterogeneity of a demagnetized object leads to interesting questions. Magnets are unstable when their poles align, and stable when their poles anti-align, so why is the magnetized state ever stable? What do domains look like? What is the structure of a domain wall? How does the magnetized state transform to the demagnetized state? How do domains appear and disappear? What are the statistical properties of domains and how do these vary as the domain pattern evolves? Some of these questions remain the focus of intense study nearly a century after Barkhausen’s discovery. For example, just a few years ago a new kind of magnetic texture called a skyrmion was discovered. A skyrmion is a magnetic domain that is a nanometer-scale, topologically protected vortex. ‘Topologically protected’ means that skyrmions are hard to destroy and so are stable for extended periods. Skyrmions are characterized by integral quantum numbers and are observed to move with little dissipation and so could store and process information with very low power input. Our research project uses soft x-rays, which offer very high magnetic contrast, to probe magnetic heterogeneity and to measure how it evolves in time under external influences. We will condition a soft x-ray beam so that the wave fronts will be coherent, that is, they will be smooth and well-defined. When coherent soft x-ray beam interacts with a magnetic material, the magnetic heterogeneity is imprinted onto the wave fronts and projected into
Guo-fu ZHAI; Qi-ya WANG; Wan-bin REN
2008-01-01
Electromagnetic relay is a widely used apparatus which usually works in a magnetic disturbance environment. To evaluate its electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in a static magnetic field, dynamic characteristics of a clapper relay in a uniform static magnetic field situation based on the finite element method (FEM) is studied. Influences of the magnetic field on dynamic parameters (delay time, pick-up time, end pressure, and final velocity) as well as a situation in which the relay cannot function normally are analyzed. Simulation reveals that the external magnetic field which weakens the relay's air-gap field has a greater influence on the relay's dynamic parameters than the one strengthening the field. The validity of the simulation is verified by measured results of coil current and armature displacement.
Orientational order and translational dynamics of magnetic particle assemblies in liquid crystals.
Peroukidis, Stavros D; Klapp, Sabine H L
2016-08-10
Implementing extensive molecular dynamics simulations we explore the organization of magnetic particle assemblies (clusters) in a uniaxial liquid crystalline matrix comprised of rodlike particles. The magnetic particles are modelled as soft dipolar spheres with diameter significantly smaller than the width of the rods. Depending on the dipolar strength coupling the magnetic particles arrange into head-to-tail configurations forming various types of clusters including rings (closed loops) and chains. In turn, the liquid crystalline matrix induces long range orientational ordering to these structures and promotes their diffusion along the director of the phase. Different translational dynamics are exhibited as the liquid crystalline matrix transforms either from isotropic to nematic or from nematic to smectic state. This is caused due to different collective motion of the magnetic particles into various clusters in the anisotropic environments. Our results offer a physical insight for understanding both the structure and dynamics of magnetic particle assemblies in liquid crystalline matrices.
Optimal Controller Tested for a Magnetically Suspended Five-Axis Dynamic Spin Rig
Choi, Benjamin B.
2003-01-01
NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch has developed a fully suspended magnetic bearing system for their Dynamic Spin Rig, which performs vibration tests of turbomachinery blades and components under spinning conditions in a vacuum. Two heteropolar radial magnetic bearings and a thrust magnetic bearing and the associated control system were integrated into the Dynamic Spin Rig to provide magnetic excitation as well as noncontact magnetic suspension of the 35-lb vertical rotor with blades to induce turbomachinery blade vibration (ref. 1). The new system can provide longer run times at higher speeds and larger vibration amplitudes for rotating blades. Also, it was proven that bearing mechanical life was substantially extended and flexibility was increased in the excitation orientation (direction and phasing).
Kong, Wenwen; Fan, Xiaolong; Zhou, Hengan; Cao, Jiangwei; Guo, Dangwei; Gui, Y. S.; Hu, C.-M.; Xue, Desheng
2016-10-01
The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) was used to investigate the magnetization dynamics of an ultrathin (1.3 nm) CoFeB magnetic multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). By directly sending a radio frequency (rf) current into a millimeter-sized film sample without any lithography process, a resonant dc voltage can be detected along the Hall direction. This method was used to study the dynamic properties of ultrathin CoFeB films, such as the gyromagnetic ratio, amplitude of PMA field, and magnetic damping. The dc voltage was proven to be the consequence of spin rectification enabled by the AHE, and the dynamic magnetization was driven by the Oersted field and spin current from the electric current in the adjacent Ta layer.
Simulation of dynamic magnetic particle capture and accumulation around a ferromagnetic wire
Choomphon-anomakhun, Natthaphon; Ebner, Armin D.; Natenapit, Mayuree; Ritter, James A.
2017-04-01
A new approach for modeling high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS)-type systems during the time-dependent capture and accumulation of magnetic particles by a ferromagnetic wire was developed. This new approach assumes the fluid (slurry) viscosity, comprised of water and magnetic particles, is a function of the magnetic particle concentration in the fluid, with imposed maxima on both the particle concentration and fluid viscosity to avoid unrealistic limits. In 2-D, the unsteady-state Navier-Stokes equations for compressible fluid flow and the unsteady-state continuity equations applied separately to the water and magnetic particle phases in the slurry were solved simultaneously, along with the Laplace equations for the magnetic potential applied separately to the slurry and wire, to evaluate the velocities and concentrations around the wire in a narrow channel using COMSOL Multiphysics. The results from this model revealed very realistic magnetically attractive and repulsive zones forming in time around the wire. These collection zones formed their own impermeable viscous phase during accumulation that was also magnetic with its area and magnetism impacting locally both the fluid flow and magnetic fields around the wire. These collection zones increased with an increase in the applied magnetic field. For a given set of conditions, the capture ability peaked and then decreased to zero at infinite time during magnetic particle accumulation in the collection zones. Predictions of the collection efficiency from a steady-state, clean collector, trajectory model could not show this behavior; it also agreed only qualitatively with the dynamic model and then only at the early stages of collection and more so at a higher applied magnetic field. Also, the collection zones decreased in size when the accumulation regions included magnetic particle magnetization (realistic) compared to when they excluded it (unrealistic). Overall, this might be the first time a mathematical
Dynamic magnetic resonance defecography in 10 asymptomatic volunteers
Andreas G Schreyer; Christian Paetzel; Alois Fürst; Lena M Dendl; Elisabeth Hutzel; René Müller-Wille; Philipp Wiggermann
2012-01-01
AIM:Evaluation of the wide range of normal findings in asymptomatic women undergoing dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) defecography.METHODS:MR defecography of 10 healthy female volunteers (median age:31 years) without previous pregnancies or history of surgery were evaluated.The rectum was filled with 180 mL gadolinium ultrasound gel mixture.MR defecography was performed in the supine position.The pelvic floor was visualized with a dynamic T2-weighted sagittal plane where all relevant pelvic floor organs were acquired during defecation.The volunteers were instructed to relax and then to perform straining maneuvers to empty the rectum.The pubococcygeal line (PCGL) was used as the line of reference.The movement of pelvic floor organs was measured as the vertical distance to this reference line.Data were recorded in the resting position as well as during the defecation process with maximal straining.Examinations were performed and evaluated by two experienced abdominal radiologists without knowledge of patient history.RESULTS:Average position of the anorectal junction was located at-5.3 mm at rest and-29.9 mm during straining.The anorectal angle widened significantly from 93° at rest to 109° during defecation.A rectocele was diagnosed in eight out of 10 volunteers showing an average diameter of 25.9 mm.The bladder base was located at a position of +23 mm at rest and descended to-8.1 mm during defecation in relation to the PCGL.The bladder base moved below the PCGL in six out of 10 volunteers,which was formally defined as a cystocele.The uterocervical junction was located at an average level of +43.1 mm at rest and at +7.9 mm during straining.The uterocervical junction of three volunteers fell below the PCGL; described formally as uterocervical prolapse.CONCLUSION:Based on the range of standard values in asymptomatic volunteers,MR defecography values for pathological changes have to be re-evaluated.
Chaotic dynamics and basin erosion in nanomagnets subject to time-harmonic magnetic fields
D' Aquino, M., E-mail: daquino@uniparthenope.it [Engineering Department, University of Naples “Parthenope”, 80143 Naples (Italy); Quercia, A.; Serpico, C. [DIETI, University of Naples Federico II, 80125 Naples (Italy); Bertotti, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, 10135 Torino (Italy); Mayergoyz, I.D. [ECE Department and UMIACS, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Perna, S. [DIETI, University of Naples Federico II, 80125 Naples (Italy); Ansalone, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, 10135 Torino (Italy)
2016-04-01
Magnetization dynamics in uniformly magnetized particles subject to time-harmonic (AC) external fields is considered. The study is focused on the behavior of the AC-driven dynamics close to saddle equilibria. It happens that such dynamics has chaotic nature at moderately low power level, due to the heteroclinic tangle phenomenon which is produced by the combined effect of AC-excitations and saddle type dynamics. By using analytical theory for the threshold AC excitation amplitudes necessary to create the heteroclinic tangle together with numerical simulations, we quantify and show how the tangle produces the erosion of the safe basin around the stable equilibria.
Influence of dynamic crystallization on exchange-coupled NdFeB nanocrystalline permanent magnets
ZHANG Ran; LIU Ying; MA Yilong; ZHANG Longfeng; XU Jianchuan; GAO Shengji
2006-01-01
Dynamic crystallization was introduced to improve the magnetic properties of NdFeB nanocrystalline permanent magnets by optimizing microstructure. The microstructure was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It has been determined that, compared with the conventional heat treatment, dynamic crystallization can shorten the crystallization time. Moreover, dynamic crystallization can refine grains, enhance the exchange-coupled interaction among grains, and promote the magnetic properties. As a result, the optimal magnetic properties of Nd10.5(FeCoZr)83.4B6.1(Br＝0.685T, Hci ＝732 kA·m -1 , Hcb ＝429 kA·m-1 ,( BH )m=75 kJ·m -3 ) are obtained after dynamic crystallization heat treatment at 700 ℃ for 10 min.
Meyerspeer, M.; Robinson, S.; Nabuurs, C.I.H.C.; Scheenen, T.W.; Schoisengeier, A.; Unger, E.; Kemp, G.J.; Moser, E.
2012-01-01
By improving spatial and anatomical specificity, localized spectroscopy can enhance the power and accuracy of the quantitative analysis of cellular metabolism and bioenergetics. Localized and nonlocalized dynamic (31) P magnetic resonance spectroscopy using a surface coil was compared during aerobic
Meyerspeer, M.; Robinson, S.; Nabuurs, C.I.H.C.; Scheenen, T.W.; Schoisengeier, A.; Unger, E.; Kemp, G.J.; Moser, E.
2012-01-01
By improving spatial and anatomical specificity, localized spectroscopy can enhance the power and accuracy of the quantitative analysis of cellular metabolism and bioenergetics. Localized and nonlocalized dynamic (31) P magnetic resonance spectroscopy using a surface coil was compared during aerobic
Dynamic nuclear magnetic resonance field sensing with part-per-trillion resolution
Gross, Simon; Barmet, Christoph; Dietrich, Benjamin E.; Brunner, David O.; Schmid, Thomas; Pruessmann, Klaas P.
2016-12-01
High-field magnets of up to tens of teslas in strength advance applications in physics, chemistry and the life sciences. However, progress in generating such high fields has not been matched by corresponding advances in magnetic field measurement. Based mostly on nuclear magnetic resonance, dynamic high-field magnetometry is currently limited to resolutions in the nanotesla range. Here we report a concerted approach involving tailored materials, magnetostatics and detection electronics to enhance the resolution of nuclear magnetic resonance sensing by three orders of magnitude. The relative sensitivity thus achieved amounts to 1 part per trillion (10-12). To exemplify this capability we demonstrate the direct detection and relaxometry of nuclear polarization and real-time recording of dynamic susceptibility effects related to human heart function. Enhanced high-field magnetometry will generally permit a fresh look at magnetic phenomena that scale with field strength. It also promises to facilitate the development and operation of high-field magnets.
Magnetization dynamics in (Cd,Mn)Te quantum wells
Goryca, M.; Nawrocki, M. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Ferrand, D.; Tatarenko, S. [Joined group ' ' Nanophysique et semiconducteurs' ' , CNRS/CEA/Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble, Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, BP 87, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres cedex (France); Kossacki, P.; Pacuski, W.; Maslana, W. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Joined group ' ' Nanophysique et semiconducteurs' ' , CNRS/CEA/Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble, Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, BP 87, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres cedex (France); Cibert, J. [Laboratoire Louis Neel, CNRS, BP166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)
2006-03-15
The relaxation of the magnetization change induced by a short pulse of magnetic field in p-doped (Cd,Mn)Te quantum wells is determined from the giant Zeeman shift of the photoluminescence line. The characteristic times change by three orders of magnitude upon application of a static magnetic field. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
DEVELOPMENT OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM FOR REMOTE MEASURING OF DYNAMIC MAGNETIC FIELDS USING ZIGBEE
Thiago Dantas da Silva; Jacques Cousteau da Silva Borges; Allan Aminadab André Freire Soares
2016-01-01
This paper aims to describe the development and implementation of an embedded system applied to remote measurement of dynamic artificial magnetic fields using Zigbee, which is a set of specifications for wireless data communication (based on IEEE standard 802.15.4). In the implementation of this system, Arduino microcontrolled platforms were used integrated to a Hall effect sensor intended for measuring the strength of these dynamic magnetic fields. The Zigbee technology aims to enable the ex...
2014-01-01
Disclosed herein is a biosensor for optical detection of Brownian relaxation dynamics of magnetic particles measured by light transmission. The magnetic particles can be functionalized with biological ligands for the detection of target analytes in a sample. The setup may be implemented in a disc...
Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar F.
2016-01-01
In this work, the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of a vertical rigid rotor interacting with a flexible foundation by means of two passive magnetic bearings is quantified and evaluated. The quantification is based on theoretical and experimental investigation of the non-uniformity (anisotropy) of the...
Aschenbach, R., E-mail: rene.aschenbach@helios-kliniken.de [HELIOS Hospital Erfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Nordhaeuser Str. 74, 99089 Erfurt (Germany); Tuda, S. [HELIOS Hospital Erfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Nordhaeuser Str. 74, 99089 Erfurt (Germany); Lamster, E.; Meyer, A. [HELIOS Hospital Erfurt, Department of Endocrinology, Nordhaeuser Str. 74, 99089 Erfurt (Germany); Roediger, H.; Stier, A. [HELIOS Hospital Erfurt, Department of Visceral Surgery, Nordhaeuser Str. 74, 99089 Erfurt (Germany); Conrad, E. [HELIOS Hospital Erfurt, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nordhaeuser Str. 74, 99089 Erfurt (Germany); Basche, S.; Klisch, J. [HELIOS Hospital Erfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Nordhaeuser Str. 74, 99089 Erfurt (Germany); Vogl, T.J. [University Hospital Frankfurt/Main, Center of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt/Main (Germany)
2012-11-15
Objectives: To evaluate the use of dynamic magnetic resonance angiography for localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands in the reoperative neck. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the head-neck MRIs of 30 patients with a history of hyperparathyroidism, prior head-neck surgery, and intraoperative proven adenomas. The protocol included conventional imaging with T2-weighted STIR sequences, T1w axial and coronal prior to and after contrast media administration, and dynamic magnetic resonance angiography. We compared the results from MRI, dynamic magnetic resonance angiography with 99m-Tc-Sestamibi with intraoperative findings as the gold standard. Results: In conventional MRI 19/30 true positives were detected with a sensitivity and specificity of 63.3% and 100%, respectively. However, by adding dynamic magnetic resonance angiography the detection rate increased to 28/30 true positives. Based on intraoperative findings, the sensitivity and specificity of dynamic magnetic resonance angiography were 93.3% and 100%, respectively. 99m-Tc-Sestamibi detected 24/30 true positives, sensitivity was 80%. Conclusion: The diagnostic value of MRI including dynamic magnetic resonance angiography is superior to MRI alone and superior to that of 99m-Tc-Sestamibi in the diagnostic workup of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands when compared against intraoperative findings.
Maldonado-Camargo, L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Torres-Díaz, I. [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Chiu-Lam, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Hernández, M. [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Rinaldi, C., E-mail: carlos.rinaldi@bme.ufl.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)
2016-08-15
We demonstrate how dynamic magnetic susceptibility measurements (DMS) can be used to estimate the relative contributions of Brownian and Néel relaxation to the dynamic magnetic response of a magnetic fluid, a suspension of magnetic nanoparticles. The method applies to suspensions with particles that respond through Brownian or Néel relaxation and for which the characteristic Brownian and Néel relaxation times are widely separated. First, we illustrate this using magnetic fluids consisting of mixtures of particles that relax solely by the Brownian or Néel mechanisms. Then, it is shown how the same approach can be applied to estimate the relative contributions of Brownian and Néel relaxation in a suspension consisting of particles obtained from a single synthesis and whose size distribution straddles the transition from Néel to Brownian relaxation. - Highlights: • Method to estimate the contributions of the relaxation mechanism to the magnetic response. • Method applies to cases where the Brownian and Néel peaks do not overlap. • The method applies for ferrofluids prepared with as–synthesized particles.
Zbiri, Mohamed; Mittal, Ranjan; Rols, Stéphane; Su, Yixi; Xiao, Yinguo; Schober, Helmut; Chaplot, Samrath L; Johnson, Mark R; Chatterji, Tapan; Inoue, Yasunori; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hosono, Hideo; Brueckel, Thomas
2010-08-11
To shed light on the role of magnetism on the superconducting mechanism of the oxygen-free FeAs pnictides, we investigate the effect of magnetic ordering on phonon dynamics in the low-temperature orthorhombic parent compounds, which present a spin density wave. The study covers both the 122 (AFe(2)As(2); A = Ca, Sr, Ba) and 1111 (AFeAsF; A = Ca, Sr) phases. We extend our recent work on the Ca (122 and 1111) and Ba (122) cases by treating, computationally and experimentally, the 122 and 1111 Sr compounds. The effect of magnetic ordering is investigated through detailed non-magnetic and magnetic lattice dynamical calculations. The comparison of the experimental and calculated phonon spectra shows that the magnetic interactions/ordering have to be included in order to reproduce well the measured density of states. This highlights a spin-correlated phonon behavior which is more pronounced than the apparently weak electron-phonon coupling estimated in these materials. Furthermore, there is no noticeable difference between phonon spectra of the 122 Ba and Sr, whereas there are substantial differences when comparing these to CaFe(2)As(2) originating from different aspects of structure and bonding.
Tassis, Konstantinos; Yorke, Harold W; Turner, Neal
2011-01-01
We combine dynamical and non-equilibrium chemical modeling of evolving prestellar molecular cloud cores, and explore the evolution of molecular abundances in the contracting core. We model both magnetic cores, with varying degrees of initial magnetic support, and non-magnetic cores, with varying collapse delay times. We explore, through a parameter study, the competing effects of various model parameters in the evolving molecular abundances, including the elemental C/O ratio, the temperature, and the cosmic-ray ionization rate. We find that different models show their largest quantitative differences at the center of the core, whereas the outer layers, which evolve slower, have abundances which are severely degenerate among different dynamical models. There is a large range of possible abundance values for different models at a fixed evolutionary stage (central density), which demonstrates the large potential of chemical differentiation in prestellar cores. However, degeneracies among different models, compou...
Acharyya, Muktish
2004-02-01
A uniaxially (along the Z axis) anisotropic Heisenberg ferromagnet, in the presence of time-dependent (but uniform over space) magnetic field, is studied by Monte Carlo simulation. The time-dependent magnetic field was taken as elliptically polarized where the resultant field vector rotates in the X-Z plane. The system is cooled (in the presence of the elliptically polarized magnetic field) from high temperature. As the temperature decreases, it was found that in the low anisotropy limit the system undergoes three successive dynamical phase transitions. These three dynamic transitions were confirmed by studying the temperature variation of dynamic "specific heat." The temperature variation of dynamic specific heat shows three peaks indicating three dynamic transition points.
First-principles approach to noncollinear magnetism: Towards spin dynamics
Sharma, S.; Dewhurst, J.K.; Ambrosch-Draxl, C.;
2007-01-01
A description of noncollinear magnetism in the framework of spin-density functional theory is presented for the exact exchange energy functional which depends explicitly on two-component spinor orbitals. The equations for the effective Kohn-Sham scalar potential and magnetic field are derived...
Orbital Magnetism and Dynamics in Alkali Metal Clusters
Nesterenko, V O; De Souza-Cruz, F F; Marinelli, J R
2000-01-01
Two remarkable orbital magnetic resonances, M1 scissor mode and M2 twist mode, are predicted in deformed and spherical metal clusters, respectively. We show that these resonances provide a valuable information about many cluster properties (quadrupole deformation, magnetic susceptibility, single-particle spectrum, etc.)
Janusonis, J.; Jansma, T.; Chang, C. L.; Liu, Qi; Gatilova, A.; Lomonosov, A. M.; Shalagatskyi, V.; Pezeril, T.; Temnov, V. V.; Tobey, R. I.
2016-01-01
Surface magnetoelastic waves are coupled elastic and magnetic excitations that propagate along the surface of a magnetic material. Ultrafast optical techniques allow for a non-contact excitation and detection scheme while providing the ability to measure both elastic and magnetic components individu
Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions and adiabatic magnetization dynamics in molecular magnets
De Raedt, H; Miyashita, S; Michielsen, K; Machida, M
A microscopic model of the molecular magnet V-15 is used to study mechanisms for the adiabatic change of the magnetization in time-dependent magnetic fields. The effects of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, the most plausible source for the energy-level repulsions that lead to adiabatic changes
Liquid Droplet Dynamics in Gravity Compensating High Magnetic Field
Bojarevics, V.; Easter, S.; Pericleous, K.
2012-01-01
Numerical models are used to investigate behavior of liquid droplets suspended in high DC magnetic fields of various configurations providing microgravity-like conditions. Using a DC field it is possible to create conditions with laminar viscosity and heat transfer to measure viscosity, surface tension, electrical and thermal conductivities, and heat capacity of a liquid sample. The oscillations in a high DC magnetic field are quite different for an electrically conducting droplet, like liquid silicon or metal. The droplet behavior in a high magnetic field is the subject of investigation in this paper. At the high values of magnetic field some oscillation modes are damped quickly, while others are modified with a considerable shift of the oscillating droplet frequencies and the damping constants from the non-magnetic case.
Dynamics of magnetic nano-flake vortices in Newtonian fluids
Bazazzadeh, Nasim; Mohseni, Seyed Majid; Khavasi, Amin; Zibaii, Mohammad Ismail; Movahed, S. M. S.; Jafari, G. R.
2016-12-01
We study the rotational motion of nano-flake ferromagnetic disks suspended in a Newtonian fluid, as a potential material owing the vortex-like magnetic configuration. Using analytical expressions for hydrodynamic, magnetic and Brownian torques, the stochastic angular momentum equation is determined in the dilute limit conditions under applied magnetic field. Results are compared against experimental ones and excellent agreement is observed. We also estimate the uncertainty in the orientation of the disks due to the Brownian torque when an external magnetic field aligns them. Interestingly, this uncertainty is roughly proportional to the ratio of thermal energy of fluid to the magnetic energy stored in the disks. Our approach can be implemented in many practical applications including biotechnology and multi-functional fluidics.
... a diploma from an approved nursing program. Registered nurses also must be licensed. Education In all nursing education programs, students take courses in anatomy, physiology, microbiology, chemistry, nutrition, psychology, and other social and ...
Panczyk, Tomasz; Konczak, Lukasz; Zapotoczny, Szczepan; Szabelski, Pawel; Nowakowska, Maria
2015-01-01
In this work we have analyzed the influence of various factors on the transverse relaxation times T2 of water protons in suspension of magnetic nanoparticles. For that purpose we developed a full molecular dynamics force field which includes the effects of dispersion interactions between magnetic nanoparticles and water molecules, electrostatic interactions between charged nanoparticles and magnetic dipole-dipole and dipole-external field interactions. We also accounted for the magnetization reversal within the nanoparticles body frames due to finite magnetic anisotropy barriers. The force field together with the Langevin dynamics imposed on water molecules and the nanoparticles allowed us to monitor the dephasing of water protons in real time. Thus, we were able to determine the T2 relaxation times including the effects of the adsorption of water on the nanoparticles' surfaces, thermal fluctuations of the orientation of nanoparticles' magnetizations as well as the effects of the core-shell architecture of nanoparticles and their agglomeration into clusters. We found that there exists an optimal cluster size for which T2 is minimized and that the retardation of water molecules motion, due to adsorption on the nanoparticles surfaces, has some effect in the measured T2 times. The typical strengths of the external magnetic fields in MRI are enough to keep the magnetizations fixed along the field direction, however, in the case of low magnetic fields, we observed significant enhancement of T2 due to thermal fluctuations of the orientations of magnetizations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
2011-01-01
The theoretical part of the thesis analyzes several selected methodologies and best-practices related to information technology risks management, with focus on documents and guidance developed by ISACA. It builds a set of ideas and basic requirements for effective model of an IT risk register. Strong emphasis is placed on mapping CobiT 4.1 based Risk IT to COBIT 5. The practical part describes implementation of an exploratory web-based IT risk register in Python programming language utilizing...
McNaughton, Brandon H. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)], E-mail: bmcnaugh@umich.edu; Kinnunen, Paivo [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Smith, Ron G.; Pei, S.N. [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Torres-Isea, Ramon [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Kopelman, Raoul [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Clarke, Roy [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)
2009-05-15
The nonlinear rotation response of a magnetic particle occurs when a driving magnetic field, used to rotate the magnetic particle, exceeds a critical frequency. This type of nonlinear rotational dynamic depends on several physical parameters, such as the rotational drag that the particle experiences. Shifts in this nonlinear rotational frequency offer a dynamic approach for the detection of bacteria, measurement of their growth, their response to chemical agents, and other biomedical applications. Therefore, we have developed a stand-alone prototype device that utilizes an elegant combination of a laser diode and photodiode to monitor particle rotation.
DEVELOPMENT OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM FOR REMOTE MEASURING OF DYNAMIC MAGNETIC FIELDS USING ZIGBEE
Thiago Dantas da Silva
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the development and implementation of an embedded system applied to remote measurement of dynamic artificial magnetic fields using Zigbee, which is a set of specifications for wireless data communication (based on IEEE standard 802.15.4. In the implementation of this system, Arduino microcontrolled platforms were used integrated to a Hall effect sensor intended for measuring the strength of these dynamic magnetic fields. The Zigbee technology aims to enable the execution of real-time and in remote character of these measurements of magnetic field intensity, presenting them in a graphical view.
Kodama, Kazuto
2015-02-01
This study proposes a new method for measuring transient magnetization of natural samples induced by a pulsed field with duration of 11 ms using a pulse magnetizer. An experimental system was constructed, consisting of a pair of differential sensing coils connected with a high-speed digital oscilloscope for data acquisition. The data were transferred to a computer to obtain an initial magnetization curve and a descending branch of a hysteresis loop in a rapidly changing positive field. This system was tested with synthetic samples (permalloy ribbon, aluminum plate, and nickel powder) as well as two volcanic rock samples. Results from the synthetic samples showed considerable differences from those measured by a quasi-static method using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). These differences were principally due to the time-dependent magnetic properties or to electromagnetic effects, such as magnetic viscosity, eddy current loss, or magnetic relaxation. Results from the natural samples showed that the transient magnetization-field curves were largely comparable to the corresponding portions of the hysteresis loops. However, the relative magnetization (scaled to the saturation magnetization) at the end of a pulse was greater than that measured by a VSM. This discrepancy, together with the occurrence of rapid exponential decay after a pulse, indicates magnetic relaxations that could be interpreted in terms of domain wall displacement. These results suggest that with further developments, the proposed technique can become a useful tool for characterizing magnetic particles contained in a variety of natural materials.
Magnetic Fields are not ignorable in the dynamics of disks
Battaner, E; Guijarro, A
2000-01-01
Magnetic fields are considered to be dominant when $\\epsilon_{B}\\geq\\epsilon_{K}$, being $\\epsilon_{B}=B^{2}/8\\pi$ the magnetic energy density and $\\epsilon_{K}=1/2 \\rho\\theta^{2}$ the rotation energy density, for a conventional moderate B= 1 $\\mu$G. They are considered to be negligible when $\\epsilon_{B}<\\epsilon_{K}$ for $B\\sim 10 \\mu$G. With no assumption and no theoretical calculation, we show that magnetic fields cannot be ignored in the outer parts of a galaxy like the Milky Way and in the whole disk of a dwarf galaxy.
Chen, Y. J.; Yang, H. Z.; Leong, S. H.; Wu, B. L.; Asbahi, M.; Yu Ko, Hnin Yu; Yang, J. K. W.; Ng, V.
2014-10-01
We report an experimental study on the dynamic thermomagnetic (TM) reversal mechanisms at around Curie temperature (Tc) for isolated 60 nm pitch single-domain [Co/Pd] islands heated by a 1.5 μm spot size laser pulse under an applied magnetic reversal field (Hr). Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) observations with high resolution MFM tips clearly showed randomly trapped non-switched islands within the laser irradiated spot after dynamic TM reversal process with insufficient Hr strength. This observation provides direct experimental evidence by MFM of a large magnetization switching variation due to increased thermal fluctuation/agitation over magnetization energy at the elevated temperature of around Tc. The average percentage of non-switched islands/magnetization was further found to be inversely proportional to the applied reversal field Hr for incomplete magnetization reversal when Hr is less than 13% of the island coercivity (Hc), showing an increased switching field distribution (SFD) at elevated temperature of around Tc (where main contributions to SFD broadening are from Tc distribution and stronger thermal fluctuations). Our experimental study and results provide better understanding and insight on practical heat assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) process and recording performance, including HAMR writing magnetization dynamics induced SFD as well as associated DC saturation noise that limits areal density, as were previously observed and investigated by theoretical simulations.
Magnetic suspension motorized spindle-cutting system dynamics analysis and vibration control review
Xiaoli QIAO
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The performance of high-speed spindle directly determines the development of high-end machine tools. The cutting system's dynamic characteristics and vibration control effect are inseparable with the performance of the spindle,which influence each other, synergistic effect together the cutting efficiency, the surface quality of the workpiece and tool life in machining process. So, the review status on magnetic suspension motorized spindle, magnetic suspension bearing-flexible rotor system dynamics modeling theory and status of active control technology of flexible magnetic suspension motorized spindle rotor vibration are studied, and the problems which present in the magnetic suspension flexible motorized spindle rotor systems are refined, and the development trend of magnetic levitation motorized spindle and the application prospect is forecasted.
Nakamae, Sawako, E-mail: Sawako.nakamae@cea.fr
2014-04-15
Interacting magnetic nanoparticles display a wide variety of magnetic behaviors ranging from modified superparamagnetism, superspin glass to possibly, superferromagnetism. The superspin glass state is described by its slow and out-of-equilibrium magnetic behaviors akin to those found in atomic spin glasses. In this article, recent experimental findings on superspin correlation length growth and the violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem obtained in concentrated frozen ferrofluids are presented to illustrate certain out-of-equilibrium dynamics behavior in superspin glasses. - Highlights: • Recent experimental findings on superspin glass dynamics in magnetic nanoparticle systems. • Advantages of magnetic nanoparticles for the study of spin glass physics. • Open questions and future directions in superspin glass research.
Wei, Xing
2016-01-01
For understanding magnetic effects on dynamical tides, we study the rotating magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) flow driven by harmonic forcing. The linear responses are analytically derived in a periodic box under the local WKB approximation. Both the kinetic and Ohmic dissipations at the resonant frequencies are calculated and the various parameters are investigated. Although magnetic pressure may be negligible compared to thermal pressure, magnetic field can be important for the first-order perturbation, e.g. dynamical tides. It is found that magnetic field splits the resonant frequency, namely the rotating hydrodynamic flow has only one resonant frequency but the rotating MHD flow has two, one positive and the other negative. In the weak field regime the dissipations are asymmetric around the two resonant frequencies and this asymmetry is more striking with a weaker magnetic field. It is also found that both the kinetic and Ohmic dissipations at the resonant frequencies are inversely proportional to the Ekman num...
CFA Films in Amorphous Substrate: Structural Phase Induction and Magnetization Dynamics
Correa, M. A.; Bohn, F.; Escobar, V. M.
We report a systematic study of the structural and quasi-static magnetic properties, as well as of the dynamic magnetic response through MI effect, in Co2FeAl and MgO//Co2FeAl single layers and a MgO//Co2FeAl/Ag/Co2FeAl trilayered film, all grown onto an amorphous substrate. We present a new route to induce the crystalline structure in the Co2FeAl alloy and verify that changes in the structural phase of this material leads to remarkable modifications of the magnetic anisotropy and, consequently, dynamic magnetic behavior. Considering the electrical and magnetic properties of the Co2FeAl, our results open new possibilities for technological applications of this full-Heusler alloy in rigid and flexible spintronic devices.
On the relationship between G-band bright point dynamics and their magnetic field strengths
Yang, Yunfei; Ji, Kaifan; Feng, Song; Deng, Hui; Wang, Feng; Lin, Jiaben
2016-01-01
G-band bright points (GBPs) are regarded as good manifestations of magnetic flux concentrations. We aim to investigate the relationship between the dynamic properties of GBPs and their longitudinal magnetic field strengths. High spatial and temporal resolution observations were recorded simultaneously with G-band filtergrams and Narrow-band Filter Imager (NFI) Stokes I and V images with Hinode /Solar Optical Telescope. The GBPs are identified and tracked in the G-band images automatically, and the corresponding longitudinal magnetic field strength of each GBP is extracted from the calibrated NFI magnetograms by a point-to-point method. After categorizing the GBPs into five groups by their longitudinal magnetic field strengths, we analyze the dynamics of GBPs of each group. The results suggest that with increasing longitudinal magnetic field strengths of GBPs correspond to a decrease in their horizontal velocities and motion ranges as well as by showing more complicated motion paths. This suggests that magneti...
Dynamical skyrmion state in a spin current nano-oscillator with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.
Liu, R H; Lim, W L; Urazhdin, S
2015-04-03
We study the spectral characteristics of spin current nano-oscillators based on the Pt/[Co/Ni] magnetic multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. By varying the applied magnetic field and current, both localized and propagating spin wave modes of the oscillation are achieved. At small fields, we observe an abrupt onset of the modulation sidebands. We use micromagnetic simulations to identify this state as a dynamical magnetic skyrmion stabilized in the active device region by spin current injection, whose current-induced dynamics is accompanied by the gyrotropic motion of the core due to the skew deflection. Our results demonstrate a practical route for controllable skyrmion manipulation by spin current in magnetic thin films.
Magnetization dynamics down to a zero field in dilute (Cd,Mn)Te quantum wells.
Goryca, M; Ferrand, D; Kossacki, P; Nawrocki, M; Pacuski, W; Maślana, W; Gaj, J A; Tatarenko, S; Cibert, J; Wojtowicz, T; Karczewski, G
2009-01-30
The evolution of the magnetization in (Cd,Mn)Te quantum wells after a short pulse of magnetic field was determined from the giant Zeeman shift of spectroscopic lines. The dynamics in the absence of a static magnetic field was found to be up to 3 orders of magnitude faster than that at 1 T. Hyperfine interaction and strain are mainly responsible for the fast decay. The influence of a hole gas is clearly visible: at zero field anisotropic holes stabilize the system of Mn ions, while in a magnetic field of 1 T they are known to speed up the decay by opening an additional relaxation channel.
A Laboratory Plasma Experiment for Studying Magnetic Dynamics of Accretion Discs and Jets
Hsu, S C
2002-01-01
This work describes a laboratory plasma experiment and initial results which should give insight into the magnetic dynamics of accretion discs and jets. A high-speed multiple-frame CCD camera reveals images of the formation and helical instability of a collimated plasma, similar to MHD models of disc jets, and also plasma detachment associated with spheromak formation, which may have relevance to disc winds and flares. The plasmas are produced by a planar magnetized coaxial gun. The resulting magnetic topology is dependent on the details of magnetic helicity injection, namely the force-free state eigenvalue alpha_gun imposed by the coaxial gun.
Studying Nanoscale Magnetism and its Dynamics with Soft X-ray Microscopy
Mccall, Monnikue M; Fischer, Peter
2008-05-01
Magnetic soft X-ray microscopy allows for imaging magnetic structures at a spatial resolution down to 15nm and a time resolution in the sub-100ps regime. Inherent elemental specificity can be used to image the magnetic response of individual components such as layers in multilayered systems. This review highlights current achievements and discusses the future potential of magnetic soft X-ray microscopy at fsec X-ray sources where snapshot images of ultrafast spin dynamics with a spatial resolution below 10nm will become feasible.
The Influence of Helical Magnetic Fields in the Dynamics and Emission of Relativistic Jets
Roca-Sogorb, M; Gómez, J L; Martí, J M; Antón, L; Aloy, M A; Agudo, I
2008-01-01
We present numerical relativistic magnetohydrodynamic and emission simulations aimed to study the role played by the magnetic field in the dynamics and emission of relativistic jets in Active Galactic Nuclei. We focus our analysis on the study of the emission from recollimation shocks since they may provide an interpretation for the stationary components seen at parsec-scales in multiple sources. We show that the relative brightness of the knots associated with the recollimation shocks decreases with increasing jet magnetization, suggesting that jets presenting stationary components may have a relatively weak magnetization, with magnetic fields of the order of equipartition or below.
Llera, María [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Codnia, Jorge [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Centro de Investigaciones en Láseres y Aplicaciones, CITEDEF-CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Jorge, Guillermo A., E-mail: gjorge@ungs.edu.ar [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2015-06-15
We present a dynamic study of soft magnetic, commercial Fe and Ni micrometer-sized particles dispersed in oleic acid and subjected to a variable (rotating) magnetic field in the horizontal plane. A very complex structure is formed after the particles decant towards the bottom liquid–solid interface and the magnetic field is applied for several minutes. The dynamics of structure formation was studied by means of the registration and analysis of microscopic video images, through a Matlab image analysis script. Several parameters, such as the number of clusters, the perimeter-based fractal dimension and circularity, were calculated as a function of time. The time evolution of the number of clusters was found to follow a power-law behavior, with an exponent consistent with that found in other studies for magnetic systems, whereas the typical formation time depends on the particle diameter and field configuration. Complementarily, the magnetic properties of the formed structure were studied, reproducing the experiment with liquid paraffin as the containing fluid, and then letting it solidify. The sample obtained was studied by vibrating sample magnetometry. The magnetization curves show that the material obtained is a planar magnetically anisotropic material, which could eventually be used as an anisotropic magnetic sensor or actuator. - Highlights: • Dynamic study of Fe and Ni particles in oleic acid under rotating fields. • A very complex system of interconnected clusters was observed. • Larger particles had a smaller aggregation time. • A power law behavior of the number of clusters vs. time. • A Fe-paraffin sample with planar anisotropy characterized.
Kazuto eKodama
2015-02-01
Full Text Available This study proposes a new method for measuring transient magnetization of natural samples induced by a pulsed field with duration of 11 ms using a pulse magnetizer. An experimental system was constructed, consisting of a pair of differential sensing coils connected with a high-speed digital oscilloscope for data acquisition. The data were transferred to a computer to obtain an initial magnetization curve and a descending branch of a hysteresis loop in a rapidly changing positive field. This system was tested with synthetic samples (permalloy ribbon, aluminum plate, and nickel powder as well as two volcanic rock samples. Results from the synthetic samples showed considerable differences from those measured by a quasi-static method using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. These differences were principally due to the time-dependent magnetic properties or to electromagnetic effects, such as magnetic viscosity, eddy current loss, or magnetic relaxation. Results from the natural samples showed that the transient magnetization–field curves were largely comparable to the corresponding portions of the hysteresis loops. However, the relative magnetization (scaled to the saturation magnetization at the end of a pulse was greater than that measured by a VSM. This discrepancy, together with the occurrence of rapid exponential decay after a pulse, indicates magnetic relaxations that could be interpreted in terms of domain wall displacement. These results suggest that with further developments, the proposed technique can become a useful tool for characterizing magnetic particles contained in a variety of natural materials.
Yüksel, Yusuf
2017-03-01
By using Monte Carlo simulations for classical Heisenberg spins, we study the critical phenomena and ferrimagnetic properties of spherical nanoparticles with core-shell geometry. The particle core is composed of ferromagnetic spins, and it is coated by a ferromagnetic shell. Total size of the particle is fixed but the thickness of the shell is varied in such a way that the shell layer is grown at the expense of the core. Effects of the shell thickness, as well as dynamic magnetic field parameters such as oscillation period and field amplitude on the magnetization profiles, dynamic hysteresis loops and phase diagrams have been investigated for the present system. It has been found that as the shell thickness varies then the easy axis magnetization of the overall system may exhibit Q-, P-, L- and N- type behaviors based on the Neél terminology. We also found that three distinct anomalies originate in the thermal variation of specific heat with increasing field period. Dynamic hysteresis loops corresponding to off-axial magnetization components exhibit unconventional behavior such as double rings with symmetric shapes around the vertical axis over the h (t) = 0 line which may originate due to the stochastic resonance behavior of these components.
Folk, R; Holovatch, Yu; Moser, G
2009-03-01
We calculate the relaxational dynamical critical behavior of systems of O(n_{ parallel}) plus sign in circleO(n_{ perpendicular}) symmetry including conservation of magnetization by renormalization group theory within the minimal subtraction scheme in two-loop order. Within the stability region of the Heisenberg fixed point and the biconical fixed point, strong dynamical scaling holds, with the asymptotic dynamical critical exponent z=2varphinu-1 , where varphi is the crossover exponent and nu the exponent of the correlation length. The critical dynamics at n_{ parallel}=1 and n_{ perpendicular}=2 is governed by a small dynamical transient exponent leading to nonuniversal nonasymptotic dynamical behavior. This may be seen, e.g., in the temperature dependence of the magnetic transport coefficients.
Role of helicities for the dynamics of turbulent magnetic fields
Mueller, Wollf-Christian
2013-01-01
Investigations of the inverse cascade of magnetic helicity are conducted with pseudospectral, three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of forced and decaying incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The high-resolution simulations which allow for the necessary scale-separation show that the observed self-similar scaling behavior of magnetic helicity and related quantities can only be understood by taking the full nonlinear interplay of velocity and magnetic fluctuations into account. With the help of the eddy-damped quasi-normal Markovian approximation a probably universal relation between kinetic and magnetic helicities is derived that closely resembles the extended definition of the prominent dynamo pseudoscalar $\\alpha$. This unexpected similarity suggests an additional nonlinear quenching mechanism of the current-helicity contribution to $\\alpha$.
Magnetism of metals in the dynamic spin-fluctuation theory
Melnikov, N. B.; Reser, B. I.
2016-12-01
We overview new developments in spin-fluctuation theory, which describes magnetic properties of ferromagnetic metals at finite temperatures. We present a detailed analysis of the underlying techniques and compare numerical results with experiment.
Dynamics of Magnetic Nanoparticles Studied by Neutron Scattering
Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen
1997-01-01
We present the first triple-axis neutron scattering measurements of magnetic fluctuations in nanoparticles using an antiferromagnetic reflection. Both the superparamagnetic relaxation and precession modes in similar to 15 nm hematite particles are: observed. The results have been consistently...
Nonlinear dynamics of breathers in the spiral structures of magnets
Kiselev, V. V., E-mail: kiselev@imp.uran.ru; Raskovalov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Mikheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)
2016-06-15
The structure and properties of pulsating solitons (breathers) in the spiral structures of magnets are analyzed within the sine-Gordon model. The breather core pulsations are shown to be accompanied by local shifts and oscillations of the spiral structure with the formation of “precursors” and “tails” in the moving soliton. The possibilities for the observation and excitation of breathers in the spiral structures of magnets and multiferroics are discussed.
Dynamics of magnetic nano-flake vortices in Newtonian fluids
Bazazzadeh, Nasim, E-mail: n.bazazzadeh@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohseni, Seyed Majid, E-mail: m-mohseni@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khavasi, Amin, E-mail: khavasi@sharif.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11555-4363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zibaii, Mohammad Ismail, E-mail: mizibaye@gmail.com [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Movahed, S.M.S., E-mail: m_movahed@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, G.R., E-mail: gjafari@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-12-01
We study the rotational motion of nano-flake ferromagnetic disks suspended in a Newtonian fluid, as a potential material owing the vortex-like magnetic configuration. Using analytical expressions for hydrodynamic, magnetic and Brownian torques, the stochastic angular momentum equation is determined in the dilute limit conditions under applied magnetic field. Results are compared against experimental ones and excellent agreement is observed. We also estimate the uncertainty in the orientation of the disks due to the Brownian torque when an external magnetic field aligns them. Interestingly, this uncertainty is roughly proportional to the ratio of thermal energy of fluid to the magnetic energy stored in the disks. Our approach can be implemented in many practical applications including biotechnology and multi-functional fluidics. - Highlights: • The rotational motion of magnetic-vortex microdiscs in a Newtonian fluid is studied. • Results are compared against experimental ones and excellent agreement is observed. • The uncertainty in the orientation of the microdiscs is analytically derived.
A Model of Charge Transfer Excitons: Diffusion, Spin Dynamics, and Magnetic Field Effects
Lee, Chee Kong; Willard, Adam P
2016-01-01
In this letter we explore how the microscopic dynamics of charge transfer (CT) excitons are influenced by the presence of an external magnetic field in disordered molecular semiconductors. This influence is driven by the dynamic interplay between the spin and spatial degrees of freedom of the electron-hole pair. To account for this interplay we have developed a numerical framework that combines a traditional model of quantum spin dynamics with a coarse-grained model of stochastic charge transport. This combination provides a general and efficient methodology for simulating the effects of magnetic field on CT state dynamics, therefore providing a basis for revealing the microscopic origin of experimentally observed magnetic field effects. We demonstrate that simulations carried out on our model are capable of reproducing experimental results as well as generating theoretical predictions related to the efficiency of organic electronic materials.
Flow dynamics and magnetic induction in the von-Karman plasma experiment
Plihon, Nicolas; Palermo, Francesco; Morales, Jorge A; Bos, Wouter; Godeferd, Fabien S; Bourgoin, Mickaël; Pinton, Jean-François; Moulin, M; Aanesland, Ane
2014-01-01
The von-Karman plasma experiment is a novel versatile experimental device designed to explore the dynamics of basic magnetic induction processes and the dynamics of flows driven in weakly magnetized plasmas. A high-density plasma column (10^16 - 10^19 particles.m^-3) is created by two radio-frequency plasma sources located at each end of a 1 m long linear device. Flows are driven through JxB azimuthal torques created from independently controlled emissive cathodes. The device has been designed such that magnetic induction processes and turbulent plasma dynamics can be studied from a variety of time-averaged axisymmetric flows in a cylinder. MHD simulations implementing volume-penalization support the experimental development to design the most efficient flow-driving schemes and understand the flow dynamics. Preliminary experimental results show that a rotating motion of up to nearly 1 km/s is controlled by the JxB azimuthal torque.
Deng, Ming-Xun; Zhong, Ming; Zheng, Shi-Han; Qiu, Jian-Ming; Yang, Mou; Wang, Rui-Qiang
2016-02-01
We theoretically study thermally driven transport of the Dirac fermions on the surface of a topological insulator capped with a ferromagnet strip. The generation and manipulation of anomalous Hall and Nernst effects are analyzed, in which the in-plane magnetization of the ferromagnet film is found to take a decisive role. This scenario is distinct from that modulated by Berry phase where the in-plane magnetization is independent. We further discuss the thermal spin-transfer torque as a backaction of the thermoelectric transports on the magnetization and calculate the dynamics of the anomalous Hall and Nernst effects self-consistently. It is found that the magnitude of the long-time steady Hall and Nernst conductance is determined by competition between the magnetic anisotropy and current-induced effective anisotropy. These results open up a possibility of magnetically controlling the transverse thermoelectric transports or thermally manipulating the magnet switching.
Dynamic effects on the stretching of the magnetic field by a plasma flow
Nunez, Manuel [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)
2003-08-22
A key mechanism in the growth of magnetic energy in kinematic dynamos is the stretching of the magnetic field vector by making it point in an unstable direction of the strain matrix. Our objective is to study whether this feature may be maintained in an ideal plasma when also considering the back reaction of the magnetic field upon the flow through the Lorentz force. Several effects occur: in addition to the nonlocal ones exerted by the total pressure, a complex geometry of magnetic field lines decreases the rate of growth of magnetic energy, rotation of the flow enhances it and above all the rate of growth decreases with minus the square of the eigenvalue associated with the magnetic field direction. Thus local dynamics tend to rapidly quench the stretching of the field.
Wang, Shuo; Liu, Rui; Deng, Na; Liu, Yang; Wang, Haimin
2011-01-01
Photospheric magnetic field not only plays important roles in building up free energy and triggering solar eruptions, but also has been observed to change rapidly and permanently responding to the coronal magnetic field restructuring due to coronal transients. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument (HMI) on board the newly launched Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) produces seeing-free full-disk vector magnetograms at consistently high resolution and high cadence, which finally makes possible an unambiguous and comprehensive study of this important back-reaction process. In this study, we present a near disk-center, GOES-class X2.2 flare occurred at NOAA AR 11158 on 2011 February 15 using the magnetic field measurements made by HMI. We obtained the first solid evidence of an enhancement in the transverse magnetic field at the flaring magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL) by a magnitude of 70%. This rapid and irreversible field evolution is unequivocally associated with the flare occurrence, with the ...
Spezzani, C; Ferrari, E; Allaria, E; Vidal, F; Ciavardini, A; Delaunay, R; Capotondi, F; Pedersoli, E; Coreno, M; Svetina, C; Raimondi, L; Zangrando, M; Ivanov, R; Nikolov, I; Demidovich, A; Danailov, M B; Popescu, H; Eddrief, M; De Ninno, G; Kiskinova, M; Sacchi, M
2014-12-12
Thin film magnetization reversal without applying external fields is an attractive perspective for applications in sensors and devices. One way to accomplish it is by fine-tuning the microstructure of a magnetic substrate via temperature control, as in the case of a thin Fe layer deposited on a MnAs/GaAs(001) template. This work reports a time-resolved resonant scattering study exploring the magnetic and structural properties of the Fe/MnAs system, using a 100 fs optical laser pulse to trigger local temperature variations and a 100 fs x-ray free-electron laser pulse to probe the induced magnetic and structural dynamics. The experiment provides direct evidence that a single optical laser pulse can reverse the Fe magnetization locally. It reveals that the time scale of the magnetization reversal is slower than that of the MnAs structural transformations triggered by the optical pulse, which take place after a few picoseconds already.
Spin currents and magnon dynamics in insulating magnets
Nakata, Kouki; Simon, Pascal; Loss, Daniel
2017-03-01
Nambu–Goldstone theorem provides gapless modes to both relativistic and nonrelativistic systems. The Nambu–Goldstone bosons in insulating magnets are called magnons or spin-waves and play a key role in magnetization transport. We review here our past works on magnetization transport in insulating magnets and also add new insights, with a particular focus on magnon transport. We summarize in detail the magnon counterparts of electron transport, such as the Wiedemann–Franz law, the Onsager reciprocal relation between the Seebeck and Peltier coefficients, the Hall effects, the superconducting state, the Josephson effects, and the persistent quantized current in a ring to list a few. Focusing on the electromagnetism of moving magnons, i.e. magnetic dipoles, we theoretically propose a way to directly measure magnon currents. As a consequence of the Mermin–Wagner–Hohenberg theorem, spin transport is drastically altered in one-dimensional antiferromagnetic (AF) spin-1/2 chains; where the Néel order is destroyed by quantum fluctuations and a quasiparticle magnon-like picture breaks down. Instead, the low-energy collective excitations of the AF spin chain are described by a Tomonaga–Luttinger liquid (TLL) which provides the spin transport properties in such antiferromagnets some universal features at low enough temperature. Finally, we enumerate open issues and provide a platform to discuss the future directions of magnonics.
Dynamics and shapes of ferrofluid drops under spatially uniform magnetic fields
Rowghanian, Payam; Serwane, Friedhelm; Kealhofer, David; Meinhart, Carl D.; Campas, Otger
2016-11-01
We study the shape and dynamics of a Newtonian ferrofluid drop immersed in a Newtonian and non-magnetic viscous fluid under the action of a uniform external magnetic field. We obtain the exact equilibrium drop shapes for arbitrary ferrofluids which describe unexplained previous experiments, characterize the extent of deviations of the exact shape from the commonly assumed ellipsoidal shape, and analyze the smoothness of highly curved tips in elongated drops. We present a comprehensive study of drop deformation for a Langevin ferrofluid. Using a computational scheme that allows fast and accurate simulations of ferrofluid drop dynamics, we show that the dynamics of drop deformation by an applied magnetic field is described up to a numerical factor by the same time scale as drop relaxation in the absence of any magnetic field. The numerical factor depends on the ratio of viscosities and the ratio of magnetic to capillary stresses, but is independent of the nature of the ferrofluid in most practical cases. Finally, we use the shape and dynamics of the magnetic drops to measure the rheology of complex fluids.
Sánchez-Tejerina, L.; Alejos, Ó.; Martínez, E.; Muñoz, J. M.
2016-07-01
The dynamics of domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is studied from both numerical and analytical micromagnetics. The influence of a moderate interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction associated to a bi-layer strip arrangement has been considered, giving rise to the formation of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls. Such walls possess under equilibrium conditions an inner magnetization structure defined by a certain orientation angle that make them to be considered as intermediate configurations between Bloch and Néel walls. Two different dynamics are considered, a field-driven and a current-driven dynamics, in particular, the one promoted by the spin torque due to the spin-Hall effect. Results show an inherent asymmetry associated with the rotation of the domain wall magnetization orientation before reaching the stationary regime, characterized by a constant terminal speed. For a certain initial DW magnetization orientation at rest, the rotation determines whether the reorientation of the DW magnetization prior to reach stationary motion is smooth or abrupt. This asymmetry affects the DW motion, which can even reverse for a short period of time. Additionally, it is found that the terminal speed in the case of the current-driven dynamics may depend on either the initial DW magnetization orientation at rest or the sign of the longitudinally injected current.
Kenedy Freitas
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The present study reports on the development of permalloy thin films obtained by electrodeposition onto low-doped n-type silicon substrates. While changing from non-percolated clusters into percolated thin films upon increasing the electrodeposition time, the static and dynamic magnetic properties of the as-obtained structures were investigated. We found the experimental magnetic results to be in very good agreement with the simulations performed by solving the Landau-Lifshitz for the dynamics of the magnetic moment. For short electrodeposition times we found the static and dynamic magnetization behavior of the as-formed nanoclusters evidencing vortex magnetization with random chirality and polarization, which is explained in terms of dipolar interaction minimization. Indeed, it is herein emphasized that recent applications of ferromagnetic materials in silicon-based spintronic devices, such as logic and bipolar magnetic transistors and magnetic memories, have revived the possible utilization of low cost and simple electrodeposition techniques for the development of these upcoming hetero-nanostructured devices.
Crippa, Federica; Moore, Thomas L.; Mortato, Mariangela; Geers, Christoph; Haeni, Laetitia; Hirt, Ann M.; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Petri-Fink, Alke
2017-04-01
Magnetic thermo-responsive hydrogels are a new class of materials that have recently attracted interest in biomedicine due to their ability to change phase upon magnetic stimulation. They have been used for drug release, magnetic hyperthermia treatment, and can potentially be engineered as stimuli-responsive substrates for cell mechanobiology. In this regard, we propose a series of magnetic thermo-responsive nanocomposite substrates that undergo cyclical swelling and de-swelling phases when actuated by an alternating magnetic field in aqueous environment. The synthetized substrates are obtained with a facile and reproducible method from poly-N-isopropylacrylamide and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Their conformation and the temperature-related, magnetic, and biological behaviors were characterized via scanning electron microscopy, swelling ratio analysis, vibrating sample magnetometry, alternating magnetic field stimulation and indirect viability assays. The nanocomposites showed no cytotoxicity with fibroblast cells, and exhibited swelling/de-swelling behavior near physiological temperatures (around 34 °C). Therefore these magnetic thermo-responsive hydrogels are promising materials as stimuli-responsive substrates allowing the study of cell-behavior by changing the hydrogel properties in situ.
Local Dynamical Instabilities in Magnetized, Radiation Pressure Supported Accretion Disks
Blaes, Omer M; Blaes, Omer; Socrates, Aristotle
2000-01-01
We present a general linear dispersion relation which describes the coupled behavior of magnetorotational, photon bubble, and convective instabilities in weakly magnetized, differentially rotating accretion disks. We presume the accretion disks to be geometrically thin and supported vertically by radiation pressure. We fully incorporate the effects of a nonzero radiative diffusion length on the linear modes. In an equilibrium with purely vertical magnetic field, the vertical magnetorotational modes are completely unaffected by compressibility, stratification, and radiative diffusion. However, in the presence of azimuthal fields, which are expected in differentially rotating flows, the growth rate of all magnetorotational modes can be reduced substantially below the orbital frequency. This occurs if diffusion destroys radiation sound waves on the length scale of the instability, and the magnetic energy density of the azimuthal component exceeds the non-radiative thermal energy density. While sluggish in this c...
Closing the hierarchy for non-Markovian magnetization dynamics
Tranchida, J., E-mail: julien.tranchida@cea.fr [CEA/DAM/Le Ripault, BP 16, F-37260 Monts (France); CNRS-Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique (UMR 7350), Fédération de Recherche “Denis Poisson” (FR2964), Département de Physique, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F-37200 Tours (France); Thibaudeau, P., E-mail: pascal.thibaudeau@cea.fr [CEA/DAM/Le Ripault, BP 16, F-37260 Monts (France); Nicolis, S., E-mail: stam.nicolis@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [CNRS-Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique (UMR 7350), Fédération de Recherche “Denis Poisson” (FR2964), Département de Physique, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F-37200 Tours (France)
2016-04-01
We propose a stochastic approach for the description of the time evolution of the magnetization of nanomagnets, that interpolates between the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert and the Landau–Lifshitz–Bloch approximations, by varying the strength of the noise. In addition, we take into account the autocorrelation time of the noise and explore the consequences, when it is finite, on the scale of the response of the magnetization, i.e. when it may be described as colored, rather than white, noise and non-Markovian features become relevant. We close the hierarchy for the moments of the magnetization, by introducing a suitable truncation scheme, whose validity is tested by direct numerical solution of the moment equations and compared to the average deduced from a numerical solution of the corresponding stochastic Langevin equation. In this way we establish a general framework that allows both coarse-graining simulations and faster calculations beyond the truncation approximation used here.
Dynamic Analysis of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator with Power Electronics
OZCIRA, S.
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Permanent magnet DC motor-generators (PMDC, PMSG have been widely used in industrial and energy sectors recently. Power control of these systems can be achieved by controlling the output voltage. In this study, PMDC-PMSG systems are mathematically modeled and simulated in MATLAB and Simulink software. Then the results are discussed. A low power permanent magnet synchronous generator is driven by a permanent magnet DC motor and the output voltage is controlled by a frequency cycle-converter. The output of a half-wave uncontrolled rectifier is applied to an SPWM inverter and the power is supplied to a 300V, 50Hz load. The load which is connected to an LC filter is modeled by state-space equations. LC filter is utilized in order to suppress the voltage oscillations at the inverter output.
Rotating magnetic particle microrheometry in biopolymer fluid dynamics: mucus microrheology.
Besseris, George J; Yeates, Donovan B
2007-09-14
The polymer properties of canine mucus were investigated through the method of rotating magnetic particle microrheometry. Mucus is visualized as a physically entangled biopolymer of low polydispersity in a water-based solution. Mucus was modeled according to the constitutive law of a Doi-Edwards fluid. The magnetic-particle equation of rotational motion is analytically solved in the linear viscoelastic limit rendering theoretical flow profiles which are used to fit the experimental trace signals of the particle remanent-magnetic-field decay. The zero-shear-rate viscosity was found to be 18,000 P and the relaxation time at about 42 s. The molecular weight between entanglements for mucins was estimated at 1.7 MDa rendering an estimation of about seven physical cross-links per molecule. Rheological investigations were extended also to diluted and concentrated rations of the normal mucus simulating the conditions found in more physiological extremes.
Processor register error correction management
Bose, Pradip; Cher, Chen-Yong; Gupta, Meeta S.
2016-12-27
Processor register protection management is disclosed. In embodiments, a method of processor register protection management can include determining a sensitive logical register for executable code generated by a compiler, generating an error-correction table identifying the sensitive logical register, and storing the error-correction table in a memory accessible by a processor. The processor can be configured to generate a duplicate register of the sensitive logical register identified by the error-correction table.
Self-similar dynamics of a magnetized polytropic gas
Wang, Wei-Gang; Lou, Yu-Qing
2007-10-01
In broad astrophysical contexts of large-scale gravitational collapses and outflows and as a basis for various further astrophysical applications, we formulate and investigate a theoretical problem of self-similar magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for a non-rotating polytropic gas of quasi-spherical symmetry permeated by a completely random magnetic field. Within this framework, we derive two coupled nonlinear MHD ordinary differential equations (ODEs), examine properties of the magnetosonic critical curve, obtain various asymptotic and global semi-complete similarity MHD solutions, and qualify the applicability of our results. Unique to a magnetized gas cloud, a novel asymptotic MHD solution for a collapsing core is established. Physically, the similarity MHD inflow towards the central dense core proceeds in characteristic manners before the gas material eventually encounters a strong radiating MHD shock upon impact onto the central compact object. Sufficiently far away from the central core region enshrouded by such an MHD shock, we derive regular asymptotic behaviours. We study asymptotic solution behaviours in the vicinity of the magnetosonic critical curve and determine smooth MHD eigensolutions across this curve. Numerically, we construct global semi-complete similarity MHD solutions that cross the magnetosonic critical curve zero, one, and two times. For comparison, counterpart solutions in the case of an isothermal unmagnetized and magnetized gas flows are demonstrated in the present MHD framework at nearly isothermal and weakly magnetized conditions. For a polytropic index γ=1.25 or a strong magnetic field, different solution behaviours emerge. With a strong magnetic field, there exist semi-complete similarity solutions crossing the magnetosonic critical curve only once, and the MHD counterpart of expansion-wave collapse solution disappears. Also in the polytropic case of γ=1.25, we no longer observe the trend in the speed-density phase diagram of finding
Distributed optical fiber dynamic magnetic field sensor based on magnetostriction.
Masoudi, Ali; Newson, Trevor P
2014-05-01
A distributed optical fiber sensor is introduced which is capable of quantifying multiple magnetic fields along a 1 km sensing fiber with a spatial resolution of 1 m. The operation of the proposed sensor is based on measuring the magnetorestrictive induced strain of a nickel wire attached to an optical fiber. The strain coupled to the optical fiber was detected by measuring the strain-induced phase variation between the backscattered Rayleigh light from two segments of the sensing fiber. A magnetic field intensity resolution of 0.3 G over a bandwidth of 50-5000 Hz was demonstrated.
Register file soft error recovery
Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Wait, Charles D.; Muff, Adam J.; Watson, III, Alfred T.
2013-10-15
Register file soft error recovery including a system that includes a first register file and a second register file that mirrors the first register file. The system also includes an arithmetic pipeline for receiving data read from the first register file, and error detection circuitry to detect whether the data read from the first register file includes corrupted data. The system further includes error recovery circuitry to insert an error recovery instruction into the arithmetic pipeline in response to detecting the corrupted data. The inserted error recovery instruction replaces the corrupted data in the first register file with a copy of the data from the second register file.
Kim, Pilkee; Nguyen, Minh Sang; Kwon, Ojin; Kim, Young-Jin; Yoon, Yong-Jin
2016-09-01
A system of magnetically coupled oscillators has been recently considered as a promising compact structure to integrate multiple bistable energy harvesters (BEHs), but its design is not straightforward owing to its varying potential energy pattern, which has not been understood completely yet. This study introduces the concept of phase-dependent dynamic potential in a magnetically coupled BEH system with two degrees of freedom (DOFs) to explain the underlying principle of the complicated dynamics of the system. Through theoretical simulations and analyses, two distinct dynamic regimes, called the out-of-phase and in-phase mode regimes in this report, are found to exist in the frequency regions of the 1st and 2nd primary intrawell resonances. For the out-of-phase mode regime, the frequency displacement (and output power) responses of the 2-DOF BEH system exhibit typical double-well dynamics, whereas for the in-phase mode regime, only single-well dynamics is observed though the system is statically bistable. These dynamic regimes are also revealed to be caused by the difference in the dynamic potential energy trajectories propagating on a high-dimensional potential energy surface. The present approach to the dynamics of the 2-DOF BEH system can be extended and applied to higher-DOF systems, which sheds light on compact and efficient designs of magnetically coupled BEH chain structures.
Kim, Pilkee; Nguyen, Minh Sang; Kwon, Ojin; Kim, Young-Jin; Yoon, Yong-Jin
2016-01-01
A system of magnetically coupled oscillators has been recently considered as a promising compact structure to integrate multiple bistable energy harvesters (BEHs), but its design is not straightforward owing to its varying potential energy pattern, which has not been understood completely yet. This study introduces the concept of phase-dependent dynamic potential in a magnetically coupled BEH system with two degrees of freedom (DOFs) to explain the underlying principle of the complicated dynamics of the system. Through theoretical simulations and analyses, two distinct dynamic regimes, called the out-of-phase and in-phase mode regimes in this report, are found to exist in the frequency regions of the 1st and 2nd primary intrawell resonances. For the out-of-phase mode regime, the frequency displacement (and output power) responses of the 2-DOF BEH system exhibit typical double-well dynamics, whereas for the in-phase mode regime, only single-well dynamics is observed though the system is statically bistable. These dynamic regimes are also revealed to be caused by the difference in the dynamic potential energy trajectories propagating on a high-dimensional potential energy surface. The present approach to the dynamics of the 2-DOF BEH system can be extended and applied to higher-DOF systems, which sheds light on compact and efficient designs of magnetically coupled BEH chain structures. PMID:27677356
Snezhko, Alexey
2011-04-20
Colloidal dispersions of interacting particles subjected to an external periodic forcing often develop nontrivial self-assembled patterns and complex collective behavior. A fundamental issue is how collective ordering in such non-equilibrium systems arises from the dynamics of discrete interacting components. In addition, from a practical viewpoint, by working in regimes far from equilibrium new self-organized structures which are generally not available through equilibrium thermodynamics can be created. In this review spontaneous self-assembly phenomena in magnetic colloidal dispersions suspended at liquid-air interfaces and driven out of equilibrium by an alternating magnetic field are presented. Experiments reveal a new type of nontrivially ordered self-assembled structures emerging in such systems in a certain range of excitation parameters. These dynamic structures emerge as a result of the competition between magnetic and hydrodynamic forces and have complex unconventional magnetic ordering. Nontrivial self-induced hydrodynamic fields accompany each out-of-equilibrium pattern. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of the self-induced surface flows leading to a formation of self-propelled microstructures has been discovered. Some features of the self-localized structures can be understood in the framework of the amplitude equation (Ginzburg-Landau type equation) for parametric waves coupled to the conservation law equation describing the evolution of the magnetic particle density and the Navier-Stokes equation for hydrodynamic flows. To understand the fundamental microscopic mechanisms governing self-assembly processes in magnetic colloidal dispersions at liquid-air interfaces a first-principle model for a non-equilibrium self-assembly is presented. The latter model allows us to capture in detail the entire process of out-of-equilibrium self-assembly in the system and reproduces most of the observed phenomenology.
The Danish Education Registers
Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Würtz Rasmussen, Astrid
Collection of systematic information on education is a long established practice in Denmark. Since 1910, the Danish Ministry of Education’s annual reports collects information about individual-level test scores in e.g. compulsory schooling. Today, several registers from compulsory schooling to ad...... of missing information on immigrants, the level is still low in an international context....
Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank
2004-01-01
The Register for Suicide Attempts (RSA) is a product of the WHO research project "WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide", which, among other things, had the purpose of collecting data on suicide attempts from 13 European countries. Data is collected in order to calculate trends and identify...
Institute for Political/Legal Education, Sewell, NJ.
Organizational procedures and appropriate forms for high school students to conduct a community survey of non-registered voters are provided. Duties for student coordinator, field staff, and clerical staff are described and a flow chart depicts the relationship of personnel to one another and to the community. Students are instructed to notify…
Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Madsen, Mette
2011-01-01
Introduction: The Danish Heart Register (DHR) is a clinical database of invasive procedures within cardiology. Content: All providers of these procedures have been obliged to report to DHR since 2000. DHR is used to monitor the activity and quality of the procedures and serves as a data source...
Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank
2004-01-01
The Register for Suicide Attempts (RSA) is a product of the WHO research project "WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide", which, among other things, had the purpose of collecting data on suicide attempts from 13 European countries. Data is collected in order to calculate trends and identify...
Institute for Political/Legal Education, Sewell, NJ.
Organizational procedures and appropriate forms for high school students to conduct a community survey of non-registered voters are provided. Duties for student coordinator, field staff, and clerical staff are described and a flow chart depicts the relationship of personnel to one another and to the community. Students are instructed to notify…
Spin Transport and Dynamics in Antiferromagnetic Metals and Magnetic Insulators
Swaving, A.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313938083
2012-01-01
It is demonstrated that in an antiferromagnetic metal a steady-state transport current generates a current-induced out-of-plane spin density, resulting in torques on the magnetization. This spin density is parameterized by a velocity that is proportional to the current. The generalization of the
Critical dynamics of an interacting magnetic nanoparticle system
Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Jonsson, P.E.; Nordblad, P.
2002-01-01
Effects of dipole-dipole interactions on the magnetic relaxation have been investigated for three Fe-C nanoparticle samples with volume concentrations of 0.06, 5 and 17 vol%. While both the 5 and 17 vol% samples exhibit collective behaviour due to dipolar interactions, only the 17 vol% sample...
The Evolution of Open Magnetic Flux Driven by Photospheric Dynamics
Linker, Jon A.; Lionello, Roberto; Mikic, Zoran; Titov, Viacheslav S.; Antiochos, Spiro K.
2010-01-01
The coronal magnetic field is of paramount importance in solar and heliospheric physics. Two profoundly different views of the coronal magnetic field have emerged. In quasi-steady models, the predominant source of open magnetic field is in coronal holes. In contrast, in the interchange model, the open magnetic flux is conserved, and the coronal magnetic field can only respond to the photospheric evolution via interchange reconnection. In this view the open magnetic flux diffuses through the closed, streamer belt fields, and substantial open flux is present in the streamer belt during solar minimum. However, Antiochos and co-workers, in the form of a conjecture, argued that truly isolated open flux cannot exist in a configuration with one heliospheric current sheet (HCS) - it will connect via narrow corridors to the polar coronal hole of the same polarity. This contradicts the requirements of the interchange model. We have performed an MHD simulation of the solar corona up to 20R solar to test both the interchange model and the Antiochos conjecture. We use a synoptic map for Carrington Rotation 1913 as the boundary condition for the model, with two small bipoles introduced into the region where a positive polarity extended coronal hole forms. We introduce flows at the photospheric boundary surface to see if open flux associated with the bipoles can be moved into the closed-field region. Interchange reconnection does occur in response to these motions. However, we find that the open magnetic flux cannot be simply injected into closed-field regions - the flux eventually closes down and disconnected flux is created. Flux either opens or closes, as required, to maintain topologically distinct open and closed field regions, with no indiscriminate mixing of the two. The early evolution conforms to the Antiochos conjecture in that a narrow corridor of open flux connects the portion of the coronal hole that is nearly detached by one of the bipoles. In the later evolution, a
Sievers, Sibylle; Nass, Paul; Serrano-Guisan, Santiago; Pasquale, Massimo; Schumacher, Hans Werner
2013-01-01
We investigate an inductive probe head suitable for non-invasive characterization of the magnetostatic and dynamic parameters of magnetic thin films and multilayers on the wafer scale. The probe is based on a planar waveguide with rearward high frequency connectors that can be brought in close contact to the wafer surface. Inductive characterization of the magnetic material is carried out by vector network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance. Analysis of the field dispersion of the resonance allows the determination of key material parameters such as the saturation magnetization MS or the effective damping parameter Meff. Three waveguide designs are tested. The broadband frequency response is characterized and the suitability for inductive determination of MS and Meff is compared. Integration of such probes in a wafer prober could in the future allow wafer scale in-line testing of magnetostatic and dynamic key material parameters of magnetic thin films and multilayers.
Frankowski, Marek, E-mail: mfrankow@agh.edu.pl; Czapkiewicz, Maciej; Skowronski, Witold; Stobiecki, Tomasz
2014-02-15
We present a model introducing the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation with a Slonczewski's Spin-Transfer-Torque (STT) component in order to take into account spin polarized current influence on the magnetization dynamics, which was developed as an Object Oriented MicroMagnetic Framework extension. We implement the following computations: magnetoresistance of vertical channels is calculated from the local spin arrangement, local current density is used to calculate the in-plane and perpendicular STT components as well as the Oersted field, which is caused by the vertical current flow. The model allows for an analysis of all listed components separately, therefore, the contribution of each physical phenomenon in dynamic behavior of Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MTJ) magnetization is discussed. The simulated switching voltage is compared with the experimental data measured in MTJ nanopillars.
Assessment of pelvic floor dysfunctions using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging
Hoda Salah Darwish
2014-03-01
Conclusion: Dynamic MRI is an ideal, non invasive technique which does not require patient preparation for evaluation of pelvic floor. It acts as one stop shop for diagnosing single or multiple pelvic compartment involvement in patients with pelvic floor dysfunction.
XPCS study of dynamic correlation in polyurethane gel-carbonyl iron composite under magnetic field
Grigoriew, Helena [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw 03195 (Poland); Wiegart, Lutz [ESRF, Grenoble, 38043 Cedex 9 (France); Boczkowska, Anna [Faculty of Materials Science, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); Mirkowska, Monika, E-mail: haga311@hotmail.co [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Warsaw (Poland)
2010-10-01
An X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) study of composite-type material consisting of polyurethane gel and carbonyl iron micrometric spheres was performed under magnetic fields of 0, 300 and 600 mT. The onion-like spheres structure was destroyed during the composite processing. The following conclusions were obtained from the study: -The polyurethane matrix is preferred as a source for the observed dynamic effects. -Below 300mT the material dynamics in direction of the outer magnetic field are very clear. -For 600 mT the dependence of the dynamics on magnetic field direction disappears, but the correlation rate is much higher. These findings may be caused by a disturbance of the polymer mesostructure by larger strain leading to its cross-linking.
Mace, Mark; Mueller, Niklas; Schlichting, Sören; Sharma, Sayantan
2017-02-01
We present a real-time lattice approach to study the nonequilibrium dynamics of vector and axial charges in S U (N )×U (1 ) gauge theories. Based on a classical description of the non-Abelian and Abelian gauge fields, we include dynamical fermions and develop operator definitions for (improved) Wilson and overlap fermions that allow us to study real-time manifestations of the axial anomaly from first principles. We present a first application of this approach to anomalous transport phenomena such as the chiral magnetic effect (CME) and the chiral separation effect (CSE) by studying the dynamics of fermions during and after a S U (N ) sphaleron transition in the presence of a U (1 ) magnetic field. We investigate the fermion mass and magnetic field dependence of the suggested signatures of the CME and the CSE and point out some important aspects which need to be accounted for in the macroscopic description of anomalous transport phenomena.
Seismology of the Sun : Inference of Thermal, Dynamic and Magnetic Field Structures of the Interior
Hiremath, K M
2012-01-01
Recent overwhelming evidences show that the sun strongly influences the Earth's climate and environment. Moreover existence of life on this Earth mainly depends upon the sun's energy. Hence, understanding of physics of the sun, especially the thermal, dynamic and magnetic field structures of its interior, is very important. Recently, from the ground and space based observations, it is discovered that sun oscillates near 5 min periodicity in millions of modes. This discovery heralded a new era in solar physics and a separate branch called helioseismology or seismology of the sun has started. Before the advent of helioseismology, sun's thermal structure of the interior was understood from the evolutionary solution of stellar structure equations that mimicked the present age, mass and radius of the sun. Whereas solution of MHD equations yielded internal dynamics and magnetic field structure of the sun's interior. In this presentation, I review the thermal, dynamic and magnetic field structures of the sun's inter...
Generalized Scaling and the Master Variable for Brownian Magnetic Nanoparticle Dynamics.
Daniel B Reeves
Full Text Available Understanding the dynamics of magnetic particles can help to advance several biomedical nanotechnologies. Previously, scaling relationships have been used in magnetic spectroscopy of nanoparticle Brownian motion (MSB to measure biologically relevant properties (e.g., temperature, viscosity, bound state surrounding nanoparticles in vivo. Those scaling relationships can be generalized with the introduction of a master variable found from non-dimensionalizing the dynamical Langevin equation. The variable encapsulates the dynamical variables of the surroundings and additionally includes the particles' size distribution and moment and the applied field's amplitude and frequency. From an applied perspective, the master variable allows tuning to an optimal MSB biosensing sensitivity range by manipulating both frequency and field amplitude. Calculation of magnetization harmonics in an oscillating applied field is also possible with an approximate closed-form solution in terms of the master variable and a single free parameter.
Magnetic correlation, excitation and slow dynamics in concentrated spin-glass alloys
Kiyoichiro Motoya
2004-07-01
Three kinds of neutron scattering experiments have been performed to clarify the role of magnetic clusters on the various properties of re-entrant spin-glasses. The presence of two kinds of spin-wave excitations, the limitations of magnetic phase diagrams and the mechanism of slow dynamics have been discussed based on the results of in-elastic scattering, diffuse scattering and time-resolved small-angle scattering experiments, respectively.
A Laboratory Plasma Experiment for Studying Magnetic Dynamics of Accretion Discs and Jets
Hsu, S. C.; Bellan, P. M.
2002-01-01
This work describes a laboratory plasma experiment and initial results which should give insight into the magnetic dynamics of accretion discs and jets. A high-speed multiple-frame CCD camera reveals images of the formation and helical instability of a collimated plasma, similar to MHD models of disc jets, and also plasma detachment associated with spheromak formation, which may have relevance to disc winds and flares. The plasmas are produced by a planar magnetized coaxial gun. The resulting...
Sánchez-Tejerina, L. [Dpto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Alejos, Ó., E-mail: oscaral@ee.uva.es [Dpto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Martínez, E. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37011 Salamanca (Spain); Muñoz, J.M. [Dpto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)
2016-07-01
The dynamics of domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is studied from both numerical and analytical micromagnetics. The influence of a moderate interfacial Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction associated to a bi-layer strip arrangement has been considered, giving rise to the formation of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls. Such walls possess under equilibrium conditions an inner magnetization structure defined by a certain orientation angle that make them to be considered as intermediate configurations between Bloch and Néel walls. Two different dynamics are considered, a field-driven and a current-driven dynamics, in particular, the one promoted by the spin torque due to the spin-Hall effect. Results show an inherent asymmetry associated with the rotation of the domain wall magnetization orientation before reaching the stationary regime, characterized by a constant terminal speed. For a certain initial DW magnetization orientation at rest, the rotation determines whether the reorientation of the DW magnetization prior to reach stationary motion is smooth or abrupt. This asymmetry affects the DW motion, which can even reverse for a short period of time. Additionally, it is found that the terminal speed in the case of the current-driven dynamics may depend on either the initial DW magnetization orientation at rest or the sign of the longitudinally injected current. - Highlights: • The asymmetric response of domain walls in bilayer strips with PMA is studied. • Out-of-plane fields and SHE longitudinal currents are applied. • The response is associated to the rotation of the domain wall inner magnetization. • Clockwise and counter-clockwise magnetization rotations are not equivalent. • The asymmetry results in different travelled distances and/or terminal speeds.
Morimoto, Hisao; Maekawa, Toru; Matsumoto, Yoichiro
2002-06-01
We study the rheological and magnetic characteristics of a magnetic fluid. The system, which we investigate, is as follows. Ferromagnetic particles are dispersed in a solvent, which is subjected to both ac magnetic and shear flow fields. The translational and rotational motions of particles are calculated by the Brownian dynamics method based on Langevin equations and the rheological and magnetic characteristics of the magnetic fluid system are estimated. First, we investigate the rheological and magnetic characteristics of the system in a dc magnetic field and then we analyze the effect of an ac magnetic field on those characteristics. We find that the negative viscosity effect is induced at a certain frequency range of the ac magnetic field. We also find that there are two main mechanisms responsible for the occurrence of negative viscosity. (1) Resonance between the rotational motions of the dipoles of particles and the fluctuation of ac magnetic fields occurs when applied magnetic fields are weak compared to the shear rate, in which case particles can still rotate in magnetic fields. Beyond this resonance frequency, negative viscosity appears. (2) The magnetic dipole moments of particles are forced to stay in the direction of the magnetic field when strong magnetic fields are applied in relatively low shear flow fields. However, negative viscosity occurs when the frequency of external magnetic fields exceeds a critical value, in which case the dipoles rotate continuously in a shear flow without stopping. In both cases, the mean angular velocity of the particles becomes higher than that of the solvent.
Low-temperature magnetization dynamics of magnetic molecular solids in a swept field
Lenferink, Erik; Vijayaraghavan, Avinash; Garg, Anupam, E-mail: agarg@northwestern.edu
2015-05-15
The swept-field experiments on magnetic molecular solids such as Fe{sub 8} are studied using Monte Carlo simulations, and a kinetic equation developed to understand collective magnetization phenomena in such solids, where the collective aspects arise from dipole–dipole interactions between different molecules. Because of these interactions, the classic Landau–Zener–Stückelberg theory proves inadequate, as does another widely used model constructed by Kayanuma. It is found that the simulations provide a quantitatively accurate account of the experiments. The kinetic equation provides a similarly accurate account except at very low sweep velocities, where it fails modestly. This failure is attributed to the neglect of short-range correlations between the dipolar magnetic fields seen by the molecular spins. The simulations and the kinetic equation both provide a good understanding of the distribution of these dipolar fields, although analytic expressions for the final magnetization remain elusive.
Low-temperature magnetization dynamics of magnetic molecular solids in a swept field
Lenferink, Erik; Vijayaraghavan, Avinash; Garg, Anupam
2015-05-01
The swept-field experiments on magnetic molecular solids such as Fe8 are studied using Monte Carlo simulations, and a kinetic equation developed to understand collective magnetization phenomena in such solids, where the collective aspects arise from dipole-dipole interactions between different molecules. Because of these interactions, the classic Landau-Zener-Stückelberg theory proves inadequate, as does another widely used model constructed by Kayanuma. It is found that the simulations provide a quantitatively accurate account of the experiments. The kinetic equation provides a similarly accurate account except at very low sweep velocities, where it fails modestly. This failure is attributed to the neglect of short-range correlations between the dipolar magnetic fields seen by the molecular spins. The simulations and the kinetic equation both provide a good understanding of the distribution of these dipolar fields, although analytic expressions for the final magnetization remain elusive.
A stochastic model for magnetic dynamics in single-molecule magnets
López-Ruiz, R., E-mail: rlruiz@ifi.unicamp.br [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas (SP) (Brazil); Almeida, P.T. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas (SP) (Brazil); Vaz, M.G.F. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24020-150 Niterói (RJ) (Brazil); Novak, M.A. [Instituto de Física - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (RJ) (Brazil); Béron, F.; Pirota, K.R. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas (SP) (Brazil)
2016-04-01
Hysteresis and magnetic relaxation curves were performed on double well potential systems with quantum tunneling possibility via stochastic simulations. Simulation results are compared with experimental ones using the Mn{sub 12} single-molecule magnet, allowing us to introduce time dependence in the model. Despite being a simple simulation model, it adequately reproduces the phenomenology of a thermally activated quantum tunneling and can be extended to other systems with different parameters. Assuming competition between the reversal modes, thermal (over) and tunneling (across) the anisotropy barrier, a separation of classical and quantum contributions to relaxation time can be obtained. - Highlights: • Single-molecule magnets are modeled using a simple stochastic approach. • Simulation reproduces thermally-activated tunnelling magnetization reversal features. • The time is introduced in hysteresis and relaxation simulations. • We can separate the quantum and classical contributions to decay time.
Li, Hang; Zhang, Xinhui; Liu, Xinyu; Furdyna, Jacek K.
2015-11-01
Ultrafast laser-triggered coherent magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As films have been investigated by time-resolved magneto-optical spectroscopy. Dynamic phase reversal in the magnetic precession process is observed when the ambient temperature or the external magnetic field is varied. This phenomenon is found to be sensitive to the spontaneous magnetization orientation, and is attributed to the giant magnetic linear dichroism (MLD) effect in (Ga,Mn)As. Our findings suggest that this effect will enable the sensitive measurement of the dynamic phase of in-plane magnetization precession on picosecond time scale in the collective spin excitation in (Ga,Mn)As, thus enabling efficient and ultrafast magneto-optical detection for magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic semiconductor-based spintronic devices.
A.Yu. Polyakov
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The results of the numerical study of both circularly polarized magnetic field and thermal fluctuation influence on a uniaxial ferromagnetic nanoparticle are represented in the article. The model of such a system is based on the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz equation. The investigations targeted on the derivation of the optimal switching para-meters for nanoparticle magnetic moment that has two equilibrium states caused by uniaxial anisotropy.
Spin-charge coupled dynamics driven by a time-dependent magnetization
Tölle, Sebastian; Eckern, Ulrich; Gorini, Cosimo
2017-03-01
The spin-charge coupled dynamics in a thin, magnetized metallic system are investigated. The effective driving force acting on the charge carriers is generated by a dynamical magnetic texture, which can be induced, e.g., by a magnetic material in contact with a normal-metal system. We consider a general inversion-asymmetric substrate/normal-metal/magnet structure, which, by specifying the precise nature of each layer, can mimic various experimentally employed setups. Inversion symmetry breaking gives rise to an effective Rashba spin-orbit interaction. We derive general spin-charge kinetic equations which show that such spin-orbit interaction, together with anisotropic Elliott-Yafet spin relaxation, yields significant corrections to the magnetization-induced dynamics. In particular, we present a consistent treatment of the spin density and spin current contributions to the equations of motion, inter alia, identifying a term in the effective force which appears due to a spin current polarized parallel to the magnetization. This "inverse-spin-filter" contribution depends markedly on the parameter which describes the anisotropy in spin relaxation. To further highlight the physical meaning of the different contributions, the spin-pumping configuration of typical experimental setups is analyzed in detail. In the two-dimensional limit the buildup of dc voltage is dominated by the spin-galvanic (inverse Edelstein) effect. A measuring scheme that could isolate this contribution is discussed.
Dynamical systems for modeling evolution of the magnetic field of the Sun, stars and planets
Popova, E.
2016-12-01
The magnetic activity of the Sun, stars and planets are connected with a dynamo process based on the combined action of the differential rotation and the alpha-effect. Application of this concept allows us to get different types of solutions which can describe the magnetic activity of celestial bodies. We investigated the dynamo model with the meridional circulation by the low-mode approach. This approach is based on an assumption that the magnetic field can be described by non-linear dynamical systems with a relatively small number of parameters. Such non-linear dynamical systems are based on the equations of dynamo models. With this method dynamical systems have been built for media which contains the meridional flow and thickness of the spherical shell where dynamo process operates. It was shown the possibility of coexistence of quiasi-biennial oscillations, 22-year cycle, and grand minima of magnetic activity which is consistent with the observational data for the solar activity. We obtained different regimes (oscillations, vacillations, dynamo-bursts) depending on a value of the dynamo-number, the meridional circulation, and thickness of the spherical shell. We discuss features of these regimes and compare them with the observed features of the magnetic fields of the Sun, stars and Earth. We built theoretical paleomagnetic time scale and butterfly-diagrams for the helicity and toroidal magnetic field for different regimes.
Lisa Teich
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The development of magnetoresistive sensors based on magnetic nanoparticles which are immersed in conductive gel matrices requires detailed information about the corresponding magnetoresistive properties in order to obtain optimal sensor sensitivities. Here, crucial parameters are the particle concentration, the viscosity of the gel matrix and the particle structure. Experimentally, it is not possible to obtain detailed information about the magnetic microstructure, i.e., orientations of the magnetic moments of the particles that define the magnetoresistive properties, however, by using numerical simulations one can study the magnetic microstructure theoretically, although this requires performing classical spin dynamics and molecular dynamics simulations simultaneously. Here, we present such an approach which allows us to calculate the orientation and the trajectory of every single magnetic nanoparticle. This enables us to study not only the static magnetic microstructure, but also the dynamics of the structuring process in the gel matrix itself. With our hybrid approach, arbitrary sensor configurations can be investigated and their magnetoresistive properties can be optimized.
Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in chronic Achilles tendinosis.
Gärdin, Anna; Brismar, Torkel B; Movin, Tomas; Shalabi, Adel
2013-11-22
Chronic Achilles tendinosis is a common problem. When evaluating and comparing different therapies there is a need for reliable imaging methods. Our aim was to evaluate if chronic Achilles tendinosis affects the dynamic contrast-enhancement in the tendon and its surroundings and if short-term eccentric calf-muscle training normalizes the dynamic contrast-enhancement. 20 patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy were included. Median duration of symptoms was 31 months (range 6 to 120 months). Both Achilles tendons were examined with dynamic contrast enhanced MRI before and after a 12- week exercise programme of eccentric calf-muscle training. The dynamic MRI was evaluated in tendon, vessel and in fat ventrally of tendon. Area under the curve (AUC), time to peak of signal, signal increase per second (SI/s) and increase in signal between start and peak as a percentage (SI%) was calculated. Pain and performance were evaluated using a questionnaire. In the fat ventrally of the tendon, dynamic contrast enhancement was significantly higher in the symptomatic leg compared to the contralateral non-symptomatic leg before but not after treatment. Despite decreased pain and improved performance there was no significant change of dynamic contrast enhancement in symptomatic tendons after treatment. In Achilles tendinosis there is an increased contrast enhancement in the fat ventrally of the tendon. The lack of correlation with symptoms and the lack of significant changes in tendon contrast enhancement parameters do however indicate that dynamic enhanced MRI is currently not a useful method to evaluate chronic Achilles tendinosis.
Molecular diagnostics based on clustering dynamics of magnetic nanobeads
Donolato, Marco; Bejhed, Rebecca S.; de la Torre, Teresa Zardán Gómez;
2014-01-01
The detection of specific DNA sequences has facilitated the diagnosis and targeted treatment of several human diseases. Although great advances have been made in the last few years, the detection of certain pathogenic bacteria is still based on bacterial culture and colony counts or on the polyme......The detection of specific DNA sequences has facilitated the diagnosis and targeted treatment of several human diseases. Although great advances have been made in the last few years, the detection of certain pathogenic bacteria is still based on bacterial culture and colony counts...... transmission modulation caused by the AC magnetic field-stimulated reversible formation and disruption of elongated MNB supra-structures during a cycle of the uniaxial applied magnetic field. As a specific clinically relevant diagnostic case, we detect DNA coils formed via padlock probe recognition...
Penetration dynamics of a magnetic field pulse into high-? superconductors
Meerovich, V.; Sinder, M.; Sokolovsky, V.; Goren, S.; Jung, G.; Shter, G. E.; Grader, G. S.
1996-12-01
The penetration of a magnetic field pulse into a high-0953-2048/9/12/004/img9 superconducting plate is investigated experimentally and theoretically. It follows from our experiments that the threshold of penetration increases with increasing amplitude and/or decreasing duration of the applied pulse. The penetrating field continues to grow as the applied magnetic field decreases. The peculiarities observed are explained in the framework of the extended critical state model. It appears that the deviations from Bean's classical critical state model are characterized by a parameter equal to the square of the ratio of plate thickness to skin depth. The applicability of the classical critical state model is restricted by the condition that this parameter is much less than 1. This condition is also the criterion for the applicability of pulse methods of critical current measurements.
Self-Similar Dynamics of a Magnetized Polytropic Gas
Wang, Wei-Gang
2007-01-01
In broad astrophysical contexts of large-scale gravitational collapses and outflows and as a basis for various further astrophysical applications, we formulate and investigate a theoretical problem of self-similar MHD for a non-rotating polytropic gas of quasi-spherical symmetry permeated by a completely random magnetic field. We derive two coupled nonlinear MHD ordinary differential equations (ODEs), examine properties of the magnetosonic critical curve, obtain various asymptotic and global semi-complete similarity MHD solutions, and qualify the applicability of our results. Unique to a magnetized gas cloud, a novel asymptotic MHD solution for a collapsing core is established. Physically, the similarity MHD inflow towards the central dense core proceeds in characteristic manners before the gas material eventually encounters a strong radiating MHD shock upon impact onto the central compact object. Sufficiently far away from the central core region enshrouded by such an MHD shock, we derive regular asymptotic ...
Dynamical resonances and SSF singularities for a magnetic Schroedinger operator
Astaburuaga, Maria Angélica; Bruneau, Vincent; Fernandez, Claudio; Raikov, Georgi
2007-01-01
We consider the Hamiltonian $H$ of a 3D spinless non-relativistic quantum particle subject to parallel constant magnetic and non-constant electric field. The operator $H$ has infinitely many eigenvalues of infinite multiplicity embedded in its continuous spectrum. We perturb $H$ by appropriate scalar potentials $V$ and investigate the transformation of these embedded eigenvalues into resonances. First, we assume that the electric potentials are dilation-analytic with respect to the variable along the magnetic field, and obtain an asymptotic expansion of the resonances as the coupling constant $\\varkappa$ of the perturbation tends to zero. Further, under the assumption that the Fermi Golden Rule holds true, we deduce estimates for the time evolution of the resonance states with and without analyticity assumptions; in the second case we obtain these results as a corollary of suitable Mourre estimates and a recent article of Cattaneo, Graf and Hunziker \\cite{cgh}. Next, we describe sets of perturbations $V$ for ...
Effect of change in large and fast solar wind dynamic pressure on geosynchronous magnetic field
Borodkova N L; Liu Jing-Bo; Huang Zhao-Hui; Zastenker G N; Wang Chi; Eiges P E
2006-01-01
We present a comparison of changes in large and sharp solar wind dynamic pressure, observed by several spacecraft,with fast disturbances in the magnetospheric magnetic field, measured by the geosynchronous satellites. More than 260 changes in solar wind pressure during the period 1996-2003 are selected for this study. Large statistics show that an increase (a decrease) in dynamic pressure always results in an increase (a decrease) in the magnitude of geosynchronous magnetic field. The amplitude of response to the geomagnetic field strongly depends on the location of observer relative to the noon meridian, the value of pressure before disturbance, and the change in amplitude of pressure.
Balasis, Georgios; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Mandea, Mioara; Eftaxias, Konstantinos
2011-01-01
The universal character of the dynamics of various extreme phenomena is an outstanding scientific challenge. We show that X-ray flux and D time series during powerful solar flares and intense magnetic storms, respectively, obey a nonextensive energy distribution function for earthquake dynamics with similar values for the Tsallis entropic index q. Thus, evidence for universality in solar flares, magnetic storms and earthquakes arise naturally in the framework of Tsallis statistical mechanics. The observed similarity suggests a common approach to the interpretation of these diverse phenomena in terms of driving physical mechanisms that have the same character.
Knowles, R.
1982-07-01
A general theory of moments for electrodynamic magnetic levitation systems has been developed using double Fourier series and dynamic circuit principles. Both employ Parseval's theorem using either wave constant derivatives or the polar waveconstant principle of the Fourier-Bessel/double Fourier series equivalence. A method for calculating angular derivatives of moments and forces is explained, and for all of these methods comparisons are made with experimental results obtained for single and split rail configurations. Extensions of dynamic circuit theory for tilted nonflat and circular magnets are also explained.
Nakamura, Daisuke; Matsuda, Yasuhiro H; Takeyama, Shojiro
2013-01-01
The spatial distribution of magnetic fields that are generated by the electromagnetic flux compression technique is investigated, with emphasis on the dynamical processes of an imploding liner. By comparing with the results of computer simulations, we found that the non-uniform implosion of a liner is important in order to explain the magnetic field's distribution during the liner's implosion. In addition, our results suggest that the initial inwards compressing spool-like motion of the liner subsequently turns out to be outwards stretching barrel-like motion along the magnetic field axis.
Magnetic dynamics of small alpha-Fe2O3 and NiO particles
Lefmann, K.; Bødker, Franz; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt;
1999-01-01
We have studied the magnetic dynamics in nanocrystalline samples of alpha-Fe2O3 (hematite) and NiO by inelastic neutron scattering. By measuring around the structural and the antiferromagnetic reflections, we have probed uniform and staggered magnetic oscillations, respectively. In the hematite...... as a sign of superparamagnetic relaxation. Studies of the antiferromagnetic signal from NiO also show evidence of collective magnetic excitations, but with a higher energy of the precession state than for hematite. The inelastic signal at the structural reflection of NiO presents evidence for uniform...
Dynamically configurable and optimizable Zeeman slower using permanent magnets and servomotors
Reinaudi, G; Bega, K; Zelevinsky, T
2011-01-01
We report on the implementation of a dynamically configurable, servomotor-controlled, permanent magnet Zeeman slower for quantum optics experiments with ultracold atoms and molecules. This atom slower allows for switching between magnetic field profiles that are designed for different atomic species. Additionally, through feedback on the atom trapping rate, we demonstrate that computer-controlled genetic optimization algorithms applied to the magnet positions yield traps several times larger than those obtained with the calculated design field, hence accounting for experimental circumstances not present in the design model. The device is lightweight, remotely controlled, and consumes no power in steady state.
Dynamics of a chain of magnetic particles connected with elastic linkers
Cebers, A
2003-01-01
The model of an elastic magnetic chain is considered. By numerical simulation of the dynamics of rod shapes acted on by magnetic and elastic forces in viscous fluid, it is shown that the characteristic 'U'-like metastable shapes (hairpins) can be formed. The characteristic 'S'-like long-living shapes are formed at intermediate stages, depending on the initial perturbation of the rod, and finally relax to the global energy minima corresponding to the straight rod. Further extensions of the model will include long-range magnetic interactions between distant parts of a rod.
Heavy-Quark Diffusion Dynamics in Quark-Gluon Plasma under Strong Magnetic Fields
Hattori, Koichi; Yee, Ho-Ung; Yin, Yi
2016-01-01
We discuss heavy-quark dynamics in the quark-gluon plasma under a strong magnetic field induced by colliding nuclei. By the use of the diagrammatic resummation techniques for Hard Thermal Loop and the external magnetic field, we show analytic results of heavy-quark diffusion coefficient and drag force which become anisotropic due to the preferred spatial orientation in the magnetic field. We argue that the anisotropic diffusion coefficient gives rise to an enhancement/suppression of the heavy-quark elliptic flow depending on the transverse momentum.
Nonlinear dynamic model for magnetically-tunable Galfenol vibration absorbers
Scheidler, Justin J.; Dapino, Marcelo J.
2013-03-01
This paper presents a single degree of freedom model for the nonlinear vibration of a metal-matrix composite manufactured by ultrasonic additive manufacturing that contains seamlessly embedded magnetostrictive Galfenol alloys (FeGa). The model is valid under arbitrary stress and magnetic field. Changes in the composite's natural frequency are quantified to assess its performance as a semi-active vibration absorber. The effects of Galfenol volume fraction and location within the composite on natural frequency are quantified. The bandwidth over which the composite's natural frequency can be tuned with a bias magnetic field is studied for varying displacement excitation amplitudes. The natural frequency is tunable for all excitation amplitudes considered, but the maximum tunability occurs below an excitation amplitude threshold of 1 × 10-6 m for the composite geometry considered. Natural frequency shifts between 6% and 50% are found as the Galfenol volume fraction varies from 25% to 100% when Galfenol is located at the composite neutral axis. At a modest 25% Galfenol by volume, the model shows that up to 15% shifts in composite resonance are possible through magnetic bias field modulation if Galfenol is embedded away from the composite midplane. As the Galfenol volume fraction and distance between Galfenol and composite midplane are increased, linear and quadratic increases in tunability result, respectively.
Velocity statistics of dynamic spinners in out-of-equilibrium magnetic suspensions.
Snezhko, Alexey; Aranson, Igor S
2015-08-14
We report on the velocity statistics of an out-of-equilibrium magnetic suspension in a spinner phase confined at a liquid interface. The suspension is energized by a uniaxial alternating magnetic field applied parallel to the interface. In a certain range of the magnetic field parameters the system spontaneously undergoes a transition into a dynamic spinner phase (ensemble of hydrodynamically coupled magnetic micro-rotors) comprised of two subsystems: self-assembled spinning chains and a gas of rotating single particles. Both subsystems coexist in a dynamic equilibrium via continuous exchange of the particles. Spinners excite surface flows that significantly increase particle velocity correlations in the system. For both subsystems the velocity distributions are strongly non-Maxwellian with nearly exponential high-energy tails, P(v) ∼ exp(-|v/v0|). The kurtosis, the measure of the deviation from the Gaussian statistics, is influenced by the frequency of the external magnetic field. We show that in the single-particle gas the dissipation is mostly collisional, whereas the viscous damping dominates over collisional dissipation for the self-assembled spinners. The dissipation increases with the frequency of the applied magnetic field. Our results provide insights into non-trivial dissipation mechanisms determining self-assembly processes in out-of-equilibrium magnetic suspensions.
Study of static and dynamic magnetic properties of Fe nanoparticles composited with activated carbon
Pal, Satyendra Prakash; Kaur, Guratinder; Sen, P.
2016-05-01
Nanocomposite of Fe nanoparticles with activated carbon has been synthesized to alter the magnetic spin-spin interaction and hence study the dilution effect on the static and dynamic magnetic properties of the Fe nanoparticle system. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) image shows the spherical Fe nanoparticles dispersed in carbon matrix with 13.8 nm particle size. Temperature dependent magnetization measurement does not show any blocking temperature at all, right up to the room temperature. Magnetic hysteresis curve, taken at 300K, shows small value of the coercivity and this small hysteresis indicates the presence of an energy barrier and inherent magnetization dynamics. Langevin function fitting of the hysteresis curve gives almost similar value of particle size as obtained from TEM analysis. Magnetic relaxation data, taken at a temperature of 100K, were fitted with a combination of two exponentially decaying function. This diluted form of nanoparticle system, which has particles size in the superparamagnetic limit, behaves like a dilute ensemble of superspins with large value of the magnetic anisotropic barrier.
Donoso, Guillermo; Ladera, Celso L.
2012-11-01
We study the nonlinear oscillations of a forced and weakly dissipative spring-magnet system moving in the magnetic fields of two fixed coaxial, hollow induction coils. As the first coil is excited with a dc current, both a linear and a cubic magnet-position dependent force appear on the magnet-spring system. The second coil, located below the first, excited with an ac current, provides the oscillating magnetic driving force on the system. From the magnet-coil interactions, we obtain, analytically, the nonlinear motion equation of the system, found to be a forced and damped cubic Duffing oscillator moving in a quartic potential. The relative strengths of the coefficients of the motion equation can be easily set by varying the coils’ dc and ac currents. We demonstrate, theoretically and experimentally, the nonlinear behaviour of this oscillator, including its oscillation modes and nonlinear resonances, the fold-over effect, the hysteresis and amplitude jumps, and its chaotic behaviour. It is an oscillating system suitable for teaching an advanced experiment in nonlinear dynamics both at senior undergraduate and graduate levels.
Dynamical localization effect in a coupled quantum dot array driven by an AC magnetic field
Xia Jun-Jie; Nie Yi-Hang
2011-01-01
We have studied the transport properties of a ring-coupled quantum dot array driven by an AC magnetic field,which is connected to two leads,and we give the response of the transport current to the dynamical localization. We found that when the ratio of the magnetic flux to the total quantum dots number is a root of the zeroth order Bessel function,dynamical localization and collapse of quasi-energy occurs and importantly,the transport current displays a dip which is the signal of dynamical localization. The dynamical localization effect is strengthened as a result of the increase of the quantum dot number,and it is weakened on account of the increase of the dots-lead hopping rate.
Yoshida, Satoru; Takinoue, Masahiro; Iwase, Eiji; Onoe, Hiroaki
2016-08-01
This paper describes a system through which the self-assembly of anisotropic hydrogel microparticles is achieved, which also enables dynamic transformation of the assembled structures. Using a centrifuge-based microfluidic device, anisotropic hydrogel microparticles encapsulating superparamagnetic materials on one side are fabricated, which respond to a magnetic field. We successfully achieve dynamic assembly using these hydrogel microparticles and realize three different self-assembled structures (single and double pearl chain structures, and close-packed structures), which can be transformed to other structures dynamically via tuning of the precessional magnetic field. We believe that the developed system has potential application as an effective platform for a dynamic cell manipulation and cultivation system, in biomimetic autonomous microrobot organization, and that it can facilitate further understanding of the self-organization and complex systems observed in nature.
Analysis on Dynamic Performance for Active Magnetic Bearing—Rotor System
YANHui－yan; WANGXi－ping; 等
2001-01-01
In the application of active magnetic bearings(AMB),one of the key problems to be solved is the safety and stabiltiy in the sense of rotor dynamics,The project related to the present paper deals with the method for analyzing bearing rotor systems with high rotation speed and specially supported by active magnetic bearings,and studies its rotor dynamics performance,including calculation of the natural frequencies with their distribution characteristics,and the critical speeds of the system.one of the targets of this project is to formulate a theory and method valid for the analysis of the dynamic performance of the active magntic bearing-rotor systemby combining the traditional theory and method of rotor dynamics with the analytical theory and design method based on modern control theory of the AMB system.
Dynamical nonlocal coherent-potential approximation for itinerant electron magnetism.
Rowlands, D A; Zhang, Yu-Zhong
2014-11-26
A dynamical generalisation of the nonlocal coherent-potential approximation is derived based upon the functional integral approach to the interacting electron problem. The free energy is proven to be variational with respect to the self-energy provided a self-consistency condition on a cluster of sites is satisfied. In the present work, calculations are performed within the static approximation and the effect of the nonlocal physics on the formation of the local moment state in a simple model is investigated. The results reveal the importance of the dynamical correlations.
Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and magnetization dynamics in oxidized CoFeAl films.
Wu, Di; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Le; Zhang, Zongzhi; Zhao, H B; Wang, J; Ma, B; Jin, Q Y
2015-07-20
Half-metallic Co-based full-Heusler alloys with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), such as Co2FeAl in contact with MgO, are receiving increased attention recently due to its full spin polarization for high density memory applications. However, the PMA induced by MgO interface can only be realized for very thin magnetic layers (usually below 1.3 nm), which would have strong adverse effects on the material properties of spin polarization, Gilbert damping parameter, and magnetic stability. In order to solve this issue, we fabricated oxidized Co50Fe25Al25 (CFAO) films with proper thicknesses without employing the MgO layer. The samples show controllable PMA by tuning the oxygen pressure (PO2) and CFAO thickness (tCFAO), large perpendicular anisotropy field of ~8.0 kOe can be achieved at PO2 = 12% for the sample of tCFAO = 2.1 nm or at PO2 = 7% for tCFAO = 2.8 nm. The loss of PMA at thick tCFAO or high PO2 results mainly from the formation of large amount of CoFe oxides, which are superparamagnetic at room temperature but become hard magnetic at low temperatures. The magnetic CFAO films, with strong PMA in a relatively wide thickness range and small intrinsic damping parameter below 0.028, would find great applications in developing advanced spintronic devices.
Multiscale dynamics based on kinetic simulation of collisionless magnetic reconnection
Fujimoto, Keizo; Takamoto, Makoto
2016-07-01
Magnetic reconnection is a natural energy converter which allows explosive energy release of the magnetic field energy into plasma kinetic energy. The reconnection processes inherently involve multi-scale process. The breaking of the field lines takes place predominantly in a small region called the diffusion region formed near the x-line, while the fast plasma jets resulting from reconnection extend to a distance far beyond the ion kinetic scales from the x-line. There has been a significant gap in understanding of macro-scale and micro-scale processes. The macro-scale model of reconnection has been developed using the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, while the micro-scale processes around the x-line have been based on kinetic equations including the ion and electron inertia. The problem is that these two kinds of model have significant discrepancies. It has been believed without any guarantee that the microscopic model near the x-line would connect to the macroscopic model far downstream of the x-line. In order to bridge the gap between the macro and micro-scale processes, we have performed large-scale particle-in-cell simulations with the adaptive mesh refinement. The simulation results suggest that the microscopic processes around the x-line do not connect to the previous MHD model even in the region far downstream of the x-line. The slow mode shocks and the associated plasma acceleration do not appear at the exhaust boundary of kinetic reconnection. Instead, the ions are accelerated due to the Speiser motion in the current layer extending to a distance beyond the kinetic scales. The different acceleration mechanisms between the ions and electrons lead to the Hall current system in broad area of the exhaust. Therefore, the previous MHD model could be inappropriate for collisionless magnetic reconnection. Ref. K. Fujimoto & M. Takamoto, Phys. Plasmas, 23, 012903 (2016).
Dynamics of arbitrary shaped propellers driven by a rotating magnetic field
Morozov, Konstantin I.; Mirzae, Yoni; Kenneth, Oded; Leshansky, Alexander M.
2017-04-01
Motion in fluids at the micro(nano)metric scale is dominated by viscosity. One efficient propulsion method relies on a weak uniform rotating magnetic field that drives a chiral object. From bacterial flagella to artificial magnetic micro- or nanohelices, rotation of a corkscrew is considered as a universally efficient propulsion gait in viscous environments. However, recent experimental studies have demonstrated that geometrically achiral microscale objects or random-shaped magnetic aggregates can propel similarly to helical micromotors. Although approximate theories concerning dynamics of helical magnetic propellers are available, propulsion of achiral particles or objects with complex shapes is not understood. Here we present a general theory of rotation and propulsion of magnetized object of arbitrary shape driven by a rotating magnetic field. Intrinsic symmetries of the viscous mobility tensors yield compact classification of stable rotational states depending on the orientation of the magnetic moment with respect to principal rotation axes of the object. Propulsion velocity can be written in terms of geometry-dependent chirality matrix Ch , where both the diagonal elements (owing to orientation-dependent handedness) and off-diagonal entries (that do not necessitate handedness) contribute in a similar way. In general, the theory anticipates multiplicity of stable rotational states corresponding to two (complimentary to π ) angles the magnetization forms with the field rotation axis. Thus, two identical magnetic objects may propel with different speeds or even in opposite directions. However, for a class of simple achiral objects, there is a particular magnetization whereas the pair of symmetric rotational states gives rise to a unique chiral-like propulsion gait, closely resembling that of an ideal helical propeller. In other words, a geometrically achiral object can acquire apparent chirality due to its interaction with the external magnetic field. The
Bounded dynamics in finite PT-symmetric magnetic metamaterials.
Molina, Mario I
2014-03-01
We examine the PT-symmetry-breaking transition for a magnetic metamaterial of a finite extent, modeled as an array of coupled split-ring resonators in the equivalent circuit model approximation. Small-size arrays are solved completely in closed form, while for arrays larger than N=5 results were computed numerically for several gain and loss spatial distributions. In all cases, it is found that the parameter stability window decreases rapidly with the size of the array, until at N=20 approximately it is not possible to support a stable PT-symmetric phase.
Yang, Jaehak; Kim, Junhoe; Kim, Bosung; Cho, Young-Jun; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Sang-Koog
2016-07-01
We performed micromagnetic numerical calculations to explore a cylindrical nanotube's magnetization dynamics and domain-wall (DW) motions driven by eigen-circular-rotating magnetic fields of different frequencies. We discovered the presence of two different localized DW oscillations as well as asymmetric ferromagnetic resonance precession and azimuthal spin-wave modes at the corresponding resonant frequencies of the circular-rotating fields. Associated with these intrinsic modes, there exist very contrasting DW motions of different speed and propagation direction for a given DW chirality. The direction and speed of the DW propagation were found to be controllable according to the rotation sense and frequency of noncontact circular-rotating fields. Furthermore, spin-wave emissions from the moving DW were observed at a specific field frequency along with their Doppler effect. This work furthers the fundamental understanding of soft magnetic nanotubes' intrinsic dynamic modes and spin-wave emissions and offers an efficient means of manipulating the speed and direction of their DW propagations.
Dynamic Vehicle Detection via the Use of Magnetic Field Sensors.
Markevicius, Vytautas; Navikas, Dangirutis; Zilys, Mindaugas; Andriukaitis, Darius; Valinevicius, Algimantas; Cepenas, Mindaugas
2016-01-19
The vehicle detection process plays the key role in determining the success of intelligent transport management system solutions. The measurement of distortions of the Earth's magnetic field using magnetic field sensors served as the basis for designing a solution aimed at vehicle detection. In accordance with the results obtained from research into process modeling and experimentally testing all the relevant hypotheses an algorithm for vehicle detection using the state criteria was proposed. Aiming to evaluate all of the possibilities, as well as pros and cons of the use of anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) sensors in the transport flow control process, we have performed a series of experiments with various vehicles (or different series) from several car manufacturers. A comparison of 12 selected methods, based on either the process of determining the peak signal values and their concurrence in time whilst calculating the delay, or by measuring the cross-correlation of these signals, was carried out. It was established that the relative error can be minimized via the Z component cross-correlation and Kz criterion cross-correlation methods. The average relative error of vehicle speed determination in the best case did not exceed 1.5% when the distance between sensors was set to 2 m.
Dynamics of Coulomb correlations in semiconductors in high magnetic fields
Fromer, Neil Alan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2002-01-01
Current theories have been successful in explaining many nonlinear optical experiments in undoped semiconductors. However, these theories require a ground state which is assumed to be uncorrelated. Strongly correlated systems of current interest, such as a two dimensional electron gas in a high magnetic field, cannot be explained in this manner because the correlations in the ground state and the low energy collective excitations cause a breakdown of the conventional techniques. We perform ultrafast time-resolved four-wave mixing on $n$-modulation doped quantum wells, which contain a quasi-two dimensional electron gas, in a large magnetic field, when only a single Landau level is excited and also when two levels are excited together. We find evidence for memory effects and as strong coupling between the Landau levels induced by the electron gas. We compare our results with simulations based on a new microscopic approach capable of treating the collective effects and correlations of the doped electrons, and find a good qualitative agreement. By looking at the individual contributions to the model, we determine that the unusual correlation effects seen in the experiments are caused by the scattering of photo-excited electron-hole pairs with the electron gas, leading to new excited states which are not present in undoped semiconductors, and also by exciton-exciton interactions mediated by the long-lived collective excitations of the electron gas, inter-Landau level magnetoplasmons.
Dynamics of Coulomb correlations in semiconductors in high magnetic fields
Fromer, Neil Alan
2002-05-01
Current theories have been successful in explaining many nonlinear optical experiments in undoped semiconductors. However, these theories require a ground state which is assumed to be uncorrelated. Strongly correlated systems of current interest, such as a two dimensional electron gas in a high magnetic field, cannot be explained in this manner because the correlations in the ground state and the low energy collective excitations cause a breakdown of the conventional techniques. We perform ultrafast time-resolved four-wave mixing on $n$-modulation doped quantum wells, which contain a quasi-two dimensional electron gas, in a large magnetic field, when only a single Landau level is excited and also when two levels are excited together. We find evidence for memory effects and as strong coupling between the Landau levels induced by the electron gas. We compare our results with simulations based on a new microscopic approach capable of treating the collective effects and correlations of the doped electrons, and find a good qualitative agreement. By looking at the individual contributions to the model, we determine that the unusual correlation effects seen in the experiments are caused by the scattering of photo-excited electron-hole pairs with the electron gas, leading to new excited states which are not present in undoped semiconductors, and also by exciton-exciton interactions mediated by the long-lived collective excitations of the electron gas, inter-Landau level magnetoplasmons.
Dynamic Vehicle Detection via the Use of Magnetic Field Sensors
Vytautas Markevicius
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The vehicle detection process plays the key role in determining the success of intelligent transport management system solutions. The measurement of distortions of the Earth’s magnetic field using magnetic field sensors served as the basis for designing a solution aimed at vehicle detection. In accordance with the results obtained from research into process modeling and experimentally testing all the relevant hypotheses an algorithm for vehicle detection using the state criteria was proposed. Aiming to evaluate all of the possibilities, as well as pros and cons of the use of anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR sensors in the transport flow control process, we have performed a series of experiments with various vehicles (or different series from several car manufacturers. A comparison of 12 selected methods, based on either the process of determining the peak signal values and their concurrence in time whilst calculating the delay, or by measuring the cross-correlation of these signals, was carried out. It was established that the relative error can be minimized via the Z component cross-correlation and Kz criterion cross-correlation methods. The average relative error of vehicle speed determination in the best case did not exceed 1.5% when the distance between sensors was set to 2 m.
Investigation of recurrent EUV jets from highly dynamic magnetic field region
Joshi, Navin Chandra; Chandra, Ramesh; Guo, Yang; Magara, Tetsuya; Zhelyazkov, Ivan; Moon, Young-Jae; Uddin, Wahab
2017-01-01
In this work, we present observations and interpretations of recurrent extreme ultraviolet (EUV) jets that occurred between 2012 July 1 21:00 UT and 2012 July 2 10:00 UT from the western edge of the NOAA active region 11513. Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly ( SDO/AIA), SDO/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager ( SDO/HMI) and Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager ( RHESSI) observations have been used for the present study. Observations as well as potential-field source-surface (PFSS) extrapolation suggest an open field configuration in the vicinity of the jet activity area. 18 EUV jets were observed from the western edge of the active region along the open field channel. All the jet events appeared to be non-homologous and show different morphological properties and evolution. Some of the jets were small and narrow in size while the others were huge and wide. The average speed of these jets ranges from {˜}47 to {˜}308 km s^{-1}. SDO/AIA 171 Å intensity profiles at the base of these jets show bumps corresponding to each jet, which is an evidence of recurrent magnetic reconnections. The magnetic field observation at the foot points of the jets revealed a very complex and dynamic magnetic activity which includes flux emergence, flux cancellation, dynamic motions, merging, separation, etc. We suggest that the recurrent jets are the result of recurrent magnetic reconnections among the various emerging bipolar fields themselves as well as with the open fields.
Current driven magnetization dynamics of a self-polarised synthetic ferrimagnet
Jenkins, A. S.; Lacoste, B.; Geranton, G.; Gusakova, D.; Dieny, B.; Ebels, U.; Buda-Prejbeanu, L. D. [SPINTEC, UMR-8191, CNRS/CEA-INAC/UJF-Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)
2014-02-28
Spin torque driven excitations in spin valves and tunnel junctions are often investigated for a two magnetic layer system for which a polarizer (fixed magnetization) and a free layer can be distinguished. In the search for improved microwave properties and to understand the role of different coupling mechanisms between the magnetic layers, here, the excitation spectrum of an exchange coupled two layer synthetic ferrimagnet (SyF) system is investigated numerically with spin momentum transfer acting on both layers simultaneously. This self-polarised two layer system does not contain an external polarizer, and excitation of coupled modes arises due to the mutual spin transfer torque and the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interlayer exchange coupling. The current-field state diagrams of static and dynamic states are reported as a function of the interlayer exchange coupling strength. The numerically determined critical boundaries are well reproduced by an analytical stability analysis. The dynamic steady states reveal an optic-like mode at low magnetic fields, which becomes progressively acoustic-like for increased magnetic fields and currents. The frequency of these modes can be tuned by the film thickness and the strength of the interlayer exchange interaction. The results presented here will provide an important guide for designing spin torque oscillators that exploit the dynamic coupling between layers and, furthermore, they will provide a basis to test analytical models of spin torque driven coupled excitations.
Dynamic Analysis of Micro-machined Diamagnetic Stable Permanent Magnet Levitation System
无
2007-01-01
A novel micro-machined diamagnetic stable-levitation system (MDSLS) which is composed of a free permanent magnetic rotor, a ring lifting permanent magnet and two diamagnetic stabilizers was presented. The static and dynamic stable characters of MDSLS were analyzed. The coupled non-linear differential equations were used to describe six-degree-of-freedom motion of the levitated rotor, and the equivalent surface current and combined diamagnetic image current method were utilized to model the interaction forces and torques between the lifting permanent magnet and rotor permanent magnet and also between the rotor permanent magnet and diamagnetic substrates. Because of difficulty to get analytical solution, the numerical calculation based on Runge-Kutta method was used to solve the dynamic model. The vibration frequencies were identified by fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis. According to their resonance characteristics and parameters, the translational and angular dynamic stiffness were also calculated. The results show that the levitation of the rotor in MDSLS is stable, and the MDSLS is potential for the application in levitation inertial sensor.
Dynamical Feedback of Self-generated Magnetic Fields in Cosmic Rays Modified Shocks
Caprioli, D.; /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore; Blasi, P.; /Arcetri Observ. /Fermilab; Amato, E.; /Arcetri Observ.; Vietri, M.; /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore
2008-07-01
We present a semi-analytical kinetic calculation of the process of non-linear diffusive shock acceleration (NLDSA) which includes magnetic field amplification due to cosmic ray induced streaming instability, the dynamical reaction of the amplified magnetic field and the possible effects of turbulent heating. This kinetic calculation allows us to show that the net effect of the amplified magnetic field is to enhance the maximum momentum of accelerated particles while reducing the concavity of the spectra, with respect to the standard predictions of NLDSA. This is mainly due to the dynamical reaction of the amplified field on the shock, which smoothens the shock precursor. The total compression factors which are obtained for parameters typical of supernova remnants are R{sub tot} {approx} 7-10, in good agreement with the values inferred from observations. The strength of the magnetic field produced through excitation of streaming instability is found in good agreement with the values inferred for several remnants if the thickness of the X-ray rims are interpreted as due to severe synchrotron losses of high energy electrons. We also discuss the relative role of turbulent heating and magnetic dynamical reaction in smoothening the shock precursor.
Vikhrev, V. V.; Baronova, E. O.
2006-01-01
Pinch dynamics is described, which takes into account generation of turbulent magnetic fields. Turbulent/chaotic magnetic fields (TMF) appear due to MHD and kinetic instabilities. It is shown, that TMF arises near the moment of maximal compression and essentially affects plasma dynamics at the expansion stage.
Dynamical supersymmetry of the spin particle-magnetic field interaction
Ngome, J-P; Horvathy, P A [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et de Physique Theorique, Universite Francois-Rabelais Tours, Federation Denis Poisson, CNRS Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Van Holten, J W, E-mail: juste.ngome@lmpt.univ-tours.f, E-mail: horvathy@lmpt.univ-tours.f, E-mail: t32@nikhef.n [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2010-07-16
We study the dynamical and supersymmetries of a fermion in a D = d = 3-dimensional monopole background. The Hamiltonian also involves an additional spin-orbit coupling term, which is parameterized by the gyromagnetic ratio. We construct the superinvariants associated with the system using a SUSY extension of a previously proposed algorithm, based on Grassmann-valued Killing tensors. Conserved quantities arise for certain definite values of the gyromagnetic factor: N=1 SUSY requires g = 2; a Kepler-type dynamical symmetry only arises, however, for the anomalous values g = 0 and g = 4. The two anomalous systems can be unified into an N=2 SUSY system built by doubling the number of Grassmann variables. For D = d = 2, the planar system also exhibits an N=2 supersymmetry without Grassmann variable doubling.
Jin, Dae Seong; Kim, Hack Jin [Dept. of Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-12-15
The superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles have been used extensively in medical and biological applications, and agglomeration of magnetic nanoparticles is employed in the purification of water and proteins. The magnetic weight can be measured with a conventional electronic balance. Details of the experimental setup have been previously reported. That is, complex energy landscape involved in the agglomeration is changing with progress. Simulation of colloidal magnetic particles under magnetic field shows that the chain of particles is energetically more favorable than the ring and that the transition barrier between the chain and the ring is very low. The energy barriers among entangled nanoparticles of the agglomerate seem to be much more complicated than those among colloidal particles. The energy barrier distributions at 1000 min are similar for the two containers; however, the trend of blue shift and broadening is much more evident in the case of conical tube. These results indicate that the potential energy surface for agglomeration is modified more significantly in the conical tube which makes the agglomerate denser.
Yamasaki, Y.; Morikawa, D.; Honda, T.; Nakao, H.; Murakami, Y.; Kanazawa, N.; Kawasaki, M.; Arima, T.; Tokura, Y.
2015-12-01
Small-angle soft x-ray scattering in resonance with Fe L absorption edge has been investigated for helical magnetic order and magnetic skyrmion crystal (SkX) in B20-type cubic FeGe. Transformation of magnetic structures among helical, conical, SkX, and field-polarized spin-collinear forms is observed with the application of a magnetic field parallel to the incident soft x-ray. The resonant soft x-ray scattering with high q -resolution revealed a transient dynamics of SkX, such as rotation of SkX and variation of the SkX lattice constant, upon the change of magnetic field.
Meyerspeer, Martin; Scheenen, Tom; Schmid, Albrecht Ingo; Mandl, Thomas; Unger, Ewald; Moser, Ewald
2011-05-01
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can benefit from increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of high magnetic fields. In this work, the SNR gain of dynamic 31P MRS at 7 T was invested in temporal and spatial resolution. Using conventional slice selective excitation combined with localization by adiabatic selective refocusing (semi-LASER) with short echo time (TE = 23 ms), phosphocreatine quantification in a 38 mL voxel inside a single exercising muscle becomes possible from single acquisitions, with SNR = 42 ± 4 in resting human medial gastrocnemius. The method was used to quantify the phosphocreatine time course during 5 min of plantar flexion exercise and recovery with a temporal resolution of 6 s (the chosen repetition time for moderate T1 saturation). Quantification of inorganic phosphate and pH required accumulation of consecutively acquired spectra when (resting) Pi concentrations were low. The localization performance was excellent while keeping the chemical shift displacement acceptably small. The SNR and spectral line widths with and without localization were compared between 3T and 7 T systems in phantoms and in vivo. The results demonstrate that increased sensitivity of ultra-high field can be used to dynamically acquire metabolic information from a clearly defined region in a single exercising muscle while reaching a temporal resolution previously available with MRS in non-localizing studies only. The method may improve the interpretation of dynamic muscle MRS data.
Dynamical influence of vortex–antivortex pairs in magnetic vortex oscillators
Otxoa, R.M., E-mail: ro274@cam.ac.uk [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, UMR CNRS 8622, Univ. Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Hitachi Cambridge Laboratory, J. J. Thomson Avenue, CB3 OHE Cambridge (United Kingdom); Petit-Watelot, S. [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, UMR CNRS 8622, Univ. Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198, Univ. de Lorraine, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Manfrini, M.; Radu, I.P.; Thean, A. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kim, Joo-Von; Devolder, T. [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, UMR CNRS 8622, Univ. Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France)
2015-11-15
We study the magnetization dynamics in a nanocontact magnetic vortex oscillators as function of temperature. Low temperature experiments reveal that the dynamics at low and high currents differ qualitatively. At low currents, we excite a temperature independent standard oscillation mode, consisting of a gyrotropic motion of a vortex about the nanocontact in the free layer. Above a critical current, a sudden jump in the frequency is observed, which occurs with a substantial increase of the frequency versus current slope factor. Using micromagnetic simulation and analytical modeling, we associate this new regime to the creation of a vortex–antivortex pair in the pinned layer of the spin valve. This pair gives an additional perpendicular spin torque component that alters the free layer vortex dynamics, which can be quantitatively accounted for by an analytical model. - Highlights: • We study the magnetization dynamics in a nanocontact magnetic vortex oscillators as function of temperature. • Electrical measurements reveal the existence of a vortex–antivortex pair in the pinnel layer above certain value of the injected current. • Micromagnetic simulations confirm qualitatively this scenario.
Maloberti, Olivier [LEG-INPG/UJF-CNRS UMR 5529: BP 46, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres cedex (France) and Schneider Electric Corporate Research and Developments, 37 quai Paul Louis Merlin, 38050 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)]. E-mail: olivier.maloberti@schneider-electric.com; Kedous-Lebouc, A. [LEG-INPG/UJF-CNRS UMR 5529: BP 46, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres cedex (France); Geoffroy, O. [LLN-UJF/INPG-CNRS UPR 5051: 25 avenue des Martyrs, 38050 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Meunier, G. [LEG-INPG/UJF-CNRS UMR 5529: BP 46, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres cedex (France); Mazauric, V. [Schneider Electric Corporate Research and Developments, 37 quai Paul Louis Merlin, 38050 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)
2006-09-15
So as to fuse dynamic magnetization properties of soft materials with the electromagnetism theory, we investigate the inclusion of microscopic reversal processes related to domains and walls in macroscopic Maxwell equations. We first introduce a model for independent walls and the unidirectional motion mechanism; then we characterize one sample with measurements and analytical calculations in case of one-dimensional linear problems.
Anomalous magnetic structure and spin dynamics in magnetoelectric LiFePO_{4}
Toft-Petersen, Rasmus; Reehuis, Manfred; Jensen, Thomas Bagger Stibius
2015-01-01
We report significant details of the magnetic structure and spin dynamics of LiFePO4 obtained by single-crystal neutron scattering. Our results confirm a previously reported collinear rotation of the spins away from the principal b axis, and they determine that the rotation is toward the a axis...
Spiraling attractors and quantum dynamics for a class of long-range magnetic fields
Cornean, Horia; Herbst, Ira; Skibsted, Erik
2007-01-01
We consider the long time behavior of a quantum particle in a 2D magnetic field which is homogeneous of degree -1. If the field never vanishes, above a certain energy the associated classical dynamical system has a globally attracting periodic orbit in a reduced phase space. For that energy regim...
Spiraling attractors and quantum dynamics for a class of long-range magnetic fields
Cornean, Horia Decebal; Herbst, Ira; Skibsted, Erik
We consider the long time behavior of a quantum particle in a 2-D magnetic field which is homogeneous of degree -1. If the field never vanishes, above a certain energy the associated classical dynamical system has a globally attracting periodic orbit in a reduced phase space. For that energy regi...
Magnetic turbulence and particle dynamics in the Earth’s magnetotail
G. Zimbardo
Full Text Available The influence of magnetic turbulence in the near-Earth magnetotail on ion motion is investigated by numerical simulation. The magnetotail current sheet is modelled as a magnetic field reversal with a normal magnetic field com-ponent Bn , plus a three-dimensional spectrum of magnetic fluctuations dB which represents the observed magnetic turbulence. The dawn-dusk electric field Ey is also considered. A test particle simulation is performed using different values of Bn and of the fluctuation level dB/B_{0}. We show that when the magnetic fluctuations are taken into account, the particle dynamics is deeply affected, giving rise to an increase in the cross tail transport, ion heating, and current sheet thickness. For strong enough turbulence, the current splits in two layers, in agreement with recent Cluster observations.
Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetospheric configuration and dynamics – Interplanetary physics (MHD waves and turbulence – Electromagnetics (numerical methods
Novel modeling and dynamic simulation of magnetic tunnel junctions for spintronic sensor development
Ji, Yu; Liu, Jie; Yang, Chunsheng
2017-01-01
Spintronic magnetic sensors with the integration of magnetic materials and microstructures have been enabling people to make use of the electron spin and charge properties in many applications. The high demand for such sensors has in turn spurred the technology developments in both novel materials and their atomic-level controls. Few works, however, have been carried out and reported thus far in modeling and simulation of these spintronic magnetic sensing units based on magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) technology. Accordingly, this paper proposes a novel modeling approach as well as an iterative simulation methodology for MTJs. A more comprehensive electrical tunneling model is established for better interpreting the conductance and current generated by the electron tunneling, and this model can also facilitate the iterative simulation of the micromagnetic dynamics. Given the improved tunneling model as well as the updated dynamic simulation, the electric characteristics of an MTJ with an external magnetic field can be conveniently computed, which provides a reliable benchmark for the future development of novel spintronic magnetic sensors.
Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and magnetization dynamics in oxidized CoFeAl films
Wu, Di; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Le; Zhang, Zongzhi; Zhao, H. B.; Wang, J.; Ma, B.; Jin, Q. Y.
2015-07-01
Half-metallic Co-based full-Heusler alloys with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), such as Co2FeAl in contact with MgO, are receiving increased attention recently due to its full spin polarization for high density memory applications. However, the PMA induced by MgO interface can only be realized for very thin magnetic layers (usually below 1.3 nm), which would have strong adverse effects on the material properties of spin polarization, Gilbert damping parameter, and magnetic stability. In order to solve this issue, we fabricated oxidized Co50Fe25Al25 (CFAO) films with proper thicknesses without employing the MgO layer. The samples show controllable PMA by tuning the oxygen pressure (PO2) and CFAO thickness (tCFAO), large perpendicular anisotropy field of ~8.0 kOe can be achieved at PO2 = 12% for the sample of tCFAO = 2.1 nm or at PO2 = 7% for tCFAO = 2.8 nm. The loss of PMA at thick tCFAO or high PO2 results mainly from the formation of large amount of CoFe oxides, which are superparamagnetic at room temperature but become hard magnetic at low temperatures. The magnetic CFAO films, with strong PMA in a relatively wide thickness range and small intrinsic damping parameter below 0.028, would find great applications in developing advanced spintronic devices.
The Magnetic and Shielding Effects of Ring Current on Radiation Belt Dynamics
Fok, Mei-Ching
2012-01-01
The ring current plays many key roles in controlling magnetospheric dynamics. A well-known example is the magnetic depression produced by the ring current, which alters the drift paths of radiation belt electrons and may cause significant electron flux dropout. Little attention is paid to the ring current shielding effect on radiation belt dynamics. A recent simulation study that combines the Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM) with the Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model has revealed that the ring current-associated shielding field directly and/or indirectly weakens the relativistic electron flux increase during magnetic storms. In this talk, we will discuss how ring current magnetic field and electric shielding moderate the radiation belt enhancement.
Pohlit, Merlin, E-mail: pohlit@physik.uni-frankfurt.de; Porrati, Fabrizio; Huth, Michael; Müller, Jens [Institute of Physics, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Stockem, Irina; Schröder, Christian [Bielefeld Institute for Applied Materials Research, FH Bielefeld-University of Applied Sciences, Bielefeld (Germany)
2016-10-14
We study the magnetization dynamics of a spin ice cluster which is a building block of an artificial square spin ice fabricated by focused electron-beam-induced deposition both experimentally and theoretically. The spin ice cluster is composed of twelve interacting Co nanoislands grown directly on top of a high-resolution micro-Hall sensor. By employing micromagnetic simulations and a macrospin model, we calculate the magnetization and the experimentally investigated stray field emanating from a single nanoisland. The parameters determined from a comparison with the experimental hysteresis loop are used to derive an effective single-dipole macrospin model that allows us to investigate the dynamics of the spin ice cluster. Our model reproduces the experimentally observed non-deterministic sequences in the magnetization curves as well as the distinct temperature dependence of the hysteresis loop.
Magnetic nanoparticles in fluid environment: combining molecular dynamics and Lattice-Boltzmann
Melenev, Petr
2017-06-01
Hydrodynamic interactions between magnetic nanoparticles suspended in the Newtonian liquid are accounted for using a combination of the lattice Boltzmann method and molecular dynamics simulations. Nanoparticle is modelled by the system of molecular dynamics material points (which form structure resembles raspberry) coupled to the lattice Boltzmann fluid. The hydrodynamic coupling between the colloids is studied by simulations of the thermo-induced rotational diffusion of two raspberry objects. It was found that for the considered range of model parameters the approaching of the raspberries leads to slight retard of the relaxation process. The presence of the weak magnetic dipolar interaction between the objects leads to modest decrease of the relaxation time and the extent of the acceleration of the diffusion is intensified along with magnetic forces.
Dynamics of the Bogie of Maglev Train with Distributed Magnetic Forces
Yaozong Liu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A dynamic model of the bogie of maglev train with distributed magnetic forces and four identical levitating controllers is formulated. The vertical, pitching, and rolling degree of freedom of the electromagnet modules and their coupling are considered. The frequency responses of the bogie to track irregularity are investigated with numerical simulation. The results tell us that there are resonances related to the first electromagnetic suspension whose frequencies are determined by the control parameters. A comparative analysis has been carried out between the models with distributed or concentrated magnetic forces. The comparison indicates that simplifying the distributed magnetic force to concentrated one degenerates the dynamic behavior of the maglev bogie, especially resulting in overestimated resonances of the first electromagnetic suspension of maglev trains. The results also indicate that those resonances only occur on specific wavelengths of irregularity that relate to the length of the electromagnets.
Pohlit, Merlin; Stockem, Irina; Porrati, Fabrizio; Huth, Michael; Schröder, Christian; Müller, Jens
2016-10-01
We study the magnetization dynamics of a spin ice cluster which is a building block of an artificial square spin ice fabricated by focused electron-beam-induced deposition both experimentally and theoretically. The spin ice cluster is composed of twelve interacting Co nanoislands grown directly on top of a high-resolution micro-Hall sensor. By employing micromagnetic simulations and a macrospin model, we calculate the magnetization and the experimentally investigated stray field emanating from a single nanoisland. The parameters determined from a comparison with the experimental hysteresis loop are used to derive an effective single-dipole macrospin model that allows us to investigate the dynamics of the spin ice cluster. Our model reproduces the experimentally observed non-deterministic sequences in the magnetization curves as well as the distinct temperature dependence of the hysteresis loop.
Dynamic Domains of DTS: Simulations of a Spherical Magnetized Couette Flow
Kaplan, Elliot; Schaeffer, Nathanaël
2016-01-01
The Derviche Tourneur Sodium experiment, a spherical Couette magnetohydrodynamics experi- ment with liquid sodium as the medium and a dipole magnetic field imposed from the inner sphere, recently underwent upgrades to its diagnostics to better characterize the flow and induced magnetic fields with global rotation. In tandem with the upgrades, a set of direct numerical simulations were run with the xshells code [1] to give a more complete view of the fluid and magnetic dynamics at various rotation rates of the inner and outer spheres. These simulations reveal several dynamic regimes, determined by the Rossby number. At positive differential rotation there is a regime of quasigeostrophic flow, with low levels of fluctuations near the outer sphere. Negative differential rotation shows a regime of what appear to be saturated hydrodynamic instabilities at low negative differential rotation, followed by a regime where filamentary structures develop at low latitudes and persist over five to ten differential rotation...
Bangcheng Han
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The combined radial-axial magnetic bearing (CRAMB with permanent magnet creating bias flux can reduce the size, cost, and mass and save energy of the magnetic bearing. The CRAMB have three-degree-of-freedom control ability, so its structure and magnetic circuits are more complicated compared to those of the axial magnetic bearing (AMB or radial magnetic bearing (RMB. And the eddy currents have a fundamental impact on the dynamic performance of the CRAMB. The dynamic stiffness model and its cross coupling problems between different degrees of freedom affected for the CRAMB are proposed in this paper. The dynamic current stiffness and the dynamic displacement stiffness models of the CRAMB are deduced by using the method of equivalent magnetic circuit including eddy current effect, but the dynamic current stiffness of the RMB unit is approximately equal to its static current stiffness. The analytical results of an example show that the bandwidth of the dynamic current stiffness of the AMB unit and the dynamic displacement stiffness of the CRAMB is affected by the time-varying control currents or air gap, respectively. And the dynamic current stiffness and the dynamic displacement stiffness between the AMB unit and the RMB unit are decoupled due to few coupling coefficients.
Eisenbach, Markus [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perera, Meewanage Dilina N. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Center for Simulational Physics; Landau, David P [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Center for Simulational Physics; Nicholson, Don M. [Univ. of North Carolina, Asheville, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics; Yin, Junqi [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). National Inst. for Computational Sciences; Brown, Greg [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics
2015-01-01
We present a unified approach to describe the combined behavior of the atomic and magnetic degrees of freedom in magnetic materials. Using Monte Carlo simulations directly combined with first principles the Curie temperature can be obtained ab initio in good agreement with experimental values. The large scale constrained first principles calculations have been used to construct effective potentials for both the atomic and magnetic degrees of freedom that allow the unified study of influence of phonon-magnon coupling on the thermodynamics and dynamics of magnetic systems. The MC calculations predict the specific heat of iron in near perfect agreement with experimental results from 300K to above Tc and allow the identification of the importance of the magnon-phonon interaction at the phase-transition. Further Molecular Dynamics and Spin Dynamics calculations elucidate the dynamics of this coupling and open the potential for quantitative and predictive descriptions of dynamic structure factors in magnetic materials using first principles-derived simulations.
Tang, Jiqiang; Xiang, Biao; Zhang, Yongbin
2014-07-01
For a magnetically suspended control moment gyroscope, stiffness and damping of magnetic bearing will influence modal frequency of a rotor. In this paper the relationship between modal frequency and stiffness and damping has been investigated. The mathematic calculation model of axial passive magnetic bearing (PMB) stiffness is developed. And PID control based on internal model control is introduced into control of radial active magnetic bearing (AMB), considering the radial coupling of axial PMB, a mathematic calculation model of stiffness and damping of radial AMB is established. According to modal analysis, the relationship between modal frequency and modal shapes is achieved. Radial vibration frequency is mainly influenced by stiffness of radial AMB; however, when stiffness increases, radial vibration will disappear and a high frequency bending modal will appear. Stiffness of axial PMB mainly affects the axial vibration mode, which will turn into high-order bending modal. Axial PMB causes bigger influence on torsion modal of the rotor. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Deb, Marwan, E-mail: marwan.deb@ipcms.unistra.fr; Vomir, Mircea; Rehspringer, Jean-Luc; Bigot, Jean-Yves [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504, CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, BP 43, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 02 (France)
2015-12-21
Controlling the magnetization dynamics on the femtosecond timescale is of fundamental importance for integrated opto-spintronic devices. For industrial perspectives, it requires to develop simple growth techniques for obtaining large area magneto-optical materials having a high amplitude ultrafast Faraday or Kerr response. Here we report on optical pump probe studies of light induced spin dynamics in high quality bismuth doped iron garnet polycrystalline film prepared by the spin coating method. We demonstrate an ultrafast non-thermal optical control of the spin dynamics using both circularly and linearly polarized pulses.
Magnetic bright point dynamics and evolutions observed by Sunrise/IMaX and other instruments
Utz, D.; del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Bellot Rubio, L.; Thonhofer, S.; Jurčák, J.
2015-05-01
In this proceeding we will have a closer look on recent observations and results regarding the dynamics and evolution of so-called magnetic bright points (MBPs). MBPs are manifestations of kG magnetic field strong flux concentrations seen in the solar photosphere. They belong to the class of small-scale solar magnetic features with diameters starting from low values around the current observational resolution limit - about 100 km - up to a few hundred km. They might play an important role in several key research questions like the total solar irradiance variation (TSI variation) as well as the solar atmospheric heating problem. Especially their dynamic behaviour is of interest for the heating problem as they might trigger all kinds of MHD waves which travel up to the higher solar atmospheric layers, where they can get damped leading to a heating of the plasma. Furthermore they might engage in magnetic field reconnection processes leading consequently also to a heating. Due to these reasons, and also for the sake of a better understanding of the physical processes involved on small-scales, detailed investigations on the dynamical behaviour and evolution of such magnetic field proxies like MBPs is in order. In this conference proceeding we wish to give in a first part an overview about the obtained knowledge so far. In a second part we highlight recent results regarding the dynamical evolution of plasma parameters of MBPs such as magnetic field strength, temperature, and line of sight velocity. This proceeding is completed by an outlook on what can and should be done in the near future with available data from recent telescopes.
Ksenofontov, Andri, 1962-
2007-01-01
Näitused: Eesti Kujundusgraafikute Liidu aastanäitus "Register 2007" Kunstihoone galeriis, Signe Kivi "Võimuvaibad ja vaimukleidid" Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis, "Kehaturg / Sex market" (Dagmar Kase, Eveli Variku tööd) Tallinna Kunstihoones, Andrei Maksimjuki "Surematu klassika" Ühispanga galeriis, Katrin Veegeni "Varsti" A-galeriis, Eda Lõhmuse "Ülespoole" ja Rein Kelpmani "Grosso modo" ArtDepoo Galeriis, Jaan Elkeni "Valge valgus" Galeriis 008, Paul Rodgersi "Transplants" Hobusepea galeriis, Masayo Ave "Haptic Interface Design" Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis ja workshop Eesti Kunstiakadeemias
The Danish Education Registers
Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz
2011-01-01
Collection of systematic information on education is a long established practice in Denmark. Since 1910, the Danish Ministry of Education’s annual reports collects information about individual-level test scores in e.g. compulsory schooling. Today, several registers from compulsory schooling...... to adults continuing education and training stem from administrative education reports. Therefore, for cohorts born 1945-1990, 97 percent of the Danish population has a valid education identifier. For the immigrant population born in the same cohorts the coverage is 85-90 percent. Despite a higher level...
The Danish Education Registers
Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz
Collection of systematic information on education is a long established practice in Denmark. Since 1910, the Danish Ministry of Education's annual reports collects information about individual-level test scores in e.g. compulsory schooling. Today, several registers from compulsory schooling...... to adults continuing education and training stem from administrative education reports. Therefore, for cohorts born 1945-1990, 97 percent of the Danish population has a valid education identifier. For the immigrant population born in the same cohorts the coverage is 85-90 percent. Despite a higher level...
Ksenofontov, Andri, 1962-
2007-01-01
Näitused: Eesti Kujundusgraafikute Liidu aastanäitus "Register 2007" Kunstihoone galeriis, Signe Kivi "Võimuvaibad ja vaimukleidid" Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis, "Kehaturg / Sex market" (Dagmar Kase, Eveli Variku tööd) Tallinna Kunstihoones, Andrei Maksimjuki "Surematu klassika" Ühispanga galeriis, Katrin Veegeni "Varsti" A-galeriis, Eda Lõhmuse "Ülespoole" ja Rein Kelpmani "Grosso modo" ArtDepoo Galeriis, Jaan Elkeni "Valge valgus" Galeriis 008, Paul Rodgersi "Transplants" Hobusepea galeriis, Masayo Ave "Haptic Interface Design" Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis ja workshop Eesti Kunstiakadeemias
The Danish Education Registers
Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Würtz Rasmussen, Astrid
to adults continuing education and training stem from administrative education reports. Therefore, for cohorts born 1945-1990, 97 percent of the Danish population has a valid education identifier. For the immigrant population born in the same cohorts the coverage is 85-90 percent. Despite a higher level......Collection of systematic information on education is a long established practice in Denmark. Since 1910, the Danish Ministry of Education’s annual reports collects information about individual-level test scores in e.g. compulsory schooling. Today, several registers from compulsory schooling...
Sharma, M. [Dept. of Physics and Astro-Physics, Univ. of Delhi (India); Govind, N.; Pratap, A. [Condense Matter Theory Group, National Physical Lab., New Delhi (India); Ajay; Tripathi, R.S. [Dept. of Physics, G.B. Pant Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar (India)
2001-07-01
In the present paper, we report the role of dipole-dipole interaction on the magnetic dynamics of single layer antiferromagnets. For this, the model Hamiltonian includes the exchange Heisenberg Hamiltonian as well as dipole-dipole interactions. Within the linear spin-wave theory, we employ the double time Green's function technique to obtain expressions for the spin wave dispersion, sublattice magnetization and the magnetic contribution to specific heat as a function of various parameters of the model Hamiltonian. We observe through numerical calculations that in the absence of anisotropy in exchange couplings the dipole-dipole interaction works as an anisotropy and sustains the magnetization even in a pure 2D system. (orig.)
Magnetic Order and Spin Dynamics in a Hexagonal Rare Earth Manganite
Helton, J. S.; Singh, D. K.; Elizabeth, S.; Harikrishnan, S.; Lynn, J. W.
2011-03-01
Hexagonal rare earth manganites, RMn O3 R = Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Y, or Sc), have attracted a great deal of recent attention as magnetoelectric multiferroics as most of these systems are ferroelectric at room temperature and display magnetic order below TN ~ 100 K. This magnetic order can be quite complex, as both the R and Mn ions lie on geometrically frustrated triangular lattices. DyMn O3 is typically orthorhombic, but can also be grown in the hexagonal phase; Dy 0.5 Y0.5 Mn O3 displays the hexagonal phase and is magnetically diluted at the rare earth site. We have used neutron scattering experiments to explore the magnetic structure and spin dynamics of Dy 0.5 Y0.5 Mn O3 .
Research Update: Utilizing magnetization dynamics in solid-state thermal energy conversion
Boona, Stephen R.; Watzman, Sarah J.; Heremans, Joseph P.
2016-10-01
We review the spin-Seebeck and magnon-electron drag effects in the context of solid-state energy conversion. These phenomena are driven by advective magnon-electron interactions. Heat flow through magnetic materials generates magnetization dynamics, which can strongly affect free electrons within or adjacent to the magnetic material, thereby producing magnetization-dependent (e.g., remnant) electric fields. The relative strength of spin-dependent interactions means that magnon-driven effects can generate significantly larger thermoelectric power factors as compared to classical thermoelectric phenomena. This is a surprising situation in which spin-based effects are larger than purely charge-based effects, potentially enabling new approaches to thermal energy conversion.
Spatially resolved ultrafast magnetic dynamics initiated at a complex oxide heterointerface
Caviglia, Andrea
Static strain in complex oxide heterostructures has been extensively used to engineer electronic and magnetic properties at equilibrium. In the same spirit, deformations of the crystal lattice with light may be used to achieve functional control across heterointerfaces dynamically. Here, by exciting large-amplitude infrared-active vibrations in a LaAlO3 substrate we induce magnetic order melting in a NdNiO3 film across a heterointerface. Femtosecond resonant soft X-ray diffraction is used to determine the spatiotemporal evolution of the magnetic disordering. We observe a magnetic melt front that propagates from the substrate interface into the film, at a speed that suggests electronically driven motion. Light control and ultrafast phase front propagation at heterointerfaces may lead to new opportunities in optomagnetism.
Holzwarth, V R
2003-01-01
Observations of magnetically active close binaries with orbital periods of a few days reveal the existence of starspots at preferred longitudes (with respect to the direction of the companion star). We numerically investigate the non-linear dynamics and evolution of magnetic flux tubes in the convection zoneof a fast-rotating component of a close binary system and explore whether the tidal effects are able to generate non-uniformities in the surface distribution of erupting flux tubes. Assuming a synchronised system with a rotation period of two days and consisting of two solar-type components, both the tidal force and the deviation of the stellar structure from spherical shape are considered in lowest-order perturbation theory. The magnetic field is initially stored in the form of toroidal magnetic flux rings within the stably stratified overshoot region beneath the convection zone. Once the field has grown sufficiently strong, instabilities initiate the formation of rising flux loops, which rise through the...
Dynamics of two-dimensional complex plasmas in a magnetic field
Ott, T; Bonitz, M
2013-01-01
We consider a two-dimensional complex plasma layer containing charged dust particles in a perpendicular magnetic field. Computer simulations of both one-component and binary systems are used to explore the equilibrium particle dynamics in the fluid state. The mobility is found to scale with the inverse of the magnetic field strength (Bohm diffusion) for strong fields. For bidisperse mixtures, the magnetic field dependence of the long-time mobility depends on the particle species providing an external control of their mobility ratio. For large magnetic fields, even a two-dimensional model porous matrix can be realized composed by the almost immobilized high-charge particles which act as obstacles for the mobile low-charge particles.
A Fluid Dynamics Approach for the Computation of Non-linear Force-Free Magnetic Field
Jing-Qun Li; Jing-Xiu Wang; Feng-Si Wei
2003-01-01
Inspired by the analogy between the magnetic field and velocity fieldof incompressible fluid flow, we propose a fluid dynamics approach for comput-ing nonlinear force-free magnetic fields. This method has the advantage that thedivergence-free condition is automatically satisfied, which is a sticky issue for manyother algorithms, and we can take advantage of modern high resolution algorithmsto process the force-free magnetic field. Several tests have been made based on thewell-known analytic solution proposed by Low & Lou. The numerical results arein satisfactory agreement with the analytic ones. It is suggested that the newlyproposed method is promising in extrapolating the active region or the whole sunmagnetic fields in the solar atmosphere based on the observed vector magnetic fieldon the photosphere.
Dynamics of Ion Temperature Gradient Turbulence and Transport with a Static Magnetic Island
Izacard, Olivier; James, Spencer D; Brennan, Dylan P
2015-01-01
The quantification of the interaction mechanism between large-scale magnetohydrodynamics instabilities and small-scale drift-wave microturbulence is essential for predicting and optimizing the performance of magnetic confinement based fusion energy experiments. We report progress on understanding these interactions using both analytic theory and numerical simulation, with BOUT++ [B. Dudson et al., Comput. Phys. Comm. 180, 1467 (2009)] used to evolve simple five-field fluid models in a sheared slab geometry. This work focuses upon understanding the dynamics of the ion temperature gradient instability in the presence of a background static magnetic island in a weakly electromagnetic two-dimensional five-field model as key parameters such as ion temperature gradient, magnetic gradients and static magnetic island size are varied. The simulation results are then used to calculate the effective turbulent transport coefficient (i.e. resistivity) that is compared against classical coefficient. As part of this work, t...
Magnetization Dynamics in Two Novel Current-Driven Spintronic Memory Cell Structures
Velazquez-Rizo, Martin
2017-07-01
In this work, two new spintronic memory cell structures are proposed. The first cell uses the diffusion of polarized spins into ferromagnets with perpendicular anisotropy to tilt their magnetization followed by their dipolar coupling to a fixed magnet (Bhowmik et al., 2014). The possibility of setting the magnetization to both stable magnetization states in a controlled manner using a similar concept remains unknown, but the proposed structure poses to be a solution to this difficulty. The second cell proposed takes advantage of the multiple stable magnetic states that exist in ferromagnets with configurational anisotropy and also uses spin torques to manipulate its magnetization. It utilizes a square-shaped ferromagnet whose stable magnetization has preferred directions along the diagonals of the square, giving four stable magnetic states allowing to use the structure as a multi-bit memory cell. Both devices use spin currents generated in heavy metals by the Spin Hall effect present in these materials. Among the advantages of the structures proposed are their inherent non-volatility and the fact that there is no need for applying external magnetic fields during their operation, which drastically improves the energy efficiency of the devices. Computational simulations using the Object Oriented Micromagnetic Framework (OOMMF) software package were performed to study the dynamics of the magnetization process in both structures and predict their behavior. Besides, we fabricated a 4-terminal memory cell with configurational anisotropy similar to the device proposed, and found four stable resistive states on the structure, proving the feasibility of this technology for implementation of high-density, non-volatile memory cells.
Static and dynamic magnetic properties of densely packed magnetic nanowire arrays
Dmytriiev, O.; Al-Jarah, U.A.S.; Gangmei, P.
2013-01-01
and a continuous ferromagnetic thin film. In particular, the competition between anisotropies associated with the shape of the individual nanowires and that of the array as a whole has been studied. Measured and simulated hysteresis loops are largely anhysteretic with zero remanence, and the micromagnetic...... configuration is such that the net magnetization vanishes in directions orthogonal to the applied field. Simulations of the remanent state reveal antiferromagnetic alignment of the magnetization in adjacent nanowires and the formation of vortex flux closure structures at the ends of each nanowire...... and simulation. The resonant frequencies are initially found to decrease as the applied field is increased from remanence. This is the result of a change of mode profile within the plane of the array from nonuniform to uniform as the ground state evolves with increasing applied field. Quantitative differences...
Mitra, Vramori; Sarma, Bornali; Sarma, Arun [VIT University, Vandalur-Kelambakkam Road, Chennai 600 127, Tamil Nadu (India); Janaki, M. S.; Sekar Iyengar, A. N. [Plasma Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Marwan, Norbert [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, PO Box 601203, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Kurths, Jürgen [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, PO Box 601203, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Institute for Complex Systems and Mathematical Biology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3FX (United Kingdom)
2016-06-15
Recurrence is an ubiquitous feature which provides deep insights into the dynamics of real dynamical systems. A suitable tool for investigating recurrences is recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). It allows, e.g., the detection of regime transitions with respect to varying control parameters. We investigate the complexity of different coexisting nonlinear dynamical regimes of the plasma floating potential fluctuations at different magnetic fields and discharge voltages by using recurrence quantification variables, in particular, DET, L{sub max}, and Entropy. The recurrence analysis reveals that the predictability of the system strongly depends on discharge voltage. Furthermore, the persistent behaviour of the plasma time series is characterized by the Detrended fluctuation analysis technique to explore the complexity in terms of long range correlation. The enhancement of the discharge voltage at constant magnetic field increases the nonlinear correlations; hence, the complexity of the system decreases, which corroborates the RQA analysis.
Roederer, Juan G
2014-01-01
This book is a new edition of Roederer’s classic Dynamics of Geomagnetically Trapped Radiation, updated and considerably expanded. The main objective is to describe the dynamic properties of magnetically trapped particles in planetary radiation belts and plasmas and explain the physical processes involved from the theoretical point of view. The approach is to examine in detail the orbital and adiabatic motion of individual particles in typical configurations of magnetic and electric fields in the magnetosphere and, from there, derive basic features of the particles’ collective “macroscopic” behavior in general planetary environments. Emphasis is not on the “what” but on the “why” of particle phenomena in near-earth space, providing a solid and clear understanding of the principal basic physical mechanisms and dynamic processes involved. The book will also serve as an introduction to general space plasma physics, with abundant basic examples to illustrate and explain the physical origin of diff...
A tunable cancer cell filter using magnetic beads: cellular and fluid dynamic simulations
Gusenbauer, Markus; Bance, Simon; Exl, Lukas; Reichel, Franz; Oezelt, Harald; Schrefl, Thomas
2011-01-01
In the field of biomedicine magnetic beads are used for drug delivery and to treat hyperthermia. Here we propose to use self-organized bead structures to isolate circulating tumor cells using lab-on-chip technologies. Typically blood flows past microposts functionalized with antibodies for circulating tumor cells. Creating these microposts with interacting magnetic beads makes it possible to tune the geometry in size, position and shape. We develop a simulation tool that combines micromagnetics, discrete particle dynamics and fluid dynamics, in order to design micropost arrays made of interacting beads. For the simulation of blood flow we use the Lattice-Boltzmann method with immersed elastic blood cell models. Parallelization distributes large fluid and particle dynamic simulations over available resources to reduce overall calculation time.
Donolato, Marco; Antunes, Paula Soares Martins; Bejhed, Rebecca S.
2015-01-01
We demonstrate detection of DNA coils formed from a Vibrio cholerae DNA target at picomolar concentrations using a novel optomagnetic approach exploiting the dynamic behavior and optical anisotropy of magnetic nanobead (MNB) assemblies. We establish that the complex second harmonic optical...... transmission spectra of MNB suspensions measured upon application of a weak uniaxial AC magnetic field correlate well with the rotation dynamics of the individual MNBs. Adding a target analyte to the solution leads to the formation of permanent MNB clusters, namely, to the suppression of the dynamic MNB...... behavior. We prove that the optical transmission spectra are highly sensitive to the formation of permanent MNB clusters and, thereby to the target analyte concentration. As a specific clinically relevant diagnostic case, we detect DNA coils formed via padlock probe recognition and isothermal rolling...
Modeling thermally activated domain wall dynamics in thin magnetic strips with disorder
Laurson, L; Mughal, A; Serpico, C; Durin, G; Zapperi, S, E-mail: lasse.laurson@gmail.com [ISI Foundation, Torino (Italy)
2011-04-01
We study the effect of disorder and temperature on the field-driven dynamics of a transverse domain wall occurring in thin and narrow magnetic strips made of a soft magnetic material such as permalloy. Motivated by a micromagnetic description of such a domain wall, we construct a model based on two coupled flexible lines enclosing the domain wall transition region, capturing both the finite width and the characteristic V-shape of the wall. Disorder is included via randomly distributed pinning centers interacting with the two lines. We study the field-driven dynamics of the domain wall in disordered strips in a finite temperature, and compare our findings to experimental observations of stochastic domain wall dynamics.
Dynamics of the Solar Magnetic Network. II. Heating the Magnetized Chromosphere
Hasan, S. S.; van Ballegooijen, A. A.
2008-06-01
We consider recent observations of the chromospheric network and argue that the bright network grains observed in the Ca II H and K lines are heated by an as-yet-unidentified quasi-steady process. We propose that the heating is caused by dissipation of short-period magnetoacoustic waves in magnetic flux tubes (periods less than 100 s). Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of such waves are presented. We consider wave generation in the network due to two separate processes: (1) transverse motions at the base of the flux tube and (2) the absorption of acoustic waves generated in the ambient medium. We find that the former mechanism leads to efficient heating of the chromosphere by slow magnetoacoustic waves propagating along magnetic field lines. This heating is produced by shock waves with a horizontal size of a few hundred kilometers. In contrast, acoustic waves excited in the ambient medium are converted into transverse fast modes that travel rapidly through the flux tube and do not form shocks, unless the acoustic sources are located within 100 km from the tube axis. We conclude that the magnetic network may be heated by magnetoacoustic waves that are generated in or near the flux tubes.
Guo, Fan; Daughton, William; Li, Hui
2015-01-01
Magnetic reconnection is thought to be the driver for many explosive phenomena in the universe. The energy release and particle acceleration during reconnection have been proposed as a mechanism for producing high-energy emissions and cosmic rays. We carry out two- and three-dimensional kinetic simulations to investigate relativistic magnetic reconnection and the associated particle acceleration. The simulations focus on electron-positron plasmas starting with a magnetically dominated, force-free current sheet ($\\sigma \\equiv B^2/(4\\pi n_e m_e c^2) \\gg 1$). For this limit, we demonstrate that relativistic reconnection is highly efficient at accelerating particles through a first-order Fermi process accomplished by the curvature drift of particles along the electric field induced by the relativistic flows. This mechanism gives rise to the formation of hard power-law spectra $f \\propto (\\gamma-1)^{-p}$ and approaches $p = 1$ for sufficiently large $\\sigma$ and system size. Eventually most of the available magne...
Models of cooperative dynamics from biomolecules to magnets
Mobley, David Lowell
This work details application of computer models to several biological systems (prion diseases and Alzheimer's disease) and a magnetic system. These share some common themes, which are discussed. Here, simple lattice-based models are applied to aggregation of misfolded protein in prion diseases like Mad Cow disease. These can explain key features of the diseases. The modeling is based on aggregation being essential in establishing the time-course of infectivity. Growth of initial aggregates is assumed to dominate the experimentally observed lag phase. Subsequent fission, regrowth, and fission set apart the exponential doubling phase in disease progression. We explore several possible modes of growth for 2-D aggregates and suggest the model providing the best explanation for the experimental data. We develop testable predictions from this model. Like prion disease, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an amyloid disease characterized by large aggregates in the brain. However, evidence increasingly points away from these as the toxic agent and towards oligomers of the Abeta peptide. We explore one possible toxicity mechanism---insertion of Abeta into cell membranes and formation of harmful ion channels. We find that mutations in this peptide which cause familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) also affect the insertion of this peptide into membranes in a fairly consistent way, suggesting that this toxicity mechanism may be relevant biologically. We find a particular inserted configuration which may be especially harmful and develop testable predictions to verify whether or not this is the case. Nucleation is an essential feature of our models for prion disease, in that it protects normal, healthy individuals from getting prion disease. Nucleation is important in many other areas, and we modify our lattice-based nucleation model to apply to a hysteretic magnetic system where nucleation has been suggested to be important. From a simple model, we find qualitative agreement with
Spin-lattice coupling induced weak dynamical magnetism in EuTiO3 at high temperatures
Guguchia, Z.; Keller, H.; Kremer, R. K.; Köhler, J.; Luetkens, H.; Goko, T.; Amato, A.; Bussmann-Holder, A.
2014-08-01
EuTiO3, which is a G-type antiferromagnet below TN=5.5 K, has some fascinating properties at high temperatures, suggesting that macroscopically hidden dynamically fluctuating weak magnetism exists at high temperatures. This conjecture is substantiated by magnetic field dependent magnetization measurements, which exhibit pronounced anomalies below 200 K becoming more distinctive with increasing magnetic field strength. Additional results from muon spin rotation experiments provide evidence for weak fluctuating bulk magnetism induced by spin-lattice coupling which is strongly supported in increasing magnetic field.
[Functional magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic neuroanatomy of addictive disorders].
Mel'nikov, M E; Shtark, M B
2014-01-01
Research into the cerebral patterns that govern the formation and development of addictive behavior is one of the most interesting goals of neurophysiology. Authors of contemporary papers on the matter define a number of symptoms that are all part of substance or non-substance dependence, each one of them leading to abnormalities in the corresponding system of the brain. During the last twenty years the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMR1) technology has been instrumental in locating such abnormalities, identifying specific parts of the brain that, when dysfunctional, may enhance addiction and cause its positive or negative symptoms. This article reviews fMRI studies aimed toward locating areas in the brain that are responsible for cognitive, emotional, and motivational dysfunction. Cerebral correlatives of impulsiveness, behavior control, and drug cravings are reviewed separately. The article also contains an overview of possibilities to further investigate the Selves of those dependent on substances, identify previously unknown diagnostic markers of substance dependence, and evaluate the effectiveness of therapy. The research under review in this article provides data that points to a special role of the nucleus caudatus as well as the nucleus accumbens, the thalamus, the insular cortex (IC), the anterior cingulate, prefrontal and orbitofrontal areas in psychological disorders that are part of substance dependence. General findings of the article are in accordance with contemporary models of addictive pattern.
Rotons and Slitons in a Magnetic Cactus: Dynamical Phyllotaxis
Nisoli, Cristiano; Gabor, Nathaniel
2009-10-01
Phyllotaxis, the study of mathematical patterns in the arrangement of leaves on stems, spines on cacti, petals on flowers, et cetera, fascinated mankind since the dawn of times. Similar patterns emerge in the the statics of simple physical systems. Here we reproduce experimentally the striking number-theoretical patterns found in the phyllotaxis of living beings in the statics of a simple mechanical apparatus. Then we show that its dynamics reveal unusual excitations beyond botany: multiple classical rotons and a large family of interconverting topological solitons. Applications at different scales and in different areas of physics are proposed and discussed. [4pt] [1] C. Nisoli et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 186103 (2009).[0pt] [2] C. Nisoli Phys. Rev. E 80, 026110 (2009).
Dynamical systems for modeling the evolution of the magnetic field of stars and Earth
Popova, H.
2016-02-01
The cycles of solar magnetic activity are connected with a solar dynamo that operates in the convective zone. Solar dynamo mechanism is based on the combined action of the differential rotation and the alpha-effect. Application of these concepts allows us to get an oscillating solution as a wave of the toroidal field propagating from middle latitudes to the equator. We investigated the dynamo model with the meridional circulation by the low-mode approach. This approach is based on an assumption that the solar magnetic field can be described by non-linear dynamical systems with a relatively small number of parameters. Such non-linear dynamical systems are based on the equations of dynamo models. With this method dynamical systems have been built for media which contains the meridional flow and thickness of the convection zone of the star. It was shown the possibility of coexistence of quiasi-biennial and 22-year cycle. We obtained the different regimes (oscillations, vacillations, dynamo-bursts) depending on the value of the dynamo-number, the meridional circulation, and thickness of the convection zone. We discuss the features of these regimes and compare them with the observed features of evolution of the solar and geo magnetic fields. We built theoretical paleomagnetic time scale and butterfly-diagrams for the helicity and toroidal magnetic field for different regimes.
Cosmological dynamics of magnetic Bianchi I in viable f(R) models of gravity
Liu, Xuyang; Channuie, Phongpichit; Samart, Daris
2017-09-01
Standard dynamical system analysis of Einstein-Maxwell equation in f(R) theories is considered in this work. We investigate cosmological dynamics of a uniform magnetic field in the Orthogonal Spatially Homogeneous (OSH) Bianchi I universe with viable f(R) models of gravity. In this work, the f(R) = R - αRn and f(R) =(Rb - Λ) c models are examined by using our dynamical system analysis. Our results show that both of two f(R) models have a viable cosmological consequence identical to the analysis present in Amendola and Tsujikawa (2008) for the FLRW background. Contrary to Amendola and Tsujikawa (2008), we discover in our models that there is an additional anisotropic and non-zero cosmological magnetic fields fixed point emerging before the present of the standard matter epoch. This means that the universe has initially isotropic stage with the intermediated epoch as the anisotropic background and it ends up with the isotropic late-time acceleration. The primordial magnetic fields play a crucial role of the shear evolutions obtained from these two models which have the same scaling of the cosmic time as σ ∼t-1/3, instead of σ ∼t-1 for the absence of the primordial magnetic cases.
Magnetic fluid hyperthermia probed by both calorimetric and dynamic hysteresis measurements
Guibert, Clément; Fresnais, Jérôme; Peyre, Véronique; Dupuis, Vincent
2017-01-01
In this paper, we report an investigation of magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) using combined calorimetric and newly implemented dynamic hysteresis measurements for two sets of well characterized size-sorted maghemite nanoparticles (with diameters of about 10 nm and 20 nm) dispersed in water and in glycerol. Our primary goal was to assess the influence of viscosity on the heating efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles described in terms of specific loss power (SLP or specific absorption rate, SAR) and dynamic hysteresis. In particular, we aimed to investigate how this SLP depends on the transition from Néelian to Brownian behavior of nanoparticles expected to occur between 10 nm and 20 nm (for maghemite) and dependent on the viscosity. While we observed a good agreement between calorimetric and dynamic hysteresis measurements, we found that the SLP measured for the different systems do not depend noticeably on the viscosity of solvent. Calculations performed according to Rosensweig's linear model [1] allow us to quantitatively reproduce our results at low field intensities, provided we use a value for the magnetic anisotropy constant much smaller than the one commonly used in the literature. This raises the question of the temperature dependance of the magnetic anisotropy constant and its relevance for a quantitative description of MFH.
Towards denoising XMCD movies of fast magnetization dynamics using extended Kalman filter.
Kopp, M; Harmeling, S; Schütz, G; Schölkopf, B; Fähnle, M
2015-01-01
The Kalman filter is a well-established approach to get information on the time-dependent state of a system from noisy observations. It was developed in the context of the Apollo project to see the deviation of the true trajectory of a rocket from the desired trajectory. Afterwards it was applied to many different systems with small numbers of components of the respective state vector (typically about 10). In all cases the equation of motion for the state vector was known exactly. The fast dissipative magnetization dynamics is often investigated by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism movies (XMCD movies), which are often very noisy. In this situation the number of components of the state vector is extremely large (about 10(5)), and the equation of motion for the dissipative magnetization dynamics (especially the values of the material parameters of this equation) is not well known. In the present paper it is shown by theoretical considerations that - nevertheless - there is no principle problem for the use of the Kalman filter to denoise XMCD movies of fast dissipative magnetization dynamics.
Magnetization Dynamics of Amorphous Ribbons and Wires Studied by Inductance Spectroscopy
Israel Betancourt
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Inductance spectroscopy is a particular formulation variant of the well known complex impedance formalism typically used for the electric characterization of dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric materials. It has been successfully exploited as a versatile tool for characterization of the magnetization dynamics in amorphous ribbons and wires by means of simple experiments involving coils for sample holding and impedance analyzer equipment. This technique affords the resolution of the magnetization processes in soft magnetic materials, in terms of reversible deformation of pinned domain walls, domain wall displacements and spin rotation, for which characteristic parameters such as the alloy initial permeability and the relaxation frequencies, indicating the dispersion of each process, can be defined. Additionally, these parameters can be correlated with chemical composition variation, size effects and induced anisotropies, leading to a more physical insight for the understanding of the frequency dependent magnetic response of amorphous alloys, which is of prime interest for the development of novel applications in the field of telecommunication and sensing technologies. In this work, a brief overview, together with recent progress on the magnetization dynamics of amorphous ribbons, wires, microwires and biphase wires, is presented and discussed for the intermediate frequency interval between 10 Hz and 13 MHz.
Lee, Jun-Tae; Abid, Aamir; Cheung, Ka Ho; Sudheendra, L; Kennedy, Ian M
2012-09-01
The dynamics of superparamagnetic particles subject to competing magnetic and viscous drag forces have been examined with a uniform, stationary, external magnetic field. In this approach, competing drag and magnetic forces were created in a fluid suspension of superparamagnetic particles that was confined in a capillary tube; competing viscous drag and magnetic forces were established by rotating the tube. A critical Mason number was determined for conditions under which the rotation of the capillary prevents the formation of chains from individual particles. The statistics of chain length were investigated by image analysis while varying parameters such as the rotation speed and the viscosity of the liquid. The measurements showed that the rate of particle chain formation was decreased with increased viscosity and rotation speed ; the particle dynamics could be quantified by the same dimensionless Mason number that has been demonstrated for rotating magnetic fields. The potential for enhancement of mixing in a bioassay was assessed using a fast chemical reaction that was diffusion-limited. Reducing the Mason below the critical value, so that chains were formed in the fluid, gave rise to a modest improvement in the time to completion of the reaction.
Dynamical evolution of the chiral magnetic effect: applications to the quark-gluon plasma
Manuel, Cristina
2015-01-01
We study the dynamical evolution of the so-called chiral magnetic effect in an electromagnetic conductor. To this end, we consider the coupled set of corresponding Maxwell and chiral anomaly equations, and we prove that these can be derived from chiral kinetic theory. After integrating the chiral anomaly equation over space in a closed volume, it leads to a quantum conservation law of the total helicity of the system. A change in the magnetic helicity density comes together with a modification of the chiral fermion density. We study in Fourier space the coupled set of anomalous equations and we obtain the dynamical evolution of the magnetic fields, magnetic helicity density, and chiral fermion imbalance. Depending on the initial conditions we observe how the helicity might be transferred from the fermions to the magnetic fields, or vice versa, and find that the rate of this transfer also depends on the scale of wavelengths of the gauge fields in consideration. We then focus our attention on the quark-gluon pl...
Ebels, Ursula; Buda, Liliana D.; Ounadjela, Kamel; Wigen, Phillip E.
The general purpose of this review is to introduce to the dynamics of small amplitude excitations of nonhomogeneous magnetization distributions. This is in contrast to the dynamics of the magnetization reversal process, which corresponds to large amplitude perturbations, discussed in other contributions of this book. Small amplitude oscillations can be studied by ferromagnetic resonance or Brillouin light scattering. The latter technique isused to investigate the excitation spectrum in laterally constrained structures.This review introduces ferromagnetic resonance and focuses on the role of the pumping field orientation. Upon varying the pumping field orientation, fundamental modes can be selectively excited, giving, in particular, access to regions of varying magnetic orientation. This is demonstrated for the excitation spectrum of magnetic domains and domain walls of the stripe domain structure in metallic thin films. These stripe domains can be considered laterally constrained magnetic units 40-100 nm wide, separated by domain walls.Such experiments provide information on the domain and domain wall structure and in principle yield the internal fields and the coupling fields of the domains, as well as the wall mass and the stabilizing forces of the domain walls. The wall mass itself is a dynamic parameter which intervenes upon wall acceleration but is of less importance when considering steady-state wall propagation in the magnetization reversal process. However, the wall mass depends sensitively on the spin configuration inside the wall, and therefore resonance experiments can provide insight into the structure of the domain wall. The wall structure, on the other hand, plays an important role in spin-polarized transport experiments, investigating the contribution of a domain wall to the resistance [1] or the transfer of momentum from the conduction electrons to the wall [2,3].
Liu, H. W.; Yang, K. F.; Mishima, T. D.; Santos, M. B.; Hirayama, Y.
2010-12-01
We present dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in the simplest pseudospin quantum Hall ferromagnet (QHF) of an InSb two-dimensional electron gas with a large g factor using tilted magnetic fields. The DNP-induced amplitude change in a resistance spike of the QHF at large current enables observation of the resistively detected nuclear magnetic resonance of the high nuclear spin isotope I115n with nine quadrupole splittings. Our results demonstrate the importance of domain structures in the DNP process. The nuclear spin relaxation time T1 in this QHF was relatively short (˜120s) and almost temperature independent.
动态磁化特性模拟%Dynamic Magnetizing Characteristic Simulation
陈季权; 王如玫
2001-01-01
A method of the simulation of the dynamic magnetizing characteristic about the transformer core material is introduced.By this method,measuring hysteresis loop only once,the magnetic characteristic of ferromagnetic materials in each working state can be simulated accurately.%介绍了变压器铁心材料动态磁特性的模拟拟合方法，用此方法，只要做一次磁滞回线测定，就能比较准确地模拟出铁磁材料在各种不同工作点的磁化特性。
Magnetization dynamics under heat current in metallic spin valves and in insulators
Yu, Haiming
Spin caloritronics, an emerging branch of spintronics, studying the addition of thermal effects to the electrical and magnetic properties of nanostructures, has recently seen a rapid development. It has been predicted by Hatami et al. that a heat current can exert a spin torque on the magnetization in a nanostructure, analogous to the well-known spin-transfer torque induced by an electrical current. We provided the experimental evidence for the thermal spin-transfer torque effect in spin valves, showing the switching field change with heat current. I will present measurements of the second harmonic voltage response of Co-Cu-Co pseudo-spinvalves deposited in the middle of Cu nanowires. Both the magnitude of the second harmonic response of the spin valve and the field value of the maximum response are found to be dependent on the heat current. Both effects show that the magnetization dynamics of the pseudo-spinvalves is influenced by the heat current. Thus, the data provide a quantitative estimate of the thermal spin torque exerted on the magnetization of the Co layers. In addition, I will present recent study on the magnetization dynamics in a magnetic insulator YIG film under in-plane heat current. The ferromagnetic resonance linewidth is found to be tuned by the applied temperature gradient, i.e. narrowing and broadening. This suggests that the Gilbert damping parameter is compensated or reinforced by the applied temperature gradient in respective direction. These observations can be understood as a heat-driven spin torque in magnetic insulators.
Dynamics of the Solar Magnetic Network. II. Heating the Magnetized Chromosphere
Hasan, S S
2008-01-01
We consider recent observations of the chromospheric network, and argue that the bright network grains observed in the Ca II H & K lines are heated by an as yet unidentified quasi-steady process. We propose that the heating is caused by dissipation of short-period magnetoacoustic waves in magnetic flux tubes (periods less than 100 s). Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of such waves are presented. We consider wave generation in the network due to two separate processes: (a) by transverse motions at the base of the flux tube; and (b) by the absorption of acoustic waves generated in the ambient medium. We find that the former mechanism leads to an efficient heating of the chromosphere by slow magnetoacoustic waves propagating along magnetic field lines. This heating is produced by shock waves with a horizontal size of a few hundred kilometers. In contrast, acoustic waves excited in the ambient medium are converted into transverse fast modes that travel rapidly through the flux tube and do not form shocks, unl...
DINÁMICA DE LA MAGNETIZACIÓN DE MEDIOS MAGNÉTICOS // MAGNETIZATION DYNAMICS IN MAGNETIC MEDIA
Rónald Rivas Suárez
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This work is a study of magnetization evolution in magnetic media along the time. The magnetic media is a flat tape, like a tape use for recording and taping information, with effective field including first order term from cubic net, uniaxial anisotropic fields, demagnetized field and interchange term between the net elements. The magnetization is driven from the demagnetized to the magnetized state by a dc applied magnetic field. The theoretical model shows a solution of a Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, taking into account the speed of the tape. Four physically admissible solutions are obtained: harmonic oscillations, damped oscillation, exponential fronts and double exponential fronts, for a different parameter values. We show an approximation to the problem from the dynamical system theory, when the equation is converted into a non-time depending autonomous system, to study the existence of fix points, the transition between solutions and the phase map of the solutions and his physical interpretation. The different phase maps are presented for representative sets of values. This approximation to the problem complements and enriches the previous works. Keywords: Dynamical systems, phase map, magnetization, magnetic media. RESUMEN El presente trabajo es un estudio del comportamiento de la magnetización en medios magnéticos a lo largo del tiempo. Como medio magnético se presenta una cinta del tipo utilizado para almacenamiento y reproducción de información, con campo efectivo que incluye términos de primer orden de la red cristalina cúbica, campos de anisotropía uniaxial, de desmagnetización y términos de intercambio entre los elementos de la red. La magnetización pasa de un estado desmagnetizado a otro magnetizado por la acción de un campo externo dc aplicado. El modelo teórico presenta una solución de la ecuación de LandauLifshitz-Gilbert, tomando en cuenta la velocidad de la cinta. Se obtienen cuatro tipos de soluciones f
Pan, Jisheng; Yu, Peng; Yan, Qiusheng; Li, Weihua
2017-05-01
Strontium titanate (SrTiO3, STO) ceramic substrate is an incipient ferroelectric material with a perovskite structure and which has a wide range of applications in the fields of microwave, millimetre wave, and optic fibre. This paper reports on a system of experiments carried out on STO substrates using a new magnetorheological (MR) finishing process where dynamic magnetic fields are formed by magnetic poles rotate. The results show that a circular ring shaped polishing belt with a stability evaluation zone appears on the surface after being polished by MR finishing with a single-point dynamic magnetic field. The dynamic magnetic fields are stronger when the revolutions of magnetic pole increase and eccentricity of pole enlarge, with the surface finish is smoother and more material is removed. The optimum machining times, machining gap, oscillation distance, eccentricity of pole, revolutions of the workpiece and magnetic pole are 60 min, 0.8 mm, 0 mm, 7 mm, and 350 r min-1 and 90 r min-1, respectively, and the best MR fluid consists of 6 wt% of diamond abrasives in W1 particle size and 18 wt% of carbonyl iron powder in W3.5 particle size. A surface roughness of Ra and a material removal rate of 8 nm and 0.154 μm min-1 can be obtained in these optimum process conditions. Finally, the polishing mechanism for dynamic magnetic fields and the mechanism for removing material from STO ceramic substrates are discussed in detail.
Chaotic dynamics of the magnetic field generated by dynamo action in a turbulent flow
Petrelis, F; Fauve, S [Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, CNRS UMR 8550, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris (France)], E-mail: petrelis@lps.ens.fr
2008-12-10
We present models related to the results of a recent experiment (the 'VKS experiment') showing the generation of a magnetic field by a fully turbulent flow of liquid sodium. We first discuss the geometry of the mean magnetic field when the two coaxial impellers driving the flow counter-rotate at the same frequency. We then show how we expect this geometry to be modified when the impellers rotate at different frequencies. We also show that, in the latter case, dynamical regimes of the magnetic field can be easily understood from the interaction of modes with dipolar (respectively quadrupolar) symmetry. In particular, this interaction generates magnetic field reversals that have been observed in the experiment and display a hierarchy of timescales similar to the Earth's magnetic field: the duration of the steady phases is widely distributed, but is always much longer than the time needed to switch polarity. In addition to reversals, several other large scale features of the generated magnetic field are obtained when varying the governing parameters of the flow. These results are also understood in the framework of the same model.
One dimensional FexCo1-x nanowires; ferromagnetic resonance and magnetization dynamics
Aslam, Shehreen; Khanna, Manoj; Kuanr, Bijoy K.; Celinski, Z.
2017-05-01
Soft magnetic nanowires (NWs) are widely used for microwave and mm-wave components. The investigation of magnetization damping behavior of NWs have attracted great interest due to large influence of loss to the device, like integrated microwave device, magnetic sensors, and magnetic random access memory. With increasing operational frequency and degree of integration, the requirements to characterize 1-dimensional NWs become increasingly high. The purpose of this work is to study the magnetization dynamics in FexCo1-x NWs. A series of FexCo1-x (x=0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) NWs were grown by controlled electro-deposition. By adjusting FexCo1-x concentration (x=0 to 1), the saturation magnetization, increased more than 20%. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) both in field and frequency sweep mode are employed to characterize the NWs in flip-chip geometry. It is observed that FMR field (Hr) increases with increase in applied frequency. At a fixed frequency, Fe NWs resonate at a lower field than the Co substituted NWs. FMR field linewidth (ΔH) as well as frequency width (Δf) are largest for Co NWs and decreased for Fe NWs. Whereas ΔH and Δf decreased further for FexCo1-x nanowires with increasing x.
An Empirical Relation Between The Large-Scale Magnetic Field And The Dynamical Mass In Galaxies
Tabatabaei, F S; Knapen, J H; Beckman, J E; Koribalski, B; Elmegreen, B G
2015-01-01
The origin and evolution of cosmic magnetic fields as well as the influence of the magnetic fields on the evolution of galaxies are unknown. Though not without challenges, the dynamo theory can explain the large-scale coherent magnetic fields which govern galaxies, but observational evidence for the theory is so far very scarce. Putting together the available data of non-interacting, non-cluster galaxies with known large-scale magnetic fields, we find a tight correlation between the integrated polarized flux density and the rotation speed, v(rot), of galaxies. This leads to an almost linear correlation between the large-scale magnetic field B and v(rot), assuming that the number of cosmic ray electrons is proportional to the star formation rate. This correlation cannot be attributed to an active linear dynamo processes, as no correlation holds with shear or angular speed. It indicates instead a coupling between the large-scale magnetic field and the dynamical mass of the galaxies, B~M(dyn)^{0.2-0.3}. Hence, f...
Dynamics of local isolated magnetic flux tubes in a fast-rotating stellar atmosphere
Chou, W.; Tajima, C.T. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics; Matsumoto, R. [Chiba Univ. (Japan)]|[ASRC, JAERI, Naka (Japan); Shibata, K. [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka (Japan)
1998-01-01
Dynamics of magnetic flux tubes in the fast rotating stellar atmosphere is studied. We focus on the effects and signatures of the instability of the flux tube emergence influenced by the Coriolis force. We present the result from a linear stability analysis and discuss its possible signatures in the course of the evolution of G-type and M-type stars. We present a three dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulation of local isolated magnetic flux tubes under a magnetic buoyancy instability in co-rotating Cartesian coordinates. We find that the combination of the buoyancy instability and the Coriolis effect gives rise to a mechanism, to twist the emerging magnetic flux tube into a helical structure. The tilt angle, east-west asymmetry and magnetic helicity of the Twisted flux tubes in the simulations are studied in detail. The linear and nonlinear analyses provide hints as to what kind of pattern of large spots in young M-type main-sequence stars might be observed. We find that young and old G-type stars may have different distributions of spots while M-type stars may always have low latitudes spots. The size of stellar spots may decrease when a star becomes older, due to the decreasing of magnetic field. A qualitative comparison with solar observations is also presented.
Wu, Benny
2012-04-05
We report on time-resolved coherent x-ray scattering experiments of laser induced magnetization dynamics in Co/Pd multilayers with a high repetition rate optical pump x-ray probe setup. Starting from a multi-domain ground state, the magnetization is uniformly reduced after excitation by an intense 50 fs laser pulse. Using the normalized time correlation, we study the magnetization recovery on a picosecond timescale. The dynamic scattering intensity is separated into an elastic portion at length scales above 65 nm which retains memory of the initial domain magnetization, and a fluctuating portion at smaller length scales corresponding to domain boundary motion during recovery.
Brandt, R.; Schmidt, H. [School of Engineering, University of California-Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Tibus, S. [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Institute of Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, Reichenhainer Str. 70, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Springer, F. [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Fassbender, J. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Rohrmann, H. [OC Oerlikon Balzers AG, LI-9496 Balzers (Liechtenstein); Albrecht, M. [Institute of Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, Reichenhainer Str. 70, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany)
2012-08-01
We investigate the effect of Co{sup +} irradiation on the magnetization dynamics of CoCrPt:SiO{sub 2} granular media. Increasing irradiation levels reduce the saturation magnetization and effective anisotropy, which decrease the intrinsic magnetization precession frequency. Furthermore, increasing intergranular exchange coupling results in a qualitative change in the behavior of the magnetic material from a collection of individual grains to a homogeneous thin film, as evidenced in both the switching behavior and dynamics. The frequency change cannot be explained by single crystal macrospin modeling, and can only be reproduced by the inclusion of the dipolar effects and anisotropy distribution inherent in a granular medium.
Pseudo Slice Energy Spread in Dynamics of Electron Beams Moving through Magnetic Bends
Li, Rui
2014-01-01
In the previous canonical formulation of beam dynamics for an electron bunch moving ultrarelativistically through magnetic bending systems, we have shown that the transverse dynamics equation for a particle in the bunch has a driving term which behaves as the centrifugal force caused by the particle's initial potential energy due to collective particle interactions within the bunch. As a result, the initial potential energy at the entrance of a bending system, which we call pseudo (kinetic) energy, is indistinguishable from the usual kinetic energy offset from the design energy in its perturbation to particle optics through dispersion and momentum compaction. In this paper, in identifying this centrifugal force on particles as the remnant of the CSR cancellation effect in transverse particle dynamics, we show how the dynamics equation in terms of the canonical momentum for beam motion on a curved orbit is related to the Panofsky-Wenzel theorem for wakefields for beam motion on a straight path. It is shown tha...
LIN Xin; CAO Chen; LI Bin; LIU Yang; XU Jianyuan
2013-01-01
In order to research the dynamic characteristics of circuit breaker (CB) in opening process,taking a 12 kV vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) with permanent magnetic actuator as the example,a dynamic model of the VCB is established based on the virtual prototype technology,and dynamic equations of the model are deduced.Simulation and experiment are carried out on the VCB of both opening and closing processes.The simulative opening time and closing time are 39.5 ms and 54.6 ms respectively.Influencing factors of opening bouncing and their effect principles are analyzed through dynamic simulations of opening bouncing process.Analytic results indicate that the increase in the stiffness coefficient of contact spring limits the opening bouncing; meanwhile increases in the preload of contact spring and the mass of shaft can enlarge the opening bouncing.
Zero-bias-field microwave dynamic magnetic properties in trapezoidal ferromagnetic stripe
Bi, Mei; Wang, Xin; Lu, Haipeng; Zhang, Li; Deng, Longjiang; Xie, Jianliang
2016-06-01
Dynamic magnetization response of the axially magnetized ferromagnetic stripe with trapezoidal cross section has been studied. The stripe with beveled edges exhibits multiple resonant peaks modes under an in-plane microwave excitation compared with the single resonant of vertical edge surfaces. The complexity of the observed response is attributed to the spatially nonuniform equilibrium spin distribution at the stripe edges. Micromagnetic simulations identify spin waves as spatially localized mode at the modified edges. This one is also described by effective pinning boundary conditions taking into account finite-size effects, which is related to the exchange interaction, surface anisotropy and dipole-dipole interaction. These results provide detailed insights into the nonlinear spin dynamics of microstructures influenced by the edge properties.
Fivel, D I
1998-01-01
The spin state of two magnetically inequivalent protons in contiguous atoms of a molecule becomes entangeled by the indirect spin-spin interaction (j-coupling). The degree of entanglement oscillates at the beat frequency resulting from the splitting of a degeneracy. This beating is manifest in NMR spectroscopy as an envelope of the transverse magnetization and should be visible in the free induction decay signal. The period (approximately 1 sec) is long enough for interference between the linear dynamics and collapse of the wave-function induced by a Stern-Gerlach inhomogeneity to significantly alter the shape of that envelope. Various dynamical collapse theories can be distinguished by their observably different predictions with respect to this alteration. Adverse effects of detuning due to the Stern-Gerlach inhomogeneity can be reduced to an acceptable level by having a sufficiently thin sample or a strong rf field.
Low frequency spin dynamics in the quantum magnet copper pyrazine dinitrate
Kuehne, H.; Klauss, H.H. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, TU Dresden Dresden (Germany); Institut fuer Physik der Kondensierten Materie, TU Braunschweig (Germany); Guenther, M. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, TU Dresden Dresden (Germany); Grossjohann, S.; Brenig, W. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, TU Braunschweig (Germany); Litterst, F.J. [Institut fuer Physik der Kondensierten Materie, TU Braunschweig (Germany); Reyes, A.P.; Kuhns, P.L. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Turnbull, M.M.; Landee, C.P. [Carlson School of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Clark University, Worcester, MA (United States)
2010-03-15
The S = 1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain exhibits a magnetic field driven quantum critical point. We study the low frequency spin dynamics in copper pyrazine dinitrate (CuPzN), a realization of this model system of quantum magnetism, by means of {sup 13}C-NMR spectroscopy. Measurements of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate T{sub 1}{sup -} {sup 1} in the vicinity of the saturation field are compared with quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the dynamic structure factor. Both show a strong divergence of low energy excitations at temperatures in the quantum regime. The analysis of the anisotropic T{sub 1}{sup -} {sup 1}-rates and frequency shifts allows one to disentangle the contributions from transverse and longitudinal spin fluctuations for a selective study and to determine the transfer of delocalized spin moments from copper to the neighboring nitrogen atoms. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
A Comparison Study of Magnetic Bearing Controllers for a Fully Suspended Dynamic Spin Rig
Choi, Benjamin; Johnson, Dexter; Morrison, Carlos; Mehmed, Oral; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed a fully suspended magnetic bearing system for the Dynamic Spin Rig (DSR) that is used to perform vibration tests of turbomachinery blades and components under spinning conditions in a vacuum. Two heteropolar radial magnetic bearings and a thrust bearing and the associated control system were integrated into the DSR to provide noncontact magnetic suspension and mechanical excitation of the 35 lb vertical rotor with blades to induce turbomachinery blade vibration. A simple proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller with a special feature for multidirectional radial excitation worked very well to both support and shake the shaft with blades. However, more advanced controllers were developed and successfully tested to determine the optimal controller in terms of sensor and processing noise reduction, smaller rotor orbits, and energy savings for the system. The test results of a variety of controllers we demonstrated up to the rig's maximum allowable speed of 10,000 rpm are shown.
Nonlinear dynamics of beam-plasma instability in a finite magnetic field
Bogdankevich, I. L.; Goncharov, P. Yu.; Gusein-zade, N. G.; Ignatov, A. M.
2017-06-01
The nonlinear dynamics of beam-plasma instability in a finite magnetic field is investigated numerically. In particular, it is shown that decay instability can develop. Special attention is paid to the influence of the beam-plasma coupling factor on the spectral characteristics of a plasma relativistic microwave accelerator (PRMA) at different values of the magnetic field. It is shown that two qualitatively different physical regimes take place at two values of the external magnetic field: B 0 = 4.5 kG (Ω ω B p ) and 20 kG (Ω B ≫ ωp). For B 0 = 4.5 kG, close to the actual experimental value, there exists an optimal value of the gap length between the relativistic electron beam and the plasma (and, accordingly, an optimal value of the coupling factor) at which the PRMA output power increases appreciably, while the noise level decreases.
Ultrafast photo-induced turning of magnetization and its relaxation dynamics in GaMnAs
无
2010-01-01
We report that,by linearly polarized pumping of different wavelengths,Kerr transients appear at zero magnetic field only in the case when GaMnAs samples are initialized at 3 K by first applying a 0.8 Tesla field and then returning to zero field.We find that,instead of magnetization precession,the near-band gap excitation induces a coherent out-of-plane turning of magnetization,which shows very long relaxation dynamics with no precession.When photon energy increases,the peak value of the Kerr transient increases,but it decays rapidly to the original slow transient seen under the near-band-gap excitation.
Dynamic Chiral Magnetic Effect and Faraday Rotation in Macroscopically Disordered Helical Metals
Ma, J.; Pesin, D. A.
2017-03-01
We develop an effective medium theory for electromagnetic wave propagation through gapless nonuniform systems with a dynamic chiral magnetic effect. The theory allows us to calculate macroscopic-disorder-induced corrections to the values of optical, as well as chiral magnetic conductivities. In particular, we show that spatial fluctuations of the optical conductivity induce corrections to the effective value of the chiral magnetic conductivity. The absolute value of the effect varies strongly depending on the system parameters, but yields the leading frequency dependence of the polarization rotation and circular dichroism signals. Experimentally, these corrections can be observed as features in the Faraday rotation angle near frequencies that correspond to the bulk plasmon resonances of a material. Such features are not expected to be present in single-crystal samples.
Microwave-induced dynamic switching of magnetic skyrmion cores in nanodots
Zhang, Bin; Kuch, Wolfgang, E-mail: kuch@physik.fu-berlin.de [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wang, Weiwei; Beg, Marijan; Fangohr, Hans [Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom)
2015-03-09
The nonlinear dynamic behavior of a magnetic skyrmion in circular nanodots was studied numerically by solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation with a classical spin model. We show that a skyrmion core reversal can be achieved within nanoseconds using a perpendicular oscillating magnetic field. Two symmetric switching processes that correspond to excitations of the breathing mode and the mixed mode (combination of the breathing mode and a radial spin-wave mode) are identified. For excitation of the breathing mode, the skyrmion core switches through nucleation of a new core from a transient uniform state. In the mixed mode, the skyrmion core reverses with the help of spins excited both at the edge and core regions. Unlike the magnetic vortex core reversal, the excitation of radial spin waves does not dominate the skyrmion core reversal process.
Couvidat, Sebastien; Hoeksema, J Todd; Bogart, Rick S; Bush, Rock I; Duvall, Tom L; Liu, Yang; Norton, Aimee A; Scherrer, Philip H
2016-01-01
NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) was launched 11 February 2010 with 3 instruments on board, including the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Since beginning normal operations on 1 May 2010, HMI has observed the Sun's entire visible disk almost continuously. HMI collects sequences of polarized filtergrams taken at a fixed cadence with two 4096 x 4096 cameras from which are computed arcsecond-resolution maps of photospheric observables: the line-of-sight (LoS) velocity and magnetic field, continuum intensity, line width, line depth, and the Stokes polarization parameters, I Q U V, at 6 wavelengths. Two processing pipelines implemented at the SDO Joint Science Operations Center (JSOC) at Stanford University compute observables from calibrated Level-1 filtergrams. One generates LoS quantities every 45s, and the other, primarily for the vector magnetic field, computes averages on a 720s cadence. Corrections are made for static and temporally changing CCD characteristics, bad pixels, image alignment and...
Electric field control of magnon-induced magnetization dynamics in multiferroics
Risinggård, Vetle; Kulagina, Iryna; Linder, Jacob
2016-01-01
We consider theoretically the effect of an inhomogeneous magnetoelectric coupling on the magnon-induced dynamics of a ferromagnet. The magnon-mediated magnetoelectric torque affects both the homogeneous magnetization and magnon-driven domain wall motion. In the domains, we predict a reorientation of the magnetization, controllable by the applied electric field, which is almost an order of magnitude larger than that observed in other physical systems via the same mechanism. The applied electric field can also be used to tune the domain wall speed and direction of motion in a linear fashion, producing domain wall velocities several times the zero field velocity. These results show that multiferroic systems offer a promising arena to achieve low-dissipation magnetization rotation and domain wall motion by exciting spin-waves. PMID:27554064
Magnetic Moments of Delta and Omega- baryons with dynamical clover fermions
Aubin, Christopher; Orginos, Konstantinos; Pascalutsa, Vladimir; Vanderhaeghen, Marc
2009-01-01
We calculate the magnetic dipole moment of the Delta(1232) and Omega- baryons with 2+1-flavors of clover fermions on anisotropic lattices using a background magnetic field. This is the first dynamical calculation of these magnetic moments using a background field technique. The calculation for Omega- is done at the physical strange quark mass, with the result in units of the physical nuclear magneton Âµ_(Omega-) = -1.93(8)(12) (where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic) compared to the experimental number: -2.02(5). The Delta has been studied at three unphysical quark masses, corresponding to pion mass 366, 438, and 548 MeV. The pion-mass dependence is compared with the behavior obtained from chiral effective-field theory.
Mance, Deni; Baldus, Marc, E-mail: m.baldus@uu.nl [NMR Spectroscopy, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Gast, Peter; Huber, Martina [Department of Physics, Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden University, PO Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ivanov, Konstantin L., E-mail: ivanov@tomo.nsc.ru [International Tomography Center, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Institutskaya 3a, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia and Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk 63009 (Russian Federation)
2015-06-21
We develop a theoretical description of Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) in solids under Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) to describe the magnetic field dependence of the DNP effect. The treatment is based on an efficient scheme for numerical solution of the Liouville-von Neumann equation, which explicitly takes into account the variation of magnetic interactions during the sample spinning. The dependence of the cross-effect MAS-DNP on various parameters, such as the hyperfine interaction, electron-electron dipolar interaction, microwave field strength, and electron spin relaxation rates, is analyzed. Electron spin relaxation rates are determined by electron paramagnetic resonance measurements, and calculations are compared to experimental data. Our results suggest that the observed nuclear magnetic resonance signal enhancements provided by MAS-DNP can be explained by discriminating between “bulk” and “core” nuclei and by taking into account the slow DNP build-up rate for the bulk nuclei.
LI Cheng-wu; WEI Shan-yang; WANG Xue-ying; LIU Ji-kun; LEI Dong-ji
2012-01-01
Combining separated SHPB test device of φ50 mm with ZDKT-type 1 transient magnetic resonance test system,long drop bar of 400 mm was used to impact coal specimens at four different speeds:1.275,3.287,6.251,and 7.404 m/s.The change in waveform,the dynamic mechanical properties,and the generated effect of transient field during the coal deformation and fracture under the loads were discussed and analyzed.While magnetic signals during the coal fracture firstly needed EEMD,decomposition then had a FFT with Data Demon.The main results of the experiment are the following:the main frequency of magnetic signals was between 220 and 450 kHz and the instantaneous frequency during the damage of coal would have the instantaneous jump.
Dynamical effects of self-generated magnetic fields in cosmic ray modified shocks
Caprioli, Damiano; Amato, Elena; Vietri, Mario
2008-01-01
Recent observations of greatly amplified magnetic fields ($\\delta B/B\\sim 100$) around supernova shocks are consistent with the predictions of the non-linear theory of particle acceleration (NLT), if the field is generated upstream of the shock by cosmic ray induced streaming instability. The high acceleration efficiencies and large shock modifications predicted by NLT need however to be mitigated to confront observations, and this is usually assumed to be accomplished by some form of turbulent heating. We show here that magnetic fields with the strength inferred from observations have an important dynamical role on the shock, and imply a shock modification substantially reduced with respect to the naive unmagnetized case. The effect appears as soon as the pressure in the turbulent magnetic field becomes comparable with the pressure of the thermal gas. The relative importance of this unavoidable effect and of the poorly known turbulent heating is assessed. More specifically we conclude that even in the cases ...
Model of the Dynamics of Plasma-Wave Channels in Magnetized Plasmas
Shirokov, E. A.; Chugunov, Yu. V.
2016-06-01
We analyze the dynamics of the plasma-wave channels excited in magnetized plasmas in the whistler frequency range. A linear theory of excitation of a plasma waveguide by an external source is developed using the quasistatic approximation. Self-consistent spatio-temporal distributions of the electric field of quasipotential waves and plasma density, which are solutions of the nonlinear nonstationary problem of the ionizing self-channeling of waves in plasmas are found on the basis of the linear theory.
Integrable quantum dynamics in two dimensions in crossed magnetic and electric fields
Asch, Joachim
2010-01-01
We consider the quantum dynamics of a single particle in the plane under the influence of a constant perpendicular magnetic and a crossed electric potential field. For a class of smooth and small potentials we construct an invariant of motion and thus we show that the motion is integrable. Do to so we show that the Hamiltonian is unitarily equivalent to an effective Hamiltonian which commutes with the observable of kinetic energy.
Semiclassical dynamics of a spin-1/2 in an arbitrary magnetic field
Alscher, Adrian; Grabert, Hermann
1999-01-01
The spin coherent state path integral describing the dynamics of a spin-1/2-system in a magnetic field of arbitrary time-dependence is considered. Defining the path integral as the limit of a Wiener regularized expression, the semiclassical approximation leads to a continuous minimal action path with jumps at the endpoints. The resulting semiclassical propagator is shown to coincide with the exact quantum mechanical propagator. A non-linear transformation of the angle variables allows for a d...
Dynamics of the Bogie of Maglev Train with Distributed Magnetic Forces
2015-01-01
A dynamic model of the bogie of maglev train with distributed magnetic forces and four identical levitating controllers is formulated. The vertical, pitching, and rolling degree of freedom of the electromagnet modules and their coupling are considered. The frequency responses of the bogie to track irregularity are investigated with numerical simulation. The results tell us that there are resonances related to the first electromagnetic suspension whose frequencies are determined by the control...
Quantum dynamics of a macroscopic magnet operating as an environment of a mechanical oscillator
Foti, C.; Cuccoli, A.; Verrucchi, P.
2016-12-01
We study the dynamics of a bipartite quantum system in a way such that its formal description keeps holding even if one of its parts becomes macroscopic; the problem is related to the analysis of the quantum-to-classical crossover, but our approach implies that the whole system stays genuinely quantum. The aim of the work is to understand (1) if, (2) to what extent, and possibly (3) how the evolution of a macroscopic environment testifies to the coupling with its microscopic quantum companion. To this purpose we consider a magnetic environment made of a large number of spin-1/2 particles, coupled with a quantum mechanical oscillator, possibly in the presence of an external magnetic field. We take the value of the total environmental spin S constant and large, which allows us to consider the environment as one single macroscopic system, and further deal with the hurdles of the spin-algebra via approximations that are valid in the large-S limit. We find an insightful expression for the propagator of the whole system, where we identify an effective "back-action" term, i.e., an operator acting on the magnetic environment only, and yet missing in the absence of the quantum principal system. This operator emerges as a time-dependent magnetic anisotropy whose character, whether uniaxial or planar, also depends on the detuning between the frequency of the oscillator and the level splitting in the spectrum of the free magnetic system, induced by the possible presence of the external field. The time dependence of the anisotropy is analyzed, and its effects on the dynamics of the magnet, as well as its relation to the entangling evolution of the overall system, are discussed.
Dynamic model tracking design for low inertia, high speed permanent magnet ac motors.
Stewart, P; Kadirkamanathan, V
2004-01-01
Permanent magnet ac (PMAC) motors have existed in various configurations for many years. The advent of rare-earth magnets and their associated highly elevated levels of magnetic flux makes the permanent magnet motor attractive for many high performance applications from computer disk drives to all electric racing cars. The use of batteries as a prime storage element carries a cost penalty in terms of the unladen weight of the vehicle. Minimizing this cost function requires the minimum electric motor size and weight to be specified, while still retaining acceptable levels of output torque. This tradeoff can be achieved by applying a technique known as flux weakening which will be investigated in this paper. The technique allows the speed range of a PMAC motor to be greatly increased, giving a constant power range of more than 4:1. A dynamic model reference controller is presented which has advantages in ease of implementation, and is particularly suited to dynamic low inertia applications such as clutchless gear changing in high performance electric vehicles. The benefits of this approach are to maximize the torque speed envelope of the motor, particularly advantageous when considering low inertia operation. The controller is examined experimentally, confirming the predicted performance.
Jaris, M.; Yahagi, Y.; Mahato, B. K.; Dhuey, S.; Cabrini, S.; Nikitin, V.; Stout, J.; Hawkins, A. R.; Schmidt, H.
2016-11-01
We report the all-optical observation of intrinsic spin dynamics and extraction of magnetic material parameters from arrays of sub-100 nm spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) devices with a CoFeB/MgO interface. To this end, the interference of surface acoustic waves with time-resolved magneto-optic signals via magneto-elastic coupling was suppressed using a dielectric coating. The efficacy of this method is demonstrated experimentally and via modeling on a nickel nanomagnet array. The magnetization dynamics for both coated nickel and STT-MRAM arrays shows a restored field-dependent Kittel mode from which the effective damping can be extracted. We observe an increased low-field damping due to extrinsic contributions from magnetic inhomogeneities and variations in the nanomagnet shape, while the intrinsic Gilbert damping remains unaffected by patterning. The data are in excellent agreement with a local resonance model and have direct implications for the design of STT-MRAM devices as well as other nanoscale spintronic technologies.
Nonlinear damping effects in spin torque dynamics of magnetic tunnel junctions
Barsukov, Igor; Chen, Yu-Jin; Lee, Han Kyu; Goncalves, Alexandre; Katine, Jordan; Arias, Rodrigo; Ivanov, Boris; Krivorotov, Ilya
2015-03-01
Performance of nanoscale spin torque devices such as memory (STT-MRAM) and auto-oscillators critically depends on magnetic relaxation. It is commonly assumed that magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin torque can be understood as simple competition between antidamping arising from spin torque and Gilbert damping of the free layer. However our experiments reveal that the situation is more complex and that nonlinear damping processes in the free layer of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) nanopillars can strongly alter spin torque driven dynamics. We study elliptical MTJ nanopillars with in-plane magnetizations of the free layer and SAF layers by spin torque ferromagnetic resonance. We find an excitation spectrum associated with standing spin waves of the free layer. By varying the external field, the energy of a higher-order spin wave mode becomes twice the energy of the main mode. This opens up a nonlinear, resonant relaxation channel, giving rise to a damping increase of approximately 20 percent. With increasing spin torque provided by a DC bias current, we find that this relaxation channel competes with antidamping in a nonlinear manner, increasingly contributing to and even dominating the relaxation at subcritical currents.
Dynamic origin of segment magnetization reversal in thin-film Penrose tilings
Montoncello, F.; Giovannini, L.; Farmer, B.; De Long, L.
2017-02-01
We investigate the low-frequency spin wave dynamics involved in the magnetization reversal of a Penrose P2 tiling using the dynamical matrix method. This system consists of a two-dimensional, connected wire network of elongated thin-film segments, whose complete reversal occurs as a cascade of successive local segment reversals. Using soft mode theory, we interpret the reversal of an individual segment as a first order magnetic transition, in which magnetization curve of the system suffers a small discontinuity. Near this discontinuity a specific mode of the spin wave spectrum goes soft (i.e., its frequency goes to zero), triggering a local instability of the magnetization. We show that this mode is localized, and is at the origin of the local reversal. We discuss the correlation of the mode spatial profile with the ;reversal mechanism;, which is the passage of a domain wall through the segment. This process differs from reversal in periodic square or honeycomb artificial spin ices, where a cascade of reversing segments (e.g., ;Dirac string;) follows an extended (though irregular) path across the sample; here the spatial distribution of successive segment reversals is discontinuous, but strictly associated with the area where a soft mode is localized. The migration of the localization area across the P2 tiling (during reversal in decreasing applied fields) depends on changes in the internal effective field map. We discuss these results in the context of spin wave localization due to the unique topology of the P2 tiling.
Dynamic Magnetic Responsive Wall Array with Droplet Shedding-off Properties.
Wang, Lei; Zhang, Miaoxin; Shi, Weiwei; Hou, Yongping; Liu, Chengcheng; Feng, Shile; Guo, Zhenyu; Zheng, Yongmei
2015-06-10
Directional control of droplets on a surface is an important issue for tasks of long-range liquid-transport, self-cleaning and water repellency. However, it is still challenging to control the structure motions in orientations so as to control the shedding-off of droplets. Herein, we report a novel dynamic magnetic responsive wall (DMRW) array on PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane)-based surface. The walls can easily tilt through the effect of the external magnet because of the magnetic material in the DMRW. The droplets can be shed off directionally on the surface. Particularly, with the shape recovery and flexible properties, it achieves simultaneous control of the tilt angles (0-60°) of DMRW for shedding-off of droplets with different volumes (1-15 μL) under magnetic action on DMRW. The mechanism of droplet shedding-off on DMRW is elucidated by theory of interfaces. It offers an insight into design of dynamic interface for water repellency. This strategy realizes the preparation of multifunctional, tunable and directional drive functions.
Spacecraft dynamics under the action of Y-dot magnetic control law
Zavoli, Alessandro; Giulietti, Fabrizio; Avanzini, Giulio; De Matteis, Guido
2016-05-01
The paper investigates the dynamic behavior of a spacecraft when a single magnetic torque-rod is used for achieving a pure spin condition by means of the so-called Y-dot control law. Global asymptotic convergence to a pure spin condition is proven on analytical grounds when the dipole moment is proportional to the rate of variation of the component of the magnetic field along the desired spin axis. Convergence of the spin axis towards the orbit normal is then explained by estimating the average magnetic control torque over one orbit. The validity of the analytical results, based on some simplifying assumptions and approximations, is finally investigated by means of numerical simulation for a fully non-linear attitude dynamic model, featuring a tilted dipole model for Earth's magnetic field. The analysis aims to support, in the framework of a sound mathematical basis, the development of effective control laws in realistic mission scenarios. Results are presented and discussed for relevant test cases.
Wlodarczyk, Przemyslaw; Zachorowski, Jerzy; Lipinski, Marcin
2012-01-01
We investigate one of the most sensitive devices for measuring magnetic fields, the, so-called, AMOR magnetometer. The device exploits a specific nonlinear optical phenomenon (amplitude-modulated nonlinear magneto-optical rotation) for ultra-precise magnetic field detection. It allows measuring the field with a sensitivity of 10^-14 T/Hz^-1/2 within a dynamic range of 10-4 T. Such high sensitivity and the dynamic range covering the Earth magnetic field are desired in context of many practical application of the device. By elaborating the electronic model of the magnetometer we study its different characteristics in various arrangements. It allows us to optimize the device regarding different requirements, e.g., technical simplicity, data processing, etc. It is shown that the device may be automated operating it in the self-oscillation mode. Particularly, we show that the magnetometer instantly responses to the magnetic field change. Our numerical analyses are confirmed with experimental results obtained in on...
Swanson, Scott D; Malyarenko, Dariya I; Fabiilli, Mario L; Welsh, Robert C; Nielsen, Jon-Fredrik; Srinivasan, Ashok
2017-03-01
To elucidate the dynamic, structural, and molecular properties that create inhomogeneous magnetization transfer (ihMT) contrast. Amphiphilic lipids, lamellar phospholipids with cholesterol, and bovine spinal cord (BSC) specimens were examined along with nonlipid systems. Magnetization transfer (MT), enhanced MT (eMT, obtained with double-sided radiofrequency saturation), ihMT (MT - eMT), and dipolar relaxation, T1D , were measured at 2.0 and 11.7 T. The amplitude of ihMT ratio (ihMTR) is positively correlated with T1D values. Both ihMTR and T1D increase with increasing temperature in BSC white matter and in phospholipids and decrease with temperature in other lipids. Changes in ihMTR with temperature arise primarily from alterations in MT rather than eMT. Spectral width of MT, eMT, and ihMT increases with increasing carbon chain length. Concerted motions of phospholipids in white matter decrease proton spin diffusion leading to increased proton T1D times and increased ihMT amplitudes, consistent with decoupling of Zeeman and dipolar spin reservoirs. Molecular specificity and dynamic sensitivity of ihMT contrast make it a suitable candidate for probing myelin membrane disorders. Magn Reson Med 77:1318-1328, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Robust dynamic sliding-mode control using adaptive RENN for magnetic levitation system.
Lin, Faa-Jeng; Chen, Syuan-Yi; Shyu, Kuo-Kai
2009-06-01
In this paper, a robust dynamic sliding mode control system (RDSMC) using a recurrent Elman neural network (RENN) is proposed to control the position of a levitated object of a magnetic levitation system considering the uncertainties. First, a dynamic model of the magnetic levitation system is derived. Then, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID)-type sliding-mode control system (SMC) is adopted for tracking of the reference trajectories. Moreover, a new PID-type dynamic sliding-mode control system (DSMC) is proposed to reduce the chattering phenomenon. However, due to the hardware being limited and the uncertainty bound being unknown of the switching function for the DSMC, an RDSMC is proposed to improve the control performance and further increase the robustness of the magnetic levitation system. In the RDSMC, an RENN estimator is used to estimate an unknown nonlinear function of lumped uncertainty online and replace the switching function in the hitting control of the DSMC directly. The adaptive learning algorithms that trained the parameters of the RENN online are derived using Lyapunov stability theorem. Furthermore, a robust compensator is proposed to confront the uncertainties including approximation error, optimal parameter vectors, and higher order terms in Taylor series. Finally, some experimental results of tracking the various periodic trajectories demonstrate the validity of the proposed RDSMC for practical applications.
Chaotic behavior of collective ion dynamics in the presence of an external static magnetic field
Poria, Swarup; Ghosh, Samiran
2016-06-01
The two-dimensional nonlinear collective ion dynamics in the presence of external magnetic field in an electron-ion plasma is investigated. The analysis is performed for traveling plane waves to elucidate the various aspects of the phase-space dynamics. The presence of magnetic field makes the dynamics of the nonlinear wave complex with a complicated phase-space behavior. Thus, the nonlinear wave supports a wide class of nonlinear structures viz., single soliton, multi-soliton, periodic, and quasi-periodic oscillations depending on the values of M (Mach number) and Ω (the ratio of ion gyro-frequency to the ion plasma frequency). The computational results predict the chaotic behavior of the nonlinear wave and the transition to chaos takes place when Ω ≳ 0.35 depending on the direction of propagation and the value of M. The amplitude of the wave depends on the obliqueness of the propagation and Mach number, whereas the magnetic field changes the dispersion properties of the wave.
Masuzawa, Toru; Ohta, Akiko; Tanaka, Nobuatu; Qian, Yi; Tsukiya, Tomonori
2009-01-01
The effect of the hydraulic force on magnetically levitated (maglev) pumps should be studied carefully to improve the suspension performance and the reliability of the pumps. A maglev centrifugal pump, developed at Ibaraki University, was modeled with 926 376 hexahedral elements for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. The pump has a fully open six-vane impeller with a diameter of 72.5 mm. A self-bearing motor suspends the impeller in the radial direction. The maximum pressure head and flow rate were 250 mmHg and 14 l/min, respectively. First, a steady-state analysis was performed using commercial code STAR-CD to confirm the model's suitability by comparing the results with the real pump performance. Second, transient analysis was performed to estimate the hydraulic force on the levitated impeller. The impeller was rotated in steps of 1 degrees using a sliding mesh. The force around the impeller was integrated at every step. The transient analysis revealed that the direction of the radial force changed dynamically as the vane's position changed relative to the outlet port during one circulation, and the magnitude of this force was about 1 N. The current maglev pump has sufficient performance to counteract this hydraulic force. Transient CFD analysis is not only useful for observing dynamic flow conditions in a centrifugal pump but is also effective for obtaining information about the levitation dynamics of a maglev pump.
Lee, Jongsu; Isto, Pekka; Jeong, Hakyung; Park, Janghoon; Lee, Dongjin; Shin, Kee-Hyun
2016-10-01
It is important to achieve high-precision register control in roll-to-roll continuous printing systems. Thus far, many studies on the dynamics of registers and tension and on register control techniques have identified register control as a problem of controlling and minimizing the disturbance of strain of the substrate. However, register control using printed register marks is necessary, and printing defects in creating these marks cause measurement errors. This study demonstrates by experimental verification that the measurement error is generated by the widening and agglomeration of the register mark. Furthermore, the error is shown to differ with the size and shape of the mark under identical printing conditions. The results illustrate the importance of improving the printing quality of the register mark, selecting the desired geometry for register marks with regard to printability, and utilizing an edge-detection algorithm in the control program for high-precision register control.
Dynamics of liquid metal droplets and jets influenced by a strong axial magnetic field
Hernández, D.; Karcher, Ch
2017-07-01
Non-contact electromagnetic control and shaping of liquid metal free surfaces is crucial in a number of high-temperature metallurgical processes like levitation melting and electromagnetic sealing, among others. Other examples are the electromagnetic bending or stabilization of liquid metal jets that frequently occur in casting or fusion applications. Within this context, we experimentally study the influence of strong axial magnetic fields on the dynamics of falling metal droplets and liquid metal jets. GaInSn in eutectic composition is used as test melt being liquid at room temperature. In the experiments, we use a cryogen-free superconducting magnet (CFM) providing steady homogeneous fields of up to 5 T and allowing a tilt angle between the falling melt and the magnet axis. We vary the magnetic flux density, the tilt angle, the liquid metal flow rate, and the diameter and material of the nozzle (electrically conducting/insulating). Hence, the experiments cover a parameter range of Hartmann numbers Ha, Reynolds numbers Re, and Weber numbers We within 0 magnetic field, droplet rotation ceases and the droplets are stretched in the field direction. Moreover, we observe that the jet breakup into droplets (spheroidization) is suppressed, and in the case of electrically conducting nozzles and tilt, the jets are bent towards the field axis.
Stepanovs, Deniss
2016-01-01
We investigate the accretion-ejection process of jets from magnetized accretion disks. We apply a novel approach to the jet-launching problem in order to obtain correlations between the physical properties of the jet and the underlying disk. We extend and confirm the previous works of \\citet{2009MNRAS.400..820T} and \\citet{2010A&A...512A..82M} by scanning a large parameter range for the disk magnetization, $\\mu_{\\rm D} = 10^{-3.5} ... 10^{-0.7}$. We disentangle the disk magnetization at the foot point of the outflow as the main parameter that governs the properties of the outflow. We show how the four jet integrals known from steady-state MHD are correlated to the disk magnetization at the jet foot point. This agrees with the usual findings of the steady-state theory, however, here we obtain these correlations from time-dependent simulations that include the dynamical evolution of the disk in the treatment. In particular, we obtain robust correlations between the local disk magnetization and (i)the outflo...
Dynamic writing of magnetic domains in GdTbFe: Observations made by Lorentz microscopy
Greidanus, F. J. A. M.; Jacobs, B. A. J.; den Broeder, F. J. A.; Spruit, J. H. M.; Rosenkranz, M.
1989-11-01
In this paper the sizes and shapes of thermally written magnetic domains in a GdTbFe layer are discussed. The magneto-optical layer is deposited on a specially prepared silicon wafer disk, provided with Si3N4 windows. This allows dynamic writing of domains under realistic recording conditions on a rotating substrate and direct observation of the magnetization patterns in the transmission electron microscope, using Lorentz microscopy. Domain patterns were written in two different ways: With the first method, laser modulation (LM), the laser beam was modulated while applying a fixed field. In the second method, magnetic field modulation (MFM), the laser was on continuously and the applied magnetic field was modulated. With LM it was observed that both size and shape are closely dependent on the magnitude of the applied field. This behavior is in good agreement with observations made with optical readout of similar magneto-optical disks. Domains written with MFM have somewhat irregular contours. The degree of irregularity depends on the magnitude of the applied magnetic field and its switching time. Reduction of these irregularities can be achieved by simultaneously modulating the laser beam.
Dynamic writing of magnetic domains in GdTbFe: Observations made by Lorentz microscopy
Greidanus, F.J.A.M.; Jacobs, B.A.J.; den Broeder, F.J.A.; Spruit, J.H.M. (Philips Research Laboratories, P.O. Box 80.000, 5600 JA, Eindhoven, The Netherlands (NL)); Rosenkranz, M. (Philips GmbH Forschungslaboratorium Hamburg, D-2000 Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany (DE))
1989-11-15
In this paper the sizes and shapes of thermally written magnetic domains in a GdTbFe layer are discussed. The magneto-optical layer is deposited on a specially prepared silicon wafer disk, provided with Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} windows. This allows dynamic writing of domains under realistic recording conditions on a rotating substrate and direct observation of the magnetization patterns in the transmission electron microscope, using Lorentz microscopy. Domain patterns were written in two different ways: With the first method, laser modulation (LM), the laser beam was modulated while applying a fixed field. In the second method, magnetic field modulation (MFM), the laser was on continuously and the applied magnetic field was modulated. With LM it was observed that both size and shape are closely dependent on the magnitude of the applied field. This behavior is in good agreement with observations made with optical readout of similar magneto-optical disks. Domains written with MFM have somewhat irregular contours. The degree of irregularity depends on the magnitude of the applied magnetic field and its switching time. Reduction of these irregularities can be achieved by simultaneously modulating the laser beam.
Chwiej, T.
2017-10-01
We report on possibility of charge current generation in nanowire made of two tunnel coupled one-dimensional electron waveguides by means of single magnetic pulse lasting up to 20 ps. Existence of interlayer tunnel coupling plays a crucial role in the effect described here as it allows for hybridization of the wave functions localized in different layers which can be dynamically modified by applying a time changeable in-plane magnetic field. Results of time-dependent DFT calculations performed for a bilayer nanowire confining many electrons show that the effect of such magnetic hybridization relies on tilting of electrons' energy subbands, to the left or to the right, depending on a sign of time derivative of oscillating magnetic field due to the Faraday law. Consequently, the tilted subbands become a source of charge flow along the wire. Strength of such magneto-induced current oscillations may achieve even 0.6 μA but it depends on duration of magnetic pulse as well as on charge density confined in nanowire which has to be unequally distributed between both transport layers to observe this effect.
Stepinski, Tomasz F.; Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio; Vanhala, Harri A. T.
1993-01-01
A hydromagnetic dynamo provides the best mechanism for contemporaneously producing magnetic fields in a turbulent solar nebula. We investigate the solar nebula in the framework of a steady-state accretion disk model and establish the criteria for a viable nebular dynamo. We have found that typically a magnetic gap exists in the nebula, the region where the degree of ionization is too small for the magnetic field to couple to the gas. The location and width of this gap depend on the particular model; the supposition is that gaps cover different parts of the nebula at different evolutionary stages. We have found, from several dynamical constraints, that the generated magnetic field is likely to saturate at a strength equal to equipartition with the kinetic energy of turbulence. Maxwell stress arising from a large-scale magnetic field may significantly influence nebular structure, and Maxwell stress due to small-scale fields can actually dominate other stresses in the inner parts of the nebula. We also argue that the bulk of nebular gas, within the scale height from the midplane, is stable against Balbus-Hawley instability.
Kuznetsova, M. M.; Hesse, M.; Rastaetter, L.; Toth, G.; DeZeeuw, D. L.; Gombosi, T. I.
2008-01-01
Magnetotail current sheet thinning and magnetic reconnection are key elements of magnetospheric substorms. We utilized the global MHD model BATS-R-US with Adaptive Mesh Refinement developed at the University of Michigan to investigate the formation and dynamic evolution of the magnetotail thin current sheet. The BATSRUS adaptive grid structure allows resolving magnetotail regions with increased current density up to ion kinetic scales. We investigated dynamics of magnetotail current sheet thinning in response to southwards IMF turning. Gradual slow current sheet thinning during the early growth phase become exponentially fast during the last few minutes prior to nightside reconnection onset. The later stage of current sheet thinning is accompanied by earthward flows and rapid suppression of normal magnetic field component $B-z$. Current sheet thinning set the stage for near-earth magnetic reconnection. In collisionless magnetospheric plasma, the primary mechanism controlling the dissipation in the vicinity of the reconnection site is non-gyrotropic effects with spatial scales comparable with the particle Larmor radius. One of the major challenges in global MHD modeling of the magnetotail magnetic reconnection is to reproduce fast reconnection rates typically observed in smallscale kinetic simulations. Bursts of fast reconnection cause fast magnetic field reconfiguration typical for magnetospheric substorms. To incorporate nongyritropic effects in diffusion regions we developed an algorithm to search for magnetotail reconnection sites, specifically where the magnetic field components perpendicular to the local current direction approaches zero and form an X-type configuration. Spatial scales of the diffusion region and magnitude of the reconnection electric field are calculated self-consistently using MHD plasma and field parameters in the vicinity of the reconnection site. The location of the reconnection sites and spatial scales of the diffusion region are updated
Magnetohydrodynamics dynamical relaxation of coronal magnetic fields. III. 3D spiral nulls
Fuentes-Fernández, J.; Parnell, C. E.
2012-08-01
Context. The majority of studies on stressed 3D magnetic null points consider magnetic reconnection driven by an external perturbation, but the formation of a genuine current sheet equilibrium remains poorly understood. This problem has been considered more extensively in two dimensions, but lacks a generalization into 3D fields. Aims: 3D magnetic nulls are more complex than 2D nulls and the field can take a greater range of magnetic geometries local to the null. Here, we focus on one type and consider the dynamical non-resistive relaxation of 3D spiral nulls with initial spine-aligned current. We aim to provide a valid magnetohydrostatic equilibrium, and describe the electric current accumulations in various cases, involving a finite plasma pressure. Methods: A full MHD code was used, with the resistivity set to zero so that reconnection is not allowed, to run a series of experiments in which a perturbed spiral 3D null point was allowed to relax towards an equilibrium via real, viscous damping forces. Changes to the initial plasma pressure and other magnetic parameters were systematically investigated. Results: For the axisymmetric case, the evolution of the field and the plasma is such that it concentrates the current density into two cone-shaped regions along the spine, thus concentrating the twist of the magnetic field around the spine, leaving a radial configuration in the fan plane. The plasma pressure redistributes to maintain the current density accumulations. However, it is found that changes in the initial plasma pressure do not significantly modify the final state. In the cases where the initial magnetic field is not axisymmetric, an infinite-time singularity of current perpendicular to the fan is found at the location of the null.
Jiang, Yan-Fei; Cantiello, Matteo; Bildsten, Lars; Quataert, Eliot; Blaes, Omer
2017-07-01
We use three-dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations to study the effects of magnetic fields on the energy transport and structure of radiation pressure-dominated main sequence massive star envelopes at the region of the iron opacity peak. We focus on the regime where the local thermal timescale is shorter than the dynamical timescale, corresponding to inefficient convective energy transport. We begin with initially weak magnetic fields relative to the thermal pressure, from 100 to 1000 G in differing geometries. The unstable density inversion amplifies the magnetic field, increasing the magnetic energy density to values close to equipartition with the turbulent kinetic energy density. By providing pressure support, the magnetic field’s presence significantly increases the density fluctuations in the turbulent envelope, thereby enhancing the radiative energy transport by allowing photons to diffuse out through low-density regions. Magnetic buoyancy brings small-scale magnetic fields to the photosphere and increases the vertical energy transport, with the energy advection velocity proportional to the Alfvén velocity, although in all cases we study, photon diffusion still dominates the energy transport. The increased radiative and advective energy transport causes the stellar envelope to shrink by several scale heights. We also find larger turbulent velocity fluctuations compared with the purely hydrodynamic case, reaching ≈ 100 {{{km}}{{s}}}-1 at the stellar photosphere. The photosphere also shows vertical oscillations with similar averaged velocities and periods of a few hours. The increased turbulent velocity and oscillations will have strong impacts on the line broadening and periodic signals in massive stars.
Wiedenmann, A.; Keiderling, U.; Meissner, M.; Wallacher, D.; Gähler, R.; May, R.P.; Prévost, S.; Klokkenburg, M.; Erne, B.H.; Kohlbrecher, J.
2008-01-01
The dynamics of ordering and relaxation processes in magnetic colloids has been studied by means of stroboscopic small angle neutron scattering techniques in an oscillating magnetic field. Surfactant stabilized ferrofluids (FFs) of Fe3O4 and Co nanoparticles have been investigated as a function of t
Fully Suspended, Five-Axis, Three-Magnetic-Bearing Dynamic Spin Rig With Forced Excitation
Morrison, Carlos R.; Provenza, Andrew; Kurkov, Anatole; Montague, Gerald; Duffy, Kirsten; Mehmed, Oral; Johnson, Dexter; Jansen, Ralph
2004-01-01
The Five-Axis, Three-Magnetic-Bearing Dynamic Spin Rig, a significant advancement in the Dynamic Spin Rig (DSR), is used to perform vibration tests of turbomachinery blades and components under rotating and nonrotating conditions in a vacuum. The rig has as its critical components three magnetic bearings: two heteropolar radial active magnetic bearings and a magnetic thrust bearing. The bearing configuration allows full vertical rotor magnetic suspension along with a feed-forward control feature, which will enable the excitation of various natural blade modes in bladed disk test articles. The theoretical, mechanical, electrical, and electronic aspects of the rig are discussed. Also presented are the forced-excitation results of a fully levitated, rotating and nonrotating, unbladed rotor and a fully levitated, rotating and nonrotating, bladed rotor in which a pair of blades was arranged 180 degrees apart from each other. These tests include the bounce mode excitation of the rotor in which the rotor was excited at the blade natural frequency of 144 Hz. The rotor natural mode frequency of 355 Hz was discerned from the plot of acceleration versus frequency. For nonrotating blades, a blade-tip excitation amplitude of approximately 100 g/A was achieved at the first-bending critical (approximately 144 Hz) and at the first-torsional and second-bending blade modes. A blade-tip displacement of 70 mils was achieved at the first-bending critical by exciting the blades at a forced-excitation phase angle of 908 relative to the vertical plane containing the blades while simultaneously rotating the shaft at 3000 rpm.
Amjad, A.; Clemente-Juan, J. M.; Coronado, E.; Luis, F.; Evangelisti, M.; Espallargas, G. Mínguez; del Barco, E.
2016-06-01
Low-temperature magnetometry, ac susceptibility, and calorimetry have been employed to study Co-based single-chain magnets (SCMs) organized through halogen bonding. Magnetic hysteresis and maxima in the dc and ac susceptibilities, respectively, confirm the SCM behavior of the system. Several characteristic magnetic relaxation regimes are observed at different temperatures, which can be associated with both intra- and interchain exchange interactions. Remarkably, tweaking the rate at which an external magnetic field is swept along the axis of the chains enables a controlled transition between the one- and three-dimensional dynamics. Experiments on an isostructural Co-based SCM system crystallized with different halogens do not show three-dimensional dynamics, illustrating the importance of halogen bonding on the control of interchain interactions.
Sauer, D.; Schuster, B.; Rosenstihl, M.; Schneider, S.; Blochowicz, T.; Stühn, B.; Vogel, M. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Hochschulstraße 6, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Talluto, V.; Walther, T. [Institut für Angewandte Physik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 7, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)
2014-03-21
We combine {sup 2}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS), and triplet solvation dynamics (TSD) to investigate molecular dynamics in glass-forming mixtures of water and propylene glycol in very broad time and temperature ranges. All methods yield consistent results for the α process of the studied mixtures, which hardly depends on the composition and shows Vogel-Fulcher temperature dependence as well as Cole-Davidson spectral shape. The good agreement between BDS and TDS data reveals that preferential solvation of dye molecules in microheterogeneous mixtures does not play an important role. Below the glass transition temperature T{sub g}, NMR and BDS studies reveal that the β process of the mixtures shows correlation times, which depend on the water concentration, but exhibit a common temperature dependence, obeying an Arrhenius law with an activation energy of E{sub a} = 0.54 eV, as previously reported for mixtures of water with various molecular species. Detailed comparison of NMR and BDS correlation functions for the β process unravels that the former decay faster and more stretched than the latter. Moreover, the present NMR data imply that propylene glycol participates in the β process and, hence, it is not a pure water process, and that the mechanism for molecular dynamics underlying the β process differs in mixtures of water with small and large molecules.
Ablation dynamics in wire array Z-pinches under modifications on global magnetic field topology
Veloso, Felipe, E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl; Muñoz-Cordovez, Gonzalo; Donoso-Tapia, Luis; Valenzuela-Villaseca, Vicente; Favre, Mario; Wyndham, Edmund [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Suzuki-Vidal, Francisco; Swadling, George; Chittenden, Jeremy [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)
2015-07-15
The dynamics of ablation streams and precursor plasma in cylindrical wire array Z-pinches under temporal variations of the global magnetic field topology is investigated through experiments and numerical simulations. The wire arrays in these experiments are modified by replacing a pair of consecutive wires with wires of a larger diameter. This modification leads to two separate effects, both of which impact the dynamics of the precursor plasma; firstly, current is unevenly distributed between the wires and secondly, the thicker wires take longer to fully ablate. The uneven distribution of current is evidenced in the experiments by the drift of the precursor off axis due to a variation in the global magnetic field topology which modifies the direction of the ablation streams tracking the precursor position. The variation of the global magnetic field due to the presence of thick wires is studied with three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, showing that the global field changes from the expected toroidal field to a temporally variable topology after breakages appear in the thin wires. This leads to an observed acceleration of the precursor column towards the region closer to the thick wires and later, when thick wires also present breakages, it continues moving away from the original array position as a complicated and disperse object subject to MHD instabilities.
Registering Researchers in Authority Files
Smith-Yoshimura, Karen; Altman, Micah; Conlon, Michael; Cristán, Ana Lupe; Dawson, Laura; Dunham, Joanne; Hickey, Thom; Hook, Daniel; Horstmann, Wolfram; MacEwan, Andrew; Schreur, Philip; Smart, Laura; Wacker, Melanie; Woutersen, Saskia
2014-01-01
Written by OCLC Research Program Officer Karen Smith-Yoshimura and the 13 members of the Registering Researchers in Authority Files Task Group comprised of specialists from the US, UK, and the Netherlands, this report summarizes their research into approaches to providing authoritative researcher identifiers. Registering researchers in some type…
The Danish National Patient Register
Lynge, Elsebeth; Sandegaard, Jakob Lynge; Rebolj, Matejka
2011-01-01
The Danish National Patient Register (NPR) was established in 1977, and it is considered to be the finest of its kind internationally.......The Danish National Patient Register (NPR) was established in 1977, and it is considered to be the finest of its kind internationally....
Probing the Interior Dynamics of Jupiter and Saturn with Gravity and Magnetic Fields
Cao, H.; Stevenson, D. J.
2015-12-01
The inner working of solar system gas giant planets remain elusive after decades of exploration. One lasting debate concerns the nature of east-west zonal flows observed on the cloud level of these planets with amplitude on the order of 100 m/s: an observational fact is yet to be established about whether these flows are shallow atmospheric dynamics or surface expression of deep interior dynamics. There is a good chance that such an observational fact can be established within the next few years, given the upcoming gravity and magnetic field measurements to be carried out by the Juno mission and the Cassini Grand Finale. In this presentation, I will first describe a critical assessment of the applicability of the thermal wind equation (TWE) in calculating the gravity field associated with deep zonal flows. The TWE, which is a local diagnostic relation, captures the local density variations associated with the zonal flows while neglects the global shape change and density variations with non-local origins. Our analysis shows that the global corrections to the high degree gravity moments are small (less than a few tens of percent). Our analysis also shows that the applicability of the TWE in calculating the gravity moments does depend crucially on retaining the non-sphericity of the background density and gravity. Only when the background non-sphericity of the planet is taken into account in the calculation, the thermal wind equation (TWE) makes accurate enough prediction for the high-degree gravity moments associated with deep zonal flows (with errors less than a few tens of percent). I will then turn to the magnetic signals associated with deep zonal flows. Using mean field dynamo theory (MFDT), we show that detectable magnetic signals are expected: in the spatial domain, poloidal magnetic fields spatially correlated with deep zonal flows are expected; in the temporal domain, periodic oscillations of the poloidal magnetic field are expected. The period of the
2013-01-01
The Registration of Bx, By, Bz - vector components of the Earth's magnetic field, with a time resolution in 1 second is carried out on magnetic observatory " Odessa". . Results of calculated module of a full vector of magnetic field variations for 2008-2010 are analyzed. "The quasi-daily period" of solar dynamics is determined by wavelet analysis. The daily period and the spectra of shorter duration periods are substracted by digital filtering method. In consequence of the recieved data magn...
Qian Xie
2016-07-01
Full Text Available This paper pays attention to magnetic flux linkage optimization of a direct-driven surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (D-SPMSG. A new compact representation of the D-SPMSG nonlinear dynamic differential equations to reduce system parameters is established. Furthermore, the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of new D-SPMSG equations in the process of varying magnetic flux linkage are considered, which are illustrated by Lyapunov exponent spectrums, phase orbits, Poincaré maps, time waveforms and bifurcation diagrams, and the magnetic flux linkage stable region of D-SPMSG is acquired concurrently. Based on the above modeling and analyses, a novel method of magnetic flux linkage optimization is presented. In addition, a 2 MW D-SPMSG 2D/3D model is designed by ANSYS software according to the practical design requirements. Finally, five cases of D-SPMSG models with different magnetic flux linkages are simulated by using the finite element analysis (FEA method. The nephograms of magnetic flux density are agreement with theoretical analysis, which both confirm the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Control Study for Five-axis Dynamic Spin Rig Using Magnetic Bearings
Choi, Benjamin; Johnson, Dexter; Provenza, Andrew; Morrison, Carlos; Montague, Gerald
2003-01-01
The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed a magnetic bearing system for the Dynamic Spin Rig (DSR) with a fully suspended shaft that is used to perform vibration tests of turbomachinery blades and components under spinning conditions in a vacuum. Two heteropolar radial magnetic bearings and a thrust magnetic bearing and the associated control system were integrated into the DSR to provide magnetic excitation as well as non-contact mag- netic suspension of a 15.88 kg (35 lb) vertical rotor with blades to induce turbomachinery blade vibration. For rotor levitation, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller with a special feature for multidirectional radial excitation worked well to both support and shake the shaft with blades. However, more advanced controllers were developed and successfully tested to determine the optimal controller in terms of sensor and processing noise reduction, smaller rotor orbits, more blade vibration amplitude, and energy savings for the system. The test results of a variety of controllers that were demonstrated up to 10.000 rpm are shown. Furthermore, rotor excitation operation and conceptual study of active blade vibration control are addressed.
Dynamical Relaxation of Coronal Magnetic Fields. III. 3D Spiral Nulls
Fuentes-Fernandez, Jorge
2012-01-01
Context: The majority of studies on stressed 3D magnetic null points consider magnetic reconnection driven by an external perturbation, but the formation of a genuine current sheet equilibrium remains poorly understood. This problem has been considered more extensively in two-dimensions, but lacks a generalization into 3D fields. Aims: 3D magnetic nulls are more complex than 2D nulls and the field can take a greater range of magnetic geometries local to the null. Here, we focus on one type and consider the dynamical non-resistive relaxation of 3D spiral nulls with initial spine-aligned current. We aim to provide a valid magnetohydrostatic equilibrium, and describe the electric current accumulations in various cases, involving a finite plasma pressure. Methods: A full MHD code is used, with the resistivity set to zero so that reconnection is not allowed, to run a series of experiments in which a perturbed spiral 3D null point is allowed to relax towards an equilibrium, via real, viscous damping forces. Changes...
Formation and dynamics of large-scale magnetic structures in the ionosphere of Venus
Cloutier, P. A.
1984-01-01
The formation and dynamics of large-scale magnetic structures in the ionosphere of Venus are examined. It is shown that such structures must be the result of steady state convection of interplanetary field lines into the ionosphere by the small amount of solar wind plasma (less than or approximately equal to 1-5 percent) absorbed by the planetary atmosphere below the ionopause, rather than isolated remnants of large fields persisting for long periods without connection to the solar wind induced current and convection pattern. In particular, it is demonstrated that the magnetic diffusion of such structures would result in their dissipation with time scales of 1-10 min, if they were not steady state structures in convective and diffusive equilibriuim. It is shown that the equations governing the diffusion of these magnetic structures are similar to those governing diffusion of a gas out of an enclosed chamber with a porous wall, and a simple analog is illustrated. The application of these results to magnetic fields of astrophysical plasmas is discussed.
Viriato: A Fourier-Hermite spectral code for strongly magnetized fluid-kinetic plasma dynamics
Loureiro, N. F.; Dorland, W.; Fazendeiro, L.; Kanekar, A.; Mallet, A.; Vilelas, M. S.; Zocco, A.
2016-09-01
We report on the algorithms and numerical methods used in Viriato, a novel fluid-kinetic code that solves two distinct sets of equations: (i) the Kinetic Reduced Electron Heating Model (KREHM) equations (Zocco and Schekochihin, 2011) (which reduce to the standard Reduced-MHD equations in the appropriate limit) and (ii) the kinetic reduced MHD (KRMHD) equations (Schekochihin et al., 2009). Two main applications of these equations are magnetized (Alfvénic) plasma turbulence and magnetic reconnection. Viriato uses operator splitting (Strang or Godunov) to separate the dynamics parallel and perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field (assumed strong). Along the magnetic field, Viriato allows for either a second-order accurate MacCormack method or, for higher accuracy, a spectral-like scheme composed of the combination of a total variation diminishing (TVD) third order Runge-Kutta method for the time derivative with a 7th order upwind scheme for the fluxes. Perpendicular to the field Viriato is pseudo-spectral, and the time integration is performed by means of an iterative predictor-corrector scheme. In addition, a distinctive feature of Viriato is its spectral representation of the parallel velocity-space dependence, achieved by means of a Hermite representation of the perturbed distribution function. A series of linear and nonlinear benchmarks and tests are presented, including a detailed analysis of 2D and 3D Orszag-Tang-type decaying turbulence, both in fluid and kinetic regimes.
Zuo, Pingbing; Feng, Xueshang; Wang, Yi [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Xie, Yanqiong [College of Meteorology and Oceanography, PLA University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China); Xu, Xiaojun, E-mail: pbzuo@spaceweather.ac.cn, E-mail: fengx@spaceweather.ac.cn [Space Science Institute, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macao (China)
2015-10-20
In this investigation, we first present a statistical result of the interplanetary sources of very strong solar wind dynamic pressure pulses (DPPs) detected by WIND during solar cycle 23. It is found that the vast majority of strong DPPs reside within solar wind disturbances. Although the variabilities of geosynchronous magnetic fields (GMFs) due to the impact of positive DPPs have been well established, there appears to be no systematic investigations on the response of GMFs to negative DPPs. Here, we study both the decompression effects of very strong negative DPPs and the compression from strong positive DPPs on GMFs at different magnetic local time sectors. In response to the decompression of strong negative DPPs, GMFs on the dayside near dawn and near dusk on the nightside, are generally depressed. But near the midnight region, the responses of GMF are very diverse, being either positive or negative. For part of the events when GOES is located at the midnight sector, the GMF is found to abnormally increase as the result of magnetospheric decompression caused by negative DPPs. It is known that under certain conditions magnetic depression of nightside GMFs can be caused by the impact of positive DPPs. Here, we find that a stronger pressure enhancement may have a higher probability of producing the exceptional depression of GMF at the midnight region. Statistically, both the decompression effect of strong negative DPPs and the compression effect of strong positive DPPs depend on the magnetic local time, which are stronger at the noon sector.
Dynamic magnetization models for soft ferromagnetic materials with coarse and fine domain structures
Zirka, S.E., E-mail: zirka@email.dp.ua [Department of Physics and Technology, Dnepropetrovsk National University, Gagarin 72, 49050 Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine); Moroz, Y.I. [Department of Physics and Technology, Dnepropetrovsk National University, Gagarin 72, 49050 Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine); Steentjes, S.; Hameyer, K. [Institute of Electrical Machines, RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 4, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Chwastek, K. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, al. AK 17, 42-201 Czestochowa (Poland); Zurek, S. [Megger Instruments Ltd., Archcliffe Road, Dover, Kent, CT17 9EN (United Kingdom); Harrison, R.G. [Department of Electronics, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada K1S 5B6 (Canada)
2015-11-15
We consider dynamic models, both numerical and analytical, that reproduce the magnetization field H(B) and the energy loss in ferromagnetic sheet materials with different domain structures. Conventional non-oriented (NO) and grain-oriented (GO) electrical steels are chosen as typical representatives of fine-domain and coarse-domain materials. The commonly-accepted loss separation procedures in these materials are critically analyzed. The use of a well-known simplified (“classical”) expression for the eddy-current loss is identified as the primary source of mistaken evaluations of excess loss in NO steel, in which the loss components can only be evaluated using the Maxwell (penetration) equation. The situation is quite different in GO steel, in which the loss separation is uncertain, but the total dynamic loss is several times higher than that explained by any version (numerical or analytical) of the classical approach. To illustrate the uncertainty of the loss separation in GO steel, we show that the magnetization field, and thus the total loss, in this material can be represented with equal accuracy using either the existing three-component approach or our proposed two-component technique, which makes no distinction between classical eddy-current and excess fields and losses. - Highlights: • Critical analysis of a ferromagnetic-material loss-separation principle. • This is to warn materials-science engineers about the inaccuracies resulting from this principle. • A transient model having a single dynamic component is proposed.
Sardanelli, F.; Lupo, P.; Esseridou, A.; Fausto, A.; Quarenghi, M. [Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy). Depts. of Radiology, Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology Center
2006-02-15
Mammography and ultrasound indicated a cancer of the right breast in a 77-year-old woman with a dual-chamber demand pacemaker. The patient was not pacemaker-dependent. She underwent breast 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (dynamic gradient echo sequence with Gd-DOTA 0.1 mmol/kg). Before the patient entered the MR room, the configuration of the device was changed (the response to magnet was switched from asynchronous to off and the rate-responsive algorithm was disabled). No relevant modifications of heart rhythm or rate were observed during the MR examination. No symptom was reported. Immediately after the examination, the pacemaker interrogation showed neither program changes nor alert warnings. MRI detected a bifocal cancer in the right breast which allowed tailored breast-conserving treatment to be initiated. Histopathology confirmed a bifocal invasive ductal carcinoma.
Dynamic properties of magnets with spin S = 3/2 and non-Heisenberg isotropic interaction
Kosmachev, O. A.; Fridman, Yu. A., E-mail: yuriifridman@gmail.com [Vernadsky Taurida National University (Russian Federation); Galkina, E. G. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Physics (Ukraine); Ivanov, B. A. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Magnetism (Ukraine)
2015-02-15
The dynamic properties of a magnet with magnetic-ion spin of 3/2 and an isotropic spin interaction of a general form have been investigated. Only four phase states can be realized in the system under consideration at various relationships between the material parameters: the ferro- and antiferromagnetic phases with saturated spin and the states with tensor order parameters, the nematic and antinematic ones. For these phases, the spontaneous symmetry breaking is determined by the octupole order parameter containing the mean values trilinear in spin operator components at a given site. The spectra of elementary excitations have been determined in all phases. Additional branches of excitations arise in all four phase states.
On the electron dynamics during island coalescence in asymmetric magnetic reconnection
Cazzola, Emanuele; Markidis, Stefano; Goldman, Martin V; Newman, David L; Lapenta, Giovanni
2015-01-01
We present an analysis of the electron dynamics during rapid island merging in asymmetric magnetic reconnection. We consider a doubly periodic system with two asymmetric transitions. The upper layer is an asymmetric Harris sheet initially perturbed to promote a single reconnection site. The lower layer is a tangential discontinuity that promotes the formation of many X-points, separated by rapidly merging islands. Across both layers the magnetic field and the density have a strong jump, but the pressure is held constant. Our analysis focuses on the consequences of electron energization during island coalescence. We focus first on the parallel and perpendicular components of the electron temperature to establish the presence of possible anisotropies and non-gyrotropies. Thanks to the direct comparison between the two different layers simulated, we can distinguish three main types of behavior characteristic of three different regions of interest. The first type represents the regions where traditional asymmetri...
The structure and dynamics of self-assembling colloidal monolayers in oscillating magnetic fields
Koser, Alison E; Arratia, Paulo E
2013-01-01
Many fascinating phenomena such as large-scale collective flows, enhanced fluid mixing and pattern formation have been observed in so-called active fluids, which are composed of particles that can absorb energy and dissipate it into the fluid medium. For active particles immersed in liquids, fluid-mediated viscous stresses can play an important role on the emergence of collective behavior. Here, we experimentally investigate their role in the dynamics of self-assembling magnetically-driven colloidal particles which can rapidly form organized hexagonal structures. We find that viscous stresses reduce hexagonal ordering, generate smaller clusters, and significantly decrease the rate of cluster formation, all while holding the system at constant number density. Furthermore, we show that time and length scales of cluster formation depend on the Mason number (Mn), or ratio of viscous to magnetic forces, scaling as t / Mn and L / Mn^(1/2). Our results suggest that viscous stresses hinder collective behavior in a se...
Sarri, G; Cecchetti, C A; Kar, S; Liseykina, T V; Yang, X H; Dieckmann, M E; Fuchs, J; Galimberti, M; Gizzi, L A; Jung, R; Kourakis, I; Osterholz, J; Pegoraro, F; Robinson, A P L; Romagnani, L; Willi, O; Borghesi, M
2012-01-01
The dynamics of magnetic fields with amplitude of several tens of Megagauss, generated at both sides of a solid target irradiated with a high intensity (? 1019W/cm2) picosecond laser pulse, has been spatially and temporally resolved using a proton imaging technique. The amplitude of the magnetic fields is sufficiently large to have a constraining effect on the radial expansion of the plasma sheath at the target surfaces. These results, supported by numerical simulations and simple analytical modeling, may have implications for ion acceleration driven by the plasma sheath at the rear side of the target as well as for the laboratory study of self-collimated high-energy plasma jets.
Non-linear dynamics of Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable magnetized jets three-dimensional effects
Keppens, R
1999-01-01
A numerical study of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in compressible magnetohydrodynamics is presented. The three-dimensional simulations consider shear flow in a cylindrical jet configuration, embedded in a uniform magnetic field directed along the jet axis. The growth of linear perturbations at specified poloidal and axial mode numbers demonstrate intricate non-linear coupling effects. The physical mechanims leading to induced secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at higher mode numbers are identified. The initially weak magnetic field becomes locally dominant in the non-linear dynamics before and during saturation. Thereby, it controls the jet deformation and eventual breakup. The results are obtained using the Versatile Advection Code [G. Toth, Astrophys. Lett. Comm. 34, 245 (1996)], a software package designed to solve general systems of conservation laws. An independent calculation of the same Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable jet configuration using a three-dimensional pseudo-spectral code gives important ...
Multi-Slice Magnetic Resonance Imaging with the Dynamic Multi-Coil Technique
Juchem, Christoph; Nahhass, Omar M.; Nixon, Terence W.; de Graaf, Robin A.
2015-01-01
To date, spatial encoding for MRI is based on linear X, Y and Z field gradients generated by dedicated X, Y and Z wire patterns. We recently introduced the Dynamic Multi-Coil Technique (DYNAMITE) for the generation of magnetic field shapes for biomedical MR applications from a set of individually driven localized coils. The benefits for B0 magnetic field homogenization have been shown as well as proof-of-principle of radial and algebraic MRI. In this study the potential of DYNAMITE MRI is explored further and the first multi-slice MRI implementation is presented in which all gradient fields are purely DYNAMITE-based. The obtained image fidelity is shown to be virtually identical to a conventional MRI system with dedicated X, Y and Z gradient coils. Comparable image quality is a milestone towards the establishment of fully functional DYNAMITE MRI (and shim) systems. PMID:26419649
Chaotic Dynamics of Test Particle in the Gravitational Field with Magnetic Dipoles
CHEN Ju-Hua; WANG Yong-Jiu
2003-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of the test particle in the gravitational field with magnetic dipoles in thispaper. At first we study the gravitational potential by numerical simulations. We find, for appropriate parameters, thatthere are two different cases in the potential curve, one of which is the one-well case with a stable critical point, and theother is the three-well case with three stable critical points and two unstable ones. As a consequence, the chaotic motionwill rise. By performing the evolution of the orbits of the test particle in the phase space, we find that the orbits of thetest particle randomly oscillate without any periods, even sensitively depending on the initial conditions and parameters.chaotic motion of the test particle in the field with magnetic dipoles becomes even obvious as the value of the magneticdipoles increases.
Complex high-frequency magnetization dynamics and magnetoimpedance in thin films
Silva, R.B. da [Departamento de Fisica, CCNE, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: rbarreto1975@gmail.com; Viegas, A.D.C. [Departamento de Fisica, CCNE, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Correa, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica, CCNE, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Andrade, A.M.H. de [Departamento de Fisica, CCNE, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Sommer, R.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas-CBPF, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2006-10-01
High-frequency differential magnetic permeability and magnetoimpedance measurements were performed in Fe{sub 73.5}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9} as-made and annealed thin films at frequencies up to 1.8 GHz. The results show complex dynamical properties characterized by multiple ferromagnetic resonance modes at relatively low frequencies for the amorphous as-made sample. After the thermal treatments, the resonance frequencies increase drastically exceeding the upper limit of 1.8 GHz for our equipment. This increase can possibly associated to higher local magnetic fields that are, in turn, associated to the formation of nanocrystalline grains randomly oriented.
Kukushkin, A B; Neverov, V S; Semenov, I B; Cherepanov, K V; Minashin, P V
2009-01-01
Numerical modeling of electrodynamic aggregation is carried out for a random ensemble of magnetized nanodust taken as a many body system of strongly magnetized thin rods (i.e., one-dimensional static magnetic dipoles), which possess electric conductivity and static electric charge, screened with its own static plasma sheath. The self-assembling of quasi-linear filaments from an ensemble of randomly situated basic blocks and the electric short-circuiting between biased electrodes are shown to be supported by the alignment of blocks in an external magnetic field. Statistical analysis of short-circuiting time allows tracing the dynamic percolation of electric conductivity and shows a decrease of percolation threshold for volume fraction, as compared with the observed percolation of carbon nanotubes in liquids and polymer composites. Modeling of short-circuiting stage of evolution is continued with tracing the dynamics of pinching of electric current filaments to show the interplay of all the magnetic and electri...
Nakamae, Sawako, E-mail: Sawako.nakamae@cea.fr
2014-11-15
Interacting magnetic nanoparticles display a wide variety of magnetic behaviors ranging from modified superparamagnetism, superspin glass to possibly, superferromagnetism. The superspin glass state is described by its slow and out-of-equilibrium magnetic behaviors akin to those found in atomic spin glasses. In this article, recent experimental findings on superspin correlation length growth and the violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem obtained in concentrated frozen ferrofluids are presented to illustrate certain out-of-equilibrium dynamics behavior in superspin glasses. - Highlights: • Recent experimental findings on superspin glass dynamics in magnetic nanoparticle systems. • Advantages of magnetic nanoparticles for the study of spin glass physics. • Open questions and future directions in superspin glass research.