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Sample records for regions typically experience

  1. Theory of Mind experience sampling in typical adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lauren; Coffey, Anna; Povinelli, Daniel J; Pruett, John R

    2013-09-01

    We explored the frequency with which typical adults make Theory of Mind (ToM) attributions, and under what circumstances these attributions occur. We used an experience sampling method to query 30 typical adults about their everyday thoughts. Participants carried a Personal Data Assistant (PDA) that prompted them to categorize their thoughts as Action, Mental State, or Miscellaneous at approximately 30 pseudo-random times during a continuous 10-h period. Additionally, participants noted the direction of their thought (self versus other) and degree of socializing (with people versus alone) at the time of inquiry. We were interested in the relative frequency of ToM (mental state attributions) and how prominent they were in immediate social exchanges. Analyses of multiple choice answers suggest that typical adults: (1) spend more time thinking about actions than mental states and miscellaneous things, (2) exhibit a higher degree of own- versus other-directed thought when alone, and (3) make mental state attributions more frequently when not interacting (offline) than while interacting with others (online). A significant 3-way interaction between thought type, direction of thought, and socializing emerged because action but not mental state thoughts about others occurred more frequently when participants were interacting with people versus when alone; whereas there was an increase in the frequency of both action and mental state attributions about the self when participants were alone as opposed to socializing. A secondary analysis of coded free text responses supports findings 1-3. The results of this study help to create a more naturalistic picture of ToM use in everyday life and the method shows promise for future study of typical and atypical thought processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Typical School Day Experiences of Indian Children in Different Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, N.; Malar, G.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that India has experienced conditions that have lead to significant illiteracy, but that commitment to education can be found in lesser-known parts of India today. Profiles three schools in Tamil Nadu and describes a typical school day for a student with special needs, a student in a tribal setting, and a student in a rural setting. (TJQ)

  3. Regional Sociological Research Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Vladimirovich Morev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the experience of the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of RAS in conducting sociological research on the territory of the Vologda Oblast and the Northwestern Federal District. It describes the historical aspects of formation of the system for public opinion monitoring and examines its theoretical and methodological foundations. The author of the article analyzes the structure of monitoring indicators and provides a brief interpretation of research findings that reflect social wellbeing and social perception trends. In addition, the paper analyzes people’s attitude toward the activities of federal and regional authorities, trends in social well-being, consumer sentiment and also the complex indicator – the index of public sentiment in the region – developed by ISEDT RAS researchers. The results of sociological studies carried out at ISEDT RAS correlate with the dynamics of the all-Russian public opinion polls conducted by the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VCIOM, Levada-Center, etc. They indicate that Russian society gradually adapts to new conditions of life after the collapse of the USSR. Besides, opinion polls show the most important features of the post-Soviet Russian history at its present stage; they are associated with the intensification of international political relations, the consequences of the “Crimean spring” and the new challenges Russia’s economy is facing now. The article concludes that as global community, of which Russian society is part, is evolving, sociological knowledge begins to play an increasingly important role in administration and national security; this is associated with the greater importance attached to intangible development factors. Therefore, a necessary prerequisite for administration effectiveness in all its stages is to implement the results of sociological research on social

  4. Study and design on the typical plan for regional hybrid energy internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhenyu; Zheng, Shuai; Sha, Zhicheng

    2018-04-01

    The emergence of the energy internet has changed people's understanding of energy production, transmission, storage, conversion, consumption and so on. However, how to promote the development of the energy of the Internet, how to make it with the existing various types of energy entities organic integration, so that it can play an important role, we still need do more in-depth research and practice. After introducing the current situation for energy internet at home and abroad, the definition, character and motion traits of regional energy internet, this paper comprehensively studied typical scheme for regional energy internet based on Multi-energy complementary and developed the feasible suggestion key techniques and directions on development for regional energy internet.

  5. Construction of Fine Particles Source Spectrum Bank in Typical Region and Empirical Research of Matching Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Sun, Wenliang; Guo, Min; Li, Minjiao; Li, Wan

    2018-01-01

    The research object of this paper is fine particles in typical region. The construction of component spectrum bank is based on the technology of online source apportionment, then the result of the apportionment is utilized to verify the effectiveness of fine particles component spectrum bank and which also act as the matching basis of online source apportionment receptor sample. On the next, the particle source of air pollution is carried through the matching diagnosis empirical research by utilizing online source apportionment technology, to provide technical support for the cause analysis and treatment of heavy pollution weather.

  6. Calculated k-effectives for light water reactor typical, U + Pu nitrate solution critical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primm, R.T. III; Mincey, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program has as a goal the design of nuclear fuel reprocessing equipment. In order to validate computer codes used for criticality analyses in the design of such equipment, k-effectives have been calculated for several U + Pu nitrate solution critical experiments. As of January 1981, descriptions of 45 unpoisoned, U + Pu solution experiments were available in the open literature. Twelve of these experiments were performed with solutions which have physical characteristics typical of dissolved, light water reactor fuel. This paper contains a discussion of these twelve experiments, a review of the calculational procedure used to determine k-effectives, and the results of the calculations

  7. Analysis and Comparison on the Flood Simulation in Typical Hilly & Semi-mountainous Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Qinghua; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Xiang; Liu, Jiahong; Fu, Xiaoran; Zhang, Kun; Ma, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Water-logging and flood are both serious in hilly and semi-mountainous cities of China, but the related research is rare. Lincheng Economic Development Zone (EDZ) in Hebei Province as the typical city was selected and storm water management model (SWMM) was applied for flood simulation in this study. The regional model was constructed through calibrating and verifying the runoff coefficient of different flood processes. Different designed runoff processes in five-year, ten-year and twenty-year return periods in basic scenario and in the low impact development (LID) scenario, respectively, were simulated and compared. The result shows that: LID measures have effect on peak reduction in the study area, but the effectiveness is not significant; the effectiveness of lagging peak time is poor. These simulation results provide decision support for the rational construction of LID in the study area, and provide the references for regional rain flood management.

  8. Effect of climatic change on surface environments in the typical region of Horqin Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The town of Agura,a typical region in Horqin Sandy Land,was selected as the study area in this paper.Using 12 remote sensing images and climatic data from the past 20 years,the effects of climate change on surface environments were analyzed.The impact indices of climatic factors,along with their corresponding ranks,were used to characterize the responses of different types of surface environments to climate change.Results show that in the past 20 years,the surface environments of the study area have been deteriorating.Furthermore,there is a positive relationship between the changes in surface environments and those in climatic factors.Various climatic factors influence surface environments in different ways and at different levels.The most sensitive factor is relative humidity,followed by precipitation and evaporation.Overall,moisture is the key factor that affects the changes in surface environments of arid and semi-arid areas.

  9. Carbon balance of the typical grain crop rotation in Moscow region assessed by eddy covariance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshalkina, Joulia; Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Vassenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Croplands could have equal or even greater net ecosystem production than several natural ecosystems (Hollinger et al., 2004), so agriculture plays a substantial role in mitigation strategies for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. In Central Russia, where agricultural soils carbon loses are 9 time higher than natural (forest's) soils ones (Stolbovoi, 2002), the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions in agroecosystems must be the central focus of the scientific efforts. Although the balance of the CO2 mostly attributed to management practices, limited information exists regarding the crop rotation overall as potential of C sequestration. In this study, we present data on carbon balance of the typical grain crop rotation in Moscow region followed for 4 years by measuring CO2 fluxes by paired eddy covariance stations (EC). The study was conducted at the Precision Farming Experimental Fields of the Russian Timiryazev State Agricultural University, Moscow, Russia. The experimental site has a temperate and continental climate and situated in south taiga zone with Arable Sod-Podzoluvisols (Albeluvisols Umbric). Two fields of the four-course rotation were studied in 2013-2016. Crop rotation included winter wheat (Triticum sativum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.) and cereal-legume mixture (Vicia sativa L. and Avena sativa L.). Crops sowing occurred during the period from mid-April to mid-May depending on weather conditions. Winter wheat was sown in the very beginning of September and the next year it occurred from under the snow in the phase of tillering. White mustard (Sinapis alba) was sown for green manure after harvesting winter wheat in mid of July. Barley was harvested in mid of August, potato crop was harvested in September. Cereal-legume mixture on herbage was collected depending on the weather from early July to mid-August. Carbon uptake (NEE negative values) was registered only for the fields with winter wheat and white

  10. LOCA assessment experiments in a full-elevation, CANDU-typical test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, P.J.; McGee, G.R.; Krishnan, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    The RD-14 thermal-hydraulics test facility, located at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, is a full-elevation model representative of a CANDU primary heat transport system. The facility is scaled to accommodate a single, full-scale (5.0 MW, 21 kg/s), electrically heated channel per pass. The steam generators, pumps, headers, feeders and heated channels are arranged in a typical CANDU figure-of-eight geometry. The loop has an emergency coolant injection system (ECI) that may be operated in several modes, including typical features of the various ECI systems found in CANDU reactors. A series of experiments has been performed in RD-14 to investigate the thermal-hydraulic behaviour during the blowdown and injection phases of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The tests were designed to cover a full range of break sizes from feeder-sized breaks to guillotine breaks in either an inlet or an outlet header. Breaks resulting in channel flow stagnation were also investigated. This paper reviews the results of some of the LOCA tests carried out in RD-14, and discusses some of the behaviour observed. Plans for future experiments in a multiple-channel RD-14 facility, modified to contain multiple flow channels, are outlined. (orig.)

  11. Response to dynamic language tasks among typically developing Latino preschool children with bilingual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Janet L; Rodríguez, Barbara L; Dale, Philip S

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether typically developing preschool children with bilingual experience show evidence of learning within brief dynamic assessment language tasks administered in a graduated prompting framework. Dynamic assessment has shown promise for accurate identification of language impairment in bilingual children, and a graduated prompting approach may be well-suited to screening for language impairment. Three dynamic language tasks with graduated prompting were presented to 32 typically developing 4-year-olds in the language to which the child had the most exposure (16 Spanish, 16 English). The tasks were a novel word learning task, a semantic task, and a phonological awareness task. Children's performance was significantly higher on the last 2 items compared with the first 2 items for the semantic and the novel word learning tasks among children who required a prompt on the 1st item. There was no significant difference between the 1st and last items on the phonological awareness task. Within-task improvements in children's performance for some tasks administered within a brief, graduated prompting framework were observed. Thus, children's responses to graduated prompting may be an indicator of modifiability, depending on the task type and level of difficulty.

  12. Celiac disease in 87 children with typical and atypical symptoms in Black Sea region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinler, Gönül; Atalay, Erdal; Kalayci, Ayhan Gazi

    2009-11-01

    Celiac disease presents with a spectrum of clinical disorders. The variety of clinical presentations largely depends on age and extraintestinal findings. This study aimed to determine typical and atypical cases according to presenting symptoms and to evaluate their biochemical and pathological parameters. Eighty-seven patients with celiac disease in our unit between 2000 and 2007 were reviewed. Their diagnosis was made by serological and histological examination. The patients were divided into two groups according to their typical or atypical symptoms. The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 8.2 years (range, 1-18 years), but patients presenting with typical symptoms were younger than those presenting with atypical symptoms. The patients in the two groups did not differ significantly in sex, weight and height Z scores except age. Diarrhea (96.3%), abdominal distention (65.4%) and failure to thrive (60%) were the most common clinical presentations in the typical group, and short stature (62.5%) and anemia (31.2%) were the most common in the atypical group. Total/subtotal villous atrophy was significantly higher in the typical group than in the atypical group. Many children with celiac disease show an atypical form. The understanding of presentations of celiac disease may prevent delayed diagnosis. Celiac disease should be specially investigated in patients with recurrent iron deficiency anemia, short stature and autoimmune disorders.

  13. Linear objects impact on grassland degradation in the typical steppe region of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suying; Verburg, Peter H.; Lv, Shihai; Gao, Shangyu; Wu, Jingle

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing recognition of the issue of grassland degradation, few regional estimates of linear object impacts on grassland degradation [1]. We presented a methodology for evaluating regional impacts on steppe degradation from linear objects which were two uppermost types, rivers and roads, in

  14. Microbiological parameters of aggregates in typical chernozems of long-term field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhelezova, A. D.; Tkhakakhova, A. K.; Yaroslavtseva, N. V.; Garbuz, S. A.; Lazarev, V. I.; Kogut, B. M.; Kutovaya, O. V.; Kholodov, V. A.

    2017-06-01

    The changes in microbiological parameters of aggregates (1-2 mm) in typical chernozems under different land uses as dependent on the intensity and character of anthropogenic loads were studied with the help of the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The samples from the following long-term field experiments were examined: permanent black fallow, continuous cultivation of potato, 17-year-old unmanaged fallow after permanent black fallow, and annually mown reserved steppe. The soil samples were treated in two ways. In the first case, the samples were air-dried, sieved through the screens to separate aggregate fraction of 1-2 mm, and microbiological parameters were determined in this fraction. In the second case, the samples were frozen immediately after the sampling, and the aggregates of 1-2 mm were manually separated from the samples before the PCR analysis. It was shown that air-dry aggregates of chernozems could be used for the quantitative analysis of DNA of microbial community in comparative studies. According to the quantitative estimate of the content of DNA fragments from different phylogenetic groups, the bacterial community was most sensitive to the type of the soil use, and its restoration after the removal of extreme anthropogenic loads proceeded faster than that of other microorganisms. The content of archaeal DNA in the chernozem under the 17-year-old unmanaged fallow did not differ significantly from its content in the annually plowed chernozems. The changes in the content of micromycetal DNA related to anthropogenic load decrease were intermediate between changes in the contents of archaeal and bacterial DNA.

  15. Comprehensive evaluation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in typical highly urbanized regions across China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhuo; Zhang, Xi-Hui; Huang, Yong; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the occurrence of 36 PPCPs in urban river water samples collected from Beijing, Changzhou and Shenzhen. Twenty-eight compounds were detected. Compounds found with highest median concentrations included: sulfadimethoxine (164 ng/L), sulpiride (77.3 ng/L), atenolol (52.9 ng/L), and indomethacin (50.9 ng/L). Antibiotic was the predominant class detected and contributed about half of the overall PPCPs contamination level. Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were demonstrated to be the predominant pathways through which PPCPs entering into aquatic environment in all investigated areas. The ratio of persistent PPCPs like sulpiride and carbamazepine was identified to be feasible in tracing their contamination sources in rivers. Concentrations of most detected PPCPs showed significant positive correlations with total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Two groups of representative PPCPs were selected as the chemical indicators for predicting the overall PPCPs contamination, based on the significant correlations between PPCPs. - Highlights: • PPCPs were detected at high detection frequencies and average concentrations. • Antibiotics contributed about half of the overall PPCPs contamination level. • Wastewater treatment plant effluent was the dominant contributor to PPCPs residue. • Ratio of two persistent compounds was used in tracing contamination sources. • Two groups of representative PPCPs were selected as surrogate of overall PPCPs. - The occurrence, spatial distribution, sources, and surrogate of Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aquatic environment of three typical cities across China were demonstrated

  16. Typical disturbances of the daytime equatorial F region observed with a high-resolution HF radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Blanc

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available HF radar measurements were performed near the magnetic equator in Africa (Korhogo 9°24'63''N–5°37'38''W during the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (1993–1994. The HF radar is a high-resolution zenithal radar. It gives ionograms, Doppler spectra and echo parameters at several frequencies simultaneously. This paper presents a comparative study of the daytime ionospheric structures observed during 3 days selected as representative of different magnetic conditions, given by magnetometer measurements. Broad Doppler spectra, large echo width, and amplitude fluctuations revealed small-scale instability processes up to the F-region peak. The height variations measured at different altitudes showed gravity waves and larger-scale disturbances related to solar daytime influence and equatorial electric fields. The possibility of retrieving the ionospheric electric fields from these Doppler or height variation measurements in the presence of the other possible equatorial ionospheric disturbances is discussed.

  17. Floristic diversity and vegetation analysis of Wadi Arar: A typical desert Wadi of the Northern Border region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Ahmed K; Al-Ghamdi, Faraj; Bawadekji, Abdulhakim

    2014-12-01

    Wadi Arar in the Northern border region of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important Wadis of the Kingdom. The present study provides an analysis of vegetation types, life forms, as well as floristic categories and species distribution. A total of 196 species representing 31 families of vascular plants were recorded. Compositae, Gramineae and Leguminosae were the most common families. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the most frequent life forms, indicating typical desert spectrum vegetation. The distribution of these species in the different sectors of the Wadi as well as the phytochoria for the recorded species is provided. Ninety-one species (46.5%) are typical bi-regional. Furthermore, about 105 species (53.5%) are mono- or pluriregional taxa. The highest number of species (136 or 69.5%) was recorded for annual plants, while the lowest number of species (60% or 30.5%) was recorded for perennial, short perennial or annual to biennial species.

  18. The typical steps of radiation processes development. Experience in investigation, designing and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babkin, I. Yu.

    1983-01-01

    The typical steps of radiation processes development are discussed as: primary laboratory investigations; primary economic evaluation; more exact estimation of situation in industry; comparative analysis; development of a flow sheet; pilot plant; obtaining of initial data for designing of industrial scale plant; prediction of industrial situation; designing of semi-industrial or industrial plant; industrial plant. (U.K.)

  19. The neural representation of typical and atypical experiences of negative images: comparing fear, disgust and morbid fascination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Kristen A.; Adebayo, Morenikeji; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2016-01-01

    Negative stimuli do not only evoke fear or disgust, but can also evoke a state of ‘morbid fascination’ which is an urge to approach and explore a negative stimulus. In the present neuroimaging study, we applied an innovative method to investigate the neural systems involved in typical and atypical conceptualizations of negative images. Participants received false feedback labeling their mental experience as fear, disgust or morbid fascination. This manipulation was successful; participants judged the false feedback correct for 70% of the trials on average. The neuroimaging results demonstrated differential activity within regions in the ‘neural reference space for discrete emotion’ depending on the type of feedback. We found robust differences in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the lateral orbitofrontal cortex comparing morbid fascination to control feedback. More subtle differences in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the lateral orbitofrontal cortex were also found between morbid fascination feedback and the other emotion feedback conditions. This study is the first to forward evidence about the neural representation of the experimentally unexplored state of morbid fascination. In line with a constructionist framework, our findings suggest that neural resources associated with the process of conceptualization contribute to the neural representation of this state. PMID:26180088

  20. Generalized indices of a typical individual water-heating solar plant in the climatic conditions of Russia different regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popel', O.S.; Frid, S.E.; Shpil'rajn, Eh.Eh.

    2003-01-01

    By the example of the typical solar water-heating plant (SWP), designed for daily consumption of 100 l of heated water the calculation of the number of days in the year is accomplished, during which such a plant could provide for heating the water not below the assigned control level of 37, 45 and 55 deg C for various ratios between the solar collector square and tank-accumulator volume. The generalized dependences are obtained on the basis of processing the results of the SWP dynamic modeling with application of the typical meteoyears, generated for the climatic conditions of more than 40 populated localities in Russia both in its European and Asian part. The efficiency of the SWP operation in different regions of the country may be determined through their application [ru

  1. Regional Development Planning in Ethiopia: Past Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regional Development Planning in Ethiopia: Past Experience, Current Initiatives and Future Prospects. ... Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review ... The main contention of the paper is that in the past, regional development, in line with the functional integration approach, was considered a national project.

  2. Review: typically-developing students' views and experiences of inclusive education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Helen; McCafferty, Aileen; Quayle, Ethel; McKenzie, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The present review aimed to summarize and critique existing qualitative studies that have examined typically-developing students' views of inclusive education (i.e. the policy of teaching students with special educational needs in mainstream settings). Guidelines from the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination were followed, outlining the criteria by which journal articles were identified and critically appraised. Narrative Synthesis was used to summarize findings across studies. Fourteen studies met the review's inclusion criteria and were subjected to quality assessment. Analysis revealed that studies were of variable quality: three were of "good" methodological quality, seven of "medium" quality, and four of "poor" quality. With respect to findings, three overarching themes emerged: students expressed mostly negative attitudes towards peers with disabilities; were confused by the principles and practices of inclusive education; and made a number of recommendations for improving its future provision. A vital determinant of the success of inclusive education is the extent to which it is embraced by typically-developing students. Of concern, this review highlights that students tend not to understand inclusive education, and that this can breed hostility towards it. More qualitative research of high methodological quality is needed in this area. Implications for Rehabilitation Typically-developing students are key to the successful implementation of inclusive education. This review shows that most tend not to understand it, and can react by engaging in avoidance and/or targeted bullying of peers who receive additional support. Schools urgently need to provide teaching about inclusive education, and increase opportunities for contact between students who do and do not receive support (e.g. cooperative learning).

  3. Experiments and calculations to leak openings and leak rates on typical piping components and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefler, A.; Grebner, H.

    1992-01-01

    Calculations of leak opening and leak rate for through cracks in piping components have been performed. The analyses are pre- or mostly post-calculations to experiments performed at the HDR facility under PWR operating conditions. Piping components under consideration are small diameter straight pipes with circumferential cracks, pipe bends with longitudinal or circumferential cracks and pipe branches with weldment cracks. The component are loaded by internal pressure and opening as well as closing bending moment. The finite element method and two-phase flow leak rate programs are used for the calculations. Results of the analyses are presented as J-integral values, crack opening displacements and areas and leak rates as well as comparisons to the experimental results. 6 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Economic viability of alternative sources of energy for a typical community of the region north and northeast of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanni, Silvia Regina; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2008-01-01

    A study of viability of alternative energy sources for typical communities of the North or Northeast of Brazil, which do not have access to the electric energy is performed. Brazil presents a great economic and social disparity among its several regions. There are several poor communities, mainly in regions far from big cities, without electrical energy. The Brazilian government has a program known as 'Luz para Todos' (Light for All). The big challenge of this program is to bring electrical energy for everyone using new alternatives energy sources. In this work initially a literature review was made concerning the following alternative energy source: wind, solar and biomass. These energy sources can be used to supply the demand to bring electrical energy for poor communities. For this work it is intended to choose a community that has population between 1,000 and 10,000 and does not have access to electrical energy. For this community an economic viability study will be made to evaluate alternative energy sources. The best energy source resulted from the point of view of the economic viability study will be implemented in that community. A new study will be performed to evaluate cost and environmental impact. In this new study the future social development of the community caused by the installation of electrical energy will be considered. Also, this best energy source will be compared with the new generation of nuclear reactors, for instance , the IRIS reactor. (author)

  5. Economic viability of alternative sources of energy for a typical community of the Region North and Northeast of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanni, Silvia Regina; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to perform a study of viability of alternative energy sources for typical communities of the North or Northeast of Brazil, which do not have access to the electric energy. Brazil presents a great economic and social disparity among its several regions. There are several poor communities, mainly in regions far from big cities, without electrical energy. The Brazilian government has a program known as 'Luz para Todos' (Light for All). The big challenge for this program is to bring electrical energy for everyone using new alternatives energy sources. In this work initially a literature review was made concerning the following alternative energy sources: wind, solar and biomass. These energy sources can be used to supply the demand to bring electrical energy for poor communities. For this work it is intended to choose a community that has population between 1,000 the 10,000 and does not have access to electrical energy. For this community an economic viability study will be made to evaluate alternative energy sources. The best energy source resulted from the point of view of the economic viability study will be implemented in that community. A new study will be performed to evaluate cost and environmental impact. In this new study the future social development of the community caused by the installation of electrical energy will be considered. Also, this best energy source will be compared with the new generation of nuclear reactors, for instance, the IRIS reactor. (author)

  6. Regional Community and International Relations: the Volgograd Region Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danakari Richard A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the complex and controversial problems of the new regional communities’ formation and the impact of the interethnic relations sphere on them. The author notes that the processes of interaction between representatives of different cultures and civilizations, ethnic groups and religions have become increasingly controversial and tense in the context of continuous social dynamics. Similarly to the Russian society as a whole, regional communities are in a state of transitivity. They get transformed, they acquire new qualities such as multicasting and heterogeneity, multi-ethnicity and multi-confessionalism, fragmentarity and multiculturality. This fact increases the risks and uncertainties, problematizes future prospects. National non-governmental organizations are increasingly positioning themselves as civil society institutions at the present stage of social development at the regional level. They perform a difficult dual task: on the one hand, they ensure the preservation and development of history, native language, culture, ethnic traditions, and on the other hand, they work on the integration, on the common identity and the Russian nation formation. On the territory of the Volgograd region, largely due to the active cooperation of regional authorities and local authorities with national public associations, international and inter-confessional relations are stable. The basis of such activity is respect for history, native language, culture, tradition, religion, national dignity of all people in the region, regardless of their belonging to a certain ethnic group or religion. Over two decades of accumulated considerable experience of joint inter-ethnic dialogue and cooperation, provided tolerance and peace, harmony and mutual understanding between people of different ethnicities and religions in the country.

  7. Contamination profiles of perfluoroalkyl substances in five typical rivers of the Pearl River Delta region, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chang-Gui; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, You-Sheng; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Peng, Feng-Jiao; Huang, Guo-Yong

    2014-11-01

    A survey on contamination profiles of eighteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) was performed via high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for surface water and sediments from five typical rivers of the Pearl River Delta region, South China in summer and winter in 2012. The total concentrations of the PFASs in the water phase of the five rivers ranged from 0.14 to 346.72 ng L(-1). The PFAS concentrations in the water phase were correlated positively to some selected water quality parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) (0.7913) and conductivity (0.5642). The monitoring results for the water samples showed significant seasonal variations, while those for the sediment samples showed no obvious seasonal variations. Among the selected 18 PFASs, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the dominant PFAS compound both in water and sediment for two seasons with its maximum concentration of 320.5 ng L(-1) in water and 11.4 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in sediment, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) with its maximum concentration of 26.48 ng L(-1) in water and 0.99 ng g(-1) dw in sediment. PFOS and PFOA were found at relatively higher concentrations in the Shima River and Danshui River than in the other three rivers (Xizhijiang River, Dongjiang River and Shahe River). The principal component analysis for the PFASs concentrations in water and sediment separated the sampling sites into two groups: rural and agricultural area, and urban and industrial area, suggesting the PFASs in the riverine environment were mainly originated from industrial and urban activities in the region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Precision and Deviation Comparison Between Icesat and Envisat in Typical Ice Gaining and Losing Regions of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, W.; Chen, L.; Xie, H.; Hai, G.; Zhang, S.; Tong, X.

    2017-09-01

    This paper analyzes the precision and deviation of elevations acquired from Envisat and The Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) over typical ice gaining and losing regions, i.e. Lambert-Amery System (LAS) in east Antarctica, and Amundsen Sea Sector (ASS) in west Antarctica, during the same period from 2003 to 2008. We used GLA12 dataset of ICESat and Level 2 data of Envisat. Data preprocessing includes data filtering, projection transformation and track classification. Meanwhile, the slope correction is applied to Envisat data and saturation correction for ICESat data. Then the crossover analysis was used to obtain the crossing points of the ICESat tracks, Envisat tracks and ICESat-Envisat tracks separately. The two tracks we chose for cross-over analysis should be in the same campaign for ICESat (within 33 days) or the same cycle for Envisat (within 35 days).The standard deviation of a set of elevation residuals at time-coincident crossovers is calculated as the precision of each satellite while the mean value is calculated as the deviation of ICESat-Envisat. Generally, the ICESat laser altimeter gets a better precision than the Envisat radar altimeter. For Amundsen Sea Sector, the ICESat precision is found to vary from 8.9 cm to 17 cm and the Envisat precision varies from 0.81 m to 1.57 m. For LAS area, the ICESat precision is found to vary from 6.7 cm to 14.3 cm and the Envisat precision varies from 0.46 m to 0.81 m. Comparison result between Envisat and ICESat elevations shows a mean difference of 0.43 ±7.14 m for Amundsen Sea Sector and 0.53 ± 1.23 m over LAS.

  9. PRECISION AND DEVIATION COMPARISON BETWEEN ICESAT AND ENVISAT IN TYPICAL ICE GAINING AND LOSING REGIONS OF ANTARCTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Du

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the precision and deviation of elevations acquired from Envisat and The Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat over typical ice gaining and losing regions, i.e. Lambert-Amery System (LAS in east Antarctica, and Amundsen Sea Sector (ASS in west Antarctica, during the same period from 2003 to 2008. We used GLA12 dataset of ICESat and Level 2 data of Envisat. Data preprocessing includes data filtering, projection transformation and track classification. Meanwhile, the slope correction is applied to Envisat data and saturation correction for ICESat data. Then the crossover analysis was used to obtain the crossing points of the ICESat tracks, Envisat tracks and ICESat-Envisat tracks separately. The two tracks we chose for cross-over analysis should be in the same campaign for ICESat (within 33 days or the same cycle for Envisat (within 35 days.The standard deviation of a set of elevation residuals at time-coincident crossovers is calculated as the precision of each satellite while the mean value is calculated as the deviation of ICESat-Envisat. Generally, the ICESat laser altimeter gets a better precision than the Envisat radar altimeter. For Amundsen Sea Sector, the ICESat precision is found to vary from 8.9 cm to 17 cm and the Envisat precision varies from 0.81 m to 1.57 m. For LAS area, the ICESat precision is found to vary from 6.7 cm to 14.3 cm and the Envisat precision varies from 0.46 m to 0.81 m. Comparison result between Envisat and ICESat elevations shows a mean difference of 0.43 ±7.14 m for Amundsen Sea Sector and 0.53 ± 1.23 m over LAS.

  10. Determination of organic carbon (%) y δ13 C(0/00) in a Typic Paleudult (Ultisol) of the Araucania Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino N, Ines; Rouanet M, Juan Luis; Parada C, Ana Maria; Videla C, Ximena; Nario M, Adriana; Schuller L, Paulina

    2005-01-01

    The use of isotopic techniques had resulted in a great utility for the quantification of the quantity and the origin of the organic C and N that are accumulated in the soil annually. In the same way, its possible to establish the single and complex substrates decomposition rates under natural and controlled conditions, for longer periods after the initial substrate are being metabolized. The relation 13 C/ 12 C is measure as δ 13 C. The C4 species as maize have a δ 13 C value of -12 0/00 approximately, whilst the C3 species as wheat and rice have a -26 0/00 value, approximately. The MOS δ 13 C relates with the crop type and with the plant C3 to C4 changes, reflecting on a change of the MOS δ 13 C values. This principle have been used by Balesdent, Mariotti and Guillet, and Accode et al. To investigate and quantification the soil organic matter changes. The objective of this study was to quantify the Oc and delta 13 C in a soil Serie Metrenco, Family fine, mesica mixed of the Typic Paleudult (Ultisol) of the IX Region. The δ 13 C analysis were done in a mass spectrometer (OPTIMA) at the Seibersdorf Laboratories, Vienna, Austria. The OC and particle size fractionation analysis were done at the Agriculture Section of the CCHEN. The research studied the OC amount and the δ 13 C datas obtained on soil samples in three profiles (up, middle, down) in a slope direction, under a 50 year burn residues traditional management system, to verify the C4 plants presence or absence in the crop rotation. The results showed a big decreased of the δ 13 C in the profile, meaning that an increase of the 12 C in depth, specially in the <50μm fraction has the highest proportion of soil OC. These results indicate the absence of C4 plants in the crop rotation and a high OC percentage in the recalcitrant fraction (AN)

  11. Heavy metals in precipitation waters under conditions of varied anthropopressure in typical of European low mountain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabajczyk A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The environment is a dynamic system, subject to change resulting from a variety of physicochemical factors, such as temperature, pressure, pH, redox potential and human activity. The quantity and variety of these determinants cause the inflow of substances into individual environmental elements to vary in both time and space, as well as in terms of substance types and quantities. The energy and matter flow in the environment determines its integrity, which means that the processes occurring in one element of the environment affect the others. A certain measure of the energy and matter flow is the migration of chemical substances in various forms from one place to another. In a particular geographical space, under natural conditions, a specific level of balance between individual processes appears; in areas subject to anthropopressure, the correlations are different. In small areas, varying deposition volumes and chemism of precipitation waters which reach the substratum directly can both be observed. The study area is similar in terms of geological origins as well as morphological, structural and physico-chemical properties, and is typical of European low mountain regions. A qualitative and quantitative study of wet atmospheric precipitation was conducted between February 2009 and May 2011 in the Bobrza river catchment in the Holy Cross (Świętokrzyskie Mountains (Poland, at three sampling sites of varying land development and distance from sources of various acidic-alkaline emissions. Field and laboratory work was conducted over 29 months, from February 2009 to May 2011. Atmospheric precipitation measurements were carried out in a continuous manner by means of a Hellman rain gauge (200cm2. The collecting surface was placed at ground level (0m AGL. The application of a collecting funnel and an adequately prepared polyethylene collecting can in the rain gauge enabled the measurement of precipitation volume and water sampling for chemical

  12. Experience, use, and performance measurement of the Hadoop File System in a typical nuclear physics analysis workflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangaline, E; Lauret, J

    2014-01-01

    The quantity of information produced in Nuclear and Particle Physics (NPP) experiments necessitates the transmission and storage of data across diverse collections of computing resources. Robust solutions such as XRootD have been used in NPP, but as the usage of cloud resources grows, the difficulties in the dynamic configuration of these systems become a concern. Hadoop File System (HDFS) exists as a possible cloud storage solution with a proven track record in dynamic environments. Though currently not extensively used in NPP, HDFS is an attractive solution offering both elastic storage and rapid deployment. We will present the performance of HDFS in both canonical I/O tests and for a typical data analysis pattern within the RHIC/STAR experimental framework. These tests explore the scaling with different levels of redundancy and numbers of clients. Additionally, the performance of FUSE and NFS interfaces to HDFS were evaluated as a way to allow existing software to function without modification. Unfortunately, the complicated data structures in NPP are non-trivial to integrate with Hadoop and so many of the benefits of the MapReduce paradigm could not be directly realized. Despite this, our results indicate that using HDFS as a distributed filesystem offers reasonable performance and scalability and that it excels in its ease of configuration and deployment in a cloud environment

  13. Variety in emotional life: within-category typicality of emotional experiences is associated with neural activity in large-scale brain networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2014-01-01

    The tremendous variability within categories of human emotional experience receives little empirical attention. We hypothesized that atypical instances of emotion categories (e.g. pleasant fear of thrill-seeking) would be processed less efficiently than typical instances of emotion categories (e.g. unpleasant fear of violent threat) in large-scale brain networks. During a novel fMRI paradigm, participants immersed themselves in scenarios designed to induce atypical and typical experiences of ...

  14. Typical entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelan Cunden, Fabio; Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio

    2013-05-01

    Let a pure state | ψ> be chosen randomly in an NM-dimensional Hilbert space, and consider the reduced density matrix ρ A of an N-dimensional subsystem. The bipartite entanglement properties of | ψ> are encoded in the spectrum of ρ A . By means of a saddle point method and using a "Coulomb gas" model for the eigenvalues, we obtain the typical spectrum of reduced density matrices. We consider the cases of an unbiased ensemble of pure states and of a fixed value of the purity. We finally obtain the eigenvalue distribution by using a statistical mechanics approach based on the introduction of a partition function.

  15. Seasonal variation and light absorption property of carbonaceous aerosol in a typical glacier region of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hewen; Kang, Shichang; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Rudong; Lu, Xixi; Qian, Yun; Paudyal, Rukumesh; Wang, Shijin; Shi, Xiaofei; Yan, Xingguo

    2018-05-01

    Deposition and accumulation of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol on glacier surfaces can alter the energy balance of glaciers. In this study, 2 years (December 2014 to December 2016) of continuous observations of carbonaceous aerosols in the glacierized region of the Mt. Yulong and Ganhaizi (GHZ) basin are analyzed. The average elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were 1.51±0.93 and 2.57±1.32 µg m-3, respectively. Although the annual mean OC / EC ratio was 2.45±1.96, monthly mean EC concentrations during the post-monsoon season were even higher than OC in the high altitudes (approximately 5000 m a. s. l. ) of Mt. Yulong. Strong photochemical reactions and local tourism activities were likely the main factors inducing high OC / EC ratios in the Mt. Yulong region during the monsoon season. The mean mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of EC, measured for the first time in Mt. Yulong, at 632 nm with a thermal-optical carbon analyzer using the filter-based method, was 6.82±0.73 m2 g-1, comparable with the results from other studies. Strong seasonal and spatial variations of EC MAE were largely related to the OC abundance. Source attribution analysis using a global aerosol-climate model, equipped with a black carbon (BC) source tagging technique, suggests that East Asia emissions, including local sources, have the dominant contribution (over 50 %) to annual mean near-surface BC in the Mt. Yulong area. There is also a strong seasonal variation in the regional source apportionment. South Asia has the largest contribution to near-surface BC during the pre-monsoon season, while East Asia dominates the monsoon season and post-monsoon season. Results in this study have great implications for accurately evaluating the influences of carbonaceous matter on glacial melting and water resource supply in glacierization areas.

  16. Seasonal variation and light absorption property of carbonaceous aerosol in a typical glacier region of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Niu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Deposition and accumulation of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol on glacier surfaces can alter the energy balance of glaciers. In this study, 2 years (December 2014 to December 2016 of continuous observations of carbonaceous aerosols in the glacierized region of the Mt. Yulong and Ganhaizi (GHZ basin are analyzed. The average elemental carbon (EC and organic carbon (OC concentrations were 1.51±0.93 and 2.57±1.32 µg m−3, respectively. Although the annual mean OC ∕ EC ratio was 2.45±1.96, monthly mean EC concentrations during the post-monsoon season were even higher than OC in the high altitudes (approximately 5000 m a. s. l.  of Mt. Yulong. Strong photochemical reactions and local tourism activities were likely the main factors inducing high OC ∕ EC ratios in the Mt. Yulong region during the monsoon season. The mean mass absorption efficiency (MAE of EC, measured for the first time in Mt. Yulong, at 632 nm with a thermal-optical carbon analyzer using the filter-based method, was 6.82±0.73 m2 g−1, comparable with the results from other studies. Strong seasonal and spatial variations of EC MAE were largely related to the OC abundance. Source attribution analysis using a global aerosol–climate model, equipped with a black carbon (BC source tagging technique, suggests that East Asia emissions, including local sources, have the dominant contribution (over 50 % to annual mean near-surface BC in the Mt. Yulong area. There is also a strong seasonal variation in the regional source apportionment. South Asia has the largest contribution to near-surface BC during the pre-monsoon season, while East Asia dominates the monsoon season and post-monsoon season. Results in this study have great implications for accurately evaluating the influences of carbonaceous matter on glacial melting and water resource supply in glacierization areas.

  17. Seasonal variation and light absorption property of carbonaceous aerosol in a typical glacieri region of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Hewen; Kang, Shichang; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Rudong; Lu, Xixi; Qian, Yun; Paudyal, Rukumesh; Wang, Shijin; Shi, Xiaofei; Yan, Xingguo

    2018-05-07

    Deposition and accumulation of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol on glacier surfaces can alter the energy balance of glaciers. In this study, 2 years (December 2014 to December 2016) of continuous observations of carbonaceous aerosols in the glacierized region of the Mt. Yulong and Ganhaizi (GHZ) basin are analyzed. The average elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were 1.51±0.93 and 2.57±1.32 µg m−3, respectively. Although the annual mean OC ∕ EC ratio was 2.45±1.96, monthly mean EC concentrations during the post-monsoon season were even higher than OC in the high altitudes (approximately 5000 m a. s. l. ) of Mt. Yulong. Strong photochemical reactions and local tourism activities were likely the main factors inducing high OC ∕ EC ratios in the Mt. Yulong region during the monsoon season. The mean mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of EC, measured for the first time in Mt. Yulong, at 632 nm with a thermal-optical carbon analyzer using the filter-based method, was 6.82±0.73 m2 g−1, comparable with the results from other studies. Strong seasonal and spatial variations of EC MAE were largely related to the OC abundance. Source attribution analysis using a global aerosol–climate model, equipped with a black carbon (BC) source tagging technique, suggests that East Asia emissions, including local sources, have the dominant contribution (over 50 %) to annual mean near-surface BC in the Mt. Yulong area. There is also a strong seasonal variation in the regional source apportionment. South Asia has the largest contribution to near-surface BC during the pre-monsoon season, while East Asia dominates the monsoon season and post-monsoon season. Results in this study have great implications for accurately evaluating the influences of carbonaceous matter on glacial melting and water resource supply in glacierization areas.

  18. Regional Policies For Social Housing. An experience in Regione Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Trombetta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Social housing is again a dynamic sector of construction. European «cohesion» and «convergence» programs aim to promote Mediterranean housing in order to improve competitiveness, innovation and employment in under-developed regions. The whole SH planning and implementing process implies criticalities that often damage local initiatives. This study of the Calabria Case has pointed out that both public and private entrepreneurs perceive the cumbersome requirements and procedures as ‘unfriendly’ and tend to renounce the incentives. Process management information instruments together with simpler evaluation and certification systems seem to encourage suitable and flexible solutions, reliable results as well as transparency and quality of action.

  19. Typical winter haze pollution in Zibo, an industrial city in China: Characteristics, secondary formation, and regional contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Ma, Yongliang; Duan, Fengkui; He, Kebin; Zhu, Lidan; Huang, Tao; Kimoto, Takashi; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ma, Tao; Xu, Lili; Xu, Beiyao; Yang, Shuo; Ye, Siqi; Sun, Zhenli; An, Jiutao; Zhang, Zhaolu

    2017-10-01

    Heavy haze pollution occurs frequently in northern China, most critically in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area (BTH). Zibo, an industrial city located in Shandong province, is often listed as one of the top ten most polluted cities in China, particularly in winter. However, no studies of haze in Zibo have been conducted, which limits the understanding of the source and formation of haze pollution in this area, as well as mutual effects with the BTH area. We carried out online and continuous integrated field observation of particulate matter in winter, from 11 to 25 January 2015. SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , and NH 4 + (SIA) and organics were the main constituents of PM 2.5 , contributing 59.4% and 33.6%, respectively. With the increasing severity of pollution, the contribution of SIA increased while that of organics decreased. Meteorological conditions play an important role in haze formation; high relative humidity (RH) and low wind speed increased both the accumulation of pollutants and the secondary transition from gas precursors (gas-particle phase partitioning). Since RH and the presence of O 3 can indicate heterogeneous and photochemistry processes, respectively, we carried out correlation analysis and linear regression to identify their relative importance to the three main secondary species (sulfate, nitrate, and secondary organic carbon (SOC)). We found that the impact of RH is in the order of SO 4 2-  > NO 3 -  > SOC, while the impact of O 3 is reversed, in the order of SOC > NO 3 -  > SO 4 2- , indicating different effect of these factors on the secondary formation of main species in winter. Cluster analysis of backward trajectories showed that, during the observation period, six directional sources of air masses were identified, and more than 90% came from highly industrialized areas, indicating that regional transport from industrialized areas aggravates the haze pollution in Zibo. Inter-regional joint prevention and control is necessary to prevent further

  20. Specific Regional and Age-Related Small Noncoding RNA Expression Patterns Within Superior Temporal Gyrus of Typical Human Brains Are Less Distinct in Autism Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P; Barger, Nicole; Sharp, Frank R; Schumann, Cynthia M

    2015-12-01

    Small noncoding RNAs play a critical role in regulating messenger RNA throughout brain development and when altered could have profound effects leading to disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed small noncoding RNAs, including microRNA and small nucleolar RNA, in superior temporal sulcus association cortex and primary auditory cortex in typical and ASD brains from early childhood to adulthood. Typical small noncoding RNA expression profiles were less distinct in ASD, both between regions and changes with age. Typical micro-RNA coexpression associations were absent in ASD brains. miR-132, miR-103, and miR-320 micro-RNAs were dysregulated in ASD and have previously been associated with autism spectrum disorders. These diminished region- and age-related micro-RNA expression profiles are in line with previously reported findings of attenuated messenger RNA and long noncoding RNA in ASD brain. This study demonstrates alterations in superior temporal sulcus in ASD, a region implicated in social impairment, and is the first to demonstrate molecular alterations in the primary auditory cortex. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Typical tourists : Research into the theoretical and methodological foundations of a typology of tourism and recreation experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elands, B.; Lengkeek, J.

    2000-01-01

    Typical tourists are recognisable from a distance. They appear out of place with their loud coloured outfits, often sunburned, walking around loaded with cameras and video-equipment and studying city maps. Yet, tourists are not always all the same. Adventurous eco-tourists, with hiking boots and a

  2. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in thirty typical soil profiles in the Yangtze River Delta region, east China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, L.F.; Luo, Y.M.; Zhang, H.B.; Li, Q.B.; Wu, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantified in 30 soil profiles from the Yangtze River Delta Region, in east China. Relative concentrations of PAH compounds with different benzene rings and ratios of fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene and benz(a)anthracene to benz(a)anthracene plus chrysene were used to identify the possible sources of soil PAHs. Total concentrations of 15 PAHs in topsoils ranged from 8.6 to 3881 μg kg -1 with an average of 397 μg kg -1 . Half of the soil samples were considered to be contaminated with PAHs (>200 μg kg -1 ) and two sampling sites were heavily polluted by PAHs with concentrations >1000 μg kg -1 . Phenanthrene was found in soils below a depth of 100 cm in half of the sampling sites, but the detectable ratio of benzo(a)pyrene decreased sharply from 100% in topsoil to 0 in the 4th horizon. - The information was provided on levels, distributions, and possible sources of PAHs in the soils of Yangtze River Delta area

  3. Variety in emotional life: within-category typicality of emotional experiences is associated with neural activity in large-scale brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2015-01-01

    The tremendous variability within categories of human emotional experience receives little empirical attention. We hypothesized that atypical instances of emotion categories (e.g. pleasant fear of thrill-seeking) would be processed less efficiently than typical instances of emotion categories (e.g. unpleasant fear of violent threat) in large-scale brain networks. During a novel fMRI paradigm, participants immersed themselves in scenarios designed to induce atypical and typical experiences of fear, sadness or happiness (scenario immersion), and then focused on and rated the pleasant or unpleasant feeling that emerged (valence focus) in most trials. As predicted, reliably greater activity in the 'default mode' network (including medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate) was observed for atypical (vs typical) emotional experiences during scenario immersion, suggesting atypical instances require greater conceptual processing to situate the socio-emotional experience. During valence focus, reliably greater activity was observed for atypical (vs typical) emotional experiences in the 'salience' network (including anterior insula and anterior cingulate), suggesting atypical instances place greater demands on integrating shifting body signals with the sensory and social context. Consistent with emerging psychological construction approaches to emotion, these findings demonstrate that is it important to study the variability within common categories of emotional experience. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Factors controlling accumulation of soil organic carbon along vegetation succession in a typical karst region in Southwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shujuan [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station of Karst Ecosystem, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huanjiang, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 547100 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Wei [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station of Karst Ecosystem, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huanjiang, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 547100 (China); Wang, Kelin, E-mail: kelin@isa.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station of Karst Ecosystem, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huanjiang, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 547100 (China); Pan, Fujing [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station of Karst Ecosystem, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huanjiang, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 547100 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Shan [Changsha university, Changsha 410003 (China); Shu, Shiyan [Changjiang Project Supervision & Consultancy Co. Ltd, Wuhan 430010 (China); Changjiang Ecology (Hubei) Technology Development LLC, Wuhan 430010 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Vegetation succession enhances the accumulation of carbon in the soil. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation in different vegetation types in the karst region of Southwest China. The goal of this study was to identify and prioritize the effects of environmental parameters, including soil physico-chemical properties, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, and litter characteristics, on SOC accumulation along a vegetation succession sere (grassland, shrubland, secondary forest, and primary forest) in the karst landscape of Southwest China. Relationships between these parameters and SOC were evaluated by redundancy analysis. The results showed that SOC accumulation was significantly different among vegetation types (P < 0.01) and increased with vegetation succession (from 29.10 g·kg{sup −1} in grassland to 73.92 g·kg{sup −1} in primary forest). Soil biochemistry and physical characteristics significantly affected the accumulation of SOC. Soil microbial biomass showed a predominant effect on SOC in each of the four vegetation types. In addition, the soil physical property (especially the silt content) was another controlling factor in the early stages (grassland), and urease activity and saccharase activity were important controlling factors in the early-middle and middle-late stages, respectively. Litter characteristics only showed mild effects on SOC accumulation. Variation partitioning analysis showed that the contribution of sole main factors to SOC variation decreased, while the interaction effect among parameters increased along the succession gradient. - Highlights: • Vegetation restoration is conducive to soil carbon sequestration in karst areas. • The factors controlling SOC accumulation differed along vegetation succession. • The interaction effect among significant factors became more and more prominent along succession.

  5. Technology and politics: The regional airport experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, J. D.; Brown, J.; Gerhardt, J. M.; Dominus, M. I.

    1976-01-01

    The findings of a comparative study of the following six regional airports were presented: Dallas/Fort Worth, Kansas City, Washington, D.C., Montreal, Tampa, and St. Louis. Each case was approached as a unique historical entity, in order to investigate common elements such as: the use of predictive models in planning, the role of symbolism to heighten dramatic effects, the roles of community and professional elites, and design flexibility. Some of the factors considered were: site selection, consolidation of airline service, accessibility, land availability and cost, safety, nuisance, and pollution constraints, economic growth, expectation of regional growth, the demand forecasting conundrum, and design decisions. The hypotheses developed include the following: the effect of political, social, and economic conflicts, the stress on large capacity and dramatic, high-technology design, projections of rapid growth to explain the need for large capital outlays.

  6. Atmospheric tracer experiments for regional dispersion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffter, J.L.; Ferber, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    Tracer experiments are being conducted to verify atmospheric transport and dispersion calculations at distances from tens to hundreds of km from pollutant sources. In one study, a 2 1/2 year sampling program has been carried out at 13 sites located 30 to 140 km from a source of 85 Kr at the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina. Average weekly concentrations as well as twice-daily concentrations were obtained. Sampling data and meteorological data, including surface, tower, and rawinsonde observations are available on magnetic tape for model verification studies. Some verification results for the Air Resources Laboratories Atmospheric Transort and Dispersion Model (ARL-ATAD) are shown for averaging periods from one week to two years

  7. Patients’ experience of a regional allergy service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Jones

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The principle reason for referral to specialist allergy clinics is to establish diagnoses and provide treatment plans to help patients manage their allergy. If patients do not accept, understand, or remember diagnoses or treatment, clinic visits may have been a waste of time. Few specialist allergy clinics follow up patients after diagnosis.Design and Methods. This was a postal survey to assess patients’ i perception of usefulness of specialist allergy clinic visits, ii under- standing of their allergy, iii confidence in managing it, and iv response to joining a regional online forum. Data for patients with confirmed allergy who attended the Peninsula Allergy Service (PAS from 1998-2009 were extracted from consultant letters to general practitioners. Postal questionnaires were sent to 933 patients; 39% (336 responded.Results. Two-thirds (63% thought their clinic visit useful and resulted in them being more in control of their allergy; 9% thought it useful but they still had problems, 26% thought it had not been much use. One in six (16%, 55 respondents had major differences in their view of their allergy compared to that recorded by PAS. Over half (56% had had further symptoms since their clinic visit and 120 patients, who were not confident in coping with their allergy, listed aspects of their lives that gave concern.Conclusions. Specialist clinics need routine feedback from patients if they are to monitor their effectiveness and some better form of follow up for patients is needed to reinforce education and support patients. Public education is important.

  8. The Lightning Mapping Imager (LMI) on the FY-4 satellite and a typical application experiment using the LMI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F.; Hui, W.; Li, X.; Liu, R.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Y.; Kang, N.

    2017-12-01

    The Lightning Mapping Imager (LMI) on the FY-4A satellite, which was launched successfully in December 2016, is the first satellite-based lightning detector from space independently developed in China, and one of the world's first two stationary satellite LMIs. The optical imaging technique with a 400x600 CCD array plane and a frequency of 500 frames/s is adopted in the FY-4A LMI to perform real-time and continuous observation of total lightening in the Chinese mainland and adjacent areas. As of July 2017, the in-orbit test shows that the lightening observation date could be accurately obtained by the FY-4A LMI, and that the geo-location could be verified by the ground lightening observation network over China. Since the beginning of the 2017 flood season, every process of strong thunderstorms has been monitored by the FY-4A LMI throughout the various areas of China, and of these are used as a typical application case in this talk. On April 8 and 9, 2017, a strong convective precipitation process occurred in the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China. The observation data of the FY-4A LMI are used to monitor the occurrence, development, shift and extinction of the thunderstorm track. By means of analyzing the station's synchronous precipitation observation data, it is indicated that the moving track of the thunderstorm is not completely consistent with that of the precipitation center, and while the distribution areas of thunderstorm and precipitation are consistent to a certain extent, a significant difference also exists. This difference is mainly caused by the convective precipitation and stratus precipitation area during the precipitation process. Through comparative analysis, the preliminary satellite and foundation lightening observation data show a higher consistency. However, the time of lightening activity observed by satellite is one hour earlier than that of the ground observation, which is likely related to the total lightning observation by

  9. The regional energy integration: the latin-american experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The ways of the regional economic integrations are not identical and generate different repercussions on the markets and the energy industries evolution. The example of the Latin America proposes many various experiences to evaluate the stakes and the limits of each regional integrations. These limits lead to solution researches including indisputable convergencies. The first part of this document presents the genesis of these regional economic integrations experiences in Latina America, to study in the second part the energy consequences of the liberal ALENA and of the more political MERCOSUR. (A.L.B.)

  10. HONO and Inorganic Fine Particle Composition in Typical Monsoon Region with Intensive Anthropogenic Emission: In-situ Observations and Source Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.; Nie, W.; Ding, A.; Huang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Yangtze River Delta (YRD) is one of the most typical monsoon area with probably the most largest population intensity in the world. With sharply economic development and the large anthropogenic emissions, fine particle pollution have been one of the major air quality problem and may further have impact on the climate system. Though a lot of control policy (sulfur emission have been decreasing from 2007) have been conducted in the region, studies showed the sulfate in fine particles still take major fraction as the nitrate from nitrogen oxides increased significantly. In this study, the role of inorganic chemical compositions in fine particles was investigated with two years in-situ observation. Sulfate and Nitrate contribute to fine particle mass equally in general, but sulfate contributes more during summer and nitrate played more important role in winter. Using lagrangian dispersion backward modeling and source contribution clustering method, the impact of airmass coming from different source region (industrial, dust, biogenic emissions, etc) on fine particle inorganic compositions were discussed. Furthermore, we found two unique cases showing in-situ implications for sulfate formation by nitrogen dioxide oxidation mechanisms. It was showed that the mixing of anthropogenic pollutants with long-range transported mineral dust and biomass burning plume would enhance the sulfate formation by different chemistry mechanisms. This study focus on the complex aspects of fine particle formation in airmasses from different source regions: . It highlights the effect of NOx in enhancing the atmospheric oxidization capacity and indicates a potentially very important impact of increasing NOx on air pollution formation and regional climate change in East Asia.

  11. The characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in storm sewer sediments and the binding interaction with Cu(II) in four typical regions in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziyang; Li, Kun; Zhang, Xiaoran; Li, Haiyan

    2017-07-01

    In this work, dissolved organic matter (DOM) was extracted from storm sewer sediments collected in four typical regions (residential, campus, traffic and business regions) in Beijing, China. The basic characteristics of DOM were analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), excitation-emission matrix Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Furthermore, the complexation between DOM and Cu(II) were investigated. The results showed that there were large amount of aromatic structure in the DOM extracted from storm sewer sediments. The microbial activities had also made a contribution to the DOM in storm sewer sediments. The composition of DOM influenced the complexing capacity of Cu(II) greatly, which may be attributed to the protein-like and humic-like substances in storm sewer sediments. This study demonstrated valuable information on the structure present in the DOM of storm sewer sediments and provided new insight for exploring the relationship between DOM and co-existing heavy metals in storm sewer sediments.

  12. Is our Universe typical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, V.G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of typicalness of the Universe - as a dynamical system possessing both regular and chaotic regions of positive measure of phase space, is raised and discussed. Two dynamical systems are considered: 1) The observed Universe as a hierarchy of systems of N graviting bodies; 2) (3+1)-manifold with matter evolving to Wheeler-DeWitt equation in superspace with Hawking boundary condition of compact metrics. It is shown that the observed Universe is typical. There is no unambiguous answer for the second system yet. If it is typical too then the same present state of the Universe could have been originated from an infinite number of different initial conditions the restoration of which is practically impossible at present. 35 refs.; 2 refs

  13. Typicality and reasoning fallacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, E B; Smith, E E; Osherson, D N

    1990-05-01

    The work of Tversky and Kahneman on intuitive probability judgment leads to the following prediction: The judged probability that an instance belongs to a category is an increasing function of the typicality of the instance in the category. To test this prediction, subjects in Experiment 1 read a description of a person (e.g., "Linda is 31, bright, ... outspoken") followed by a category. Some subjects rated how typical the person was of the category, while others rated the probability that the person belonged to that category. For categories like bank teller and feminist bank teller: (1) subjects rated the person as more typical of the conjunctive category (a conjunction effect); (2) subjects rated it more probable that the person belonged to the conjunctive category (a conjunction fallacy); and (3) the magnitudes of the conjunction effect and fallacy were highly correlated. Experiment 2 documents an inclusion fallacy, wherein subjects judge, for example, "All bank tellers are conservative" to be more probable than "All feminist bank tellers are conservative." In Experiment 3, results parallel to those of Experiment 1 were obtained with respect to the inclusion fallacy.

  14. Trends and variations of pH and hardness in a typical semi-arid river in a monsoon climate region during 1985-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shaonan; Li, Xuyong; Jiang, Yan; Zhao, Hongtao; Yang, Lei

    2016-09-01

    The rapid growth of urbanization and industrialization, along with dramatic climate change, has strongly influenced hydrochemical characteristics in recent decades in China and thus could cause the variation of pH and general total hardness of a river. To explore such variations and their potential influencing factors in a river of the monsoon climate region, we analyzed a long-term monitoring dataset of pH, SO4 (2-), NOx, general total hardness (GH), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and Cl(-) in surface water and groundwater in the Luan River basin from 1985 to 2009. The nonparametric Seasonal Kendall trend test was used to test the long-term trends of pH and GH. Relationship between the affecting factors, pH and GH were discussed. Results showed that pH showed a decreasing trend and that GH had an increasing trend in the long-term. Seasonal variation of pH and GH was mainly due to the typical monsoon climate. Results of correlation analysis showed that the unit area usage amounts of chemical fertilizer, NO3 (-), and SO4 (2-) were negatively correlated with pH in groundwater. In addition, mining activity affected GH spatial variation. Acid deposition, drought, and increasing the use of chemical fertilizers would contribute to the acidification trend, and mining activities would affect the spatial variation of GH. Variations of precipitation and runoff in semi-arid monsoon climate areas had significant influences on the pH and GH. Our findings implied that human activities played a critical role in river acidification in the semi-arid monsoon climate region of northern China.

  15. Evaluation of the AnnAGNPS Model for Predicting Runoff and Nutrient Export in a Typical Small Watershed in the Hilly Region of Taihu Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Luo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of hydrological and water quality models is an efficient approach to better understand the processes of environmental deterioration. This study evaluated the ability of the Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS model to predict runoff, total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP loading in a typical small watershed of a hilly region near Taihu Lake, China. Runoff was calibrated and validated at both an annual and monthly scale, and parameter sensitivity analysis was performed for TN and TP before the two water quality components were calibrated. The results showed that the model satisfactorily simulated runoff at annual and monthly scales, both during calibration and validation processes. Additionally, results of parameter sensitivity analysis showed that the parameters Fertilizer rate, Fertilizer organic, Canopy cover and Fertilizer inorganic were more sensitive to TN output. In terms of TP, the parameters Residue mass ratio, Fertilizer rate, Fertilizer inorganic and Canopy cover were the most sensitive. Based on these sensitive parameters, calibration was performed. TN loading produced satisfactory results for both the calibration and validation processes, whereas the performance of TP loading was slightly poor. The simulation results showed that AnnAGNPS has the potential to be used as a valuable tool for the planning and management of watersheds.

  16. The International Experience of Regional Development of Creative Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turskyj Ihor V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at generalizing the international experience of regional development of creative industries and defining directions of its implementation in Ukraine. The experience of the world countries on regional development of creative industries has been generalized, tendencies and specificity of these development processes have been identified. The interrelation of the process of development of creative industries with innovation development of regions has been defined. Prospects for development of creative industries in regions of Ukraine have been identified and directions of implementation of foreign experience have been suggested. Thus, strategic measures for the development of creative clusters can be the corresponding priorities of cultural policy in the regions, the development of specific projects and programs, the opening of art-incubators, the creation of a favorable investment climate, financial and tax incentives as conditions for interaction between creativity and business. The scale and dynamics of the world’s creative sector, which has a significant potential for growth and less vulnerability in financial-economic crises compared to the traditional sector, gives chance to high expectations for the development of creative industries in Ukraine as well.

  17. Urban and regional studies in the experience economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne; Jeannerat, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    is to deconstruct economic value and innovation in regional studies and elaborate on the role of consumers and stages of consumption. Another is the actor perspective and the question of how localized networks of innovative actors evolve and engage in experiential staging. Finally the experience economy is seen...... as an integrated approach in policy and strategic planning on as well as across different scales. Future research should not only trace the evolution of experience offerings, stages and destinations and its possible dependence on specific economic phases and contexts. It should also develop further the potentials......The paper introduces a special issue on `the experience turn in development and planning’. It is argued that the notion of the experience economy is able to challenge established theories of the culture economy in three ways. First, by placing consumption and consumers as point of departure...

  18. Positive health effects of the natural outdoor environment in typical populations in different regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE): a study programme protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Antó, Josep Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Cirach, Marta; Dadvand, Payam; Danileviciute, Asta; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Garcia, Judith; Jerrett, Michael; Jones, Marc; Julvez, Jordi; van Kempen, Elise; van Kamp, Irene; Maas, Jolanda; Seto, Edmund; Smith, Graham; Triguero, Margarita; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Wright, John; Zufferey, Joris; van den Hazel, Peter Jan; Lawrence, Roderick; Grazuleviciene, Regina

    2014-04-16

    Growing evidence suggests that close contact with nature brings benefits to human health and well-being, but the proposed mechanisms are still not well understood and the associations with health remain uncertain. The Positive Health Effects of the Natural Outdoor environment in Typical Populations in different regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE) project investigates the interconnections between natural outdoor environments and better human health and well-being. The PHENOTYPE project explores the proposed underlying mechanisms at work (stress reduction/restorative function, physical activity, social interaction, exposure to environmental hazards) and examines the associations with health outcomes for different population groups. It implements conventional and new innovative high-tech methods to characterise the natural environment in terms of quality and quantity. Preventive as well as therapeutic effects of contact with the natural environment are being covered. PHENOTYPE further addresses implications for land-use planning and green space management. The main innovative part of the study is the evaluation of possible short-term and long-term associations of green space and health and the possible underlying mechanisms in four different countries (each with quite a different type of green space and a different use), using the same methodology, in one research programme. This type of holistic approach has not been undertaken before. Furthermore there are technological innovations such as the use of remote sensing and smartphones in the assessment of green space. The project will produce a more robust evidence base on links between exposure to natural outdoor environment and human health and well-being, in addition to a better integration of human health needs into land-use planning and green space management in rural as well as urban areas.

  19. Epilepsy is a possible feature in Williams-Beuren syndrome patients harboring typical deletions of the 7q11.23 critical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicita, Francesco; Garone, Giacomo; Spalice, Alberto; Savasta, Salvatore; Striano, Pasquale; Pantaleoni, Chiara; Spartà, Maria Valentina; Kluger, Gerhard; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Pruna, Dario; Freri, Elena; D'Arrigo, Stefano; Verrotti, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are rarely reported in Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS)--a contiguous-gene-deletion disorder caused by a 7q11.23 heterozygous deletion of 1.5-1.8 Mb--and no previous study evaluated electro-clinical features of epilepsy in this syndrome. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that atypical deletion (e.g., larger than 1.8 Mb) may be responsible for a more pronounced neurological phenotypes, especially including seizures. Our objectives are to describe the electro-clinical features in WBS and to correlate the epileptic phenotype with deletion of the 7q11.23 critical region. We evaluate the electro-clinical features in one case of distal 7q11.23 deletion syndrome and in eight epileptic WBS (eWBS) patients. Additionally, we compare the deletion size-and deleted genes-of four epileptic WBS (eWBS) with that of four non-epileptic WBS (neWBS) patients. Infantile spasms, focal (e.g., motor and dyscognitive with autonomic features) and generalized (e.g., tonic-clonic, tonic, clonic, myoclonic) seizures were encountered. Drug-resistance was observed in one patient. Neuroimaging discovered one case of focal cortical dysplasia, one case of fronto-temporal cortical atrophy and one case of periventricular nodular heterotopia. Comparison of deletion size between eWBS and neWBS patients did not reveal candidate genes potentially underlying epilepsy. This is the largest series describing electro-clinical features of epilepsy in WBS. In WBS, epilepsy should be considered both in case of typical and atypical deletions, which do not involve HIP1, YWHAG or MAGI2. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effects of vegetation restoration on the aggregate stability and distribution of aggregate-associated organic carbon in a typical karst gorge region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, F. K.; Cui, M.; Lu, Q.; Liu, Y. G.; Guo, H. Y.; Zhou, J. X.

    2015-08-01

    Changes in soil utilization significantly affect aggregate stability and aggregate-associated soil organic carbon (SOC). A field investigation and indoor analysis were conducted in order to study the soil aggregate stability and organic carbon distribution in the water-stable aggregates (WSA) of the bare land (BL), grassland (GL), shrubland (SL), and woodland (WL) in a typical karst gorge region. The results indicated that the BL, GL, SL, and WL were dominated by particles with sizes > 5 mm under dry sieving treatment, and that the soil aggregate contents of various sizes decreased as the particle size decreased. In addition, the BL, GL, SL, and WL were predominantly comprised of WSA sieving treatment, and that the WSA contents initially increased, then decreased, and then increased again as the particle size decreased. Furthermore, at a soil depth of 0-60 cm, the mean weight diameter (MWD), geometrical mean diameter (GMD), and fractal dimensions (D) of the dry aggregates and water-stable aggregates in the different types of land were ranked, in descending order, as WL > GL > SL > BL. The contents of WSA > 0.25 mm, MWD and GMD increased significantly, in that order, and the percentage of aggregate destruction (PAD) and fractal dimensions decreased significantly as the soil aggregate stability improved. The results of this study indicated that, as the SOC contents increased after vegetation restoration, the average SOC content of WL was 2.35, 1.37, and 1.26 times greater than that in the BL, GL, and SL, respectively. The total SOC and SOC associated in WSA of various sizes were the highest at a soil depth of 0-20 cm. In addition, the SOC contents of the WSA increased as the soil aggregate sizes decreased. The SOC contents of the WSA aggregates aggregate SOC contents. The woodland and grassland facilitated WSA stability and SOC protection, thus, promoting the natural restoration of vegetation by reducing artificial disturbances could effectively restore the ecology

  1. First-hand sensory experience plays a limited role in children's early understanding of seeing and hearing as sources of knowledge: evidence from typically hearing and deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ellyn; Pyers, Jennie

    2014-11-01

    One early-developing component of theory of mind is an understanding of the link between sensory perception and knowledge formation. We know little about the extent to which children's first-hand sensory experiences drive the development of this understanding, as most tasks capturing this early understanding target vision, with less attention paid to the other senses. In this study, 64 typically hearing children (Mage  = 4.0 years) and 21 orally educated deaf children (Mage  = 5.44 years) were asked to identify which of two informants knew the identity of a toy animal when each had differing perceptual access to the animal. In the 'seeing' condition, one informant saw the animal and the other did not; in the 'hearing' condition, one informant heard the animal and the other did not. For both hearing and deaf children, there was no difference between performance on hearing and seeing trials, but deaf children were delayed in both conditions. Further, within both the hearing and deaf groups, older children outperformed younger children on these tasks, indicating that there is a developmental progression. Taken together, the pattern of results suggests that experiences other than first-hand sensory experiences drive children's developing understanding that sensory perception is associated with knowledge. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  2. INCREASE THE INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF THE REGION: THE EXPERIENCE OF THE VORONEZH REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Podmolodina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The paper clarifies the relationship of concepts investment climate, investment attractiveness, investment activity. It has been established that investment activity is a sign of effective investment attractiveness. Investment attractiveness of the subject of the Russian Federation due to the efforts of the regional authorities in the areas of improving the investment climate in the region; improvement of legal norms for domestic and foreign investors; developing incentives for investment activity. The article substantiates the investment policy measures that should contribute to the objectives of the investment strategy through implementation of investment programs. The priorities of the investment policy in the region include the creation of clusters, the development of branches of agriculture, increase the volume of production of import-substituting products. The attractiveness of the Voronezh region due to its favorable geopolitical location, large capacity market, its personnel and scientific potential. Investment activity in the Voronezh region largely determines the special organization "Agency for Investment and Strategic Projects." Investment activity in the region is stimulated by the development of industrial parks in the territory of which the large investment projects world producers. Voronezh region has rich experience in attracting potential investors and working with them. The article discusses a set of preferences granted inve-Sided, clarity and transparency of the existing mechanism of their production, thereby increasing the investment attractiveness of the Voronezh region. Provides an overview of realized and announced for implementation of investment projects. The article notes that further increase the investment attractiveness of the Voronezh region is associated with the improvement of legal and regulatory framework; development of infrastructure for the implementation of investment projects; Formation of

  3. Current status of RMS and technical experience for regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung-Soo

    2006-01-01

    The NNCA uses secure remote monitoring systems, both for reporting to the IAEA and for the bilateral cooperation with Sandia (SNL) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The NNCA system architecture has changed from a system using a Central Monitoring Station at the former TCNC, to direct internet reporting on a simultaneous basis to the IAEA and the NNCA. The NNCA reporting system is applied at 16 power reactors. This experience provides the basis for a detailed cost analysis and evaluation of trouble-shooting experience. Progress in establishing remote monitoring cooperation between the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute's new Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process Facility (ACPE) and Sandia is a precondition for regional cooperation. The ACPF system, which is currently in final testing, features network configuration and equipment that differ from safeguards standards for reasons of cost and flexibility. This allows the NNCA to take advantage of rapidly developing technologies at lower cost. (author)

  4. REGIONAL CLIMATE MODELING STUDY FOR THE CARPATHIAN REGION USING REGCM4 EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PIECZKA I.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The newest model version of RegCM is adapted with the ultimate aim of providing climate projection for the Carpathian region with 10 km horizontal resolution. For this purpose, first, coarse resolution reanalysis data and global climate model outputs are used to drive 50 km resolution model experiments, from which the outputs are used to provide necessary boundary conditions for the fine scale model runs. Besides the historical runs (for the period 1981-2010, RCP4.5 scenario is also analyzed in this paper for the 21st century. These experiments are essential since they form the basis of national climate and adaptation strategies by providing detailed regional scale climatic projections and enabling specific impact studies for various sectors.

  5. Studying and developing main nuclear analytical techniques for assessment of the present situation of marine environmental radioactivity in some typical regions of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Trong Ngo; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Phan Son Hai; Mai Thi Huong; Nguyen Thi Linh; Nguyen Van Phuc; Le Nhu Sieu; Nguyen Mong Sinh, Truong Y; Le Ngoc Chung

    2003-01-01

    Typical output of the study is presented, including: 1/ establishing standard procedures for the determination of 238 U and 230 Th radionuclide concentration in marine environmental samples; 2/ acquiring baseline data for the main radionuclide concentration in marine environmental materials (water, sediment and biota) collected from suitable key coastal locations of Vietnam. (NTN)

  6. Centralization of a Regional Clinical Microbiology Service: The Calgary Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre L Church

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic laboratory services in Alberta have been dramatically restructured over the past five years. In 1994, Alberta Health embarked on an aggressive laboratory restructuring that cut back approximately 30% of the overall monies previously paid to the laboratory service sector in Calgary. A unique service delivery model consolidated all institutional and community-based diagnostic testing in a company called Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS in late 1996. CLS was formed by a public/private partnership between the Calgary Regional Health Care Authority (CRHA and MDS-Kasper Laboratories. By virtue of its customer service base and scope of testing, CLS provides comprehensive regional laboratory services to the entire populace. Regional microbiology services within CLS have been successfully consolidated over the past three years into a centralized high volume laboratory (HVL. Because the HVL is not located in a hospital, rapid response laboratories (RRLs are operated at each acute care site. Although the initial principle behind the proposed test menus for the RRLs was that only procedures requiring a clinical turnaround time of more than 2 h stay on-site, many other principles had to be used to develop and implement an efficient and clinically relevant RRL model for microbiology. From these guiding principles, a detailed assessment of the needs of each institution and extensive networking with user groups, the functions of the microbiology RRLs were established and a detailed implementation plan drawn up. The experience at CLS with regards to restructuring a regional microbiology service is described herein. A post-hoc analysis provides the pros and cons of directing and operating a regionalized microbiology service.

  7. Atlantic Coast Unique Regional Atmospheric Tracer Experiment (ACURATE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.F.; Heffter, J.L.; Mead, G.A.

    1983-05-01

    The Atlantic Coast Unique Regional Atmospheric Tracer Experiment (ACURATE) is a program designed to obtain data necessary to evaluate atmospheric transport and diffusion models used to calculate regional population doses caused by nuclear facility emissions to the atmosphere. This experiment will significantly improve the basis for evaluating the cost effectiveness of different methods of managing airborne nuclear wastes. During the period from March 1982 through September 1982, twice daily air samples have been collected at each of five sampling stations located on a radial from the SRP to Murray Hill, NJ (1000 km). Kr-85 emitted from the F and H area chemical separations facilities is being used as a tracer to determine the transport and diffusion of atmospheric releases from the SRP. The Kr-85 concentrations in the air samples will be compared with the calculated concentrations as predicted by the transport and diffusion models. The Kr-85 data and the meteorological data are being archived and will be made available to the modeling community

  8. Evaluation of health resources expenditure in two groups of psychotic patients treated with olanzapine and typical neuroleptics in a Italian Mental Health Department in Calabria Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Caputo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Italian and international trials have studied the global costs of treatment with olanzapine and typical neuroleptics. Our analysis confirms those results. In our study, treatment with olanzapine, as compared to typical neuroleptics, was associated with a greater reduction in emergency interventions (hospitalisations, with an increased use of rehabilitation services and with a small increase in the number of working days. The differences between the two groups for this variable were not great, while the differences in the assessment scores appeared important and statistically significant. The results of present study are relative to the practice of one Italian Mental Health Department and, for this reason, cannot be generalized. Anyway, they are another indication of increased efficiency of atypicals treatment over older neuroleptics in schizophrenia.

  9. Spatial Heterogeneity of Typical Ecosystem Services and Their Relationships in Different Ecological–Functional Zones in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Xie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing changes in ecosystem services (ES and their relationships is the basis of achieving sustainable regional development. Regional collaborative development has become the core strategy of the development of the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH region. However, sub regions have different ecological changes and relationships. Here, we quantify and map ES, including water yield, sediment retention, carbon sequestration and grain productive capacity in 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015, using several biophysical models and explore the relationships of spatial correction, trade-offs and synergies among multiple ES in different spatial scales. Results across the four years show that the quality and variation tendency of ES from each region are spatially heterogeneous. The relationship between ES that are not significant in the entire region shows different correlations in individual ecological–functional zones. From the perspective of regional disparity, the effect of land use factor and correlative mechanisms among ES are analyzed. To observe the spatiotemporal variations and relationships of ES in individual regions, land use management policies are proposed on the basis of the results of the relationships among ES.

  10. Peel Region TransHelp's experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    TransHelp was founded in the Peel Region of Ontario in 1981 to provide paratransit service to individuals unable to use conventional transit. The TransHelp vehicle fleet consists of 40 buses that make over 220,000 one way trips annually. Each vehicle has a typical life span of between 375,000 and 425,000 km. TransHelp vehicles spend much of their time idling in emissions-sensitive areas, such as outside hospitals. In order to reduce fuel costs, TransHelp adopted the use of propane to fuel its vehicles. However, difficulties were experienced with this technology, particularly on V-10 engines where increased maintenance was a problem. SFI Technologies Inc. provided a solution with their SEQUIN System which allows seamless transitioning between gasoline and propane under all conditions without any operator involvement in fuel selection. The technology favours propane as the fuel of choice and automatically switches between propane and gasoline based on the ideal conditions at the time of operation. The technology has received certification from the Environmental Protection Agency in the United States and the Canadian Standards Association. The use of the SEQUIN System has proven to successful for TransHelp. It has allowed the use of propane to be continued, meaning that vehicle emissions are greatly reduced relative to gasoline or diesel fuelled vehicles. TransHelp has realized a fuel savings of 15-20 per cent over gasoline and receives an additional federal transit rebate of 15 per cent for the conversion cost.

  11. Boundary layer structure and scavenging effect during a typical winter haze-fog episode in a core city of BTH region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Suqin; Liu, Jingle; Hao, Tianyi; Zhang, Yufen; Li, Peiyan; Yang, Jianbo; Wang, Qinliang; Cai, Ziying; Yao, Qing; Zhang, Min; Wang, Xiujun

    2018-04-01

    The vertical distribution of PM2.5 and meteorological parameters from ground to upper levels were observed simultaneously using meteorological tower, tethered balloons and aerosol laser radar in Dec of 2016 in the urban area of Tianjin and its southern district, Jinghai. The influence of the vertical structure of boundary layer on a typical haze-fog episode was analyzed. There existed long distance transport of PM in the high layers before the haze formed in Tianjin and the downward airflows brought the PM from the high layer to the ground. In the early stages of this episode, periodic temperature inversions occurred, leading to conspicuous diurnal variations in the vertical profile of the PM2.5. In the middle and late stages of this episode, strong inversion and thick humidity layer were sustained below 400 m, and there were no big daily changes in the vertical profiles of the PM2.5. During the rapid formation period of the fog, the inversion layer was damaged and turbulence was strengthened. During the stationary phase of the fog process, wind and turbulence in the boundary layer became weak again. Rime was the main weather-related, wet cleaning mechanism that lowered pollutants concentration during this fog episode. High concentrations of water soluble ions in the rime samples and the concentrations of those ions in ambient PM2.5 appeared significant decrease during the rime period, which illustrated the scavenging effect of rime.

  12. Regional innovative policy: Developed countries' experience and lessons for Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beljaeva Julija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research into formation of national innovative system at the regional level in developed countries gives the opportunity to reveal specific instruments of governmental policy and their adoption in Russian conditions. Nowadays Europe has got its general task in science development to build up common scientific area. According to the European Commission, it is possible to perform this task if EU countries and agree to unite their resources, and their national scientific policy is reformed under this common European standard. The main instrument of EU scientific and technological policy is European Framework programs of scientific research and technological development. In the context of these programs free funding is given as support to international scientific and technological projects. So, the most favorable climate is being created in Europe, which will let it become one of the centers of worldwide scientific research. The Japanese model of regional innovative system assumes building of brand new cities that is technology towns concentrating scientific research in forward spheres and industrial production. Herewith building of such technology towns to a great extent is funded at the regional level. Tax incentives play the significant role in the innovative activity stimulation in developed countries. For example, in Great Britain big corporations have the right to write down 125% of their scientific expenses to the cost, small write down 150%. Taxable profit decreases by a certain per cent what depends on increasing in expenses on scientific research. In another at a very high speed building up its innovative capital country - China - a differentiated VAT rate takes place. On average it is 18%, but it is twice lower in the sphere of IT. So, analysis of foreign experience of innovative development lets us underline the following necessary instruments of innovative policy: Private and governmental partnership in financing of academic and

  13. [Organizational wellbeing in the health sector: the Piemonte Region experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converso, Daniela; Baratti, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the Health Councillorship of the Piedmont region announced, in convention with the Psychology Department of the University of Turin, of the creation of "Workgroup for Safeguard of Organizational Wellbeing" composed by psychologists, occupational doctors, and superintendents for Prevention and Protection services. This group is aimed at promoting pilot experiences in the Health Units in order to prevent and combat psychosocial discomfort and to sustain workers' wellbeing. A complex intervention started in January 2009 and involved the personnel from Services for the Organization and Development of Human Resources, Personnel Services, Services for Occupational Medicine, Services of Communication, Quality Services, belonging to all of the Health Units from Piedmont, and of some structures operating within the national health service, for a total of 23 work groups. Based on the results produced and/or from the shared reflections in the classroom between the 23 groups, four main themes were singled out, corresponding to different levels and fields of interventions, in order to favour the contrast of psychosocial distress and to promote a culture of wellbeing, were adopted taking into account needs and cultural specificity of different Units' realities. The activities embarked on, inside every main theme represent, in the expectations of all the participants, good practices that could be spread to the different Local Health Units.

  14. People typically experience extended periods of relative happiness or unhappiness due to positive feedback loops between LS and variables which are both causes and consequences of LS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Headey, Bruce; Muffels, R.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Long term panel data enable researchers to construct trajectories of LS for individuals over time. Bar charts of trajectories, and subsequent statistical analysis, show that respondents typically spend multiple consecutive years above and below their own long-term mean level of LS. We attempt to

  15. Estimation of regional mass anomalies from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) over Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, R.; Singh, S. K.; Rajawat, A. S.; Ajai

    2014-11-01

    Time-variable gravity changes are caused by a combination of postglacial rebound, redistribution of water and snow/ice on land and as well as in the ocean. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, launched in 2002, provides monthly average of the spherical harmonic co-efficient. These spherical harmonic co-efficient describe earth's gravity field with a resolution of few hundred kilometers. Time-variability of gravity field represents the change in mass over regional level with accuracies in cm in terms of Water Equivalent Height (WEH). The WEH reflects the changes in the integrated vertically store water including snow cover, surface water, ground water and soil moisture at regional scale. GRACE data are also sensitive towards interior strain variation, surface uplift and surface subsidence cover over a large area. GRACE data was extracted over the three major Indian River basins, Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra, in the Himalayas which are perennial source of fresh water throughout the year in Northern Indian Plain. Time series analysis of the GRACE data was carried out from 2003-2012 over the study area. Trends and amplitudes of the regional mass anomalies in the region were estimated using level 3 GRACE data product with a spatial resolution at 10 by 10 grid provided by Center for Space Research (CSR), University of Texas at Austin. Indus basin has shown a subtle decreasing trend from 2003-2012 however it was observed to be statistically insignificant at 95 % confidence level. Ganga and Brahmaputra basins have shown a clear decreasing trend in WEH which was also observed to be statistically significant. The trend analysis over Ganga and Brahamputra basins have shown an average annual change of -1.28 cm and -1.06 cm in terms of WEH whereas Indus basin has shown a slight annual change of -0.07 cm. This analysis will be helpful to understand the loss of mass in terms of WEH over Indian Himalayas and will be crucial for hydrological and

  16. Effects of typical antipsychotic, haloperidol on regional cerebral blood flow in drug-naive schizophrenic patients-study with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamoya, Masatoshi

    2001-01-01

    For the purpose of examining antipsychotic action of haloperidol (HPD), effects of chronic perioral administration of HPD 4.5 mg/day on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT were investigated in 12 drug-naive schizophrenic patients with acute hallucinatory and delusional state. Further, the SPECT examinations were performed on 20 normal adult volunteers to investigate differences in rCBFs between schizophrenics and the normal subjects. Results are itemized as follows. The rCBF values were significantly increased in the bilateral superior and middle frontal, cingulate, middle temporal, pre-and post-central gyri, the left superior temporal gyrus, the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, and the bilateral hippocampal and thalamic cortices in comparison between normal subjects and before the HPD dose in schizophrenics. However, the rCBF values after the HPD dose showed significant increases only in the bilateral pre-and post-central gyri in comparison with the normal subjects. The rCBF values were significantly decreased in the bilateral superior, middle and inferior frontal, superior and middle temporal gyri, and the left insular gyrus after the HPD dose in comparison with before the HPD dose. The psychiatric assessment with PANSS showed an improvement of positive symptoms consisting of auditory hallucination and delusions after the HPD dose. Statistical analyses on relationships between the rCBF values and PANSS scores before and after the HPD dose showed positive correlations between the right inferior frontal gyrus and auditory hallucination or positive symptoms, between the right superior temporal gyrus, left thalamus and delusions, and between the left thalamus, insular gyrus and negative symptoms. These results suggest that acute drug-naive schizophrenic patients have widespread cortico-subcortical energic hypermetabolism and HPD reduces the hypermetabolism, leading to whole normalized brain metabolism, in particular with the larger region

  17. Effects of typical antipsychotic, haloperidol on regional cerebral blood flow in drug-naive schizophrenic patients-study with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamoya, Masatoshi [Kanazawa Medical Univ., Ishikawa (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of examining antipsychotic action of haloperidol (HPD), effects of chronic perioral administration of HPD 4.5 mg/day on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT were investigated in 12 drug-naive schizophrenic patients with acute hallucinatory and delusional state. Further, the SPECT examinations were performed on 20 normal adult volunteers to investigate differences in rCBFs between schizophrenics and the normal subjects. Results are itemized as follows. The rCBF values were significantly increased in the bilateral superior and middle frontal, cingulate, middle temporal, pre-and post-central gyri, the left superior temporal gyrus, the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, and the bilateral hippocampal and thalamic cortices in comparison between normal subjects and before the HPD dose in schizophrenics. However, the rCBF values after the HPD dose showed significant increases only in the bilateral pre-and post-central gyri in comparison with the normal subjects. The rCBF values were significantly decreased in the bilateral superior, middle and inferior frontal, superior and middle temporal gyri, and the left insular gyrus after the HPD dose in comparison with before the HPD dose. The psychiatric assessment with PANSS showed an improvement of positive symptoms consisting of auditory hallucination and delusions after the HPD dose. Statistical analyses on relationships between the rCBF values and PANSS scores before and after the HPD dose showed positive correlations between the right inferior frontal gyrus and auditory hallucination or positive symptoms, between the right superior temporal gyrus, left thalamus and delusions, and between the left thalamus, insular gyrus and negative symptoms. These results suggest that acute drug-naive schizophrenic patients have widespread cortico-subcortical energic hypermetabolism and HPD reduces the hypermetabolism, leading to whole normalized brain metabolism, in particular with the larger region

  18. Stoichiometry of water-soluble ions in PM2.5: Application in source apportionment for a typical industrial city in semi-arid region, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haijun; Lü, Changwei; He, Jiang; Gao, Manshu; Zhao, Boyi; Ren, Limin; Zhang, Lijun; Fan, Qingyun; Liu, Tao; He, Zhongxiang; Dudagula; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Hualin; Zhang, Yu

    2018-05-01

    Water-soluble ions (WSIs) are major components of PM2.5 and it is valuable for understanding physical and chemical characteristics, sources, behaviors and formation mechanism of WSIs. Baotou is a traditionally industrial city in semi-arid region and frequently subjected to dust storms from March to May. In recent years, air pollution has been listed as one of the most important environmental problems in Baotou. To investigate the seasonal variations and sources of WSIs in PM2.5, the WSIs including SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, F-, NH4+, K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were monitored at six urban sites in Baotou. The results showed that high concentrations of Ca2+ and Na+ were found responding to dust storm events, while high concentrations of SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, K+ and Cl- were observed during haze days. The correlations analysis indicated that excess sulfuric and nitric acid was likely neutralized by carbonate minerals such as calcite, aragonite and dolomite in normal days and cations were fully neutralized during all the sampling periods, while cations were excessive in dust storm days. The concentrations of [NH4+ + SO42- + NO3-], [Na+ + Ca2+ + Mg2+] and [Cl- + K+ + F-] indicated the northwest and southeast region of Baotou presented comparatively high contributions of secondary aerosol and crustal dust, respectively, which were mainly related to the industrial distribution and urbanization process. The cluster analysis, ternary diagram and principal component analysis have a good agreement in source apportionment, where crustal dust sources, secondary aerosol source and the mixture of coal combustion, biomass burning and industrial pollution sources were the main sources of WSIs in PM2.5. The seasonal pattern of sulfur oxidation ratio (SOR) was September > April > November > January, while the nitrogen oxidation ratio (NOR) April > January > November > September in Baotou. This work evaluated the seasonal variation, distribution and source of WSIs on the basis of its stoichiometry in

  19. Dynamics of soil available phosphorus and its impact factors under simulated climate change in typical farmland of Taihu Lake region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kaihao; Chen, Xiaomin; Pan, Genxing; Zhang, Xuhui; Chen, Can

    2016-02-01

    Global climate change affects the availability of soil nutrients, thereby influencing crop productivity. This research was conducted to investigate the effects of elevated CO2, elevated temperature, and the interaction of the elevated CO2 and temperature on the soil available phosphorus (P) of a paddy-wheat rotation in the Taihu Lake region, China. Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was cultivated during the study period from 2011 to 2014 at two CO2 levels (350 μL•L(-1) ambient and 500 μL•L(-1) elevated by 150 μL•L(-1)) and two temperatures (ambient and 2 °C above the ambient). Soil available P content increased at the first season and decreased at the last season during the three wheat growing seasons. Soil available P content showed seasonal variation, whereas dynamic changes were not significant within each growing season. Soil available P content had no obvious trends under different treatments. But for the elevated temperature, CO2, and their combination treatments, soil available P content decreased in a long time period. During the period of wheat ripening stage, significant positive correlations were found between soil available P content and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and organic matter, but significant negative correlations with soil clay content and pH value; the correlation coefficients were 0.9400 (p climate change scenario.

  20. A procedure for the sensory evaluation of Salama da sugo, a typical fermented sausage produced in the Emilia Romagna Region, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloretti, Fabio; Grazia, Luigi; Gardini, Fausto; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Montanari, Chiara; Tabanelli, Giulia; Chiavari, Cristiana

    2015-03-30

    Salama da sugo is a fermented sausage from the Ferrara tradition (Italy, Emilia-Romagna region), subjected to a long ripening period (4-6 months) and characterised by a high content of wine and spices in the mixture. It can be consumed after cooking and it is served with its sugo, i.e. the liquid extracted by cooking process. The aim of this work was to set up a method for the sensory profile of Salama da sugo as a request for Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) has been made to the European Commission. A system of sample preparation that provides for the precooking in an autoclave and cooking in boiling water was set up. A specific sheet for sensory evaluation of Salama da sugo has been created and reports 23 descriptors identified during the lexicon development. The differences in sensory profile of four samples were evaluated and principal component analysis highlighted the more discriminant parameters, i.e. odour intensity, wine odour, spicy aroma, fat/lean connection, sweet, bitter, juiciness, chewiness and pricking. The proposed method allows the standardisation of sensory profiling of Salama da sugo, and is also to verify compliance with the specification PGI. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. GOVERNANCE OF SMART SPECIALISATION: EXPERIENCES OF FOUR EUROPEAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca SĂFTESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we compare four European regional development models in order to conclude on good practices on smart specialisation. The concept of smart specialisation (European Commission, 2008, Foray et al., 2009, S3 Platform, 2016 has been placed at the core of the European regional development strategies and it brought the focus on local endowments, international network orientation of the regions and their potential for excellence globally. That encouraged the regions’ governments to align their actions to the general consent and to adopt place-based policies which foster innovation. The analysis draws from four European regions, each with a different innovation performance, according to the Regional Innovation Scoreboard: South-East Ireland is an Innovation Follower, Castilla de la Mancha, Spain and Central Hungary, are moderate innovators, while Bucharest-Ilfov in Romania is a modest innovator. Their different level of development gives a broader perspective on the regional development policies and, therefore, it allows us to identify good practices of smart specialisation approach and their current position in the global value chain. The present article is not limited to the description of various models for smart specialisation governance, but it also proposes a series of recommendations to better capitalise regional strengths and to create regional governance environments that generates smarter public services supportive for entrepreneurship, wealth creation and growth.

  2. Regional Advection Perturbations in an Irrigated Desert (RAPID) Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debruin, H.A.R.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Allen, R.G.; Kramer, J.W.J.L.

    2005-01-01

    The RAPID field experiment took place in August - September 1999 at a site 25km south of Twin Falls, Idaho, USA. The experiment concerned micrometeorological observations over extensive, well-irrigated fields covered with the fast-growing crop alfalfa. During daytime, on a number of days the

  3. Lagopedo: two F-region ionospheric depletion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongratz, M.B.; Smith, G.M.; Sutherland, C.D.; Zinn, J.

    1977-01-01

    A significant depletion of ionospheric plasma was produced by a chemical release experiment in the F-layer ionosphere over Hawaii. The results of measurements of the hole produced in the ionospheric plasma are reported

  4. Energy retrofitting of a typical old Danish multi-family building to a “nearly-zero” energy building based on experiences from a test apartment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Martin; Rønby, Leif; Mikkelsen, Svend Erik

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the research described in this paper was to demonstrate that an old Danish multi-family building built in 1896 could be retrofitted to a “nearly-zero” energy building. Three types of retrofit measures were implemented in a “test” apartment to obtain practical experiences. The first...

  5. Thyroid cancer: experiences at the Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep, V.M.; Gangadharan, P.; Nair, Krishnan M.

    1999-01-01

    Above 300 thyroid cancers are seen at the Regional Cancer Centre annually. There has been an increase in the number of TC registered over the years. This is at least partly due to improved diagnostic services and availability of 131 I therapy. Almost 90 % of the cases seen at the Centre are well-differentiated cancers

  6. Universities, regional innovation systems and the Bangalore experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jan; Coenen, Lars; Chaminade, Christina

    2007-01-01

    This paper takes stock with one-size-fits-all models on the role of universities in regional innovation systems in Asia. It proposes a contextual and evolutionary perspective which focuses on the match between the specific competences and capabilities of the universities and the firms' particular...

  7. Atlantic Coast Unique Regional Atmospheric Tracer Experiment (ACURATE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.F.; Heffter, J.L.; Mead, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    A long-range, long-term data set on the regional scale for air pollution model was developed for evaluation. The ACURATE model used Kr-85 emitted intermittently from the Savannah River Plant as a tracer of hourly source emission data at 5 sites for a total of 3858 measurements

  8. Machine constraints for experiments in an intermediate luminosity interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groom, D.

    1989-05-01

    We summarize existing information about the luminosity as a function of clear space between the interaction point and the front of the final-focus triplet, and about the minimum beam pipe dimensions (stay-clear dimensions) in the region. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. Typical Complexity Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Typical Complexity Numbers. Say. 1000 tones,; 100 Users,; Transmission every 10 msec. Full Crosstalk cancellation would require. Full cancellation requires a matrix multiplication of order 100*100 for all the tones. 1000*100*100*100 operations every second for the ...

  10. Polarization experiments with photons in the nucleon resonances region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miczaika, T.S.

    1983-10-01

    I discuss the photoexcitation of the nucleaon γN->Nπ and the photodisintegration of the deuteron γd->pn. The photo-couplings to the nucleon resonances that are measured in these experiments can be compared to quark model calculations, and exact data on the smaller amplitudes can serve as input to refined theories. (orig./HSI)

  11. A Regional Integrated Virtual Learning Environment: The AOU's Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Hammad

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to construct a Regional Integrated Virtual Learning Environment (RIVLE for the Arab Open University (AOU. AOU is a new nonprofit learning institution with branches in six Arab countries and more branches scheduled to open in the near future. The university adopts an open learning methodology. We describe the major elements of the RIVLE and their interaction. We present a generic interface between the RIVLE and the Student Information System (SIS. We focus on the characteristics of the pedagogical model in the Arab Open University context and explain why RIVLE would be a perfect fit for this model. We argue that the potential benefits of a RIVLE are realized in such a setting. We also study the possibility of extending the RIVLE to existing learning institutions in the region.

  12. The role of regional networks in regional policy: European experience and perspectives for Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Arzhenovsky, Igor; Solodkova, Natalia

    2003-01-01

    The processes of globalization and localization as frame conditions of regional development cause some radical changes of spatial organization of economy and regional policy. One of such alteration is a widespread horizontal method (in addition to traditional hierarchical form) of relationship between different firms, organizations and other partners through informal contacts, intensive informational flows and cooperation skills. The report concerns theoretical substantiation, essence, differ...

  13. Field work in geography. Region with experience in socio-environmental conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Ensabella

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article emphasizes the importance of the geographical field work in a region with socio-environmental conflict, such us the problem with water in Sierras Chicas, Cordoba. The main focus is a pedagogical experience, the Socio-Communal Practice (SCP, performed by professors, students and assistants of the subject Rural Geography, of the Bachelor’s in Geography course of studies of the Philosophy and Humanity School (PHS, in the city of La Granja, in Colón, Córdoba. The SCP is an experience that makes the students approach the social field of the territory conflicts. It is an activity that goes beyond the extension project, since it involves all the students doing the subject. And it is also a way to combine -in our case, from the geographic work- the teaching, investigation and extension functions typical of the university students. Through the SCP, we aim to make the Rural Geography students approach the field work, with local social organizations that deeply know the problems of their cities and that work together with our investigation group. In addition, this contact together with the individual thoughts, the group discussion and the debates between the university students, will broaden, in the whole society, the knowledge about the reality in which they live and with which they struggle. This article starts by defining what it is understood by SCP. Then, taking into account our practice, we develop what we consider to be the two logics that support the field work. One refers to the building of knowledge and to the different ways of learning and knowing. The other is related to the understanding of the socio-territory conflict in the area where the practice will be done: the Mesa del Agua and La Granja environment. We include a section about the description of the experience and its results, and we conclude with some reflections made taking into account the continuity of the practice

  14. Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy Experience Difficulties Adjusting Their Gait Pattern to Weight Added to the Waist, While Typically Developing Children Do Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyns, Pieter; Van Gestel, Leen; Bar-On, Lynn; Goudriaan, Marije; Wambacq, Hans; Aertbeliën, Erwin; Bruyninckx, Herman; Molenaers, Guy; De Cock, Paul; Ortibus, Els; Desloovere, Kaat

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is increasing in the last decades, also in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Even though it has been established that an increase in weight can have important negative effects on gait in healthy adults and children, it has not been investigated what the effect is of an increase in body weight on the characteristics of gait in children with CP. In CP, pre and post three-dimensional gait analyses are performed to assess the effectiveness of an intervention. As a considerable amount of time can elapse between these measurements, and the effect of an alteration in the body weight is not taken into consideration, this effect of increased body weight is of specific importance. Thirty children with the predominantly spastic type of CP and 15 typically developing (TD) children were enrolled (age 3–15 years). All children underwent three-dimensional gait analysis with weight-free (baseline) and weighted (10% of the body weight added around their waist) trials. Numerous gait parameters showed a different response to the added weight for TD and CP children. TD children increased walking velocity, step- and stride length, and decreased double support duration with a slightly earlier timing of foot-off, while the opposite was found in CP. Similarly, increased ranges of motion at the pelvis (coronal plane) and hip (all planes), higher joint angular velocities at the hip and ankle, as well as increased moments and powers at the hip, knee and ankle were observed for TD children, while CP children did not change or even showed decreases in the respective measures in response to walking with added weight. Further, while TD children increased their gastrocnemius EMG amplitude during weighted walking, CP children slightly decreased their gastrocnemius EMG amplitude. As such, an increase in weight has a significant effect on the gait pattern in CP children. Clinical gait analysts should therefore take into account the negative

  15. Typicals/Típicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vélez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Typicals is a series of 12 colour photographs digitally created from photojournalistic images from Colombia combined with "typical" craft textiles and text from guest writers. Typicals was first exhibited as photographs 50cm x 75cm in size, each with their own magnifying glass, at the Contemporary Art Space at Gorman House in Canberra, Australia, in 2000. It was then exhibited in "Feedback: Art Social Consciousness and Resistance" at Monash University Museum of Art in Melbourne, Australia, from March to May 2003. From May to June 2003 it was exhibited at the Museo de Arte de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Santa Fé Bogotá, Colombia. In its current manifestation the artwork has been adapted from the catalogue of the museum exhibitions. It is broken up into eight pieces corresponding to the contributions of the writers. The introduction by Sylvia Vélez is the PDF file accessible via a link below this abstract. The other seven PDF files are accessible via the 'Supplementary Files' section to the left of your screen. Please note that these files are around 4 megabytes each, so it may be difficult to access them from a dial-up connection.

  16. Study on thermalhydraulics of natural circulation decay heat removal in FBR. Experiment with water of typical reactor trip in the demonstration FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Tomonari; Murakami, Takahiro; Eguchi, Yuzuru

    2010-01-01

    Intending to enhance safety and to reduce costs, an FBR plant is being developed in Japan. In relies solely on natural circulation of the primary cooling loop to remove a decay heat of the core after reactor trips. A water test was carried out to advance the development. The test used a 1/10 reduced scale model simulating the core and cooling systems. The experiments simulated representative accidents from steady state to decay heat removal through reactor trip and clarified thermal-hydraulic issues on the thermal circulation performance. Some modifications of the system design were proposed for solving serious problems of natural circulation. An improved design complying with the suggestions will make it possible for natural circulation of the cooling systems to remove the decay heat of the core without causing and unstable or unpredictable change. (author)

  17. Relation between soil P test values and mobilization of dissolved and particulate P from the plough layer of typical Danish soils from a long-term field experiment with applied P fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaesner, N.; Kjaergaard, C.; Rubaek, G. H.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of phosphorus (P) in agricultural topsoils can contribute to leaching of P which may cause eutrophication of surface waters. An understanding of P mobilization processes in the plough layer is needed to improve agricultural management strategies. We compare leaching of total dissolved...... and particulate P through the plough layer of a typical Danish sandy loam soil subjected to three different P fertilizer regimes in a long-term field experiment established in 1975. The leaching experiment used intact soil columns (20cm diameter, 20cm high) during unsaturated conditions. The three soils had small...

  18. The regional energy integration: the latin-american experiences; L'integration energetique regionale: les experiences latino-americaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The ways of the regional economic integrations are not identical and generate different repercussions on the markets and the energy industries evolution. The example of the Latin America proposes many various experiences to evaluate the stakes and the limits of each regional integrations. These limits lead to solution researches including indisputable convergencies. The first part of this document presents the genesis of these regional economic integrations experiences in Latina America, to study in the second part the energy consequences of the liberal ALENA and of the more political MERCOSUR. (A.L.B.)

  19. The regional energy integration: the latin-american experiences; L'integration energetique regionale: les experiences latino-americaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The ways of the regional economic integrations are not identical and generate different repercussions on the markets and the energy industries evolution. The example of the Latin America proposes many various experiences to evaluate the stakes and the limits of each regional integrations. These limits lead to solution researches including indisputable convergencies. The first part of this document presents the genesis of these regional economic integrations experiences in Latina America, to study in the second part the energy consequences of the liberal ALENA and of the more political MERCOSUR. (A.L.B.)

  20. Early experience in the combination of regional hyperthermia and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, G.C.W.; Bleehen, N.M.

    1987-01-01

    An annular array of radiative radiofrequency applicators (APA) has been developed by the BSD Corporation, Salt Lake City (USA) which has been shown to be capable of deep heating. The BSD 1000 clinical hyperthermia system has been installed at Cambridge for 18 months and a pilot study has been performed to assess the feasibility of pelvic regional hyperthermia in the treatment of extensive pelvic malignancy. The study confirms published data that the APA is capable of heating at depth within the pelvis. Therapeutic temperatures may be reached in the majority of treatments but are difficult to maintain due to acute toxicity. Steering of the area of maximal energy deposition may improve treatments considerably. A randomised trial is now being designed to assess whether the synergism between radiation and hyperthermia seen in superficial lesions can be demonstrated in tumours occurring in the pelvis. (orig./MG)

  1. Interacting with Compatriots in Russian Regions: the Experience of Tatarstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radik R. Gimatdinov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Work with compatriots promoting the cultural presence of Russia in the world becomes an important element of "soft power" Supporting the preservation and development among compatriots the cultural traditions of the Tatar people as components of ethnic and cultural diversity of Russia, Tatarstan participates in the implementation of the national foreign policy. The Republic of Tatarstan interacts constructively with the Russian Foreign Ministry, Rossotrudnichestvo, takes part in the activities of the Government Commission on Compatriots Abroad. Work with compatriots is carried out by the executive authorities of the republic within a number of regional government programs. The Coordination Council for the Affairs of Compatriots is created in Tatarstan .The sessions of the World Congress of Tatars (WCT are held every five years. The Executive Committee of the WCT is in contact with one and a half hundreds of Tatar organizations in about 40 countries. The most important event in the in the cultural life of Tatar diaspora is celebration of Sabantui. The Days of the Republic of Tatarstan are also held abroad with great success,and they are aimed at strengthening bilateral cooperation together with the promotion of Tatar culture in the world.A special place in the activities of all the Tatar communities takes the honoring and support of the WWII and labor veterans. Work with the young people is the part of interaction with compatriots: youth forums and camps with the study of the Tatar language are organized. Attracting of compatriots to Tatarstan universities is carried out within Russian government programs.The work of strengthening business ties in the framework of the Tatar diaspora is conducted systematically. The interaction with various target groups of compatriots (women, scientists, cultural figures is organized.The authors propose measures of uniting overseas communities of compatriots and exploiting their potential to promote the interests

  2. Experience from the ECORS program in regions of complex geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damotte, B.

    1993-04-01

    The French ECORS program was launched in 1983 by a cooperation agreement between universities and petroleum companies. Crustal surveys have tried to find explanations for the formation of geological features, such as rifts, mountains ranges or subsidence in sedimentary basins. Several seismic surveys were carried out, some across areas with complex geological structures. The seismic techniques and equipment used were those developed by petroleum geophysicists, adapted to the depth aimed at (30-50 km) and to various physical constraints encountered in the field. In France, ECORS has recorded 850 km of deep seismic lines onshore across plains and mountains, on various kinds of geological formations. Different variations of the seismic method (reflection, refraction, long-offset seismic) were used, often simultaneously. Multiple coverage profiling constitutes the essential part of this data acquisition. Vibrators and dynamite shots were employed with a spread generally 15 km long, but sometimes 100 km long. Some typical seismic examples show that obtaining crustal reflections essentialy depends on two factors: (1) the type and structure of shallow formations, and (2) the sources used. Thus, when seismic energy is strongly absorbed across the first kilometers in shallow formations, or when these formations are highly structured, standard multiple-coverage profiling is not able to provide results beyond a few seconds. In this case, it is recommended to simultaneously carry out long-offset seismic in low multiple coverage. Other more methodological examples show: how the impact on the crust of a surface fault may be evaluated according to the seismic method implemented ( VIBROSEIS 96-fold coverage or single dynamite shot); that vibrators make it possible to implement wide-angle seismic surveying with an offset 80 km long; how to implement the seismic reflection method on complex formations in high mountains. All data were processed using industrial seismic software

  3. Experience with digital subtraction angiography of cervicocranial region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohutova, J.; Neuwirth, J.; Kuncova, S.; Lerlova, L.

    1988-01-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of the head was performed in 100 patients for mostly neurological indications, less frequently pathological processes in the region of the external carotid artery. The intravenous or intraarterial route was selected according to the condition and age of the patient and clinical diagnosis. In 55% of cases the contrast medium was administered into the ascending aorta, in 13% selectively into the carotid or vertebral arteries. The examination was performed intravenously in 32%, most frequently via inferior vena cava (26%). The visualization of the whole area of the carotid and vertebral arteries from the ramification of the aortal arc up to the periphery requires to make at least 4 to 5 administrations of contrast medium, since simultaneous representation of lateral and AP projection for DSA has not been so far possible and the screen size is small. In intravenous DSA the amount of contrast medium increases up to 200 ml. Instillation into the ascending artery is therefore preferred and half of the amount is thus sufficient. DSA has proved of advantage in the examination of patients with arteriosclerosis, angiomas and arteriovenous malformations, vascularized and avascular expansive processes in intracranial and extracranial localizations. Quality angiograms were obtained in 84%, those still suitable for evaluation in 14% and useless in 2% of cases. (author). 14 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs

  4. FIREX (Fire Influence on Regional and Global Environments Experiment): Measurements of Nitrogen Containing Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Schwarz, J. P.; Yokelson, R. J.; Roberts, J. M.; Koss, A.; Coggon, M.; Yuan, B.; Sekimoto, K.

    2017-12-01

    A combination of a warmer, drier climate with fire-control practices over the last century have produced a situation in which we can expect more frequent fires and fires of larger magnitude in the Western U.S. and Canada. There are urgent needs to better understand the impacts of wildfire and biomass burning (BB) on the atmosphere and climate system, and for policy-relevant science to aid in the process of managing fires. The FIREX (Fire Influence on Regional and Global Environment Experiment) research effort is a multi-year, multi-agency measurement campaign focused on the impact of BB on climate and air quality from western North American wild fires, where research takes place on scales ranging from the flame-front to the global atmosphere. FIREX includes methods development and small- and large-scale laboratory and field experiments. FIREX will include: emission factor measurements from typical North American fuels in the fire science laboratory in Missoula, Montana; mobile laboratory deployments; ground site measurements at sites influenced by BB from several western states. The main FIREX effort will be a large field study with multiple aircraft and mobile labs in the fire season of 2019. One of the main advances of FIREX is the availability of various new measurement techniques that allows for smoke evaluation in unprecedented detail. The first major effort of FIREX was the fire science laboratory measurements in October 2016, where a large number of previously understudied Nitrogen containing volatile organic compounds (NVOCs) were measured using H3O+CIMS and I-CIMS instruments. The contribution of NVOCs to the total reactive Nitrogen budget and the relationship to the Nitrogen content of the fuel are investigated.

  5. Spatial-temporal Variations and Source Apportionment of typical Heavy Metals in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region of China Based on Localized Air Pollutants Emission Inventory and WRF-CMAQ modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Liu, S.; Zhu, C.; Liu, H.; Wu, B.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: Anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of air pollutants have caused worldwide concerns due to their adverse effects on human health and the ecosystem. By determining the best available emission factors for varied source categories, we established the comprehensive atmospheric emission inventories of hazardous air pollutants including 12 typical toxic heavy metals (Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu, and Zn) from primary anthropogenic activities in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region of China for the period of 2012 for the first time. The annual emissions of these pollutants were allocated at a high spatial resolution of 9km × 9km grid with ArcGIS methodology and surrogate indexes, such as regional population and gross domestic product (GDP). Notably, the total heavy metal emissions from this region represented about 10.9% of the Chinese national total emissions. The areas with high emissions of heavy metals were mainly concentrated in Tangshan, Shijiazhuang, Handan and Tianjin. Further, WRF-CMAQ modeling system were applied to simulate the regional concentration of heavy metals to explore their spatial-temporal variations, and the source apportionment of these heavy metals in BTH region was performed using the Brute-Force method. Finally, integrated countermeasures were proposed to minimize the final air pollutants discharge on account of the current and future demand of energy-saving and pollution reduction in China. Keywords: heavy metals; particulate matter; emission inventory; CMAQ model; source apportionment Acknowledgment. This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21377012 and 21177012) and the Trail Special Program of Research on the Cause and Control Technology of Air Pollution under the National Key Research and Development Plan of China (2016YFC0201501).

  6. Management of open tibial fractures – a regional experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, WA; Nguyen, DQA; Rooker, JC; Dickson, JK; Goroszeniuk, DZ; Khan, MS; Camp, D

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The treatment of soft-tissue injuries associated with tibial diaphyseal fractures presents a clinical challenge that is best managed by a combined plastic and orthopaedic surgery approach. The current study was undertaken to assess early treatment outcomes and burden of service provision across five regional plastic surgery units in the South-West of England. SUBJECTS AND METHODS We conducted a prospective 6-month audit of open tibial diaphyseal fracture management in five plastic surgery units (Bristol, Exeter, Plymouth, Salisbury, Swansea) with a collective catchment of 9.2 million people. Detailed data were collected on patient demographics, injury pattern, surgical management and outcome followed to discharge. RESULTS The study group consisted of 55 patients (40 male, 15 female). Twenty-two patients presented directly to the emergency department at the specialist hospital (primary group), 33 patients were initially managed at a local hospital (tertiary group). The mean time from injury to soft tissue cover was significantly less (P < 0.001) in the primary group (3.6 ± 0.8 days) than the tertiary group (10.8 ± 2.2 days), principally due to a delay in referral in the latter group (5.4 ±1.7 days). Cover was achieved with 39 flaps (19 free, 20 local), eight split skin grafts. Nine wounds closed directly or by secondary intention. There were 11 early complications (20%) including one flap failure and four infections. The overall mean length of stay was 17.5 ± 2.8 days. CONCLUSIONS Multidisciplinary management of severe open tibial diaphyseal may not be feasible at presentation of injury depending on local hospital specialist services available. Our results highlight the need for robust assessment, triage and senior orthopaedic review in the early post-injury phase. However, broader improvements in the management of lower limb trauma will additionally require further development of combined specialist trauma centres. PMID:21047449

  7. MANAGEMENT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: EUROPEAN EXPERIENCES AND STEPS FORWARD

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Ileana Zamfir

    2011-01-01

    The issues of the renewable energy and regional development have become major priorities for public policymakers across the globe. Therefore, this study explores some European experiences and steps forward in the field of the management of renewable energy and regional development. Firstly, an overview of renewable energy issues in European regions is revealed, and secondly, some measures and actions for managing regional development of renewable energy in Romania taking into account the fina...

  8. A Typical Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Thomas; Achten, Peter; Plasmeijer, Rinus

    We present a typical synergy between dynamic types (dynamics) and generalised algebraic datatypes (GADTs). The former provides a clean approach to integrating dynamic typing in a statically typed language. It allows values to be wrapped together with their type in a uniform package, deferring type unification until run time using a pattern match annotated with the desired type. The latter allows for the explicit specification of constructor types, as to enforce their structural validity. In contrast to ADTs, GADTs are heterogeneous structures since each constructor type is implicitly universally quantified. Unfortunately, pattern matching only enforces structural validity and does not provide instantiation information on polymorphic types. Consequently, functions that manipulate such values, such as a type-safe update function, are cumbersome due to boilerplate type representation administration. In this paper we focus on improving such functions by providing a new GADT annotation via a natural synergy with dynamics. We formally define the semantics of the annotation and touch on novel other applications of this technique such as type dispatching and enforcing type equality invariants on GADT values.

  9. Promoting University and Industry Links at the Regional Level: Comparing China's Reform and International Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po, Yang; Cai, Yuzhuo; Lyytinen, Anu; Hölttä, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    This paper intends to learn from international experiences in order to facilitating China's ongoing regional university transformation with an ultimate goal to enhance the role of university in regional economic development and innovation. In so doing, this paper compares major models of universities of applied sciences (UAS) around the world from…

  10. Food and Wine Tourism: an Analysis of Italian Typical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to focus the specific role of local food productions in spite of its relationship with tourism sector to valorization and promotion of the territorial cultural heritage. The modern agriculture has been and, in the recent years, several specific features are emerging referring to different territorials areas. Tourist would like to have a complete experience consumption of a destination, specifically to natural and cultural heritage and genuine food. This contribute addresses the topics connected to the relationship between typical productions system and tourism sector to underline the competitive advantages to local development. The typical productions are Designation of Protected Origin (Italian DOP, within wine certifications DOCG and DOC and Typical Geographical Indication (IGP and wine’s IGT. The aim is an analysis of the specialization of these kinds of production at Italian regional scale. The implication of the work has connected with defining a necessary and appropriate value strategies based on marketing principles in order to translate the benefit of typical productions to additional value for the local system. Thus, the final part of the paper describes the potential dynamics with the suitable accommodation typology of agriturismo and the typical production system of Italian Administrative Regions.

  11. Assistive Solutions in Practice: Experiences from AAL Pilot Regions in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Nesrin; Aumayr, Georg; Drobics, Mario; Förster, Kristina Maria; Frauenberger, Christopher; Garschall, Markus; Kofler, Manfred; Krainer, Daniela; Kropf, Johannes; Majcen, Kurt; Oberzaucher, Johannes; Piazolo, Felix; Rzepka, Angelika; Sauskojus, Julia; Schneider, Cornelia; Stainer-Hochgatterer, Andreas; Sturm, Nadine; Waibel, Uli; Willner, Viktoria

    2017-01-01

    Since 2012 six AAL pilot regions were launched in Austria. The main goal of these pilot regions is to evaluate the impact of AAL technologies in daily use considering the entire value chain. Additionally, go-to market strategies for assistive technologies based on an involvement of all relevant stakeholders are developed. Within this paper an overview of the specific objectives, approaches and the status of all Austrian AAL pilot regions is given. Taking into account the different experiences of the different pilot regions, specific challenges in establishing, implementing and sustaining pilot region projects are discussed and lessons-learned are presented. Results show that a careful planning of all project phases taking into account available resources is crucial for the successful implementation of an AAL pilot region. In particular, this applies to all activities related to the active involvement of end-users.

  12. Formative experience mediated by virtual learning environment: science and mathematics teachers’ education in the amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France Fraiha Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports results of a qualitative research, in the narrative modality. We investigated the formative experiences of teachers of Mathematics and Science through distance learning in the Amazon region, experienced in a course through the Virtual Learning Environment (VLE. We investigated under what conditions this education experience was a catalyst for teachers’ reflections on the Amazonian context of teaching science and mathematics. By using Discursive Textual Analysis some categories e merged: graduating in the Amazon region: obstacles and confrontations; AVA and Technologies: meaning (s of the education experience and the impact of the experience in the perceptions of teachers’ practices and training. The analysis of the results reveals the obstacles to the training in this context. The dynamics experienced by the use of VLE technologies and of the teachers reverberated methodological insights regarding the use of technology in teaching practices, indicating also the VLE as an alternative of (self education on the Amazon reality

  13. SPURS: Salinity Processes in the Upper-Ocean Regional Study: THE NORTH ATLANTIC EXPERIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Eric; Bryan, Frank; Schmitt, Ray

    2015-01-01

    In this special issue of Oceanography, we explore the results of SPURS-1, the first part of the ocean process study Salinity Processes in the Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS). The experiment was conducted between August 2012 and October 2013 in the subtropical North Atlantic and was the first of two experiments (SPURS come in pairs!). SPURS-2 is planned for 20162017 in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean.

  14. Automated detection of regions of interest for tissue microarray experiments: an image texture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaçali, Bilge; Tözeren, Aydin

    2007-01-01

    Recent research with tissue microarrays led to a rapid progress toward quantifying the expressions of large sets of biomarkers in normal and diseased tissue. However, standard procedures for sampling tissue for molecular profiling have not yet been established. This study presents a high throughput analysis of texture heterogeneity on breast tissue images for the purpose of identifying regions of interest in the tissue for molecular profiling via tissue microarray technology. Image texture of breast histology slides was described in terms of three parameters: the percentage of area occupied in an image block by chromatin (B), percentage occupied by stroma-like regions (P), and a statistical heterogeneity index H commonly used in image analysis. Texture parameters were defined and computed for each of the thousands of image blocks in our dataset using both the gray scale and color segmentation. The image blocks were then classified into three categories using the texture feature parameters in a novel statistical learning algorithm. These categories are as follows: image blocks specific to normal breast tissue, blocks specific to cancerous tissue, and those image blocks that are non-specific to normal and disease states. Gray scale and color segmentation techniques led to identification of same regions in histology slides as cancer-specific. Moreover the image blocks identified as cancer-specific belonged to those cell crowded regions in whole section image slides that were marked by two pathologists as regions of interest for further histological studies. These results indicate the high efficiency of our automated method for identifying pathologic regions of interest on histology slides. Automation of critical region identification will help minimize the inter-rater variability among different raters (pathologists) as hundreds of tumors that are used to develop an array have typically been evaluated (graded) by different pathologists. The region of interest

  15. Uncinate fasciculus fractional anisotropy correlates with typical use of reappraisal in women but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuurbier, Lisette A; Nikolova, Yuliya S; Ahs, Fredrik; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-06-01

    Emotion regulation refers to strategies through which individuals influence their experience and expression of emotions. Two typical strategies are reappraisal, a cognitive strategy for reframing the context of an emotional experience, and suppression, a behavioral strategy for inhibiting emotional responses. Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed that regions of the prefrontal cortex modulate amygdala reactivity during both strategies, but relatively greater downregulation of the amygdala occurs during reappraisal. Moreover, these studies demonstrated that engagement of this modulatory circuitry varies as a function of gender. The uncinate fasciculus is a major structural pathway connecting regions of the anterior temporal lobe, including the amygdala to inferior frontal regions, especially the orbitofrontal cortex. The objective of the current study was to map variability in the structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus onto individual differences in self-reported typical use of reappraisal and suppression. Diffusion tensor imaging was used in 194 young adults to derive regional fractional anisotropy values for the right and left uncinate fasciculus. All participants also completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. In women but not men, self-reported typical reappraisal use was positively correlated with fractional anisotropy values in a region of the left uncinate fasciculus within the orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, typical use of suppression was not significantly correlated with fractional anisotropy in any region of the uncinate fasciculus in either men or women. Our data suggest that in women typical reappraisal use is specifically related to the integrity of white matter pathways linking the amygdala and prefrontal cortex.

  16. The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia: Analyzing Regional Land Use Change Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Keller; Maria Assunção Silva-Dias; Daniel C. Nepstad; Meinrat O. Andreae

    2004-01-01

    The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multi-disciplinary, multinational scientific project led by Brazil. LBA researchers seek to understand Amazonia in its global context especially with regard to regional and global climate. Current development activities in Amazonia including deforestation, logging, cattle ranching, and agriculture...

  17. The Emergence of a Regional Hub: Comparing International Student Choices and Experiences in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jenny J.; Byun, Kiyong

    2014-01-01

    As the demand for international education increases, middle-income non-English speaking countries, such as South Korea, play an increasing role in hosting the world's students. This mixed-methods study compares the different motivations and experiences of international students within and outside the East Asian region. Based on findings, this…

  18. Experience in the management of radioactive wastes from power reactors - scope for regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.T.; Khan, A.A.

    The paper presents the R and D and operational experience of India in the development of a viable technology in the field of radioactive waste management and examines the scope for regional cooperation between countries with comparable conditions with a view to minimise the discharge of radioactivity to the environment. (author)

  19. Spatial scale effect on sediment dynamics in basin-wide floods within a typical agro-watershed: A case study in the hilly loess region of the Chinese Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le-Tao; Li, Zhan-Bin; Wang, Shan-Shan

    2016-12-01

    Scale issues, which have been extensively studied in the domain of soil erosion, are considerably significant in geomorphologic processes and hydrologic modelling. However, relatively scarce efforts have been made to quantify the spatial scale effect on event-based sediment dynamics in basin-wide floods. To address this issue, sediment-runoff yield data of 44 basin-wide flood events were collected from gauging stations at the Chabagou river basin, a typical agro-basin (unmanaged) in the hilly loess region of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Thus, the spatial scale effect on event-based sediment dynamics was investigated in the basin system across three different spatial scales from sublateral to basin outlet. Results showed that the event-based suspended sediment concentration, as well as the intra- and inter-scale flow-sediment relationships remained spatially constant. Hence, almost all the sediment-laden flows can reach at the detachment-limited maximum concentration across scales, specifically for hyperconcentrated flows. Consequently, limited influence was exerted by upstream sediment-laden flow on downstream sediment output, particularly for major sediment-producing events. However, flood peak discharge instead of total flood runoff amount can better interpret the dynamics of sediment yield across scales. As a composite parameter, the proposed stream energy factor combines flood runoff depth and flood peak discharge, thereby showing more advantages to describe the event-based inter-scale flow-sediment relationship than other flow-related variables. Overall, this study demonstrates the process-specific characteristics of soil erosion by water flows in the basin system. Therefore, event-based sediment control should be oriented by the process to cut off the connectivity of hyperconcentrated flows and redistribute the erosive energy of flowing water in terms of temporality and spatiality. Furthermore, evaluation of soil conservation benefits should be based on the

  20. Measurements of atmospheric and gamma rays-balloon experiments at subantartic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayanthi, U.B.; Correa, R.V.; Blanco, F.G.

    1986-01-01

    The results of two stratospheric balloon experiments conducted to measure the atmospheric X and gamma rays are presented. These experiments, conducted at Comandante Ferraz base in subantarctic region, have provided the spectrum of ground radioactivity in gamma rays (0.2 to 2.9 MeV) and atmospheric X-ray spectra at different altitudes. We specifically chose to discuss the observed ceiling spectrum of X-rays in the 28 to 180KeV region observed at 7.0 g. cm -2 . We have utilized the data of other experiments with different telescope geometries, to evaluate the builup effects due to cosmic ray secondaries in atmosphere. This behaviour, previoulsy studied for atmospheric gamma rays, permitted to compare the up/down flux rations to explain the observed atmospheric X-ray spectrum. (Author) [pt

  1. PBDEs/PFASs Residues in Groundwater of a Typical Agricultural Region in North China%北方某典型活动区地下水中PBDEs/PFASs的污染特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓伟

    2017-01-01

    地下水水源中持久性有机污染物的污染将直接威胁人体健康,已成为地下水安全的重点问题之一.选择典型农业活动区天津市某区重要蔬菜种植基地,研究该区地下水中多溴联苯醚(PBDEs)和全氟类化合物(PFASs)的污染分布及其特征,并评价潜在风险.结果表明,该区地下水中PBDEs浓度水平为0~33.71 ng/L(平均浓度为5.43 ng/L),而土壤中PBDEs平均浓度(10.34 ng/g d.w.)高于地下水,存在PBDEs随降雨等条件由土壤渗入地下水的风险.地下水中75%检出BDE-209(十溴联苯醚),推测该区受高溴代阻燃剂产品污染为主.该区地下水中总PFASs浓度为0.321~8.284 ng/L(、平均浓度2.413 ng/L),且10类PFASs均有检出,其中以短碳链的全氟辛烷磺酸(PFOS)(0~2.38 ng/L)和长碳链全氟辛酸(PFOA) (0.025~3.94 ng/L)为主.%Persistent organic substances (POPs) pollution in groundwater,which directly jeopardizes human health,has become one of the serious environmental problems in the world.In this paper,a typical vegetable production base of a region in Tianjin City was chosen for investigating the status quo of POPs pollution,particularly with respect to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFASs),focusing on their distributions in the groundwater,as well as their characteristics.The investigation suggested that PBDEs concentration in the groundwater was ranging from 0 to 33.71 ng/L (the average:5.43 ng/L) while the PBDEs concentration of the soil in the average was 10.34 ng/g d.w.,higher than that of groundwater,which indicated that there existed the risk of PBDEs infiltrating into groundwater from soil with rainfall.BDE-209 was detected in approximately 75% of the groundwater,which suggested that the land of this agricultural region was more likely polluted by the high bromine generation,the flame retardant products;furthermore,total PFASs concentration in groundwater ranged from 0.321 to 8.284 ng/L (the

  2. 典型温带季风地区浮萍科植物遗传多样性%Genetic Diversity of Duckweed in a Typical Temperate and Monsoon Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张震宇; 韩冰莹; 孙雪飘; 付莉莉; 叶松建; 张家明

    2018-01-01

    Jilin Province is a typical temperate monsoon region,its duckweed bioresources contain different characteristics compared with tropical and subtropical regions in China.In total,41 accessions of duckweeds were collected in Jilin Province.Through morphological classification and molecular identification based on chloroplast atpF-atpH spacer sequences and rpSl6 intron sequences,these accessions were identified as Spirodela and Lemna,including Spirodela polyrhiza,Lemna perpusilla,Lemna turionifera,and Lemna aequinoctialis.There is only one accession in L.aequinoctialis,while accessions ofS.polyrhiza,L.perpusilla,and L.turionifera are 12,13,and 15,respectively.Genetic diversity analysis showed that the indexes of the nucleotide diversity in atpF-atpH and rpS16 were 0.034 04 and 0.065 31,respectively.The nucleotide difference per kb were 21.446 and 60.544,and the haplotype diversity were 0.696 and 0.750,respectively.Wolffia and Landoltia were not collected in Jilin Province,and the distribution of L.aequinoc tialis was far less than duckweed species distributed in southern China,indicating small genetic diversity.The study would provide the molecular basis for species identification and interspecific relationship analysis of duckweed and benefit future botanical studies of duckweeds in North-Eastern China and other temperate monsoon zones.%吉林省为典型温带季风地区,其浮萍科植物资源具有与中国热带、亚热带地区不同的特点.在吉林省各地共收集到41份浮萍种质资源,通过形态学分类和基于叶绿体atp F-atpH间隔序列和rpS16内含子序列的分子生物学鉴定,这些种质分别属于紫萍属(Spirodela)和青萍属(Lemna),共有Spirodela polyrhiza、Lemna perpusilla、Lemna turionifera、Lemna aequinoctidis等4个物种.除L.aequinoctialis仅发现一份种质外,其余三种分布较为均等,其中S.polyrhiza、L.perpusilla、L.turionifera分别有12、13、15份种质.遗传多样分析结果

  3. Generalization of the World Experience in Differentiation of Regions on Account of Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blahun Ivan S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main strategic objectives of our State is to promote innovation, which should include development and launch of new products at the national market, development and introduction of new technologies, creation and application of new knowledge. In accordance with the said above, the article has examined the experience of European Union Member States to improve the efficiency of innovation and differentiation of regions in terms of innovation, tools for evaluation of the innovation activity status has been determined in relation to the territories of the European Union at the level of regions.

  4. A Gravity data along LARSE (Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment) Line II, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed gravity study along part of the Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment (LARSE) transect across the San Fernando Basin and Transverse Ranges to help characterize the structure underlying this area. 249 gravity measurements were collected along the transect and to augment regional coverage near the profile. An isostatic gravity low of 50-60 mGal reflects the San Fernando-East Ventura basin. Another prominent isostatic gravity with an amplitude of 30 mGal marks the Antelope Valley basin. Gravity highs occur over the Santa Monica Mountains and the Transverse Ranges. The highest isostatic gravity values coincide with outcrops of Pelona schist.

  5. Students' perceptions of their learning experiences: A repeat regional survey of healthcare students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamshire, Claire; Barrett, Neil; Langan, Mark; Harris, Edwin; Wibberley, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    Student experience is an international concern and recent research has focused on initiatives to improve students' learning experiences and ultimately reduce attrition levels. To determine similarities and differences between students' perceptions of their learning experiences between 2011 and 2015 in relation to campus-based learning, placement-based learning and personal circumstances. A repeat online survey in 2011 and 2015; using a questionnaire developed from thematic analysis of narrative interviews with a subsample of the target population. Nine universities in the North West of England. A total of 1080 students completed the survey in 2011 and 1983 students in 2015 from a target population of all students studying on commissioned pre-registration healthcare education programmes. An online survey was made available to all undergraduate students studying on Health Education funded programmes within the region and survey respondents were invited to give demographic information and rate their agreement to statements on four-point Likert-type responses. Responses to a repeat survey of healthcare studying in the North West of England in 2015 were strikingly similar overall to those of an original 2011 survey. Although the students were positive overall about their experiences, a number were dissatisfied with some aspects of their experiences - particularly in relation to initial support on campus and whilst studying on placement. Four years on from the original survey, despite a considerable investment in improving students' experiences across the region, there appears to be little change in students' perceptions of their learning experiences CONCLUSION: In the short-term monitoring of student experience needs to be continued; and links to attrition (potential or actual) noted and acted upon. However, given that attrition from these courses has been a long-term problem and the complexity of its resolution a recurrent finding in the literature; new ways of framing

  6. Assessment of CORDEX-South Asia experiments for monsoonal precipitation over Himalayan region for future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, A.; Dimri, A. P.

    2018-04-01

    Precipitation is one of the important climatic indicators in the global climate system. Probable changes in monsoonal (June, July, August and September; hereafter JJAS) mean precipitation in the Himalayan region for three different greenhouse gas emission scenarios (i.e. representative concentration pathways or RCPs) and two future time slices (near and far) are estimated from a set of regional climate simulations performed under Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment-South Asia (CORDEX-SA) project. For each of the CORDEX-SA simulations and their ensemble, projections of near future (2020-2049) and far future (2070-2099) precipitation climatology with respect to corresponding present climate (1970-2005) over Himalayan region are presented. The variability existing over each of the future time slices is compared with the present climate variability to determine the future changes in inter annual fluctuations of monsoonal mean precipitation. The long-term (1970-2099) trend (mm/day/year) of monsoonal mean precipitation spatially distributed as well as averaged over Himalayan region is analyzed to detect any change across twenty-first century as well as to assess model uncertainty in simulating the precipitation changes over this period. The altitudinal distribution of difference in trend of future precipitation from present climate existing over each of the time slices is also studied to understand any elevation dependency of change in precipitation pattern. Except for a part of the Hindu-Kush area in western Himalayan region which shows drier condition, the CORDEX-SA experiments project in general wetter/drier conditions in near future for western/eastern Himalayan region, a scenario which gets further intensified in far future. Although, a gradually increasing precipitation trend is seen throughout the twenty-first century in carbon intensive scenarios, the distribution of trend with elevation presents a very complex picture with lower elevations

  7. Prediction and typicality in multiverse cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning based on the weak anthropic principle. We argue contrary to recent claims that it is not clear one can either dispense with notions of typicality altogether or presume typicality, in comparing resulting probability distributions with observations. We show in a concrete, top-down setting related to dark matter, that assumptions about typicality can dramatically affect predictions, thereby providing a guide to how errors in reasoning regarding typicality translate to errors in the assessment of predictive power. We conjecture that this dependence on typicality is an integral feature of anthropic reasoning in broader cosmological contexts, and argue in favour of the explicit inclusion of measures of typicality in schemes invoking anthropic reasoning, with a view to extracting predictions from multiverse scenarios. (paper)

  8. Prediction and typicality in multiverse cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2014-02-01

    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning based on the weak anthropic principle. We argue contrary to recent claims that it is not clear one can either dispense with notions of typicality altogether or presume typicality, in comparing resulting probability distributions with observations. We show in a concrete, top-down setting related to dark matter, that assumptions about typicality can dramatically affect predictions, thereby providing a guide to how errors in reasoning regarding typicality translate to errors in the assessment of predictive power. We conjecture that this dependence on typicality is an integral feature of anthropic reasoning in broader cosmological contexts, and argue in favour of the explicit inclusion of measures of typicality in schemes invoking anthropic reasoning, with a view to extracting predictions from multiverse scenarios.

  9. WCRP COordinated Regional Downscaling EXperiment (CORDEX: a diagnostic MIP for CMIP6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Gutowski Jr.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The COordinated Regional Downscaling EXperiment (CORDEX is a diagnostic model intercomparison project (MIP in CMIP6. CORDEX builds on a foundation of previous downscaling intercomparison projects to provide a common framework for downscaling activities around the world. The CORDEX Regional Challenges provide a focus for downscaling research and a basis for making use of CMIP6 global climate model (GCM output to produce downscaled projected changes in regional climates and assess sources of uncertainties in the projections, all of which can potentially be distilled into climate change information for vulnerability, impacts and adaptation studies. CORDEX Flagship Pilot Studies advance regional downscaling by targeting one or more of the CORDEX Regional Challenges. A CORDEX-CORE framework is planned that will produce a baseline set of homogeneous high-resolution, downscaled projections for regions worldwide. In CMIP6, CORDEX coordinates with ScenarioMIP and is structured to allow cross comparisons with HighResMIP and interaction with the CMIP6 VIACS Advisory Board.

  10. Observations of star-forming regions with the Midcourse Space Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraemer, KE; Shipman, RF; Price, SD; Mizuno, DR; Kuchar, T; Carey, SJ

    We have imaged seven nearby star-forming regions, the Rosette Nebula, the Orion Nebula, W3, the Pleiades, G300.2-16.8, S263, and G159.6-18.5, with the Spatial Infrared Imaging Telescope on the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite at 1800 resolution at 8.3, 12.1, 14.7, and 21.3 mum. The large

  11. Prostitution as a social issue - the experiences of Russian women prostitutes in the Barents region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Skaffari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses prostitution in the Barents Region as a social question through the subjective experiences of female Russian prostitutes. The women who were interviewed for this research live their everyday lives in the context of Russia. The operational possibilities of the women are based on a sociocultural framework which differs from that of Western countries. This article addresses the following question: How does prostitution construct the agency of women in the Barents Region? The question is explored in terms of the social relationships of the women, their everyday agency within the local environment, their living conditions, and the marginal conditions of their lives. Our focus is on the social structures and the position of the women within them. The data used in this article consist of observational material as well as interviews with 17 women, wherein they discuss their experiences of prostitution in the Barents Region. All of the material was collected in Murmansk, Russia between 2004 and 2008. Qualitative content analysis was performed as a means to understand the aforementioned women’s experiences of prostitution and its relation to everyday life. Prostitution is a product of social structures, a woman’s position, the accessibility of support, and the available personal, social and mental resources. Sometimes prostitution is a way to survive. Women who practice prostitution are often seen only as stereotypes, but the individual paths of their lives and the social contexts in which they live are integral to an understanding of the causes and effects of sex work.

  12. Testing typicality in multiverse cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2015-05-01

    In extracting predictions from theories that describe a multiverse, we face the difficulty that we must assess probability distributions over possible observations prescribed not just by an underlying theory, but by a theory together with a conditionalization scheme that allows for (anthropic) selection effects. This means we usually need to compare distributions that are consistent with a broad range of possible observations with actual experimental data. One controversial means of making this comparison is by invoking the "principle of mediocrity": that is, the principle that we are typical of the reference class implicit in the conjunction of the theory and the conditionalization scheme. In this paper, we quantitatively assess the principle of mediocrity in a range of cosmological settings, employing "xerographic distributions" to impose a variety of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that for a fixed theory, the assumption that we are typical gives rise to higher likelihoods for our observations. If, however, one allows both the underlying theory and the assumption of typicality to vary, then the assumption of typicality does not always provide the highest likelihoods. Interpreted from a Bayesian perspective, these results support the claim that when one has the freedom to consider different combinations of theories and xerographic distributions (or different "frameworks"), one should favor the framework that has the highest posterior probability; and then from this framework one can infer, in particular, how typical we are. In this way, the invocation of the principle of mediocrity is more questionable than has been recently claimed.

  13. Modeling prescribed burning experiments and assessing the fire impacts on local to regional air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Baker, K. R.; Napelenok, S. L.; Elleman, R. A.; Urbanski, S. P.

    2016-12-01

    Biomass burning, including wildfires and prescribed burns, strongly impact the global carbon cycle and are of increasing concern due to the potential impacts on ambient air quality. This modelling study focuses on the evolution of carbonaceous compounds during a prescribed burning experiment and assesses the impacts of burning on local to regional air quality. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is used to conduct 4 and 2 km grid resolution simulations of prescribed burning experiments in southeast Washington state and western Idaho state in summer 2013. The ground and airborne measurements from the field experiment are used to evaluate the model performance in capturing surface and aloft impacts from the burning events. Phase partitioning of organic compounds in the plume are studied as it is a crucial step towards understanding the fate of carbonaceous compounds. The sensitivities of ambient concentrations and deposition to emissions are conducted for organic carbon, elemental carbon and ozone to estimate the impacts of fire on air quality.

  14. CVB: the Constrained Vapor Bubble Capillary Experiment on the International Space Station MARANGONI FLOW REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayner, Peter C., Jr.; Kundan, Akshay; Plawsky, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The Constrained Vapor Bubble (CVB) is a wickless, grooved heat pipe and we report on a full- scale fluids experiment flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The CVB system consists of a relatively simple setup a quartz cuvette with sharp corners partially filled with either pentane or an ideal mixture of pentane and isohexane as the working fluids. Along with temperature and pressure measurements, the two-dimensional thickness profile of the menisci formed at the corners of the quartz cuvette was determined using the Light Microscopy Module (LMM). Even with the large, millimeter dimensions of the CVB, interfacial forces dominate in these exceedingly small Bond Number systems. The experiments were carried out at various power inputs. Although conceptually simple, the transport processes were found to be very complex with many different regions. At the heated end of the CVB, due to a high temperature gradient, we observed Marangoni flow at some power inputs. This region from the heated end to the central drop region is defined as a Marangoni dominated region. We present a simple analysis based on interfacial phenomena using only measurements from the ISS experiments that lead to a predictive equation for the thickness of the film near the heated end of the CVB. The average pressure gradient for flow in the film is assumed due to the measured capillary pressure at the two ends of the liquid film and that the pressure stress gradient due to cohesion self adjusts to a constant value over a distance L. The boundary conditions are the no slip condition at the wall interface and an interfacial shear stress at the liquid- vapor interface due to the Marangoni stress, which is due to the high temperature gradient. Although the heated end is extremely complex, since it includes three- dimensional variations in radiation, conduction, evaporation, condensation, fluid flow and interfacial forces, we find that using the above simplifying assumptions, a simple successful

  15. The first year experience of occupational therapy students at an Australian regional university: Promoting student retention and developing a regional and remote workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Jackie; Cordier, Reinie; Thomas, Yvonne; Tanner, Bronwyn; Salata, Karen

    2017-02-01

    Student retention at regional universities is important in addressing regional and remote workforce shortages. Students attending regional universities are more likely to work in regional areas. First year experience at university plays a key role in student retention. This study aimed to explore factors influencing the first year experience of occupational therapy students at a regional Australian university. Surveys were administered to 58 second year occupational therapy students in the first week of second year. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, inferential statistics (Pearson χ 2 ; Spearman rho) and summarising descriptive responses. An Australian regional university. Second year undergraduate occupational therapy students. Factors influencing students' decisions to study and continue studying occupational therapy; factors enhancing first year experience of university. Fifty-four students completed the survey (93.1%). A quarter (25.9%) of students considered leaving the course during the first year. The primary influence for continuing was the teaching and learning experience. Most valued supports were orientation week (36.7%) and the first year coordinator (36.7%). The importance of the first year experience in retaining occupational therapy students is highlighted. Engagement with other students and staff and academic support are important factors in facilitating student retention. It is important to understand the unique factors influencing students' decisions, particularly those from regional and remote areas, to enter and continue in tertiary education to assist in implementing supports and strategies to improve student retention. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  16. Using Space Technologies for a timely detection of forest fires: the experience of end-users in 3 Italian Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filizzola, Carolina; Belloni, Antonella; Benigno, Giuseppe; Biancardi, Alberto; Corrado, Rosita; Coviello, Irina; De Costanzo, Giovanni; Genzano, Nicola; Lacava, Teodosio; Lisi, Mariano; Marchese, Francesco; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Merzagora, Cinzio; Paciello, Rossana; Pergola, Nicola; Sannazzaro, Filomena; Serio, Salvatore; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2013-04-01

    Every year, hundreds of thousands of hectares of European forests are destroyed by fires. Due to the particular topography, landscape and demographic distribution in Europe (very different from typical scenarios of China, USA, Canada and Australia), rapidity in fire sighting is still the determining factor in limiting damages to people and goods. Moreover, the possibility of early fire detection means also potentially to reduce the size of the event to be faced, the necessary fire fighting resources and, therefore, even the reaction times. In such a context, integration of satellite technologies (mainly high temporal resolution data) and traditional surveillance systems within the fire fighting procedures seems to positively impact on the effectiveness of active fire fighting as demonstrated by recent experiences over Italian territory jointly performed by University of Basilicata, IMAA-CNR and Local Authorities. Real time implementation was performed since 2007, during fire seasons, over several Italian regions with different fire regimes and features, in order to assess the actual potential of different satellite-based fire detection products to support regional and local authorities in efficiently fighting fires and better mitigating their negative effects. Real-time campaigns were carried out in strict collaboration with end-users within the framework of specific projects (i.e. the AVVISA, AVVISTA and AVVISA-Basilicata projects) funded by Civil Protection offices of Regione Lombardia, Provincia Regionale di Palermo and Regione Basilicata in charge of fire risk management and mitigation. A tailored training program was dedicated to the personnel of Regional Civil Protection offices in order to ensure the full understanding and the better integration of satellite based products and tools within the existing fire fighting protocols. In this work, outcomes of these practices are shown and discussed, especially highlighting the impact that a real time satellite

  17. Experiences of parents of children with intellectual disabilities in the Ashanti Region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Badu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Parents of children with intellectual disabilities could experience difficulties associated with their care. Yet, insight into individual experiences is inadequate to guide effective responses to the needs of parents and their sons and daughters with intellectual disability. This study sought to explore the experiences of parents of children with intellectual disability with the aim of making these experiences visible to guide the design and provision of support services for the parents and their children. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 parents of children with intellectual disability between the ages of 4 and 15 years residing in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis to explore themes that describe the experiences of the parents. The study found that parents of intellectually disabled children encounter challenges looking after their children due to the negative perceptions associated with having such children. Financial costs and managing behavioral challenges of intellectually disabled children were also major sources of stressors for parents. Although informal support and assurances from professionals alleviated parental stress and gave them some hope about the future of their children, these support services seem inadequate. A more structured support programme that includes financial empowerment of the parents and recognizes the importance of early detection and intervention practices is needed.  Keywords: Intellectual disability, parents, caregivers, support services, health professionals

  18. User experiences with different regional health information exchange systems in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyppönen, Hannele; Reponen, Jarmo; Lääveri, Tinja; Kaipio, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    The interest in cross-organizational Health Information Exchange (HIE) is increasing at regional, national and cross-European levels. The purpose of our study was to compare user experiences (usability) of different regional health information exchange system (RHIE) types as well as the factors related to the experienced level of success of different RHIE system types. A web-based questionnaire was sent to 95% of Finnish physicians aged between 25 and 65 years of age. RHIE systems were mainly available in the public sector and only in certain regions. Those 1693 physicians were selected from the 3929 respondents of the original study, who met these criteria. The preferred means (paper/fax vs. electronic) of cross-organizational HIE, and replies to the 11 questions measuring RHIE success were used as the main dependent variables. Two thirds (73%) of the primary care physicians and one third (33%) of the specialized care physicians replied using an electronic RHIE system rather than paper or fax as a primary means of cross-organizational HIE. Respondents from regions where a regional virtual EHR (type 3) RHIE system was employed had used electronic means rather than paper HIE to a larger extend compared to their colleagues in regions where a master patient index-type (type 1) or web distribution model (type 2) RHIE system was used. Users of three local EHR systems preferred electronic HIE to paper to a larger extend than users of other EHR systems. Experiences with an integrated RHIE system (type 3) were more positive than those with other types or RHIE systems. The study revealed User preferences for the integrated virtual RHIE-system (type 3) over the master index model (type 1) or web distribution model (type 2). Success of individual HIE tasks of writing, sending and reading were impacted by the way these functionalities were realized in the EHR systems. To meet the expectations of increased efficiency, continuity, safety and quality of care, designers of HIE

  19. Sensitivity experiments of a regional climate model to the different convective schemes over Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armand J, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, version 4 of the regional climate model (RegCM4) is used to perform 6 years simulation including one year for spin-up (from January 2001 to December 2006) over Central Africa using four convective schemes: The Emmanuel scheme (MIT), the Grell scheme with Arakawa-Schulbert closure assumption (GAS), the Grell scheme with Fritsch-Chappell closure assumption (GFC) and the Anthes-Kuo scheme (Kuo). We have investigated the ability of the model to simulate precipitation, surface temperature, wind and aerosols optical depth. Emphasis in the model results were made in December-January-February (DJF) and July-August-September (JAS) periods. Two subregions have been identified for more specific analysis namely: zone 1 which corresponds to the sahel region mainly classified as desert and steppe and zone 2 which is a region spanning the tropical rain forest and is characterised by a bimodal rain regime. We found that regardless of periods or simulated parameters, MIT scheme generally has a tendency to overestimate. The GAS scheme is more suitable in simulating the aforementioned parameters, as well as the diurnal cycle of precipitations everywhere over the study domain irrespective of the season. In JAS, model results are similar in the representation of regional wind circulation. Apart from the MIT scheme, all the convective schemes give the same trends in aerosols optical depth simulations. Additional experiment reveals that the use of BATS instead of Zeng scheme to calculate ocean flux appears to improve the quality of the model simulations.

  20. Experience of South Regional Delegation in radiation protection diffusion by means of policies of social communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagamba, Eduardo; Canibano, Javier; Gatica, Nidia

    2001-01-01

    The diffusion of the criteria and principles of radiological safety that are applied to the different practices of use of radioactive materials, is one of the ways to diminish the risks of its use besides enhance the perception of risk in society. Since June of 1999, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Argentina have intensified the dissemination of information for the public in general, specialized personnel indirectly involved with radioactive substances and the users in general of radioactive materials.This work has as objective to present the experience of South Regional Delegation with information dissemination policy and its results

  1. To the Extremes! A Teacher Research Experience Program in the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, J.; Bartholow, S.

    2014-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a teacher professional development program, began with the International Polar Year in 2004 and continues today in the United States. In 2007, the National Science Foundation designated PolarTREC as potentially transformative, meaning that the "research results often do not fit within established models or theories and may initially be unexpected or difficult to interpret; their transformative nature and utility might not be recognized until years later." PolarTREC brings U.S. K-12 educators and polar researchers together through an innovative teacher research experience model. Teachers spend three to six weeks in remote arctic and Antarctic field camps. Since 2007, over 100 teachers have been placed in field experiences throughout the Arctic and Antarctic and with half of them participating in field experiences in Antarctica. During their experience, teachers become research team members filling a variety of roles on the team. They also fulfil a unique role of public outreach officer, conducting live presentations about their field site and research as well as journaling, answering questions, and posting photos. Evaluation data collected over the past eight years on program participants shows that PolarTREC has clearly achieved it goals and strongly suggests programs that link teachers and researchers can have the potential to transform the nature of science education. By giving teachers the content knowledge, pedagogical tools, confidence, understanding of science in the broader society, and experiences with scientific inquiry, participating teachers are using authentic scientific research in their classrooms. Not surprisingly this has also led to increases in student interest and knowledge about the Polar Regions. In this presentation, we will highlight the best practices of teacher research experiences as well as discuss why it is vital to have teachers and researchers work together to communicate

  2. Regional climate projections for Northeast India: an appraisal from CORDEX South Asia experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D.; Dimri, A. P.

    2017-11-01

    An appraisal of the recent changes in the present climate (1970-2005) followed by the possible future (2006-2100) changes in the climate has been carried out in the current study using the observations and regional climate model (REMO) over the Northeast Indian region. The regional climate model simulation has been used from the COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment (CORDEX) South Asia framework. A consistent warming for the winter (December, January, and February (DJF)) and post-monsoon (October and November (ON)) has been observed for the present climate especially in the northern and eastern parts of the region. The changes in the near future (2020-2049) and far future (2070-2099) temperature climatology suggest a rise in temperature by 3-8 °C across different representative concentration pathways (RCPs). The rate of long-term (1970-2099) increase in temperature has been found ranging between 0.01 and 0.07 °C/year across the region in the least emission (RCP2.6) to strongest emission (RCP8.5) scenarios. The daily mean precipitation statistics suggests an overall increasing trends of precipitation during the pre-monsoon (March, April, and May (MAM)) for the present across the region with a mixed trend in other seasons. A change in daily mean precipitation ranging from - 60% (during winter) to + 40% during post-monsoon has been projected by the model across different RCPs. RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 show a strong deficit in precipitation in the warmer climate across the region as compared to RCP2.6. This fact is also confirmed from the long-term trend of precipitation where a consistent decreasing trend dominates in the RCP4.5- and RCP8.5-simulated precipitations by the end of the twenty-first century. A large model bias in temperature and precipitation along with high amount of uncertainty is associated with the model simulations; thus, in order to use the projections, a more careful approach to improve the utility of downscaled product should be adopted.

  3. Cephalic region war injuries in children: Experience in French NATO hospital in Kabul Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehab, Hussam El; Agard, Emilie; Dot, Corinne

    2018-06-09

    The NATO KAIA Hospital (Kabul International Airport), under French command, provided medical support for NATO forces in the Kabul region from 2009 to 2014. Medical assistance to civilians was an additional mission which included support for children who were war injured. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics of cephalic injuries in children victims of war trauma. A retrospective study was conducted and commenced with the hospital opening (July 2009) to March 2012 on all children (<15years) with war trauma. We distinguished cephalic lesions in cranial (neuro-surgical), ophthalmological and neck regions. We analyzed mechanism, region, severity score, surgeries and resuscitation efforts. 217 children were operated on with 81 war traumas (mean age 10.2years). 36 children (44.4%) had a cephalic injury. 52.9% of the injured had an ophthalmological injury, 38.2% a cranial region injury and 29.4% a neck lesion. Mortality rate was 5.6% (1 hemorrhagic shock and 1 cerebral wound) in this cephalic lesion group. Ophthalmic injuries were the most common of cephalic injuries; 19 children of which 7 had a bilateral injury (26 eyes). In this group, fragmentary injuries were the most frequent (64% of eyes). In cerebral lesion group, the lesions were linked to a bullet or a shrapnel in 9 of 13 children. This mechanism systematically caused a crania-cerebral wound. Explosion (fragmentary and shrapnel) was the most important in the neck lesions (7 children of 10). The cephalic lesions were the second most common region in children during our experience in Afghanistan. Lack of protection (helmet) in children may explain the frequency of cephalic wounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Towards a probabilistic regional reanalysis system for Europe: evaluation of precipitation from experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liselotte Bach

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new development in the field of reanalyses is the incorporation of uncertainty estimation capabilities. We have developed a probabilistic regional reanalysis system for the CORDEX-EUR11 domain that is based on the numerical weather prediction model COSMO at a 12-km grid spacing. The lateral boundary conditions of all ensemble members are provided by the global reanalysis ERA-Interim. In the basic implementation of the system, uncertainties due to observation errors are estimated. Atmospheric assimilation of conventional observations perturbed by means of random samples of observation error yields estimates of the reanalysis uncertainty conditioned to observation errors. The data assimilation employed is a new scheme based on observation nudging that we denote ensemble nudging. The lower boundary of the atmosphere is regularly updated by external snow depth, sea surface temperature and soil moisture analyses. One of the most important purposes of reanalyses is the estimation of so-called essential climate variables. For regional reanalyses, precipitation has been identified as one of the essential climate variables that are potentially better represented than in other climate data sets. For that reason, we assess the representation of precipitation in our system in a pilot study. Based on two experiments, each of which extends over one month, we conduct a preliminary comparison to the global reanalysis ERA-Interim, a dynamical downscaling of the latter and the high-resolution regional reanalysis COSMO-REA6. In a next step, we assess our reanalysis system's probabilistic capabilities versus the ECMWF-EPS in terms of six-hourly precipitation sums. The added value of our probabilistic regional reanalysis system motivates the current production of a 5-year-long test reanalysis COSMO-EN-REA12 in the framework of the FP7-funded project Uncertainties in Ensembles of Regional Re-Analyses (UERRA.

  5. The Scenario Approach to the Development of Regional Waste Management Systems (Implementation Experience in the Regions of Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, Eugene P.; Alekseev, Audrey A.; Fomina, Natalia E.; Dorozhkin, Vladimir E.

    2016-01-01

    The article illustrates a theoretical approach to scenario modeling of economic indicators of regional waste management system. The method includes a three-iterative algorithm that allows the executive authorities and investors to take a decision on logistics, bulk, technological and economic parameters of the formation of the regional long-term…

  6. Concept typicality responses in the semantic memory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Andrea; Raposo, Ana; Frade, Sofia; Marques, J Frederico

    2016-12-01

    For decades concept typicality has been recognized as critical to structuring conceptual knowledge, but only recently has typicality been applied in better understanding the processes engaged by the neurological network underlying semantic memory. This previous work has focused on one region within the network - the Anterior Temporal Lobe (ATL). The ATL responds negatively to concept typicality (i.e., the more atypical the item, the greater the activation in the ATL). To better understand the role of typicality in the entire network, we ran an fMRI study using a category verification task in which concept typicality was manipulated parametrically. We argue that typicality is relevant to both amodal feature integration centers as well as category-specific regions. Both the Inferior Frontal Gyrus (IFG) and ATL demonstrated a negative correlation with typicality, whereas inferior parietal regions showed positive effects. We interpret this in light of functional theories of these regions. Interactions between category and typicality were not observed in regions classically recognized as category-specific, thus, providing an argument against category specific regions, at least with fMRI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  8. Regionalização e novos rumos para o SUS: a experiência de um colegiado regional Regionalization and new courses to SUS: the experience of a regional college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Assis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Em que pese todos os avanços no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS desde a sua implantação, são também notórias as suas fragilidades e seus limites. Um deles, não obstante a diretriz constitucional de regionalização, é que até recentemente não havia uma política concreta de estímulo de integração entre os municípios e, consequentemente, de regiões de saúde, tão necessárias à garantia da integralidade da atenção. Nos últimos três anos, entretanto, o Ministério da Saúde, com a implementação do Pacto pela Saúde, na sua dimensão da gestão, iniciou esse processo, que tem se mostrado promissor para o desenvolvimento e crescimento do SUS nacional. Este trabalho apresenta a experiência positiva de implantação de um Colegiado Regional no Estado de São Paulo, na região de Campinas, através da qual gestores e técnicos das secretarias de saúde estão se tornando sujeitos mais "empoderados" da construção da Saúde na região.Despite all the advances that have occurred in Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS - National Health System since its implementation, its weaknesses and limits are also remarkable. One of them, in spite of the constitutional guideline for regionalization, is that, until recently, there had been no concrete policy to stimulate integration between municipalities and, consequently, between health regions, which are necessary to ensure integral care. In the last three years, however, the Ministry of Health, with the implementation of the Health Pact in its management dimension, started this process, which has been promising to the development and growth of the national SUS. This study presents the positive experience of implementation of a Regional College in the State of São Paulo, in the region of Campinas, through which managers and technicians of the health departments are becoming empowered subjects of the construction of Health in the region.

  9. Experience with WASP and MAED among IAEA Member States participating in the Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) in Asia and the Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The report includes the proceedings and papers presented during the workshop on the experience with WASP/MAED computer programs among IAEA Member States participating in the regional co-operative agreement (RCA) in Asia and the Pacific Region, organized by the IAEA and held in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) between 5-9 December 1988. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 14 papers presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Challenges in Regional CTBT Monitoring: The Experience So Far From Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, S. R.

    2001-05-01

    for estimating location, depth and uncertainty bounds; and validated, regionally-calibrated travel times, event characterization parameters and screening criteria. A new IDC program to fund research to calibrate regional seismic travel paths seeks to address, in cooperation with other national efforts, one item on this list. More effective use of the full waveform data and cross-technology synergies must be explored. All of this work must be integrated into modular software systems that can be maintained and improved over time. To motivate these regional monitoring challenges and possible improvements, the experience from the IDC will be presented via a series of illustrative, sample events. Challenges in the technical and policy arenas must be addressed as well. IMS data must first be available at the IDC before they can be analyzed. The encouraging experience to date is that the availability of data arriving via the GCI is significantly higher (~95%) than the availability (~70%) from the same stations prior to GCI installation, when they were transmitting data via other routes. Within the IDC, trade-offs must be considered between the desired levels of product quality and timeliness, and the investment in personnel and system development to support the levels sought. Another high-priority objective is to develop a policy for providing data and products to scientific and disaster alert organizations. It is clear that broader exploitation of these rich and unique assets could be of great, mutual benefit, and is, perhaps, a necessity for the CTBT verification system to achieve its potential.

  11. PTL: A Propositional Typicality Logic

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available consequence relations first studied by Lehmann and col- leagues in the 90?s play a central role in nonmonotonic reasoning [13, 14]. This has been the case due to at least three main reasons. Firstly, they are based on semantic constructions that are elegant...) j ; 6j : ^ j PTL: A Propositional Typicality Logic 3 The semantics of (propositional) rational consequence is in terms of ranked models. These are partially ordered structures in which the ordering is modular. Definition 1. Given a set S...

  12. Experiments with a Regional Vector-Vorticity Model, and Comparison with Other Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konor, C. S.; Dazlich, D. A.; Jung, J.; Randall, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Vector-Vorticity Model (VVM) is an anelastic model with a unique dynamical core that predicts the three-dimensional vorticity instead of the three-dimensional momentum. The VVM is used in the CRMs of the Global Quasi-3D Multiscale Modeling Framework, which is discussed by Joon-Hee Jung and collaborators elsewhere in this session. We are updating the physics package of the VVM, replacing it with the physics package of the System for Atmosphere Modeling (SAM). The new physics package includes a double-moment microphysics, Mellor-Yamada turbulence, Monin-Obukov surface fluxes, and the RRTMG radiation parameterization. We briefly describe the VVM and show results from standard test cases, including TWP-ICE. We compare the results with those obtained using the earlier physics. We also show results from experiments on convection aggregation in radiative-convective equilibrium, and compare with those obtained using both SAM and the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS).

  13. Extending synchrotron-based atomic physics experiments into the hard X-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBrun, T.

    1996-01-01

    The high-brightness, hard x-ray beams available from third-generation synchrotron sources are opening new opportunities to study the deepest inner shells of atoms, an area where little work has been done and phenomena not observed in less tightly bound inner-shells are manifested. In addition scattering processes which are weak at lower energies become important, providing another tool to investigate atomic structure as well as an opportunity to study photon/atom interactions beyond photoabsorption. In this contribution the authors discuss some of the issues related to extending synchrotron-based atomic physics experiments into the hard x-ray region from the physical and the experimental point of view. They close with a discussion of a technique, resonant Raman scattering, that may prove invaluable in determining the spectra of the very highly-excited states resulting from the excitation of deep inner shells

  14. A difficult legacy: the urban rehabilitation experience in the Emilia- Romagna Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Bacchini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose to examine the twenty years-old policy in urban rehabilitation, carried within the Emilia-Romagna region. The argument is very complex, the reconstruct of its unesasy results requires to be reconstructed comparing law documents, effectiveness of public and local offices action and, finally, the real quality of urban transformations obtained. Rehabilitation programs were supposed to treat critical situation of urban decay, with a double purpose: an internal environmental renewal (able to recover tissues and architectural quality and a strategy aimed to establish a wider range of urban relationships. Despite all these virtuous intentions, what we have really obtained from this experience is a set of urban projects which, in most cases, have obtained results that have further jeopardized situations they were expected to heal.

  15. The experience of a nationwide Community of Practice to set up Regional Prevention Plans in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Angela; Perra, Alberto; Lombardo, Flavia

    2017-07-27

    In 2010, the Italian Ministry of Health decided to start the planning process to elaborate the National Plan of Prevention 2010-2012 jointly with the 21 Regions. The National Institute of Health was responsible for supporting regional planners (RPs) by an original participatory approach of a web-based Community of Practice (CoP) to set up their own Regional Plans of Prevention. In this paper, we summarise the theoretical framework adopted, the main phases characterising the lifecycle of the nationwide CoP, the evaluation approach adopted and its findings. Following the CoP theoretical framework from Wenger, an initial group of RPs were trained on Project Cycle Management as a planning method and thereafter they started interacting on a web-based Moodle platform for 8 months. The CoP evaluation mainly took into account aspects of 'immediate value', such as members interactions within the website, and several quantitative and qualitative tools were used to monitor changes over time. Data were retrieved from Moodle statistics or directly from the RPs by the means of a Knowledge, Attitude and Practice survey, a reaction survey, SWOT analysis and focus groups. The level of individual RPs knowledge increased after the initial course from 55.7% to 75%, attitudes and competence perception about the planning process method also showed an overall favourable change. During the CoP life span, the number of members increased from the original 98 RPs to include up to 600 new members on the basis of spontaneous demand. From April 2010 to January 2011, the 'vital signs' of the CoP were monitored, including RP logins (13,450 total logins and 3744 unique logins), views (27,522) and posts (1606) distributed in 326 forum discussion threads. Data and information retrieved from quantitative and qualitative evaluation approaches proved to be useful for the management and follow-up of the CoP. The CoP experience was successful as 19 out of 20 Regions submitted their Regional Preventive

  16. Investigation of Electron Density Profile in the ionospheric D and E region by Kagoshima rocket experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashihara, Y.; Ishisaka, K.; Miyake, T.; Okada, T.; Nagano, I.; Abe, T.; Ono, T.

    2007-12-01

    The radio wave propagation characteristic in the lower ionosphere is important because of its effect on commercial radio communication, navigation, and broadcast services. The electron density is of primary interest in this region because the high ion-neutral collision frequencies result in radio wave absorption. In order to investigate the ionization structure in the ionospheric D and E region by using the propagation characteristics of MF-band and LF-band radio waves, S-310-37 and S-520-23 sounding rocket experiments have been carried out at Uchinoura Space Center (USC). S-310-37 sounding rocket was launched at 11:20 LT on January 16, 2007. The apex of rocket trajectory was about 138 km. Then S-520-23 sounding rocket was launched at 19:20 LT on September 2, 2007. The apex was about 279 km. As a common measurement, these sounding rockets measure the fields intensities and the waveform of radio waves from NHK Kumamoto broadcasting station (873kHz, 500kW) and JJY signals from Haganeyama LF radio station (60kHz, 50kW). The approximate electron density profile can be determined from the comparison between these experimental results and propagation characteristics calculated by the full wave method. We will get the most probable electron density profile in the ionosphere. In presentation, we will show the propagation characteristic of LF/MF radio waves measured by two sounding rocket experiments. Then we will discuss the analysis method and the estimated electron density profile in the ionosphere.

  17. Performance of upstream interaction region detectors for the FIRST experiment at GSI

    CERN Document Server

    Abou-Haidar, Z; Alvarez, M A G; Anelli, M; Aumann, T; Battistoni, G; Bocci, A; Bohlen, T T; Boudard, A; Brunetti, A; Carpinelli, M; Cirrone, G A P; Cortes-Giraldo, M A; Cuttone, G; De Napoli, M; Durante, M; Fernandez-Garcia, J P; Finck, C; Gallardo, M I; Golosio, B; Iarocci, E; Iazzi, F; Ickert, G; Introzzi, R; Juliani, D; Krimmer, J; Kurz, N; Labalme, M; Leifels, Y; Le Fevre, A; Leray, S; Marchetto, F; Monaco, V; Morone, M C; Oliva, P; Paoloni, A; Patera, V; Piersanti, L; Pleskac, R; Quesada, J M; Randazzo, N; Romano, F; Rossi, D; Rosso, V; Rousseau, M; Sacchi, R; Sala, P; Sarti, A; Schuy, C; Sciubba, A; Sfienti, C; Simon, H; Sipala, V; Spiriti, E; Stuttge, L; Tropea, S; Younis, H

    2012-01-01

    The FIRST (Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy) experiment at GSI has been designed to study carbon fragmentation, measuring (12)C double differential cross sections (- (2)I /- - E) for different beam energies between 100 and 1000 MeV/u. The experimental setup integrates newly designed detectors in the, so called, Interaction Region around the graphite target. The Interaction Region upstream detectors are a 250 mum thick scintillator and a drift chamber optimized for a precise measurement of the ions interaction time and position on the target. In this article we review the design of the upstream detectors along with the preliminary results of the data taking performed on August 2011 with 400 MeV/u fully stripped carbon ion beam at GSI. Detectors performances will be reviewed and compared to those obtained during preliminary tests, performed with 500 MeV electrons (at the BTF facility in the INFN Frascati Laboratories) and 80 MeV/u protons and carbon ions (at the INFN LNS Laboratories in Cata...

  18. The Evolution of the Region of Interest Builder for the ATLAS Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00060668; Blair, Robert; Crone, Gordon Jeremy; Green, Barry; Love, Jeremy; Proudfoot, James; Rifki, Othmane; Panduro Vazquez, William; Vandelli, Wainer; Zhang, Jinlong

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS is a general purpose particle detector, at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, designed to measure the products of proton collisions. Given the high interaction rate (40 MHz), selective triggering in real time is required to reduce the rate to the experiment's data storage capacity (1 kHz). To meet this requirement, ATLAS employs a hardware trigger that reduces the rate to 100 kHz and software based triggers to select interesting interactions for physics analysis. The Region of Interest Builder (RoIB) is an essential part of the ATLAS detector Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) chain where the coordinates of the regions of interest (RoIs) identified by the first level trigger (L1) are collected and passed to the High Level Trigger (HLT) to make a decision. While the current custom VME based RoIB operated reliably during the first run of the LHC, it is desirable to have a more flexible RoIB and more operationally maintainable in the future, as the LHC reaches higher luminosity and ATLAS increases t...

  19. Experience of prenatal consultation in Zaporizhzhia region over the 2011-2015 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Avramenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Congenital malformations are one of the main causes of high infant mortality and disability from childhood. Medical and genetic counseling is an important integral part of prenatal diagnosis. Aim. The experience of the work of prenatal consultation at the clinic of Zaporizhzhya Regional Center of Human Reproduction for the 2011- 2015 years has been analyzed. Modern methods of prenatal diagnosis, including mass and selective testing of pregnant women on birth defects and chromosomal abnormalities by ultrasound examination and evaluation of maternal serum markers, as well as prenatal, cytogenetic diagnosis of chromosomal diseases in high-risk groups have been used for the early detection and prevention of birth of children with hereditary diseases in the Zaporizhzhia region. Methods and results. 2,528 Pregnant women with suspected congenital malformations of the fetus have been examined. To adequately assess the perinatal prognosis and develop tactics of pregnancy in the early neonatal period the diagnosis of pregnant women included consultation of geneticist, obstetrician - gynecologist, others specialists. Malformations of the fetus have been identified in 1.435 pregnant women. Conclusions. To identify chromosomal aberrations and congenital malformations in the fetus the prenatal consultation defines: the forecast for the life and health of the child, the tactics of pregnancy and birth, postnatal correction. Multiple malformations in the fetus and congenital central nervous system development occupy the first place in the structure of abortion during the observed period (2011-2015 years.

  20. Exploring experiences of the food environment among immigrants living in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Paulina I; Dean, Jennifer; Kirkpatrick, Sharon; Berbary, Lisbeth; Scott, Steffanie

    2016-06-09

    This exploratory study aimed to shed light on the role of the food environment in shaping food access among immigrants living in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario. In this qualitative case study, in-depth interviews aided by photovoice were conducted with nine immigrants, and key informant (KI) interviews were conducted with nine community stakeholders (e.g., settlement workers, planners) who held expert knowledge of the local context with respect to both the food system and experiences of immigrants in interacting with this system. In this paper, we focus specifically on insights related to the food environment, applying the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity Framework to assess economic, physical, socio-cultural and political aspects. Economic features of the food environment, including food prices and differential costs of different types of food, emerged as factors related to food access. However, interactions with the food environment were shaped by broader economic factors, such as limited employment opportunities and low income. Most immigrants felt that they had good geographic access to food, though KIs expressed concerns about the types of outlet and food that were most accessible. Immigrants discussed social networks and cultural food practices, whereas KIs discussed political issues related to supporting food security in the Region. This exploratory case study is consistent with prior research in highlighting the economic constraints within which food access exists but suggests that there may be a need to further dissect food environments.

  1. Study of the Quality of Life of the Older Generation: a Regional Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii Nikolaevich Barsukov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase in life expectancy in Russia along with low fertility has led to the fact that the age structure of the population has undergone significant changes: the proportion of children in the total population was continuously reducing, while the share of people over 60 was growing. Such transformations have multiple impacts, ranging from the issues of financial provision of pension systems, functioning of the labor market to the change in the value orientations of society. The growth of socio-demographic groups of elderly people leads to the fact that it is becoming increasingly important for the socio-economic development of territories, thus facilitating research in the field of studying its resource potential and quality of life. The paper is devoted to the study of components of a “subjective” quality of life of the specified group of the population. The authors present conceptual approaches to the problem of an “ageing” society and specifics of studying the quality of life of the elderly. The paper substantiates the importance of sociological assessments in the study of issues typical of the elderly. The authors show the place of Russia in the international ranking of the Global AgeWatch Index and its position for all the four particular indices. Based on the findings of a sociological study, the authors highlight major problem areas that hinder the improvement of the quality of life of the elderly population, and put forward possible ways to level them. The paper considers the main normative legal acts that regulate the activities of federal and regional authorities in ensuring the decent quality of life of this socio-demographic group. The authors discuss several social projects (taking the Vologda Oblast as an example that aim to improve the living conditions of the elderly, highlight the problems associated with the implementation and scientific substantiation of the relevance of these projects. The conclusion is made

  2. Foods Inducing Typical Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptoms in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Jung Wan; Joo, Moon Kyung; Kim, Hyo Jung; Lee, Beom Jae; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yeon, Jong Eun; Park, Jong-Jae; Kim, Jae Seon; Byun, Kwan Soo; Bak, Young-Tae

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Several specific foods are known to precipitate gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and GERD patients are usually advised to avoid such foods. However, foods consumed daily are quite variable according to regions, cultures, etc. This study was done to elucidate the food items which induce typical GERD symptoms in Korean patients. Methods One hundred and twenty-six Korean patients with weekly typical GERD symptoms were asked to mark all food items that induced typic...

  3. The GEM detectors for the innermost region of the forward muon station of the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonsi, M

    The LHCb experiment will take place at the LHC accelerator at CERN and will start in 2008. It is dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays in the b quark sec- tor. The apparatus is a single arm spectrometer and it is designed with a robust and flexible trigger in order to extensively gain access to a wide spread of differ ent physical processes involving beauty particles. This will allow to over-constrain the Standard M odel predictions about CP violation, and to discover any possible inconsistency, whi ch would reveal the presence of “New Physics” beyond the Standard Model. This thesis reports the work performed on two aspects of the L HCb experiment: the main contribution is the development and the construction of a de tector based on Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology for the instrumentation of the high irradiated region around the beam pipe of the forward Muon Station; in the second part t he possibility of the search of the rare D 0 → + − decay at the LHCb exper...

  4. Enabling sustainable uranium production: The Inter-regional Technical Cooperation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulsidas, H.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium production cycle activities are increasing worldwide, often in countries with little or no previous experience in such activities. Initial efforts in uranium exploration and mining were limited to a few countries, which progressed through a painful learning curve often associated with high socioeconomic costs. With time, good practices for the sustainable conduct of operations became well established, but new projects in different regional contexts continue to face challenges. Moreover, there have been highs and lows in the levels of activities and operations in the uranium industry, which has disrupted the stabilizing of the experiences and lessons learned, into a coherent body of knowledge. This collective experience, assimilated over time, has to be transferred to a new generation of experts, who have to be enabled to use this knowledge effectively in their local contexts in order to increase efficiency and reduce the footprint of the operations. This makes it sustainable and socially acceptable to local communities, as well as in the global context. IAEA has implemented several projects in the last five years to address gaps in transferring a coherent body of knowledge on sustainable uranium production from a well experienced generation of experts to a new generation facing similar challenges in different geographical, technological, economic and social contexts. These projects focused on enabling the new practitioners in the uranium production industry to avoid the mistakes of the past and to apply good practices established elsewhere, adapted to local needs. The approach was intended to bring considerable cost savings while attracting elevated levels of social acceptance. These projects were effective in introducing experts from different areas of the uranium production cycle and with different levels of experience to the availability of advanced tools that can make operations more efficient and productive, reduce footprint, increase competencies in

  5. Application of LC-MS and tristimulus colorimetry to assess the ageing aptitude of Syrah wine in the Condado de Huelva D.O. (Spain), a typical warm climate region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, B; Rodríguez-Pulido, F J; Mateus, N; Escudero-Gilete, M L; González-Miret, M L; Heredia, F J; de Freitas, V

    2012-06-30

    The study of the evolutions of different wine pigment families, copigmentation/polymerisation processes and colour characteristics during the first year of ageing in oak barrel has allowed the assessment of the ageing aptitude of Syrah wines from "Condado de Huelva D.O.", a warm climate region. A total of 32 anthocyanic pigments were identified, including 14 major compounds from grape and 18 minor derivatives formed during the vinification. The anthocyanin profile changed towards more chemical complexity, being vitisin-like pyranoanthocyanins the predominant minor pigments during the first month of ageing. As wine became older, a progressive increase on the content of 4-vinylcatechin, 4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylcatechol compounds took place. Results showed that copigmentation occurred during the whole process of ageing inducing visual perceptible colour effects. Simultaneously to the copigmentation decrease, the degree of polymerisation increased during ageing, being maximum at 9 months old wines (77%). The colour of wines evolved progressively in a positive way from 3 to 9 months of ageing, becoming darker and with more vivid colour. However, from 9 to 12 months of ageing, the chemical structure of wines was negatively affected resulting in lighter, with more red-orange hues and less vivid colours. The inclusion of the chemical and colorimetric information on the PCA model allows us to reach very good discriminations among the Syrah wines with different wood contact period. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Experience of Barometric Drifter Application for Investigating the World Ocean Arctic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Motyzhev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of the problem solution to create a regionally-oriented data computing system for marine dynamics and ecosystem evolution modeling and forecasting (that should be capable for providing reliable information for managerial decision making, justifying future economic projects and adjusting the existing ones depends on development level of observational systems, environmental evolution, mathematical models and techniques for observational data assimilation. The analysis of the system as an observational segment of modern geo-informational technology allows us to draw a conclusion that the system of drifter observations is one of the most effective ones nowadays. Surface drifter network, continuously operating in the World Ocean, provides systematic operational data on the surface water circulation, thermal processes in the upper ocean and air pressure. Drifter data, acquired over the past 15 years, allowed one to improve and even change the existing concepts of patterns and mechanisms of regional climatic trend and hydrometeorological anomaly formation under effect of global processes in the Ocean – Atmosphere model (in the high latitudes as well. In the present paper the principle results of the analysis of expediency and feasibility of drifting systematic operative pressure field monitoring establishment in the near-surface atmosphere layer over the Arctic Ocean and the seas of the Russian Federation Arctic Zone have been considered. More than 30 drifters of BTC60/GPS/ice type, whose summarized lifetime as for June 2015 exceeded 6500 days, were deployed in the Arctic in 2012–2015. According to data acquired from the drifters, more than 155 000 air pressure readings were received. The most intensive drifter observations were carried out in two regions: in the Beaufort Sea – Canada Basin and in the Central Arctic. The results of experiments revealed that hardware-software solutions implemented in polar modifications of barometric

  7. South American Youth and Integration : Typical Situations and Youth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South American Youth and Integration : Typical Situations and Youth ... IDRC partner the World Economic Forum is building a hub for inclusive growth ... Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) and their perception of rights, democracy and regional.

  8. The Relationship of a Pilot's Educational Background, Aeronautical Experience and Recency of Experience to Performance In Initial Training at a Regional Airline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Nancy R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine how a pilot's educational background, aeronautical experience and recency of experience relate to their performance during initial training at a regional airline. Results show that variables in pilots' educational background, aeronautical experience and recency of experience do predict performance in training. The most significant predictors include years since graduation from college, multi-engine time, total time and whether or not a pilot had military flying experience. Due to the pilot shortage, the pilots entering regional airline training classes since August 2013 have varied backgrounds, aeronautical experience and recency of experience. As explained by Edward Thorndike's law of exercise and the law of recency, pilots who are actively using their aeronautical knowledge and exercising their flying skills should exhibit strong performance in those areas and pilots who have not been actively using their aeronautical knowledge and exercising their flying skills should exhibit degraded performance in those areas. Through correlation, chi-square and multiple regression analysis, this study tests this theory as it relates to performance in initial training at a regional airline.

  9. Elastofibroma dorsi: typical radiological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haykir, R.; Karakose, S.; Karabacakoglu, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare benign and slow-growing fibro-proliferative lesion. It has a characteristic location (periscapular region) and a specific imaging appearance (sonography, CT, MRI) allowing accurate prospective diagnosis. The recognition of this benign lesion avoids unnecessary biopsy and/or surgery. We report two cases of bilateral elastofibroma dorsi illustrating characteristic imaging features on ultrasound, CT and MRI

  10. Regional seismic observations of the Non-Proliferation Experiment at the Livermore NTS Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, W.R.; Mayeda, K.; Patton, H.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), a 1-kiloton chemical explosion in N-tunnel at Rainier Mesa on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), was recorded by the four station, regional seismic Livermore NTS Network, (LNN). In this study we compare the NPE`s seismic yield, frequency content, and discrimination performance with other NTS events recorded at LNN. Preliminary findings include: The NPE LNN average magnitudes are 4.16 for m{sub b}(P{sub n}) and 4.59 for m{sub b}(L{sub g}). Using published magnitude-yield relations gives nuclear equivalent yields of 2.3 and 2.2 kilotons respectively, implying enhanced coupling of chemical relative to nuclear explosions. A comparison of the NPE seismograms with those with similar magnitude N-tunnel nuclear explosions shows remarkable similarity over the frequency band 0.5 to 5.0 Hz. Outside this band the explosions show more variability, with the NPE having the least relative energy below 0.5 Hz and the most energy above 5 Hz when scaled by magnitude. Considering the variability within the N-tunnel nuclear explosions, these low- and high-frequency NPE-nuclear differences may not reflect chemical-nuclear source differences. The NPE was compared to a large number of NTS nuclear explosions and earthquakes as part of an ongoing short-period discrimination study of P{sub N}/L{sub g},P{sub g}/L{sub g}, and spectral ratios in the P{sub n}, P{sub g},L{sub g}, and coda phases. For these discriminants, the NPE looks very similar to N-tunnel nuclear explosions and other NTS nuclear explosions, implying seismic identification of contained, non-ripple-fired, chemical explosions as non-nuclear may not be possible. However, such blasts might serve as surrogate nuclear explosions when calibrating seismic discriminants in regions where nuclear testing has not occurred.

  11. The Impact Snow Albedo Feedback over Mountain Regions as Examined through High-Resolution Regional Climate Change Experiments over the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Theodore

    As the climate warms, the snow albedo feedback (SAF) will play a substantial role in shaping the climate response of mid-latitude mountain regions with transient snow cover. One such region is the Rocky Mountains of the western United States where large snow packs accumulate during the winter and persist throughout the spring. In this dissertation, the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF) configured as a regional climate model is used to investigate the role of the SAF in determining the regional climate response to forced anthropogenic climate change. The regional effects of climate change are investigated by using the pseudo global warming (PGW) framework, which is an experimental configuration in a which a mean climate perturbation is added to the boundary forcing of a regional model, thus preserving the large-scale circulation entering the region through the model boundaries and isolating the mesoscale climate response. Using this framework, the impact of the SAF on the regional energetics and atmospheric dynamics is examined and quantified. Linear feedback analysis is used to quantify the strength of the SAF over the Headwaters region of the Colorado Rockies for a series of high-resolution PGW experiments. This technique is used to test sensitivity of the feedback strength to model resolution and land surface model. Over the Colorado Rockies, and integrated over the entire spring season, the SAF strength is largely insensitive to model resolution, however there are more substantial differences on the sub-seasonal (monthly) timescale. In contrast, the SAF strength over this region is very sensitive to choice of land surface model. These simulations are also used to investigate how spatial and diurnal variability in warming caused by the SAF influences the dynamics of thermally driven mountain-breeze circulations. It is shown that, the SAF causes stronger daytime mountain-breeze circulations by increasing the warming on the mountains slopes thus enhancing

  12. Archetype-based conversion of EHR content models: pilot experience with a regional EHR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Exchange of Electronic Health Record (EHR) data between systems from different suppliers is a major challenge. EHR communication based on archetype methodology has been developed by openEHR and CEN/ISO. The experience of using archetypes in deployed EHR systems is quite limited today. Currently deployed EHR systems with large user bases have their own proprietary way of representing clinical content using various models. This study was designed to investigate the feasibility of representing EHR content models from a regional EHR system as openEHR archetypes and inversely to convert archetypes to the proprietary format. Methods The openEHR EHR Reference Model (RM) and Archetype Model (AM) specifications were used. The template model of the Cambio COSMIC, a regional EHR product from Sweden, was analyzed and compared to the openEHR RM and AM. This study was focused on the convertibility of the EHR semantic models. A semantic mapping between the openEHR RM/AM and the COSMIC template model was produced and used as the basis for developing prototype software that performs automated bi-directional conversion between openEHR archetypes and COSMIC templates. Results Automated bi-directional conversion between openEHR archetype format and COSMIC template format has been achieved. Several archetypes from the openEHR Clinical Knowledge Repository have been imported into COSMIC, preserving most of the structural and terminology related constraints. COSMIC templates from a large regional installation were successfully converted into the openEHR archetype format. The conversion from the COSMIC templates into archetype format preserves nearly all structural and semantic definitions of the original content models. A strategy of gradually adding archetype support to legacy EHR systems was formulated in order to allow sharing of clinical content models defined using different formats. Conclusion The openEHR RM and AM are expressive enough to represent the existing clinical

  13. Archetype-based conversion of EHR content models: pilot experience with a regional EHR system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Daniel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exchange of Electronic Health Record (EHR data between systems from different suppliers is a major challenge. EHR communication based on archetype methodology has been developed by openEHR and CEN/ISO. The experience of using archetypes in deployed EHR systems is quite limited today. Currently deployed EHR systems with large user bases have their own proprietary way of representing clinical content using various models. This study was designed to investigate the feasibility of representing EHR content models from a regional EHR system as openEHR archetypes and inversely to convert archetypes to the proprietary format. Methods The openEHR EHR Reference Model (RM and Archetype Model (AM specifications were used. The template model of the Cambio COSMIC, a regional EHR product from Sweden, was analyzed and compared to the openEHR RM and AM. This study was focused on the convertibility of the EHR semantic models. A semantic mapping between the openEHR RM/AM and the COSMIC template model was produced and used as the basis for developing prototype software that performs automated bi-directional conversion between openEHR archetypes and COSMIC templates. Results Automated bi-directional conversion between openEHR archetype format and COSMIC template format has been achieved. Several archetypes from the openEHR Clinical Knowledge Repository have been imported into COSMIC, preserving most of the structural and terminology related constraints. COSMIC templates from a large regional installation were successfully converted into the openEHR archetype format. The conversion from the COSMIC templates into archetype format preserves nearly all structural and semantic definitions of the original content models. A strategy of gradually adding archetype support to legacy EHR systems was formulated in order to allow sharing of clinical content models defined using different formats. Conclusion The openEHR RM and AM are expressive enough to

  14. Trans-European transport networks influence on the regional development and urban systems: Serbian experience

    OpenAIRE

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2004-01-01

    The trans-European transport network has different effects at macro-regional, mezzo-regional and micro-regional level, and on urban systems development, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined...

  15. MCRTOF, Multiple Scattering of Resonance Region Neutron in Time of Flight Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Mako

    1984-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Multiple scattering of neutrons in the resonance energy region impinging on a disk with an arbitrary angle. 2 - Method of solution: The Monte Carlo method is employed to simulate the path of an incident neutron in a medium for which macroscopic cross sections are determined by resonance parameters. By tracing a large number of neutrons, probabilities for capture, transmission, front-face scattering, rear-face scattering and side-face scattering are determined and printed out as function of incident neutron energy. Optionally, the distribution of capture locations in the disk can be printed. The incident neutron energy is swept to fit a situation as encountered in time-of-flight experiments. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The cross section file is constructed from input resonance parameters with a single- level Breit-Wigner formula. The following restrictions and simplifications apply: - The maximum number of resonances is five. - Reactions other than capture and scattering are neglected. - The angular scattering distribution in the center-of-mass system is assumed to be uniform. - Chemical binding effects are neglected

  16. Simulation of D and E region high-power microwave heating with HF ionospheric modification experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meltz, G.; Rush, C.M.; Violette, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The microwave power beam from a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) is sufficiently intense to cause large changes in the properties of the lower ionosphere by ohmic heating of the plasma. Power is absorbed from the beam at a rate that is proportional to the ratio of the flux s and the square of an effective frequency f/sub e/. Throughout most of the lower ionosphere f/sub e/ = f -+ f/sub L/, where f is the wave frequency and f/sub L is a reduced electron gyrofrequency. It follows that SPS equivalent heating can be simulated at much lower power fluxes with HF radio waves. A detailed examination of the frequency scaling, based on fluid and kinetic theory estimates of the change in electron temperature and density, shows that the high-power HF facility at Platteville, CO, can simulate or exceed the ohmic effects of the SPS beam up to 90 km. This paper describes the results of a series of 5.2 and 9.9 MHz underdense heating experiments undertaken to study the effect of high-power microwaves on the lower ionosphere. A pulsed ionosonde probe, located nearly below the most intense portion of the high-power beam, was used to observe the changes in the D and lower E region. Both phase and amplitude measurements were recorded during CW and intermittent heating

  17. Challenges in successfully developing three regional radiotherapy centres. The NCCI experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenham, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Full text: This presentation will provide an overview of the processes, experience, challenges and success involved in the establishment of the North Coast Cancer Institute (NCCI). The NCCI is a network of three Integrated Oncology centres in Northern New South Wales offering integrated Medical, Radiation and Haematology outpatient services. NCCI was developed as part of the introduction of radiotherapy into a region previously without access to a local radiotherapy service and as a result with poor radiotherapy utilisation and referral rates. NCCI commenced radiotherapy services in Coffs Harbour in May 2007 followed by Port Macquarie in August of the same year and finally in Lismore in May 20 I O. Radiotherapy services commenced with Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy and Image guided radiotherapy as standard of care for some disease sites with remote access to planning systems and electronic workflow process supporting the treatment process. Forming a small team to simultaneously design, build and establish two new treatment centres to take advantage of the most contemporary treatment modalities while also planning for a third centre was a significant challenge. The challenges and successful outcomes will be discussed as part of this presentation.

  18. Atmospheric response in aurora experiment: Observations of E and F region neutral winds in a region of postmidnight diffuse aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, M.F.; Marshall, T.R.; Mikkelsen, I.S.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of the Atmospheric Response in Aurora (ARIA) experiment carried out at Poker Flat, Alaska, on March 3, 1992, was to determine the response of the neutral atmosphere to the long-lived, large-scale forcing that is characteristic of the diffuse aurora in the postmidnight sector. A combination of chemical release rocket wind measurements, intrumented rocket composition measurements, and ground-based optical measurements were used to characterize the response of the neutral atmosphere. The rocket measurements were made at the end of a 90-min period of strong Joule heating. We focus on the neutral wind measurements made with the rocket. The forcing was determined by running the assimilated mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics (AMIE) analysis procedure developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The winds expected at the latitude and longitude of the experiment were calculated using the spectral thermospheric general circulation model developed at the Danish Meteorological Institute. Comparisons of the observations and the model suggest that the neutral winds responded strongly in two height ranges. An eastward wind perturbation of ∼100 m s -1 developed between 140 and 200 km altitude with a peak near 160 km. A southwestward wind with peak magnitude of ∼150 m s -1 developed near 115 km altitude. The large amplitude winds at the lower altitude are particularly surprising. They appear to be associated with the upward propagating semidiurnal tide. However, the amplitude is much larger than predicted by any of the tidal models, and the shear found just below the peak in the winds was nomially unstable with a Richardson number of ∼0.08. 17 refs., 12 figs

  19. Universal salt iodization in the Central and Eastern Europe, Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE/CIS) Region during the decade 2000-09: experiences, achievements, and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Haar, Frits; Gerasimov, Gregory; Tyler, Vilma Qahoush; Timmer, Arnold

    2011-12-01

    By 2000, the global track record on universal salt iodization (USI) indicated 26% access to adequately iodized salt in the Central and Eastern Europe, Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE/ CIS) Region. Aimed at extracting lessons learned, this study examined experiences, achievements, and outcomes of USI strategies in CEE/CIS countries during the subsequent decade. Information from the design, timing, execution, outputs, multi-sector management and results of actions by national stakeholders yielded 20 country summaries. Analysis across countries used a LogFrame Analysis typical for public nutrition development. By 2009, USI strategies had reached the target and population iodine nutrition shown adequate levels in 9 countries, while in 6 others, USI was close and/or population iodine status showed only minor imperfection. True USI, i.e., iodization of salt destined both for the food industry and the household, had been made mandatory in 13 of these 15 countries. In the Balkan area, USI and iodine nutrition advanced more than in CIS. Of the 20 sample countries, 17 (85%) had exceeded the mark of 50% adequate access, while the overall regional score reached 55% by 2010. Experience from this region suggests that strong partnership collaboration, a new concept in post-Soviet societies, was a major success factor. Voluntary iodization or focusing on household salt alone was less likely conducive for success. Achieving optimum iodine nutrition required the setting of proper iodine standard Weak political leadership insistence in the Russian Federation and Ukraine to embrace USI is the main factor why the region remains behind in the global progress.

  20. Timeslice experiments for understanding regional climate projections: applications to the tropical hydrological cycle and European winter circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Robin; Douville, Hervé; Skinner, Christopher B.

    2017-11-01

    A set of atmosphere-only timeslice experiments are described, designed to examine the processes that cause regional climate change and inter-model uncertainty in coupled climate model responses to CO_2 forcing. The timeslice experiments are able to reproduce the pattern of regional climate change in the coupled models, and are applied here to two cases where inter-model uncertainty in future projections is large: the tropical hydrological cycle, and European winter circulation. In tropical forest regions, the plant physiological effect is the largest cause of hydrological cycle change in the two models that represent this process. This suggests that the CMIP5 ensemble mean may be underestimating the magnitude of water cycle change in these regions, due to the inclusion of models without the plant effect. SST pattern change is the dominant cause of precipitation and circulation change over the tropical oceans, and also appears to contribute to inter-model uncertainty in precipitation change over tropical land regions. Over Europe and the North Atlantic, uniform SST increases drive a poleward shift of the storm-track. However this does not consistently translate into an overall polewards storm-track shift, due to large circulation responses to SST pattern change, which varies across the models. Coupled model SST biases influence regional rainfall projections in regions such as the Maritime Continent, and so projections in these regions should be treated with caution.

  1. New Comparative Experiments of Different Soil Types for Farmland Water Conservation in Arid Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiben Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated farmland is the main food source of desert areas, and moisture is the main limiting factor of desert farmland crop productivity. Study on the influence of irrigation on desert farmland soil moisture can guide the agricultural water resource utilization and agricultural production in those regions. At present, the efficiency of irrigation water usage in Northwest China is as low as approximately 40% of the irrigated water. To understand the response of farmland soil moisture in different soil types on irrigation in the Ulan Buh Desert of Inner Mongolia of China, this experimental study takes advantage of different infiltration characteristics and hydraulic conductivities of sand, clay, and loam to determine an optimized soil combination scheme with the purpose of establishing a hydraulic barrier that reduces infiltration. This study includes three comparative experiments with each consisting of a 100 cm thick of filled sand, or clay, or loam soil underneath a 50 cm plough soil, with a total thickness of 150 cm soil profile. A new type of lysimeter is installed below the above-mentioned 150 cm soil profile to continuously measure deep soil recharge (DSR, and the ECH2O-5 soil moisture sensors are installed at different depths over the 150 cm soil profile to simultaneously monitor the soil moisture above the lysimeter. The study analyzes the characteristics of soil moisture dynamics, the irrigation-related recharge on soil moisture, and the DSR characteristics before and after irrigation, during the early sowing period from 2 April to 2 May 2017. Research results show that: (1 Irrigation significantly influences the soil moisture of 0–150 cm depths. The soil moisture increase after the irrigation follows the order from high to low when it is in the order of loam, sand, and clay. (2 Irrigation-induced soil moisture recharge occurs on all three soil combinations at 0–150 cm layers, and the order of soil moisture recharge from high to low

  2. Managed Aquifer Recharge: from Local Research and Experiences to Regional Aquifer Storage and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, D.; Faneca, M.; Oude Essink, G.; van Baaren, E.; Stuurman, R.; Delsman, J. R.; van Kempen, C.; de Louw, P.

    2016-12-01

    Many areas in the world experience periodic water shortages due to meteorological drought, salt water intrusion or over-exploitation of the water resources. Recently, it was established that the depletion of aquifers in many areas of the world is in an advanced state (Gleeson et al, 2012). This poses enormous challenges as 2.5 billion people and many companies depend on groundwater now and in the future (UN, 2015; ESG, 2016). A solution to increase robustness of water systems and prevent water shortage is subsurface storage of water during wet periods using Managed Aquifer Research (MAR). In addition to mitigation of water shortage, MAR can also reduce the occurrence and degree of flooding. Here, we present an overview of Deltares MAR expertise and available tools for up-scaling MAR. Deltares has experience with both research and implementation of MAR in different parts of the world under various hydro(geo)logical, climatic and socio-economic conditions. Various MAR techniques were assessed/tested in coastal areas of the Netherlands, Spain, New York, New Orleans and in Bangladesh. In some of these areas specific groundwater shortage related issues occur, such as salt water intrusion or subsidence. In Singapore, monitoring campaigns and modeling were done to design MAR by infiltration of water in over-exploited aquifers. In Abu Dhabi, geophysical methods were used to detect the optimal conditions for MAR systems. To effectively increase the robustness of groundwater systems up-scaling of MAR is required. For this purpose, Deltares developed tools that provide insight in the potential demand, possibilities and effectiveness of MAR at larger scales. The Quick scan tool for Fresh Groundwater Buffering provides insight on regional to national scale and is based on GIS-information of water demand, water resources, and subsurface properties. This quick scan tool has been applied for Mozambique, Kenya, India and Bangladesh. The Fresh Water Optimizer assesses the

  3. Why a regional approach to postgraduate water education makes sense - the WaterNet experience in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, L.; van der Zaag, P.; Gumbo, B.; Rockström, J.; Love, D.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports the experience of a regional network of academic departments involved in water education that started as a project and evolved, over a period of 12 yr, into an independent network organisation. The paper pursues three objectives. First, it argues that it makes good sense to organise postgraduate education and research on water resources on a regional scale. This is because water has a transboundary dimension that poses delicate sharing questions, an approach that promotes a common understanding of what the real water-related issues are, results in future water specialists speaking a common (water) language, enhances mutual respect, and can thus be considered an investment in future peace. Second, it presents the WaterNet experience as an example that a regional approach can work and has an impact. Third, it draws three generalised lessons from the WaterNet experience. Lesson 1: For a regional capacity building network to be effective, it must have a legitimate ownership structure and a clear mandate. Lesson 2: Organising water-related training opportunities at a regional and transboundary scale makes sense - not only because knowledge resources are scattered, but also because the topic - water - has a regional and transboundary scope. Lesson 3: Jointly developing educational programmes by sharing expertise and resources requires intense intellectual management and sufficient financial means.

  4. Analysis of the clinical experience with perampanel in the Moscow Region: Efficacy, tolerability, individual choice priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Rudakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze our clinical experience with perampanel (PER, by evaluating the efficacy, tolerability, and individual choice priorities.Patients and methods. The investigation enrolled 28 patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy; the patients' mean age was 38.3±10.7 years. The proportion of men was 46.4%; the disease duration was 8 to 33 years (mean 20.2 years. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs were changed 7–10 times in 66% of the patients and 5–6 times in 23%. The efficacy and tolerability of AEDs and the electroclinical features of epilepsy were compared in two groups: responders and non-responders.Results and discussion. The responder and non-responder groups had a substantial preponderance of patients with frontal lobe epilepsy and diffuse epileptiform electroencephalographic (EEG patterns (80%:46% and 80%:38%, respectively; p = 0.0001, but those with temporal lobe epilepsy and isolated regional EEG patterns were 2–3 times fewer (20%: 53.8% and 20%:61.5%; p = 0.0001. Only one of 10 combinations of carbamazepine (CBM and PER was successful. Aggression, fear, and psychosis, which occurred in 5 (17.8% patients taking PER 2–6 mg/day, were the most common adverse reactions associated with its discontinuation. PER is an effective agent to overcome of drug resistance in epilepsy. The benefit of the drug is that it may be used in undifferentiated antiepileptic therapy regimens. When predicting the effects of PER, preliminary switch from CBZ to oxcarbazepine or eslicarbazepine is reasonable. 

  5. A Three-Year Experience of Medical Thoracoscopy at A Tertiary Care Center of Himalayan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhee Sodhi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical thoracoscopy is a minimally invasive procedure for diagnosing and treating pleural diseases. Despite its proven role in diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, it is infrequently used, which could be because of cost of equipment and lack of training. We analyzed our initial 3 years record of thoracoscopy at Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, a tertiary care center in Himalayan region of north India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was to analyze our experience of medical thoracoscopy which was started in Jan 2011 at our center. All patients who underwent thoracoscopy during the period between Jan 2011 to Dec 2013 were included in the study. Thoracoscopy was performed for diagnosis of undiagnosed pleural effusions. Clinical, radiological, cytological & histopathological data of the patients were collected prospectively and analysed. Results: The diagnostic yield for a pleuroscopic pleural biopsy in our study was 87.23% (41/47. Malignancy was diagnosed histopathologically in 70.2% (33/47 patients (both primary & metastatic pleural carcinoma and tuberculosis in 10.6% (5/47. There was no mortality related to procedure. Only three patients had minor complications like subcutaneous emphysema which was mild and resolved by second post-procedure day. Pain at intercostal drain site was observed in some patients. Conclusion: Thoracoscopy is an easy outpatient procedure and an excellent diagnostic tool for pleural effusion of uncertain etiology. It has low complication rate even in settings where the procedure is just started. It should be included in the armamentarium of tools for management of pleural effusion.

  6. Comparisons of Box Model Calculations and Measurements of Formaldehyde from the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, G. J.; Fried, Alan; Lee, Y.- N.; Wert, B.; Henry, B.; Drummond, J. R.; Evans, M. J.; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.; Goldan, P. D.; Holloway, J. S.; Hubler, Gerhard F.; Jakoubek, R.; Jobson, B Tom T.; Knapp, K.; Kuster, W. C.; Roberts, J.; Rudolph, Jochen; Ryerson, T. B.; Stohl, A.; Stroud, C.; Sueper, D. T.; Trainer, Michael; Williams, J.

    2002-04-18

    Formaldehyde (CH2O) measurements from two independent instruments are compared with photochemical box model calculations. The measurements were made on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration P-3 aircraft as part of the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE 97). The data set considered here consists of air masses sampled between 0 and 8 km over the North Atlantic Ocean which do not show recent influence from emissions or transport. These air masses therefore should be in photochemical steady state with respect to CH2O when constrained by the other P-3 measurements, and methane oxidation was expected to be the predominant source of CH2O in these air masses. For this data set both instruments measured identical CH2O concentrations to within 40 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) on average over the 0–800 pptv range, although differences larger than the combined 2s total uncertainty estimates were observed between the two instruments in 11% of the data. Both instruments produced higher CH2O concentrations than the model in more than 90% of this data set, with a median measured-modeled [CH2O] difference of 0.13 or 0.18 ppbv (depending on the instrument), or about a factor of 2. Such large differences cannot be accounted for by varying model input parameters within their respective uncertainty ranges. After examining the possible reasons for the model-measurement discrepancy, we conclude that there are probably one or more additional unknown sources of CH2O in the North Atlantic troposphere.

  7. Tritium in some typical ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The environmental significance of 3 H releases prompted an IAEA-sponsored coordinated research programme on various aspects. Data were collected to help health physicists, radioecologists, radiobiologists and environmentalists to predict the behaviour of 3 H in the major terrestrial ecosystems of the world. A common methodology was used to carry out a variety of projects in widely varying biomes, from tropical to arctic regions: in Belgium, on terrestrial food chains, with deposition of tritiated water (HTO) on crops and pasture, and incorporation of 3 H into proteins, nucleic acids, etc.; in Finland, plots of pasture and forest were labelled by HTO, and plant uptake were studied; in France, 3 H-content in water, in relation to different parts of vines, orange and olive trees in a Mediterranean climate; in the Federal Republic of Germany, contamination due to 3 H-releases; in India, mean 3 H-residence time in some tropical trees; in Mexico, 3 H-persistence as free-water 3 H and tissue-bound 3 H in crops; in the Netherlands, 3 H-metabolism in ruminants; in the Philippines, residence time in soil and in various commonly edible crops, and excretion time; in Thailand, half residence time in soil and local vegetation; in the USA, the effects of HTO vapour and liquid exposure in a wide range of climatic conditions, including organic fixation and concentration factors. An extensive bibliography is attached, and also annexes of laboratories and project titles; plant species, exposure and residence times; comparable lists for animals studied; scientific and common names of the species, and a glossary

  8. Generic Regional Development Strategies from Local Stakeholders' Scenarios - an Alpine Village Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Loibl

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the participatory elaboration of strategies for sustainable regional development in an Alpine tourist region in Austria to cope with global change effects evolving locally, considering climate change, economic change as well as (local societal change. Local stakeholders in an Alpine village in the Montafon region contributed in workshops to achieve the final results: participant teams conducted system analyses of the regional system to explore key elements of the region. Narrative scenarios described possible positive and negative development trends and indicated the critical issues controlling future development; 3D-images of landscape transition simulations show the consequences of certain development directions. Alternative development directions supported the local stakeholders to elaborate regional development strategies. In the end, the scientist team derived generic strategies for Alpine regions based on the locally developed strategy bundle. The article presents the intention, progress and outcome of the participatory approach and elaborates the potential to derive generic strategies from local ones and discusses the possibly occurring conflicts regarding cross-scale transfers of these local strategies. Overall, tourism was seen as a key element for future regional development, which can on the one hand derogate Alpine regions and is on the other hand threatened by climate change and diminution of landscape attractiveness. The suggested development strategies will help to cope with global change issues mitigating the negative consequences on the local society and environment.

  9. Retinoblastoma: experience of a referral center in the North Region of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha-Bastos R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available RA da Rocha-Bastos,1 JR Araújo,1 RS Silva,2 MJ Gil-da-Costa,2 E Brandão,1 NJ Farinha,2,3 F Falcão-Reis,1,4 T Dinah-Bragança1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital São João, 2Hematology and Oncology Unit, Pediatric Hospital, Hospital São João, 3Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4Department of Sense Organs, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal Purpose: To describe the experience of the Ophthalmology Department of Hospital São João (HSJ, a tertiary health care center in North Region, Portugal, in terms of the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of retinoblastoma. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with retinoblastoma in Hospital São João, between 1978 and 2012. Results: Fifty patients with retinoblastoma were evaluated in our institution between 1978 and 2012. Four patients were excluded due to loss of follow-up. Among the 46 retinoblastoma cases, 33 (71.7% were unilateral and 13 (28.3% bilateral, with a mean age at diagnosis of 22.19 months and 6.92 months, respectively (P<0.001. Leukocoria was the most common presenting sign (36.9%, followed by strabismus (19.6%, a combination of leukocoria and strabismus (8.7%, and buphthalmia (2.2%. Between 1978 and 1992, nine retinoblastoma cases were referred to our hospital, all of them unilateral, and, in each case, enucleation was performed, with or without salvage therapy. Between 1993 and 2012, 18 eyes with retinoblastoma were successfully managed with conservative treatment. Conclusion: Demographic results were generally coincident with previous reports. It is crucial to screen leukocoria in pediatric practice, even in asymptomatic children. The outcome of retinoblastoma treatment in our hospital is similar to other series in developed countries. Keywords: retinoblastoma, leukocoria, strabismus, enucleation, pediatric cancer

  10. Trans-European transport networks influence on the regional development and urban systems: Serbian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The trans-European transport network has different effects at macro-regional, mezzo-regional and micro-regional level, and on urban systems development, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined. The question is how the new major transport infrastructure affects the development of functional complementarity between cities and regions. Changes of the spatial organization, utilization and structure of cities, as well as of social benefits and losses subsequent to impacts of trans-European transport corridor "X" on urban system Ćuprija-Jagodina-Paraćin at section Belgrade-Nis have been analysed. The new trans-European or major transport infrastructure does not per se create regional and urban system network development, although it can affect the conditions for the processes that create growth and development. The effects can be increased by co-ordination of measures of regional and urban policy, land use, transport and other policies. The guidances and options of urban systems and urban centres development policies in trans-European transport corridor, as well as possibilities to improve our planning system have been given. The necessary measure is the introduction of spatial impact assessment as sectorial policy instrument for the large transport infrastructure projects.

  11. Regional Incentives and Patient Cross-Border Mobility: Evidence from the Italian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenka Brenna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background In recent years, accreditation of private hospitals followed by decentralisation of the Italian National Health Service (NHS into 21 regional health systems has provided a good empirical ground for investigating the Tiebout principle of “voting with their feet”. We examine the infra-regional trade-off between greater patient choice (due to an increase in hospital services supply and financial equilibrium, and we relate it to the significant phenomenon of Cross-Border Mobility (CBM between Italian regions. Focusing on the rules supervising the financial agreements between regional authorities and providers of hospital care, we find incentives for private accredited providers in attracting patient inflows. Methods The analysis is undertaken from an institutional, regulatory and empirical perspective. We select a sample of five regions with higher positive CBM balance and we examine regional regulations governing the contractual agreements between purchasers and providers of hospital care. According to this sample, we provide a statistical analysis of CBM and apply a Regional Attraction Ability Index (RAAI, aimed at testing patient preferences for private/public accredited providers. Results We find that this index is systematically higher for private providers, both in the case of distance/boundary patients and of excellence/general hospitals. Conclusion Conclusions address both financial issues regarding the coverage of regional healthcare systems and equity issues on patient healthcare access. They also raise concerns on the new European Union (EU directive inherent to patient mobility across Europe.

  12. Regional incentives and patient cross-border mobility: evidence from the Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, Elenka; Spandonaro, Federico

    2015-03-20

    In recent years, accreditation of private hospitals followed by decentralisation of the Italian National Health Service (NHS) into 21 regional health systems has provided a good empirical ground for investigating the Tiebout principle of "voting with their feet". We examine the infra-regional trade-off between greater patient choice (due to an increase in hospital services supply) and financial equilibrium, and we relate it to the significant phenomenon of Cross-Border Mobility (CBM) between Italian regions. Focusing on the rules supervising the financial agreements between regional authorities and providers of hospital care, we find incentives for private accredited providers in attracting patient inflows. The analysis is undertaken from an institutional, regulatory and empirical perspective. We select a sample of five regions with higher positive CBM balance and we examine regional regulations governing the contractual agreements between purchasers and providers of hospital care. According to this sample, we provide a statistical analysis of CBM and apply a Regional Attraction Ability Index (RAAI), aimed at testing patient preferences for private/public accredited providers. We find that this index is systematically higher for private providers, both in the case of distance/boundary patients and of excellence/general hospitals. Conclusions address both financial issues regarding the coverage of regional healthcare systems and equity issues on patient healthcare access. They also raise concerns on the new European Union (EU) directive inherent to patient mobility across Europe. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  13. Inclusive Education of Students with Disabilities in the Regional Multidisciplinary University: The Experience of Cherepovets State University

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    Denisova O.A.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the regional experience of teaching students with disabilities in a multidisciplinary university. Analysis of resources and algorithms of educational support provided at the university creates the opportunity to share this experience and to evaluate its significance for the development of higher inclusive education, as well as to assess the perspectives for its application in similar educational environments. Consulting, education, coordination and rehabilitation services are the main forms of assistance to students and teachers at all stages of education and socialization of people with disabilities. The university has a department that provides support to students with disabilities and their teachers. The analysis of the successes and challenges of higher education of persons with disabilities shows that there is an objective need to unite the efforts of the university with the regional non-governmental organizations and the authorities of the region, with health care, education and social services in order to support young people with disabilities.

  14. Implementation of the GFS physical package in the GRAPES regional model: single column experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baode; Huang, Wei; Bao, Jian-wen

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing concern about coupling among physical components in NWP models. The Physics package of the NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) has been considerably turned and connection among various components is well considered. Thus, the full GFS physical package was implemented into the GRAPES-MESO and its single column version as well. Using the data collected at ARM Southern Great Plain site during the summer 1997 Intensive Observing Period, several experiments of single-column model (SCM) were conducted to test performance of a set of original physical processes of GRAPES(CTL experiment) and the GFS physics package implemented(GFS experiment). Temperature, moisture, radiation, surface heat flux, surface air temperature and precipitation are evaluated. It is found that potential temperature and vapor mixing ratio simulated by GFS experiment is more accurate than that of CTL experiment. Errors of surface downward solar and long-wave radiation simulated by GFS experiment are less than that of CTL experiment and upward latent and sensible heat flux are also better agreeing with observation. The maximum and minimum 2-m air temperatures of the GFS experiment are close to observation compared with that of CTL experiment. Analysis of precipitation simulated shows that both sets of physical processes well reproduce heavy rainfall events. Failure and delay of moderate rainfall events and over predictions of drizzle events are commonly found for two sets of experiments. For the case of three rainfall events, the errors of potential temperature and vapor mixing ratio simulated by GFS experiment were smaller than that of CTL experiment. It is shown that the late occurrences of rainfall are resulted from a more stable temperature profile and lower moisture simulated in boundary layer than those from the observation prior to rainfall. When the simulated rainfall occurs, the simulated temperature and moisture become more favorable to the precipitation than observation.

  15. Effects of stress typicality during speeded grammatical classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciuli, Joanne; Cupples, Linda

    2003-01-01

    The experiments reported here were designed to investigate the influence of stress typicality during speeded grammatical classification of disyllabic English words by native and non-native speakers. Trochaic nouns and iambic gram verbs were considered to be typically stressed, whereas iambic nouns and trochaic verbs were considered to be atypically stressed. Experiments 1a and 2a showed that while native speakers classified typically stressed words individual more quickly and more accurately than atypically stressed words during differences reading, there were no overall effects during classification of spoken stimuli. However, a subgroup of native speakers with high error rates did show a significant effect during classification of spoken stimuli. Experiments 1b and 2b showed that non-native speakers classified typically stressed words more quickly and more accurately than atypically stressed words during reading. Typically stressed words were classified more accurately than atypically stressed words when the stimuli were spoken. Importantly, there was a significant relationship between error rates, vocabulary size and the size of the stress typicality effect in each experiment. We conclude that participants use information about lexical stress to help them distinguish between disyllabic nouns and verbs during speeded grammatical classification. This is especially so for individuals with a limited vocabulary who lack other knowledge (e.g., semantic knowledge) about the differences between these grammatical categories.

  16. Signatures of the high-altitude polar cusp and dayside auroral regions as seen by the Viking electric field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, G.T.; Blomberg, L.G.; Faelthammar, C.G.; Erlandson, R.E.; Potemra, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Electric field and satellite potential observations along 42 Viking orbits in the high-altitude (2R E ) polar cusp and dayside auroral region have been examined. Within the cusp the plasma density usually reaches a maximum, and it is typically very homogeneous, in contrast to the irregular and lower density in the cleft and dayside auroral regions. The maxima in the plasma density are sometimes anticorrelated with the magnetic field strength, indicating a diamagnetic effect. The entire cusp and dayside auroral regions are characterized by irregular and burstlike electric fields, comprising field reversals on various scales (up to 3 min or 500 km), the larger scales, however, being rare in the cusp. Another common feature in these regions is the high correlation between mutually orthogonal components of the electric and magnetic fields, both for large-scale variations across spatial structures and for wave and pulsations in the ULF frequency range. The electric field signatures in the cusp (in the 1100-1300 MLT sector) are, however, characteristically different from the cleft and oval field signatures in that the electric field is usually less intense and less structured and not correlated with the substorm activity level

  17. Trans-European transport networks influence on the regional development and urban systems: Serbian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The trans-European transport network has different effects at macro regional mezzo-regional and micro-regional level, and its effectiveness rises with the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for a more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined. Changes in the spatial organization utilization and structure of cities, as well as in social benefits and losses subsequent to impacts of trans-European transport corridor "X" section Belgrade-Niš have been analyzed. The new trans-European or major transport infrastructure does not per se create regional and urban system network development, although it can affect the conditions for the processes that create growth and development. The effects can be increased by co-ordination of measures of regional, spatial and urban policy, land use transport, environmental and other policies. The necessary measure is the introduction of spatial impact assessment as sartorial policy instrument for the large transport infrastructure plans and projects.

  18. High-Resolution Regional Reanalysis in China: Evaluation of 1 Year Period Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Pan, Yinong; Wang, Shuyu; Xu, Jianjun; Tang, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    Globally, reanalysis data sets are widely used in assessing climate change, validating numerical models, and understanding the interactions between the components of a climate system. However, due to the relatively coarse resolution, most global reanalysis data sets are not suitable to apply at the local and regional scales directly with the inadequate descriptions of mesoscale systems and climatic extreme incidents such as mesoscale convective systems, squall lines, tropical cyclones, regional droughts, and heat waves. In this study, by using a data assimilation system of Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation, and a mesoscale atmospheric model of Weather Research and Forecast model, we build a regional reanalysis system. This is preliminary and the first experimental attempt to construct a high-resolution reanalysis for China main land. Four regional test bed data sets are generated for year 2013 via three widely used methods (classical dynamical downscaling, spectral nudging, and data assimilation) and a hybrid method with data assimilation coupled with spectral nudging. Temperature at 2 m, precipitation, and upper level atmospheric variables are evaluated by comparing against observations for one-year-long tests. It can be concluded that the regional reanalysis with assimilation and nudging methods can better produce the atmospheric variables from surface to upper levels, and regional extreme events such as heat waves, than the classical dynamical downscaling. Compared to the ERA-Interim global reanalysis, the hybrid nudging method performs slightly better in reproducing upper level temperature and low-level moisture over China, which improves regional reanalysis data quality.

  19. Does regional diversity recover after disturbance? A field experiment in constructed ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M. Woods

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of disturbance on local species diversity have been well documented, but less recognized is the possibility that disturbances can alter diversity at regional spatial scales. Since regional diversity can dictate which species are available for recolonization of degraded sites, the loss of diversity at regional scales may impede the recovery of biodiversity following a disturbance. To examine this we used a chemical disturbance of rotenone, a piscicide commonly used for fish removal in aquatic habitats, on small fishless freshwater ponds. We focused on the non-target effects of rotenone on aquatic invertebrates with the goal of assessing biodiversity loss and recovery at both local (within-pond and regional (across ponds spatial scales. We found that rotenone caused significant, large, but short-term losses of species at both local and regional spatial scales. Using a null model of random extinction, we determined that species were selectively removed from communities relative to what would be expected if species loss occurred randomly. Despite this selective loss of biodiversity, species diversity at both local and regional spatial scales recovered to reference levels one year after the addition of rotenone. The rapid recovery of local and regional diversity in this study was surprising considering the large loss of regional species diversity, however many aquatic invertebrates disperse readily or have resting stages that may persist through disturbances. We emphasize the importance of considering spatial scale when quantifying the impacts of a disturbance on an ecosystem, as well as considering how regional species loss can influence recovery from disturbance.

  20. Paragangliomas of the head and neck region: A single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumudachalam Pindicura

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Paragangliomas of the head and neck are uncommon lesions. The most common site in the head and neck region was the jugulotympanic region. Most cases of jugulotympanic paraganglioma presented in the fifth decade and later. Laryngeal paraganglioma presented clinically earlier in the second decade. Jugulotympanic and laryngeal paraganglioma showed dominance of tumor vasculature histologically. There was a rare case of laryngeal paraganglioma with lateral neck extension in this study.

  1. Integrated Verification Experiment data collected as part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Source Region Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, R.W.; Noel, S.D.

    1992-12-01

    The summary report by Tom Weaver gives the overall background for the series of IVE (Integrated Verification Experiment) experiments including information on the full set of measurements made. This appendix presents details of the infrasound data for the and discusses certain aspects of a few special experiments. Prior to FY90, the emphasis of the Infrasound Program was on underground nuclear test (UGT) detection and yield estimation. During this time the Infrasound Program was a separate program at Los Alamos, and it was suggested to DOE/OAC that a regional infrasound network be established around NTS. The IVE experiments took place in a time frame that allowed simultaneous testing of possible network sites and examination of propagation in different directions. Whenever possible, infrasound stations were combined with seismic stations so that a large number could be efficiently fielded. The regional infrasound network was not pursued by DOE, as world events began to change the direction of verification toward non-proliferation. Starting in FY90 the infrasound activity became part of the Source Region Program which has a goal of understanding how energy is transported from the UGT to a variety of measurement locations.

  2. Antimicrobial Resistance Control Strategies: A Coordinated Research Initiative Experience in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Lisette; Asenjo, Gabriela; Vergara, Constanza; Cornejo, Javiera

    2017-05-01

    The objective was to gather information on the status of antimicrobial surveillance in the Asia Pacific region and suggest control strategies. Twenty-one economies of the Asia Pacific region participated in this initiative. A survey was conducted on antimicrobial use and surveillance throughout the region. A workshop was carried out to create awareness about the issue and discuss the implementation of control strategies. Based on the survey results and workshop conclusions, it can be established that there is better understanding of the implications of antimicrobial resistance in the human medicine area. Only few economies take actions to control antimicrobial resistance on a veterinary/agricultural level. To confront antimicrobial resistance, it is critical to raise awareness; cooperation between all countries is needed to apply international standards, to be able to have harmonized public policies. Countries must align and improve their systems for surveillance and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in human, animals, and the environment.

  3. Renewable Energy Development in the Context of Green Economy: the Experience of Kostanay Region (Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Anatolyevna Pakina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The world’s best practices of “green” economy principles implementation demonstrate that one of the key criteria in this way is increasing energy efficiency. We have investigated the perspectives of renewable energy use through the case study of the Kostanay region – one of developed regions of Kazakhstan with industrial-agrarian type of the economy. The analysis of the natural conditions revealed that the area has sufficient resources to generate energy through renewable sources. The average annual radiation on the territory of the Kostanay region amounts to 3.55 kWh/mІ per day, and wind resources are also available to produce energy: the average wind speed here is 4-5 m/s, with the maximum wind speed 40 m/s in the southern part of the region. At the same time the biomass resources have the greatest potential as a renewable energy source. Taking into account the share of agricultural areas (92 %, the Kostanay region has a great potential for recycling agricultural production wastes – of both the livestock and crop production – for energy purposes, and such facilities are already in operation in some farms of the region. The assessment of biogas production potential, carried out in the article, showed that it can be considered as the most effective way to reduce fossil fuels consumption and to cover energy demand in the agricultural sector. Development of renewable energy will also contribute to environmental problems solution and raising the living standards of the local population.

  4. CO2 emissions reduction using energy conservation measures: EPA Region IV's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berish, C.; Day, R.; Sibold, K.; Tiller, J.

    1994-01-01

    EPA Region 4 concluded in a recent comparative environmental risk evaluation that global climate change could substantially impact the Southeast. To address this risk, Region 4 developed an action plan to promote cost-effective pollution prevention and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, The regional plan contains programs that aye specific to Region 4 as well as geographic components of the national Climate Change Action Plan. Sources of carbon dioxide emissions were targeted for pollution prevention based on an energy model that allows the user to create energy efficiency scenarios in four sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation. Activities were selected using the modeled information on sector reduction potentials and resource and cost-effectiveness criteria. Given the high level of uncertainty associated with climate change projections, the programs developed are all cost effective, prevent pollution and/or result in sound adaptation policies. Currently, policy makers at national, regional, and local levels are deciding on what types of energy efficiency programs to implement. The region's action plan is composed of several programs and approaches. The authors have developed implemented, and/or participated in the following: energy scenario model. EARTHWALK (residential energy conservation); energy conservation in affordable homes (new residences); Cool Communities Program (strategic tree planting and light colored surfaces); EPA's Green Lights Program; WAVE (water conservation), the Plant Protection Center; QUEST TO SAVE THE EARTH (outreach tools); energy and water use planning for the 1996 Olympic Games, and planning for sea-level rise. Reviewing the practices of the above programs will be the focus of this paper

  5. [Experience of Regional Vascular Centre in assisting patients with severe cerebrovascular accidents in Novosibirsk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronin, B M; Marushak, A A; Popova, T F; Gribacheva, I A; Petrova, E V

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the work of the neurological department of the Novosibirsk regional vascular center of City Clinical Hospital #1 for the period from 2013 to 2015 was done. We analyzed the annual reports of the regional vascular center, dynamics of cerebrovascular disease patterns, lethality, about the provision of medical care to patients with stroke, the use of high-tech methods of diagnosis and treatment. Ascertain the progress achieved and the perspectives of further improving the quality of care to patients with stroke due to wider use of methods of rehabilitation in the acute stage of stroke.

  6. Environmental Equity and the Role of Public Policy: Experiences in the Rijnmond Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruize, Hanneke; Driessen, Peter P. J.; Glasbergen, Pieter; van Egmond, Klaas (N. D.)

    2007-10-01

    This Φ Ψ study of environmental equity uses secondary quantitative data to analyze socioeconomic disparities in environmental conditions in the Rijnmond region of the Netherlands. The disparities of selected environmental indicators—exposure to traffic noise (road, rail, and air), NO2, external safety risks, and the availability of public green space—are analyzed both separately and in combination. Not only exposures to environmental burdens (“bads”) were investigated, but also access to environmental benefits (“goods”). Additionally, we held interviews and reviewed documents to grasp the mechanisms underlying the environmental equity situation, with an emphasis on the role of public policy. Environmental equity is not a priority in public policy for the greater Rotterdam region known as the Rijnmond region, yet environmental standards have been established to provide a minimum environmental quality to all local residents. In general, environmental quality has improved in this region, and the accumulation of negative environmental outcomes (“bads”) has been limited. However, environmental standards for road traffic noise and NO2 are being exceeded, probably because of the pressure on space and the traffic intensity. We found an association of environmental “bads” with income for rail traffic noise and availability of public green space. In the absence of regulation, positive environmental outcomes (“goods”) are mainly left up to market forces. Consequently, higher-income groups generally have more access to environmental “goods” than lower-income groups.

  7. Samara region experience in organization of emergency care system for patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duplyakov D.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the general features of healthcare program for patients with acute coronary syndrome which started in Samara region in 2007. Some results and perspectives of future development of Samara “myocardial infarction network” are elucidated.

  8. The Outlook for Low-Grade Fuels in Tomsk Region: Research Experience at Tomsk Polytechnic University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustov Sergei A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of the discussed issue is caused by the need to substitute in the regional fuel-energy balances imported energy resources with local low-grade fuels. The main aim of the study is to estimate thermal properties of local fuels in Tomsk region and evaluate its energy use viability. The methods used in the study were based standard GOST 52911-2008, 11022-95 and 6382-2001, by means of a bomb calorimeter ABK-1 and Vario micro cube analyzer. The mineral ash of researched fuels was studied agreeing with GOST 10538-87. The results state the fact that discussed low-grade fuels of Tomsk region in the unprepared form are not able to replace imported coal in regional energy balance, because of the high moisture and ash content values. A promosing direction of a low-temperature fue processing is a catalytic converter, which allows receiving hydrogen-enriched syngas from the initial solid raw.

  9. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with gemcitabine plus regional hyperthermia for locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma. Initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohguri, Takayuki; Imada, Hajime; Yahara, Katsuya; Morioka, Tomoaki; Nakano, Keita; Korogi, Yukunori; Narisada, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with gemcitabine plus regional hyperthermia (HT) for locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma (LAPC). A total of 29 patients with LAPC treated with concurrent CRT using gemcitabine were retrospectively analyzed. Radiotherapy was administered with a median total dose of 61.2 Gy. Of the 29 patients, 20 (69%) also underwent regional HT during CRT (CRHT group). The remaining 9 patients did not receive regional HT (CRT group) because of a common bile duct stent placement, patient refusal, older age, or obesity. The efficacy and toxicity of the treatments and the predictors of good outcome were evaluated. The median disease progression-free and overall survival times were significantly better for the CRHT group than for the CRT group (8.8 vs. 4.9 months, P=0.02, and 18.6 vs. 9.6 months, P=0.01), respectively. Grade 3-4 hematological toxicities for the CRHT group were detected in eight patients (40%) and grade 3 nonhematologic toxicity in one (diarrhea). Concurrent CRT using gemcitabine with regional HT may be a feasible and promising regimen for LAPC, and the results justified further evaluation in a large number of patients to confirm its definite benefit. (author)

  10. Working-Class Ideas and Experiences of Sexuality in Twentieth-Century Britain: Regionalism as a Category of Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Helen

    2018-03-01

    This article will explore region as a category of analysis for understanding gender, sexual cultures, and the expression of same-sex desire. In unpicking the notion of regional difference in both its tangible and intangible forms, it outlines the corresponding impact on how sexual cultures developed and were experienced in twentieth-century Britain. By recognizing that the area in which an individual lived could have as much impact on their sense of self and their sexual experiences as issues of race, gender, and class, a new and fruitful avenue of interpretation is opened up for the history of sexuality and twentieth-century British history more broadly. Such a methodology has the potential to add a new dimension to all histories of non-state-sanctioned sexual experience such as illegitimacy, premarital sex, extramarital affairs, and prostitution. In using regional case studies and interrogating ideas of sexual taboo, this article offers a unique interpretation of sexual experience that destabilizes current London-centric narratives and offers a more democratic and nuanced history of sex.

  11. Documentation of polio eradication initiative best practices: Experience from WHO African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeibunor, Joseph; Nshimirimana, Deo; Nsubuga, Peter; Mutabaruka, Evariste; Tapsoba, Leonard; Ghali, Emmanuel; Kabir, Shaikh Humayun; Gassasira, Alex; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal

    2016-10-10

    The African Region is set to achieving polio eradication. During the years of operations, the Polio Eradication Initiative [PEI] in the Region mobilized and trained tremendous amount of manpower with specializations in surveillance, social mobilization, supplementary immunization activities [SIAs], data management and laboratory staff. Systems were put in place to accelerate the eradication of polio in the Region. Standardized, real-time surveillance and response capacity were established. Many innovations were developed and applied to reaching people in difficult and security challenged terrains. All of these resulted in accumulation of lessons and best practices, which can be used in other priority public health intervention if documented. The World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa [WHO/AFRO] developed a process for the documentation of these best practices, which was pretested in Uganda. The process entailed assessment of three critical elements [effectiveness, efficiency and relevance] five aspects [ethical soundness, sustainability, involvement of partners, community involvement, and political commitment] of best practices. A scored card which graded the elements and aspects on a scale of 0-10 was developed and a true best practice should score >50 points. Independent public health experts documented polio best practices in eight countries in the Region, using this process. The documentation adopted the cross-sectional design in the generation of data, which combined three analytical designs, namely surveys, qualitative inquiry and case studies. For the selection of countries, country responses to earlier questionnaire on best practices were screened for potential best practices. Another criterion used was the level of PEI investment in the countries. A total of 82 best practices grouped into ten thematic areas were documented. There was a correlation between the health system performances with DPT3 as proxy, level of PEI investment in countries

  12. Muslim Students' Cultural and Religious Experiences in City, Suburban and Regional University Campuses in NSW, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possamai, Adam; Dunn, Kevin; Hopkins, Peter; Worthington, Lisa; Amin, Faroque

    2016-01-01

    Although there has been much research about the growing ethnic and religious diversity on university campuses across the world, relatively little is known about the religious and cultural experiences of Muslim students on university campuses in Australia. We draw upon an analysis of a questionnaire that was completed by 323 Muslim students who…

  13. Synthesis of field experiments concerning the grass layer in the savanna regions of southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Connor, TG

    1985-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this synthesis of long term experiments was to develop an account of how the principal determinants (rainfall, soil type, woody/grass ratio, herbivory, fire) influence the dynamics of the grass layer of southern African savannas...

  14. Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing - experience from Southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyirenda, D.B.; Chiwona-Karltun, L.; Chitundu, M.

    2011-01-01

    and perceptions concerning cassava and chemical food safety. Chips, mixed biscuits and flour, procured from households and markets in three regions of Zambia (Luapula-North, Western and Southern) as well as products from the Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi, were analyzed for total cyanogenic...... of products commercially available on the market. Risk assessments disclose that effects harmful to the developing central nervous system (CNS) may be observed at a lower exposure than previously anticipated. We interviewed farmers in Zambia and Malawi about their cultivars, processing procedures......The cassava belt area in Southern Africa is experiencing an unforeseen surge in cassava production, processing and consumption. Little documentation exists on the effects of this surge on processing procedures, the prevailing levels of cyanogenic glucosides of products consumed and the levels...

  15. Soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of an inland arid region: Mulched drip irrigation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Zhou, Tiantian

    2018-04-01

    Agricultural irrigation with trans-basin water diversion can effectively relieve the water paucity in arid and semi-arid regions, however, this may be accompanied by eco-environmental problems (e.g., saline soils, rising groundwater levels, water quality problems). The mechanism of soil water movement under irrigation in the unsaturated zone of arid regions is a key scientific problem that should be solved in order to evaluate agricultural water management and further improve current irrigation practices. This study investigated the impact of drip irrigation on soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of a cotton field in an inland arid region (the Karamay Agricultural Development Area), northwest China. Combining in situ observational physical data with temporal variation in stable isotopic compositions of soil water, we described the soil water flow system and mechanism in severe (Plot 1) and mild (Plot 2) saline-alkali cotton fields. The infiltration depths are 0-150 cm for both plots. Drip irrigation scheduling makes no significant contribution to local groundwater recharge, however, groundwater can move into the unsaturated zone through capillary rise during cotton flowering and boll periods. Plot 2 is less prone to having secondary soil salinization than Plot 1 due to the existence of a middle layer (approximately 100 cm thick), which elongated the distance between the root zone and aquifer. Rise in the water table (approximately 60 cm for Plot 1 and 50 cm for Plot 2) could be caused by lateral groundwater flow instead of vertical infiltration. We estimated the soil water storage changes in the unsaturated zone and proposed a conceptual model for deciphering the movement process of soil water. This study provides a scientific basis for determining the rise of groundwater levels and potential development of saline soils and improving agricultural water management in arid regions.

  16. Resolving regional conflicts and public opinion: The Nigerian experience in Liberian crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salami, B.O.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria played an important role which led to the resolution of the Liberian crisis between 1990 and 1997. But between 1990 and 1993 towards the end of General Ibrahim Babangida’s regime (1985-1993, Nigeria’s role in the Liberian peace process became a major issue which preoccupied Nigeria’s external relations within the West African Sub-region. This paper examines in how public opinion influences government attitude and posture towards the Liberian situation.

  17. Small Arms Proliferation and Homegrown Terrorism in the Great Lakes Region: Uganda’s Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    in Karamoja was also motivated by the low standard of living there, as the colonial administration and other entrepreneurs expropriated their land...facilitate homegrown terrorism. Because of porous borders that make it easier for potentially disruptive groups to cross into the country, the Act makes it...used by homegrown terrorists and conflicts in the region.209 Conflict entrepreneurs continue to profit from illegal small arms trade taking advantage

  18. Multi scale Disaster Risk Reduction Systems Space and Community based Experiences over HKH Region

    OpenAIRE

    Gurung, D. R.; Shrestha, M.; Shrestha, N.; Debnath, B.; Jishi, G.; Bajracharya, R.; Dhonju, H. K.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-01-01

    An increasing trend in the recurrence of natural disasters and associated impacts due to Floods, Glacier Lake out bursts, landslides and forest fire is reported over Hindu Kush Himalyan (HKH) region. Climate change and anthropogenic coupled factors are identified as primary factors for such increased vulnerability. The large degree of poverty, lack of infrastructure, poor accessibility and uncertainties involved in understanding high altitude land surface and climate dynamics poses s...

  19. Influence of Professional Associations on Regional Policy in Education: International Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Tezikova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the organizational development analisys, as well as literature review and author’s participation in the European and American professional associations the main ideas to establish the ratio between regional government bodies and non-profit organisations are proposed. The historical-pedagogical review of teachers’associations permitted to define organizational conditions for teacher professional developmen and they are represented in the article.

  20. Typicality and misinformation: Two sources of distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malen Migueles

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of two sources of memory error: exposure to post-event information and extracting typical contents from schemata. Participants were shown a video of a bank robbery and presented with highand low-typicality misinformation extracted from two normative studies. The misleading suggestions consisted of either changes in the original video information or additions of completely new contents. In the subsequent recognition task the post-event misinformation produced memory impairment. The participants used the underlying schema of the event to extract high-typicality information which had become integrated with episodic information, thus giving rise to more hits and false alarms for these items. However, the effect of exposure to misinformation was greater on low-typicality items. There were no differences between changed or added information, but there were more false alarms when a low-typicality item was changed to a high-typicality item

  1. The Regional Autopsy Center: The University of Alabama at Birmingham Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel Stephen; Reilly, Stephanie

    2017-09-01

    Rates of autopsied deaths have decreased significantly for the last several decades. It may not be practical for some institutions to maintain the facilities and staffing required to perform autopsies. In recent years, the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) has established contracts to perform autopsies for several regional institutions including the Alabama Department of Forensic Sciences (ADFS), the United States Veterans Affairs, the local prison system, local community hospitals, and with families for private autopsy services. Contracts and autopsy data from 2004 to 2015 were obtained and reviewed. Since 2004, the number of UAB hospital autopsies trended slightly downward. On average, UAB hospital cases comprised most yearly cases, and the ADFS was the second largest contributor of cases. Income generated from outside autopsies performed from 2006 to 2015 totaled just more than 2 million dollars, and most of the income was generated from referred ADFS cases. This study provides evidence that a centralized institution (regional autopsy center [RAC]) can provide regional autopsy service in a practical, feasible, and economically viable manner, and a RAC can benefit both the referring institutions as well as the RAC itself.

  2. Experience of measuring the level of victimization of the population of Nizhniy Novgorod region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Glukhova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective basing on the data from empirical sociological study to identify the level of latency and victimization of the population of Nizhny Novgorod region. Methods general scientific analysis systemicstructural approach to the analysis of object of research comparativelegal as well as logical methods and specific scientific method survey ndash questionnaires and interviews. nbsp Results qualitative and quantitative analysis is performed of the overall situation referring to unrecorded crime latent crime committed on the territory of Nizhny Novgorod city and Nizhny Novgorod oblast as well as comparative analysis of the level of latent crime in the city and region by the types and trends of criminal activities the main reasons are identified for refusal the victims to appeal to police in Nizhny Novgorod and Nizhny Novgorod oblast recommendations and proposals are elaborated of the work of territorial bodies of the Ministry of Domestic Affairs to the aim of reducing the level of latent crime. Scientific novelty for the first time on the basis of data obtained during a sociological survey the crime situation on the territory of Nizhny Novgorod region is discussed revealing the actual level of latent delinquency and proposals and practical recommendations are formulated for the adjustment of the work of territorial bodies of the Ministry of Domestic Affairs to the aim of reducing the level of latent crime. Practical significance basing on the research the recommendations are to improve the work of territorial bodies of the Ministry of Domestic Affairs to the aim of reducing the level of latent crime.

  3. Regional co-operation in the nuclear field: The Nordic experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    Experience from 25 years of co-operation in the nuclear field between the Nordic countries is described. A pragmatic approach with a minimum of formalism is used. The co-operation takes place mainly through ''horizontal'' channels between corresponding bodies in the different countries - safety authorities, research institutions, electricity producers, etc. In addition, a ''vertical'' co-ordination between these different circles is accomplished through a Nordic Liaison Committee. The experience shows that valuable results can be obtained, mainly through rationalization and improved use of resources. Difficulties, which are inherent in international co-operation, can be reduced, provided that there is a strong political will, an efficient system to promote contacts, and a flexible financing scheme. Apart from the benefits obtained in each of the countries - whether or not it has its own nuclear power - particular advantages accrue when a ''Nordic group'' can present co-ordinated viewpoints on the international scene. (author)

  4. Archetype-based conversion of EHR content models : pilot experience with a regional EHR system

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Rong; Klein, Gunnar O; Sundvall, Erik; Karlsson, Daniel; Åhlfeldt, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Background: Exchange of Electronic Health Record (EHR) data between systems from different suppliers is a major challenge. EHR communication based on archetype methodology has been developed by openEHR and CEN/ISO. The experience of using archetypes in deployed EHR systems is quite limited today. Currently deployed EHR systems with large user bases have their own proprietary way of representing clinical content using various models. This study was designed to investigate the feasibility of re...

  5. Listening to music during regional anesthesia: patients' experiences and the effect on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sven-Olof Trängeberg, Örjan; Stomberg, Margareta Warrén

    2013-10-01

    Many patients experience a sense of anxiety and insecurity during the perianesthesia period. It is important to the care relationship that the nurse be able to help the patient to establish a degree of control over their situation and thus regain their own sense of security. Music therapy can be a useful tool to accomplish this. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a music intervention on patient's mood and self-reported satisfaction. A multimodal research design using an open-ended interview and quantitative anxiety scale was used. A total of 15 patients were interviewed with an open question in addition to completing the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and the HAD scale according to standard practice. An analysis of the interviews revealed a main theme: a feeling of satisfaction, and three subthemes: positive experience, inner peace, and detachment from reality. It emerged from the interviews that it was important for the patients to select music themselves. Patients had a positive experience, inner peace, and detachment from reality with changes in the patients' state of mind before and after the musical intervention. The anxiety level significantly decreased (P = .019) after the patients listened to music during surgery compared with the prevalence of anxiety before listening to music. This study shows that music has a positive impact on patients undergoing anesthesia. Copyright © 2013 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Passive seismic experiment in the Olduvai Gorge and Laetoli region (Ngorongoro Conservation Area), Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Laura; Lombardo, Luigi; Tang, Zheng; Mai, P. Martin

    2017-04-01

    The Olduvai Gorge and Laetoli basins, located within the Ngorogoro Conservation Area (NCA), are a cornerstone for understanding the evolution of early humans and are two paleo-antropological excavation sites of global importance. NCA is located at the boundary between the Tanzanian Craton and East African Rift (EAR), in the vicinity of Ngorongoro Crater and other major volcanic edifices. Thus, understanding the geology and tectonics of the NCA may shed light onto the question why early Hominins settled in this region. Environmental and geological conditions in the Olduvai and Laetoli region that promoted human settlement and development are still debated by geologists and paleo-anthropologists. Paleo-geographical reconstructions of the study area of the last 2 million years may take advantage of modern passive seismology. Therefore, we installed a dense seismic network covering a surface of approximately 30 x 40 km within the NCA to map the depth extent of known faults, and to identify seismically active faults that have no surface expression. Our ten seismic stations, equipped with Trillium Compact 120 s sensors, started to operate in June 2016 and will continue for a total of 2 years. At the end of the first year, other 5 stations will densify our network. Here we analyse data quality of the first four months of continuous recordings. Our network provides good quality 3-C waveforms in the frequency range of 0.7-50 Hz. Vertical component seismograms record frequencies reliably down to 8 mHz. Preliminary results of the seismicity obtained with standard location procedures show that NCA is characterised by frequent tectonic seismicity (not volcano-related) with Ml between 0.5 and 2.0. Seismic activity is more frequent in the South (Laetoli region) where major fault systems have not been recognised at the surface yet.

  7. Were equatorial regions less affected by the 2009 influenza pandemic? The Brazilian experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Schuck-Paim

    Full Text Available Although it is in the Tropics where nearly half of the world population lives and infectious disease burden is highest, little is known about the impact of influenza pandemics in this area. We investigated the mortality impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic relative to mortality rates from various outcomes in pre-pandemic years throughout a wide range of latitudes encompassing the entire tropical, and part of the subtropical, zone of the Southern Hemisphere (+5(°N to -35(°S by focusing on a country with relatively uniform health care, disease surveillance, immunization and mitigation policies: Brazil. To this end, we analyzed laboratory-confirmed deaths and vital statistics mortality beyond pre-pandemic levels for each Brazilian state. Pneumonia, influenza and respiratory mortality were significantly higher during the pandemic, affecting predominantly adults aged 25 to 65 years. Overall, there were 2,273 and 2,787 additional P&I- and respiratory deaths during the pandemic, corresponding to a 5.2% and 2.7% increase, respectively, over average pre-pandemic annual mortality. However, there was a marked spatial structure in mortality that was independent of socio-demographic indicators and inversely related with income: mortality was progressively lower towards equatorial regions, where low or no difference from pre-pandemic mortality levels was identified. Additionally, the onset of pandemic-associated mortality was progressively delayed in equatorial states. Unexpectedly, there was no additional mortality from circulatory causes. Comparing disease burden reliably across regions is critical in those areas marked by competing health priorities and limited resources. Our results suggest, however, that tropical regions of the Southern Hemisphere may have been disproportionally less affected by the pandemic, and that climate may have played a key role in this regard. These findings have a direct bearing on global estimates of pandemic burden and the

  8. Characteristics of smoke emissions from biomass fires of the Amazon region--Base-A experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.E.; Setzer, A.W.; Kaufman, Y.J.; Rasmussen, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    An airborne sampling system was used to collect grab samples of smokes for analysis of both in-plume smoke characteristics and ambient air in Brazil. In addition to the emission measurements, the chemical composition of the forest biomass burned by one fire in the Amazon region of Brazil was compared to the fuel composition for biomass burned in North America. The limited data set suggests that combustion efficiencies for tropical biomass combustion are higher than those of temperature forest fuels, as are emission factors for carbon dioxide

  9. Service experience with AISI type 316 steel components in CEGB Midlands Region power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastow, B.; Bagnall, B.I.; Yeldham, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    The service performance of AISI Type 316 steel components in sections up to 100 mm thick in Power Plant of the Midlands Region of the C.E.G.B. is reviewed. A comparison is drawn between the satisfactory performance of components whose dimensional stability is not critical and the difficulties experienced when rapid rates of change of temperature cause distortion in thick section components. Weldment manufacture and performance are reviewed and both are considered to be satisfactory. In general the material has performed well and the difficulties due to distortion have been overcome by imposing operating regimes which limit rates of temperature change. (author)

  10. Experience from cooperation of medical surveillance personnel and hygiene services in North Moravian Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillova, J.

    1988-01-01

    Surveillance in health car institutions with sources of ionizing radiation is discussed. A special group of workers who sat for examinations and were trained in special courses was selected. A number of special publications are put out in the field of radiation protection. Surveillance personnel visit the individual workplaces and point out any shortcomings in the observance of radiation protection principles. Demonstration dosimetry is carried out in the vicinity of radiation sources. Attention is also devoted to radiation technology, and significant exposures of personnel are examined. Also mentioned are the problems of radiaton protection in the region and possible improvement of the work of surveillance personnel. (M.D.)

  11. CLUSTER DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMY OF REGION: THEORETICAL OPPORTUNITIES AND PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Romanova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In clause theoretical approaches to formation industrial cluster кластеров in regions of the Russian Federation are considered. Оn the basis of which the methodological scheme of the project of cluster creation is offered. On an example hi-tech cluster “Titanic valley”, created in Sverdlovsk area, basic elements of its formation reveal: a substantiation of use cluster forms of the organization of business, an estimation of preconditions of creation, the description of the cluster purposes, problems, structures; mechanism of management and stages of realization of the project of cluster creation, measures of the state support.

  12. Apoio regional no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: um relato de experiência

    OpenAIRE

    Roseni Pinheiro; Ana Maria Auler Matheus Peres; Gabriel Velloso; Marcela de Souza Caldas

    2014-01-01

    No contexto do processo de regionalização do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) surgiram iniciativas para promover as regiões de saúde e seus municípios circunscritos por meio do apoio, que busca reformular os tradicionais mecanismos de gestão. Propõe-se o conceito de apoio regional, que se iniciou, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, com o objeto deste trabalho: o Projeto Apoiadores Regionais, criado pelo Conselho de Secretários Municipais de Sa&#...

  13. The Evolution of the Region of Interest Builder in the ATLAS Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Rifki, Othmane; The ATLAS collaboration; Crone, Gordon Jeremy; Green, Barry; Love, Jeremy; Proudfoot, James; Panduro Vazquez, William; Vandelli, Wainer; Zhang, Jinlong

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS is a general purpose particle detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN designed to measure the products of proton collisions. Given their high interaction rate (1GHz), selective triggering in real time is required to reduce the rate to the experiment’s data storage capacity (1KHz). To meet this requirement, ATLAS employs a combination of hardware and software triggers to select interesting collisions for physics analysis. The Region of Interest Builder (RoIB) is an integral part of the ATLAS detector Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) chain where the coordinates of the regions of interest (RoIs) identified by the first level trigger (L1) are collected and passed to the High Level Trigger (HLT) to make a decision. While the current custom RoIB operated reliably during the first run of the LHC, it is desirable to have the RoIB more operationally maintainable in the new run, which will reach higher luminosities with an increased complexity of L1 triggers. We are responsible for migrating the ...

  14. Metropolization Process for enhancing local and regional planning : an experience of cirebon metropolitan, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyadi Rustidja, E.

    2018-03-01

    Metropolitan develops in line with resource utilization, investment, and transactions of regional activities. Metropolization of an area gives emerge urban economy that changes the situation, form, and pattern of urban space interactions. On the other hand, metropolism concerns the strategy of changing variation of urban space, so that metropolitan invasion not only form of urban space but also the process of interaction among stakeholders in developing metropolitan area. Based on participatory research, this article explores metropolitan invasion process for enhancing local and regional planning, both indigenous and intrusive cataclysmic. The study find that the primeval, rural, and urban as elemental environment must be considered in developing metropolitan, not merely form the structure and pattern of urban space. The metropolization process also requires the strategic of rural urban linkage, context setting and local assessment, strategic community investment, and interculturalist approach. The other findings of the study show that metropolization in Cirebon Metropolitan, West Java emphasizing on promotion of competitiveness strategy, value chain urban activities, and networking of urban areas. Cirebon Metropolitan must promote the realization of growth centers and connect the interregional activities of metropolitan area for providing sustainable economic growth.

  15. Impact of evolving greenhouse gas forcing on the warming signal in regional climate model experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerez, S; López-Romero, J M; Turco, M; Jiménez-Guerrero, P; Vautard, R; Montávez, J P

    2018-04-03

    Variations in the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) may not be included as external forcing when running regional climate models (RCMs); at least, this is a non-regulated, non-documented practice. Here we investigate the so far unexplored impact of considering the rising evolution of the CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O atmospheric concentrations on near-surface air temperature (TAS) trends, for both the recent past and the near future, as simulated by a state-of-the-art RCM over Europe. The results show that the TAS trends are significantly affected by 1-2 K century -1 , which under 1.5 °C global warming translates into a non-negligible impact of up to 1 K in the regional projections of TAS, similarly affecting projections for maximum and minimum temperatures. In some cases, these differences involve a doubling signal, laying further claim to careful reconsideration of the RCM setups with regard to the inclusion of GHG concentrations as an evolving external forcing which, for the sake of research reproducibility and reliability, should be clearly documented in the literature.

  16. The Economic Impact of Labeled Regional Products: The Experience of the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Entlebuch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Knaus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Protected area management bodies are increasingly required to address economic development alongside the original goal of conservation. This is especially true for United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO biosphere reserves, which are expected to function as models for sustainable development. Economic development has been achieved in many places through nature-based tourism. Sale of products labeled as coming from protected areas is considered promising in this respect too, especially in Europe, but their economic impact has not been assessed so far. This study estimated the gross added value generated by labeled products from the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Entlebuch—a rural, mountainous region in Switzerland. After a management-guided phase of building up credibility, identity, and innovations, labeled products generated a remarkable gross added value of US$ 5.8 million in 2014, 13 years after the product label was introduced. This corresponds to 4% of the jobs in agriculture and forestry and 1% of all jobs in the region. Given potential synergies with biodiversity, tourism, individual well-being, and other assets, labeled products can be true advantages for protected areas and their managers.

  17. The evolution of the region of interest builder for the ATLAS experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.; Rifki, O.; Blair, R.; Love, J.; Proudfoot, J.; Zhang, J.; Crone, G.; Green, B.; Vazquez, W.P.; Vandelli, W.

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS detector uses a real time selective triggering system to reduce the high interaction rate from 40 MHz to its data storage capacity of 1 kHz. A hardware first level (L1) trigger limits the rate to 100 kHz and a software high level trigger (HLT) selects events for offline analysis. The HLT uses the Regions of Interest (RoIs) identified by L1 and provided by the Region of Interest Builder (RoIB). The current RoIB is a custom VMEbus based system that operated reliably since the first run of the LHC . Since the LHC will reach higher luminosity and ATLAS will increase the complexity and number of L1 triggers, it is desirable to have a more flexible and more operationally maintainable RoIB in the future. In this regard, the functionality of the multi-card VMEbus based RoIB is being migrated to a PC based RoIB with a PCI-Express card. Testing has produced a system that achieved the targeted rate of 100 kHz

  18. The Evolution of the Region of Interest Builder in the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, Robert; The ATLAS collaboration; Green, Barry; Love, Jeremy; Proudfoot, James; Rifki, Othmane; Panduro Vazquez, Jose Guillermo; Zhang, Jinlong

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS is a general purpose particle detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN designed to measure the products of proton collisions. Given their high interaction rate (1GHz), selective triggering in real time is required to reduce the rate to the experiment’s data storage capacity (1KHz). To meet this requirement, ATLAS employs a combination of hardware and software triggers to select interesting collisions for physics analysis. The Region of Interest Builder (RoIB) is an integral part of the ATLAS detector Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) chain where the coordinates of the regions of interest (RoIs) identified by the first level trigger (L1) are collected and passed to the High Level Trigger (HLT) to make a decision. While the current custom RoIB operated reliably during the first run of the LHC, it is desirable to have the RoIB more operationally maintainable in the new run, which will reach higher luminosities with an increased complexity of L1 triggers. We are responsible for migrating the ...

  19. A Typical Verification Challenge for the GRID

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Bal, H. E.; Brim, L.; Leucker, M.

    2008-01-01

    A typical verification challenge for the GRID community is presented. The concrete challenge is to implement a simple recursive algorithm for finding the strongly connected components in a graph. The graph is typically stored in the collective memory of a number of computers, so a distributed

  20. EXPERIENCE OF USE OF PNEUMOCOCCAL CONJUGATED 7-VALENT VACCINE IN SOME REGIONS OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Ruleva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experience of immunization with pneumococcal conjugated 7-valent vaccine Prevenar in 234 children under 5 years old with different state of health was analyzed. There were no any severe reactions, postvaccinal complications or local reactions to the vaccine injection. Mild and moderate postvaccinal reactions were detected in 3,4% (n = 8 of children. The vaccine can be used in children under 5 years old.Key words: children, vaccination, pneumococcal conjugated 7-valent vaccine, safety.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:119-123

  1. An Overview of the Regional Experiments for Land-atmosphere Exchanges 2012 (REFLEX 2012) Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Wim J.; van der Tol, Christiaan; Timmermans, Joris; Ucer, Murat; Chen, Xuelong; Alonso, Luis; Moreno, Jose; Carrara, Arnaud; Lopez, Ramon; de la Cruz Tercero, Fernando; Corcoles, Horacio L.; de Miguel, Eduardo; Sanchez, Jose A. G.; Pérez, Irene; Franch, Belen; Munoz, Juan-Carlos J.; Skokovic, Drazen; Sobrino, Jose; Soria, Guillem; MacArthur, Alasdair; Vescovo, Loris; Reusen, Ils; Andreu, Ana; Burkart, Andreas; Cilia, Chiara; Contreras, Sergio; Corbari, Chiara; Calleja, Javier F.; Guzinski, Radoslaw; Hellmann, Christine; Herrmann, Ittai; Kerr, Gregoire; Lazar, Adina-Laura; Leutner, Benjamin; Mendiguren, Gorka; Nasilowska, Sylwia; Nieto, Hector; Pachego-Labrador, Javier; Pulanekar, Survana; Raj, Rahul; Schikling, Anke; Siegmann, Bastian; von Bueren, Stefanie; Su, Zhongbo (Bob)

    2015-12-01

    The REFLEX 2012 campaign was initiated as part of a training course on the organization of an airborne campaign to support advancement of the understanding of land-atmosphere interaction processes. This article describes the campaign, its objectives and observations, remote as well as in situ. The observations took place at the experimental Las Tiesas farm in an agricultural area in the south of Spain. During the period of ten days, measurements were made to capture the main processes controlling the local and regional land-atmosphere exchanges. Apart from multi-temporal, multi-directional and multi-spatial space-borne and airborne observations, measurements of the local meteorology, energy fluxes, soil temperature profiles, soil moisture profiles, surface temperature, canopy structure as well as leaf-level measurements were carried out. Additional thermo-dynamical monitoring took place at selected sites. After presenting the different types of measurements, some examples are given to illustrate the potential of the observations made.

  2. [Functional results of cryosurgical procedures in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment including macula region - our experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrapek, O; Sín, M; Jirková, B; Jarkovský, J; Rehák, J

    2013-10-01

    Aim of this study is to evaluate retrospectively functional results of cryosurgical treatment of uncomplicated, idiopathic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment including macula region in phakic patients operated on at the Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty Hospital, Palacký University, Olomouc, Czech Republic, E.U., during the period 2002 -2013, and to evaluate the significance of the macula detachment duration for the final visual acuity. In the study group were included 56 eyes of 56 patients operated in the years 2003 - 2012 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty Hospital, Palacký University, Olomouc. All patients were phakic and in all of them, the retinal detachment including the macula region was diagnosed. The mean follow-up period of the patients was 8,75 months. The initial and final visual acuity testing were performed. Comparing the initial and final visual acuity we rated the level of the visual acuity change. The result was stated as improved, if the visual acuity improved by 1 or more lines on the ETDRS chart. The result was rated as stabilized, if the visual acuity remained the same or it changed by 1 line of the ETDRS chart only. The result was evaluated as worsened, if the visual acuity decreased by 1 or more lines of the ETDRS chart. In the followed-up group, the authors compared visual acuity levels in patients with the macula detachment duration 10 days and 11 days. For the statistical evaluation of achieved results, the Mann - Whitney U test was used. The visual acuity improved in 49 (87 %), did not changed in 5 (9 %) and worsened in 2 (4 %) patients. The patients with macula detachment duration 10 days achieved statistically significant better visual acuity than patients with macula detachment duration 11 days. Patients with macula detachment duration 10 days have better prognosis for functional result than patients with macula detachment duration 11 days.

  3. Generating new telehealth services using a whole of community approach: experience in regional Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anthony C; Caffery, Liam J; Saunders, Ruth; Bradford, Natalie K; Gray, Leonard C

    2014-10-01

    We implemented a community telehealth project in the three towns in the Darling Downs area of Queensland over a 2-year period starting in July 2012. The purpose of the project was to generate telehealth activity in hospitals, general practice and selected residential aged care facilities. Telehealth education and training was provided to clinicians in the three towns and a community awareness campaign was delivered using advertisements in newspapers, messages in social media and presentations at community events. A total of 55 stakeholders were engaged with during 61 site visits to health care facilities during the first two years of the project. During the study period, telehealth activity in Queensland increased in the hospital sector by 39% and in the non-hospital sector by 99%. In the Darling Downs region, telehealth activity in the hospital sector increased by 104%, compared to 28% in the rest of Queensland. However, in the non-hospital sector, the increase in telehealth activity in the Darling Downs region was similar to the rest of Queensland. Telehealth services established and/or facilitated by the project included specialist geriatric ward rounds in Dalby, Chinchilla and Miles for patients in the local hospitals and nursing homes; and ad-hoc teleconsultations for children and adults living in these communities, with specialists at Toowoomba and hospitals in Brisbane. An increase in telehealth implies better access to a range of clinical services, which may result in improved clinical outcomes for patients. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN RURAL REGION: THE EXPERIENCE OF THE ALTAI TERRITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Redkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggravation of global environmental problems in the second half of XX century set the task of search of new options for modern world evolution. Thus in one of the first reports – «World Conversation Strategy», published in 1980 by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, the concept of sustainable development was just being discussed, in 1987 the World Commission on Environment and Development in the renowned report «Our Common Future» recognized sustainable development as the central guiding principle for civilization (Our Common Future 1989. By the middle of the 1990s all fields of economic activity including tourism were incorporated with a view to the long-term development. First appeared in the materials of the World Conference on Sustainable Tourism (Lanzarote in 1995 the concepts of sustainable tourism development and sustainable tourism have gained increasing importance and were inscribed into many UNWTO documents and initiatives (Seselkin 2014. There’ so no well-established definition of sustainable tourism for now, while there’s distinct vision and framework approach to how it should be. Sustainable tourism is tourism that meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunity for the future development, capable to adapt to specific ethnic and cultural environment, meeting the requirements of social justice, ecologically compatible and retaining the economic advantages (Arsenyeva and others. Various types of tourism can be the basis for sustainable tourism industry in various regions. It must be the type most appealing for local community which by integrating other types of tourism will form tourist destinations due to the principles of sustainable development. Rural tourism serves as the basis for sustainable tourism in Altai krai.

  5. The Roots of Disillusioned American Dream in Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古冬华

    2016-01-01

    Typical American is one of Gish Jen’s notable novels catching attention of the American literary circle. The motif of disillusioned American dream can be seen clearly through the experiences of three main characters. From perspectives of the consumer culture and cultural conflicts, this paper analyzes the roots of the disillusioned American dream in the novel.

  6. Triple-GEM detectors for the innermost region of the muon apparatus at the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Poli-Lener, M; Bencivenni, G

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will take place at the future LHC accelerator at CERN and will start in 2007. It is a single arm spectrometer to precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays in the b quark sector. Recent experimental results have shown that CP violation is large in this sector. LHCb is designed with a robust and flexible trigger in order to extensively gain access to a wide spread of different physical processes involving the beauty particles. This will allow to over-constrain the Standard Model predictions about $\\mathcal{CP}$ violation, and to discover any possible inconsistency, which would reveal the presence of ''New Physics''. The work presented in this thesis has two main parts: the development of a charged particle detector based on Gas Electron Multiplication (GEM) and the study of luminosity measurements with the physical channels $Z^{0} \\rightarrow \\mu^{+} \\mu^{-}$ and $W^{\\pm} \\rightarrow \\mu^{\\pm} \

  7. Enhancement of international cooperation and experience exchange: international and regional cooperation in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper will explore methods that have been effective in accomplishing broad-based technology transfer relationships between international commercial nuclear organizations, and have enhanced the benefits from such relationships through mutual participation in the development of new technology. The factors involved in accomplishing technology transfer will be examined based on the 25 years of Westinghouse experience in establishing successful nuclear technology relationships with over 20 different associates world-wide. This will include information pertaining to organization, training, consultation, technical information transmission, and other important aspects of technology transfer. Additionally, the methodology of enhancing and increasing the benefits of technology transfer through cooperative development programs as produced and promoted by Weatinghouse with its associates will be examined. This will include reviews of several significant copperative programs, such as the programs for the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor and the Integrated Protection and Control Systems for future plants. (author)

  8. Enhancement of international cooperation and experience exchange - international and regional cooperation in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper will explore methods that have been effective in accomplishing broad-based technology transfer relationships between international commercial nuclear organizations, and have enhanced the benefits from such relationships through mutual participation in the development of new technology. The factors involved in accomplishing technology transfer will be examined based on the 25 years of Westinghouse experience in establishing successful nuclear technology relationships with over 20 different associates world-wide. This will include information pertaining to organization, training, consultation, technical information transmission, and other important aspects of technology transfer. Additionally, the methodology of enhancing and increasing the benefits of technology transfer through cooperative development programs as produced and promoted by Westinghouse with its associates will be examined. This will include reviews of several significant cooperative programs, such as the programs for the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor and the Integrated Protection and Control Systems for future plants

  9. Flow and heat transfer experiments in the turbine airfoil/endwall region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin Taek

    An experimental investigation of the three-dimensional flow and heat transfer near the junction between the endwall and suction wall of a gas turbine was performed. A large-scale, two-half-blade facility which simulates a turbine cascade was introduced. The simulator consists of two large half-blade sections, one wall simulating the pressure surface and the other wall simulating the suction surface. The advantage of this configuration is that the features of the secondary flow are large, because of the relatively large test section, and the flow is easily accessible with probes. Qualification of this simulator was by comparison to a multi-blade cascade flow. Various flow visualization techniques--oil and lampblack, ink and oil of wintergeeen, a single tuft probe, and a tuft grid--were employed to confirm that the important features of the cascade flow were replicated in this simulator. The triangular region on the suction surface, which was affected by the passage vortex, and the endwall secondary crossflow were observed by shear stress visualization and the liquid crystal measurement techniques. In order to investigate the effects of the turbulence level on the secondary flow in a turbine passage, a turbulence generator, designed to reproduce the characteristics of a combustor exit flow, was built. The generator was designed not only to generate a high turbulence level but to produce three main features of a combustor exit flow. The generator produced a turbulence intensity level of about 10 percent and an integral length scale of 5 centimeters. It was observed that the endwall secondary flow, including the passage vortex, is not significantly influenced by freestream turbulence levels up to 10 percent. A flow management technique using a boundary layer fence designed to reduce some harmful effects of secondary flow in the endwall region of a turbine passage was introduced. The boundary layer fence is effective in changing the passage of the vortex and reducing

  10. Long-term regional shifts in plant community composition are largely explained by local deer impact experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Frerker

    Full Text Available The fact that herbivores and predators exert top-down effects to alter community composition and dynamics at lower trophic levels is no longer controversial, yet we still lack evidence of the full nature, extent, and longer-term effects of these impacts. Here, we use results from a set of replicated experiments on the local impacts of white-tailed deer to evaluate the extent to which such impacts could account for half-century shifts in forest plant communities across the upper Midwest, USA. We measured species' responses to deer at four sites using 10-20 year-old deer exclosures. Among common species, eight were more abundant outside the exclosures, seven were commoner inside, and 16 had similar abundances in- and outside. Deer herbivory greatly increased the abundance of ferns and graminoids and doubled the abundance of exotic plants. In contrast, deer greatly reduced tree regeneration, shrub cover (100-200 fold in two species, plant height, plant reproduction, and the abundance of forbs. None of 36 focal species increased in reproduction or grew taller in the presence of deer, contrary to expectations. We compared these results to data on 50-year regional shifts in species abundances across 62 sites. The effects of herbivory by white-tailed deer accurately account for many of the long-term regional shifts observed in species' abundances (R2 = 0.41. These results support the conjecture that deer impacts have driven many of the regional shifts in forest understory cover and composition observed in recent decades. Our ability to link results from shorter-term, local experiments to regional long-term studies of ecological change strengthens the inferences we can draw from both approaches.

  11. [Experience of Handicap International in providing humanitarian relief in region near Aceh, Indonesia from March 1 to 27, 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Y

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the experience of the author in March 2005 during the relief efforts deployed in the region near Aceh, Indonesia (North Sumatra) by Handicap International, one of the 400 NGO that provided humanitarian aid following the tsunami disaster that struck Southeast Asia on December 26, 2004. Working in Banda Aceh and Meulaboh, the author was confronted with the extent of the devastation both in terms of property damage and human suffering. Clinical cases were often severe and rarely encountered in industrialized countries. The tsunami worsened the already poor sanitary conditions: rundown care facilities, poorly trained health care personnel, tropical disease, poor hygiene, and AVP.

  12. Early Experience with Combining Awake Craniotomy and Intraoperative Navigable Ultrasound for Resection of Eloquent Region Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiyadi, Aliasgar; Shetty, Prakash

    2017-03-01

    Introduction  Optimal resection of tumors in eloquent locations requires a combination of intraoperative imaging and functional monitoring during surgery. Combining awake surgery with intraoperative magnetic resonanceis logistically challenging. Navigable ultrasound (US) is a useful alternative in such cases. Methods  A total of 22 subjects with eloquent tumors were operated on (1 intended biopsy and 21 intended radical resections) using combined modality three-dimensional (3D) US and awake craniotomy with intraoperative clinical monitoring. We describe the technical details for these cases specifically addressing the feasibility of combining the two modalities. Results  US was used for resection control in 18 cases. There were technical limitations in three cases. Transient intraoperative worsening was encountered in eight, necessitating premature termination of the procedure. All patients tolerated the awake procedure well. Mean duration of the surgery was 3.2 hours. Radical resections were obtained in 14 of 18 where this was intended and in 12 of the 13 where there was no adverse intraoperative monitoring event prompting premature termination of the resection. Conclusions  Combining awake surgery with 3DUS is feasible and beneficial. It does not entail any additional surgical workflow modification or patient discomfort. This combined modality intraoperative monitoring can be beneficial for eloquent region tumors. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Eltrombopag for the Treatment of Immune Thrombocytopenia: The Aegean Region of Turkey Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Füsun Özdemirkıran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: OBJECTIVE: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP is an immune mediated disease characterized by transient or persistent decrease of the platelet count to less than 100 × 109/l. Although it is included in a benign disease group, bleeding complications may be mortal. With a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease, thrombopoietin receptor agonists which came into use in recent years, seem to be an effective option in the treatment of resistant patients. METHODS: In this study, retrospective data of 40 patients who were treated with Eltrombopag due to the diagnosis of refractory ITP in the Aegean region were examined and evaluated. RESULTS: In the study total rate of response was 87%, and in the cases with response the median period that number of platelets reached over 50. × 109/l was determined as 19.5 (5-60 days. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: CONCLUSION: In one patient venous sinus thrombosis was observed and showed no other additional risk factor due to/ related to thrombosis. The other patient with complete response and irregular follow-up for 12 months was lost due to sudden death as the result of propable acute myocardial infarction.

  14. Sociodemographic parameters of Esophageal Cancer in northwest India: A regional cancer center experience of 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Kapoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite various advances in the treatment of Esophageal Cancer (EC, being one of the least responsive tumors to cancer therapy, the overall prognosis remains poor. Therefore, it is significant to understand various sociodemographic factors associated with EC to find out various schemes for primary prevention of the disease. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of medical records of the EC patients registered in the regional cancer center of northwest India from January 2003 to December 2012. The site of the disease and the histology were also recorded in addition to the various sociodemographic parameters. Results: Out of 55,742 patients registered in our hospital; 3,667 were diagnosed to have EC. Male:female ratio was 1.15:1. The mean age was 54.6 ± 11.74 years; 66.15% of the patients were illiterate and 48.6% belonged to the low socioeconomic status. Smoking and alcohol consumption were identified as risk factors in 48 and 25.6% of the patients, respectively. Conclusions: The etiology in majority of the patients is linked to tobacco and alcohol, thus, modification of life style with limiting the use of addictions may be an effective strategy in the prevention of this dreaded and mostly incurable disease.

  15. Hepatic retransplantation in New England--a regional experience and survival model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powelson, J A; Cosimi, A B; Lewis, W D; Rohrer, R J; Freeman, R B; Vacanti, J P; Jonas, M; Lorber, M I; Marks, W H; Bradley, J

    1993-04-01

    Hepatic retransplantation (reTx) offers the only alternative to death for patients who have failed primary hepatic transplantation (PTx). Assuming a finite number of donor organs, reTx also denies the chance of survival for some patients awaiting PTx. The impact of reTx on overall survival (i.e., the survival of all candidates for transplantation) must therefore be clarified. Between 1983 and 1991, 651 patients from the New England Organ Bank underwent liver transplantation, and 73 reTx were performed in 71 patients (11% reTx rate). The 1-year actuarial survival for reTx (48%) was significantly less than for PTx (70%, P 365 days, 83%). Patients on the regional waiting list had an 18% mortality rate while awaiting transplantation. These results were incorporated into a mathematical model describing survival as a function of reTx rate, assuming a limited supply of donor livers. ReTx improves the 1-year survival rate for patients undergoing PTx but decreases overall survival (survival of all candidates) for liver transplantation. In the current era of persistently insufficient donor numbers, strategies based on minimizing the use of reTx, especially in the case of patients in whom chances of success are minimal, will result in the best overall rate of patient survival.

  16. Establishing Contextual Control over Symmetry and Asymmetry Performances in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jennifer; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2011-01-01

    Experiments 1, 2, and 3 investigated generalized contextually controlled symmetry and asymmetry in typically developing children and children with autism. In Experiment 1, eight typically developing children demonstrated the target performances without intervention. In Experiment 2, multiple-exemplar training and the use of familiar stimuli…

  17. Aerosol study and transformations over the Marseille/Fos-Berre region: ESCOMPTE experiment; Etude de l'aerosol et de ses transformations dans la region de Marseille Fos-Berre: experience escompte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulagnier, F.

    2003-12-01

    The importance of particulate pollution in urban and suburban zones is getting more and more obvious worldwide. Any policy abatement in relation with the aerosol impact relies on an accurate knowledge of their physico-chemical properties: size, chemical composition and number concentrations. As part of the ESCOMPTE experiment (http://medias.obs-mip.fr:8000/escompte/) which aims to estimate the photochemical pollution in the Marseille Fos/Berre region, this work presents an extensive study of the atmospheric particulate phase and documents its transformations. Interestingly in this region, three intense aerosol sources (urban, industrial and biogenic) produce important particle concentration levels in the whole domain of the study. The aerosol exhaustive characterization has shown an anthropogenic and differentiated signature with important amounts of particulate carbon, sulfate and nitrate. On the other hand, the influence of the marine source is not significant. The most original result is the evidence of secondary aerosol formation on a regional scale which is much more important than those usually observed at these latitudes since two thirds of the particulate mass collected off source zones was generated during transport. It appears thus of high importance to consider the formation pathways of these secondary particles in order to set up an appropriate strategy for the abatement of atmospheric particle concentrations. Finally, this study brings innovative hypotheses for the first modelling tests of aerosol concentrations and their radiative impact. (author)

  18. Preshot predictions for the near-source region in the non-proliferation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patch, D.F.; Welch, J.E.; Zerkle, J. [SAIC/Simulation Technology Operation, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper summarizes a number of one and two-dimensional, ground motion calculations made in support of the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), a 1KT high explosive shot fired on 22 September 1993 at the Nevada Test Site. These calculations were sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency`s late-time containment program, and were completed well before the test was executed. They addressed a variety of test design, analysis and construction issues, and sought to identify any potential safety concerns. The test site model used in these calculations was based in large part on earlier work performed at SAIC and by other Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) contractors for the nearby underground nuclear test, code named MISTY ECHO. In particular, to obtain physical property and quasi-static material response data for the site, a number of core samples recovered near the MISTY ECHO working point (WP) were tested by TerraTek. We then used these data to develop a numerical response model for the site.

  19. Microsurgical free flap reconstructions of head and neck region in 406 cases: a 13-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerressen, Marcus; Pastaschek, Claudia Inge; Riediger, Dieter; Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter; Hölzle, Frank; Noroozi, Nelson; Ghassemi, Alireza

    2013-03-01

    The reconstruction of extended soft tissue and bony defects in the maxillofacial region with microsurgical flaps is considered to be the therapy of first choice. The aim of this retrospective study was to detect different influencing factors concerning flap survival. We examined the data of 406 patient cases (121 female and 285 male cases; mean age, 57 years) undergoing reconstruction with a microsurgical flap in our facility between 1998 and 2010. In these cases 326 soft tissue flaps (radial forearm flap, scapula flap, latissimus dorsi flap, anterolateral thigh flap, lateral arm flap, and jejunum flap) and 80 bony flaps (fibula flap and deep circumflex iliac artery flap) were examined. Evaluated parameters were, among others, the timing of reconstruction, defect localization, and recipient vessels used (external vs internal jugular system), as well as anticoagulative management. We statistically analyzed data by means of a χ(2) test, taking account of the odds ratio with P < .05, which was deemed significant. The overall flap survival rate was approximately 92%, without any gender- or age-specific differences. Primary reconstructions proceeded distinctly more successfully than secondary reconstructions (P < .01). Likewise, the defect localization exerted a significant effect on the survival rate (P = .01), with a more caudal localization affecting flap survival positively. Finally, neither the anticoagulation regimen nor the choice of recipient vein system exercised an influence on the survival rate. Microsurgical tissue transfer is a convenient and reliable method in maxillofacial surgery, provided that one is aware of the determining factors for success. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Localization of insulinomas to regions of the pancreas by intraarterial calcium stimulation: the NIH experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guettier, Jean-Marc; Kam, Anthony; Chang, Richard; Skarulis, Monica C; Cochran, Craig; Alexander, H Richard; Libutti, Steven K; Pingpank, James F; Gorden, Phillip

    2009-04-01

    Selective intraarterial calcium injection of the major pancreatic arteries with hepatic venous sampling [calcium arterial stimulation (CaStim)] has been used as a localizing tool for insulinomas at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) since 1989. The accuracy of this technique for localizing insulinomas was reported for all cases until 1996. The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy and track record of the CaStim over time and in the context of evolving technology and to review issues related to result interpretation and procedure complications. CaStim was the only invasive preoperative localization modality used at our center. Endoscopic ultrasound (US) was not studied. We conducted a retrospective case review at a referral center. Twenty-nine women and 16 men (mean age, 47 yr; range, 13-78) were diagnosed with an insulinoma from 1996-2008. A supervised fast was conducted to confirm the diagnosis of insulinoma. US, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and CaStim were used as preoperative localization studies. Localization predicted by each preoperative test was compared to surgical localization for accuracy. We measured the accuracy of US, CT, MRI, and CaStim for localization of insulinomas preoperatively. All 45 patients had surgically proven insulinomas. Thirty-eight of 45 (84%) localized to the correct anatomical region by CaStim. In five of 45 (11%) patients, the CaStim was falsely negative. Two of 45 (4%) had false-positive localizations. The CaStim has remained vastly superior to abdominal US, CT, or MRI over time as a preoperative localizing tool for insulinomas. The utility of the CaStim for this purpose and in this setting is thus validated.

  1. Improving mortality outcomes of Stevens Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis: A regional burns centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamoglu, M; Ward, J A; Frew, Q; Gerrish, H; Martin, N; Shaw, A; Barnes, D; Shelly, O; Philp, B; El-Muttardi, N; Dziewulski, P

    2018-05-01

    Stevens Johnson Syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) are rare, potentially fatal desquamative disorders characterised by large areas of partial thickness skin and mucosal loss. The degree of epidermal detachment that occurs has led to SJS/TEN being described as a burn-like condition. These patients benefit from judicious critical care, early debridement and meticulous wound care. This is best undertaken within a multidisciplinary setting led by clinicians experienced in the management of massive skin loss and its sequelae. In this study, we examined the clinical outcomes of SJS/TEN overlap & TEN patients managed by our regional burns service over a 12-year period. We present our treatment model for other burn centres treating SJS/TEN patients. A retrospective case review was performed for all patients with a clinical diagnosis of TEN or SJS/TEN overlap admitted to our paediatric and adult burns centre between June 2004 and December 2016. Patient demographics, percentage total body surface area (%TBSA), mucosal involvement, causation, severity of illness score (SCORTEN), length of stay and survival were appraised with appropriate statistical analysis performed using Graph Pad Prism 7.02 Software. During the study period, 42 patients (M26; F: 16) with TEN (n=32) and SJS/TEN overlap (n=10) were managed within our burns service. Mean %TBSA of cutaneous involvement was 57% (range 10-100%) and mean length of stay (LOS) was 27 days (range 1-144 days). We observed 4 deaths in our series compared to 16 predicted by SCORTEN giving a standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of 24%. Management in our burns service with an aggressive wound care protocol involving debridement of blistered epidermis and wound closure with synthetic and biological dressings seems to have produced benefits in mortality when compared to predicted outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Mountain biking injuries requiring trauma center admission: a 10-year regional trauma system experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Peter T W; Jangra, Dalbhir; Ritchie, Alec H; Lower, Mary Ellen; Kasic, Sharon; Brown, D Ross; Baldwin, Greg A; Simons, Richard K

    2006-02-01

    Mountain biking has become an increasingly popular recreational and competitive sport with increasingly recognized risks. The purpose of this study was to review a population based approach to serious injuries requiring trauma center admission related to mountain biking, identify trends and develop directions for related injury prevention programs. Three trauma centers in the Greater Vancouver area exclusively serve a major mountain bike park and the North Shore Mountains biking trails. The Trauma Registries and the patient charts were reviewed for mountain bike injuries from 1992 to 2002. The data were analyzed according to demographics, distribution, and severity of injuries, and need for operative intervention. Findings were reviewed with injury prevention experts and regional and national mountain-biking stakeholders to provide direction to injury prevention programs. A total of 1,037 patients were identified as having bicycling-related injuries. Of these, 399 patients sustained 1,092 injuries while mountain biking. There was a threefold increase in the incidence of mountain biking injuries over a 10-year period. Young males were most commonly affected. Orthopedic injuries were most common (46.5%) followed by head (12.2%), spine (12%), chest (10.3%), facial (10.2%), abdominal (5.4%), genitourinary (2.2%), and neck injuries (1%). High operative rate was observed: 38% of injuries and 66% of patients required surgery. One patient died from his injuries. Injury prevention programs were developed and successfully engaged the target population. Mountain biking is a growing cause of serious injuries. Young males are principally at risk and serious injuries result from intended activity and despite protective equipment. Injury prevention programs were developed to address these concerns.

  3. [Rheumatoid arthritis among mapuche aborigines. A 16 years experience in the IX Region of the Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliski, S; Bustos, L; Artigas, C; Alarcón, C; Vega, M A; Cárdenas, C

    2001-03-01

    Mapuche, Chilean natives, represent approximately 9.8% of Chilean population and in the IX region of the country, they account for 18.4% of population over 15 years old. They preserve some socio-cultural characteristics that make them different to the rest of the population. To describe the epidemiological characteristics rheumatoid arthritis among Mapuche natives. Retrospective review of patients of Mapuche origin with rheumatoid arthritis, seen at Temuco Hospital between 1980 and 1996. Among 308 cases gathered, only 106 (93 women, aged 55 +/- 10 years old) complied with 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for rheumatoid arthritis. The disease began between 29 and 52 years old in 73% of patients and the mean delay in diagnosis was 4.4 years. At diagnosis, 99% had symmetric poliarthritis, 28.3% had either fatigue, fever or weight loss, and 46.9% were in class III or in class IV of ACR-1991. Fifty three percent of patients developed Sicca syndrome, 36% developed nodules, 23% developed Raynaud phenomenon, 11% developed pulmonary involvement, 7% developed vasculitis, 5% developed neurological manifestations and 19% developed ophthalmologic involvement. Rheumatoid factor was positive in 78% and 73% had erosions. HLA DR4 was (+) in 60% of 30 patients. Thirty percent required 3 or more disease modifying drugs and prednisone over 10 mg/day. There was no correlation between functional capacity and several other features of the disease. Mapuche rheumatoid arthritis patients are detected late and have a poor functional capacity at the time of diagnosis. They also have a higher proportion of extraarticular manifestations, more erosions and require more aggressive treatments.

  4. An Experience of Statistical Method Application in Forest Survey at Angara River Region in 1932

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Vashchuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Report of the Angara forest economic expedition of forest economic survey in 1932 on the left bank of the Angara River has been found. The survey covered a part of Krasnoyarsk Territory and Irkutsk region, a total area of 18641.8 thousand ha. The report describes technology of forest inventory and achievements that have not previously been published. The survey was conducted by statistical method, which consisted of a sample by a continuous forest inventory enumeration of trees on sample plots (SP, arranged in an array on a particular system, followed by mathematical-statistical recalculation of the sample results to the entire survey. To do this, strip finders (sights were cut in the latitudinal direction at a distance from one another at 16 km. On the hacked sights, by every 2 km, 0.1 ha (10 × 100 m SP were established. In total 32 forest inventory sights were hacked, with total length of 9931 km, which incorporated 4817 SP. The accuracy of forest resources’ inventory characteristics determining also was investigated using smaller sample plots. For this purpose, each of the SP were cut to smaller area of 0.01 ha (10 × 10 m, where independent continuous enumeration of trees was conducted, andsample trees were cut, measured and bucked to the assortments, to explore the tree stand assortment structure. At each «sample cutting area» all the trees were felled out from 44 cm and above DBH. At half of the sample plot with 5 × 10 m size, located in the eastern end, all the trees were felled out and measured from 24 cm and above DBH. Every four «sample cutting area» in the fifth, all the trees with 12 cm and above DBH were cut down and measured. According to the results of the work, a detailed description of forest resources in the whole Angara river basin, and across 17 forest exploitation areas was completed.

  5. The multiple mini-interview for selecting medical residents: first experience in the Middle East region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ashraf; Qayed, Khalil Ibrahim; Abdulrahman, Mahera; Tavares, Walter; Rosenfeld, Jack

    2014-08-01

    Numerous studies have shown that multiple mini-interviews (MMI) provides a standard, fair, and more reliable method for assessing applicants. This article presents the first MMI experience for selection of medical residents in the Middle East culture and an Arab country. In 2012, we started using the MMI in interviewing applicants to the residency program of Dubai Health Authority. This interview process consisted of eight, eight-minute structured interview scenarios. Applicants rotated through the stations, each with its own interviewer and scenario. They read the scenario and were requested to discuss the issues with the interviewers. Sociodemographic and station assessment data provided for each applicant were analyzed to determine whether the MMI was a reliable assessment of the non-clinical attributes in the present setting of an Arab country. One hundred and eighty-seven candidates from 27 different countries were interviewed for Dubai Residency Training Program using MMI. They were graduates of 5 medical universities within United Arab Emirates (UAE) and 60 different universities outside UAE. With this applicant's pool, a MMI with eight stations, produced absolute and relative reliability of 0.8 and 0.81, respectively. The person × station interaction contributed 63% of the variance components, the person contributed 34% of the variance components, and the station contributed 2% of the variance components. The MMI has been used in numerous universities in English speaking countries. The MMI evaluates non-clinical attributes and this study provides further evidence for its reliability but in a different country and culture. The MMI offers a fair and more reliable assessment of applicants to medical residency programs. The present data show that this assessment technique applied in a non-western country and Arab culture still produced reliable results.

  6. Experiments on radionuclide accumulation by fishes from the Angra Dos Reis region of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, J.R.D.

    1988-11-01

    To follow the bioaccumulation and tissue distribution of 137 Cs and 60 Co in fish from tropical waters near the Angra nuclear power station in Brazil, juvenile grouper (Epinephelus sp.) were exposed under laboratory conditions to Angra sea water containing the two radionuclides initially added in chloride form. During the 4-month exposure period, the sea water was not changed and the fish received regular rations of non-radioactive food. Following uptake, the fish were dissected and composite tissue samples monitored for radioactivity. 137 Cs concentration factors (CFs) were 3 and 5 in whole fish and muscle, respectively. The highest concentration of 137 Cs was found in the muscle which accounted for 66% of the total body burden. In contrast, the highest concentration and greatest fraction (19%) of 60 Co was located in the liver. Whole body and muscle CFs for 60 Co, 0.2 and 0.08 respectively, were much lower than those for 137 Cs. Compared with published data, only very small amounts of both radionuclides were taken up by bone in the present study. This observation and the fact that much higher 137 Cs CFs have been reported in fish from field studies suggests that uptake through the food chain is the principal pathway for bioaccumulation in nature. Elution of freshly-prepared and previously-used radioactive sea water through chelating resins indicated that 60 Co added in the cationic form was almost totally converted to neutral or anionic forms after four months. Additional experiments carried out with the previously-used experimental media demonstrated that the possibly ligand-bound 60 Co was approximately 2.5 times more available for uptake by grouper than the cationic forms initially present. It is concluded that the uptake of 60 Co by fish exposed to radioactive effluents would be a function of the different forms of 60 Co present. 20 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Analysis of patterns of palliative radiotherapy in north west India: A regional cancer center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Kapoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Palliative radiotherapy (PRT is the eventual requirement in 30-50% of all cancer patients. PRT is primarily aimed to relieve pain and prevent/treat collapse or fracture in case of bone metastasis, to reduce edema in patients with cranial metastasis, and to control distressing symptoms of rapid primary growth. An audit of PRT planned in a busy cancer center can help in the characterization of the requirements of the patients and the formulation of institutional policies. Materials and Methods: In total, 516 patients who received PRT in our regional cancer center from January 2012 to December 2012 and whose complete records were available for analysis were selected for this retrospective study. Medical records and radiotherapy files were analyzed to obtain data such as sociodemographic parameters, prescription of PRT, and follow up. Descriptive statistics were evaluated in terms of frequencies and percentages to allow comparisons. Results: Of the 516 patients, 73% patients were male; the median age of the patients receiving PRT was 62 years (range 13-83 years. About 48% ( n = 248 patients received PRT at the primary site while rest (52% were given PRT at the metastatic site. The most common indication of PRT was pain (56.8% cases, followed by cytostatic PRT (19.8% and raised ICT (12.4%. The median dose prescribed was 30 Gy (range 8-36 Gy delivered in 1-12 fractions over the duration of 1-18 days. The overall response rate was about 43% at 2 weeks of completion of PRT; the median follow-up of the patients was 154 days (range 9-256 days. The long-term symptom relief at median follow up was 8%. Conclusions: Good clinical judgment and expertise is required in prescribing correct fractionation schedule to achieve effective symptom palliation with lowest possible cost and inconvenience to the patients and relatives. Hypofractionated radiotherapy is a feasible treatment option in patients with advanced incurable disease to achieve effective

  8. Pitiose eqüina no Pantanal brasileiro: aspectos clínico-patológicos de casos típicos e atípicos Equine pythiosis in the Brazilian Pantanal region: clinical and pathological findings of typical and atypical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana B. Monteiro Leal

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A pitiose eqüina é doença endêmica no Pantanal Brasileiro e causa prejuízos significativos a eqüinocultura. Neste trabalho são relatados 16 casos de pitiose subcutânea em eqüinos no Pantanal Sul-Matogrossense, que foram divididos em onze casos típicos e cinco casos atípicos, de acordo com o quadro clínico e o tempo de duração das lesões. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pela detecção de anticorpos específicos pelo teste ELISA, isolamento do agente e histopato-lógico. A duração da doença variou entre 1 e 6 meses nos casos típicos e superior a 12 meses nos casos atípicos. As lesões dos casos típicos caracterizavam-se por granulomas subcutâneos, ulcerados, com abundante secreção serossangui-nolenta e prurido. Nos casos atípicos foram observadas lesões subcutâneas caracterizadas por grandes massas "tumorais" circunscritas, recobertas por pele escura, sem ulcerações e com pouca secreção. Os animais estavam em bom estado nutricional e as lesões apresentavam-se de aspecto organizado, às vezes pedunculadas. Histologicamente, foi observado tecido de granulação com muitos eosinófilos nos casos típicos, enquanto os atípicos, se caracterizaram por hiperplasia pseudo-epiteliomatosa da epiderme e infiltrado eosinofílico. As características clínicas e histopato-lógicas completas das duas formas clínicas e os possíveis fatores responsáveis pelas diferenças entre as duas formas são apresentados e discutidos.Equine pythiosis is an endemic disease of horses and causes significant economic losses to equine breeding in the Brazilian Pantanal. This article describes 16 cases of subcutaneous pythiosis in horses from that region. The clinical cases were divided in typical (11 and atypical (5, according to the clinical features and duration of the disease. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by detection of specific antibodies by ELISA, isolation of the agent and histopathology. The duration of the disease varied from 1

  9. Design and experiment of controlled bistable vortex induced vibration energy harvesting systems operating in chaotic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, B. H.; Tjahjowidodo, T.; Zhong, Z.-W.; Wang, Y.; Srikanth, N.

    2018-01-01

    linearized model, the control gain matrix is calculated using the pole placement technique. The results show that the OGY controller is capable of stabilizing the chaotic responses by driving them to the desired inter-well period-one periodic vibrations and it is also shown that the harvested power is successfully improved. For validation purpose, a real-time experiment was carried out on a computer-based forced-feedback testing platform to validate the applicability of the controller in real-time applications. The experimental results confirm the feasibility of the controller to stabilize the responses.

  10. How typical are 'typical' tremor characteristics? : Sensitivity and specificity of five tremor phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; Elting, J. W.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; van Laar, T.; Leenders, K. L.; Maurits, N. M.; Tijssen, M. Aj.

    Introduction: Distinguishing between different tremor disorders can be challenging. Some tremor disorders are thought to have typical tremor characteristics: the current study aims to provide sensitivity and specificity for five 'typical' tremor phenomena. Methods: Retrospectively, we examined 210

  11. What is typical is good: The influence of face typicality on perceived trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, C.; Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Todorov, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality's influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  12. Atmospheric Transport Modeling with 3D Lagrangian Dispersion Codes Compared with SF6 Tracer Experiments at Regional Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Van Dorpe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of four gas tracer experiments of atmospheric dispersion on a regional scale are used for the benchmarking of two atmospheric dispersion modeling codes, MINERVE-SPRAY (CEA, and NOSTRADAMUS (IBRAE. The main topic of this comparison is to estimate the Lagrangian code capability to predict the radionuclide atmospheric transfer on a large field, in the case of risk assessment of nuclear power plant for example. For the four experiments, the results of calculations show a rather good agreement between the two codes, and the order of magnitude of the concentrations measured on the soil is predicted. Simulation is best for sampling points located ten kilometers from the source, while we note a divergence for more distant points results (difference in concentrations by a factor 2 to 5. This divergence may be explained by the fact that, for these four experiments, only one weather station (near the point source was used on a field of 10 000 km2, generating the simulation of a uniform wind field throughout the calculation domain.

  13. A preliminary experiment for the long-term regional reanalysis over Japan assimilating conventional observations with NHM-LETKF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Shin; Iwasaki, Toshiki; Saito, Kazuo; Seko, Hiromu; Kunii, Masaru

    2016-04-01

    Several long-term global reanalyses have been produced by major operational centres and have contributed to the advance of weather and climate researches considerably. Although the horizontal resolutions of these global reanalyses are getting higher partly due to the development of computing technology, they are still too coarse to reproduce local circulations and precipitation realistically. To solve this problem, dynamical downscaling is often employed. However, the forcing from lateral boundaries only cannot necessarily control the inner fields especially in long-term dynamical downscaling. Regional reanalysis is expected to overcome the difficulty. To maintain the long-term consistency of the analysis quality, it is better to assimilate only the conventional observations that are available in long period. To confirm the effectiveness of the regional reanalysis, some assimilation experiments are performed. In the experiments, only conventional observations (SYNOP, SHIP, BUOY, TEMP, PILOT, TC-Bogus) are assimilated with the NHM-LETKF system, which consists of the nonhydrostatic model (NHM) of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF). The horizontal resolution is 25 km and the domain covers Japan and its surroundings. Japanese 55-year reanalysis (JRA-55) is adopted as the initial and lateral boundary conditions for the NHM-LETKF forecast-analysis cycles. The ensemble size is 10. The experimental period is August 2014 as a representative of warm season for the region. The results are verified against the JMA's operational Meso-scale Analysis, which is produced with assimilating observation data including various remote sensing observations using a 4D-Var scheme, and compared with those of the simple dynamical downscaling experiment without data assimilation. Effects of implementation of lateral boundary perturbations derived from an EOF analysis of JRA-55 over the targeted domain are also examined. The comparison

  14. Real-Time Very High-Resolution Regional 4D Assimilation in Supporting CRYSTAL-FACE Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Donghai; Minnis, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    To better understand tropical cirrus cloud physical properties and formation processes with a view toward the successful modeling of the Earth's climate, the CRYSTAL-FACE (Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment) field experiment took place over southern Florida from 1 July to 29 July 2002. During the entire field campaign, a very high-resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) and assimilation system was performed in support of the mission with supercomputing resources provided by NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS). By using NOAA NCEP Eta forecast for boundary conditions and as a first guess for initial conditions assimilated with all available observations, two nested 15/3 km grids are employed over the CRYSTAL-FACE experiment area. The 15-km grid covers the southeast US domain, and is run two times daily for a 36-hour forecast starting at 0000 UTC and 1200 UTC. The nested 3-km grid covering only southern Florida is used for 9-hour and 18-hour forecasts starting at 1500 and 0600 UTC, respectively. The forecasting system provided more accurate and higher spatial and temporal resolution forecasts of 4-D atmospheric fields over the experiment area than available from standard weather forecast models. These forecasts were essential for flight planning during both the afternoon prior to a flight day and the morning of a flight day. The forecasts were used to help decide takeoff times and the most optimal flight areas for accomplishing the mission objectives. See more detailed products on the web site http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/mode/crystal. The model/assimilation output gridded data are archived on the NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS) UniTree system in the HDF format at 30-min intervals for real-time forecasts or 5-min intervals for the post-mission case studies. Particularly, the data set includes the 3-D cloud fields (cloud liquid water, rain water, cloud ice, snow and graupe/hail).

  15. Typical horticultural products between tradition and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenza Chessa

    Full Text Available Recent EU and National policies for agriculture and rural development are mainly focused to foster the production of high quality products as a result of the increasing demand of food safety, typical foods and traditional processing methods. Another word very often used to describe foods in these days is “typicality” which pools together the concepts of “food connected with a specific place”, “historical memory and tradition” and “culture”. The importance for the EU and the National administrations of the above mentioned kind of food is demonstrated, among other things, by the high number of the PDO, PGI and TSG certificated products in Italy. In this period of global markets and economical crisis farmers are realizing how “typical products” can be an opportunity to maintain their market share and to improve the economy of local areas. At the same time, new tools and strategy are needed to reach these goals. A lack of knowledge has being recognized also on how new technologies and results coming from recent research can help in exploiting traditional product and in maintaining the biodiversity. Taking into account the great variety and richness of typical products, landscapes and biodiversity, this report will describe and analyze the relationships among typicality, innovation and research in horticulture. At the beginning “typicality” and “innovation” will be defined also through some statistical features, which ranks Italy at the first place in terms of number of typical labelled products, then will be highlighted how typical products of high quality and connected with the tradition and culture of specific production areas are in a strict relationship with the value of agro-biodiversity. Several different examples will be used to explain different successful methods and/or strategies used to exploit and foster typical Italian vegetables, fruits and flowers. Finally, as a conclusion, since it is thought that

  16. Factors Affecting Successful use of Erythropoietin in the Treatment of Anemia in Patients on Hemodialysis: Experience in Hajjah Region, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL-Rohani Muhamed

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo became an essential part of the treatment of anemia in patients with end stage renal failure (ESRF. Our experience at the Hajjah region, Yemen, confirms that the use of rHuEpo significantly increases the level of hemoglobin (HB and hematocrit (Hct, improves work tolerance and overall quality of life of patients on hemodialysis. The observable improvement occurred in 87.5% of patients. The most prominent factors that caused deterioration in the increment of HB and Hct were infection with malaria and chronic infection. Failure of patients′ compliance, largely due to lack of education, was another important factor effecting the results. Many of our patients did not understand the importance of diet and drug regime. It is very important to spend more time on educating such patients.

  17. [Dissemination of psychotherapy modules for traumatized refugees : Experience gained from trauma work in crisis and conflict regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, T; Wilker, S; Schauer, M; Neuner, F

    2017-01-01

    With each additional accumulative exposure to severe and traumatic stressors, the likelihood of developing mental health problems and physical diseases increases. Displaced individuals have usually experienced a number of serious threats to health due to organized violence in their home country or attacks during the flight. Frequently, domestic violence adds additional strain to the stressors experienced. The resulting impairments in psychosocial functioning reduce the resources needed for social adjustment and integration. Social exclusion then in turn often further aggravates the existing mental health complications. For the treatment of trauma spectrum disorders, different evidence-based psychotherapies are available. In high-income countries, trained and licensed psychotherapists are typically in positions to apply such interventions; however, even an advanced system with a high capacity, such as the psychotherapeutic care offered in Germany, severely struggles to manage the demands associated with the rapid addition of hundreds of thousands of displaced people. Germany's mental healthcare system at present lacks the resources, both human and technological, to effectively manage the present demands. Systematic scientific studies in resource-poor regions of war and conflict have demonstrated that the dissemination of effective treatment to local personnel, even with limited training, results in substantial improvements in the mental health challenges within the community: Organized as a cascade model, members of the refugee community learn to identify weakened fellow citizens requiring in-depth diagnostic interviews. Educated, bilingual individuals acquainted with their country's healthcare system (e. g. nurses, teachers and social workers) receive training to conduct structured interviews and evidence-based interventions under the supervision of centrally organized licensed psychotherapists. More complex cases are referred to local psychotherapists

  18. Identifying Typical Movements Among Indoor Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radaelli, Laura; Sabonis, Dovydas; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    With the proliferation of mobile computing, positioning systems are becoming available that enable indoor location-based services. As a result, indoor tracking data is also becoming available. This paper puts focus on one use of such data, namely the identification of typical movement patterns...

  19. TYPICAL FORMS OF LIVER PATHOLOGY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Litvitskiy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This lecture for the system of postgraduate medical education analyzes causes, types, key links of pathogenesis, and manifestations of the main typical forms of liver pathology — liver failure, hepatic coma, jaundice, cholemia, acholia, cholelithiasis, and their complications in children. To control the retention of the lecture material, case problems and multiple-choice tests are given.

  20. Typical electric bills, January 1, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Typical Electric Bills report is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration; Department of Energy. The publication is geared to a variety of applications by electric utilities, industry, consumes, educational institutions, and government in recognition of the growing importance of energy planning in contemporary society. 19 figs., 18 tabs

  1. OBSERVATION OF TeV GAMMA RAYS FROM THE CYGNUS REGION WITH THE ARGO-YBJ EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P.; Bleve, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita del Salento, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, Y. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); Bolognino, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica dell' Universita di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Branchini, P.; Budano, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Calabrese Melcarne, A. K. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-CNAF, Viale Berti-Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Camarri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cardarelli, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cattaneo, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Chen, T. L. [Tibet University, 850000 Lhasa, Xizang (China); Creti, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Cui, S. W. [Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016, Hebei (China); Dai, B. Z. [Yunnan University, 2 North Cuihu Road, 650091 Kunming, Yunnan (China); D' Ali Staiti, G., E-mail: chensz@ihep.ac.cn [Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2012-02-15

    We report the observation of TeV {gamma}-rays from the Cygnus region using the ARGO-YBJ data collected from 2007 November to 2011 August. Several TeV sources are located in this region including the two bright extended MGRO J2019+37 and MGRO J2031+41. According to the Milagro data set, at 20 TeV MGRO J2019+37 is the most significant source apart from the Crab Nebula. No signal from MGRO J2019+37 is detected by the ARGO-YBJ experiment, and the derived flux upper limits at the 90% confidence level for all the events above 600 GeV with medium energy of 3 TeV are lower than the Milagro flux, implying that the source might be variable and hard to be identified as a pulsar wind nebula. The only statistically significant (6.4 standard deviations) {gamma}-ray signal is found from MGRO J2031+41, with a flux consistent with the measurement by Milagro.

  2. [Systematic hearing screening for newborns in the Champagne-Ardennes region: 32,500 births in 2 years of experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, P; Leveque, M; Danvin, J-B; Leroux, B; Chays, A

    2007-09-01

    To report a Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) program developed in the Champagne-Ardennes region in 2004-2005. A team of ENT specialists and pediatricians set up a UNHS program designed to reduce the age of diagnosis and care of bilateral congenital deafness. The program was mainly based on automated acoustic otoacoustic emissions and a strict follow-up by the Regional Neonatal Screening Center. In 2004 and 2005, 29,944 neonates from 30,518 births were screened (98.11%). Of the neonates screened, 409 (1.38%) failed the test and were referred. The average retest delay was 2 weeks. Eleven were lost to follow-up, 371 (94%) had a successful second test on one or both ears, 27 (7%) failed the test a second time and had a diagnosis of ABR. Twenty-four cases of bilateral deafness were identified early, 14 of which had no risk factors. One of the children lost to follow-up was actually deaf, which was diagnosed at 18 months of age. Since the beginning of the UNHS program, the average age of diagnosis was lowered to less than 3 months. Our experience tends to demonstrate that UNHS is possible and the program allows an early diagnosis of bilateral congenital hearing loss.

  3. Contracting but not without caution: experience with outsourcing of health services in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Sameen; Masud, Tayyeb Imran; Sabri, Belgacem

    2006-11-01

    The public sector in developing countries is increasingly contracting with the non-state sector to improve access, efficiency and quality of health services. We conducted a multicountry study to assess the range of health services contracted out, the process of contracting and its influencing factors in ten countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, the Syrian Arab Republic and Tunisia. Our results showed that Afghanistan, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan had experience with outsourcing of primary care services; Jordan, Lebanon and Tunisia extensively contracted out hospital and ambulatory care services; while Bahrain, Morocco and the Syrian Arab Republic outsourced mainly non-clinical services. The interest of the non-state sector in contracting was to secure a regular source of revenue and gain enhanced recognition and credibility. While most countries promoted contracting with the private sector, the legal and bureaucratic support in countries varied with the duration of experience with contracting. The inherent risks evident in the contracting process were reliance on donor funds, limited number of providers in rural areas, parties with vested interests gaining control over the contracting process, as well as poor monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. Contracting provides the opportunity to have greater control over private providers in countries with poor regulatory capacity, and if used judiciously can improve health system performance.

  4. Contracting but not without caution: experience with outsourcing of health services in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Sameen; Masud, Tayyeb Imran; Sabri, Belgacem

    2006-01-01

    The public sector in developing countries is increasingly contracting with the non-state sector to improve access, efficiency and quality of health services. We conducted a multicountry study to assess the range of health services contracted out, the process of contracting and its influencing factors in ten countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, the Syrian Arab Republic and Tunisia. Our results showed that Afghanistan, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan had experience with outsourcing of primary care services; Jordan, Lebanon and Tunisia extensively contracted out hospital and ambulatory care services; while Bahrain, Morocco and the Syrian Arab Republic outsourced mainly non-clinical services. The interest of the non-state sector in contracting was to secure a regular source of revenue and gain enhanced recognition and credibility. While most countries promoted contracting with the private sector, the legal and bureaucratic support in countries varied with the duration of experience with contracting. The inherent risks evident in the contracting process were reliance on donor funds, limited number of providers in rural areas, parties with vested interests gaining control over the contracting process, as well as poor monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. Contracting provides the opportunity to have greater control over private providers in countries with poor regulatory capacity, and if used judiciously can improve health system performance. PMID:17143460

  5. High resolution modelling of aerosol dispersion regimes during the CAPITOUL field experiment: from regional to local scale interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aouizerats

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available High resolution simulation of complex aerosol particle evolution and gaseous chemistry over an atmospheric urban area is of great interest for understanding air quality and processes. In this context, the CAPITOUL (Canopy and Aerosol Particle Interactions in the Toulouse Urban Layer field experiment aims at a better understanding of the interactions between the urban dynamics and the aerosol plumes. During a two-day Intensive Observational Period, a numerical model experiment was set up to reproduce the spatial distribution of specific particle pollutants, from the regional scales and the interactions between different cities, to the local scales with specific turbulent structures. Observations show that local dynamics depends on the day-regime, and may lead to different mesoscale dynamical structures. This study focuses on reproducing these fine scale dynamical structures, and investigate the impact on the aerosol plume dispersion. The 500-m resolution simulation manages to reproduce convective rolls at local scale, which concentrate most of the aerosol particles and can locally affect the pollutant dispersion and air quality.

  6. Initial experiences and innovations in supervising community health workers for maternal, newborn, and child health in Morogoro region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberton, Timothy; Applegate, Jennifer; Lefevre, Amnesty E; Mosha, Idda; Cooper, Chelsea M; Silverman, Marissa; Feldhaus, Isabelle; Chebet, Joy J; Mpembeni, Rose; Semu, Helen; Killewo, Japhet; Winch, Peter; Baqui, Abdullah H; George, Asha S

    2015-04-09

    Supervision is meant to improve the performance and motivation of community health workers (CHWs). However, most evidence on supervision relates to facility health workers. The Integrated Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health (MNCH) Program in Morogoro region, Tanzania, implemented a CHW pilot with a cascade supervision model where facility health workers were trained in supportive supervision for volunteer CHWs, supported by regional and district staff, and with village leaders to further support CHWs. We examine the initial experiences of CHWs, their supervisors, and village leaders to understand the strengths and challenges of such a supervision model for CHWs. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected concurrently from CHWs, supervisors, and village leaders. A survey was administered to 228 (96%) of the CHWs in the Integrated MNCH Program and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 CHWs, 8 supervisors, and 15 village leaders purposefully sampled to represent different actor perspectives from health centre catchment villages in Morogoro region. Descriptive statistics analysed the frequency and content of CHW supervision, while thematic content analysis explored CHW, supervisor, and village leader experiences with CHW supervision. CHWs meet with their facility-based supervisors an average of 1.2 times per month. CHWs value supervision and appreciate the sense of legitimacy that arises when supervisors visit them in their village. Village leaders and district staff are engaged and committed to supporting CHWs. Despite these successes, facility-based supervisors visit CHWs in their village an average of only once every 2.8 months, CHWs and supervisors still see supervision primarily as an opportunity to check reports, and meetings with district staff are infrequent and not well scheduled. Supervision of CHWs could be strengthened by streamlining supervision protocols to focus less on report checking and more on problem solving and skills development

  7. On the role of object knowledge in reference production : Effects of color typicality on content determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerbeek, H.G.W.; Koolen, R.M.F.; Maes, A.A.; Bello, Paul; Guarini, Marcello; McShane, Marjorie; Scassellati, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In two language production experiments, we investigated whether stored knowledge of the typical color of objects affects spoken reference. In experiment 1, human speakers referred to objects with colors ranging from very typical (e.g., red tomato) to very atypical (e.g., blue pepper). The

  8. Herpes zoster - typical and atypical presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Roy Rafael; Peleg, Roni

    2017-08-01

    Varicella- zoster virus infection is an intriguing medical entity that involves many medical specialties including infectious diseases, immunology, dermatology, and neurology. It can affect patients from early childhood to old age. Its treatment requires expertise in pain management and psychological support. While varicella is caused by acute viremia, herpes zoster occurs after the dormant viral infection, involving the cranial nerve or sensory root ganglia, is re-activated and spreads orthodromically from the ganglion, via the sensory nerve root, to the innervated target tissue (skin, cornea, auditory canal, etc.). Typically, a single dermatome is involved, although two or three adjacent dermatomes may be affected. The lesions usually do not cross the midline. Herpes zoster can also present with unique or atypical clinical manifestations, such as glioma, zoster sine herpete and bilateral herpes zoster, which can be a challenging diagnosis even for experienced physicians. We discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of Herpes Zoster, typical and atypical presentations.

  9. Metabolic disorders with typical alterations in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmuth-Metz, M.

    2010-01-01

    The classification of metabolic disorders according to the etiology is not practical for neuroradiological purposes because the underlying defect does not uniformly transform into morphological characteristics. Therefore typical MR and clinical features of some easily identifiable metabolic disorders are presented. Canavan disease, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, Alexander disease, X-chromosomal adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenomyeloneuropathy, mitochondrial disorders, such as MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) and Leigh syndrome as well as L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria are presented. (orig.) [de

  10. [Typical atrial flutter: Diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dierk; Eckardt, Lars; Estner, Heidi L; Kuniss, Malte; Meyer, Christian; Neuberger, Hans-Ruprecht; Sommer, Philipp; Steven, Daniel; Voss, Frederik; Bonnemeier, Hendrik

    2016-03-01

    Typical, cavotricuspid-dependent atrial flutter is the most common atrial macroreentry tachycardia. The incidence of atrial flutter (typical and atypical forms) is age-dependent with 5/100,000 in patients less than 50 years and approximately 600/100,000 in subjects > 80 years of age. Concomitant heart failure or pulmonary disease further increases the risk of typical atrial flutter.Patients with atrial flutter may present with symptoms of palpitations, reduced exercise capacity, chest pain, or dyspnea. The risk of thromboembolism is probably similar to atrial fibrillation; therefore, the same antithrombotic prophylaxis is required in atrial flutter patients. Acutely symptomatic cases may be subjected to cardioversion or pharmacologic rate control to relieve symptoms. Catheter ablation of the cavotricuspid isthmus represents the primary choice in long-term therapy, associated with high procedural success (> 97 %) and low complication rates (0.5 %).This article represents the third part of a manuscript series designed to improve professional education in the field of cardiac electrophysiology. Mechanistic and clinical characteristics as well as management of isthmus-dependent atrial flutter are described in detail. Electrophysiological findings and catheter ablation of the arrhythmia are highlighted.

  11. Mineral weathering experiments to explore the effects of vegetation shifts in high mountain region (Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Christian; Furrer, Gerhard; Dahms, Dennis; Anderson, Suzanne P.; Blum, Alex; Goetze, Jens; Wells, Aaron; Egli, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Climate change influences the evolution of soil and landscape. With changing climate, both flora and fauna must adapt to new conditions. It is unknown in many respects to what extent soils will react to warming and vegetation change. The aim of this study was to identify possible consequences for soils in a dry-alpine region with respect to weathering of primary minerals and leaching of elements under expected warming climate conditions due to shifts in vegetation. To achieve this, a field empirical approach was used in combination with laboratory weathering experiments simulating several scenarios. Study sites located in Sinks Canyon and in Stough Basin of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA, encompass ecotones that consist of tundra, forest, or sagebrush (from moist to dry, with increasing temperature, respectively). All soils are developed on granitoid moraines. The mineralogy of the soils along the altitudinal sequence was analysed using cathodoluminescence and X-ray diffraction, and revealed clear mineral transformations: biotite and plagioclase were both weathered to smectite while plagioclase also weathered to kaolinite. Cooler, wetter, altitude-dependent conditions seemed to promote weathering of these primary minerals. To test the impact of soil solutions from different ecotones on mineral weathering, aqueous extracts from topsoils (A horizons) were reacted with subsoils (B horizons) in batch experiments. Aqueous extracts of topsoil samples were generated for all three ecotones, and these solutions were characterized. For the batch experiments, the topsoil extracts were reacted for 1800 hours with the subsoil samples of the same ecotone, or with the subsoil samples from higher altitude ecotones. Solutions collected periodically during the experiments were measured using ICP-OES and ion chromatography. Dissolved Ca, Mg and K were mainly controlled by the chemical weathering of oligoclase, K-feldspar and biotite. With increasing altitude (and consequently

  12. What Is Typical Is Good : The Influence of Face Typicality on Perceived Trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality’s influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  13. The butterfly fauna of the Nizhny Novgorod Region inventarisation experience (Insecta: Lepidoptera and its use for the regional Red Data Book building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav K. Korb

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Discussed is an inventory of the Lepidoptera fauna of the Nizhny Novgorod region, its current status and prospects of its study. At the moment 1412 species of Lepidoptera are known from this area, but according to preliminary estimates the total number of species of Lepidoptera in this area amounts probably between 1800 and 2000. The necessity of the inclusion of 66 species of Lepidoptera in the Red Data Book of the Nizhny Novgorod region (approximately 4.5% of its current fauna and about 3.2% of its expected fauna is discussed. The necessity of the exception of 49 species of Lepidoptera by the Red Data Book of Nizhny Novgorod region is shown. The prospects for the protection of the Lepidoptera fauna within this area are discussed. Proposed is the usage of the IUCN status criteria for regional Red List with their modification in the area of the species.

  14. Solar Lyman-Alpha Polarization Observation of the Chromosphere and Transition Region by the Sounding Rocket Experiment CLASP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukage, Noriyuki; Kano, Ryohei; Bando, Takamasa; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Kubo, Masahito; Katsukawa, Yukio; Ishikawa, Shinnosuke; Hara, Hiroshi; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Giono, Gabriel; hide

    2015-01-01

    We are planning an international rocket experiment Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is (2015 planned) that Lyman a line (Ly(alpha) line) polarization spectroscopic observations from the sun. The purpose of this experiment, detected with high accuracy of the linear polarization of the Ly(alpha) lines to 0.1% by using a Hanle effect is to measure the magnetic field of the chromosphere-transition layer directly. For polarization photometric accuracy achieved that approx. 0.1% required for CLASP, it is necessary to realize the monitoring device with a high throughput. On the other hand, Ly(alpha) line (vacuum ultraviolet rays) have a sensitive characteristics that is absorbed by the material. We therefore set the optical system of the reflection system (transmission only the wavelength plate), each of the mirrors, subjected to high efficiency of the multilayer coating in accordance with the role. Primary mirror diameter of CLASP is about 30 cm, the amount of heat about 30,000 J is about 5 minutes of observation time is coming mainly in the visible light to the telescope. In addition, total flux of the sun visible light overwhelmingly large and about 200 000 times the Ly(alpha) line wavelength region. Therefore, in terms of thermal management and 0.1% of the photometric measurement accuracy achieved telescope, elimination of the visible light is essential. We therefore, has a high reflectivity (> 50%) in Lya line, visible light is a multilayer coating be kept to a low reflectance (Science was achieved a high throughput as a device for a vacuum ultraviolet ray of the entire system less than 5% (CCD of QE is not included).

  15. Can you see me? Experiences of nurses working night shift in Australian regional hospitals: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Idona

    2013-10-01

    To report a study that explored the experiences of night-shift nurses, focusing on employee interrelationships and work satisfaction. Night-shift nurses are a critical component in hospital care making it essential to understand the experiences that give meaning to their work and understand how these nurses and the organization can benefit from their contribution to hospital care. A literature review revealed minimal research in this area. Qualitative case study. A qualitative case study using semi-structured interviews and self-completed diaries was conducted in 2010 in regional public hospitals in Australia. Participants were 14 nurses working nights half or more of their shifts in medical or surgical wards. Thematic analysis identified four major areas of concern: work relationships, work environment, work practices and lifestyle impact. Notably, work relationships were most meaningful for nurses on the same shift; night-shift nurses experienced working conditions inferior to their daytime counterparts including a perception of minimal leadership. Despite limited education opportunities, night shift provided opportunity for professional growth for some nurses with a slippage in skills for others; night shift provided flexibility for family and social activities, yet impeded these same activities, primarily due to pervasive fatigue. Night-shift nurses considered their role critical, yet believed that they were poorly regarded. The strong interpersonal relationships developed between night-shift workers need to be capitalized on whilst developing a more effective leadership model, improved work environment, more equitable professional development, and genuine recognition of the critical role of night nurses. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves. The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP) aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam) chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting “universal access” goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners. The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important steps. However, a much higher

  17. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Mukta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves. The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting “universal access” goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners. The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important

  18. Endovascular treatment for acute ischaemic stroke with large vessel occlusion: the experience of a regional stroke service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCusker, M.W.; Robinson, S.; Looby, S.; Power, S.; Ti, J.P.; Grech, R.; Galvin, L.; O'Hare, A.; Brennan, P.; O'Kelly, P.; O'Brien, P.; Collins, R.; Dolan, E.; Williams, D.J.; Thornton, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To report the experience of a regional stroke referral service with endovascular treatment for patients with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) and large vessel occlusion. Materials and methods: A prospective review was undertaken of 93 consecutive cases receiving endovascular treatment for AIS over a 42-month period (January 2010 to June 2013). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), location of large vessel occlusion, details of endovascular procedure, and degree of reperfusion achieved (Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction [TICI] score) were recorded. Mortality and functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS]) were measured at 90 days. Results: The mean patient age was 62 years (range 26–87 years). The mean NIHSS at presentation was 16 (range 6–29). All patients had confirmed proximal large-artery occlusion on computed tomography (CT) angiography: 87 in the anterior circulation, six in the posterior circulation. Of the 93 patients treated, 64 (69%) received intravenous thrombolysis. Successful reperfusion (TICI grade 2a to 3) was achieved in 80 (86%) cases. There were 13 (14%) cases of failed vessel recanalisation (TICI grade 0). Good functional outcome (mRS ≤2) was achieved in 51 (55%) cases. The 90-day mortality was 20 (22%) cases. Fifty-seven (61%) cases were transferred from outside centres. There was no significant increase in morbidity or mortality for transferred patients. Conclusion: Successful endovascular recanalisation can result in good functional outcomes for patients with AIS and large vessel occlusion. Our interventional neuroradiology service provides endovascular treatment as part of a regional stroke service without increase in morbidity or mortality for patients transferred from outside institutions. - Highlights: • Acute stoke patients may benefit from transfer to a specialist centre for endovascular treatment. • The authors offer endovascular treatment for suitable patients as part of a regional stroke service.

  19. Longitudinal changes in cortical thickness in autism and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Brandon A; Prigge, Molly B D; Nielsen, Jared A; Froehlich, Alyson L; Abildskov, Tracy J; Anderson, Jeffrey S; Fletcher, P Thomas; Zygmunt, Kristen M; Travers, Brittany G; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L; Bigler, Erin D; Lainhart, Janet E

    2014-06-01

    The natural history of brain growth in autism spectrum disorders remains unclear. Cross-sectional studies have identified regional abnormalities in brain volume and cortical thickness in autism, although substantial discrepancies have been reported. Preliminary longitudinal studies using two time points and small samples have identified specific regional differences in cortical thickness in the disorder. To clarify age-related trajectories of cortical development, we examined longitudinal changes in cortical thickness within a large mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal sample of autistic subjects and age- and gender-matched typically developing controls. Three hundred and forty-five magnetic resonance imaging scans were examined from 97 males with autism (mean age = 16.8 years; range 3-36 years) and 60 males with typical development (mean age = 18 years; range 4-39 years), with an average interscan interval of 2.6 years. FreeSurfer image analysis software was used to parcellate the cortex into 34 regions of interest per hemisphere and to calculate mean cortical thickness for each region. Longitudinal linear mixed effects models were used to further characterize these findings and identify regions with between-group differences in longitudinal age-related trajectories. Using mean age at time of first scan as a reference (15 years), differences were observed in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, pars opercularis and pars triangularis, right caudal middle frontal and left rostral middle frontal regions, and left frontal pole. However, group differences in cortical thickness varied by developmental stage, and were influenced by IQ. Differences in age-related trajectories emerged in bilateral parietal and occipital regions (postcentral gyrus, cuneus, lingual gyrus, pericalcarine cortex), left frontal regions (pars opercularis, rostral middle frontal and frontal pole), left supramarginal gyrus, and right transverse temporal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and

  20. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Modelling object typicality in description logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available in the context under consideration, than those lower down. For any given class C, we assume that all objects in the appli- cation domain that are in (the interpretation of) C are more typical of C than those not in C. This is a technical construction which... to be modular partial orders, i.e. reflexive, transitive, anti- symmetric relations such that, for all a, b, c in ∆I , if a and b are incomparable and a is strictly below c, then b is also strictly below c. Modular partial orders have the effect...

  2. Benchmark calculation programme concerning typical LMFBR structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donea, J.; Ferrari, G.; Grossetie, J.C.; Terzaghi, A.

    1982-01-01

    This programme, which is part of a comprehensive activity aimed at resolving difficulties encountered in using design procedures based on ASME Code Case N-47, should allow to get confidence in computer codes which are supposed to provide a realistic prediction of the LMFBR component behaviour. The calculations started on static analysis of typical structures made of non linear materials stressed by cyclic loads. The fluid structure interaction analysis is also being considered. Reasons and details of the different benchmark calculations are described, results obtained are commented and future computational exercise indicated

  3. Typical skeletal changes due to metastasising neuroblastomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggerath, A.; Persigehl, M.; Mertens, R.; Technische Hochschule Aachen

    1983-01-01

    Compared with other solid tumours in childhood, neuroblastomas show a marked tendency to metastasise to the skeleton. The differentiation of these lesions from inflammatory and other malignant bone lesions in this age group is often difficult. The radiological findings in ten patients with metastasing and histologically confirmed neuroblastomas have been reviewed and the typical appearances in the skeleton are described. The most important features in the differential diagnosies are discussed and the significance of bone changes in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma have been evaluated. (orig.) [de

  4. Radiation safety in the Moscow region: Experience of cooperation SUE SIA Radon with mass media and public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishin, O.; Rakov, S. [SUE SIA RADON, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Radiation safety in the present period acquires complex character and closely corresponds with other elements of social and political process, with various spheres of public life. After earthquake in Japan in March 11, 2011 and emergency on the nuclear power plant Fukushima-1 the theme of radiating safety of megapolises has today become urgent, as never. Provision of radiation safety of the Moscow region, taking into account a number of factors, is an important problem in a context of modernization state. Today in sphere of radio ecological safety there are certain achievements: new monitoring systems are developed, technological processes are improved, new information-communicative channels of interaction with mass media and public are formed. Information policy of enterprises the functioning of which is connected with provision of safe ecological conditions and its monitoring is focused on constant and duly informing of public through mass-media. Experience and technologies of interaction with mass-media and public of Moscow State Unitary-Enterprise- united ecological, scientific and research centre of decontamination of radioactive waste and environmental protection (State Unitarian Enterprise, Scientific and Industrial Association Radon, SUE SIA RADON) is submitted in the article. (author)

  5. Multidisciplinary and multisectoral coalitions as catalysts for action against antimicrobial resistance: Implementation experiences at national and regional levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Mohan P; Chintu, Chifumbe; Mpundu, Mirfin; Kibuule, Dan; Hazemba, Oliver; Andualem, Tenaw; Embrey, Martha; Phulu, Bayobuya; Gerba, Heran

    2018-03-20

    The multi-faceted complexities of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) require consistent action, a multidisciplinary approach, and long-term political commitment. Building coalitions can amplify stakeholder efforts to carry out effective AMR prevention and control strategies. We have developed and implemented an approach to help local stakeholders kick-start the coalition-building process. The five-step process is to (1) mobilise support, (2) understand the local situation, (3) develop an action plan, (4) implement the plan, and (5) monitor and evaluate. We first piloted the approach in Zambia in 2004, then used the lessons learned to expand it for use in Ethiopia and Namibia and to the regional level through the Ecumenical Pharmaceutical Network [EPN]. Call-to-action declarations and workshops helped promote a shared vision, resulting in the development of national AMR action plans, revision of university curricula to incorporate relevant topics, infection control activities, engagement with journalists from various mass media outlets, and strengthening of drug quality assurance systems. Our experience with the coalition-building approach in Ethiopia, Namibia, Zambia, and with the EPN shows that coalitions can form in a variety of ways with many different stakeholders, including government, academia, and faith-based organisations, to organise actions to preserve the effectiveness of existing antimicrobials and contain AMR.

  6. Radiation safety in the Moscow region: Experience of cooperation SUE SIA Radon with mass media and public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishin, O.; Rakov, S.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation safety in the present period acquires complex character and closely corresponds with other elements of social and political process, with various spheres of public life. After earthquake in Japan in March 11, 2011 and emergency on the nuclear power plant Fukushima-1 the theme of radiating safety of megapolises has today become urgent, as never. Provision of radiation safety of the Moscow region, taking into account a number of factors, is an important problem in a context of modernization state. Today in sphere of radio ecological safety there are certain achievements: new monitoring systems are developed, technological processes are improved, new information-communicative channels of interaction with mass media and public are formed. Information policy of enterprises the functioning of which is connected with provision of safe ecological conditions and its monitoring is focused on constant and duly informing of public through mass-media. Experience and technologies of interaction with mass-media and public of Moscow State Unitary-Enterprise- united ecological, scientific and research centre of decontamination of radioactive waste and environmental protection (State Unitarian Enterprise, Scientific and Industrial Association Radon, SUE SIA RADON) is submitted in the article. (author)

  7. The Typicality Ranking Task: A New Method to Derive Typicality Judgments from Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameel, Eef; Storms, Gert

    2016-01-01

    An alternative method for deriving typicality judgments, applicable in young children that are not familiar with numerical values yet, is introduced, allowing researchers to study gradedness at younger ages in concept development. Contrary to the long tradition of using rating-based procedures to derive typicality judgments, we propose a method that is based on typicality ranking rather than rating, in which items are gradually sorted according to their typicality, and that requires a minimum of linguistic knowledge. The validity of the method is investigated and the method is compared to the traditional typicality rating measurement in a large empirical study with eight different semantic concepts. The results show that the typicality ranking task can be used to assess children’s category knowledge and to evaluate how this knowledge evolves over time. Contrary to earlier held assumptions in studies on typicality in young children, our results also show that preference is not so much a confounding variable to be avoided, but that both variables are often significantly correlated in older children and even in adults. PMID:27322371

  8. THE NATIONAL ONCOLOGICAL PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION – EXPERIENCE IN THE VLADIMIR REGION (TO THE 70TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE REGIONAL CLINICAL ONCOLOGICAL DISPENSARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Zirin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By 2010, on the background of the steady increase in the incidence of malignant tumors in the Vladimir area, primary oncological care level worked inefficiently.Condition of material and technical base of the Vladimir Regional Clinical Oncological Dispensary was also unsatisfactory. All these problems required solution in the form of the National Oncology Program realization in the region. The National Oncological Program has begun to work in the Vladimir region since 2011. Target indicators of the oncological program implementation by 2015 were established. They are: Increase of 5-year survival value of patients with malignant tumors after diagnosis date to 51.4%; Increase the number of malignant tumors early detection cases at the I–II stages up to 51%; Decrease the mortality rate of working age population to 99 per 100 000; Decrease of mortality within one year from the first time of cancer diagnosis to 27%. The following main objectives such as radically improved the material and technical base of oncology dispensary; modern methods of prevention, diagnosis and patients treatment improvement and introduction; the system providing population cancer care focused on the cancer early detection and the specialized combined antitumor treatment provision are realized in order to achieve these goals. The implementation of the tasks allowed to achieve positive dynamics of Vladimir region population cancer care indicators. All the main targets of the National Oncology Program for the Vladimir region were achieved successfully. Implementation of the National Oncology Program has had an extremely positive effect on the cancer services development of, as well as for the health of the entire population of the Vladimir region.

  9. Assessment of the performance of CORDEX-South Asia experiments for monsoonal precipitation over the Himalayan region during present climate: part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, S.; Choudhary, A.; Dimri, A. P.

    2018-04-01

    Analysis of regional climate simulations to evaluate the ability of 11 Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment in South Asia experiments (CORDEX-South Asia) along with their ensemble to produce precipitation from June to September (JJAS) over the Himalayan region have been carried out. These suite of 11 combinations come from 6 regional climate models (RCMs) driven with 10 initial and boundary conditions from different global climate models and are collectively referred here as 11 CORDEX South Asia experiments. All the RCMs use a similar domain and are having similar spatial resolution of 0.44° ( 50 km). The set of experiments are considered to study precipitation sensitivity associated with the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) over the study region. This effort is made as ISM plays a vital role in summertime precipitation over the Himalayan region which acts as driver for the sustenance of habitat, population, crop, glacier, hydrology etc. In addition, so far the summer monsoon precipitation climatology over the Himalayan region has not been studied with the help of CORDEX data. Thus this study is initiated to evaluate the ability of the experiments and their ensemble in reproducing the characteristics of summer monsoon precipitation over Himalayan region, for the present climate (1970-2005). The precipitation climatology, annual precipitation cycles and interannual variabilities from each simulation have been assessed against the gridded observational dataset: Asian Precipitation-Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards the Evaluation of Water Resources for the given time period. Further, after the selection of the better performing experiment the frequency distribution of precipitation was also studied. In this study, an approach has also been made to study the degree of agreement among individual experiments as a way to quantify the uncertainty among them. The experiments though show a wide variation among themselves and individually over

  10. Hydrogen deflagration simulations under typical containment conditions for nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanez, J., E-mail: jorge.yanez@kit.edu [Institute for Energy and Nuclear Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kotchourko, A.; Lelyakin, A. [Institute for Energy and Nuclear Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lean H{sub 2}-air combustion experiments highly relevant to typical NPP simulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analyzed effect of temperature, concentration of H{sub 2}, and steam concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Similar conditions and H{sub 2} concentration yielded different combustion regimes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Flame instabilities (FIs) were the effect driving divergences. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model developed for acoustic FI in simulations. Agreement experiments obtained. - Abstract: This paper presents the modeling of low-concentration hydrogen deflagrations performed with the recently developed KYLCOM model specially created to perform calculations in large scale domains. Three experiments carried out in THAI facility (performed in the frames of international OECD THAI experimental program) were selected to be analyzed. The tests allow studying lean mixture hydrogen combustion at normal ambient, elevated temperature and superheated and saturated conditions. The experimental conditions considered together with the facility size and shape grant a high relevance degree to the typical NPP containment conditions. The results of the simulations were thoroughly compared with the experimental data, and the comparison was supplemented by the analysis of the combustion regimes taking place in the considered tests. Results of the analysis demonstrated that despite the comparatively small difference in mixture properties, three different combustion regimes can be definitely identified. The simulations of one of the cases required of the modeling of the acoustic-parametric instability which was carefully undertaken.

  11. Technical cooperation for the pacific uses of nuclear technology in Latin America and Caribbean: the experience of regional agreement ARCAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondinelli Junior, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    This thesis studies the international technical cooperation in the field of peaceful applications of the nuclear technology, focusing on the experience of Latin American countries, where the Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean, also known as ARCAL, is in force. The study adopts as theoretical approach the concept of state capacities, particularly with regard to the institutional capacities applicable to the ARCAL Agreement. Within this approach, three dimensions of analysis are adopted: the institutional dimension, the governance dimension and the focus on outcomes. The evaluation of the ARCAL Agreement is carried out in order to confirm if the intended role to promote regional technical cooperation in the nuclear sector is being implemented. The methodological approach adopted the case study model. It starts with the analysis of the institutional evolution of the Agreement, and identifies variables articulating with the three dimensions above mentioned. The empirical data were collected in two stages. In the first stage it were performed 29 interviews carried out by the author with the technical and staff members of the Department of Technical Cooperation of IAEA, in Vienna, Austria, headquarter of IAEA. The other stage involved an electronic questionnaire submitted to the national coordinator of ARCAL in 14 countries, in a universe of 21 member states. The conclusion of the research points to the fact that the ARCAL Agreement has incorporated, throughout its trajectory, elements of the institutional capacities which are still in the process of development. They give to the Agreement the potential to induce the development of the state capacities of the respective countries in the field of peaceful applications of nuclear technology. (author)

  12. Investigations of the low frequency seismic waves recorded at near-regional distances from the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, H.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Seismic waves recorded at near-regional distances are used to characterize the source of the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) and three selected nuclear explosions detonated in N-tunnel on Rainier Mesa. For periods longer than 5 sec, the signal-to-noise ratio is poor on most recordings of the NPE. A seismogram-stacking method is used in order to reduce background noise in coherent arrivals of Rayleigh waves. This method requires equalization of path dispersion and attenuation, which is accomplished in this study with empirical Green`s functions. The stacked, equalized Rayleigh-wave spectra are inverted, along with the spectral amplitudes of Lg waves with periods of 2-5 sec, for estimates of the seismic moment tensor. The NPE isotropic moment is 1.6 x 10{sup 14} Nt-m. The inferred static level of the reduced displacement potential is 825 m{sup 3}, which is about two times smaller than the estimate from free-field data recorded within 1 km of the NPE. Moment tensors of the NPE and nuclear explosions are asymmetric, describing prolate ellipsoids of rotation with the long axis in the vertical direction. The asymmetries are among the largest for explosions on Pahute and Rainier Mesa. The non-isotropic component is a compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD), which may represent driven block motions occurring within a conical volume of material extending from the shot point (apex) to the free surface. The CLVD source can help explain some observations of scalloping in the spectra of Lg waves and Lg spectral ratios. Seismic radiation from the NPE is virtually indistinguishable from that of nearby nuclear explosions for frequencies below 1 Hz.

  13. The temporal response to drought in a Mediterranean evergreen tree: comparing a regional precipitation gradient and a throughfall exclusion experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Stpaul, Nicolas K; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Vogt-Schilb, Hélène; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, Jesus; Rambal, Serge; Longepierre, Damien; Misson, Laurent

    2013-08-01

    Like many midlatitude ecosystems, Mediterranean forests will suffer longer and more intense droughts with the ongoing climate change. The responses to drought in long-lived trees differ depending on the time scale considered, and short-term responses are currently better understood than longer term acclimation. We assessed the temporal changes in trees facing a chronic reduction in water availability by comparing leaf-scale physiological traits, branch-scale hydraulic traits, and stand-scale biomass partitioning in the evergreen Quercus ilex across a regional precipitation gradient (long-term changes) and in a partial throughfall exclusion experiment (TEE, medium term changes). At the leaf scale, gas exchange, mass per unit area and nitrogen concentration showed homeostatic responses to drought as they did not change among the sites of the precipitation gradient or in the experimental treatments of the TEE. A similar homeostatic response was observed for the xylem vulnerability to cavitation at the branch scale. In contrast, the ratio of leaf area over sapwood area (LA/SA) in young branches exhibited a transient response to drought because it decreased in response to the TEE the first 4 years of treatment, but did not change among the sites of the gradient. At the stand scale, leaf area index (LAI) decreased, and the ratios of stem SA to LAI and of fine root area to LAI both increased in trees subjected to throughfall exclusion and from the wettest to the driest site of the gradient. Taken together, these results suggest that acclimation to chronic drought in long-lived Q. ilex is mediated by changes in hydraulic allometry that shift progressively from low (branch) to high (stand) organizational levels, and act to maintain the leaf water potential within the range of xylem hydraulic function and leaf photosynthetic assimilation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. One-year experience of a regional service model of teleconsultation for planning and treatment of complex thoracoabdominal aortic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisci, Emiliano; de Donato, Gianmarco; Fargion, Aaron; Ventoruzzo, Giorgio; Parlani, Gianbattista; Setacci, Carlo; Ercolini, Leonardo; Michelagnoli, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to report the methodology and 1-year experience of a regional service model of teleconsultation for planning and treatment of complex thoracoabdominal aortic disease (TAAD). Complex TAADs without a feasible conventional surgical repair were prospectively evaluated by vascular surgeons of the same public health service (National Health System) located in a huge area of 22,994 km 2 with 3.7 million inhabitants and 11 tertiary hospitals. Surgeons evaluated computed tomography scans and clinical details that were placed on a web platform (Google Drive; Google, Mountain View, Calif) and shared by all surgeons. Patients gave informed consent for the teleconsultation. The surgeon who submits a case discusses in detail his or her case and proposes a possible therapeutic strategy. The other surgeons suggest other solutions and options in terms of grafts, techniques, or access to be used. Computed tomography angiography, angiography, and clinical outcomes of cases are then presented at the following telemeetings, and a final agreement of the operative strategy is evaluated. Teleconsultation is performed using a web conference service (WebConference.com; Avaya Inc, Basking Ridge, NJ) every month. An inter-rater agreement statistic was calculated, and the κ value was interpreted according to Altman's criteria for computed tomography angiography measurements. The rate of participation was constant (mean number of surgeons, 11; range, 9-15). Twenty-four complex TAAD cases were discussed for planning and operation during the study period. The interobserver reliability recorded was moderate (κ = 0.41-0.60) to good (κ = 0.61-0.80) for measurements of proximal and distal sealing and very good (κ = 0.81-1) for detection of any target vessel angulation >60 degrees, significant calcification (circumferential), and thrombus presence (>50%). The concordance for planning and therapeutic strategy among all participants was complete in 16 cases. In

  15. ONE TYPICAL EXTREMUM IN ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Goroshko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to attract attention of teachers, scientific personnel, engineers and students to one peculiarity of extremum seeking in different electrical problems. This feature lies in the fact that in many parts of electrical engineering extremum seeking comes to analysis one and the same mathematical structure (T-structure, but differences lie only in many symbols (designation.In one problems this structure appear in finale, the most simple form, but in others – T-structure is “veiled”, and as a rule  we need  elementary algebraic transformation to detect it.Taking into account high frequency of this structure appearing in electrical problems, in the first part of article the authors  carried out the investigation of extremum characteristics of T-structure and show the results in easy algorithms. To determine the typical T-structure there were taken five problems-examples for extremum seeking  from different parts of electrical engineering. The first and the second examples belong to the theory of electrical circuits.In the first example the problem of maximum active load power obtaining was considered, in the second we see the solution of problem for inductive coupled circuit adjustment in order to obtain the hump current. In the third example the band active filter, built on operating amplifier, is analyzed. According to these methods, taken in the first part of article, the frequency is determined, on which amplifier provides maximum  amplification factor. The forth example deals with analysis of efficiency of transformer. According to algorithm, the optimal efficiency of transformer’s load and also equation for its maximum was determined in this article. In the fifth example the mechanical characteristics of induction motor is analyzed. It is indicated how, on the basis of algorithms article, to obtain equations for critical slip and motor moment, and also the simple development of formula Klossa.The methods of

  16. Regional development and regional policy

    OpenAIRE

    Šabić, Dejan; Vujadinović, Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Economic polarization is a process that is present at global, national and regional level. Economic activity is extremely spatially concentrated. Cities and developed regions use the agglomeration effect to attract labor and capital, thus achieving more favorable economic conditions than the agrarian region. Scientific research and European experiences over the past decades have contributed to the discrepancy among theorists about the causes and consequences of regional inequalities. Regional...

  17. Typical and atypical presentations of aspergilloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villajos, M.; Darnell, A.; Gallardo, X.; Castaner, E.; Mata, J. M.; Paedavila, E.

    1999-01-01

    To show the different forms of radiological presentations of aspergilloma, emphasizing the importance of recognizing the atypical forms. The explorations of 11 patients with aspergilloma were examined retrospectively between 1993 and 1997. These patients were studied using conventional X-rays and computed tomography (CT): Typical and atypical radiological findings were observed. In two patients, who presented recurrent hemoptysis, a percutaneous installation of amphotericin B was carried out with tomographic control. Out of the 11 patients, two were female and nine male. In eight of the cases the radiological findings showed an intercavity injury with different evolutionary forms, while in three of the cases there was a progressive pleural swelling. In the two patients treated pertinaciously, no significant radiological changes were observed, however, neither of them showed hemoptysis again. The pleural swelling adjacent to the cavity and/or the swelling of the cavity wall are atypical radiological presentations of the aspergilloma, that can accompany or precede the appearance of this illness. (Author) 7 refs

  18. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: A typical presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algahtani, Hussein A.; Obeid, Tahir H.; Abuzinadah, Ahmad R.; Baeesa, Saleh S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to describe the clinical features of 5 patients with rare atypical presentation of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), and propose the possible mechanism of this atypical presentation. We carried out a retrospective study of 5 patients, admitted at King Khalid National Guard Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with IIH during the period from January 2001 to December 2005. All were females with their age ranges from 24 to 40 years. The clinical presentations, the laboratory and imaging studies were analyzed. The opening pressures of the lumbar puncture tests were documented. All patients were presented with headache. One had typical pain of trigeminal neuralgia and one with neck pain and radiculopathy. Facial diplegia was present in one patient and two patients had bilateral 6th cranial neuropathy. Papilledema was present in all patients except in one patient. Imaging study was normal in all patients, and they had a very high opening pressure during lumbar puncture, except in one patient. All patients achieved full recovery with medical therapy in 6 to 12 weeks with no relapse during the mean follow up of 2 years. Atypical finding in IIH are rare and require a high index of suspicion for early diagnosis. (author)

  19. experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda da R. Becker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La Educación Infantil es un derecho reconocido en la Convención de Derechos de los Niños (2005. Sin embargo, este derecho ha sido pasado por alto, pues muchos países no tienen programas oficiales para los primeros años de infancia, o si tienen algunos programas, éstos no son efectivos. En 1966, el gobierno brasileño adoptó la política de integrar dentro del sector educativo la responsabilidad administrativa de las sala-cunas de niños y niñas de cero a tres años y de los preescolares de cuatro a seis años, lo cual fue un primer paso para la expansión de la provisión de Educación Inicial. Diez años más tarde, todavía hay una carencia de establecimientos públicos y los gobiernos locales no le dan alta prioridad en sus presupuestos a esta fase de la educación. Este artículo se dirige a analizar la experiencia brasileña de Educación Inicial, con el fin de identificar los obstáculos que todavía impiden lograr las metas establecidas. El análisis empírico se enfoca hacia las diferencias entre las regiones del país y entre las etapas de expansión de la Educación Inicial, para medir la brecha existente entre el número de matrículas y la demanda por cupos. Se evalúan los datos oficiales, como el número de establecimientos y de matrículas desde 1996 hasta 2006. El análisis señala algunos obstáculos que deberían superar los gobiernos locales para poder mejorar la provisión y la calidad de la Educación Inicial

  20. The regulated distribution transformer. Experiences gathered in the grid of EnBW Regional AG; Erfahrungen mit dem regelbaren Ortsnetztransformator im Netz der EnBW Regional AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, Matthias; Koerner, Christian [EnBW Regional AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Schmid, Ronald [Siemens AG, Nuernberg (Germany); Handt, Karsten [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Regulated distribution transformers will play an important role in achieving voltage control for distributions grids with a high amount of volatile decentralized power generation. As a part of their research project named ''NetLab'', EnBW Regional AG tests a 400-kVA-substation-transformer provided by Siemens AG, which is fully integrated in the operating distribution grid. The transformer prototype with its thyristor-based on-load tap-changer can switch between three different transmission ratios. Its independent control unit is located in the secondary substation and supports the testing of different control algorithms. Extensive measurements allow a detailed monitoring of the voltage and load characteristics in the network and examining the transformer's switching behaviour as well as its effects on power quality. (orig.)

  1. Food as an element in developing tourist experiences. A case study of the Finnmark region in Northern Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Alita Dagmar

    2017-01-01

    The focus on food as a significant element and topic in tourism and tourists’ experiences has increased. How tourists experience food has changed together with tourists’ motivation and needs. Current findings indicate that tourists seek and expect to find local food experiences while travelling to a new destination. This thesis aims to build knowledge on how food as an element in tourism play a role for the tourism and hospitality industry, and their development of relevant tourist produ...

  2. Shared temporoparietal dysfunction in dyslexia and typical readers with discrepantly high IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Roeland; Gabrieli, John D E; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2016-12-01

    It is currently believed that reading disability (RD) should be defined by reading level without regard to broader aptitude (IQ). There is debate, however, about how to classify individuals who read in the typical range but less well than would be expected by their higher IQ. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 49 children to examine whether those with typical, but discrepantly low reading ability relative to IQ, show dyslexia-like activation patterns during reading. Children who were typical readers with high-IQ discrepancy showed reduced activation in left temporoparietal neocortex relative to two control groups of typical readers without IQ discrepancy. This pattern was consistent and spatially overlapping with results in children with RD compared to typically reading children. The results suggest a shared neurological atypicality in regions associated with phonological processing between children with dyslexia and children with typical reading ability that is substantially below their IQ.

  3. TYPICAL ABSENCES: RESULTS OF OWN INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical absences (TA are brief primary generalized epileptic seizures characterized by sudden onset and termination. According to their definition, absences consist of impairment of consciousness that is synchronously accompanied by electroencephalographic (EEG changes as generalized spike–slow wave discharges of 3 or more Hz. The authors conducted an investigation of 1261 patients with different forms of epilepsy with onset of seizures from the first days of life to the age of 18 years. The patients were followed up from 1990 to 2010. Absence seizures were detected in 231 patients, which accounts for 18.3 % of all the epileptic patients. TA were found in 102 patients, which constitutes 8.1 % of all cases of epilepsy with onset of seizures beyond the age of 18 years. The paper provides a detailed analysis of a group of patients with TA in terms of anamnestic, clinical, electroencephalographic, and neuroimaging features and the results of therapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. The age of onset of TA-associated epilepsy was from 9 months to 17 years (mean 9.4 ± 4.06 years. The disease occurred most frequently in young school-age children (41.2 %. Isolated TA as the only type of seizures were observed in the clinical picture of 28 (27.5 % patients. TA were concurrent with other types of seizures in other cases. The investigators have identified 4 types of seizures which TA (generalized convulsions, myoclonic seizures, febrile seizures, and eyelid myoclonia may be concurrent with. Neuroimaging stated there were no brain changes in 85.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. Moderate diffuse subatrophic changes were detected in other cases (14.7 %. Local cerebral structural abnormalities were absent. The use of antiepileptic therapy as both monotherapy and polytherapy using different combinations showed the high efficacy of AEDs. Complete remission was achieved in 84.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. An AED-induced reduction in the frequency of

  4. Leveraging 35 years of Pinus taeda research in the southeastern US to constrain forest carbon cycle predictions: regional data assimilation using ecosystem experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn Thomas, R.; Brooks, Evan B.; Jersild, Annika L.; Ward, Eric J.; Wynne, Randolph H.; Albaugh, Timothy J.; Dinon-Aldridge, Heather; Burkhart, Harold E.; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Fox, Thomas R.; Gonzalez-Benecke, Carlos A.; Martin, Timothy A.; Noormets, Asko; Sampson, David A.; Teskey, Robert O.

    2017-07-01

    Predicting how forest carbon cycling will change in response to climate change and management depends on the collective knowledge from measurements across environmental gradients, ecosystem manipulations of global change factors, and mathematical models. Formally integrating these sources of knowledge through data assimilation, or model-data fusion, allows the use of past observations to constrain model parameters and estimate prediction uncertainty. Data assimilation (DA) focused on the regional scale has the opportunity to integrate data from both environmental gradients and experimental studies to constrain model parameters. Here, we introduce a hierarchical Bayesian DA approach (Data Assimilation to Predict Productivity for Ecosystems and Regions, DAPPER) that uses observations of carbon stocks, carbon fluxes, water fluxes, and vegetation dynamics from loblolly pine plantation ecosystems across the southeastern US to constrain parameters in a modified version of the Physiological Principles Predicting Growth (3-PG) forest growth model. The observations included major experiments that manipulated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, water, and nutrients, along with nonexperimental surveys that spanned environmental gradients across an 8.6 × 105 km2 region. We optimized regionally representative posterior distributions for model parameters, which dependably predicted data from plots withheld from the data assimilation. While the mean bias in predictions of nutrient fertilization experiments, irrigation experiments, and CO2 enrichment experiments was low, future work needs to focus modifications to model structures that decrease the bias in predictions of drought experiments. Predictions of how growth responded to elevated CO2 strongly depended on whether ecosystem experiments were assimilated and whether the assimilated field plots in the CO2 study were allowed to have different mortality parameters than the other field plots in the region. We present

  5. Leveraging 35 years of Pinus taeda research in the southeastern US to constrain forest carbon cycle predictions: regional data assimilation using ecosystem experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Q. Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Predicting how forest carbon cycling will change in response to climate change and management depends on the collective knowledge from measurements across environmental gradients, ecosystem manipulations of global change factors, and mathematical models. Formally integrating these sources of knowledge through data assimilation, or model–data fusion, allows the use of past observations to constrain model parameters and estimate prediction uncertainty. Data assimilation (DA focused on the regional scale has the opportunity to integrate data from both environmental gradients and experimental studies to constrain model parameters. Here, we introduce a hierarchical Bayesian DA approach (Data Assimilation to Predict Productivity for Ecosystems and Regions, DAPPER that uses observations of carbon stocks, carbon fluxes, water fluxes, and vegetation dynamics from loblolly pine plantation ecosystems across the southeastern US to constrain parameters in a modified version of the Physiological Principles Predicting Growth (3-PG forest growth model. The observations included major experiments that manipulated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 concentration, water, and nutrients, along with nonexperimental surveys that spanned environmental gradients across an 8.6  ×  105 km2 region. We optimized regionally representative posterior distributions for model parameters, which dependably predicted data from plots withheld from the data assimilation. While the mean bias in predictions of nutrient fertilization experiments, irrigation experiments, and CO2 enrichment experiments was low, future work needs to focus modifications to model structures that decrease the bias in predictions of drought experiments. Predictions of how growth responded to elevated CO2 strongly depended on whether ecosystem experiments were assimilated and whether the assimilated field plots in the CO2 study were allowed to have different mortality parameters than the other field

  6. Risperidone versus typical antipsychotic medication for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R H; Joy, C B; Kennedy, E; Gilbody, S M; Song, F

    2003-01-01

    found in long-term studies (n=859, 2RCTs RR not 20% improved 0.51 CI 0.38 to 0.67 NNT 4;n=675 1RCT, RR not improved 40% 0.75 CI 0.66 to 0.84 NNT 5; n=675, 1 RCT, RR not 60% improved 0.90 CI 0.84 to 0.96, NNT 11). Risperidone was also more likely to reduce relapse at one year follow up, compared with haloperidol (n=367, 1 RCT, RR 0.64 CI 0.41 to 0.99, NNT 7). Less people allocated risperidone left studies before completion, both for short-term (n=3066, 16 RCTs, RR 0.76 CI 0.63 to 0.92, NNT 6) and long-term trials (n=1270, 4RCTs, RR 0.55 CI 0.42 to 0.73 NNT 4). For general movement disorders results favoured risperidone. People given risperidone had significantly fewer general movement disorders (including extrapyramidal side effects) than those receiving older typical antipsychotics (n=2702, 10 RCTs, RR 0.63 CI 0.56 to 0.71, NNT 3). Significantly fewer people given risperidone used antiparkinsonian drugs (n=2524, 11 RCTs, RR 0.66 CI 0.58 to 0.74, NNT 4). As regards body weight, however, four studies (n=1708) found people were more likely to gain weight if allocated risperidone compared to typical antipsychotics (RR 1.55 CI 1.25 to 1.93, NNH 3). Risperidone was no more or less likely than haloperidol to cause sexual problems such as erectile dysfunction (n=106, 2 RCTs, RR 1.55 CI 0.58 to 4.20). Finally, some results found risperidone was more likely to cause rhinitis than conventional antipsychotics (n=656, 3 RCTs, RR1.99 CI 1.24 to 3.19, NNH 3). Risperidone may be more acceptable to those with schizophrenia than older antipsychotics and have marginal benefits in terms of limited clinical improvement. Its adverse effect profile may be better than haloperidol. With the addition of more studies to this review, the publication bias evident in previous versions is no longer a significant issue. Any marginal benefits this drug may have have to be balanced against its greater cost and increased tendency to cause side effects such as weight gain. Recent important longer term

  7. Simulation of West African air pollution during the DACCIWA experiment with the GEOS-Chem West African regional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Eleanor; Evans, Mathew

    2017-04-01

    Pollutant emissions from West African cities are forecast to increase rapidly in future years because of extensive economic and population growth, together with poorly regulated industrialisation and urbanisation. Observational constraints in this region are few, leading to poor understanding of present-day air pollution in this region. To increase our understanding of the processes controlling air pollutants over the region, airborne observations were made from three research aircraft based out of Lomé, Togo during the DACCIWA field campaign in June-July 2016. A new 0.25x0.3125 degree West Africa regional version of the GEOS-Chem offline chemical transport model has also been developed to explore the processes controlling pollutants over the region. We evaluate the model using the aircraft data and focus on primary (CO, SO2, NOx, VOCs) and secondary pollutants (O3, aerosol). We find significant differences between the model and the measurements for certain primary compounds which is indicative of significant uncertainties in the base (EDGAR) emissions. For CO (a general tracer of pollution) we evaluate the role of different emissions sources (transport, low temperature combustion, power generation) in determining its concentration in the region. We conclude that the leading cause of uncertainty in our simulation is associated with the emissions datasets and explore the impact of using differing datasets.

  8. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in typically developing children: Laterality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to elucidate the dACC laterality in typically developing children and their sex/age-related differences with a sample of 84 right-handed children (6–16 years, 42 boys. We first replicated the previous finding observed in adults that gray matter density asymmetry in the dACC was region-specific: leftward (left > right in its superior part, rightward (left < right in its inferior part. Intrinsic connectivity analysis of these regions further revealed region-specific asymmetric connectivity profiles in dACC as well as their sex and age differences. Specifically, the superior dACC connectivity with frontoparietal network and the inferior dACC connectivity with visual network are rightward. The superior dACC connectivity with the default network (lateral temporal cortex was more involved in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the inferior dACC connectivity with the default network (anterior medial prefrontal cortex was more lateralized towards the right hemisphere. The superior dACC connectivity with lateral visual cortex was more distinct across two hemispheres in girls than that in boys. This connection in boys changed with age from right-prominent to left-prominent asymmetry whereas girls developed the connection from left-prominent to no asymmetry. These findings not only highlight the complexity and laterality of the dACC but also provided insights into dynamical structure–function relationships during the development.

  9. External quality assessment in gynaecological cytology: The Trent Region experience. The Trent Regional Gynaecological Pathology Quality Assurance Group for the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, D N; Hewer, E M; Melling, S E; Rice, S

    2002-08-01

    A Department of Health Executive Letter stated in 1998 that the principal function of external quality assessment (EQA) is educational. Subsequently, in England, it has no longer been acceptable to assess performance in gynaecological cytology by proficiency testing. This paper describes the EQA scheme in gynaecological cytology that has been run by the Trent Regional Gynaecological Pathology Quality Assurance Group for the NHS Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP) since 1998. It conforms as closely as possible to the recommendations published by the Department of Health Working Group on Histopathology EQA Accreditation, and replaced the national proficiency testing protocol. The educational value of the scheme is derived predominantly from a numerical score which provides confidential and quantitative feedback to all participants. Personal performance monitoring occurs as a secondary function. For primary screeners and checkers, this is based purely on the distinction between negative, inadequate and abnormal smears. For pathologists, personal performance monitoring also includes grading of abnormalities. The EQA has been designed so that all professional groups participate in a manner that closely mimics normal practice. Only slides that have achieved an 80% consensus amongst participants are used in the EQA. Substandard performance has been defined as those participants with scores falling below the 2.5%ile. The paper describes the EQA in detail and illustrates its use by means of the second round results. The EQA protocol developed within Trent and described in this paper has contributed to proposals contained in the current national EQA in gynaecological cytology for the NHSCSP. In particular this paper highlights the effectiveness of the scoring system contained within the Trent and National EQA protocols.

  10. An exploration of the perceptions of male partners involved in the birthing experience at a regional Australian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrett, Liesel; Barkla, Sally; Knights, Janice; de Costa, Caroline; Harmen, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    The benefits to women of having their male partners present during labor and birth have been well documented, but the effects on men of sharing the birth experience have been less well explored. Several studies have suggested that male partners' positive experiences at this time may benefit partner and family relationships subsequently, whereas negative experiences may translate into later difficulties in these relationships. This study explored the perceptions of male partners involved in the birthing experience in the Integrated Women's Health Unit of Cairns Base Hospital, Cairns, Australia, over a 6-month period in 2010. The aims of the study were to document male partners' self-reported perceptions of their antenatal, labor, and birth experiences and birth expectations and birth involvement and to determine whether these perceptions influenced their feelings that their presence during birth was beneficial to the birthing woman. Participants were men experiencing for the first time their partner giving birth. A self-administered 14-item questionnaire was used to collect data; 163 of 200 eligible participants returned completed questionnaires. Continuous variables were converted to categorical variables and chi-square testing was used to determine significant differences between groups. The relationship between beneficial presence and antenatal, labor, and birthing experiences was assessed using correlation analysis and hierarchical regression analysis. There was a significant relationship demonstrated between perceived benefit of the partners' presence and positive perception of both antenatal experience and birth involvement. There also was a positive relationship between realized birth expectations and both antenatal experience and birth involvement. This study suggests that male partners' perceptions of beneficial presence during the birth experience can be enhanced by their feeling well informed and supported during the antenatal period and feeling involved

  11. Absolute measurement of β eff based on Feynman-α experiments and the two-region model in the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Renato Y.R.; Santos, Adimir dos; Jerez, Rogerio; Diniz, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    A new methodology for absolute measurement of the effective delayed neutron fraction β eff based on Feynman-α experiments and the two-region model was developed. This method made use of Feynman-α experiments and the two-region model. To examine the present methodology, a series of Feynman-α experiments were conducted at the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor facility. In contrast with other techniques like the slope method, Nelson-number method and 252 Cf-source method, the main advantage of this new methodology is to obtain β eff with the required accuracy and without knowledge of any other parameter. By adopting the present approach, β eff was measured with a 0.67% uncertainty. In addition, the prompt neutron generation time, Λ, and other parameters, was also obtained in an absolute experimental way. In general, the measured parameters are in good agreement with the values found from frequency analysis experiments. The theory-experiment comparison for the β eff measured in this work shows that JENDL3.3 presented the best agreement (within 1%). The reduction of the 235 U thermal yield as proposed by Okajima and Sakurai is completely justified according to the β eff measurements performed in this work

  12. Origin of surface and columnar Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) aerosols using source- and region-tagged emissions transport in a general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S.; Venkataraman, C.; Boucher, O.

    2008-12-01

    We study the relative influence of aerosols emitted from different sectors and geographical regions on aerosol loading in south Asia. Sectors contributing aerosol emissions include biofuel and fossil fuel combustion, open biomass burning, and natural sources. Geographical regions include India (the Indo-Gangetic plain, central India, south India, and northwest India), southeast Asia, east Asia, Africa-west Asia, and the rest of the world. Simulations of the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), from January to March 1999, are made in the general circulation model of Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD-ZT GCM) with emissions tagged by sector and geographical region. Anthropogenic emissions dominate (54-88%) the predicted aerosol optical depth (AOD) over all the receptor regions. Among the anthropogenic sectors, fossil fuel combustion has the largest overall influence on aerosol loading, primarily sulfate, with emissions from India (50-80%) and rest of the world significantly influencing surface concentrations and AOD. Biofuel combustion has a significant influence on both the surface and columnar black carbon (BC) in particular over the Indian subcontinent and Bay of Bengal with emissions largely from the Indian region (60-80%). Open biomass burning emissions influence organic matter (OM) significantly, and arise largely from Africa-west Asia. The emissions from Africa-west Asia affect the carbonaceous aerosols AOD in all receptor regions, with their largest influence (AOD-BC: 60%; and AOD-OM: 70%) over the Arabian Sea. Among Indian regions, the Indo-Gangetic Plain is the largest contributor to anthropogenic surface mass concentrations and AOD over the Bay of Bengal and India. Dust aerosols are contributed mainly through the long-range transport from Africa-west Asia over the receptor regions. Overall, the model estimates significant intercontinental incursion of aerosol, for example, BC, OM, and dust from Africa-west Asia and sulfate from distant regions (rest

  13. Local and Regional Food Aid Procurement: An Assessment of Experience in Africa and Elements of Good Donor Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Tschirley, David L.; del Castillo, Anne Marie

    2008-01-01

    This Policy Synthesis is a summary of a longer report that discusses the procurement of food aid within the country or region where it is needed. Referred to as local and regional procurement – LRP – this practice has become a major element in multilateral food aid response over the past decade1. The paper examines the relevance and the rationale for using LRP, reviews the efficiency of World Food Program (WFP) LRP activities in Africa relative to inkind food aid and to prices in the markets ...

  14. [Nitrogen and water cycling of typical cropland in the North China Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Hong-wei; Shen, Yan-jun; Liu, Chang-ming

    2015-01-01

    Intensive fertilization and irrigation associated increasing grain production has led to serious groundwater depletion and soil/water pollution in the North China Plain (NCP). Intensive agriculture changes the initial mass and energy balance, and also results in huge risks to the water/soil resources and food security regionally. Based on the research reports on the nitrogen cycle and water cycle in typical cropland (winter wheat and summer corn) in the NCP during the past 20 years, and the meteorological data, field experiments and surveys, we calculated the nitrogen cycle and water-cycle for this typical cropland. Annual total nitrogen input were 632 kg N . hm-2, including 523 kg N . hm-2 from commercial fertilizer, 74 kg N . hm-2 from manure, 23 kg N . hm-2 from atmosphere, and 12 kg N . hm-2 from irrigation. All of annual outputs summed to 532 kg N . hm-2 including 289 kg N . hm-2 for crop, 77 kg N . hm-2 staying in soil profile, leaching 104 kg N . hm-2, 52 kg N . hm-2 for ammonia volatilization, 10 kg N . hm-2 loss in nitrification and denitrification. Uncertainties of the individual cases and the summary process lead to the unbalance of nitrogen. For the dominant parts of the field water cycle, annual precipitation was 557 mm, irrigation was 340 mm, while 762 mm was for evapotranspiration and 135 mm was for deep percolation. Considering uncertainties in the nitrogen and water cycles, coupled experiments based on multi-disciplines would be useful for understanding mechanisms for nitrogen and water transfer processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere-continuum (SPAC) , and the interaction between nitrogen and water, as well as determining the critical threshold values for sustainability of soil and water resources in the NCP.

  15. Aeroelastic Calculations Using CFD for a Typical Business Jet Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Michael D.

    1996-01-01

    Two time-accurate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes were used to compute several flutter points for a typical business jet model. The model consisted of a rigid fuselage with a flexible semispan wing and was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center where experimental flutter data were obtained from M(sub infinity) = 0.628 to M(sub infinity) = 0.888. The computational results were computed using CFD codes based on the inviscid TSD equation (CAP-TSD) and the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations (CFL3D-AE). Comparisons are made between analytical results and with experiment where appropriate. The results presented here show that the Navier-Stokes method is required near the transonic dip due to the strong viscous effects while the TSD and Euler methods used here provide good results at the lower Mach numbers.

  16. Macro-regional variation in attitudes toward and experiences of vulvar and vaginal atrophy among Italian post-menopausal women: a post hoc analysis of REVIVE survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Rossella E; Particco, Martire; Biglia, Nicoletta; Cagnacci, Angelo; Di Carlo, Costantino; Luisi, Stefano; Paoletti, Anna Maria

    2017-05-01

    Italian participants in the European REVIVE survey reported that vaginal and vulvar atrophy (VVA) impaired various aspects of their lives, notably the ability to enjoy sex. The aim of the present study was to explore regional differences in knowledge, experiences, and treatment of VVA in the Italian REVIVE sample (n = 1000), which was analyzed according to region of residence. While many respondents were unfamiliar with the VVA condition, most could relate their VVA symptoms to the menopause. The rate of diagnosis of VVA was twice as high in Central Italy as in the North-East. For individual VVA symptoms, 25.4-41.6% of respondents judged that the symptom had worsened over time. There were no significant regional differences for symptoms in terms of reported rate, change in severity, impact on sexual activity, or health-care visits. Testosterone cream and OTC medication based on hyaluronic acid showed significant regional differences in lifetime rates of use. In Italy, there are modest regional differences in knowledge, diagnosis, and treatment of VVA, some of which may be explained by inter-regional differences in health care. Further efforts are needed to ensure that Italian women are properly informed about VVA and have access to appropriate health care and treatments.

  17. Experience of Approbation and Target Reference Points of Introduction of the Professional Standard "Pedagogue-Psychologist (Educational psychologist" in Sverdlovsk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyagina N.N.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The experience of application of the professional standard "Pedagogue-psychologist (educational psychologist" in the Sverdlovsk region is described. A regional model for the application of the professional standard developed on the basis of the principles of unity of centralization and decentralization, interdepartmental and network interaction developed by the authors is presented. The main forms and methods of work on the application of a professional standard in the region are disclosed; the results of the Sverdlovsk region internship site are described, including mechanisms for identifying personnel shortages and development of personalized trajectories of the professional development of psychology teachers in the region. The following are highlighted as priority areas: the development of regional normative legal acts regulating the professional activity of pedagogue-psychologists, the application of the professional standard of the pedagogue-psychologist in the formation of the personnel policy in the field of education, and the modernization of the system of vocational training and additional vocational education of psychologists.

  18. A Decade of Experience: Which Network Structures Maximize Fire Service Capacity for Homeland Security Incidents in Metropolitan Regions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency QHSR Quadrennial Homeland Security Review Report RCP Regional Catastrophic Preparedness SAA State...service has evolved from a single-purpose service focused on controlling fires to a multidimensional response element responsible for pre- hospital ... hospital preparedness program Preparedness Training for all personnel; training and network activities during prior year assist in preparedness

  19. Do Rural and Regional Students in Queensland Experience an ICT "Turn-Off" in the Early High School Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Lyn; Anderson, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Students learning in regional, rural and remote locations in Queensland are currently experiencing a "turn-off" in relation to school-based ICT in the first three years of high school. At the same time, students are experiencing increasing levels of interest and motivation from their use of ICT at home. Given the importance of ICT as an…

  20. Regional cerebral blood flow studies with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT); Clinical experiences, possibilities. Regionalis agyi veratfolyas vizsgalata egyfotonos emissios computer tomographiaval (SPECT); Klinikai tapasztalatok, lehetoesegek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavics, Laszlo; Csernay, Laszlo; Doczi, Tamas; Lang, Jenoe; Blaho, Gabor; Janka, Zoltan; Bodosi, Mihaly [Szegedi Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Szeged (Hungary)

    1990-01-07

    Clinical experiences based on regional cerebral blood flow investigations with {sup 99m}Tc hexamethylpropyleneamin-oxime (HMPAO) SPECT in 164 patients are reported. The pharmacokinetics of the {sup 99m}Tc HMPAO are summarized, and the important indications of the investigations are interpreted in case reports (stroke, surgical solution of intracavernous aneurysm, Alzheimer and multiinfarct types of dementia). The literature data suggest that the diagnostic possibilities with this method are advantageous, even in other diseases. (author) 36 refs.; 7 figs.

  1. Analysis of world experience in constructing underground small nuclear power plants and assessment of its potential use in the Russian Arctic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Yu. G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the common ideology and main idea of locating underground nuclear plants. Specific examples in domestic and foreign experience have been analyzed. It has been established that underground small nuclear power plants can be used as an alternative source of electric and thermal energy for solving defense-strategic and social-economic tasks particularly when developing mineral raw material resources in the Russian Arctic regions

  2. ”How do the patients and their close relatives experience The Coordinated Investigation Model of Dementia in the North Denmark Region?”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Hanne; Ottesen, Aase Marie

    How do the patients and their close relatives experience The Coordinated Investigation Model of Dementia in the North Denmark Region? The aim of the project was to investigate how the patients and their close relatives experienced the investigation and the subsequent social medicine intervention,...... with lowest effective cost. A formal agreement regarding follow-up should be implemented. The relatives should be more involved during both investigation period and in the socio-medical follow-up....

  3. Changing patterns in the association between regional socio-economic context and dental caries experience according to gender and age: a multilevel study in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Choi, Youn-Hee; Park, Hyoung Wook; Lee, Sang Gyu

    2012-07-28

    Little is known about the effects of socio-environmental factors on dental caries in different demographic situations in Asian populations. We investigated whether the nature of the association between regional socio-economic context and dental caries experience differed according to gender and age groups in Korean adults. We obtained a linked data set containing individual information from the 2000 Korean National Oral Health Survey and regional information from the "Major statistical indices of Si-Gun-Gu" (city-county-ward), published by the Korean Statistical Office. We stratified participants into women and men and into four 10-year-interval age groups (19-34, 35-44, 45-54, and 55-64 years) and analysed the linked data using a multilevel analysis. In total, 5,259 individuals were included in the final study population. Regional socio-economic context was significantly associated with dental caries experience in men, but not in women. The patterns of the association between regional contextual variables and dental caries experience differed among age groups. People 35-44 years of age living in areas less dependent on the manufacturing industry and those 45-54 years of age living in areas where local government was relatively poor were more prone to have caries experience. The results of this study indicated that socio-economic factors affecting residents' dental health status may operate through different mechanisms or degrees according to geographic location, suggesting that some gender- and age-defined subgroups may be likely to benefit from different types of intervention, including the development of specific health policies.

  4. The effect of perceived regional accents on individual economic behavior: a lab experiment on linguistic performance, cognitive ratings and economic decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Heblich

    Full Text Available Does it matter if you speak with a regional accent? Speaking immediately reveals something of one's own social and cultural identity, be it consciously or unconsciously. Perceiving accents involves not only reconstructing such imprints but also augmenting them with particular attitudes and stereotypes. Even though we know much about attitudes and stereotypes that are transmitted by, e.g. skin color, names or physical attractiveness, we do not yet have satisfactory answers how accent perception affects human behavior. How do people act in economically relevant contexts when they are confronted with regional accents? This paper reports a laboratory experiment where we address this question. Participants in our experiment conduct cognitive tests where they can choose to either cooperate or compete with a randomly matched male opponent identified only via his rendering of a standardized text in either a regional accent or standard accent. We find a strong connection between the linguistic performance and the cognitive rating of the opponent. When matched with an opponent who speaks the accent of the participant's home region--the in-group opponent--, individuals tend to cooperate significantly more often. By contrast, they are more likely to compete when matched with an accent speaker from outside their home region, the out-group opponent. Our findings demonstrate, firstly, that the perception of an out-group accent leads not only to social discrimination but also influences economic decisions. Secondly, they suggest that this economic behavior is not necessarily attributable to the perception of a regional accent per se, but rather to the social rating of linguistic distance and the in-group/out-group perception it evokes.

  5. Latvian experience of 'Regional Project on Quality Control and Quality Assurance for Nuclear Analytical Techniques' (RER/2/004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skujina, Anita

    2002-01-01

    This report outlined the Latvian Radiation Safety Centre experience gained from the participation in the project. The accomplishments of the project are presented and the main difficulties are identified. In the course of the project 16 operating procedures and 17 instructions have been developed and the laboratory operations have been set in accordance with the ISO 17025 requirements

  6. Environmental Radiation Surveillance Results from over the Last Decade of Operational Experience at the Regional Radiation Monitoring Stations(RRMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae Young [Daegu Regional Radiation Monitoring Station, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Dong Han [Ulsan Regional Radiation Monitoring Station, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hoon [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The objectives of the current program are to monitor environmental radiation/radioactivity level in Korea and to provide the base-line data on environmental radiation/radioactivity which will be useful in the case of radiological emergency situations. This program plays an important role in the view of protecting the public health against the potential hazards of radiation and maintaining a clean environment. This paper describes an introduction to the Regional Radiation Monitoring Stations (RRMS), and also presents some results of recent years (2001-2014). The environmental radiation surveillance results of years 2001-2014 have been described. It indicates normal levels of radiation in the past years. These kinds of studies are very important in providing references in understanding the environmental radioactivity level in a particular region.

  7. Impact of a dengue outbreak experience in the preventive perceptions of the community from a temperate region: Madeira Island, Portugal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Nazareth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to effectively modify behaviours is increasingly relevant to attain and maintain a good health status. Current behaviour-change models and theories present two main approaches for (healthier decision-making: one analytical/logical, and one experiential/emotional/intuitive. Therefore, to achieve an integral and dynamic understanding of the public perceptions both approaches should be considered: community surveys should measure cognitive understanding of health-risk contexts, and also explore how past experiences affect this understanding. In 2011, community perceptions regarding domestic source reduction were assessed in Madeira Island͘. After Madeira's first dengue outbreak (2012 a unique opportunity to compare perceptions before and after the outbreak-experience occurred. This was the aim of this study, which constituted the first report on the effect of an outbreak experience on community perceptions regarding a specific vector-borne disease. A cross-sectional survey was performed within female residents at the most aegypti-infested areas. Perceptions regarding domestic source reduction were assessed according to the Essential Perception (EP-analysis tool. A matching process paired individuals from studies performed before and after the outbreak, ensuring homogeneity in six determinant variables. After the outbreak, there were more female residents who assimilated the concepts considered to be essential to understand the proposed behaviour. Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in the number of female residents who achieved the defined 'minimal understanding''. Moreover, most of the population (95.5% still believed at least in one of the identified myths. After the outbreak some myths disappeared and others appeared. The present study quantified and explored how the experience of an outbreak influenced the perception regarding a dengue-preventive behaviour. The outbreak experience surprisingly led to the appearance

  8. Impact of a Dengue Outbreak Experience in the Preventive Perceptions of the Community from a Temperate Region: Madeira Island, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareth, Teresa; Sousa, Carla Alexandra; Porto, Graça; Gonçalves, Luzia; Seixas, Gonçalo; Antunes, Luís; Silva, Ana Clara; Teodósio, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The ability to effectively modify behaviours is increasingly relevant to attain and maintain a good health status. Current behaviour-change models and theories present two main approaches for (healthier) decision-making: one analytical/logical, and one experiential/emotional/intuitive. Therefore, to achieve an integral and dynamic understanding of the public perceptions both approaches should be considered: community surveys should measure cognitive understanding of health-risk contexts, and also explore how past experiences affect this understanding. In 2011, community perceptions regarding domestic source reduction were assessed in Madeira Island. After Madeira’s first dengue outbreak (2012) a unique opportunity to compare perceptions before and after the outbreak-experience occurred. This was the aim of this study, which constituted the first report on the effect of an outbreak experience on community perceptions regarding a specific vector-borne disease. A cross-sectional survey was performed within female residents at the most aegypti-infested areas. Perceptions regarding domestic source reduction were assessed according to the Essential Perception (EP)-analysis tool. A matching process paired individuals from studies performed before and after the outbreak, ensuring homogeneity in six determinant variables. After the outbreak, there were more female residents who assimilated the concepts considered to be essential to understand the proposed behaviour. Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in the number of female residents who achieved the defined ‘minimal understanding’’. Moreover, most of the population (95.5%) still believed at least in one of the identified myths. After the outbreak some myths disappeared and others appeared. The present study quantified and explored how the experience of an outbreak influenced the perception regarding a dengue-preventive behaviour. The outbreak experience surprisingly led to the appearance of new

  9. Profile of 1 year of fieldwork experiences for undergraduate occupational therapy students from a large regional Australian university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Lynette; O'Toole, Gjyn

    2017-10-01

    Objective Fieldwork experience is a significant component of many health professional education programs and affects future practice for graduates. The present study used self-reported student data to produce a profile of undergraduate student placement experiences. Methods Cross-sectional surveys exploring placement location, setting and client types, models of supervision, interventions and financial costs were completed by students following each placement. Data were analysed using descriptive analysis. Results Placements were predominantly conducted outside capital cities (69.8%; n=184), with 25.8% (n=68) in rural settings. Students experienced predominantly public health in-patient settings and community settings, with only 15% experiencing private settings. Conclusions The placement profile of undergraduate occupational therapy students appeared to be consistent with workforce reports on occupational therapy professional practice. What is known about the topic? Fieldwork experienced by health professional students is critical to preparing new graduates for practice. Although the World Federation of Occupational Therapy provides guidance on what is required for occupational therapy fieldwork experience, little is known about what students actually experience during their fieldwork placements. What does this paper add? The present study is the first to document the range of fieldwork experienced by occupational therapy students in one program over 1 year, and provides the basis for comparison with other occupational therapy programs, as well as other disciplines nationally and internationally. What are the implications for practitioners? Occupational therapy students experienced few opportunities in private practice or speciality services, and had mostly one-on-one supervision. To provide a future workforce that is able to address the changing health system, it is vital that students are exposed to a range of fieldwork experiences and supervision styles that

  10. Impact of a dengue outbreak experience in the preventive perceptions of the community from a temperate region: Madeira Island, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareth, Teresa; Sousa, Carla Alexandra; Porto, Graça; Gonçalves, Luzia; Seixas, Gonçalo; Antunes, Luís; Silva, Ana Clara; Teodósio, Rosa

    2015-03-01

    The ability to effectively modify behaviours is increasingly relevant to attain and maintain a good health status. Current behaviour-change models and theories present two main approaches for (healthier) decision-making: one analytical/logical, and one experiential/emotional/intuitive. Therefore, to achieve an integral and dynamic understanding of the public perceptions both approaches should be considered: community surveys should measure cognitive understanding of health-risk contexts, and also explore how past experiences affect this understanding. In 2011, community perceptions regarding domestic source reduction were assessed in Madeira Island͘. After Madeira's first dengue outbreak (2012) a unique opportunity to compare perceptions before and after the outbreak-experience occurred. This was the aim of this study, which constituted the first report on the effect of an outbreak experience on community perceptions regarding a specific vector-borne disease. A cross-sectional survey was performed within female residents at the most aegypti-infested areas. Perceptions regarding domestic source reduction were assessed according to the Essential Perception (EP)-analysis tool. A matching process paired individuals from studies performed before and after the outbreak, ensuring homogeneity in six determinant variables. After the outbreak, there were more female residents who assimilated the concepts considered to be essential to understand the proposed behaviour. Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in the number of female residents who achieved the defined 'minimal understanding''. Moreover, most of the population (95.5%) still believed at least in one of the identified myths. After the outbreak some myths disappeared and others appeared. The present study quantified and explored how the experience of an outbreak influenced the perception regarding a dengue-preventive behaviour. The outbreak experience surprisingly led to the appearance of new myths

  11. Preliminary Experience Using Eye-Tracking Technology to Differentiate Novice and Expert Image Interpretation for Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Lindsay K; Harrison, T Kyle; Kou, Alex; Mariano, Edward R; Udani, Ankeet D; Kim, T Edward; Shum, Cynthia; Howard, Steven K

    2018-02-01

    Objective measures are needed to guide the novice's pathway to expertise. Within and outside medicine, eye tracking has been used for both training and assessment. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that eye tracking may differentiate novices from experts in static image interpretation for ultrasound (US)-guided regional anesthesia. We recruited novice anesthesiology residents and regional anesthesiology experts. Participants wore eye-tracking glasses, were shown 5 sonograms of US-guided regional anesthesia, and were asked a series of anatomy-based questions related to each image while their eye movements were recorded. The answer to each question was a location on the sonogram, defined as the area of interest (AOI). The primary outcome was the total gaze time in the AOI (seconds). Secondary outcomes were the total gaze time outside the AOI (seconds), total time to answer (seconds), and time to first fixation on the AOI (seconds). Five novices and 5 experts completed the study. Although the gaze time (mean ± SD) in the AOI was not different between groups (7 ± 4 seconds for novices and 7 ± 3 seconds for experts; P = .150), the gaze time outside the AOI was greater for novices (75 ± 18 versus 44 ± 4 seconds for experts; P = .005). The total time to answer and total time to first fixation in the AOI were both shorter for experts. Experts in US-guided regional anesthesia take less time to identify sonoanatomy and spend less unfocused time away from a target compared to novices. Eye tracking is a potentially useful tool to differentiate novices from experts in the domain of US image interpretation. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. Uncertainty in the learning rates of energy technologies. An experiment in a global multi-regional energy system model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, Ullash K.; Blesl, Markus; Fahl, Ulrich; Remme, Uwe; Voss, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    The diffusion of promising energy technologies in the market depends on their future energy production-cost development. When analyzing these technologies in an integrated assessment model using endogenous technological learning, the uncertainty in the assumed learning rates (LRs) plays a crucial role in the production-cost development and model outcomes. This study examines the uncertainty in LRs of some energy technologies under endogenous global learning implementation and presents a floor-cost modeling procedure to systematically regulate the uncertainty in LRs of energy technologies. The article narrates the difficulties of data assimilation, as compatible with mixed integer programming segmentations, and comprehensively presents the causes of uncertainty in LRs. This work is executed using a multi-regional and long-horizon energy system model based on 'TIMES' framework. All regions receive an economic advantage to learn in a common domain, and resource-ample regions obtain a marginal advantage for better exploitation of the learning technologies, due to a lower supply-side fuel-cost development. The lowest learning investment associated with the maximum LR mobilizes more deployment of the learning technologies. The uncertainty in LRs has an impact on the diffusion of energy technologies tested, and therefore this study scrutinizes the role of policy support for some of the technologies investigated. (author)

  13. Peace with Hunger: Colombia’s Checkered Experience with Post-Conflict Sustainable Community Development in Emerald-Mining Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel B. Franco

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between conflict and local development has puzzled scholars and practitioners alike. This article explores why the advent of peace in Colombia’s emerald-mining regions for the past few years, as well as a broader national peace process, has not delivered the expected development dividends among mining communities. We contrast differences in stakeholders’ perceptions between levels of governance (local, regional and national. Based on the research, we conclude that while stakeholder collaboration is successful at the regional and national levels of governance, it fails at the local level. While peace has allowed an increase in mainstream business investment in mining, this has concentrated production in a few hands leading to a deterioration in many aspects of community livelihoods and wealth distribution. There has been a shift in the concentration of wealth and production from traditional elites to large companies. Communities noted a loss of collective assets and lack of community and institutional capacity to overcome pressing issues in a post-conflict market economy that favors those who control capital and technology. Based on an evaluation of community perceptions through a focus group methodology, this study recommends ways to prepare and better coordinate stakeholders to engage with complex relationships, and protect community assets in a collaborative governance scenario. This research suggests that political reconciliation processes amid complex resource geographies require greater devolution and community engagement on post-conflict economic development during the peace process itself.

  14. Local-regional anesthesia in the management of stingray stings: Experience of the Bouffard medical-surgical hospital in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanoye, C; Lacroix, G; Le Gonidec, E; Couret, A; Benois, A; Peigne, V

    2017-02-01

    Stingray injuries are very painful. Systemic analgesics are ineffective, and the use of local-regional anesthesia has been reported. This retrospective descriptive study reviewed all cases of stingray injuries seen at the emergency department of the Bouffard Hospital (Djbouti, Africa) between 2011 and 2014. The study included 35 patients. Most of the injuries (n= 31, 89%) concerned the lower limbs. Median pain intensity was 6 [5-8] on a visual analog scale of 0 (no pain) to 10. The following systemic medications were administered: acetaminophen to 13 (27%) patients, morphine to 8 (23%), and tramadol to 6 (17%). In all, 25 (71%) patients received local-regional anesthesia, 15 (60%) by injections at the ankle. All procedures were successful, and no adverse event was reported. This study reports clinical data about stingray injuries in the Red Sea area and highlights the interest of local-regional anesthesia in their management. Most of the procedures were distal and could be performed by trained emergency physicians.

  15. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in brain tumors and cervical region. Experience of the Dean Funes Medical Center, first experience in stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery inside the country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Vita, H.; Brunetto, M.; Derechinsky, V; Derechinsky, G.; Derechinsky, M.; Gonzalez, S.; Marinello, A.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective study to analyze the results of 53 patients treated with stereotactic radiotherapy in 'Centro Medico Dean Funes' was performed. The patients had brain and head and neck tumors. Patients and methods: From November 1997 to March 2003, 53 patients were treated with stereotactic radiotherapy in 'Centro Medico Dean Funes'. The daily dose administered varied from 1.8 to 2 Gy and the total dose from 30 to 70 Gy. The minimal follow up was 2 months, and the medium follow up 32 months. Local control and survival were analyzed in all patients, as well as tolerance and the complications of the treatment. Results: Since these series represented a very heterogeneous group of patients, the final results were very difficult to compare with other alternative treatments. However, an excellent tolerance to therapy was observed. Some subsets of patients had good results to treatment: patients with metastasis to the orbit, patients with lesions to the sellar and parasellar regions and some who relapsed following conventional radiotherapy, mainly lymphomas. Conclusions: Stereotactic radiotherapy is a valid therapeutic method to treat tumors of the brain and head and neck, as long as the tumor has a moderate size (6 cm. or less) and the shape is cylindrical or ellipsoid. Stereotactic radiation improves the therapeutic ratio as compared with the conventional radiotherapy. It has advantages over the 3D technique, and could compete with IMRT (Intensity modulated radiation therapy). (author) [es

  16. A refined regional modeling approach for the Corn Belt - Experiences and recommendations for large-scale integrated modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Yiannis; Gassman, Philip W.; Jha, Manoj K.; Kling, Catherine L.; Campbell, Todd; Srinivasan, Raghavan; White, Michael; Arnold, Jeffrey G.

    2015-05-01

    Nonpoint source pollution from agriculture is the main source of nitrogen and phosphorus in the stream systems of the Corn Belt region in the Midwestern US. This region is comprised of two large river basins, the intensely row-cropped Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) and Ohio-Tennessee River Basin (OTRB), which are considered the key contributing areas for the Northern Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone according to the US Environmental Protection Agency. Thus, in this area it is of utmost importance to ensure that intensive agriculture for food, feed and biofuel production can coexist with a healthy water environment. To address these objectives within a river basin management context, an integrated modeling system has been constructed with the hydrologic Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, capable of estimating river basin responses to alternative cropping and/or management strategies. To improve modeling performance compared to previous studies and provide a spatially detailed basis for scenario development, this SWAT Corn Belt application incorporates a greatly refined subwatershed structure based on 12-digit hydrologic units or 'subwatersheds' as defined by the US Geological Service. The model setup, calibration and validation are time-demanding and challenging tasks for these large systems, given the scale intensive data requirements, and the need to ensure the reliability of flow and pollutant load predictions at multiple locations. Thus, the objectives of this study are both to comprehensively describe this large-scale modeling approach, providing estimates of pollution and crop production in the region as well as to present strengths and weaknesses of integrated modeling at such a large scale along with how it can be improved on the basis of the current modeling structure and results. The predictions were based on a semi-automatic hydrologic calibration approach for large-scale and spatially detailed modeling studies, with the use of the Sequential

  17. Assessment of the performance of CORDEX-SA experiments in simulating seasonal mean temperature over the Himalayan region for the present climate: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nengker, T.; Choudhary, A.; Dimri, A. P.

    2018-04-01

    The ability of an ensemble of five regional climate models (hereafter RCMs) under Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiments-South Asia (hereafter, CORDEX-SA) in simulating the key features of present day near surface mean air temperature (Tmean) climatology (1970-2005) over the Himalayan region is studied. The purpose of this paper is to understand the consistency in the performance of models across the ensemble, space and seasons. For this a number of statistical measures like trend, correlation, variance, probability distribution function etc. are applied to evaluate the performance of models against observation and simultaneously the underlying uncertainties between them for four different seasons. The most evident finding from the study is the presence of a large cold bias (-6 to -8 °C) which is systematically seen across all the models and across space and time over the Himalayan region. However, these RCMs with its fine resolution perform extremely well in capturing the spatial distribution of the temperature features as indicated by a consistently high spatial correlation (greater than 0.9) with the observation in all seasons. In spite of underestimation in simulated temperature and general intensification of cold bias with increasing elevation the models show a greater rate of warming than the observation throughout entire altitudinal stretch of study region. During winter, the simulated rate of warming gets even higher at high altitudes. Moreover, a seasonal response of model performance and its spatial variability to elevation is found.

  18. From Theory to Experiment: Hadron Electromagnetic Form Factors in Space-like and Time-like Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Gakh, G.I.; Rekalo, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Hadron electromagnetic form factors contain information on the intrinsic structure of the hadrons. The pioneering work developed at the Kharkov Physical-Technical Institute in the 60's on the relation between the polarized cross section and the proton form factors triggered a number of experiments. Such experiments could be performed only recently due to the progress in accelerator and polarimetry techniques. The principle of these measurements is recalled and surprise and very precise results obtained on proton are presented. The actual status of nucleon electromagnetic form factors is reviewed, with special attention to the basic work done in Kharkov Physical-Technical Institute. This Paper is devoted to the memory of Prof. M.P. Rekalo

  19. Experience of South Regional Delegation in radiation protection diffusion by means of policies of social communication; Experiencia de la Delegacion Regional Sur en la difusion de seguridad radiologica mediante politicas de comunicacion social

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malagamba, Eduardo; Canibano, Javier; Gatica, Nidia [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Delegacion Regional Sur

    2001-07-01

    The diffusion of the criteria and principles of radiological safety that are applied to the different practices of use of radioactive materials, is one of the ways to diminish the risks of its use besides enhance the perception of risk in society. Since June of 1999, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Argentina have intensified the dissemination of information for the public in general, specialized personnel indirectly involved with radioactive substances and the users in general of radioactive materials.This work has as objective to present the experience of South Regional Delegation with information dissemination policy and its results.

  20. Impact of isoprene and nitrogen oxides on O3 chemistry at the local and the regional scale : the ESCOMPTE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinovis, J.; Solmon, F.; Personne, E.; Serça, D.; Rosset, R.

    2003-04-01

    Concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO+NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a crucial role in the atmospheric chemistry through the production-destruction of tropospheric O3. In rural areas, NOx concentrations are much lower than in urban areas, whereas VOCs emissions can be relatively high. This is due to a relative longer residence time of VOCs, and to the substantial contribution of Biogenic VOCs (BVOCs) representing more than 85% of all the VOCs emitted at the Earth surface (half of it being isoprene). For these reasons, O3 production in rural areas is most of the time NOx-limited. Taking into account biogenic emissions of isoprene in global scale atmospheric chemistry modeling adds from 10 to 40% to the ozone produced when compared to the same simulation without isoprene. This suggests that BVOCs and NOx emissions must be accounted for in models of atmospheric pollution forecasting at local and regional scales. In this study, we present a sensitivity analysis on the impact of the isoprene and nitrogen oxides emissions at the local and the regional scale. This study is done from data collected during the ESCOMPTE campaign which took place in June and July 2001 in the Marseille region (Southwest France) characterized by both strong natural and anthropogenic sources of trace gases. Isoprene emission experimental data from a Quercus Pubescens Mediterranean forest are used to constrain the 1Dz Soil-Vegetation-Atmospheric-Transfer ISBA model. This SVAT is used in the 3D MESO-NH-Chemistry model to simulate scenarios of pollution at the regional scale including the measured biogenic source for isoprene, and GENEMIS anthropogenic sources for other trace gases. To focus on the chemistry aspect of these simulations, the atmospheric dynamics are set to an "ideal" configuration. We have investigated the impact of the relative position and distance between the biogenic and anthropogenic sources on the O3 budget. According to this, and to the intensity of the

  1. Knowledge, attitude, and experience of health professionals of female genital mutilation (FGM): A qualitative study in Iraqi Kurdistan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabila, Nazar P; Ahmed, Hamdia M; Safari, Kolsoom

    2017-11-01

    We aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and experience of health professionals of female genital mutilation (FGM). The study involved content analysis of semistructured interviews with 21 health professionals. The participants had poor knowledge regarding different aspects of FGM including its types, prevalence, and complications as well as the existing legislation that prohibits FGM. They believed that FGM is mainly practiced for religious reasons and to reduce sexual desire/arousal. Health professionals are apparently not involved in performing FGM, and they do not support its continuation. Health professionals can take a leading role in raising the awareness of women and combating FGM.

  2. [Knowledge and life experiences of mothers facing certain addictive behaviours in youths in the region of Tunis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askri, M; Belgacem, B; Zine, I; Haddad, M; Besrour, M

    2008-01-01

    We surveyed 415 mothers who regularly consult primary healthcare centres about their knowledge of addictive behavior in teenagers in relation to tobacco, alcohol and drugs. Most mothers considered the teenage period difficult. Apprehension of this period increased with the educational level of the mothers. Mothers did not often discuss the issue of addiction with their children, especially related to alcohol and drugs. Nevertheless, the mothers were aware of the risks of addiction. They considered information campaigns about this topic an efficient means of prevention. About half of the mothers had experience of addictive conduct involving a family member. They resolved the problems through family help or consultation with a specialist.

  3. Monitoring and Management of Karstic Coastal Groundwater in a Changing Environment (Southern Italy: A Review of a Regional Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Polemio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The population concentration in coastal areas and the increase of groundwater discharge in combination with the peculiarities of karstic coastal aquifers constitute a huge worldwide problem, which is particularly relevant for coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean basin. This paper offers a review of scientific activities realized to pursue the optimal utilization of Apulian coastal groundwater. Apulia, with a coastline extending for over 800 km, is the Italian region with the largest coastal karst aquifers. Apulian aquifers have suffered both in terms of water quality and quantity. Some regional regulations were implemented from the 1970s with the purpose of controlling the number of wells, well locations, and well discharge. The practical effects of these management criteria, the temporal and spatial trend of recharge, groundwater quality, and seawater intrusion effects are discussed based on long-term monitoring. The efficacy of existing management tools and the development of predictive scenarios to identify the best way to reconcile irrigation and demands for high-quality drinking water have been pursued in a selected area. The Salento peninsula was selected as the Apulian aquifer portion exposed to the highest risk of quality degradation due to seawater intrusion. The capability of large-scale numerical models in groundwater management was tested, particularly for achieving forecast scenarios to evaluate the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. The results show qualitative and quantitative groundwater trends from 1930 to 2060 and emphasize the substantial decrease of the piezometric level and a serious worsening of groundwater salinization due to seawater intrusion.

  4. Vertical integration and contractual network in the cardiovascular sector: the experience of the Italian region Emilia Romagna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, Cristina; Nobilio, Lucia

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Objective We analysed the integrated planning model adopted by the Italian region Emilia Romagna in year 2000 to cover the entire range of treatment of cardiovascular disease. This model, called “hub and spoke”, provides for the transfer of patient care and treatment from peripheral units (the spokes) to central units (the hubs) once a certain complexity threshold has been reached. Methods We examined inter-temporal variations in patients flows for the selection/referral and follow-up phases between cardiac surgery and cardiology units during two periods characterised by different organisational set-ups, in order to reflect on the progress being made in the organisation of the network. The database consisted of regional records of hospital discharges during the 1997–2001 period. Results The investigation pointed to the achievement of a good degree of coordination between structures at different levels of specialisation in the case of cardiac surgery, for which six centres were selected already in 1996. On the other hand, the more recent introduction of a hierarchical system for interventional cardiology points to the prevalence of operations on patients previously treated within the same centre, to admissions by direct access, and to follow-up mainly conducted within the hub providing the initial service. Conclusions Despite the progress made towards the more effective rationalisation of the health care network, there is still room for improvement in relations between different centres, in particular with regard to the clearer definition of the roles and interdependence of those intermediate-level centres located between the hub centres and basic healthcare facilities. PMID:16896380

  5. Water movement through a shallow unsaturated zone in an inland arid region: Field drip irrigation experiment under matrix potential control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, T.; Han, D.; Song, X.

    2017-12-01

    It is vital to study soil water movement in unsaturated zone for evaluating and improving current irrigation mode for prevention and control of soil secondary salinization, especially in inland arid area, where is characterized by strong evaporation, poor drainage system and shallow water table depth. In this study, we investigated the applicability of drip irrigation under matrix potential control during cotton growth seasons in an inland arid region of northwest China. Combined physical observation with stable isotopes tracing method, we studied soil water flow system and recharge sources of shallow groundwater in heavy (Pilot 1) and light (Pilot 2) saline-alkali cotton fields. Evaporation depths (about 50-60 cm) are about the same for both pilots, but infiltration depths (about 60 cm for Pilot 1 and 150 cm for Pilot 2) are very different due to different soil texture, soil structure and soil salt content. Middle layer (about 100 cm thick) is a critical barrier for water exchange between surface and deep layer. Irrigation water is the major source (about 79.6% for Pilot 1 and 81.6% for Pilot 2), while evapotranspiration is the major sink (about 80.7% for Pilot 1 and 83.1% for Pilot 2) of unsaturated zone. The increase of soil water storage is not enough to make up the water shortage of middle layer and thus drip irrigation water doesn't recharge into groundwater for both pilots. Water table rise (about 60 cm for Pilot 1 and 50 cm for Pilot 2) could be caused by lateral groundwater flow instead of vertical infiltration. This irrigation mode could retard the water table rise in this region. However, improving horizontal drainage system may be indispensable for sustainable agriculture development. The study can provide important basis for soil secondary salinization prevention and agricultural water management in inland arid areas.

  6. Vertical integration and contractual network in the cardiovascular sector: the experience of the Italian region Emilia Romagna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, Cristina; Nobilio, Lucia

    2003-01-01

    We analysed the integrated planning model adopted by the Italian region Emilia Romagna in year 2000 to cover the entire range of treatment of cardiovascular disease. This model, called "hub and spoke", provides for the transfer of patient care and treatment from peripheral units (the spokes) to central units (the hubs) once a certain complexity threshold has been reached. We examined inter-temporal variations in patients flows for the selection/referral and follow-up phases between cardiac surgery and cardiology units during two periods characterised by different organisational set-ups, in order to reflect on the progress being made in the organisation of the network. The database consisted of regional records of hospital discharges during the 1997-2001 period. The investigation pointed to the achievement of a good degree of coordination between structures at different levels of specialisation in the case of cardiac surgery, for which six centres were selected already in 1996. On the other hand, the more recent introduction of a hierarchical system for interventional cardiology points to the prevalence of operations on patients previously treated within the same centre, to admissions by direct access, and to follow-up mainly conducted within the hub providing the initial service. Despite the progress made towards the more effective rationalisation of the health care network, there is still room for improvement in relations between different centres, in particular with regard to the clearer definition of the roles and interdependence of those intermediate-level centres located between the hub centres and basic healthcare facilities.

  7. Effects of auditory recall experience on regional cerebral blood flow as assessed by 99m-Tc-HMPAO SPECT in 13 Post Traumatic Stress Disorder patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, M.M.E.; Salmaso, D.; Soares, J.; Aberg-Wistedt, A.; Sundin, O.; Jacobsson, H.; Larsson, S.A.; Haellstroem, T.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a severe condition affecting about 8% of population and increasing the risk of depression. PTSD patients, among other symptoms, suffer from intrusive distressing recollections of the traumatic event and avoidance of stimuli related to trauma. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) between two groups of subjects exposed to the same type of traumatic stressor either developing PTSD or not. Materials and Methods: Thirteen subway drivers developing PTSD (PTSD) and 19 not developing PTSD (CTR) after being exposed to earlier person-under-the-train accident were included in the study. The rCBF distribution was compared between the two groups during a situation involving an auditory evoked re-experiencing of their traumatic event. 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT, using a three-headed gamma camera, was performed and the radiopharmaceutical uptake in 7 bilateral regions of the brain was assessed using a standardised digitalised brain atlas. The chosen regions were those supposed to be involved in fear and emotional response and were located in the thalamus, limbic cortex and prefrontal, temporal and parietal lobes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the significance of the differences in flow in such functional regions. Results: In the global analysis, rCBF significantly differed between groups (0.04), hemispheres (p<0.02) and regions (p<0.0001). There was also a significant region x hemisphere interaction (p<0.0001). As compared to CTR, PTSD rCBF increased in the primary and associative auditory cortex (p<0.03) and in the temporal poles (p<0.02). Significant hemispheric differences were found in these latter regions (p<0.001 and p<0.0001, respectively), anterior cingulate cortex (p<0001) and multi-medial parietal association cortex (p<0.0001). Conclusions: Higher rCBF values in PTSD patients under recall of their traumatic experience were found as compared to CTR. The

  8. Contact lens wearers' experiences while trekking in the Khumbu region/Nepal: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Irmgard L

    2015-01-01

    Safe contact lens wear depends on a hygiene regime and lens-appropriate wear patterns which may be compromised during travel in remote and wilderness areas. The purpose of this study was to describe the experience of contact lens wearers while trekking at high-altitude in Nepal. For this descriptive study, trekkers with contact lenses were recruited in Lukla and invited to complete an online-questionnaire on trip preparation, contact lens use, care and experiences, and possible changes for future travel. Quantitative data were analysed using SurveyMonkey; content analysis applied to qualitative responses. The majority of the 158 participants (124; 78.48%) reported no problems with their lenses (daily disposables, soft lenses, extended-wear lenses, hard/rigid lenses) during their stay although dry air, dust, wind, cold temperatures, and difficult hygiene maintenance were challenging. Freezing lenses and freezing solutions were additional challenges. Thirty-four (21.52%) experienced a variety of problems. Improvements were requested from manufacturers. Lodges should provide better access to clean water, mirrors and lighting. Almost 60% of participants had not sought any pre-travel health advice. Remote and wilderness areas provide a challenge for appropriate contact lens wear and care. The decision between the potential risk of infection due to touching lenses (daily disposables, soft/hard lenses) and the potential risk of corneal erosion (extended-wear lenses) needs to be made in pre-travel consultations. Travel health professionals and travel agencies should remind CL-wearing trekkers to carefully assess their wear and care routine to accommodate potentially challenging conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. CONDITION OF DECENTRALIZATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL LEGAL FORMS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONS OF UKRAINE IN THE CONTEXT OF THE GLOBAL EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiia Kulchytska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the modern condition of decentralization and organizational legal forms of sustainable development of regions of Ukraine in the context of the global experience are analyzed, possible ways to overcome regional disparities are proved. A special place in scientific research article takes a significant number of modern researchers analyzed the theoretical and methodological foundations of a system of financial support of local authorities in the transition to decentralization of public administration. In this regard, particular relevance is the problem of defining the role of decentralization principles in forming the financial support of local government. The importance of decentralization in the process of local government reform is proved. The ways implementing decentralization in modern Ukraine are shown. The scientific approaches to determining the meaning and role of decentralization in a market economy are analyzed and summarized. Key words: decentralization, deconcentration of power, the territorial organization of government, local communities, dotatsiynist, sustainable development. JEL: H 70, R 58

  10. [Challenges to decentralization and local participation within the health rights protection framework: Experience of the SUSALUD Northern Macro-regional Intendance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebaza-Iparraguirre, Henry; Vela-López, Miguel; Villegas-Ortega, José; Lozada-Urbano, Michelle; Munares-García, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    In Peru, health protection rights and the National Health Authority (SUSALUD) coexist with the aim to ensure that every Peruvian may exercise his/her rights. According to the L.D. (Spanish: Decreto legislativo) N° 1158, strategies must be deployed to ensure effective decentralization and ensure compliance with user rights. As a result, the Northern Macro-regional Intendance (IMRN) was created, with headquarters in the city of Chiclayo, and a coverage area including Lambayeque, Tumbes, Piura, Cajamarca, La Libertad, and Amazonas. The northern macro-region promotes information dissemination, coordination, and local participation in health activities, with an emphasis on handling complaints and claims as well as implementation and operation support of user boards (JUS). After 6 months, implementation of the IMRN experience is undergoing consolidation.

  11. Performance analysis of fusion nuclear-data benchmark experiments for light to heavy materials in MeV energy region with a neutron spectrum shifter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Isao; Ohta, Masayuki; Miyamaru, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Keitaro; Yoshida, Shigeo; Iida, Toshiyuki; Ochiai, Kentaro; Konno, Chikara

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear data are indispensable for development of fusion reactor candidate materials. However, benchmarking of the nuclear data in MeV energy region is not yet adequate. In the present study, benchmark performance in the MeV energy region was investigated theoretically for experiments by using a 14 MeV neutron source. We carried out a systematical analysis for light to heavy materials. As a result, the benchmark performance for the neutron spectrum was confirmed to be acceptable, while for gamma-rays it was not sufficiently accurate. Consequently, a spectrum shifter has to be applied. Beryllium had the best performance as a shifter. Moreover, a preliminary examination of whether it is really acceptable that only the spectrum before the last collision is considered in the benchmark performance analysis. It was pointed out that not only the last collision but also earlier collisions should be considered equally in the benchmark performance analysis.

  12. Suspension of mandatory vaccination and public health preserving: Rovigo local health unit experience after appliance of Veneto regional law 7/2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattarin, M; Bellè, M; Bergamini, M; Gallo, L

    2013-09-01

    The burden of infectious diseases preventable by vaccination decreased considerably over last decades in all countries provided with effective immunization schedules. Implementation of these programs with new vaccines has started discussion on duality between mandatory and recommended vaccinations. Regional autonomy has allowed the Veneto Region, with introduction of Law 7/2007, to experience suspension of all mandatory childhood vaccinations, replaced by an active and free offer of all vaccines recognized as safe and effective. Coverage's trends and acceptance of invitation are carefully monitored to avoid loss of compliance and reduction of immunized children. The evaluation, performed on population of Rovigo ULSS18 for 2002-2008 birth cohorts (2008 is the first concerned by the change), revealed no fall for previously mandatory vaccinations, but rather a slight increase. Percentage of non-vaccinated children was negligible. The leading cause of non-vaccination to polio was inability to deliver the letter of invitation due to wrong address. An informed dissent was expressed only by a minority (0.9% in 2008 birth cohort). Compliance to immunization offer was elevated both for previously compulsory and recommended vaccinations. Experience of Rovigo ULSS 18 showed that, in a context of already high levels of coverage for recommended vaccinations with optimal organization of immunization services, coverage rates for ex-mandatory vaccines remain unchanged. Further research and reports are required to carefully assess the effect on coverage rates in next birth cohorts, but available data are encouraging. Similar legislative measures can be successfully adopted by other Regions with starting conditions comparable to Veneto Region.

  13. Typical tumors of the petrous bone; Typische Tumoren des Felsenbeins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlhelm, F.; Mueller, U. [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Institut fuer Radiologie, Baden (Switzerland); Ulmer, S. [Medizinisch-Radiologisches Institut, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2014-04-15

    In the region of the petrous bone, inner acoustic canal and cerebellopontine angle, a variety of different tissues can be found, such as bony, epithelial, neural and vascular structures. Tumorous or tumor-like lesions, vascular or bony malformations or other pathologies can therefore be found in all of these areas. We discuss various frequently occurring tumorous or tumor-like pathologies including congential lesions, such as mucoceles, inflammatory disorders including osteomyelitis, pseudotumors and Wegener's granulomatosis. Benign non-neoplastic lesions, such as cholesteatoma, cholesterol granuloma, epidermoid and benign neoplastic tumors, such as the most commonly found vestibular schwannoma, meningeoma, paraganglioma, vascular pathologies and finally malignant lesions, such as metastasis, chordoma or chondrosarcoma and endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) are also discussed. The emphasis of this article is on the appearance of these entities in computed tomography (CT) and more so magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it provides key facts and typical images and discusses possibilities how to distinguish these pathologies. (orig.) [German] In der Region des Felsenbein, inneren Gehoerkanals und Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels findet sich eine Vielzahl an unterschiedlichen Gewebearten inklusive knoechernes, epitheliales, nervales und vaskulaeres Gewebe. Tumoren oder tumoraehnliche Laesionen, ossaere oder vaskulaere Pathologien koennen entsprechend dort gefunden werden. Wir diskutieren verschiedene Tumoren oder tumoraehnliche Pathologien inklusive angeborene Laesionen wie Muko- und Meningozelen, entzuendliche Veraenderungen wie die Osteomyelitis, Pseudotumoren, die Wegener-Granulomatose, nichtneoplastische Tumoren wie das Epidermoid, Cholesteatom oder Cholesterolgranulom und gutartige neoplastische Tumoren wie das am haeufigsten zu findende Vestibularisschwannom, das Paragangliom und das Meningeom, Gefaessprozesse/-pathologien und schliesslich maligne Laesionen wie Metastasen

  14. Arсhaeomineralogy of Ancient Nonferrous Metallurgy Pieces of the Perm Region: Experience of Usage of Electron Microprobe Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Chaykovsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of archaeological features has been studied by means of the scanning electronic microscopy. It was shown that due to the oxidation process, the surface layer is enriched with some elements, which were present at unaltered metal (Ag, Pb and those included later (As, Zn, Pb. It imposes meaningful limitation for use of the X-ray fluorescence and spectral analysis, which allow obtaining only total (patina + metal composition. Sixteen minerals (oxides, carbonates, sulphates, chlorides, phosphates, sulfides and native phases are established in patina composition. Tin bronze structure contains the impurities, which may be an evidence of import to Perm Region of tin and silver possibly from Altai, tin and lead possibly from Karelia during "harinsky" and "rodanovsky" cultures respectively. Various composition of the alloys used for casting and filigree witnesses that ancient metallurgists had known about alloys handling. The presence of barium and fluorine can tell us about composition of the used furnacecharge. The obtained data may be the basis for chemical-metallurgical typification of pieces from nonferrous (and noble metals.

  15. The legitimation of the power process: experiences of small entrepreneurs in the region of Passo Fundo/RS.

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    Daniel Frasson Lima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The legitimation of power among small entrepreneurs toward the employees was analyzed in the region of Passo Fundo/RS; it’s a process in which these entrepreneurs consolidate working relationships to perform their functions with self-confidence. A descriptive qualitative research was done and used as method of data collection a semi-structured interview, with observation and documental analysis. Four directors of franchises in the field of language education in the northern of Rio Grande do Sul participated in the research. The collected data were submitted to an interpretative analysis that made use of the academic frame to rescue the conception of power, its role and its fountainsin the organizations. The results reinforced the difficulties in measuring the legitimation of power. The phenomenon was investigated from an array of angles and a series of related factors were identified, provokingan evolution on its understanding.It was realized that the strategies of legitimation of the power vary according to the history and leadership style of the directors creating similar results in short term, but not always attending to professionalization and expansion matters.

  16. Neutron integral test of graphite cross sections in MeV energy region for the JENDL-3T through an analysis of WINFRITH shielding experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, Kohtaro; Sakurai, Kiyoshi.

    1988-01-01

    The neutron integral tests of graphite cross sections in MeV neutron energy region for the ENDF/B-IV, JENDL-2, JENDL-3PR1 and -3T were performed through the Monte Carlo analysis of the graphite shielding experiment at the WINFRITH. The measured values were on the reaction rates of 115 In(n,n') 115m In, 27 Al(n,α) 24 Na, 32 S(n,p) 32 P, and 103 Rh(n,n') 103m Rh threshold detectors located in the graphite slabs, so that the experiment on the graphite was good at the integral test of neutron cross sections in MeV energy resion. (author)

  17. Experience of the posterior lip augmentation device in a regional hip arthroplasty unit as a treatment for recurrent dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggett, L; Cross, C; Helm, T

    2017-12-01

    Dislocation after total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains a significant complication of the procedure and is the third leading cause for revision THA. One technique for treatment of this complication is the use of the posterior lip augmentation device (PLAD). We describe our experience using the PLAD including complication rates. A retrospective review of 55 PLADs (54 patients) was carried out following identification from electronic theatre records. Basic patient demographics, operative records and radiographs were collected and reviewed and data was analysed using Microsoft Excel. Failure of the PLAD was defined as further operative intervention after PLAD insertion and included: dislocation, implant breakage, infection and revision of the THA for loosening of either component. 55 PLADs were implanted in 54 patients with an average age of 77 years. There was a significant preponderance of females and a variety of surgical approaches had been used for the original hip replacement, including trochanteric osteotomy, posterior and antero-lateral. 9 (16%) patients had recurrent dislocations,1 (2%) failed secondary to screw breakage, 3 (5%) had and infection requiring intervention and 2 (4%) underwent further revision for aseptic loosening of the femoral component. The overall failure rate was 25% with 14 patients requiring intervention post PLAD. Our results are inferior to other published results and indicate that the PLAD should be used with caution for recurrent dislocations of the Charnley hip replacement.

  18. The experience of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among Hispanic women in a U.S. border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan-Olah, Mary; Duarte-Gardea, Maria; Lechuga, Julia; Salinas-Lopez, Silvia

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of Hispanic women of Mexican origin with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). GDM is associated with poorer maternal and infant outcomes. Rates of GDM occur at higher rates among Hispanic women of Mexican origin compared to non-Hispanic White women. High rates of GDM in this population pose a major health problem which is exacerbated by disadvantage, obesity and high birth-rates. Eighteen interviews were conducted with pregnant women using an interpretative phenomenological analysis approach. Our findings included 5 themes located along a path of gradual adjustment to GDM: (1) distress and fear; (2) realizing the changes required; (3) learning to manage GDM; (4) finding motivation; and (5) compliance despite limited understanding. Participants were highly motivated to act in the infant's best interest and the majority of women in the study made the necessary dietary and exercise changes to successfully manage their GDM. Nonetheless, it seems likely that additional low literacy information on food values may be beneficial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Transport and reaction kinetics at the glass:solution interface region: results of repository-oriented leaching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Bates, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Repository-oriented leaching experiments involving Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) 165 type glass under a γ-radiation field (1 +/- 0.2 x 10 4 R/h) have been performed by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project. In this communication, they discuss glass surface analyses obtained by SEM, nuclear resonance profiling, and SIMS together with leachate solution data in relation to a mechanism that couples diffusion, hydrolysis (etching and gelation), and precipitation to qualitatively describe the release of different glass components to the leachant solutions. The release of mobile (e.g., Li) and partly mobile (e.g., B) species is controlled primarily by interdiffusion with water species across the interdiffusion zone. Glass components that are immobile in the interdiffusion zone are released to the solution by etching. For prediction of long-term steady-state concentrations of glass components with low solubility, the relative rates of release from the glass and secondary mineral precipitation must be taken into account. 20 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  20. Safety and predictability of conscious sedation in dentistry -- a multi-centre regional audit: South and West Wales experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukrishnan, A; McGregor, J; Thompson, S

    2013-10-01

    There are no previously published reports of audits in conscious sedation from a group comprising the general dental services (GDS), community dental services (CDS) and hospital dental services (HDS). The main aim of this audit was to assess current practice within the group in relation to the safety and predictability of dental treatment undertaken with the aid of conscious sedation. A total of nine centres collected data prospectively on 1,037 sedation episodes over the course of one year. Audit standards were locally agreed based on current evidence and local experience. They were set at a completion rate of 90% and an adverse incident rate of 2% or less. Based on the data collected, a completion rate of 92% and a minor adverse incident rate of 2.6% were recorded. The participating centres met the standards set locally for this audit. Current practice in the participating centres was found to be safe and predictable. The audit tool is being refined to improve the quality of data collection. Further research and service evaluation is recommended.

  1. Bodily Sensory Inputs and Anomalous Bodily Experiences in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Evaluation of the Potential Effects of Sound Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tajadura-Jiménez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscientific studies have shown that human's mental body representations are not fixed but are constantly updated through sensory feedback, including sound feedback. This suggests potential new therapeutic sensory approaches for patients experiencing body-perception disturbances (BPD. BPD can occur in association with chronic pain, for example in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS. BPD often impacts on emotional, social, and motor functioning. Here we present the results from a proof-of-principle pilot study investigating the potential value of using sound feedback for altering BPD and its related emotional state and motor behavior in those with CRPS. We build on previous findings that real-time alteration of the sounds produced by walking can alter healthy people's perception of their own body size, while also resulting in more active gait patterns and a more positive emotional state. In the present study we quantified the emotional state, BPD, pain levels and gait of twelve people with CRPS Type 1, who were exposed to real-time alteration of their walking sounds. Results confirm previous reports of the complexity of the BPD linked to CRPS, as participants could be classified into four BPD subgroups according to how they mentally visualize their body. Further, results suggest that sound feedback may affect the perceived size of the CRPS affected limb and the pain experienced, but that the effects may differ according to the type of BPD. Sound feedback affected CRPS descriptors and other bodily feelings and emotions including feelings of emotional dominance, limb detachment, position awareness, attention and negative feelings toward the limb. Gait also varied with sound feedback, affecting the foot contact time with the ground in a way consistent with experienced changes in body weight. Although, findings from this small pilot study should be interpreted with caution, they suggest potential applications for regenerating BDP and its related

  2. Bodily Sensory Inputs and Anomalous Bodily Experiences in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Evaluation of the Potential Effects of Sound Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajadura-Jiménez, Ana; Cohen, Helen; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Neuroscientific studies have shown that human's mental body representations are not fixed but are constantly updated through sensory feedback, including sound feedback. This suggests potential new therapeutic sensory approaches for patients experiencing body-perception disturbances (BPD). BPD can occur in association with chronic pain, for example in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). BPD often impacts on emotional, social, and motor functioning. Here we present the results from a proof-of-principle pilot study investigating the potential value of using sound feedback for altering BPD and its related emotional state and motor behavior in those with CRPS. We build on previous findings that real-time alteration of the sounds produced by walking can alter healthy people's perception of their own body size, while also resulting in more active gait patterns and a more positive emotional state. In the present study we quantified the emotional state, BPD, pain levels and gait of twelve people with CRPS Type 1, who were exposed to real-time alteration of their walking sounds. Results confirm previous reports of the complexity of the BPD linked to CRPS, as participants could be classified into four BPD subgroups according to how they mentally visualize their body. Further, results suggest that sound feedback may affect the perceived size of the CRPS affected limb and the pain experienced, but that the effects may differ according to the type of BPD. Sound feedback affected CRPS descriptors and other bodily feelings and emotions including feelings of emotional dominance, limb detachment, position awareness, attention and negative feelings toward the limb. Gait also varied with sound feedback, affecting the foot contact time with the ground in a way consistent with experienced changes in body weight. Although, findings from this small pilot study should be interpreted with caution, they suggest potential applications for regenerating BDP and its related bodily feelings in

  3. Long lasting second remission and quality of life following brachytherapy of relapsing cancer in preirradiated regions. Experience in 108 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, B.F.; Kwiatkowski, J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: In patients with unresectable relapsing malignant tumor following external beam radiotherapy retreatment by brachytherapy gives a second chance of good palliation and even cure. But regardless the great number of tumor relapse reirradiation is given only to few patients due to the impending risks of severe radiation sequelae. Material and method: From January 1st 1992 to December 31st 1995 overall 108 patients with histologically proven local tumor relapses in preirradiated regions were reirradiated by interstitial or intraluminal brachytherapy (192-Iridium sources). The preirradiation dose was 40 to 70 Gray (Gy) in conventional fractionation. The brachytherapy retreatment dose was 30 to 40 Gy at the individually shaped reference isodose shell. In high dose-rate technique (about two third of all patients) mostly single doses of 5 Gy were applied once or twice a week. If low dose-rate techniques were used, a maximum dose of 60 Gy was applied. In some cases a second course of external beam radiotherapy was added. The sites of reirradiation were: ear-nose-throat-yaw areas 76, large airways 24, soft tissues 7, scalp 1. Results: In (23(108)) patients (21 %) complete or partial remission could be achieved lasting at least one year. In (8(23)) patients (overall 7,4 %) the second remission lasted longer than two years. The quality of life in the long time survivors was felt to be good or at least acceptable. Local necroses, not life threatening, occurred in about 20 %. No fatal complication was to be observed. Altogether in about 85 % the reirradiation resulted in effective palliation and was well tolerated. Discussion and conclusion: Retreatment by brachytherapy yields valuable palliation to the vast majority of patients and gives a second chance of long time good quality survival to about 10 % of all retreated patients. Careful selection of patients and experienced realisation of brachytherapy is essential to avoid severe complications

  4. Brain mechanisms for social perception: lessons from autism and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelphrey, Kevin A; Carter, Elizabeth J

    2008-12-01

    In this review, we summarize our research program, which has as its goal charting the typical and atypical development of the social brain in children, adolescents, and adults with and without autism. We highlight recent work using virtual reality stimuli, eye tracking, and functional magnetic resonance imaging that has implicated the superior temporal sulcus (STS) region as an important component of the network of brain regions that support various aspects of social cognition and social perception. Our work in typically developing adults has led to the conclusion that the STS region is involved in social perception via its role in the visual analysis of others' actions and intentions from biological-motion cues. Our work in high-functioning adolescents and adults with autism has implicated the STS region as a mechanism underlying social perception dysfunction in this neurodevelopmental disorder. We also report novel findings from a study of biological-motion perception in young children with and without autism.

  5. Simultaneous observations of equatorial F-region plasma depletions over Brazil during the Spread-F Experiment (SpreadFEx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-D. Pautet

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available From September to November 2005, the NASA Living with a Star program supported the Spread-F Experiment campaign (SpreadFEx in Brazil to study the effects of convectively generated gravity waves on the ionosphere and their role in seeding Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, and associated equatorial plasma bubbles. Several US and Brazilian institutes deployed a broad range of instruments (all-sky imagers, digisondes, photometers, meteor/VHF radars, GPS receivers covering a large area of Brazil. The campaign was divided in two observational phases centered on the September and October new moon periods. During these periods, an Utah State University (USU all-sky CCD imager operated at São João d'Aliança (14.8° S, 47.6° W, near Brasilia, and a Brazilian all-sky CCD imager located at Cariri (7.4° S, 36° W, observed simultaneously the evolution of the ionospheric bubbles in the OI (630 nm emission and the mesospheric gravity wave field. The two sites had approximately the same magnetic latitude (9–10° S but were separated in longitude by ~1500 km.

    Plasma bubbles were observed on every clear night (17 from Brasilia and 19 from Cariri, with 8 coincident nights. These joint datasets provided important information for characterizing the ionospheric depletions during the campaign and to perform a novel longitudinal investigation of their variability. Measurements of the drift velocities at both sites are in good agreement with previous studies, however, the overlapping fields of view revealed significant differences in the occurrence and structure of the plasma bubbles, providing new evidence for localized generation. This paper summarizes the observed bubble characteristics important for related investigations of their seeding mechanisms associated with gravity wave activity.

  6. Simultaneous observations of equatorial F-region plasma depletions over Brazil during the Spread-F Experiment (SpreadFEx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-D. Pautet

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available From September to November 2005, the NASA Living with a Star program supported the Spread-F Experiment campaign (SpreadFEx in Brazil to study the effects of convectively generated gravity waves on the ionosphere and their role in seeding Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, and associated equatorial plasma bubbles. Several US and Brazilian institutes deployed a broad range of instruments (all-sky imagers, digisondes, photometers, meteor/VHF radars, GPS receivers covering a large area of Brazil. The campaign was divided in two observational phases centered on the September and October new moon periods. During these periods, an Utah State University (USU all-sky CCD imager operated at São João d'Aliança (14.8° S, 47.6° W, near Brasilia, and a Brazilian all-sky CCD imager located at Cariri (7.4° S, 36° W, observed simultaneously the evolution of the ionospheric bubbles in the OI (630 nm emission and the mesospheric gravity wave field. The two sites had approximately the same magnetic latitude (9–10° S but were separated in longitude by ~1500 km. Plasma bubbles were observed on every clear night (17 from Brasilia and 19 from Cariri, with 8 coincident nights. These joint datasets provided important information for characterizing the ionospheric depletions during the campaign and to perform a novel longitudinal investigation of their variability. Measurements of the drift velocities at both sites are in good agreement with previous studies, however, the overlapping fields of view revealed significant differences in the occurrence and structure of the plasma bubbles, providing new evidence for localized generation. This paper summarizes the observed bubble characteristics important for related investigations of their seeding mechanisms associated with gravity wave activity.

  7. Fistula-in-Ano complicated by Fournier′s gangrene our experience in North-Eastern region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar A Bakari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fistula-in-ano when complicated by Fournier′s gangrene is an unusual finding and always carries high morbidity. This study details our experience in managing 10 cases. Methods of Study: Case files of all patients managed in University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital and Federal Medical Center of Yola and Gombe from January, 2007 to December, 2011 were retrieved from Medical Record Departments and other Hospital Records. These were analyzed for demographic, clinical and pathological variables, the type of treatment and follow-up. Results: A total of 10 men with a mean age of 50.5 years (35-60 were managed in the period of study. Nearly, 50% of the patients were farmers, 30% businessmen and 20% were civil servant. 7 (70% of these patients presented with Fournier′s gangrene within 4 weeks of development of fistula-in-ano and the rest within 8 weeks. 4 (40% of these patients had inadequate drainage of their perianal abscess and 2 (20% had incision and drainage. Another 4 (40% had spontaneously rupture of the perianal abscess. 6 (60% of the fistula-in-ano was submuscular, 30% subcutaneous and 10% were complex or recurrent. Nearly, 20% of patients had fistulotomy and seton application for adequate drainage. Mucosal advancement flap was performed in 5 (50% and fistulotomy in 3 (30% patients. Another 30% had fistulotomy and continuing sitz bath. Conclusion: Cryptoglandular infection is an important cause of perianal abscesses and fistula-in-ano and if poorly managed results in Fournier′s gangrene. Early broad spectrum parenteral antibiotic therapy and primary surgical treatment can prevent Fournier′s gangrene.

  8. Aging Management Plan for a Typical Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Mahsa; Nazififard, Mohammad; Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Development of an aging management plan (AMP) is a crucial contributor to maintaining the reactor safety and controlling the risk of degradation of the concrete reactor building of a nuclear power plant. The design, operation and utilization of a research reactor (RR) fundamentally differ from those of power reactors. The AMP should nonetheless be present on account of radioactive materials and radiation risks involved. This is mainly because the RR is deemed to be used as an experiment itself or to conduct separate experiments during its operation. The AMP aims to determine the requisites for specific structural concrete components of the reactor building that entail regular inspections and maintenance to ensure safe and reliable operation of the plant. The safety of a RR necessitates the provision which is made in its design to facilitate aging management. Aging management of RR's structures is one of the vital factors to safety, to ensure continued adequacy of the safety level, reliable operation of the reactor, and compliance with the operational limits and conditions.Moreover, engineering systems should be qualified to meet the functional requirements for which they were designed with aging and environmental conditions for all situations and at all times taken into account. This study aims to present an integrated methodology for the application of an AMP for the concrete of the reactor building of a typical RR. For the purpose of safety analysis, geometry and ambient conditions were taken from a 5 MW pool-type, light-water moderated, heterogeneous, solid fuel RR in which the water is also used for cooling and shielding (Fig. 1). The reactor core is immersed in either section of a two-section concrete pool filled with water. This paper makes available background information regarding the document and the strategy developed to manage potential degradation of the reactor building concrete as well as specific programs and preventive and corrective

  9. Ballistic Characterization Of A Typical Military Steel Helmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Maher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ballistic limit of a steel helmet against a FMJ 919 mm caliber bullet is estimated. The helmet model is the typical polish helmet wz.31.The helmet material showed high strength low alloy steel material of 0.28 carbon content and 9.125 kgm2 areal density. The tensile test according to ASTM E8 showed a tensile strength of 1236.4 MPa .The average hardness value was about HV550. First shooting experiment has been executed using a 9 mm pistol based on 350 ms muzzle velocity at 5m against the simply supported helmet complete penetrations rose in this test were in the form of cracks on the helmet surface and partial penetrations were in the form of craters on the surface whose largest diameter and depth were 43 mm and 20.2 mm consequently .The second experiment was on a rifled gun arrangement 13 bullets of 919 mm caliber were shot on the examined simply supported steel helmet at a zero obliquity angle at different velocities to determine the ballistic limit velocity V50 according to MIL-STD-662F. Three major outcomes were revealed 1 the value V50 which found to be about 390 ms is higher than the one found in literature 360 ms German steel helmet model 1A1. 2 The smallest the standard deviation of the mixed results zone data the most accurate the ballistic limit is. 3Similar to the performance of blunt-ended projectiles impacting overmatching targets tD near 11 or larger It was found that the dominating failure mode of the steel helmet stuck by a hemispherical-nose projectile was plugging mode despite of having tD ratio of about 19 undermatching.

  10. Downscale climate change scenarios over the Western Himalayan region of India using multi-generation CMIP experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Lalu; Meher, Jitendra K.; Akhter, Javed

    2017-04-01

    Assessing climate change information over the Western Himalayan Region (WHR) of India is crucial but challenging task due to its limited numbers of station data containing huge missing values. The issues of missing values of station data were replaced the Multiple Imputation Chained Equation (MICE) technique. Finally 22 numbers of rain gauge stations having continuous data during 1901-2005 and 16 numbers stations having continuous temperature data during 1969-2009 were considered as " reference stations for assessing rainfall and temperature trends in addition to evaluation of the GCMs available in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 3 (CMIP3) and phase 5 (CMIP5) over WRH. Station data indicates that the winter warming is higher and rapid (1.05oC) than other seasons and less warming in the post monsoon season in the last 41 years. Area averaged using 22 station data indicates that monsoon and winter rainfall has decreased by -5 mm and -320 mm during 1901-2000 while pre-monsoon and post monsoon showed an increasing trends of 21 mm and 13 mm respectively. Present study is constructed the downscaled climate change information at station locations (22 and 16 stations for rainfall and temperature respectively) over the WHR from the GCMs commonly available in the IPCC's different generations assessment reports namely 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th thereafter known as SAR, TAR, AR4 and AR5 respectively. Once the downscaled results are obtained for each generation model outputs, then a comparison of studies is carried out from the results of each generation. Finally an overall model improvement index (OMII) is developed using the downscaling results which is used to investigate the model improvement across generations as well as the improvement of downscaling results obtained from the empirical statistical downscaling (ESD) methods. In general, the results indicate that there is a gradual improvement of GCMs simulations as well as downscaling results across generation

  11. Heavy metal pollutionof soil and new approch to its remediation: Research experiences in arid region in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hari, A.; Lekouch, N.; Chaik, M.; El Fadeli, S.; Sedki, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: With climate change and water scarcity remarkable for agricultural soils in the countries of North Africa, pollution with heavy metals represent a great danger for aquatic as well as terrestrial ecosystems. Indeed, they are persistent and non-biodegradable in the environment. When in excess, these metals may influence the soil's biochemical and physico-chemical characteristics, or disturb plants' physiology and contaminate alimentary chains. Therefore, a possible action for rehabilitation of contaminated sites would be an original approach: phytostabilisation. This technique, which is used in Europe but not yet in Morocco, consists of using plants in order to stop soil contaminant migration towards the aquifer. The objective of this study is to try to find vegetal species that are both adapted to the arid climate of Marrakech and capable of purifying the soil and the ground water. In addition, we have chosen to study waters and soils of two sites with different sources of contamination, both located in the surroundings of Marrakech, one representing the used water zone, namely the region of El Azzouzia and the other being the mining zone called D raa Lasfar . On the other hand, thanks to germination and growing tests, we have tried to apply the phytostabilisation technique on different soils by selecting varieties, among 15 vegetal species, which can resist the presence of heavy metals the most, especially Cadmium, and accumulate heavy metals in order to play a purifying role. Our study results have shown that among these 15 vegetal species, only three show the highest growth and most important resistance to Cadmium. The three vegetal species in question are Corn, Wheat and Trigonella. The study has also been able to demonstrate that among these three species, Trigonella is the most hyper accumulative of Zinc and Cadmium. It could therefore be suggested to be a means of phytostabilisation on polluted soils of the city and surroundings of Marrakech

  12. OUTPATIENT REGISTER OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES IN THE RYAZAN REGION (RECVASA: PRINCIPAL TASKS, EXPERIENCE OF DEVELOPMENT AND FIRST RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Boytsov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate risk factors and comorbidity structure, cardiovascular diseases outcomes, evaluate their diagnostics and treatment quality in real outpatient practice using a register of patients with arterial hypertension (HT, ischemic heart disease (IHD, chronic heart failure (CHF and atrial fibrillation (AF in the Ryazan Region – the territorial subject ofRussian Federation with high cardiovascular mortality rate.Material and methods. The total of 1000 HT, IHD, CHF, AF patients, applied for general practitioners or cardiologists of theRyazan outpatient clinics in March-May of 2012 were sequentially enrolled in the outpatient REgister of CardioVAscular diseases (RECVASA.Results. According to outpatient cards data HT, IHD, CHF and AF were diagnosed in 99.0%; 70.9%; 74.8% and 13.7% of the 1000 cases, respectively. 820 (82% patients revealed a concomitant cardiovascular pathology (cardiac comorbidity, at that the most frequent was combination of HT with IHD and CHF (50.4%. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in 209 (20.9% patients. 770 (77% patients were assessed on their total cholesterol level; smoking status and family history of heart diseases were estimated in 28 (2.8% and 49 (4.9% patients, respectively. Exercise tolerance test (stress-test was carried out in 2% of the patients (including 2.8% of the IHD patients, 24-hour blood pressure (BP and ECG monitoring – in 0.7% and 5.5%, respectively; echocardiography and ultrasound of brachiocephalic arteries (BCA – in 25.6% and 8.6%, respectively; coronary angiography – in 1.6% (which includes 2.3% of the IHD patients. The following drug groups were prescribed most frequently: antiplatelet agents – in 60.4% of the cases (584 patients received acetylsalicylic acid and 20 – clopidogrel, ACE inhibitors – in 62.9%, β-blockers – in 43.9% of the patients. Target BP level was achieved in 245 of 956 cases (25.6%. 50.6% of IHD patients and 51.1% of hypercholesterolemic patients received

  13. Versatile high-repetition-rate phase-locked chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray spectral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plogmaker, Stefan; Johansson, Erik M. J.; Rensmo, Haakan; Feifel, Raimund; Siegbahn, Hans [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Linusson, Per [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Eland, John H. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); Baker, Neville [Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    A novel light chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) and x-ray spectral region has been developed. It can be phase-locked and synchronized with a synchrotron radiation storage ring, accommodating repetition rates in the range of {approx}8 to {approx}120 kHz by choosing different sets of apertures and subharmonics of the ring frequency (MHz range). Also the opening time of the system can be varied from some nanoseconds to several microseconds to meet the needs of a broad range of applications. Adjusting these parameters, the device can be used either for the generation of single light pulses or pulse packages from a microwave driven, continuous He gas discharge lamp or from storage rings which are otherwise often considered as quasi-continuous light sources. This chopper can be utilized for many different kinds of experiments enabling, for example, unambiguous time-of-flight (TOF) multi-electron coincidence studies of atoms and molecules excited by a single light pulse as well as time-resolved visible laser pump x-ray probe electron spectroscopy of condensed matter in the valence and core level region.

  14. Effects of biochar addition on evaporation in the five typical Loess Plateau soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil evaporation is the main route of soil moisture loss and often exceeds precipitation in the arid and semi-arid regions of the Loess Plateau. This study was conducted to determine whether biochar addition could reduce soil evaporation in drylands. We measured the evaporative loss in five typical ...

  15. MRI-guided procedures in various regions of the body using a robotic assistance system in a closed-bore scanner: preliminary clinical experience and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moche, Michael; Zajonz, Dirk; Kahn, Thomas; Busse, Harald

    2010-04-01

    To present the clinical setup and workflow of a robotic assistance system for image-guided interventions in a conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) environment and to report our preliminary clinical experience with percutaneous biopsies in various body regions. The MR-compatible, servo-pneumatically driven, robotic device (Innomotion) fits into the 60-cm bore of a standard MR scanner. The needle placement (n = 25) accuracy was estimated by measuring the 3D deviation between needle tip and prescribed target point in a phantom. Percutaneous biopsies in six patients and different body regions were planned by graphically selecting entry and target points on intraoperatively acquired roadmap MR data. For insertion depths between 29 and 95 mm, the average 3D needle deviation was 2.2 +/- 0.7 mm (range 0.9-3.8 mm). Patients with a body mass index of up to approximately 30 kg/m(2) fitted into the bore with the device. Clinical work steps and limitations are reported for the various applications. All biopsies were diagnostic and could be completed without any major complications. Median planning and intervention times were 25 (range 20-36) and 44 (36-68) minutes, respectively. Preliminary clinical results in a standard MRI environment suggest that the presented robotic device provides accurate guidance for percutaneous procedures in various body regions. Shorter procedure times may be achievable by optimizing technical and workflow aspects. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX: towards a holistic understanding of the feedbacks and interactions in the land–atmosphere–ocean–society continuum in the northern Eurasian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Lappalainen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The northern Eurasian regions and Arctic Ocean will very likely undergo substantial changes during the next decades. The Arctic–boreal natural environments play a crucial role in the global climate via albedo change, carbon sources and sinks as well as atmospheric aerosol production from biogenic volatile organic compounds. Furthermore, it is expected that global trade activities, demographic movement, and use of natural resources will be increasing in the Arctic regions. There is a need for a novel research approach, which not only identifies and tackles the relevant multi-disciplinary research questions, but also is able to make a holistic system analysis of the expected feedbacks. In this paper, we introduce the research agenda of the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX, a multi-scale, multi-disciplinary and international program started in 2012 (https://www.atm.helsinki.fi/peex/. PEEX sets a research approach by which large-scale research topics are investigated from a system perspective and which aims to fill the key gaps in our understanding of the feedbacks and interactions between the land–atmosphere–aquatic–society continuum in the northern Eurasian region. We introduce here the state of the art for the key topics in the PEEX research agenda and present the future prospects of the research, which we see relevant in this context.

  17. Gender Norm Salience Across Middle Schools: Contextual Variations in Associations Between Gender Typicality and Socioemotional Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Danielle Sayre; Schacter, Hannah L; Enders, Craig; Juvonen, Jaana

    2018-05-01

    Youth who feel they do not fit with gender norms frequently experience peer victimization and socioemotional distress. To gauge differences between schools, the current study examined the longitudinal effects of school-level gender norm salience-a within-school association between gender typicality and peer victimization-on socioemotional distress across 26 ethnically diverse middle schools (n boys  = 2607; n girls  = 2805). Boys (but not girls) reporting lower gender typicality experienced more loneliness and social anxiety in schools with more salient gender norms, even when accounting for both individual and school level victimization. Greater gender norm salience also predicted increased depressed mood among boys regardless of gender typicality. These findings suggest particular sensitivity among boys to environments in which low gender typicality is sanctioned.

  18. Effects of forest cover changes in European Russia on regional weather conditions: results of numerical experiments with the COSMO-CLM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchev, Alexander; Kuzmina, Ekaterina; Rozinkina, Inna; Nikitin, Mikhail; Rivin, Gdaly S.

    2017-04-01

    The forests have a significant effect on the climatic system. They capture CO2 from the atmosphere, regulate the surface evaporation and runoff, and influence the radiation and thermal conditions of the land surface. It is obvious, that their influence depends on many different factors including regional climate conditions, land use and vegetation structure, surface topography, etc. The main goal of the study is to assess the possible influence of forest cover changes (under deforestation and/or afforestation) on regional weather conditions in the central part of European Russia using the results of modeling experiments provided by the meso-scale COSMO-CLM model. The need of the study lies in a lack of the experimental and modeling data characterizing the influence of the forest and land-use changes on regional weather conditions in European part of Russia. The forest ecosystems in the study region play a very important biosphere role that is significantly increased in the last decades due to considerable strengthening of anthropogenic activity in the area of European Russia. The area selected for the study is located in the central part of European Russia between 55 and 59N and 28 and 37E. It comprises several geographical zones including dark-coniferous forests of the South-European taiga in the north, the mixed forests in the central part and the broad-leaved forests in the south. The forests within the study area are very heterogeneous. The total area covered by forests according to recent remote sensing data is about 50%. The numerical experiments were provided using the COSMO-CLM model with the spatial resolution 13.2 km. As initial and boundary conditions for the numerical experiments the global reanalysis ERA Interim (with the 6-hour resolution in time and 0.75° × 0.75° in space) were used. The weather conditions were simulated in a continuous cycle for several months for the entire area of European Russia using the results of global reanalysis on

  19. Stored object knowledge and the production of referring expressions: The case of color typicality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans eWesterbeek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available When speakers describe objects with atypical properties, do they include these properties in their referring expressions, even when that is not strictly required for unique referent identification? Based on previous work, we predict that speakers mention the color of a target object more often when the object is atypically colored, compared to when it is typical. Taking literature from object recognition and visual attention into account, we further hypothesize that this behavior is proportional to the degree to which a color is atypical, and whether color is a highly diagnostic feature in the referred-to object's identity. We investigate these expectations in two language production experiments, in which participants referred to target objects in visual contexts. In Experiment 1, we find a strong effect of color typicality: less typical colors for target objects predict higher proportions of referring expressions that include color. In Experiment 2 we manipulated objects with more complex shapes, for which color is less diagnostic, and we find that the color typicality effect is moderated by color diagnosticity: it is strongest for high-color-diagnostic objects (i.e., objects with a simple shape. These results suggest that the production of atypical color attributes results from a contrast with stored knowledge, an effect which is stronger when color is more central to object identification. Our findings offer evidence for models of reference production that incorporate general object knowledge, in order to be able to capture these effects of typicality on determining the content of referring expressions.

  20. Experiments with the MD-1 detector at the e+e- collider VEPP-4 in the energy region of Υ mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baru, S.E.; Blinov, A.E.; Blinov, V.E.; Bondar, A.E.; Bukin, A.D.; Groshev, V.R.; Eidelman, Yu.I.; Kiselev, V.A.; Klimenko, S.G.; Kolachev, G.M.; Mishnev, S.I.; Onuchin, A.P.; Panin, V.S.; Petrov, V.V.; Protopopov, I.Ya.; Shamov, A.G.; Sidorov, V.A.; Skovpen, Yu.I.; Skrinsky, A.N.; Tayursky, V.A.; Telnov, V.I.; Tikhonov, Yu.A.; Tumaikin, G.M.; Undrus, A.E.; Vorobiov, A.I.; Zhilich, V.N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews physical results obtained at the e + e - collider VEPP-4 with the MD-1 detector. The results of experiments on the Υ meson physics and study of the hadron production in continuum in the energy region 7.2-10.3 GeV as well as the results of study of the two photon reactions are presented. Among results obtained in the upsilon physics: the precise measurement of the Υ(1S), Υ(2S), Υ(3S) masses and the precise determination of the Υ(1S) and Υ(2S) electronic widths. In the experiments on study of the hadron production in continuum the precise measurement of the R was carried out. The peculiarity of the detector is the magnetic field transverse to the orbit plane which provided the possibility to study two photon reactions with tagging one or both scattered electrons even at zero emission angle. Among results on the γγ reactions is the measurement of the two photon total hadronic cross section performed in the double-tag mode. In the QED experiments a new QED effect - the impact parameter cut-off in single bremsstrahlung was discovered. (orig.)

  1. 12 CFR 408.6 - Typical classes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Typical classes of action. 408.6 Section 408.6 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Eximbank Implementing Procedures § 408.6 Typical classes of action. (a) Section 1507.3...

  2. Swedish Upper Secondary Students' Perspectives on the Typical Mathematics Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Paul; Larson, Niclas

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a group interview study of Swedish upper secondary students' perspectives on the typical mathematics lesson. Students, from four demographically different schools, constructed a collective synthesis of their many years' experience of mathematics classrooms. Transcriptions were subjected to a constant comparison analysis, which…

  3. Decision-Tree Models of Categorization Response Times, Choice Proportions, and Typicality Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, Daniel; Lacouture, Yves; Cohen, Andrew L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present 3 decision-tree models of categorization adapted from T. Trabasso, H. Rollins, and E. Shaughnessy (1971) and use them to provide a quantitative account of categorization response times, choice proportions, and typicality judgments at the individual-participant level. In Experiment 1, the decision-tree models were fit to…

  4. Integrated SNG Production in a Typical Nordic Sawmill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sennai Mesfun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced biomass-based motor fuels and chemicals are becoming increasingly important to replace fossil energy sources within the coming decades. It is likely that the new biorefineries will evolve mainly from existing forest industry sites, as they already have the required biomass handling infrastructure in place. The main objective of this work is to assess the potential for increasing the profit margin from sawmill byproducts by integrating innovative downstream processes. The focus is on the techno-economic evaluation of an integrated site for biomass-based synthetic natural gas (bio-SNG production. The option of using the syngas in a biomass-integrated gasification combined cycle (b-IGCC for the production of electricity (instead of SNG is also considered for comparison. The process flowsheets that are used to analyze the energy and material balances are modelled in MATLAB and Simulink. A mathematical process integration model of a typical Nordic sawmill is used to analyze the effects on the energy flows in the overall site, as well as to evaluate the site economics. Different plant sizes have been considered in order to assess the economy-of-scale effect. The technical data required as input are collected from the literature and, in some cases, from experiments. The investment cost is evaluated on the basis of conducted studies, third party supplier budget quotations and in-house database information. This paper presents complete material and energy balances of the considered processes and the resulting process economics. Results show that in order for the integrated SNG production to be favored, depending on the sawmill size, a biofuel subsidy in the order of 28–52 €/MWh SNG is required.

  5. Gender-typical olfactory regulation of sexual behavior in goldfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makito eKobayashi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known that olfaction is essential for the occurrence of sexual behavior in male goldfish. Sex pheromones from ovulatory females elicit male sexual behavior, chasing and sperm releasing act. In female goldfish, ovarian prostaglandin F2α (PGF elicits female sexual behavior, egg releasing act. It has been considered that olfaction does not affect sexual behavior in female goldfish. In the present study, we reexamined the involvement of olfaction in sexual behavior of female goldfish. Olfaction was blocked in male and female goldfish by two methods: nasal occlusion (NO which blocks the reception of olfactants, and olfactory tract section (OTX which blocks transmission of olfactory information from the olfactory bulb to the telencephalon. Sexual behavior of goldfish was induced by administration of PGF to females, an established method for inducing goldfish sexual behavior in both sexes. Sexual behavior in males was suppressed by NO and OTX as previously reported because of lack of pheromone stimulation. In females, NO suppressed sexual behavior but OTX did not affect the occurrence of sexual behavior. Females treated with both NO and OTX performed sexual behavior normally. These results indicate that olfaction is essential in female goldfish to perform sexual behavior as in males but in a different manner. The lack of olfaction in males causes lack of pheromonal stimulation, resulting in no behavior elicited. Whereas the results of female experiments suggest that lack of olfaction in females causes strong inhibition of sexual behavior mediated by the olfactory pathway. Olfactory tract section is considered to block the pathway and remove this inhibition, resulting in the resumption of the behavior. By subtract sectioning of the olfactory tract, it was found that this inhibition was mediated by the medial olfactory tracts, not the lateral olfactory tracts. Thus, it is concluded that goldfish has gender-typical olfactory regulation for sexual

  6. Narrative versus style: Effect of genre-typical events versus genre-typical filmic realizations on film viewers’ genre recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genre-typical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization

  7. Generation of typical meteorological year for different climates of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yingni

    2010-01-01

    Accurate prediction of building energy performance requires precise information of the local climate. Typical weather year files like typical meteorological year (TMY) are commonly used in building simulation. They are also essential for numerical analysis of sustainable and renewable energy systems. The present paper presents the generation of typical meteorological year (TMY) for eight typical cities representing the major climate zones of China. The data set, which includes global solar radiation data and other meteorological parameters referring to dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, has been analyzed. The typical meteorological year is generated from the available meteorological data recorded during the period 1995-2004, using the Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) for each year is compared with the CDF for the long-term composite of all the years in the period. Typical months for each of the 12 calendar months from the period of years are selected by choosing the one with the smallest deviation from the long-term CDF. The 12 typical months selected from the different years are used for the formulation of a TMY.

  8. Methodology of regional emission inventories: Application to the emission inventories of the ESCOMPTE experiment and to their regional extension to the PACA (Provence-Alpes-Cote-d'Azur) region; Methodologie d'etablissement de cadastres d'emissions a l'echelle regionale: application au cadastre escompte et a son extension a la region PACA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, St.

    2004-06-01

    With the industrial revolution and then the massive use of fossil fuels, the air quality has been considerably worsening. Air quality is a complex function of meteorological situations (wind, sun radiation) and pollutant emissions. All those parameters must be accounted for modelling the reactive transports of pollutants in the atmosphere but only the anthropogenic emissions can be managed on a short time frame, as well concerning the composition of the flux as the emitted quantities. This overall modelling problematic emphasize the crucial role of emission databases in the air quality modelling processes, as diagnostic or prognostic tool for air quality issues. To obtain a consistent and realistic modelling, not only the emissions and meteorological data have to be taken take into account, especially the emissions in the proper chemical reaction mechanisms but the quality of the emission data is crucial. The starting point of our study was that few or no inventories exist, and from the ones available, they are not adapted to be used efficiently in regional air quality modelling. The resolution, especially regarding spatial emission distribution of the national inventories can not lead to proper input data for this kind of studies. Our study include both the method aspects (theoretical studies) and the operational aspects (applied studies) regarding the generation of high resolution spatial emission data (based on national statistical data standards) that can be used as suitable input data for meso-scale photochemical models of the reactive transport of pollutants. This work was part of the ESCOMPTE program, an unparalleled scientific in the domain of air quality experiment in France. Our tasks in this program also included a methodological transfer (accompanied with the software tools related to the emission databases) of the study to the local air quality monitoring authority (AIRMARAIX for the city of Marseille). This overall application proved the feasibility

  9. Sensory experience of food and obesity: a positron emission tomography study of the brain regions affected by tasting a liquid meal after a prolonged fast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelParigi, Angelo; Chen, Kewei; Salbe, Arline D; Reiman, Eric M; Tataranni, P Antonio

    2005-01-15

    The sensory experience of food is a primary reinforcer of eating and overeating plays a major role in the development of human obesity. However, whether the sensory experience of a forthcoming meal and the associated physiological phenomena (cephalic phase response, expectation of reward), which prepare the organism for the ingestion of food play a role in the regulation of energy intake and contribute to the development of obesity remains largely unresolved. We used positron emission tomography (PET) and 15O-water to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and to assess the brain's response to the oral administration of 2 ml of a liquid meal (Ensure Plus, 1.5 kcal/ml) after a 36-h fast and shortly before consuming the same meal. Twenty-one obese (BMI > 35 kg/m2, 10M/11F, age 28 +/- 6 years, body fat 40 +/- 6%) and 20 lean individuals (BMI obese individuals had higher fasting plasma glucose (83.3 +/- 6.2 vs. 75.5 +/- 9.6 mg/dl; P = 0.0003) and insulin concentrations (6.1 +/- 3.5 vs. 2.5 +/- 1.7 microU/ml; P food, differences in rCBF were observed in several regions of the brain, including greater increases in the middle-dorsal insula and midbrain, and greater decreases in the posterior cingulate, temporal, and orbitofrontal cortices in obese compared to lean individuals (P obesity is associated with an abnormal brain response to the sensory aspects of a liquid meal after a prolonged fast especially in areas of the primary gustatory cortex. This is only partially explained by the elevated glycemia and high level of disinhibition which characterize individuals with increased adiposity. These results provide a new perspective on the understanding of the neuroanatomical correlates of abnormal eating behavior and their relationship with obesity in humans.

  10. Characterization of necrophagus entomofauna in a typical agricultural area in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Calzolari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a checklist of Dipterans and Coleopterans accountable for carrion decay in the Po Valley (Italy, a contribution to the Forensic Entomology knowledge in Italy. Insects colonizing two pig carcasses in an agricultural area in Mezzani municipality (Parma, Northern Italy were sampled by pitfall traps and original Malaise-like traps, which allowed the sampling of a very relevant number of flying insects. A checklist of 57 taxa was obtained, of which 26 were considered of forensic importance. For the latter the arrival time of adult specimens on the carcasses was recorded, as an important parameter in minimum post mortem interval estimation. Dipterans (6141 specimens were the most common insects; the fastest specimens to detect and colonize the carcass belonged to the Calliphoridae family, while Fanniidae and Muscidae infested the carrion until completion of the skeletal stage. Coleopterans appeared later (308 adult specimens and 114 larvae were captured. Staphylinidae, Dermestidae, and Histeridae were the most common coleopterans sampled in this study.

  11. ReMap 2018: an updated atlas of regulatory regions from an integrative analysis of DNA-binding ChIP-seq experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chèneby, Jeanne; Gheorghe, Marius; Artufel, Marie; Mathelier, Anthony; Ballester, Benoit

    2018-01-04

    With this latest release of ReMap (http://remap.cisreg.eu), we present a unique collection of regulatory regions in human, as a result of a large-scale integrative analysis of ChIP-seq experiments for hundreds of transcriptional regulators (TRs) such as transcription factors, transcriptional co-activators and chromatin regulators. In 2015, we introduced the ReMap database to capture the genome regulatory space by integrating public ChIP-seq datasets, covering 237 TRs across 13 million (M) peaks. In this release, we have extended this catalog to constitute a unique collection of regulatory regions. Specifically, we have collected, analyzed and retained after quality control a total of 2829 ChIP-seq datasets available from public sources, covering a total of 485 TRs with a catalog of 80M peaks. Additionally, the updated database includes new search features for TR names as well as aliases, including cell line names and the ability to navigate the data directly within genome browsers via public track hubs. Finally, full access to this catalog is available online together with a TR binding enrichment analysis tool. ReMap 2018 provides a significant update of the ReMap database, providing an in depth view of the complexity of the regulatory landscape in human. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. The System of Creative Tasks for Activization of French and English Speaking of Future Teachers (Experience of Universities of Odessa Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kniazian Marianna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In today's multi-ethnic world, one of the most important problems is the development of future teachers’ communicative competence, cultural pluralism, plurilingualism and tolerance. It is important to enrich individual person’s experience of language in its cultural contexts. This issue is related to such an important task as the activization of students’ speaking in foreign language classes. There is interesting experience of teaching speaking in French and English at universities in Odessa region. We offer the students the following system of creative tasks: representative (involve retelling the course of events, description of the characters; analytical (direct students to analyze the actions and behaviour of heroes of short stories, to compare the characters; hypothetical (guide students how to express their viewpoints on the factors that have influenced the nature of the character, his or her deeds. In addition to creative tasks the linguistic exercises are offered to the future teachers. These tasks have been developed in the process of studying the stories of Guy de Maupassant («La Parure», «Deux amis», «Le Papa de Simon», «Sur l’eau», « Clair de lune », O. Henry (« The Last Leaf», « The Gift of the Magi », John Galsworthy ( « Acme », « The First and the Last ».

  13. Portion distortion: typical portion sizes selected by young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jaime; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2006-09-01

    The incidence of obesity has increased in parallel with increasing portion sizes of individually packaged and ready-to-eat prepared foods as well as foods served at restaurants. Portion distortion (perceiving large portion sizes as appropriate amounts to eat at a single eating occasion) may contribute to increasing energy intakes and expanding waistlines. The purpose of this study was to determine typical portion sizes that young adults select, how typical portion sizes compare with reference portion sizes (based in this study on the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act's quantities of food customarily eaten per eating occasion), and whether the size of typical portions has changed over time. Young adults (n=177, 75% female, age range 16 to 26 years) at a major northeastern university. Participants served themselves typical portion sizes of eight foods at breakfast (n=63) or six foods at lunch or dinner (n=62, n=52, respectively). Typical portion-size selections were unobtrusively weighed. A unit score was calculated by awarding 1 point for each food with a typical portion size that was within 25% larger or smaller than the reference portion; larger or smaller portions were given 0 points. Thus, each participant's unit score could range from 0 to 8 at breakfast or 0 to 6 at lunch and dinner. Analysis of variance or t tests were used to determine whether typical and reference portion sizes differed, and whether typical portion sizes changed over time. Mean unit scores (+/-standard deviation) were 3.63+/-1.27 and 1.89+/-1.14, for breakfast and lunch/dinner, respectively, indicating little agreement between typical and reference portion sizes. Typical portions sizes in this study tended to be significantly different from those selected by young adults in a similar study conducted 2 decades ago. Portion distortion seems to affect the portion sizes selected by young adults for some foods. This phenomenon has the potential to hinder weight loss, weight maintenance, and

  14. Toddlers' categorization of typical and scrambled dolls and cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Michelle; Slaughter, Virginia

    2008-09-01

    Previous research has demonstrated discrimination of scrambled from typical human body shapes at 15-18 months of age [Slaughter, V., & Heron, M. (2004). Origins and early development of human body knowledge. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 69]. In the current study 18-, 24- and 30-month-old infants were presented with four typical and four scrambled dolls in a sequential touching procedure, to assess the development of explicit categorization of human body shapes. Infants were also presented with typical and scrambled cars, allowing comparison of infants' categorization of scrambled and typical exemplars in a different domain. Spontaneous comments regarding category membership were recorded. Girls categorized dolls and cars as typical or scrambled at 30 months, whereas boys only categorized the cars. Earliest categorization was for typical and scrambled cars, at 24 months, but only for boys. Language-based knowledge, coded from infants' comments, followed the same pattern. This suggests that human body knowledge does not have privileged status in infancy. Gender differences in performance are discussed.

  15. [Investigation of typical melamine urinary stones using infrared spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Min-Zhen; Li, Qing-Yun; Liu, Ren-Ming; Kang, Yi-Pu; Wang, Kun-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Guo

    2010-02-01

    A typical melamine kidney stone confirmed by some medicine expert was collected from the first people's hospital of Yunnan. The kidney stone was adequately determined by PE corporation spectra 100(with resolution of 1 cm(-1)). The stone samples for FTIR analysis were prepared using the KBr pellet technique, where 2 mg of the pretreated stone powder was mixed with 200 mg of analytical grade KBr using an agate pestle and mortar. The digital spectrum was then scanned in the mid-infrared region from 4 000 to 400 cm(-1) at room temperature. The appearing bands between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 487, 3 325, 3 162 and 2 788 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 694, 1 555, 1 383, 1 340, 1 189 and 1 122 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 782, 748, 709, 624, 585, 565 and 476 cm(-1). It was found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with cat kidney stone, which was from cats that died after consuming the contaminated food, and confirmed that these deposits were primarily composed of melamine and cyanuric acid compared to the IR spectra of calculi in literature. It was also found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with popular kidney stone by comparison with the IR spectra of calculi in literature. The spectrum of calculi was 50% respectively similar with melamine and uric acid as compared with the IR spectrum. It was found that the main constituent of calculi was melamine itself and uric acid as compared with the IR spectra of calculi and melamine: (1 : 1), because the spectrum of calculi was 83. 3% similar to melamine and uric acid (1 : 1). The appearing bands of melamine and uric acid (1 : 1) between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 469, 3 419, 3 333, 3 132, 3 026, 2 827 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 696, 1 656, 1 555, 1 489, 1 439, 1 350, 1 311, 1 198, 1 124 and 1 028 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 878, 814, 784, 745, 708, 619, 577 and

  16. Response of Maize Plant to Phosphorus Fertilization on Typic Distrudepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Kasno

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available On the acid soil, phosphorus nutrients become critical for agricultural crops growth. At the present, price of fertilizers significantly increase and fertilizers are not available. These conditions can affect on soil productivity and crop production. The objective of these research were to study the response of maize (Zea mays L. to phosphate fertilizers on Inceptisol. The research was conducted in Cicadas Village on Typic Dystrudept. Experiment was conducted in a randomized completely block design, with 8 treatments and three replications. Treatments consisted of 6 dosages of P fertilizers, which were P source is SP-36 WIKA Agro 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg ha-1. SP-36 and Tunisia rock phosphate (40 kg P ha-1 were used for standard. Pioneer 12 variety of maized was used as an indicator. Plot size was 5 m x 6 m and the maize was planting with distance of 75 cm x 20 cm with one seed per hole. The results showed that organic C and N, P (extracted by Bray 1, K and CEC on the soil were low. Phosphate fertilizers significantly increased which was P extracted by HCl 25% from 24 to 67 mg P 100 g-1 soil and which were extracted by Bray 1 increased from 0,87 to 63.31 mg P kg-1 soil. Phosphate fertilizers significantly increased plant height from 175.2 cm become to 221.1 cm. Plant height of maize using SP-36 WIKA Agro fertilizer (210.6 cm was similar to plant heigh using SP-36 fertilizer (213.4 cm but less height from Tunisia rock phosphate. The yield of maize on SP-36 WIKA Agro (4.94 t ha-1 were linely higher than SP-36 (4.69 t ha-1, significantly was higher than that of Tunisia rock phosphate. Maximum dosage of SP-36 fertilizer was 66.67 kg P ha-1, and optimum dosage was 42 kg P ha-1. Value of Relative Agronomic Effectiveness SP-36 WIKA Agro fertilizer was heigher than SP-36.

  17. Contribution of milk production to global greenhouse gas emissions. An estimation based on typical farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Martin; Ndambi, Asaah; Hemme, Torsten; Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe

    2012-02-01

    Studies on the contribution of milk production to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are rare (FAO 2010) and often based on crude data which do not appropriately reflect the heterogeneity of farming systems. This article estimates GHG emissions from milk production in different dairy regions of the world based on a harmonised farm data and assesses the contribution of milk production to global GHG emissions. The methodology comprises three elements: (1) the International Farm Comparison Network (IFCN) concept of typical farms and the related globally standardised dairy model farms representing 45 dairy regions in 38 countries; (2) a partial life cycle assessment model for estimating GHG emissions of the typical dairy farms; and (3) standard regression analysis to estimate GHG emissions from milk production in countries for which no typical farms are available in the IFCN database. Across the 117 typical farms in the 38 countries analysed, the average emission rate is 1.50 kg CO(2) equivalents (CO(2)-eq.)/kg milk. The contribution of milk production to the global anthropogenic emissions is estimated at 1.3 Gt CO(2)-eq./year, accounting for 2.65% of total global anthropogenic emissions (49 Gt; IPCC, Synthesis Report for Policy Maker, Valencia, Spain, 2007). We emphasise that our estimates of the contribution of milk production to global GHG emissions are subject to uncertainty. Part of the uncertainty stems from the choice of the appropriate methods for estimating emissions at the level of the individual animal.

  18. Brain bases of reading fluency in typical reading and impaired fluency in dyslexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna A Christodoulou

    Full Text Available Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits are a persistent behavioral marker of dyslexia into adulthood. The current study identified the neural correlates of fluent reading in typical and dyslexic adult readers, using sentences presented in a word-by-word format in which single words were presented sequentially at fixed rates. Sentences were presented at slow, medium, and fast rates, and participants were asked to decide whether each sentence did or did not make sense semantically. As presentation rates increased, participants became less accurate and slower at making judgments, with comprehension accuracy decreasing disproportionately for dyslexic readers. In-scanner performance on the sentence task correlated significantly with standardized clinical measures of both reading fluency and phonological awareness. Both typical readers and readers with dyslexia exhibited widespread, bilateral increases in activation that corresponded to increases in presentation rate. Typical readers exhibited significantly larger gains in activation as a function of faster presentation rates than readers with dyslexia in several areas, including left prefrontal and left superior temporal regions associated with semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations. Group differences were more extensive when behavioral differences between conditions were equated across groups. These findings suggest a brain basis for impaired reading fluency in dyslexia, specifically a failure of brain regions involved in semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations to become fully engaged for comprehension at rapid reading rates.

  19. Regional-scale analysis of karst underground flow deduced from tracing experiments: examples from carbonate aquifers in Malaga province, southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberá, J. A.; Mudarra, M.; Andreo, B.; De la Torre, B.

    2018-02-01

    Tracer concentration data from field experiments conducted in several carbonate aquifers (Malaga province, southern Spain) were analyzed following a dual approach based on the graphical evaluation method (GEM) and solute transport modeling to decipher flow mechanisms in karst systems at regional scale. The results show that conduit system geometry and flow conditions are the principal factors influencing tracer migration through the examined karst flow routes. Solute transport is mainly controlled by longitudinal advection and dispersion throughout the conduit length, but also by flow partitioning between mobile and immobile fluid phases, while the matrix diffusion process appears to be less relevant. The simulation of tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) suggests that diffuse and concentrated flow through the unsaturated zone can have equivalent transport properties under extreme recharge, with high flow velocities and efficient mixing due to the high hydraulic gradients generated. Tracer mobilization within the saturated zone under low flow conditions mainly depends on the hydrodynamics (rather than on the karst conduit development), which promote a lower longitudinal advection and retardation in the tracer migration, resulting in a marked tailing effect of BTCs. The analytical advection-dispersion equation better approximates the effective flow velocity and longitudinal dispersion estimations provided by the GEM, while the non-equilibrium transport model achieves a better adjustment of most asymmetric and long-tailed BTCs. The assessment of karst underground flow properties from tracing tests at regional scale can aid design of groundwater management and protection strategies, particularly in large hydrogeological systems (i.e. transboundary carbonate aquifers) and/or in poorly investigated ones.

  20. A Experiência do Planejamento Regional em Bases Territoriais na Amazônia O Caso da Regionalização do Estado do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Rodrigues Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional integration is a historic challenge for the construction of an alternative model of development in state of Pará. The regions of Integration arise from the need to obtain a spatial clipping more consistent with the model of development proposed by the Government which took over the administration of the State, during the period from 2007-2010 and had the purpose of integrating the spaces, aimed at reducing regional inequalities. In this sense, the article proposes to contextualize the experience of regional planning in the state of Pará, from the use of instruments that were intended to promote development on territorial level. The twelve Regions of Integration arose from the selection of socioeconomic indicators of the Pará State in the northern region, which then were tiered, defining thus the municipalities that compose each region. The methodology is embodied in literature review and document analysis, in order to clarify the concept of regions, emphasizing integration strategies and instruments used, formulated with the objective of effective decentralization. Thus, present themselves as a result use of the territory for purposes of territorial planning, substantiated in the creation of centres and regional Centres; the establishment of the territorial planning through the development of Regional Sustainable development plans (PDRS; the attempt of adequacy of proposed regionalization through the Participative Territorial Planning and the inauguration of new Federal relationship, particularly, between the State Government and the municipalities. However, it was not possible to assess properly the main objective, combating regional inequalities.

  1. Early Freezing of Gait: Atypical versus Typical Parkinson Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Lieberman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 18 months, 850 patients were referred to Muhammad Ali Parkinson Center (MAPC. Among them, 810 patients had typical Parkinson disease (PD and 212 had PD for ≤5 years. Among the 212 patients with early PD, 27 (12.7% had freezing of gait (FOG. Forty of the 850 had atypical parkinsonism. Among these 40 patients, all of whom had symptoms for ≤5 years, 12 (30.0% had FOG. FOG improved with levodopa in 21/27 patients with typical PD but did not improve in the 12 patients with atypical parkinsonism. FOG was associated with falls in both groups of patients. We believe that FOG unresponsive to levodopa in typical PD resembles FOG in atypical parkinsonism. We thus compared the 6 typical PD patients with FOG unresponsive to levodopa plus the 12 patients with atypical parkinsonism with the 21 patients with typical PD responsive to levodopa. We compared them by tests of locomotion and postural stability. Among the patients with FOG unresponsive to levodopa, postural stability was more impaired than locomotion. This finding leads us to believe that, in these patients, postural stability, not locomotion, is the principal problem underlying FOG.

  2. Generation of a typical meteorological year for Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Apple L.S.; Chow, T.T.; Fong, Square K.F.; Lin, John Z.

    2006-01-01

    Weather data can vary significantly from year to year. There is a need to derive typical meteorological year (TMY) data to represent the long-term typical weather condition over a year, which is one of the crucial factors for successful building energy simulation. In this paper, various types of typical weather data sets including the TMY, TMY2, WYEC, WYEC2, WYEC2W, WYEC2T and IWEC were reviewed. The Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method was applied to analyze the hourly measured weather data of a 25-year period (1979-2003) in Hong Kong and select representative typical meteorological months (TMMs). The cumulative distribution function (CDF) for each year was compared with the CDF for the long-term composite of all the years in the period for four major weather indices including dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, wind speed and solar radiation. Typical months for each of the 12 calendar months from the period of years were selected by choosing the one with the smallest deviation from the long-term CDF. The 12 TMMs selected from the different years were used for formulation of a TMY for Hong Kong

  3. Experiences of and responses to disrespectful maternity care and abuse during childbirth; a qualitative study with women and men in Morogoro Region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Shannon A; George, Asha S; Chebet, Joy J; Mosha, Idda H; Mpembeni, Rose N M; Winch, Peter J

    2014-08-12

    Interventions to reduce maternal mortality have focused on delivery in facilities, yet in many low-resource settings rates of facility-based birth have remained persistently low. In Tanzania, rates of facility delivery have remained static for more than 20 years. With an aim to advance research and inform policy changes, this paper builds on a growing body of work that explores dimensions of and responses to disrespectful maternity care and abuse during childbirth in facilities across Morogoro Region, Tanzania. This research drew on in-depth interviews with 112 respondents including women who delivered in the preceding 14 months, their male partners, public opinion leaders and community health workers to understand experiences with and responses to abuse during childbirth. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated and coded using Atlas.ti. Analysis drew on the principles of Grounded Theory. When initially describing birth experiences, women portrayed encounters with providers in a neutral or satisfactory light. Upon probing, women recounted events or circumstances that are described as abusive in maternal health literature: feeling ignored or neglected; monetary demands or discriminatory treatment; verbal abuse; and in rare instances physical abuse. Findings were consistent across respondent groups and districts. As a response to abuse, women described acquiescence or non-confrontational strategies: resigning oneself to abuse, returning home, or bypassing certain facilities or providers. Male respondents described more assertive approaches: requesting better care, paying a bribe, lodging a complaint and in one case assaulting a provider. Many Tanzanian women included in this study experienced unfavorable conditions when delivering in facilities. Providers, women and their families must be made aware of women's rights to respectful care. Recommendations for further research include investigations of the prevalence and dimensions of disrespectful care and

  4. [The AMY experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The AMY experiment is one of three major experiments at TRISTAN which is studying the states the matter produced in electron positron annihilations in the center of mass energy range of 50--65GeV. It provides information between the lower energy facilities such as PEP and PETRA and the new facilities SLC and LEP which are designed to operate in the region of the Z 0 mass near 90GeV. In the region of the AMY experiment, interaction cross sections are near their minimum of about 100pb, making it difficult to acquire large data samples during typical running cycles. This last year has seen an accumulation of about 10---12pb -1 of integrated luminosity in the energy range from 58 to 61.7GeV. Despite this limited data sample, the AMY experiment has been extremely active in attempting to extract the minimum amount of information from the data. Some of the most significant results are discussed in this paper. 9 refs

  5. Satellite SAR imagery for site discovery, change detection and monitoring activities in cultural heritage sites: experiments on the Nasca region, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapete, D.; Cigna, F.; Masini, N.; Lasaponara, R.

    2012-04-01

    Besides their suitability for multi-temporal and spatial deformation analysis, the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image archives acquired by space-borne radar sensors can be exploited to support archaeological investigations over huge sites, even those partially or totally buried and still to be excavated. Amplitude information is one of the main properties of SAR data from which it is possible to retrieve evidences of buried structures, using feature extraction and texture analysis. Multi-temporality allows the reconstruction of past and recent evolution of both landscape and built-up environment, with the possibility to detect natural and/or anthropogenic changes, including human-induced damages to the conservation of cultural heritage. We present the methodology and first results of the experiments currently undertaken using SAR data in the Nasca region (Southern Peru), where two important civilizations such as Paracas and Nasca developed and flourished from 4th century BC to the 6th century AD. The study areas include a wide spectrum of archaeological and environmental elements to be preserved, among which: the archaeological site of Cahuachi and its surroundings, considered the largest adobe Ceremonial Centre in the World; the Nasca lines and geoglyphs in the areas of Palpa, Atarco and Nasca; the ancient networks of aqueducts and drainage galleries in the Puquios area, built by Nasca in the 1st-6th centuries AD. Archaeological prospection and multi-purpose remote sensing activities are currently carried out in the framework of the Italian mission of heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics (ITACA), with the direct involvement of researchers from the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage and the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, Italian National Research Council. In this context, C- and L-band SAR images covering the Nasca region since 2001 were identified for the purposes of this research and, in particular, the following

  6. One for all: The effect of extinction stimulus typicality on return of fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheveneels, Sara; Boddez, Yannick; Bennett, Marc Patrick; Hermans, Dirk

    2017-12-01

    During exposure therapy, patients are encouraged to approach the feared stimulus, so they can experience that this stimulus is not followed by the anticipated aversive outcome. However, patients might treat the absence of the aversive outcome as an 'exception to the rule'. This could hamper the generalization of fear reduction when the patient is confronted with similar stimuli not used in therapy. We examined the effect of providing information about the typicality of the extinction stimulus on the generalization of extinction to a new but similar stimulus. In a differential fear conditioning procedure, an animal-like figure was paired with a brief electric shock to the wrist. In a subsequent extinction phase, a different but perceptually similar animal-like figure was presented without the shock. Before testing the generalization of extinction with a third animal-like figure, participants were either instructed that the extinction stimulus was a typical or an atypical member of the animal family. The typicality instruction effectively impacted the generalization of extinction; the third animal-like figure elicited lower shock expectancies in the typical relative to the atypical group. Skin conductance data mirrored these results, but did not reach significance. These findings suggest that verbal information about stimulus typicality can be a promising adjunctive to standard exposure treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatial Resolution of the ECE for JET Typical Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribaldos, V.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to obtain estimations of the spatial resolution of the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) phenomena for the typical plasmas found in JET tokamak. The analysis of the spatial resolution of the ECE is based on the underlying physical process of emission and a working definition is presented and discussed. In making these estimations a typical JET pulse is being analysed taking into account the magnetic configuration, the density and temperature profiles, obtained with the EFIT code and from the LIDAR diagnostic. Ray tracing simulations are performed for a Maxwellian plasma taking into account the antenna pattern. (Author) 5 refs

  8. Typicality effects in artificial categories: is there a hemisphere difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, L G; Chiarello, C

    1990-07-01

    In category classification tasks, typicality effects are usually found: accuracy and reaction time depend upon distance from a prototype. In this study, subjects learned either verbal or nonverbal dot pattern categories, followed by a lateralized classification task. Comparable typicality effects were found in both reaction time and accuracy across visual fields for both verbal and nonverbal categories. Both hemispheres appeared to use a similarity-to-prototype matching strategy in classification. This indicates that merely having a verbal label does not differentiate classification in the two hemispheres.

  9. Determination of illuminants representing typical white light emitting diodes sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jost, S.; Ngo, M.; Ferrero, A.

    2017-01-01

    is to develop LED-based illuminants that describe typical white LED products based on their Spectral Power Distributions (SPDs). Some of these new illuminants will be recommended in the update of the CIE publication 15 on colorimetry with the other typical illuminants, and among them, some could be used......Solid-state lighting (SSL) products are already in use by consumers and are rapidly gaining the lighting market. Especially, white Light Emitting Diode (LED) sources are replacing banned incandescent lamps and other lighting technologies in most general lighting applications. The aim of this work...... to complement the CIE standard illuminant A for calibration use in photometry....

  10. Guiding role of typical cases in clinical training for ophthalmology professional degree graduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the change of the concept of graduate enrollment, the recruiting proportion of clinical medicine professional degree graduate students is more and more, and the training of professional degree graduate students is increasingly focusing on practical. In our experience in clinical training for ophthalmology professional degree graduate students, increasing the ward clinical practice time is important. For particular emphasis on the guiding role of the typical cases, each professional group combined their professional characteristics of the typical cases to instruct the graduate students, training their clinical diagnosis and treatment ability, training their microsurgical techniques. From clinical medical writing, record summary, literature review, professional degree graduate students could expand their knowledge structure, practice their thesis writing ability. Based on the typical cases, expansion of knowledge coverage, they could improve the ability of diagnosis and treatment for special disease cases. In this rigorous training system, professional degree graduate students can learn by analogy, and focus on typical cases to get the most intuitive panoramic understanding of the diseases, with a minimum of time to master the most clinical knowledge, to enrich clinical experience, and to lay the foundation for future work in the assessment.

  11. First clinical experience with a multiple region of interest registration and correction method in radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beek, Suzanne van; Kranen, Simon van; Mencarelli, Angelo; Remeijer, Peter; Rasch, Coen; Herk, Marcel van; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss the first clinical experience with a multiple region of interest (mROI) registration and correction method for high-precision radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer patients. Materials and methods: 12-13 3D rectangular-shaped ROIs were automatically placed around bony structures on the planning CT scans (n = 50 patients) which were individually registered to subsequent CBCT scans. mROI registration was used to quantify global and local setup errors. The time required to perform the mROI registration was compared with that of a previously used single-ROI method. The number of scans with residual local setup error exceeding 5 mm/5 deg. (warnings) was scored together with the frequency ROIs exceeding these limits for three or more consecutive imaging fractions (systematic errors). Results: In 40% of the CBCT scans, one or more ROI-registrations exceeded the 5 mm/5 deg.. Most warnings were seen in ROI 'hyoid', 31% of the rotation warnings and 14% of the translation warnings. Systematic errors lead to 52 consults of the treating physician. The preparation and registration time was similar for both registration methods. Conclusions: The mROI registration method is easy to use with little extra workload, provides additional information on local setup errors, and helps to select patients for re-planning.

  12. View of software for HEP experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstad, H.; Lebrun, P.; Lessner, E.S.; Montgomery, H.E.

    1986-05-01

    A view of the software structure typical of a High Energy Physics experiment is given and the availability of general software modules in most of the important regions is discussed. The aim is to provide a framework for discussion of capabilities and inadequecies and thereby define areas where effort should be assigned and perhaps also to serve as a useful source document for the newcomer to High Energy Physics. 74 refs.

  13. View of software for HEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstad, H.; Lebrun, P.; Lessner, E.S.; Montgomery, H.E.

    1986-05-01

    A view of the software structure typical of a High Energy Physics experiment is given and the availability of general software modules in most of the important regions is discussed. The aim is to provide a framework for discussion of capabilities and inadequecies and thereby define areas where effort should be assigned and perhaps also to serve as a useful source document for the newcomer to High Energy Physics. 74 refs

  14. Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…

  15. Gendered Perceptions of Typical Engineers across Specialties for Engineering Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Margaret S.; Bryan, Kimberley K.

    2018-01-01

    Young women do not choose to be engineers nearly as often as young men, and they tend to cluster in particular specialties when they do. We examine these patterns and the role of gender schemas as applied to perceptions of typical engineers in understanding the choices that women make in terms of engineering specialties. We use Part 1 of two waves…

  16. Analogical Reasoning Ability in Autistic and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies (e.g. Dawson et al., 2007) have reported that autistic people perform in the normal range on the Raven Progressive Matrices test, a formal reasoning test that requires integration of relations as well as the ability to infer rules and form high-level abstractions. Here we compared autistic and typically developing children, matched…

  17. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Sung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu College of Medicine, Daegu 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk Jung [Department of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Yoon [Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast.

  18. Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some typic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some typic plinthaquults in bauchi loval government area of Bauchi state, Nigeria. S Mustapha. Abstract. No Abstract. IJOTAFS Vol. 1 (2) 2007: pp. 120-124. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  19. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-02-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each conditionalization scheme studied, we analyze how correlations between densities of different dark matter species affect the prediction, and explicate the effects of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that the effects of correlations can depend on the conditionalization scheme, and that in each case atypicality can significantly change the prediction. In doing so, we demonstrate the existence of overlaps in the predictions of different "frameworks" consisting of conjunctions of theory, conditionalization scheme and typicality assumption. This conclusion highlights the acute challenges involved in using such tests to identify a preferred framework that aims to describe our observational situation in a multiverse.

  20. 7 CFR 632.52 - Identifying typical classes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 632.52 Identifying typical classes of action. (a) The RFO will analyze the environmental assessment of....12. These actions are determined by a limited environmental assessment that reasonably identifies the... 632.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES...

  1. Characteristics of typical Pierce guns for PPM focused TWTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, R.; Puri, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of typical moderate perveance Pierce type electron guns which are used in periodic permanent magnet focused traveling wave tubes are described with regard to adaptation for use in electron beam ion sources. The results of detailed electron trajectory computations for one particular gun design are presented

  2. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  3. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Sung Hee; Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee; Kim, Suk Jung; Cho, Eun Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast

  4. Typical and Atypical Dementia Family Caregivers: Systematic and Objective Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Linda O.; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Burns, Robert; Graney, Marshall J.; Zuber, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This systematic, objective comparison of typical (spouse, children) and atypical (in-law, sibling, nephew/niece, grandchild) dementia family caregivers examined demographic, caregiving and clinical variables. Analysis was of 1,476 caregivers, of whom 125 were atypical, from the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health (REACH I and II)…

  5. A technique to identify some typical radio frequency interference using support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanchao; Li, Mingtao; Li, Dawei; Zheng, Jianhua

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we present a technique to automatically identify some typical radio frequency interference from pulsar surveys using support vector machine. The technique has been tested by candidates. In these experiments, to get features of SVM, we use principal component analysis for mosaic plots and its classification accuracy is 96.9%; while we use mathematical morphology operation for smog plots and horizontal stripes plots and its classification accuracy is 86%. The technique is simple, high accurate and useful.

  6. Typical load shapes for six categories of Swedish commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noren, C.

    1997-01-01

    In co-operation with several Swedish electricity suppliers, typical load shapes have been developed for six categories of commercial buildings located in the south of Sweden. The categories included in the study are: hotels, warehouses/grocery stores, schools with no kitchen, schools with kitchen, office buildings, health, health buildings. Load shapes are developed for different mean daily outdoor temperatures and for different day types, normally standard weekdays and standard weekends. The load shapes are presented as non-dimensional normalized 1-hour load. All measured loads for an object are divided by the object`s mean load during the measuring period and typical load shapes are developed for each category of buildings. Thus errors were kept lower as compared to use of W/m{sup 2}-terms. Typical daytime (9 a.m. - 5 p.m.) standard deviations are 7-10% of the mean values for standard weekdays but during very cold or warm weather conditions, single objects can deviate from the typical load shape. On weekends, errors are higher and depending on very different activity levels in the buildings, it is difficult to develop weekend load shapes with good accuracy. The method presented is very easy to use for similar studies and no building simulation programs are needed. If more load data is available, a good method to lower the errors is to make sure that every category only consists of objects with the same activity level, both on weekdays and weekends. To make it easier to use the load shapes, Excel load shape workbooks have been developed, where it is even possible to compare typical load shapes with measured data. 23 refs, 53 figs, 20 tabs

  7. Transient regional climate change: analysis of the summer climate response in a high-resolution, century-scale, ensemble experiment over the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Scherer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Integrating the potential for climate change impacts into policy and planning decisions requires quantification of the emergence of sub-regional climate changes that could occur in response to transient changes in global radiative forcing. Here we report results from a high-resolution, century-scale, ensemble simulation of climate in the United States, forced by atmospheric constituent concentrations from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario. We find that 21st century summer warming permanently emerges beyond the baseline decadal-scale variability prior to 2020 over most areas of the continental U.S. Permanent emergence beyond the baseline annual-scale variability shows much greater spatial heterogeneity, with emergence occurring prior to 2030 over areas of the southwestern U.S., but not prior to the end of the 21st century over much of the southcentral and southeastern U.S. The pattern of emergence of robust summer warming contrasts with the pattern of summer warming magnitude, which is greatest over the central U.S. and smallest over the western U.S. In addition to stronger warming, the central U.S. also exhibits stronger coupling of changes in surface air temperature, precipitation, and moisture and energy fluxes, along with changes in atmospheric circulation towards increased anticylonic anomalies in the mid-troposphere and a poleward shift in the mid-latitude jet aloft. However, as a fraction of the baseline variability, the transient warming over the central U.S. is smaller than the warming over the southwestern or northeastern U.S., delaying the emergence of the warming signal over the central U.S. Our comparisons with observations and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) ensemble of global climate model experiments suggest that near-term global warming is likely to cause robust sub-regional-scale warming over areas that exhibit relatively little baseline variability. In contrast, where there is greater

  8. Narrative versus Style : Effect of Genre Typical Events versus Genre Typical Filmic Realizations on Film Viewers' Genre Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genretypical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization

  9. A change will do us good: threats diminish typical preferences for male leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth R; Diekman, Amanda B; Schneider, Monica C

    2011-07-01

    The current research explores role congruity processes from a new vantage point by investigating how the need for change might shift gender-based leadership preferences. According to role congruity theory, favorability toward leaders results from alignment between what is desired in a leadership role and the characteristics stereotypically ascribed to the leader. Generally speaking, these processes lead to baseline preferences for male over female leaders. In this research, the authors propose that a shift in gender-based leadership preferences will emerge under conditions of threat. Because the psychological experience of threat signals a need for change, individuals will favor candidates who represent new directions in leadership rather than consistency with past directions in leadership. Specifically, they find that threat evokes an implicit preference for change over stability (Experiment 1) and gender stereotypes align women with change but men with stability (Experiments 2a and 2b). Consequently, the typical preference for male leaders is diminished, or even reversed, under threat (Experiments 3 and 4). Moreover, the shift away from typical gender-based leadership preferences occurs especially among individuals who highly legitimize the sociopolitical system (Experiment 4), suggesting that these preference shifts might serve to protect the underlying system. © 2011 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc

  10. Future of Early Intervention with Infants and Toddlers for Whom Typical Experiences Are Not Effective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention for infants and toddlers began with high hopes, but became mired in overspecialization, bureaucracy, and turf guarding. Nevertheless, two important advances in the field have been (a) a recognition that the child's natural caregivers are in the best position to be the intervention agents and, concomitantly, (b) a rethinking…

  11. Operating experience with remote handling equipment in a typical hot facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravishankar, A.; Balasubramanian, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    Large number of articulated arm manipulators and special purpose remote tools have been used either alone or in combination in a recent campaign of treatment of irradiated J rods of CIRUS for separation of 233 U. These equipments were used for operations such as remote maintenance of centrifuge, centrifugal extractor, direct sampling, assistance for sample conveying operations etc. Paper discusses problems encountered in using articulated arm manipulators of type MAll,AMl and how they were overcome. Problems encountered in use of model-8 manipulator for chopper maintenence in a mockup facility are also highlighted. (author). 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Cross-modal integration in the brain is related to phonological awareness only in typical readers, not in those with reading difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris eMcnorgan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fluent reading requires successfully mapping between visual orthographic and auditory phonological representations and is thus an intrinsically cross-modal process, though reading difficulty has often been characterized as a phonological deficit. However, recent evidence suggests that orthographic information influences phonological processing in typical developing (TD readers, but that this effect may be blunted in those with reading difficulty (RD, suggesting that the core deficit underlying reading may be a failure to integrate orthographic and phonological information. Twenty-six (13 TD and 13 RD children between 8 and 13 years of age participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment designed to assess the role of phonemic awareness in cross-modal processing. Participants completed a rhyme judgment task for word pairs presented unimodally (auditory only and cross-modally (auditory followed by visual. For typically developing children, activations in a network of regions associated with processing and integrating phonology and orthography were correlated with elision (i.e. superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus, a task that is particularly sensitive to phonemic awareness, but this correlation was found only in the cross-modal task. Elision was not correlated with activation for children with reading difficulty or for either group in the unimodal task. The results suggest that elision taps both phonemic awareness and cross-modal integration in typically developing readers, and that these processes are decoupled in children with reading difficulty.

  13. Adolescent alcohol exposure and persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes into adulthood: a mini-review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Linda Patia; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is typically initiated during adolescence, which, along with young adulthood, is a vulnerable period for the onset of high-risk drinking and alcohol abuse. Given across-species commonalities in certain fundamental neurobehavioral characteristics of adolescence, studies in laboratory animals such as the rat have proved useful to assess persisting consequences of repeated alcohol exposure. Despite limited research to date, reports of long-lasting effects of adolescent ethanol exposure are emerging, along with certain common themes. One repeated finding is that adolescent exposure to ethanol sometimes results in the persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes into adulthood. Instances of adolescent -like persistence have been seen in terms of baseline behavioral, cognitive, electrophysiological and neuroanatomical characteristics, along with the retention of adolescent-typical sensitivities to acute ethanol challenge. These effects are generally not observed after comparable ethanol exposure in adulthood. Persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes is not always evident, and may be related to regionally-specific ethanol influences on the interplay between CNS excitation and inhibition critical for the timing of neuroplasticity. PMID:24813805

  14. SSI response of a typical shear wall structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Maslenikov, O.R.; Schewe, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The seismic response of a typical shear structure in a commercial nuclear power plant was investigated for a series of site and foundation conditions using best estimate and design procedures. The structure selected is a part of the Zion AFT complex which is a connected group of reinforced concrete shear wall buildings, typical of nuclear power plant structures. Comparisons between best estimate responses quantified the effects of placing the structure on different sites and founding it in different manners. Calibration factors were developed by comparing simplified SSI design procedure responses to responses calculated by best estimate procedures. Nineteen basic cases were analyzed - each case was analyzed for ten earthquakes targeted to the NRC R.G. 1.60 design response spectra. The structure is a part of the Zion auxiliary-fuel handling turbine building (AFT) complex to the Zion nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  15. Analysis of typical meteorological years in different climates of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liu; Lam, Joseph C.; Liu, Jiaping

    2007-01-01

    Typical meteorological years (TMYs) for 60 cities in the five major climatic zones (severe cold, cold, hot summer and cold winter, hot summer and warm winter, mild) in China were investigated. Long term (1971-2000) measured weather data such as dry bulb and dew point temperatures, wind speed and global solar radiation were gathered and analysed. A total of seven climatic indices were used to select the 12 typical meteorological months (TMMs) that made up the TMY for each city. In general, the cumulative distribution functions of the TMMs selected tended to follow their long term counterparts quite well. There was no persistent trend in any particular years being more representative than the others, though 1978 and 1982 tended to be picked most often. This paper presents the work and its findings. Future work on the assessment of TMYs in building energy simulation is also discussed

  16. Memory for radio advertisements: the effect of program and typicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Luengo, Beatriz; Luna, Karlos; Migueles, Malen

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of the type of radio program on the memory for radio advertisements. We also investigated the role in memory of the typicality (high or low) of the elements of the products advertised. Participants listened to three types of programs (interesting, boring, enjoyable) with two advertisements embedded in each. After completing a filler task, the participants performed a true/false recognition test. Hits and false alarm rates were higher for the interesting and enjoyable programs than for the boring one. There were also more hits and false alarms for the high-typicality elements. The response criterion for the advertisements embedded in the boring program was stricter than for the advertisements in other types of programs. We conclude that the type of program in which an advertisement is inserted and the nature of the elements of the advertisement affect both the number of hits and false alarms and the response criterion, but not the accuracy of the memory.

  17. Verbal communication skills in typical language development: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Camila Mayumi; Bretanha, Andreza Carolina; Bozza, Amanda; Ferraro, Gyovanna Junya Klinke; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate verbal communication skills in children with typical language development and ages between 6 and 8 years. Participants were 10 children of both genders in this age range without language alterations. A 30-minute video of each child's interaction with an adult (father and/or mother) was recorded, fully transcribed, and analyzed by two trained researchers in order to determine reliability. The recordings were analyzed according to a protocol that categorizes verbal communicative abilities, including dialogic, regulatory, narrative-discursive, and non-interactive skills. The frequency of use of each category of verbal communicative ability was analyzed (in percentage) for each subject. All subjects used more dialogical and regulatory skills, followed by narrative-discursive and non-interactive skills. This suggests that children in this age range are committed to continue dialog, which shows that children with typical language development have more dialogic interactions during spontaneous interactions with a familiar adult.

  18. Monte Carlo based radial shield design of typical PWR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gul, Anas; Khan, Rustam; Qureshi, M. Ayub; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Raza, S.A. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Stummer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Atominst.

    2017-04-15

    This paper presents the radiation shielding model of a typical PWR (CNPP-II) at Chashma, Pakistan. The model was developed using Monte Carlo N Particle code [2], equipped with ENDF/B-VI continuous energy cross section libraries. This model was applied to calculate the neutron and gamma flux and dose rates in the radial direction at core mid plane. The simulated results were compared with the reference results of Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (SNERDI).

  19. Typical event horizons in AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Steven G.; Lowe, David A. [Department of Physics, Brown University,Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    We consider the construction of local bulk operators in a black hole background dual to a pure state in conformal field theory. The properties of these operators in a microcanonical ensemble are studied. It has been argued in the literature that typical states in such an ensemble contain firewalls, or otherwise singular horizons. We argue this conclusion can be avoided with a proper definition of the interior operators.

  20. Typical event horizons in AdS/CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Steven G.; Lowe, David A.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the construction of local bulk operators in a black hole background dual to a pure state in conformal field theory. The properties of these operators in a microcanonical ensemble are studied. It has been argued in the literature that typical states in such an ensemble contain firewalls, or otherwise singular horizons. We argue this conclusion can be avoided with a proper definition of the interior operators.

  1. Lipoma arborescens: Comparison of typical and atypical disease presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, B.M.; Wenger, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the aetiology differed between typical cases of lipoma arborescens with unilateral knee involvement and atypical cases involving joints other than the knee, polyarticular disease, and disease outside of the knee joint. Materials and methods: Cases of lipoma arborescens involving the knee joint were evaluated for the distribution of the disease and severity of degenerative arthritis. Joints other than the knee were evaluated for the presence and severity of degenerative arthritis, and the distribution was classified as either intra-articular, extra-articular, or both. Clinical history was reviewed for patient age at presentation, a history of inflammatory arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and known steroid use. Fisher's exact test was used to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Results: Lipoma arborescens was identified in 45 joints in 39 patients. Twenty-eight patients were classified as “typical” and 11 patients had “atypical” disease. There was no significant difference in age at presentation, presence of degenerative arthritis, or known inflammatory arthritis when comparing typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Conclusion: Twenty-eight percent of patients in the present study had atypical presentation of lipoma arborescens with multifocal lipoma arborescens or disease in joints other than the knee. There was no significant difference in age at presentation, presence of degenerative arthritis, or known inflammatory arthritis when comparing typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Of the 39 patients, only three had no evidence of degenerative arthritis, which suggests that many cases of lipoma arborescens are secondary to chronic reactive change in association with degenerative arthritis

  2. Analysis and Comparison of Typical Models within Distribution Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hans Jacob; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    This paper investigates the characteristics of typical optimisation models within Distribution Network Design. During the paper fourteen models known from the literature will be thoroughly analysed. Through this analysis a schematic approach to categorisation of distribution network design models...... for educational purposes. Furthermore, the paper can be seen as a practical introduction to network design modelling as well as a being an art manual or recipe when constructing such a model....

  3. Rural Tourism and Local Development: Typical Productions of Lazio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The local development is based on the integration of the tourism sector with the whole economy. The rural tourism seems to be a good occasion to analyse the local development: consumption of "tourist products" located in specific local contexts. Starting from the food and wine supply chain and the localization of typical productions, the aim of the present work will be analyse the relationship with local development, rural tourism sustainability and accommodation system, referring to Lazio. Which are the findings to create tourism local system based on the relationship with touristic and food and wine supply chain? Italian tourism is based on accommodation system, so the whole consideration of the Italian cultural tourism: tourism made in Italy. The touristic added value to specific local context takes advantage from the synergy with food and wine supply chain: made in Italy of typical productions. Agritourism could be better accommodation typology to rural tourism and to exclusivity of consumption typical productions. The reciprocity among food and wine supply chain and tourism provides new insights on the key topics related to tourism development and to the organization of geographical space as well and considering its important contribution nowadays to the economic competitiveness.

  4. Typically Female Features in Hungarian Shopping Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Michalkó

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Although shopping has been long acknowledged as a major tourist activity, the extent and characteristics of shopping tourism have only recently become the subject of academic research and discussion. As a contribution to this field of knowledge, the paper presents the characteristics of shopping tourism in Hungary, and discusses the typically female features of outbound Hungarian shopping tourism. The research is based on a survey of 2473 Hungarian tourists carried out in 2005. As the findings of the study indicate, while female respondents were altogether more likely to be involved in tourist shopping than male travellers, no significant difference was experienced between the genders concerning the share of shopping expenses compared to their total travel budget. In their shopping behaviour, women were typically affected by price levels, and they proved to be both more selfish and more altruistic than men by purchasing more products for themselves and for their family members. The most significant differences between men and women were found in their product preferences as female tourists were more likely to purchase typically feminine goods such as clothes, shoes, bags and accessories, in the timing of shopping activities while abroad, and in the information sources used by tourists, since interpersonal influences such as friends’, guides’ and fellow travellers’ recommendations played a higher role in female travellers’ decisions.

  5. Interdisciplinary study of atmospheric processes and constituents of the mid-Atlantic coastal region. Attachment 3: Data set for Craney Island oil refinery installation experiment. [air pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindle, E. C.; Bandy, A.; Copeland, G.; Blais, R.; Levy, G.; Sonenshine, D.; Adams, D.; Maier, G.

    1975-01-01

    Data tables and maps are presented which include background information and experimental data on the Craney Island oil refinery installation experiment. The experiment was to investigate air pollution effects.

  6. Successful treatment of suspected organizing pneumonia in a patient without typical imaging and pathological characteristic: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailing, Liu; Ning, Xu; Tao, Qu; Aijun, Li

    2017-01-01

    Organizing pneumonia (OP) is a clinicopathological entity characterized by granulation tissue plugs in the lumen of small airways, alveolar ducts, and alveoli. Diagnosis of OP needs the combination of clinical features, imaging and pathology. But it occurs often that there are no typical pathological features to support the diagnosis, which poses a challenge for clinicians' diagnosis and treatment. We diagnosed a case of OP without typical imaging and pathological characteristic and treated successfully. Finally we confirmed the pathological diagnosis. Not every OP case is supported by pathological evidence and typical imaging changes. It is important for us to judge and decide the diagnosis according to clinical experience.

  7. [Estimate the abatement rate of septic tank sewage outfall soil on nitrogen pollutants of typical farmer household sewage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; Wang, Wen-Lin; Wang, Guo-Xiang; Ma, Jiu-Yuan; Wan, Yin-Jing; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Liang, Bin; Ji, Bin

    2013-10-01

    The surface soil on sewage outfall and effluent of farmer household septic tank were collected in situ from the typical region of plain river network areas in Taihu Lake Basin, and the typical rainfall (summer 30 mm . times-1, winter 5 mm times -1), temperature (summer 27 degrees C, winter 5 degrees C ) condition and pollutant load were artificial simulated by indoor simulation soil column experiments for estimating nitrogen abatement rate of rural sewage treated by the outfall soil and exploring the abatement rule in different seasons and weather process (7 days before the rain, 3 rainy days, 7 days after the rain). Results showed that: there was the significant difference (P 0. 05). Therefore, the TN, NH+4 -N abatement rate, NO-3 -N increase rate need to be divided by seasons, TN abatement rate, NO-3 -N increase rate of summer need to be divided by the weather process, which were 38.5% , - 25.0% , 46. 0% and 478. 1%, 913.8%, 382. 0% , before the rain, in rainy day, after the rain, respectively; while the NH+4 -N abatement rate of summer and the TN, NH+4 -N abatement rate, NO-3 -N increase rate of winter do not need to be divided by weather process, were 91.7% , 50.4% , 85.5% and 276.0% , respectively. In the summer, the TN abatement rate in different weather processes was not correlated with NH+4 -N abatement rate, but significantly negative correlated with NO-3 -N increase rate. In the winter, the stable accumulation of TN in soil was an important reason of the TN abatement rate which had no significant difference and kept a high level among different weather processes, and it was closely related to the stable accumulation of NH+4 -N in soil.

  8. Narrative versus Style: Effect of Genre Typical Events versus Genre Typical Filmic Realizations on Film Viewers' Genre Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genretypical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization cues are similar to stylistic surface cues of a film sequence. It was predicted that genre recognition of short film fragments is cued more by filmic realization cues than by event cues. The results...

  9. Thinking inside the box: Spatial frames of reference for drawing in Williams syndrome and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Kerry D; Farran, Emily K

    2017-09-01

    Successfully completing a drawing relies on the ability to accurately impose and manipulate spatial frames of reference for the object that is being drawn and for the drawing space. Typically developing (TD) children use cues such as the page boundary as a frame of reference to guide the orientation of drawn lines. Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) typically produce incohesive drawings; this is proposed to reflect a local processing bias. Across two studies, we provide the first investigation of the effect of using a frame of reference when drawing simple lines and shapes in WS and TD groups (matched for non-verbal ability). Individuals with WS (N=17 Experiment 1; N=18 Experiment 2) and TD children matched by non-verbal ability drew single lines (Experiment One) and whole shapes (Experiment Two) within a neutral, incongruent or congruent frame. The angular deviation of the drawn line/shape, relative to the model line/shape, was measured. Both groups were sensitive to spatial frames of reference when drawing single lines and whole shapes, imposed by a frame around the drawing space. A local processing bias in WS cannot explain poor drawing performance in WS. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of lidar-derived PM10 with regional modeling and ground-based observations in the frame of MEGAPOLI experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Raut

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An innovative approach using mobile lidar measurements was implemented to test the performances of chemistry-transport models in simulating mass concentrations (PM10 predicted by chemistry-transport models. A ground-based mobile lidar (GBML was deployed around Paris onboard a van during the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation summer experiment in July 2009. The measurements performed with this Rayleigh-Mie lidar are converted into PM10 profiles using optical-to-mass relationships previously established from in situ measurements performed around Paris for urban and peri-urban aerosols. The method is described here and applied to the 10 measurements days (MD. MD of 1, 15, 16 and 26 July 2009, corresponding to different levels of pollution and atmospheric conditions, are analyzed here in more details. Lidar-derived PM10 are compared with results of simulations from POLYPHEMUS and CHIMERE chemistry-transport models (CTM and with ground-based observations from the AIRPARIF network. GBML-derived and AIRPARIF in situ measurements have been found to be in good agreement with a mean Root Mean Square Error RMSE (and a Mean Absolute Percentage Error MAPE of 7.2 μg m−3 (26.0% and 8.8 μg m−3 (25.2% with relationships assuming peri-urban and urban-type particles, respectively. The comparisons between CTMs and lidar at ~200 m height have shown that CTMs tend to underestimate wet PM10 concentrations as revealed by the mean wet PM10 observed during the 10 MD of 22.4, 20.0 and 17.5 μg m−3 for lidar with peri-urban relationship, and POLYPHEMUS and CHIMERE models, respectively. This leads to a RMSE (and a MAPE of 6.4 μg m−3 (29.6% and 6.4 μg m−3 (27.6% when considering POLYPHEMUS and CHIMERE CTMs, respectively. Wet integrated PM10 computed (between the ground and 1 km above the ground level from lidar, POLYPHEMUS and CHIMERE results

  11. Typicality Effects in Contingency-Shaped Generalized Equivalence Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizio, Mark; Stewart, Katherine L.; Pilgrim, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted using match-to-sample methodologies in an effort to model lexical classes, which include both arbitrary and perceptual relations between class members. Training in both experiments used a one-to-many mapping procedure with nonsense syllables as samples and eight sets of abstract stimuli as comparisons. These abstract…

  12. Dysphonia Severity Index in Typically Developing Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebbili, Gopi Kishore; Kidwai, Juhi; Shabnam, Srushti

    2017-01-01

    Dysphonia is a variation in an individual's quality, pitch, or loudness from the voice characteristics typical of a speaker of similar age, gender, cultural background, and geographic location. Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) is a recognized assessment tool based on a weighted combination of maximum phonation time, highest frequency, lowest intensity, and jitter (%) of an individual. Although dysphonia in adults is accurately evaluated using DSI, standard reference values for school-age children have not been studied. This study aims to document the DSI scores in typically developing children (8-12 years). A total of 42 typically developing children (8-12 years) without complaint of voice problem on the day of testing participated in the study. DSI was computed by substituting the raw scores of substituent parameters: maximum phonation time, highest frequency, lowest intensity, and jitter% using various modules of CSL 4500 software. The average DSI values obtained in children were 2.9 (1.23) and 3.8 (1.29) for males and females, respectively. DSI values are found to be significantly higher (P = 0.027) for females than those for males in Indian children. This could be attributed to the anatomical and behavioral differences among females and males. Further, pubertal changes set in earlier for females approximating an adult-like physiology, thereby leading to higher DSI values in them. The mean DSI value obtained for male and female Indian children can be used as a preliminary reference data against which the DSI values of school-age children with dysphonia can be compared. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A generalized window energy rating system for typical office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Cheng; Chen, Tingyao; Yang, Hongxing; Chung, Tse-ming [Research Center for Building Environmental Engineering, Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-07-15

    Detailed computer simulation programs require lengthy inputs, and cannot directly provide an insight to relationship between the window energy performance and the key window design parameters. Hence, several window energy rating systems (WERS) for residential houses and small buildings have been developed in different countries. Many studies showed that utilization of daylight through elaborate design and operation of windows leads to significant energy savings in both cooling and lighting in office buildings. However, the current WERSs do not consider daylighting effect, while most of daylighting analyses do not take into account the influence of convective and infiltration heat gains. Therefore, a generalized WERS for typical office buildings has been presented, which takes all primary influence factors into account. The model includes embodied and operation energy uses and savings by a window to fully reflect interactions among the influence parameters. Reference locations selected for artificial lighting and glare control in the current common simulation practice may cause uncompromised conflicts, which could result in over- or under-estimated energy performance. Widely used computer programs, DOE2 and ADELINE, for hourly daylighting and cooling simulations have their own weaknesses, which may result in unrealistic or inaccurate results. An approach is also presented for taking the advantages of the both programs and avoiding their weaknesses. The model and approach have been applied to a typical office building of Hong Kong as an example to demonstrate how a WERS in a particular location can be established and how well the model can work. The energy effect of window properties, window-to-wall ratio (WWR), building orientation and lighting control strategies have been analyzed, and can be indicated by the localized WERS. An application example also demonstrates that the algebraic WERS derived from simulation results can be easily used for the optimal design of

  14. Benefit and cost curves for typical pollination mutualisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, William F; Vázquez, Diego P; Chacoff, Natacha P

    2010-05-01

    Mutualisms provide benefits to interacting species, but they also involve costs. If costs come to exceed benefits as population density or the frequency of encounters between species increases, the interaction will no longer be mutualistic. Thus curves that represent benefits and costs as functions of interaction frequency are important tools for predicting when a mutualism will tip over into antagonism. Currently, most of what we know about benefit and cost curves in pollination mutualisms comes from highly specialized pollinating seed-consumer mutualisms, such as the yucca moth-yucca interaction. There, benefits to female reproduction saturate as the number of visits to a flower increases (because the amount of pollen needed to fertilize all the flower's ovules is finite), but costs continue to increase (because pollinator offspring consume developing seeds), leading to a peak in seed production at an intermediate number of visits. But for most plant-pollinator mutualisms, costs to the plant are more subtle than consumption of seeds, and how such costs scale with interaction frequency remains largely unknown. Here, we present reasonable benefit and cost curves that are appropriate for typical pollinator-plant interactions, and we show how they can result in a wide diversity of relationships between net benefit (benefit minus cost) and interaction frequency. We then use maximum-likelihood methods to fit net-benefit curves to measures of female reproductive success for three typical pollination mutualisms from two continents, and for each system we chose the most parsimonious model using information-criterion statistics. We discuss the implications of the shape of the net-benefit curve for the ecology and evolution of plant-pollinator mutualisms, as well as the challenges that lie ahead for disentangling the underlying benefit and cost curves for typical pollination mutualisms.

  15. SSI response of a typical shear wall structure. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Schewe, E.C.; Maslenikov, O.R.

    1984-04-01

    The Simplified Methods project of the US NRC-funded Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has as its goal the development of a methodology to perform routine seismic probabilistic risk assessments of commercial nuclear power plants. The study reported here develops calibration factors to relate best estimate response to design values accounting for approximations and simplifications in SSI analysis procedures. Nineteen cases were analyzed and in-structure response compared. The structure of interest was a typical shear wall structure. 6 references, 44 figures, 22 tables

  16. Typical exposure of children to EMF: exposimetry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valic, Blaz; Kos, Bor; Gajsek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A survey study with portable exposimeters, worn by 21 children under the age of 17, and detailed measurements in an apartment above a transformer substation were carried out to determine the typical individual exposure of children to extremely low- and radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. In total, portable exposimeters were worn for >2400 h. Based on the typical individual exposure the in situ electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) values were calculated for an 11-y-old female human model. The average exposure was determined to be low compared with ICNIRP reference levels: 0.29 μT for an extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field and 0.09 V m -1 for GSM base stations, 0.11 V m -1 for DECT and 0.10 V m -1 for WiFi; other contributions could be neglected. However, some of the volunteers were more exposed: the highest realistic exposure, to which children could be exposed for a prolonged period of time, was 1.35 μT for ELF magnetic field and 0.38 V m -1 for DECT, 0.13 V m -1 for WiFi and 0.26 V m -1 for GSM base stations. Numerical calculations of the in situ electric field and SAR values for the typical and the worst-case situation show that, compared with ICNIRP basic restrictions, the average exposure is low. In the typical exposure scenario, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.03 % and the RF exposure <0.001 % of the corresponding basic restriction. In the worst-case situation, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.11 % and the RF exposure <0.007 % of the corresponding basic restrictions. Analysis of the exposures and the individual's perception of being exposed/ unexposed to an ELF magnetic field showed that it is impossible to estimate the individual exposure to an ELF magnetic field based only on the information provided by the individuals, as they do not have enough knowledge and information to properly identify the sources in their vicinity. (authors)

  17. The Compositions: Biodegradable Material - Typical Resin, as Moulding Sands’ Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major-Gabryś K.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents possibility of using biodegradable materials as parts of moulding sands’ binders based on commonly used in foundry practice resins. The authors focus on thermal destruction of binding materials and thermal deformation of moulding sands with tested materials. All the research is conducted for the biodegradable material and two typical resins separately. The point of the article is to show if tested materials are compatible from thermal destruction and thermal deformation points of view. It was proved that tested materials characterized with similar thermal destruction but thermal deformation of moulding sands with those binders was different.

  18. Monte Carlo based radial shield design of typical PWR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gul, Anas; Khan, Rustam; Qureshi, M. Ayub; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Raza, S.A. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Stummer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Atominst.

    2016-11-15

    Neutron and gamma flux and dose equivalent rate distribution are analysed in radial and shields of a typical PWR type reactor based on the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNP5. The ENDF/B-VI continuous energy cross-section library has been employed for the criticality and shielding analysis. The computed results are in good agreement with the reference results (maximum difference is less than 56 %). It implies that MCNP5 a good tool for accurate prediction of neutron and gamma flux and dose rates in radial shield around the core of PWR type reactors.

  19. Lipomatosis of the sciatic nerve: typical and atypical MRI features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Bernadette Zhi Ying; Amrami, Kimberly K.; Wenger, Doris E.; Dyck, P. James B.; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Spinner, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Lipomatosis of nerve, also known as fibrolipomatous hamartoma, is a rare condition of nerve, usually affecting the median nerve. The MRI appearance is characteristic. We describe two cases of lipomatosis of nerve involving the sciatic nerve, an extremely unusual location for this lesion, in patients with sciatic neuropathy. These cases share the typical features previously described in the literature for other nerves, but also contain atypical features not previously highlighted, relating to the variability in distribution and extent of the fatty deposition. Recognition of the MRI appearance of this entity is important in order to avoid unnecessary attempts at surgical resection of this lesion. (orig.)

  20. Characterising mechanical transmission wire ropes’ typical failure modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Espejo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The National University of Colombia’s Engineering School’s AFIS research group has helped several public and private institutions during the last five years in analysing the causes of failures presented in elevation and trans- port machinery leading to expensive consequences and even the loss of life. A group of typical wire rope failure modes have been identified, along with their common causes. These are presented in this work to offer help to our industry’s engineers and technicians, allowing them to identify possible risk situations in their routine work regarding the wire ropes which they use and approaches for carrying out wire rope failure analysis.

  1. Typical IAEA operations at a fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, S.

    1984-01-01

    The IAEA operations performed at a typical Fuel Fabrication Plant are explained. To make the analysis less general the case of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Fuel Fabrication Plants is considered. Many of the conclusions drawn from this analysis could be extended to other types of fabrication plants. The safeguards objectives and goals at LEU Fuel Fabrication Plants are defined followed by a brief description of the fabrication process. The basic philosophy behind nuclear material stratification and the concept of Material Balance Areas (MBA's) and Key Measurement Points (KMP's) is explained. The Agency operations and verification methods used during physical inventory verifications are illustrated