WorldWideScience

Sample records for regions polarity reversals

  1. Coronal Polarization of Pseudostreamers and the Solar Polar Field Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmeler, L. A.; Guennou, C.; Seaton, D. B.; Gibson, S. E.; Auchere, F.

    2016-01-01

    The reversal of the solar polar magnetic field is notoriously hard to pin down due to the extreme viewing angle of the pole. In Cycle 24, the southern polar field reversal can be pinpointed with high accuracy due to a large-scale pseudostreamer that formed over the pole and persisted for approximately a year. We tracked the size and shape of this structure with multiple observations and analysis techniques including PROBA2/SWAP EUV images, AIA EUV images, CoMP polarization data, and 3D tomographic reconstructions. We find that the heliospheric field reversed polarity in February 2014, whereas in the photosphere, the last vestiges of the previous polar field polarity remained until March 2015. We present here the evolution of the structure and describe its identification in the Fe XII 1074nm coronal emission line, sensitive to the Hanle effect in the corona.

  2. Geomagnetic reversal in brunhes normal polarity epoch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J D; Foster, J H

    1969-02-07

    The magnetic stratigraphly of seven cores of deep-sea sediment established the existence of a short interval of reversed polarity in the upper part of the Brunches epoch of normal polarity. The reversed zone in the cores correlates well with paleontological boundaries and is named the Blake event. Its boundaries are estimated to be 108,000 and 114,000 years ago +/- 10 percent.

  3. Time reversal tests in polarized neutron reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahi, Koichiro; Bowman, J.D.; Crawford, B.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In recent years the nuclear weak interaction has been studied in the compound nucleus via parity violation. The observed parity-violating effects are strongly enhanced by nuclear structure. The predictions are that the interaction of polarized neutrons with polarized nuclear targets could be also used to perform sensitive tests of time-reversal-violation because of the nuclear enhancements. The author has designed experiments to search for time-reversal violation in neutron-nucleus interactions. He has also developed techniques to polarize neutrons with laser-polarized 3 He gas targets. Using the polarized 3 He neutron spin filter, he has performed two experiments at LANSCE: an absolute neutron beam polarization measurement with an accuracy of 0.2--0.3% and a neutron spin-rotation measurement on a 139 La sample

  4. Reversible Polarization Rotation in Epitaxial Ferroelectric Bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Guangqing; Zhang, Qi; Huang, Hsin-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Polarization rotation engineering is a promising path to giant dielectric and electromechanical responses in ferroelectric materials and devices. This work demonstrates robust and reversible in- to out-of-plane polarization rotation in ultrathin (nanoscale) epitaxial (001) tetragonal PbZr0.3Ti0.7O3...... large-scale polarization rotation switching (≈60 μC cm−2) and an effective d 33 response 500% (≈250 pm V−1) larger than the PZT-R layer alone. Furthermore, this enhancement is stable for more than 107 electrical switching cycles. These bilayers present a simple and highly controllable means to design...... and optimize rotational polar systems as an alternate to traditional composition-based approaches. The precise control of the subtle interface-driven interactions between the lattice and the external factors that control polarization opens a new door to enhanced—or completely new—functional properties....

  5. Explaining Polarization Reversals in STEREO Wave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, A.; Cattell, C.; Wygant, J.; Kersten, K.; Wilson, L, B., III; Dai, L.; Colpitts, C.; Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Paradise, A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently Breneman et al. reported observations of large amplitude lightning and transmitter whistler mode waves from two STEREO passes through the inner radiation belt (Lpaper. We show, with a combination of observations and simulated wave superposition, that these polarization reversals are due to the beating of an incident electromagnetic whistler mode wave at 21.4 kHz and linearly polarized, symmetric lower hybrid sidebands Doppler-shifted from the incident wave by +/-200 Hz. The existence of the lower hybrid waves is consistent with the parametric decay mechanism of Lee and Kuo whereby an incident whistler mode wave decays into symmetric, short wavelength lower hybrid waves and a purely growing (zero-frequency) mode. Like the lower hybrid waves, the purely growing mode is Doppler-shifted by 200 Hz as observed on STEREO. This decay mechanism in the upper ionosphere has been previously reported at equatorial latitudes and is thought to have a direct connection with explosive spread F enhancements. As such it may represent another dissipation mechanism of VLF wave energy in the ionosphere and may help to explain a deficit of observed lightning and transmitter energy in the inner radiation belts as reported by Starks et al.

  6. Direct visualization of polarization reversal of organic ferroelectric memory transistor by using charge modulated reflectance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Takako; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2017-11-01

    By using the charge modulated reflectance (CMR) imaging technique, charge distribution in the pentacene organic field-effect transistor (OFET) with a ferroelectric gate insulator [P(VDF-TrFE)] was investigated in terms of polarization reversal of the P(VDF-TrFE) layer. We studied the polarization reversal process and the carrier spreading process in the OFET channel. The I-V measurement showed a hysteresis behavior caused by the spontaneous polarization of P(VDF-TrFE), but the hysteresis I-V curve changes depending on the applied drain bias, possibly due to the gradual shift of the polarization reversal position in the OFET channel. CMR imaging visualized the gradual shift of the polarization reversal position and showed that the electrostatic field formed by the polarization of P(VDF-TrFE) contributes to hole and electron injection into the pentacene layer and the carrier distribution is significantly dependent on the direction of the polarization. The polarization reversal position in the channel region is governed by the electrostatic potential, and it happens where the potential reaches the coercive voltage of P(VDF-TrFE). The transmission line model developed on the basis of the Maxwell-Wagner effect element analysis well accounts for this polarization reversal process in the OFET channel.

  7. How the geomagnetic field vector reverses polarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, M.; Mankinen, E.A.; Gromme, C.S.; Coe, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    A highly detailed record of both the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field as it reverses has been obtained from a Miocene volcanic sequence. The transitional field is low in intensity and is typically non-axisymmetric. Geomagnetic impulses corresponding to astonishingly high rates of change of the field sometimes occur, suggesting that liquid velocity within the Earth's core increases during geomagnetic reversals. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.

  8. Magnetic field reversals, polar wander, and core-mantle coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtillot, V; Besse, J

    1987-09-04

    True polar wander, the shifting of the entire mantle relative to the earth's spin axis, has been reanalyzed. Over the last 200 million years, true polar wander has been fast (approximately 5 centimeters per year) most of the time, except for a remarkable standstill from 170 to 110 million years ago. This standstill correlates with a decrease in the reversal frequency of the geomagnetic field and episodes of continental breakup. Conversely, true polar wander is high when reversal frequency increases. It is proposed that intermittent convection modulates the thickness of a thermal boundary layer at the base of the mantle and consequently the core-to-mantle heat flux. Emission of hot thermals from the boundary layer leads to increases in mantle convection and true polar wander. In conjunction, cold thermals released from a boundary layer at the top of the liquid core eventually lead to reversals. Changes in the locations of subduction zones may also affect true polar wander. Exceptional volcanism and mass extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary and Permo-Triassic boundaries may be related to thermals released after two unusually long periods with no magnetic reversals. These environmental catastrophes may therefore be a consequence of thermal and chemical couplings in the earth's multilayer heat engine rather than have an extraterrestrial cause.

  9. Polarity reversals and tilt of the Earth's magnetic dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolginov, A. Z.

    1993-01-01

    There is evidence that the terrestrial magnetic field is connected with the Earth's mantle: (1) there are magnetic anomalies that do not take part in the westward drift of the main field, but are fixed with respect to the mantle; (2) the geomagnetic pole position flips in a particular way by preferred meridional paths during a reversal; and (3) magnetic polarity reversals are correlated with the activations of geological processes. These facts may be explained if we take into account that a significant horizontal temperature gradient can exist in the top levels of the liquid core because of the different thermoconductivity of the different areas of the core-mantle boundary. These temperature inhomogeneities can penetrate the core because fluxes along the core boundary (the thermal wind) can be strongly suppressed by a small redistribution of the chemical composition in the top of the core. The nonparallel gradients of the temperature, density, and composition on the top of the core create a curled electric field that produces a current and a magnetic field. This seed-field can be amplified by motions in the core. The resulting field does not forget the seed-field distribution and in this way the field on the Earth surface (that can be created only in regions with high conductivity, i.e. in the core) is connected with the core-mantle boundary. Contrary to the usual approach to the dynamo problem, we will take into account that the seed field of thermoelectric origin is acting not only at some initial moment of time but permanently.

  10. Indian summer monsoon forcing on the deglacial polar cold reversals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Virupaxa K Banakar

    2017-09-01

    Sep 1, 2017 ... because CO2, the fundamental forcing for deglaciation, and Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, ... The role of CO2 in causing these deglacial cold ..... Temperature changes in the polar regions with reference to their ...

  11. Reversible Shaping of Microwells by Polarized Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Pirani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, stimuli-responsive polymeric materials have attracted great interest, due to their low cost and ease of structuration over large areas combined with the possibility to actively manipulate their properties. In this work, we propose a polymeric pattern of soft-imprinted microwells containing azobenzene molecules. The shape of individual elements of the pattern can be controlled after fabrication by irradiation with properly polarized light. By taking advantage of the light responsivity of the azobenzene compound, we demonstrate the possibility to reversibly modulate a contraction-expansion of wells from an initial round shape to very narrow slits. We also show that the initial shape of the microconcavities can be restored by flipping the polarization by 90°. The possibility to reversibly control the final shape of individual elements of structured surfaces offers the opportunity to engineer surface properties dynamically, thus opening new perspectives for several applications.

  12. Midlatitude cooling caused by geomagnetic field minimum during polarity reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaba, Ikuko; Hyodo, Masayuki; Katoh, Shigehiro; Dettman, David L; Sato, Hiroshi

    2013-01-22

    The climatic effects of cloud formation induced by galactic cosmic rays (CRs) has recently become a topic of much discussion. The CR-cloud connection suggests that variations in geomagnetic field intensity could change climate through modulation of CR flux. This hypothesis, however, is not well-tested using robust geological evidence. Here we present paleoclimate and paleoenvironment records of five interglacial periods that include two geomagnetic polarity reversals. Marine oxygen isotope stages 19 and 31 contain both anomalous cooling intervals during the sea-level highstands and the Matuyama-Brunhes and Lower Jaramillo reversals, respectively. This contrasts strongly with the typical interglacial climate that has the temperature maximum at the sea-level peak. The cooling occurred when the field intensity dropped to 40% increase in CR flux. The climate warmed rapidly when field intensity recovered. We suggest that geomagnetic field intensity can influence global climate through the modulation of CR flux.

  13. Reversible optical control of macroscopic polarization in ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Marcos, Fernando; Ochoa, Diego A.; Del Campo, Adolfo; García, Miguel A.; Castro, Germán R.; Fernández, José F.; García, José E.

    2018-01-01

    The optical control of ferroic properties is a subject of fascination for the scientific community, because it involves the establishment of new paradigms for technology1-9. Domains and domain walls are known to have a great impact on the properties of ferroic materials1-24. Progress is currently being made in understanding the behaviour of the ferroelectric domain wall, especially regarding its dynamic control10-12,17,19. New research is being conducted to find effective methodologies capable of modulating ferroelectric domain motion for future electronics. However, the practical use of ferroelectric domain wall motion should be both stable and reversible (rewritable) and, in particular, be able to produce a macroscopic response that can be monitored easily12,17. Here, we show that it is possible to achieve a reversible optical change of ferroelectric domains configuration. This effect leads to the tuning of macroscopic polarization and its related properties by means of polarized light, a non-contact external control. Although this is only the first step, it nevertheless constitutes the most crucial one in the long and complex process of developing the next generation of photo-stimulated ferroelectric devices.

  14. Spin-orbit torque induced magnetic vortex polarity reversal utilizing spin-Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Cai, Li; Liu, Baojun; Yang, Xiaokuo; Cui, Huanqing; Wang, Sen; Wei, Bo

    2018-05-01

    We propose an effective magnetic vortex polarity reversal scheme that makes use of spin-orbit torque introduced by spin-Hall effect in heavy-metal/ferromagnet multilayers structure, which can result in subnanosecond polarity reversal without endangering the structural stability. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to investigate the spin-Hall effect driven dynamics evolution of magnetic vortex. The mechanism of magnetic vortex polarity reversal is uncovered by a quantitative analysis of exchange energy density, magnetostatic energy density, and their total energy density. The simulation results indicate that the magnetic vortex polarity is reversed through the nucleation-annihilation process of topological vortex-antivortex pair. This scheme is an attractive option for ultra-fast magnetic vortex polarity reversal, which can be used as the guidelines for the choice of polarity reversal scheme in vortex-based random access memory.

  15. Towards an Integrated Geomagnetic Polarity Reversal Timescale for the Pleistocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera, Tiffany; Storey, Michael; Kuiper, Klaudia

    The development of the geomagnetic polarity timescale (GPTS) in the mid 20th century led to the greater understanding of seafloor spreading and plate tectonics (Heirtzler et al., 1968). Over 40 years later, the GPTS continues to be refined, particularly in terms of integrating multiple dating...... minerals. Each of these ages is then compared to independent astronomical ages for the events in order to define tie-points for constructing a Pleistocene a multi-chronometer GPTS. Although only three reversals are addressed here, the methodology applied shows promise to refining short-lived excursions...... to enable further understanding of the wavering magnetic field. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] under grant agreement no. 215458....

  16. Electrochemical transformation of trichloroethylene in aqueous solution by electrode polarity reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajic, Ljiljana; Fallahpour, Noushin; Yuan, Songhu; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

    2014-12-15

    Electrode polarity reversal is evaluated for electrochemical transformation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in aqueous solution using flow-through reactors with mixed metal oxide electrodes and Pd catalyst. The study tests the hypothesis that optimizing electrode polarity reversal will generate H2O2 in Pd presence in the system. The effect of polarity reversal frequency, duration of the polarity reversal intervals, current intensity and TCE concentration on TCE removal rate and removal mechanism were evaluated. TCE removal efficiencies under 6 cycles h(-1) were similar in the presence of Pd catalyst (50.3%) and without Pd catalyst (49.8%), indicating that Pd has limited impact on TCE degradation under these conditions. The overall removal efficacies after 60 min treatment under polarity reversal frequencies of 6, 10, 15, 30 and 90 cycles h(-1) were 50.3%, 56.3%, 69.3%, 34.7% and 23.4%, respectively. Increasing the frequency of polarity reversal increases TCE removal as long as sufficient charge is produced during each cycle for the reaction at the electrode. Electrode polarity reversal shifts oxidation/reduction and reduction/oxidation sequences in the system. The optimized polarity reversal frequency (15 cycles h(-1) at 60 mA) enables two reaction zones formation where reduction/oxidation occurs at each electrode surface. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. SeaWinds - Oceans, Land, Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The SeaWinds scatterometer on the QuikScat satellite makes global radar measurements -- day and night, in clear sky and through clouds. The radar data over the oceans provide scientists and weather forecasters with information on surface wind speed and direction. Scientists also use the radar measurements directly to learn about changes in vegetation and ice extent over land and polar regions.This false-color image is based entirely on SeaWinds measurements obtained over oceans, land, and polar regions. Over the ocean, colors indicate wind speed with orange as the fastest wind speeds and blue as the slowest. White streamlines indicate the wind direction. The ocean winds in this image were measured by SeaWinds on September 20, 1999. The large storm in the Atlantic off the coast of Florida is Hurricane Gert. Tropical storm Harvey is evident as a high wind region in the Gulf of Mexico, while farther west in the Pacific is tropical storm Hilary. An extensive storm is also present in the South Atlantic Ocean near Antarctica.The land image was made from four days of SeaWinds data with the aid of a resolution enhancement algorithm developed by Dr. David Long at Brigham Young University. The lightest green areas correspond to the highest radar backscatter. Note the bright Amazon and Congo rainforests compared to the dark Sahara desert. The Amazon River is visible as a dark line running horizontally though the bright South American rain forest. Cities appear as bright spots on the images, especially in the U.S. and Europe.The image of Greenland and the north polar ice cap was generated from data acquired by SeaWinds on a single day. In the polar region portion of the image, white corresponds to the largest radar return, while purple is the lowest. The variations in color in Greenland and the polar ice cap reveal information about the ice and snow conditions present.NASA's Earth Science Enterprise is a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth

  18. Concerning tests of time-reversal invariance via the polarization-analyzing power equality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conzett, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    Previous tests of time-reversal invariance via comparisons of polarizations and analyzing powers in nuclear scattering have been examined. It is found that all of these comparisons fail as adequate tests of time-reversal invariance either because of a lack of experimental precision or the lack of sensitivity to any time-reversal symmetry violation

  19. Evidence for a new geomagnetic reversal from lava flows in Idaho: discussion of short polarity reversals in the Brunhes and late Matuyama Polarity Chrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, D.E.; Lanphere, M.A.; Kuntz, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    K-Ar ages and paleomagnetic data for basalt samples from a new core hole (site E) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) indicate that the age of the reversed polarity event recorded in Snake River Plain lavas is older than 465 ?? 50 ka (1000 years before present) reported previously by Champion et al. (1981). A review of data documenting short reversal records from volcanic and sedimentary rocks shows that there is evidence for eight polarity subchrons in the Brunhes and two besides the Jaramillo in the late Matuyama. These 10 short subchrons begin to indicate the many short events that Cox (1968) hypothesized must exist if polarity interval lengths have a Poisson distribution. The mean sustained polarity interval length since late Matuyama Chron time is 90 000 years. The similarity of this number with the 105-year period of the Earth's orbital eccentricity suggests anew that linkage between geomagnetic, paleoclimatic, and possible underlying Earth orbital parameters should be evaluated. -from Authors

  20. Anthropogenic Radionuglides in Marine Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Elis

    The polar regions are important for the understanding of long range water and atmospheric transport of anthropogenic substances. Investigations show that atmospheric transport of anthropogenic radionuclides is the most important route of transport to the Antarctic while water transport plays a greater role for the Arctic. Fallout from nuclear detonation tests is the major source in the Antarctic while in the Arctic other sources, especially European reprocessing facilities, dominate for conservatively behaving rdionuclides such as 137Cs . The flux of 137Cs and 239+240Pu in the Antarctic is about 1/10 of that for the Arctic and the resulting concentrations in surface sea-water show the same ratio for the two areas. In the Antarctic concentration factors for 137Cs are higher than in the Arctic for similar species

  1. Differential Effect of Contrast Polarity Reversals in Closed Squares and open L-Junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark M Schira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Scene segmentation depends on interaction between geometrical and photometric factors. It has been shown that reversals in contrast polarity at points of highest orientation discontinuity along closed contours significantly impair shape discrimination performance, while changes in contrast polarity at straight(er contour segments do not have such deleterious effects (Spehar 2002. Here we employ (semi high resolution fMRI (1.5x1.5x1.5mm to investigate the neuronal substrate underlying these perception effects. Stimuli consisted of simple elements a squares with contrast reversals along straight segments; b squares with contrast reversals in the corner (highest orientation discontinuity; c L-Junctions with contrast reversals along the straight ends; d L-Junctions with contrast reversals in the corner. Element with contrast polarity reversals are easy to distinguish though appear geometrically equivalent. For squares with contrast polarity reversals only along straight lines we find significantly lower BOLD modulation compared to any of the control conditions, which show similar responses to each other. In the light of previous psychophysical work (Spehar 2002, Elder and Zucker, 1993 we speculate that this effect is due to closure perception. We observe this across a wide range of areas on occipital cortex.

  2. Polar Magnetic Field Reversals of the Sun in Maunder Minimum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    The data on polar migration of solar magnetic fields were obtained on the basis of. Η alpha magnetic synoptic charts for 1880 1991 using Kodaikanal, Kislovodsk and Italian observations, and Atlas of Η alpha charts (Mclntosh 1979; Makarov &. Fatianov 1980; Makarov & Sivaraman 1989; Makarov 1994). The Wolf numbers ...

  3. Environmental impact on the polar regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, D.A.; Leighton, E.; Tumeo, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The remote and frigid polar regions are no longer isolated from the activities, pollutants, and controversies that bedevil their more temperate neighbors, say three researchers at the University of Alaska in Fairbanks. For example, Daniel A. Jaffe, Elizabeth Leighton, and Mark A. Tumeo point to traces of DDT, PCBs, and heavy metals that routinely turn up in arctic marine mammals and to the ozone hole over the Antarctic. While similar in environmental makeup, the arctic and Antarctic are poles apart in their political structure and, thus, in their environmental exposure, the researchers note. The Antarctic is managed under a long-standing international treaty, while the arctic is sovereign territory to eight separate nations. The international treaty sets aside the Antarctic for peaceful scientific research within strict environmental boundaries. It bans both military activity and minerals extraction-the two activities that have caused the most damage in the arctic. The main threats to Antarctica's environment come from the intrusion of major scientific research operations and the growing tourism industry. On the other hand, the arctic suffered from the massive Cold War military buildup by both the United States and the former Soviet Union. The environmental residue from that buildup is only now being revealed, the authors say. Major oil and gas drilling and coal and metal-ore mining also have taken a huge environmental toll, they add

  4. Magnetized Reverse Shock: Density-fluctuation-induced Field Distortion, Polarization Degree Reduction, and Application to GRBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Wei; Zhang Bing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Li Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Stone, James M., E-mail: deng@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: hli@lanl.gov, E-mail: jstone@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The early optical afterglow emission of several gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) shows a high linear polarization degree (PD) of tens of percent, suggesting an ordered magnetic field in the emission region. The light curves are consistent with being of a reverse shock (RS) origin. However, the magnetization parameter, σ , of the outflow is unknown. If σ is too small, an ordered field in the RS may be quickly randomized due to turbulence driven by various perturbations so that the PD may not be as high as observed. Here we use the “Athena++” relativistic MHD code to simulate a relativistic jet with an ordered magnetic field propagating into a clumpy ambient medium, with a focus on how density fluctuations may distort the ordered magnetic field and reduce PD in the RS emission for different σ values. For a given density fluctuation, we discover a clear power-law relationship between the relative PD reduction and the σ value of the outflow. Such a relation may be applied to estimate σ of the GRB outflows using the polarization data of early afterglows.

  5. Adapting the HSV polarization-color mapping for regions with low irradiance and high polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Tyo, J; Ratliff, Bradley M; Alenin, Andrey S

    2016-10-15

    Many mappings from polarization into color have been developed so that polarization information can be displayed. One of the most common of these maps the angle of linear polarization into color hue and degree of linear polarization into color saturation, while preserving the irradiance information from the polarization data. While this strategy enjoys wide popularity, there is a large class of polarization images for which it is not ideal. It is common to have images where the strongest polarization signatures (in terms of degree of polarization) occur in regions of relatively low irradiance: either in shadow in reflective bands or in cold regions in emissive bands. Since the irradiance is low, the chromatic properties of the resulting images are generally not apparent. Here we present an alternate mapping that uses the statistics of the angle of polarization as a measure of confidence in the polarization signature, then amplifies the irradiance in regions of high confidence, and leaves it unchanged in regions of low confidence. Results are shown from an LWIR and a visible spectrum imager.

  6. Effects of spin-polarized current on pulse field-induced precessional magnetization reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-fu Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate effects of a small DC spin-polarized current on the pulse field-induced precessional magnetization reversal in a thin elliptic magnetic element by micromagnetic simulations. We find that the spin-polarized current not only broadens the time window of the pulse duration, in which a successful precessional reversal is achievable, but also significantly suppresses the magnetization ringing after the reversal. The pulse time window as well as the decay rate of the ringing increase with increasing the current density. When a spin-polarized current with 5 MA/cm2 is applied, the time window increases from 80 ps to 112 ps, and the relaxation time of the ringing decreases from 1.1 ns to 0.32 ns. Our results provide useful information to achieve magnetic nanodevices based on precessional switching.

  7. Polarization reversal of electron cyclotron wave due to radial boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.; Kaneko, T.; Hatakeyama, R.

    2004-01-01

    The electron cyclotron wave is an important plasma wave in the fields of basic plasma physics and nuclear fusion. Propagation and absorption of electromagnetic waves with electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) frequency are experimentally and theoretically investigated for the case of inhomogeneously magnetized plasma column with peripheral vacuum layer, when a left-hand polarized wave (LHPW) is selectively launched. The polarization reversal from the LHPW to the right-hand polarized wave is found to occur near the ECR point. As a result, it is clarified that the LHPW, which has been considered not to be absorbed at the ECR point, is absorbed near the ECR point. The phenomena can be explained by taking into account the effects of the radial boundary conditions. In addition, it is found that the polarization reversal point can be adjusted by the external parameters, for example, plasma radius. (authors)

  8. Polarization reversal during the solar noise storm activity of August 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Masahiro

    1975-01-01

    Reversals of the sense of circular polarization of solar radio emission were observed for active type I storms in August 1971. Observations with a 160-MHz interferometer revealed that the reversals were caused by sudden growth and decay of a secondary storm source whose sense of polarization was opposite to that of the long-lasting main source. The time variations of both the associated S-component sources and sunspots are compared with that of the storm sources. The role of the magnetic field, which presumably connects the storm sources, the S-component sources, and the sunspots, is discussed in relation to the origin of the storm activity. (author)

  9. Dataset demonstrating the temperature effect on average output polarization for QCA based reversible logic gates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamrul Hassan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA is a developing nanotechnology, which seems to be a good candidate to replace the conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS technology. In this article, we present the dataset of average output polarization (AOP for basic reversible logic gates presented in Ali Newaz et al. (2016 [1]. QCADesigner 2.0.3 has been employed to analysis the AOP of reversible gates at different temperature levels in Kelvin (K unit.

  10. Time-reversal asymmetry: polarization and analyzing power in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rioux, C.; Roy, R.; Slobodrian, R.J.; Conzett, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of the proton polarization in the reactions 7 Li( 3 He, p vector) 9 Be and 9 Be( 3 He, p vector) 11 B and of the analyzing powers in the inverse reactions, initiated by polarized protons at the same center-of-mass energies, show significant differences. This implies the failure of the polarization-analyzing-power theorem and, prima facie, of time-reversal invariance in these reactions. The reaction 2 H( 3 He, p vector) 4 He and its inverse have also been investigated and show smaller differences. A discussion of instrumental asymmetries is presented

  11. Polarized radial magnetic fields and outward plasma fluxes during shallow-reversal discharges in the ZT-40M reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, A.R.; Rusbridge, M.G.; Burkhardt, L.C.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of edge-region electromagnetic disturbances and of pulsed radial fluxes of plasma to the liner as well as the detailed interrelationship among these processes have been studied on the ZT-40M reversed-field pinch in its normal, shallow-reversal operating regime. The dominant magnetic disturbances are spiky (pulsewidth approx.5--10 μs) low-amplitude (Vertical BarB/sub r//B/sub theta/Vertical Bar -2 )= poloidally symmetric radial-field structures intersecting the vacuum wall and precessing toroidally in the anti-I/sub phi/ sense. The effect of even slight toroidal-field reversal (Vertical BarB/sub phi/(a)Vertical Barroughly-equalB/sub theta/(a)/10) is to polarize these radial-field spikes preferentially positive (i.e., B/sub r/>0) and to increase the speed of the minority (B/sub r/ 0) spikes. Synchronous with the polarized B/sub r/ spikes are intense radially outward fluxes of plasma (instantaneously > or approx. =10 22 m -2 s -1 ) leading to recurrent, large amplitude (Vertical BarΔn/n> or approx. =25%) depletion of the density in the outer quarter of minor radius. The resulting time-averaged global loss-rate per particle is significant (approx.10 3 s -1 )

  12. Polarization reversal of proton spins in solid-state targets by superradiance effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichertz, L.A.

    1991-02-01

    Scattering experiments with polarized targets are prepared at the Bonn accelerator ELSA. The new Bonn frozen spin target (BOFROST) developed for real photon experiments at the PHOENICS detector has been tested in the laboratory. Proton polarization values of -99% and +94% in ammonia, -96% and +90% in butanol have been achieved at a magnetic field of 3.5 Tesla. At a temperature of 70 mK and a magnetic field of 0.35 Tesla a very fast spontaneous polarization reversal has been observed. This effect occured at negative polarization only and has been identified as a self-induced superradiance effect in the proton spin system. This work describes the polarization and relaxation measurements at BOFROST and detailed experiments concerning the superradiance effect. (orig.) [de

  13. Hydrogen Distribution in the Lunar Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Bakhtin, B. N.; Bodnarik, J. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Harshmann, K.; Fedosov, F.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present a method of conversion of the lunar neutron counting rate measured by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) instrument collimated neutron detectors, to water equivalent hydrogen (WEH) in the top approximately 1 m layer of lunar regolith. Polar maps of the Moon’s inferred hydrogen abundance are presented and discussed.

  14. Time reversal in polarized neutron decay: the emiT experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, G L; Anaya, J M; Bowles, T J; Chupp, T E; Coulter, K P; Dewey, M S; Freedman, S J; Fujikawa, B K; García, A; Greene, G L; Hwang, S R; Lising, L J; Mumm, H P; Nico, J S; Robertson, R G H; Steiger, T D; Teasdale, W A; Thompson, A K; Wasserman, E G; Wietfeldt, F E; Wilkerson, J F

    2000-01-01

    The standard electro-weak model predicts negligible violation of time-reversal invariance in light quark processes. We report on an experimental test of time-reversal invariance in the beta decay of polarized neutrons as a search for physics beyond the standard model. The emiT collaboration has measured the time-reversal-violating triple-correlation in neutron beta decay between the neutron spin, electron momentum, and neutrino momentum often referred to as the D coefficient. The first run of the experiment produced 14 million events which are currently being analyzed. However, a second run with improved detectors should provide greater statistical precision and reduced systematic uncertainties.

  15. Polarity-dependent reversible resistance switching in Ge-Sb-Te phase-change thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Kooi, Bart J.; Palasantzas, George; De Hosson, Jeff T. M.; Pauza, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate reversible resistance switching in a capacitorlike cell using a Ge-Sb-Te film that does not rely on amorphous-crystalline phase change. The polarity of the applied electric field switches the cell resistance between lower- and higher-resistance states, as was observed

  16. Polarization images of the inner regions of Comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, N.; Scarrott, S.M.; Warren-Smith, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The present CCD polarimeter images of intensity and polarization within the near-nucleus regions of Comet Halley show the occurrence of dust jets on two days in January, 1986, which exhibit increased polarizations above the level of the surrounding coma. Three possible reasons for the enhanced polarization in the jets are considered, assuming that the polarization increase is due to dust grains: (1) the size distribution of the grains could be different from the surrounding coma; (2) the material of the grains could have a different refractive index; and (3) the ratio of dust to gas emission could be different in the jets. 13 references

  17. Dependence of the duration of geomagnetic polarity reversals on site latitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Bradford M

    2004-04-08

    An important constraint on the processes governing the geodynamo--the flow in the outer core responsible for generating Earth's magnetic field--is the duration of geomagnetic polarity reversals; that is, how long it takes for Earth's magnetic field to reverse. It is generally accepted that Earth's magnetic field strength drops to low levels during polarity reversals, and the field direction progresses through a 180 degrees change while the field is weak. The time it takes for this process to happen, however, remains uncertain, with estimates ranging from a few thousand up to 28,000 years. Here I present an analysis of the available sediment records of the four most recent polarity reversals. These records yield an average estimate of about 7,000 years for the time it takes for the directional change to occur. The variation about this mean duration is not random, but instead varies with site latitude, with shorter durations observed at low-latitude sites, and longer durations observed at mid- to high-latitude sites. Such variation of duration with site latitude is predicted by simple geometrical reversal models, in which non-dipole fields are allowed to persist while the axial dipole decays through zero and then builds in the opposite direction, and provides a constraint on numerical dynamo models.

  18. Electric field and temperature scaling of polarization reversal in silicon doped hafnium oxide ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dayu; Guan, Yan; Vopson, Melvin M.; Xu, Jin; Liang, Hailong; Cao, Fei; Dong, Xianlin; Mueller, Johannes; Schenk, Tony; Schroeder, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    HfO 2 -based binary lead-free ferroelectrics show promising properties for non-volatile memory applications, providing that their polarization reversal behavior is fully understood. In this work, temperature-dependent polarization hysteresis measured over a wide applied field range has been investigated for Si-doped HfO 2 ferroelectric thin films. Our study indicates that in the low and medium electric field regimes (E < twofold coercive field, 2E c ), the reversal process is dominated by the thermal activation on domain wall motion and domain nucleation; while in the high-field regime (E > 2E c ), a non-equilibrium nucleation-limited-switching mechanism dominates the reversal process. The optimum field for ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) applications was determined to be around 2.0 MV/cm, which translates into a 2.0 V potential applied across the 10 nm thick films

  19. Advancing Environmental Prediction Capabilities for the Polar Regions and Beyond during The Year of Polar Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Kirstin; Goessling, Helge; Hoke, Winfried; Kirchhoff, Katharina; Jung, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Environmental changes in polar regions open up new opportunities for economic and societal operations such as vessel traffic related to scientific, fishery and tourism activities, and in the case of the Arctic also enhanced resource development. The availability of current and accurate weather and environmental information and forecasts will therefore play an increasingly important role in aiding risk reduction and safety management around the poles. The Year of Polar Prediction (YOPP) has been established by the World Meteorological Organization's World Weather Research Programme as the key activity of the ten-year Polar Prediction Project (PPP; see more on www.polarprediction.net). YOPP is an internationally coordinated initiative to significantly advance our environmental prediction capabilities for the polar regions and beyond, supporting improved weather and climate services. Scheduled to take place from mid-2017 to mid-2019, the YOPP core phase covers an extended period of intensive observing, modelling, prediction, verification, user-engagement and education activities in the Arctic and Antarctic, on a wide range of time scales from hours to seasons. The Year of Polar Prediction will entail periods of enhanced observational and modelling campaigns in both polar regions. With the purpose to close the gaps in the conventional polar observing systems in regions where the observation network is sparse, routine observations will be enhanced during Special Observing Periods for an extended period of time (several weeks) during YOPP. This will allow carrying out subsequent forecasting system experiments aimed at optimizing observing systems in the polar regions and providing insight into the impact of better polar observations on forecast skills in lower latitudes. With various activities and the involvement of a wide range of stakeholders, YOPP will contribute to the knowledge base needed to managing the opportunities and risks that come with polar climate change.

  20. Geomagnetic polarity reversals as a mechanism for the punctuated equilibrium model of biological evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, J.S.; Welsh, A.L.; Welsh, W.F.

    2003-01-01

    In contrast to what is predicted by classical Darwinian theory (phyletic gradualism), the fossil record typically displays a pattern of relatively sudden, dramatic changes as detailed by Eldregde and Gould's model of punctuated equilibrium. Evolutionary biologists have been at a loss to explain the ultimate source of the new mutations that drive evolution. One hypothesis holds that the abrupt speciation seen in the punctuated equilibrium model is secondary to an increased mutation rate resulting from periodically increased levels of ionizing radiation on the Earth's surface. Sporadic geomagnetic pole reversals, occurring every few million years on the average, are accompanied by alterations in the strength of the Earth's magnetic field and magnetosphere. This diminution may allow charged cosmic radiation to bombard Earth with less attenuation, thereby resulting in increased mutation rates. This episodic fluctuation in the magnetosphere is an attractive mechanism for the observed fossil record. Selected periods and epochs of geologic history for which data was available were reviewed for both geomagnetic pole reversal history and fossil record. Anomalies in either were scrutinized in greater depth and correlations were made. A 35 million year span (118-83 Ma) was identified during the Early/Middle Cretaceous period that was devoid of geomagnetic polarity reversals(the Cretaceous normal superchron). Examination of the fossil record (including several invertebrate and vertebrate taxons) during the Cretaceous normal superchron does not reveal any significant gap or slowing of speciation. Although increased terrestrial radiation exposure due to a diminution of the Earth's magnetosphere caused by a reversal of geomagnetic polarity is an attractive explanation for the mechanism of punctuated equilibrium, our investigation suggests that such polarity reversals cannot fully provide the driving force behind biological evolution. Further research is required to determine if

  1. Atmospheric Modeling of the Martian Polar Regions: CRISM EPF Coverage During the South Polar Spring Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. J.; McGuire, P.; Wolff, M. J.

    2008-03-01

    We describe efforts to model dust and ice aerosols content and soils and icy surface reflectance in the Martian southern polar region during spring recession (Ls = 152-320) using CRISM emission phase function (EPF) observations.

  2. Bridging the mantle: A comparison of geomagnetic polarity reversal rate, global subduction flux, and true polar wander records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggin, A. J.; Hounslow, M.; Domeier, M.

    2017-12-01

    The long-term variability in average geomagnetic reversal frequency over the Phanerozoic, consisting of superchrons interspersed with periods of hyper-reversal activity, remains one of the most prominent and enigmatic features evident within palaeomagnetic records. This variability is widely expected to reflect mantle convection modifying the pattern and/or magnitude of core-mantle boundary heat flow, and thereby affecting the geodynamo's operation, but actual causal links to surface geological processes remain tenuous. Previous studies have argued that mantle plumes, superplume oscillation, true polar wander, and avalanching of cold slabs into the lower mantle could all be at least partly responsible. Here we will present a re-evaluated reversal frequency record for the Phanerozoic and use it, together with published findings from numerical geodynamo simulations, to push further towards an integrated explanation of how the geomagnetic field has responded to mantle processes over the last few hundreds of million years. Recent work on absolute plate motions back through the Phanerozoic have allowed estimations to be made as to both the global subduction flux and rates of true polar wander through time. When considered alongside the outputs of numerical simulations of the geodynamo process, these can potentially explain long-timescale palaeomagnetic variations over the last few hundreds of million years.

  3. Boundary layer polarization and voltage in the 14 MLT region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, R.; Yamauchi, M.; Woch, J.; Marklund, G.

    1995-05-01

    Viking midlatitude observations of ions and electrons in the postnoon auroral region show that field-aligned acceleration of electrons and ions with energies up to a few kiloelectron volts takes place. The characteristics of the upgoing ion beams and the local transverse electric field observed by Viking indicate that parallel ion acceleration is primarily due to a quasi-electrostatic field-aligned acceleration process below Viking altitudes, i.e., below 10,000-13,500 km. A good correlation is found between the maximum upgoing ion beam energy and the depth of the local potential well determined by the Viking electric field experiment within dayside 'ion inverted Vs.' The total transverse potential throughout the entire region near the ion inverted Vs. is generally much higher than the field-aligned potential and may reach well above 10 kV. However, the detailed mapping of the transverse potential out to the boundary layer, a fundamental issue which remains controversial, was not attempted here. An important finding in this study is the strong correlation between the maximum up going ion beam energy of dayside ion inverted Vs and the solar wind velocity. This suggests a direct coupling of the solar wind plasma dynamo/voltage generator to the region of field-aligned particle acceleration. The fact that the center of dayside ion inverted Vs coincide with convection reversals/flow stagnation and upward Birkeland currents on what appears to be closed field lines (Woch et al., 1993), suggests that field-aligned potential structures connect to the inner part of an MHD dyanmo in the low-latitude boundary layer. Thus the Viking observations substantiate the idea of a solar wind induced boundary layer polarization where negatively charged perturbations in the postnoon sector persistently develops along the magnetic field lines, establishing accelerating potential drops along the geomagnetic field lines in the 0.5-10 kV range.

  4. An omnipotent Li-ion battery charger with multimode control and polarity reversible techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiann-Jong; Ku, Yi-Tsen; Yang, Hong-Yi; Hwang, Yuh-Shyan; Yu, Cheng-Chieh

    2016-07-01

    The omnipotent Li-ion battery charger with multimode control and polarity reversible techniques is presented in this article. The proposed chip is fabricated with TSMC 0.35μm 2P4M complementary metal-oxide- semiconductor processes, and the chip area including pads is 1.5 × 1.5 mm2. The structure of the omnipotent charger combines three charging modes and polarity reversible techniques, which adapt to any Li-ion batteries. The three reversible Li-ion battery charging modes, including trickle-current charging, large-current charging and constant-voltage charging, can charge in matching polarities or opposite polarities. The proposed circuit has a maximum charging current of 300 mA and the input voltage of the proposed circuit is set to 4.5 V. The maximum efficiency of the proposed charger is about 91% and its average efficiency is 74.8%. The omnipotent charger can precisely provide the charging current to the battery.

  5. The structure of liquid water by polarized neutron diffraction and reverse Monte Carlo modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temleitner, László; Pusztai, László; Schweika, Werner

    2007-08-22

    The coherent static structure factor of water has been investigated by polarized neutron diffraction. Polarization analysis allows us to separate the huge incoherent scattering background from hydrogen and to obtain high quality data of the coherent scattering from four different mixtures of liquid H(2)O and D(2)O. The information obtained by the variation of the scattering contrast confines the configurational space of water and is used by the reverse Monte Carlo technique to model the total structure factors. Structural characteristics have been calculated directly from the resulting sets of particle coordinates. Consistency with existing partial pair correlation functions, derived without the application of polarized neutrons, was checked by incorporating them into our reverse Monte Carlo calculations. We also performed Monte Carlo simulations of a hard sphere system, which provides an accurate estimate of the information content of the measured data. It is shown that the present combination of polarized neutron scattering and reverse Monte Carlo structural modelling is a promising approach towards a detailed understanding of the microscopic structure of water.

  6. Search for Time Reversal Violation in Neutron Decay: A Measurement of the Transverse Polarization of Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodek, K.; Kaczmarek, A.; Kistryn, St.; Kuzniak, M.; Zejma, J.; Pulut, J.; Kirch, K.; Bialek, A.; Kozela, A.; Ban, G.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Gorel, P.; Beck, M.; Lindroth, A.; Severijns, N.; Stephan, E.; Czarnecki, A.

    2006-01-01

    A non-zero value of the R-correlation coefficient due to the e - polarization component, perpendicular to the plane spanned by the spin of the decaying neutron and the electron momentum, would signal a violation of time reversal symmetry and thus physics beyond the Standard Model. The value of the N-correlation coefficient, given by the transverse e - polarization component within that plane, is expected to be finite. The measurement of N serves as an important systematic check of the apparatus for the R-measurement. The first phase of data taking has been completed. Preliminary results from a limited data sample show no deviations from the Standard Model predictions

  7. Average output polarization dataset for signifying the temperature influence for QCA designed reversible logic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah-Al-Shafi, Md; Bahar, Ali Newaz; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Maksudur Rahman; Shamim, S M; Ahmed, Kawser

    2018-08-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) as nanotechnology is a pledging contestant that has incredible prospective to substitute complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) because of its superior structures such as intensely high device thickness, minimal power depletion with rapid operation momentum. In this study, the dataset of average output polarization (AOP) for fundamental reversible logic circuits is organized as presented in (Abdullah-Al-Shafi and Bahar, 2017; Bahar et al., 2016; Abdullah-Al-Shafi et al., 2015; Abdullah-Al-Shafi, 2016) [1-4]. QCADesigner version 2.0.3 has been utilized to survey the AOP of reversible circuits at separate temperature point in Kelvin (K) unit.

  8. IS THE POLAR REGION DIFFERENT FROM THE QUIET REGION OF THE SUN?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroaki; Shiota, Daikou; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Fujiki, Ken'ichi; Tsuneta, Saku

    2010-01-01

    Observations of the polar region of the Sun are critically important for understanding the solar dynamo and the acceleration of solar wind. We carried out precise magnetic observations on both the north polar region and the quiet Sun at the east limb with the spectropolarimeter of the Solar Optical Telescope aboard Hinode to characterize the polar region with respect to the quiet Sun. The average area and the total magnetic flux of the kilo-Gauss magnetic concentrations in the polar region appear to be larger than those of the quiet Sun. The magnetic field vectors classified as vertical in the quiet Sun have symmetric histograms around zero in the strengths, showing balanced positive and negative fluxes, while the histogram in the north polar region is clearly asymmetric, showing a predominance of the negative polarity. The total magnetic flux of the polar region is larger than that of the quiet Sun. In contrast, the histogram of the horizontal magnetic fields is exactly the same for both the polar region and the quiet Sun. This is consistent with the idea that a local dynamo process is responsible for the horizontal magnetic fields. A high-resolution potential field extrapolation shows that the majority of magnetic field lines from the kG-patches in the polar region are open with a fanning-out structure very low in the atmosphere, while in the quiet Sun, almost all the field lines are closed.

  9. PERSPECTIVE: Snow matters in the polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodeau, John

    2010-03-01

    Antarctica is not quite as chemically pristine as might sometimes be thought (Jones et al 2008). For example, as elsewhere, reduced sulfur species such as dimethylsulfide (DMS) are emitted from biogenic marine sources at the poles (Read et al 2008). Somewhat less well known is that inland (as opposed to coastal) field campaigns have also detected, within the Antarctic boundary layer (ABL), emissions containing unexpectedly high levels of diverse, oxidizing chemicals such as NOx, nitrate ions, formaldehyde, ozone and hydrogen peroxide (Honrath et al 1999, Hutterli et al 2004, Sumner and Shepson 1999). And then there are the halogen-containing compounds (Simpson et al 2007). The transformation of DMS to sulfate aerosols capable of acting as cloud condensation nuclei often proceeds via one main oxidized product of DMS, namely methanesulfonic acid (MSA). Two specific reactions have been well studied to date in this regard, namely DMS plus either OH or NO3 radicals. Corresponding reactions with halogen radicals, which also contribute to the oxidizing capacity of our atmosphere, have generally been considered to be of less importance. The reason for this view is that even though the reactivity of bromine- and iodine-containing radicals is much greater than that of OH, the halogens were thought to be relatively scarce in the polar atmosphere. However both BrO (and IO) have been detected in the Antarctic CHABLIS campaign, as discussed in depth in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics special issue of 2008, see Jones et al (2008). It was subsequently shown that calculated MSA production from the DMS/BrO reaction may be about an order of magnitude greater than when the OH radical was the oxidizing reactant. The recent analytical measurements by Antony et al (2010) of MSA, Br and NO3 found in snow along the Ingrid Christensen Coast of East Antarctica are important in the above field context. Hence it would appear that the concentrations of these ions in ice-cap sites are up

  10. Test of parity and time reversal invariance with low energy polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaike, Akira

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of helicity asymmetries in slow neutron reactions on nuclei have been performed by transmission and capture γ-ray detection. Large enhancements of parity-violation effects have been observed on p-wave resonances of various medium and heavy nuclei. The weak matrix elements in hadron reactions have been deduced from these experimental results. Neutron spin precession near the p-wave resonance has been measured. In recent years violation of time reversal invariance is being searched for in the neutron reactions in which large enhancements of the parity violation effects have been observed. The measurement of the term σ n ·(k n x I) in a neutron reaction using polarized neutrons and a polarized target is an example of the test of T-violation. Polarizations of the neutron and lanthanum nucleus for these experiments are also presented. (author)

  11. CLIMATIC JUMP IN THE POLAR REGION (I)

    OpenAIRE

    ヤマモト, リョウザブロウ; イワシマ, タツヤ; ホシアイ, マコト; Ryozaburo, YAMAMOTO; Tatsuya, IWASHIMA; Makoto, HOSHIAI

    1987-01-01

    From the analysis of the climatic elements over Japan, we can detect the "climatic jumps" around the years 1920 and 1950,which is a new concept in the climatic diagnosis proposed by the present authors (R. YAMAMOTO et al. : J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn., 63,1157,1985,64,273,1986). Taking account of several results which show the simultaneous occurrence of the climatic jumps of the surface air temperature, precipitation, etc., in the other regions by the other investigators, we may infer the "climati...

  12. Regional polarization sensitivity of articular cartilage by using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tuqiang; Guo, Shuguang; Chen, Zhongping; Peavy, George M.

    2007-02-01

    In this study, PS-OCT is used to image fresh bovine joints to investigate the orientation of collagen fibrils in relation to optical phase retardation to better understand the distribution of normal matrix orientation and articular cartilage birefringence in different regions of a whole joint. Understanding and mapping variations in matrix organization and orientation within the normal joint is an important issue in potential applications of PS-OCT for evaluation and diagnosis of degenerative joint disease (DJD). The experimental results demonstrate that articular cartilage is not polarization sensitive on the edge of the medial, but polarization sensitive on the lateral edge of the tibial plateau. The collagen orientation on the edge of the joint is different from the central areas of the joint. Normal articular cartilage demonstrates regional polarization sensitivity within joints that is important to understand in order to accurately assess cartilage health by PS-OCT.

  13. Mars: Stratigraphy of Western Highlands and Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Scott, D. H.; Tuesink, M. F.

    1985-01-01

    Geologic mapping and stratigraphic studies of Mars based on Viking images improved knowledge of the relative age and occurrence of geologic units on a global scale. Densities of geologic units or features during the Noarchian, Hesperian, and Amazonian periods are indicated for the North and South polar regions as well as the equatorial region of Mars. Cumulative counts of crater size frequencies for craters larger than 2 km in diameter on plateau units mapped in the western region of Mars counts indicate that the plateau terrain as a whole was thinly resurfaced during the Hesperian Period, and a large proportion of pre-existing craters less than 10 to 15 km in diameter was buried. The formation of northern plains, subpolar highlands, and both polar regions is also described.

  14. Polar Kerr effect studies of time reversal symmetry breaking states in heavy fermion superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schemm, E.R., E-mail: eschemm@alumni.stanford.edu [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Levenson-Falk, E.M. [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kapitulnik, A. [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Stanford Institute of Energy and Materials Science, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Polar Kerr effect (PKE) probes broken time-reversal symmetry (TRS) in superconductors. • Absence of PKE below Tc in CeCoIn{sub 5} is consistent with dx2-y2 order parameter symmetry. • PKE in the B phase of the multiphase superconductor UPt3 agrees with an E2u model. • Data on URu2Si2 show broken TRS and additional structure in the superconducting state. - Abstract: The connection between chiral superconductivity and topological order has emerged as an active direction in research as more instances of both have been identified in condensed matter systems. With the notable exception of {sup 3}He-B, all of the known or suspected chiral – that is to say time-reversal symmetry-breaking (TRSB) – superfluids arise in heavy fermion superconductors, although the vast majority of heavy fermion superconductors preserve time-reversal symmetry. Here we review recent experimental efforts to identify TRSB states in heavy fermion systems via measurement of polar Kerr effect, which is a direct consequence of TRSB.

  15. Regional contamination versus regional dietary differences: Understanding geographic variation in brominated and chlorinated contaminant levels in polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, M.A.; Letcher, R.J.; Aars, Jon; Born, E.W.; Branigan, M.; Dietz, R.; Evans, T.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Muir, D.C.G.; Peacock, E.; Sonne, C.

    2011-01-01

    The relative contribution of regional contamination versus dietary differences to geographic variation in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) contaminant levels is unknown. Dietary variation between Alaska Canada, East Greenland, and Svalbard subpopulations was assessed by muscle nitrogen and carbon stable isotope (?? 15N, ?? 13C) and adipose fatty acid (FA) signatures relative to their main prey (ringed seals). Western and southern Hudson Bay signatures were characterized by depleted ?? 15N and ??13C, lower proportions of C20 and C22 monounsaturated FAs and higher proportions of C18 and longer chain polyunsaturated FAs. East Greenland and Svalbard signatures were reversed relative to Hudson Bay. Alaskan ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  16. Control of coercive field in lithium niobate crystals with repeated polarization reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Jung Hoon; Jeong, Doun; Park, Taeyong; Kim, Chulhan; Kwon, Soon-Bok; Cha, Myoungsik; Choi, Byeong Cheol; Yu, Nanei; Kurimura, Sunao; Jeon, Gyerok

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the amount of decrease in coercive field of congruent lithium niobate during repeated poling and back-poling was measured. The polarization is reversed in 300 ms and then back-poled during the rest period. The coercive field can be decreased around 1 kV/mm with a repeated poling interval of 5 s. As the interval prolonged, the poling field decrease became smaller, and a stretched exponential function is suggested for the experimental fitting resulting in a set of meaningful parameters. These values are essential for the design of high quality domain engineering

  17. Bounds on Time Reversal Violation From Polarized Neutron Capture With Unpolarized Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E D; Gould, C R; Mitchell, G E; Sharapov, E I

    2005-01-01

    We have analyzed constraints on parity-odd time-reversal noninvariant interactions derived from measurements of the energy dependence of parity-violating polarized neutron capture on unpolarized targets. As previous authors found, a perturbation in energy dependence due to a parity (P)-odd time (T)-odd interaction is present. However, the perturbation competes with T-even terms which can obscure the T-odd signature. We estimate the magnitudes of these competing terms and suggest strategies for a practicable experiment.

  18. Stratigraphy of the south polar region of Ganymede

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehon, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary assessment is made of the stratigraphy and geology in the south polar region of the Jovian satellite, Ganymede. Geologic mapping is based on inspection of Voyager images and compilation on an airbrush base map at a scale of 1:5M. Illumination and resolution vary greatly in the region. Approximately half of the quadripole is beyond the terminator. Low angle illumination over a large part of the area precludes distinction of some units by albedo characteristics. Several types of grooved terrain and groove related terrain occur in the southern polar region. Grooves typically occur in straight to curvilinear sets or lanes. Bright lanes and grooved lanes intersect at high angles outlining polygons of dark cratered terrain. Groove sets exhibit a range of ages as shown by superposition or truncation and by crater superposition ages.

  19. Orientation of Birkeland current sheets in the dayside polar region and its relationship to the IMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saflekos, N.A.; Potemra, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Vector magnetic field observations made with the three-axes magnetometer on the Triad satellite have been used to study the orientation of magnetic disturbances in the dayside polar region. These measurements were all made over the southern polar region and recorded at McMurdo, Antarctica. These disturbances are transverse to the main geomagnetic field and may be interpreted as being caused by field-aligned Birkeland current sheets consistent with Maxwell's equations. The current sheets in the regions usually associated with the morning and afternoon auroral regions are most often aligned in the geomagnetic east-west direction. The amplitudes of these 'south auroral' currents are larger in the morning than in the afternoon when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is directed toward the sun (B/sub y/ 0) and larger in the afternoon when the IMF is directed away (B/sub y/>0, B/sub x/ 0 the Birkeland current flow in the region of the southern cusp is predominantly away from the ionosphere in contrast to the downward flow into the northern cusp as determined earlier (e.g., McDiarmid et al., 1978b; Iijima et al., 1978). The cusp Birkeland current flow directions appear to reverse for B/sub y/>0 and B/sub x/<0. From a search of the Triad data set, some rare examples of magnetic disturbances with a large north-south (noon-midnight) component have been discovered in the polar cap near noon

  20. Obtaining high degree of circular polarization at X-ray FELs via a reverse undulator taper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2013-08-15

    Baseline design of a typical X-ray FEL undulator assumes a planar configuration which results in a linear polarization of the FEL radiation. However, many experiments at X-ray FEL user facilities would profit from using a circularly polarized radiation. As a cheap upgrade one can consider an installation of a short helical (or cross-planar) afterburner, but then one should have an efficient method to suppress powerful linearly polarized background from the main undulator. In this paper we propose a new method for such a suppression: an application of the reverse taper in the main undulator. We discover that in a certain range of the taper strength, the density modulation (bunching) at saturation is practically the same as in the case of non-tapered undulator while the power of linearly polarized radiation is suppressed by orders of magnitude. Then strongly modulated electron beam radiates at full power in the afterburner. Considering SASE3 undulator of the European XFEL as a practical example, we demonstrate that soft X-ray radiation pulses with peak power in excess of 100 GW and an ultimately high degree of circular polarization can be produced. The proposed method is rather universal, i.e. it can be used at SASE FELs and seeded (self-seeded) FELs, with any wavelength of interest, in a wide range of electron beam parameters, and with any repetition rate. It can be used at different X-ray FEL facilities, in particular at LCLS after installation of the helical afterburner in the near future.

  1. Reversing the polarity of a cochlear implant magnet after magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ju Hyun; Bae, Mi Ran; Chang, Jae Won; Choi, Jae Young

    2012-08-01

    The number of patients with cochlear implant (CI) has been rapidly increasing in recent years, and these patients show a growing need of examination by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the use of MRI on patients with CI is restricted by the internal magnet of the CI. Many studies have investigated the safety of performing 1.5T MRI on patients with CI, which is now being practiced in a clinical setting. We experienced a case in which the polarity of the cochlear implant magnet was reversed after the patient was examined using 1.5T MRI. The external device was attached to the internal device oppositely. We could not find displacement of the internal device, magnet, or electrode upon radiological evaluation. We came up with two possible mechanisms by which the polarity of the magnet reversed. The first possibility was that the magnetic field of MRI reversed the polarity of the magnet. The second was that the internal magnet was physically realigned while interacting with the MRI. We believe the second hypothesis to be more reliable. A removable magnet and a loose magnet boundary of a CI device may have allowed for physical reorientation of the internal magnet. Therefore, in order to avoid these complications, first, the internal magnet must not be aligned anti-parallel with the magnetic polarity of MRI. In the Siemens MRI, the vector of the magnetic field is downward, so implant site should be placed in facing upwards to minimize demagnetization. In the GE Medical Systems MRI, the vector of the magnetic field is upward, so the implant site should be placed facing downwards. Second, wearing of a commercial mold which is fixed to the internal device before performing MRI can be helpful. In addition, any removable internal magnets in a CI device should be removed before MRI, especially in the trunk. However, to ultimately solve this problem, the pocket of the internal magnet should be redesigned for safety. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Illumination Conditions of the Lunar Polar Regions Using LOLA Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Torrence, M. H.

    2011-01-01

    We use high-resolution altimetry data obtained by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to characterize present illumination conditions in the polar regions of the Moon. Compared to previous studies, both the spatial and temporal extent of the simulations are increased significantly, as well as the coverage (fill ratio) of the topographic maps used, thanks to the 28 Hz firing rate of the five-beam instrument. We determine the horizon elevation in a number of directions based on 240 m-resolution polar digital elevation models reaching down to 75 latitude. The illumination of both polar regions extending to 80 can be calculated for any geometry from those horizon longitudinal profiles. We validated our modeling with recent Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide-Angle Camera images. We assessed the extent of permanently shadowed regions (PSRs, defined as areas that never receive direct solar illumination), and obtained total areas generally larger than previous studies (12,866 and 16,055 km2, in the north and south respectively). We extended our direct illumination model to account for singly-scattered light, and found that every PSR does receive some amount of scattered light during the year. We conducted simulations over long periods (several 18.6-years lunar precession cycles) with a high temporal resolution (6 h), and identified the most illuminated locations in the vicinity of both poles. Because of the importance of those sites for exploration and engineering considerations, we characterized their illumination more precisely over the near future. Every year, a location near the Shackleton crater rim in the south polar region is sunlit continuously for 240 days, and its longest continuous period in total darkness is about 1.5 days. For some locations small height gains ( 10 m) can dramatically improve their average illumination and reduce the night duration, rendering some of those particularly attractive energy-wise as

  3. The polarized atomic-beam target for the EDDA experiment and the time-reversal invariance test at COSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eversheim, P.D.; Altmeier, M.; Felden, O.

    1996-01-01

    For the the EDDA experiment, which was set up to measure the p-vector - p-vector excitation function during the acceleration ramp of the cooler synchrotron COSY at Juelich, a polarized atomic-beam target was designed regarding the restrictions imposed by the geometry of the EDDA detector. Later, when the time-reversal invariance experiment is to be performed, the EDDA detector will serve as efficient internal polarimeter and the source has to deliver tensor polarized deuterons. The modular design of this polarized atomic-beam target that allows to meet these conditions are discussed in comparison to other existing polarized atomic-beam targets. (orig.)

  4. The polarized atomic-beam target for the EDDA experiment and the time-reversal invariance test at COSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversheim, P. D.; Altmeier, M.; Felden, O.

    1997-02-01

    For the the EDDA experiment, which was set up to measure the p¯-p¯ excitation function during the acceleration ramp of the cooler synchrotron COSY at Jülich, a polarized atomic-beam target was designed regarding the restrictions imposed by the geometry of the EDDA detector. Later, when the time-reversal invariance experiment is to be performed, the EDDA detector will serve as efficient internal polarimeter and the source has to deliver tensor polarized deuterons. The modular design of this polarized atomic-beam target that allows to meet these conditions will be discussed in comparison to other existing polarized atomic-beam targets.

  5. Polarity-based fractionation in proteomics: hydrophilic interaction vs reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, M; Mirzaie, M; Khodabandeh, M; Rezadoost, H; Ghassempour, A; Aboul-Enein, H Y

    2016-07-01

    During recent decades, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) ahs been introduced to fractionate or purify especially polar solutes such as peptides and proteins while reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) is also a common strategy. RPLC is also a common dimension in multidimensional chromatography. In this study, the potential of HILIC vs RPLC chromatography was compared for proteome mapping of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell extract. In HILIC a silica-based stationary phase and for RPLC a C18 column were applied. Then separated proteins were eluted to an ion trap mass spectrometry system. Our results showed that the HILIC leads to more proteins being identified in comparison to RPLC. Among the total 181 identified proteins, 56 and 38 proteins were fractionated specifically by HILIC and RPLC, respectively. In order to demonstrate this, the physicochemical properties of identified proteins such as polarity and hydrophobicity were considered. This analysis indicated that polarity may play a major role in the HILIC separation of proteins vs RPLC. Using gene ontology enrichment analysis, it was also observed that differences in physicochemical properties conform to the cellular compartment and biological features. Finally, this study highlighted the potential of HILIC and the great orthogonality of RPLC in gel-free proteomic studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Evidence from lava flows for complex polarity transitions: The new composite Steens Mountain reversal record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboe, Nicholas A.; Coe, Robert S.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.

    2011-01-01

    Geomagnetic polarity transitions may be significantly more complex than are currently depicted in many sedimentary and lava-flow records. By splicing together paleomagnetic results from earlier studies at Steens Mountain with those from three newly studied sections of Oregon Plateau flood basalts at Catlow Peak and Poker Jim Ridge 70–90 km to the southeast and west, respectively, we provide support for this interpretation with the most detailed account of a magnetic field reversal yet observed in volcanic rocks. Forty-five new distinguishable transitional (T) directions together with 30 earlier ones reveal a much more complex and detailed record of the 16.7 Ma reversed (R)-to-normal (N) polarity transition that marks the end of Chron C5Cr. Compared to the earlier R-T-N-T-N reversal record, the new record can be described as R-T-N-T-N-T-R-T-N. The composite record confirms earlier features, adds new west and up directions and an entire large N-T-R-T segment to the path, and fills in directions on the path between earlier directional jumps. Persistent virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) clusters and separate VGPs have a preference for previously described longitudinal bands from transition study compilations, which suggests the presence of features at the core–mantle boundary that influence the flow of core fluid and distribution of magnetic flux. Overall the record is consistent with the generalization that VGP paths vary greatly from reversal to reversal and depend on the location of the observer. Rates of secular variation confirm that the flows comprising these sections were erupted rapidly, with maximum rates estimated to be 85–120 m ka−1 at Catlow and 130–195 m ka−1 at Poker Jim South. Paleomagnetic poles from other studies are combined with 32 non-transitional poles found here to give a clockwise rotation of the Oregon Plateau of 11.4°± 5.6° with respect to the younger Columbia River Basalt Group flows to the north and 14.5°± 4.6° with respect

  7. The impact of structural relaxation on spin polarization and magnetization reversal of individual nano structures studied by spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Dirk; Phark, Soo-Hyon; Corbetta, Marco; Fischer, Jeison A; Oka, Hirofumi; Kirschner, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    The application of low temperature spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy in magnetic fields for the quantitative characterization of spin polarization, magnetization reversal and magnetic anisotropy of individual nano structures is reviewed. We find that structural relaxation, spin polarization and magnetic anisotropy vary on the nm scale near the border of a bilayer Co island on Cu(1 1 1). This relaxation is lifted by perimetric decoration with Fe. We discuss the role of spatial variations of the spin-dependent electronic properties within and at the edge of a single nano structure for its magnetic properties.

  8. Reverse polarity magnetized melt rocks from the Chicxulub impact structure, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Marin, Luis E.; Sharpton, Virgil L.; Quezada, Juan Manuel

    1993-03-01

    Further paleomagnetic data for core samples of melt rock recovered in the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) exploratory wells within the Chicxulub structure, northern Yucatan peninsula, Mexico are reported. A previous report by Sharpton showed that the rocks studied contain high iridium levels and shocked breccia clasts, and an Ar-40/Ar-39 age of 65.2 plus or minus 0.4 Ma. The geomagnetic polarity determined for two samples is reverse (R) and was correlated with chron 29R that includes the K/T boundary. Our present analysis is based on two samples from each of three clasts of the melt rock from PEMEX well Y6-N17 (1295 to 1299 m b.s.l.). This study concentrates on the vectorial nature and stability of the remanence (NRM), the magnetic mineralogy and remanence carriers (i.e., the reliability and origin of the record), and on the implications (correlation with expected paleolatitude and polarity). The relative orientation of the drill core samples with respect to the horizontal is known. Samples were stable under alternating field (AF) and thermal treatments, and after removal of a small component they exhibited single-vectorial behavior. The characteristic remanence inclinations show small dispersion and a mean value (-43 deg) in close agreement with the expected inclination and paleolatitude (derived from the North American apparent polar wander path). Isothermal remenence (IRM) acquisition experiments, Lowrie-Fuller tests, coercivity and unblocking temperature spectra of NRM and saturation IRM, susceptibility and Q-coefficient analyses, and the single-component nature indicate a dominant mineralogy of iron-rich titanomagnetites with single or pseduo-single domain states. The stable characteristic magnetization may be interpreted as a result of shock heating of the rock at the time of formation of the inpact structure and its polarity, age, and paleolatitude are consistent with a time about the K/T boundary.

  9. Regional ventilation in infancy. Reversal of adult pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, H.; Kitchman, R.; Gordon, I.; Helms, P.

    1985-01-01

    There is evidence that in infants with unilateral lung disease, oxygenation improves when the good lung is uppermost--the reverse of the situation in adults. We performed krypton-81m ventilation scanning in 18 infants and very young children (11 days to 27 months old) with and without abnormal chest radiographs. Scanning was performed with the subject supine, in the left decubitus posture (right lung uppermost), and in the right decubitus posture (right lung dependent). Fractional ventilation to the right lung fell when that lung was dependent and rose when it was uppermost (P less than 0.001). This pattern was seen regardless of the appearance of the chest radiograph. The distribution of ventilation away from dependent lung regions represents a reversal of the adult pattern, which may be due to differences between infants and adults in lung mechanics and diaphragmatic function. This study adds further weight to the argument that infants and very young children with unilateral lung disease should be positioned with their normal lung uppermost to optimize gas exchange. It also offers a rational explanation for the observation that infants with unilateral gas trapping can be successfully treated by placing them so that the diseased lung is dependent

  10. Study of domain depinning during repeated polarization reversal in hard PZT ceramics using acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabakar, K; Rao, S P Mallikarjun

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) has been studied during repeated polarization reversals (at 50 Hz) in hard PZT-8 ceramics. The AE and hysteresis loop were monitored at regular intervals of electric field (±20 kV cm -1 peak) application till 10 8 cycles. The sample did not fatigue and an increase in saturation polarization (Ps) was observed. AE was observed with zero threshold till 10 5 cycles when the field was increasing in both half cycles of the applied field. The initial increase in AE activity with increasing number of field cycles till 10 5 was explained on the basis of defect dipoles encouraging the 90 deg. domain switches, i.e. domain depinning. The decrease in AE activity, an increase in threshold field for the observed AE and a further increase in Ps after 10 5 cycles were explained based on the changes in the orientation of defect dipoles with respect to Ps due to the applied field cycles. This was found to encourage the 180 0 domain switches but pin the 90 deg. domains. An increase in AE at 10 8 cycles after applying a higher field of ±25 kV cm -1 was found to be mainly due to microcracking

  11. Transient surface liquid in Titan's south polar region from Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A.G.; Aharonson, O.; Lunine, J.I.; Kirk, R.L.; Zebker, H.A.; Wye, L.C.; Lorenz, R.D.; Turtle, E.P.; Paillou, P.; Mitri, Giuseppe; Wall, S.D.; Stofan, E.R.; Mitchell, K.L.; Elachi, C.

    2011-01-01

    Cassini RADAR images of Titan's south polar region acquired during southern summer contain lake features which disappear between observations. These features show a tenfold increases in backscatter cross-section between images acquired one year apart, which is inconsistent with common scattering models without invoking temporal variability. The morphologic boundaries are transient, further supporting changes in lake level. These observations are consistent with the exposure of diffusely scattering lakebeds that were previously hidden by an attenuating liquid medium. We use a two-layer model to explain backscatter variations and estimate a drop in liquid depth of approximately 1-m-per-year. On larger scales, we observe shoreline recession between ISS and RADAR images of Ontario Lacus, the largest lake in Titan's south polar region. The recession, occurring between June 2005 and July 2009, is inversely proportional to slopes estimated from altimetric profiles and the exponential decay of near-shore backscatter, consistent with a uniform reduction of 4 ± 1.3 m in lake depth. Of the potential explanations for observed surface changes, we favor evaporation and infiltration. The disappearance of dark features and the recession of Ontario's shoreline represents volatile transport in an active methane-based hydrologic cycle. Observed loss rates are compared and shown to be consistent with available global circulation models. To date, no unambiguous changes in lake level have been observed between repeat images in the north polar region, although further investigation is warranted. These observations constrain volatile flux rates in Titan's hydrologic system and demonstrate that the surface plays an active role in its evolution. Constraining these seasonal changes represents the first step toward our understanding of longer climate cycles that may determine liquid distribution on Titan over orbital time periods.

  12. DVCS in the fragmentation region of polarized electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akushevich, I.; Kuraev, E.A.; Nikolaev, N.N.

    2000-01-01

    For the kinematical region when a hard photon is emitted predominantly close to the direction of motion of a longitudinally polarized initial electron and relatively small momentum transfer to a proton we calculate the azimuthal asymmetry of a photon emission. It arises from the interference of the Bethe-Heitler amplitude and those which are described by a heavy photon impact factor. The azimuthal asymmetry does not decrease in the limit of infinite cms energy. The lowest order expression for the impact factor of a heavy photon is presented

  13. High expression of Rac1 is correlated with partial reversed cell polarity and poor prognosis in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingbing; Xiong, Jianhua; Liu, Guiqiu; Wu, Jing; Wen, Likun; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Chuanshan

    2017-07-01

    The change of cell polarity is usually associated with invasion and metastasis. Partial reverse cell polarity in IDC-NOS may play a role in lymphatic tumor spread. Rac1 is a kind of polarity related protein. It plays an important role in invasion and metastasis in tumors. We here investigated the expression of Rac1 and partial reverse cell polarity status in breast cancer and evaluated their value for prognosis in breast cancer. The association of the expression of Rac1 and MUC-1 with clinicopathological parameters and prognostic significance was evaluated in 162 cases of IDC-NOS paraffin-embedded tissues by immunohistochemical method. The Rac1 messenger RNA expression was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 30 breast cancer patients, which was divided into two groups of partial reverse cell polarity and no partial reverse cell polarity. We found that lymph node metastasis of partial reverse cell polarity patients was higher than no partial reverse cell polarity patients (Z = -4.030, p = 0.000). Rac1 was upregulated in partial reverse cell polarity group than no partial reverse cell polarity group (Z = -3.164, p = 0.002), and there was correlationship between the expression of Rac1 and partial reverse cell polarity status (r s  = 0.249, p = 0.001). The level of Rac1 messenger RNA expression in partial reverse cell polarity group was significantly higher compared to no partial reverse cell polarity group (t = -2.527, p = 0.017). Overexpression of Rac1 and partial reverse cell polarity correlates with poor prognosis of IDC-NOS patients (p = 0.011). Partial reverse cell polarity and lymph node metastasis remained as independent predictors for poor disease-free survival of IDC-NOS (p = 0.023, p = 0.046). Our study suggests that partial reverse cell polarity may lead to poor prognosis of breast cancer. Overexpression of Rac1 may lead to polarity change in IDC-NOS of the breast. Therefore, Rac1 could be a

  14. Cloud Statistics and Discrimination in the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M.; Comiso, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    Despite their important role in the climate system, cloud cover and their statistics are poorly known, especially in the polar regions, where clouds are difficult to discriminate from snow covered surfaces. The advent of the A-train, which included Aqua/MODIS, CALIPSO/CALIOP and CloudSat/CPR sensors has provided an opportunity to improve our ability to accurately characterize the cloud cover. MODIS provides global coverage at a relatively good temporal and spatial resolution while CALIOP and CPR provide limited nadir sampling but accurate characterization of the vertical structure and phase of the cloud cover. Over the polar regions, cloud detection from a passive sensors like MODIS is challenging because of the presence of cold and highly reflective surfaces such as snow, sea-ice, glaciers, and ice-sheet, which have surface signatures similar to those of clouds. On the other hand, active sensors such as CALIOP and CPR are not only very sensitive to the presence of clouds but can also provide information about its microphysical characteristics. However, these nadir-looking sensors have sparse spatial coverage and their global data can have data spatial gaps of up to 100 km. We developed a polar cloud detection system for MODIS that is trained using collocated data from CALIOP and CPR. In particular, we employ a machine learning system that reads the radiative profile observed by MODIS and determine whether the field of view is cloudy or clear. Results have shown that the improved cloud detection scheme performs better than typical cloud mask algorithms using a validation data set not used for training. A one-year data set was generated and results indicate that daytime cloud detection accuracies improved from 80.1% to 92.6% (over sea-ice) and 71.2% to 87.4% (over ice-sheet) with CALIOP data used as the baseline. Significant improvements are also observed during nighttime, where cloud detection accuracies increase by 19.8% (over sea-ice) and 11.6% (over ice

  15. Radiative Forcing from Emissivity Response in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C.; Feldman, D.; Huang, X.; Flanner, M.; Chen, X.; Yang, P.; Kuo, C.

    2016-12-01

    A detailed assessment of the radiative balance and its controlling factors in polar regions is a critical prerequisite for understanding and predicting the polar amplification of climate change. Accordingly, we investigate the role of infrared surface emissivity in polar regions as a potential feedback mechanism following Feldman et al, 2014. In this work, we investigate the climatic response of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) with spectral emissivity values that are implemented in a physically consistent manner for non-vegetated surfaces. In a control model run where 1850 CO2 volume mixing ratio (vmr) is fixed, the updated spectral emissivity values are imposed for modified surface boundary conditions in the atmospheric model component. Climatic stability in the emergent globally averaged surface temperature is observed on decadal scales for an unforced (control) run. Analytic kernels representing the change in top of the atmosphere OLR given changes in emissivity are calculated on-line during the model runs, incorporating spatially and temporally varied humidity profiles impactful to transmission. Globally averaged kernels of the sensitivity of OLR to surface emissivity calculated for control and ramped CO2 runs exhibit temporal evolution with statistically significant differences in shape. Additionally, kernel and spectrally-averaged emissivity differences between monthly-averaged maps of control and ramped runs demonstrate a seasonal cycle. Similar to the treatment of cryosphere radiative forcing in Flanner et al, 2011, we define emissivity response as the product of the emissivity kernel and the change in month-to-month emissivity. At the end of 20th century, the 10-year emissivity forcing averaged at latitudes > 60°, is found to be negative (positive) in January (July), due to increasing (decreasing) sea-ice. These findings indicate that differences in surface emissivity between frozen and unfrozen surfaces decrease wintertime and increase summertime

  16. An assessment of ten ocean reanalyses in the polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uotila, Petteri

    2017-04-01

    Ocean reanalysis (ORA) combines observations either statistically or with a hydrodynamical model, to reconstruct historical changes in the ocean. Global and regional ORA products are increasingly used in polar research, but their quality remains to be systematically assessed. To address this, the Polar ORA Intercomparison Project (PORA-IP) has been established following on from the ORA-IP project (Balmaseda et al. 2015, with other papers in a special issue of Climate Dynamics). The PORA-IP is constituted under the COST EOS initiative with plans to review reanalyses products in both the Arctic and Antarctic, and is endorsed by YOPP - the Year of Polar Prediction project. Currently, the PORA-IP team consists of 21 researchers from 15 institutes and universities. The ORA-IP products with polar physics, such as sea ice, have been updated where necessary and collected in a public database. In addition to model output, available observational polar climatologies are collected and used in the assessments. Due to the extensive variety of products, this database should become a valuable resource outside the PORA-IP community. For a comprehensive evaluation of the ten ORA products (CGLORSv5, ECDA3.1, GECCO2, Glorys2v4, GloSea5_GO5, MOVEG2i, ORAP5, SODA3.3.1, TOPAZ4 and UR025.4) in the Arctic and Southern Oceans several specific diagnostics are assessed. The PORA-IP diagnostics target the following topics: hydrography; heat, salinity and freshwater content; ocean transports and surface currents; mixed layer depth; sea-ice concentration and thickness; and snow thickness over sea ice. Based on these diagnostics, ORA product biases against observed data and their mutual spread are quantified, and possible reasons for discrepancies discussed. So far, we have identified product outliers and evaluated the multi-model mean. We have identified the importance of the atmospheric forcing, air-ocean coupling protocol and sea-ice data assimilation for the product performance. Moreover, we

  17. Preserving Geological Samples and Metadata from Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, A.; Sjunneskog, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Office of Polar Programs at the National Science Foundation (NSF-OPP) has long recognized the value of preserving earth science collections due to the inherent logistical challenges and financial costs of collecting geological samples from Polar Regions. NSF-OPP established two national facilities to make Antarctic geological samples and drill cores openly and freely available for research. The Antarctic Marine Geology Research Facility (AMGRF) at Florida State University was established in 1963 and archives Antarctic marine sediment cores, dredge samples and smear slides along with ship logs. The United States Polar Rock Repository (USPRR) at Ohio State University was established in 2003 and archives polar rock samples, marine dredges, unconsolidated materials and terrestrial cores, along with associated materials such as field notes, maps, raw analytical data, paleomagnetic cores, thin sections, microfossil mounts, microslides and residues. The existence of the AMGRF and USPRR helps to minimize redundant sample collecting, lessen the environmental impact of doing polar field work, facilitates field logistics planning and complies with the data sharing requirement of the Antarctic Treaty. USPRR acquires collections through donations from institutions and scientists and then makes these samples available as no-cost loans for research, education and museum exhibits. The AMGRF acquires sediment cores from US based and international collaboration drilling projects in Antarctica. Destructive research techniques are allowed on the loaned samples and loan requests are accepted from any accredited scientific institution in the world. Currently, the USPRR has more than 22,000 cataloged rock samples available to scientists from around the world. All cataloged samples are relabeled with a USPRR number, weighed, photographed and measured for magnetic susceptibility. Many aspects of the sample metadata are included in the database, e.g. geographical location, sample

  18. Plasma Irregularity Production in the Polar Cap F-Region Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Leslie

    Plasma in the Earth's ionosphere is highly irregular on scales ranging between a few centimeters and hundreds of kilometers. Small-scale irregularities or plasma waves can scatter radio waves resulting in a loss of signal for navigation and communication networks. The polar region is particularly susceptible to strong disturbances due to its direct connection with the Sun's magnetic field and energetic particles. In this thesis, factors that contribute to the production of decameter-scale plasma irregularities in the polar F region ionosphere are investigated. Both global and local control of irregularity production are studied, i.e. we consider global solar control through solar illumination and solar wind as well as much more local control by plasma density gradients and convection electric field. In the first experimental study, solar control of irregularity production is investigated using the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar at McMurdo, Antarctica. The occurrence trends for irregularities are analyzed statistically and a model is developed that describes the location of radar echoes within the radar's field-of-view. The trends are explained through variations in background plasma density with solar illumination affecting radar beam propagation. However, it is found that the irregularity occurrence during the night is higher than expected from ray tracing simulations based on a standard ionospheric density model. The high occurrence at night implies an additional source of plasma density and it is proposed that large-scale density enhancements called polar patches may be the source of this density. Additionally, occurrence maximizes around the terminator due to different competing irregularity production processes that favor a more or less sunlit ionosphere. The second study is concerned with modeling irregularity characteristics near a large-scale density gradient reversal, such as those expected near polar patches, with a particular focus on

  19. Cloud and surface textural features in polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Ronald M.; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Sengupta, Sailes K.

    1990-01-01

    The study examines the textural signatures of clouds, ice-covered mountains, solid and broken sea ice and floes, and open water. The textural features are computed from sum and difference histogram and gray-level difference vector statistics defined at various pixel displacement distances derived from Landsat multispectral scanner data. Polar cloudiness, snow-covered mountainous regions, solid sea ice, glaciers, and open water have distinguishable texture features. This suggests that textural measures can be successfully applied to the detection of clouds over snow-covered mountains, an ability of considerable importance for the modeling of snow-melt runoff. However, broken stratocumulus cloud decks and thin cirrus over broken sea ice remain difficult to distinguish texturally. It is concluded that even with high spatial resolution imagery, it may not be possible to distinguish broken stratocumulus and thin clouds from sea ice in the marginal ice zone using the visible channel textural features alone.

  20. Anthropogenic antibiotic resistance genes mobilization to the polar regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Jorge; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic influences in the southern polar region have been rare, but lately microorganisms associated with humans have reached Antarctica, possibly from military bases, fishing boats, scientific expeditions, and/or ship-borne tourism. Studies of seawater in areas of human intervention and proximal to fresh penguin feces revealed the presence of Escherichia coli strains least resistant to antibiotics in penguins, whereas E. coli from seawater elsewhere showed resistance to one or more of the following antibiotics: ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, and trim-sulfa. In seawater samples, bacteria were found carrying extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-type CTX-M genes in which multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) showed different sequence types (STs), previously reported in humans. In the Arctic, on the contrary, people have been present for a long time, and the presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) appears to be much more wide-spread than was previously reported. Studies of E coli from Arctic birds (Bering Strait) revealed reduced susceptibility to antibiotics, but one globally spreading clone of E. coli genotype O25b-ST131, carrying genes of ESBL-type CTX-M, was identified. In the few years between sample collections in the same area, differences in resistance pattern were observed, with E. coli from birds showing resistance to a maximum of five different antibiotics. Presence of resistance-type ESBLs (TEM, SHV, and CTX-M) in E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was also confirmed by specified PCR methods. MLST revealed that those bacteria carried STs that connect them to previously described strains in humans. In conclusion, bacteria previously related to humans could be found in relatively pristine environments, and presently human-associated, antibiotic-resistant bacteria have reached a high global level of distribution that they are now found even in the polar regions.

  1. Reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis analysis of nitrate and nitrite in natural water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalf, S.G.

    1998-06-11

    This paper describes the application of reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis (RPCE) for rapid and accurate determination of nitrate and nitrite in natural water samples. Using hexamethonium bromide (HMB) as an electroosmotic flow modifier in a borate buffer at pH 9.2, the resolution of nitrate and nitrite was accomplished in less than 3 minutes. RPCE was compared with ion chromatographic (IC) and cadmium reduction flow injection analysis (Cd-FIA) methods which are the two most commonly used standard methods for the analysis of natural water samples for nitrate and nitrite. When compared with the ion chromatographic method for the determination of nitrate and nitrite, RPCE reduced analysis time, decreased detection limits by a factor of 10, cut laboratory wastes by more than two orders of magnitude, and eliminated interferences commonly associated with IC. When compared with the cadmium reduction method, RPCE had the advantage of simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite, could be used in the presence of various metallic ions that normally interfere in cadmium reduction, and decreased detection limits by a factor of 10.

  2. Heparin/heparan sulfate analysis by covalently modified reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Patience; Stickney, Morgan; Leach, Franklin E; Xia, Qiangwei; Yu, Yanlei; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J; Amster, I Jonathan

    2018-04-13

    Reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis coupled to negative ion mode mass spectrometry (CZE-MS) is shown to be an effective and sensitive tool for the analysis of glycosaminoglycan mixtures. Covalent modification of the inner wall of the separation capillary with neutral or cationic reagents produces a stable and durable surface that provides reproducible separations. By combining CZE-MS with a cation-coated capillary and a sheath flow interface, a rapid and reliable method has been developed for the analysis of sulfated oligosaccharides from dp4 to dp12. Several different mixtures have been separated and detected by mass spectrometry. The mixtures were selected to test the capability of this approach to resolve subtle differences in structure, such as sulfation position and epimeric variation of the uronic acid. The system was applied to a complex mixture of heparin/heparan sulfate oligosaccharides varying in chain length from dp3 to dp12 and more than 80 molecular compositions were identified by accurate mass measurement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Rational quantum integrable systems of DN type with polarized spin reversal operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Basu-Mallick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the spin Calogero model of DN type with polarized spin reversal operators, as well as its associated spin chain of Haldane–Shastry type, both in the antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic cases. We compute the spectrum and the partition function of the former model in closed form, from which we derive an exact formula for the chain's partition function in terms of products of partition functions of Polychronakos–Frahm spin chains of type A. Using a recursion relation for the latter partition functions that we derive in the paper, we are able to numerically evaluate the partition function, and thus the spectrum, of the DN-type spin chain for relatively high values of the number of spins N. We analyze several global properties of the chain's spectrum, such as the asymptotic level density, the distribution of consecutive spacings of the unfolded spectrum, and the average degeneracy. In particular, our results suggest that this chain is invariant under a suitable Yangian group, and that its spectrum coincides with that of a Yangian-invariant vertex model with linear energy function and dispersion relation.

  4. Reverse polarity optical-OFDM (RPO-OFDM): dimming compatible OFDM for gigabit VLC links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgala, Hany; Little, Thomas D C

    2013-10-07

    Visible light communications (VLC) technology permits the exploitation of light-emitting diode (LED) luminaries for simultaneous illumination and broadband wireless communication. Optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (O-OFDM) is a promising modulation technique for VLC systems, in which the real-valued O-OFDM baseband signal is used to modulate the instantaneous power of the optical carrier to achieve gigabit data rates. However, a major design challenge that limits the commercialization of VLC is how to incorporate the industry-preferred pulse-width modulation (PWM) light dimming technique while maintaining a broadband and reliable communication link. In this work, a novel signal format, reverse polarity O-OFDM (RPO-OFDM), is proposed to combine the fast O-OFDM communication signal with the relatively slow PWM dimming signal, where both signals contribute to the effective LED brightness. The advantages of using RPO-OFDM include, (1) the data rate is not limited by the frequency of the PWM signal, (2) the LED dynamic range is fully utilized to minimize the nonlinear distortion of the O-OFDM communication signal, and (3) the bit-error performance is sustained over a large fraction of the luminaire dimming range. In addition, RPO-OFDM offers a practical approach to utilize off-the-shelf LED drivers. We show results of numerical simulations to study the trade-offs between the PWM duty cycle, average electrical O-OFDM signal power, radiated optical flux as well as human perceived light.

  5. Reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis analysis of nitrate and nitrite in natural water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, S.G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the application of reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis (RPCE) for rapid and accurate determination of nitrate and nitrite in natural water samples. Using hexamethonium bromide (HMB) as an electroosmotic flow modifier in a borate buffer at pH 9.2, the resolution of nitrate and nitrite was accomplished in less than 3 minutes. RPCE was compared with ion chromatographic (IC) and cadmium reduction flow injection analysis (Cd-FIA) methods which are the two most commonly used standard methods for the analysis of natural water samples for nitrate and nitrite. When compared with the ion chromatographic method for the determination of nitrate and nitrite, RPCE reduced analysis time, decreased detection limits by a factor of 10, cut laboratory wastes by more than two orders of magnitude, and eliminated interferences commonly associated with IC. When compared with the cadmium reduction method, RPCE had the advantage of simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite, could be used in the presence of various metallic ions that normally interfere in cadmium reduction, and decreased detection limits by a factor of 10

  6. Pressure-induced Polarization Reversal in Z-type Hexaferrite Single Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Byung-Gu; Chun, Sae Hwan; Kim, Kee Hoon

    2012-02-01

    Multiferroic materials with a gigantic magnetoelectric (ME) coupling at room temperature have been searched for applications to novel devices. Recently, large direct and converse ME effects were realized at room temperature in the so-called Z-type hexaferrite (Ba,Sr)3Co2Fe24O41 single crystals [1,2]. To obtain a new control parameter for realizing a sensitive ME tuning, we studied ME properties of the crystals under uniaxial pressure. Upon applying a tiny uniaxial pressure of about 0.6 GPa, magnetic field-driven electric polarization reversal and anomaly in a M-H loop start to appear at 10 K and gradually disappear at higher temperature above 130 K. By comparing those results with longitudinal magnetostriction at ambient pressure, we propose the pressure-dependent variations of transverse conical spin configuration as well as its domain structure under small magnetic field bias, and point out the possibility of having two different physical origins of the ME coupling in this system. [1] Y. Kitagawa et al., Nat. Mater. 9, 797 (2010) [2] S. H. Chun et al., submitted.

  7. Physics with polarized beams above GeV region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosawa, A.

    1980-01-01

    During the past several years many exciting and unexpected results have been observed in experiments with polarized beams. Those results are reviewed briefly. A new polarized beam line up to 600 GeV/c is also discussed. 4 figures

  8. Current Account Reversals and Persistency in Transition Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Aristovnik, Aleksander

    2006-01-01

    The article investigates sharp reductions seen in current account deficits in transition countries in the 1992-2003 period. By using both descriptive statistical approaches as well as panel regression-based analysis the article focuses on three important aspects of these current account reversals: a) to examine those factors that might have triggered the reversals and to provide some insights into the current account adjustment process; b) to reveal some characteristics of persistent current ...

  9. Tropospheric ozone variations in polar regions; Troposphaerische Ozonvariationen in Polarregionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessel, S.

    1997-08-01

    An extensive analysis for the description of chemical and dynamical processes during tropospheric ozone minima in the Arctic and Antarctic was carried out in this work. One main task was the analysis of the source regions of tropospheric ozone destruction and the following transport of ozone depleted air masses to the measuring site. Furtheron the ozone destruction mechanism itself should be examined as well as the efficiency of heterogeneous reactions for the regeneration of non-reative bromine compounds, which seems to be necessary because bromine may be the key component in the destruction of tropospheric ozone in polar regions. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde eine umfangreiche Analyse zur Beschreibung der chemischen und dynamischen Prozesse waehrend troposphaerischer Ozonminima in der Arktis und Antarktis durchgefuehrt. Ziel war es, die Quellregion des Ozonabbaus sowie den ausloesenden ozonabbauenden Mechanismus zu benennen, die Effizienz heterogener Reaktionen zur Regenerierung nichtreaktiver Bromverbindungen waehrend des Ozonabbaus zu ermitteln und den Transport der ozonarmen Luftmassen zum Messort zu untersuchen. (orig./KW)

  10. SYMPOSIUM ON REMOTE SENSING IN THE POLAR REGIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Arctic Institute of North America long has been interested in encouraging full and specific attention to applications of remote sensing to polar...research problems. The major purpose of the symposium was to acquaint scientists and technicians concerned with remote sensing with some of the...special problems of the polar areas and, in turn, to acquaint polar scientists with the potential of the use of remote sensing . The Symposium therefore was

  11. Origin of the magnetic-field controlled polarization reversal in multiferroic TbMn2 O 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, N.; Meier, D.; Pisarev, R. V.; Park, S.; Cheong, S.-W.; Fiebig, M.

    2011-03-01

    The interplay of multi-dimensional complex magnetic order parameters leads to interesting effects like magnetically induced ferroelectricity. A particular interesting example is TbMn 2 O5 because of the associated magnetic-field controllable electric polarization. By optical second harmonic generation we show that the gigantic magnetoelectric effect originates in three independent ferroelectric contributions. Two of these are manganese-generated. The third contribution is related to the magnetism of the Tb 3+ sublattice and has not been identified so far. It mediates the remarkable magnetic-field induced polarization reversal. This model is verified by experiments on the isostructural YMn 2 O5 where Y3+ ions are nonmagnetic and only two polarization contributions are present and no magnetoelectric coupling is observed. These results underline the importance of the 3 d - 4 f -interaction for the intricate magnetoelectric coupling in the class of isostructural RMn 2 O5 compounds. This work was supported by the DFG through SFB 608.

  12. Polarization of photoneutrons from the threshold region of 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.; Jackson, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    In order to determine the parities of several resonances in 208 Pb, the polarization of photoneutrons from the 208 Pb(γ,n(pol)) 207 Pb reaction was measured. This represents the first measurement of the polarization of photoneutrons from resonances near threshold. The observations are tabulated. (SDF)

  13. Saturnian north polar region: a triangle inside the hexagon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, Gennady G.

    2010-05-01

    The famous and "mysterious" stable hexagon structure around the North Pole of Saturn was earlier interpreted as projections of faces of a structural tetrahedron [1]. This "hidden" simplest Plato's polyhedron is a result of an interference of four fundamental (wave 1) warping waves having in any rotating celestial body four directions: orthogonal and diagonal. Origin of the warping waves in any celestial body is due to their movements in elliptical keplerian orbits with periodically changing accelerations. The structural tetrahedron is an intrinsic geometric feature marking the celestial bodies ubiquitous tectonic dichotomy as in a tetrahedron always there is an opposition of a face (expansion) and a vertex (contraction). In the saturnian case the tetrahedron shows a face at the north and a vertex at the south. Morphologically this is manifested by the hexagon and opposing it in the south a vertex. Blue and pink hues of the northern and southern hemispheres also underline the tectonic dichotomy. These geometric expressions are enforced by a subtle dark equilateral triangle appearing in the image PIA11682 also around the north pole and inside the hexagon (the triangle side is about 15000 km long). One angle of the triangle is clearly visible, another one just shows itself and the third one is barely distinguished. The sides of the triangle are not strait lines but slightly broken amidst lines what makes the triangle appear a bit hexagonal (spherical) and the angle is a bit bigger than 60 degrees of a classical equilateral triangle (~70 degrees). The central part of the triangle is not imaged (a black hole in the PIA11682). This image also confirms that the wide northern polar region is also densely "peppered" with bright cloudy more or less isometric spots on average 400 to 800 km across as in other latitudinal belts of Saturn [2, 3, 4]. Earlier they were observed in IR wavelengths, now they show themselves in visible wavelengths. Their origin and size were

  14. Some like it cold: microbial transformations of mercury in polar regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkay, Tamar; Kroer, Niels A.; Poulain, Alexandre J.

    2011-01-01

    The contamination of polar regions with mercury that is transported from lower latitudes as inorganic mercury has resulted in the accumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) in food chains, risking the health of humans and wildlife. While production of MeHg has been documented in polar marine and terres......The contamination of polar regions with mercury that is transported from lower latitudes as inorganic mercury has resulted in the accumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) in food chains, risking the health of humans and wildlife. While production of MeHg has been documented in polar marine...

  15. Spin-polarization reversal at the interface between benzene and Fe(100)

    KAUST Repository

    Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2013-01-03

    The spin-polarization at the interface between Fe(100) and a benzene is investigated theoretically using density functional theory for two positions of the organic molecule: planar and perpendicular with respect to the substrate. The electronic and magnetic properties as well as the spin-polarization close to the Fermi level strongly depend on the benzene position on the iron surface. An inversion of the spin-polarization is induced by p-d hybridization and charge transfer from the iron to the carbon sites in both configurations.

  16. Spin-polarization reversal at the interface between benzene and Fe(100)

    KAUST Repository

    Goumri-Said, Souraya; Benali Kanoun, Mohammed; Manchon, Aurelien; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    The spin-polarization at the interface between Fe(100) and a benzene is investigated theoretically using density functional theory for two positions of the organic molecule: planar and perpendicular with respect to the substrate. The electronic and magnetic properties as well as the spin-polarization close to the Fermi level strongly depend on the benzene position on the iron surface. An inversion of the spin-polarization is induced by p-d hybridization and charge transfer from the iron to the carbon sites in both configurations.

  17. Protecting polar wilderness : Just a western philosophical idea or a useful concept for regulating human activities in the polar regions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, Kees; Leary, D.; Koivurova, T.; Alfredsson, G.

    2009-01-01

    Governments involved in Arctic and Antarctic governance have been well aware of the increasing human pressure on the Polar Regions and particularly the last two decades many initiatives have been taken to protect the Arctic and Antarctic environment. But what values are to be protected? This paper

  18. Establishment of modified reversible regional cerebral ischemic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xunming; Ling Feng; Zhao Xiqing; Xuan Yun; Wang Yueqin; Ling Xiaolan; Chang Hongjun; Zhang Zhiping

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Modifying the method of establishing reversible middle cerebral ischemic models in rats for improvement of the stability and rate of success, so as to raise the reliability of cerebral ischemic study. Methods: Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups, modified and control groups, 30 rats in each group. The method of silicone- tipping on one end of the nylon suture was used to modify the establishment of embolus, and tip-heating method was used to establish the traditional embolus with all the other steps of the procedure just the same. The Zea Longa 5 scoring scale was used to estimate the neurological deficiency while TTC staining method was used to measure and calculate the volume of cerebral infarction. The percentage of successful models with 3-4 grade scorings and the coefficient of the variations of cerebral infarct volume were used to estimate the stability of the models. Results: The rate of success of establishment models in the modification group was significantly higher in comparing with the traditional group (93% vs 60%, χ 2 =9.32, P=0.002). The percentage of model establishment with 3-4 grade neurological scores in modification group was higher than that in the traditional group 96.4% vs 61.2%, χ 2 =9.51, P=0.002). The cerebral infarct volume in modification group and traditional group were (4.1450±0.5019) cm 3 and (3.8435 ± 0.8164) cm 3 , and the coefficients of variation were 12.01% and 21.24% respectively, which indicated that the stability of models was significantly higher in modification group than in the traditional one. Conclusions: The rates of success and stability of the models for reversible focal cerebral ischemia made by the modification method were significantly improved, with decreasing the cost of model creation and increasing the accuracy of study of ischemic cerebral vascular disease. (authors)

  19. Directional change during a Miocene R-N geomagnetic polarity reversal recorded by mafic lava flows, Sheep Creek Range, north central Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogue, S. W.; Glen, J. M. G.; Jarboe, N. A.

    2017-09-01

    Recurring transitional field directions during three Miocene geomagnetic reversals provide evidence that lateral inhomogeneity of the lower mantle affects flow in the outer core. We compare new paleomagnetic results from a composite sequence of 15.2 Ma lava flows in north central Nevada (Sheep Creek Range; 40.7°N, 243.2°E), erupted during a polarity reversal, to published data from Steens Mountain (250 km to the northwest in Oregon) and the Newberry Mountains (650 km to the south in California) that document reversals occurring millions of years and many polarity switches earlier. Alternating field demagnetization, followed by thermal demagnetization in half the samples, clearly isolated the primary thermoremanent magnetization of Sheep Creek Range flows. We correlated results from our three sampled sections to produce a composite record that begins with a single virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) at low latitude in the Atlantic, followed by two VGPs situated near latitude 30°N in NE Africa. After jumping to 83°N (one VGP), the pole moves to equatorial South America (one VGP), back to NE Africa (three VGPs), to high southern latitudes (two VGPs), back to equatorial South America (three VGPs), and finally to high northern latitudes (nine VGPs). The repeated visits of the transitional VGP to positions in South America and near NE Africa, as well as the similar behavior recorded at Steens Mountain and the Newberry Mountains, suggest that lower mantle or core-mantle boundary features localize core flow structures, thereby imparting a discernible regional structure on the transitional geomagnetic field that persists for millions of years.

  20. Power spectra of mesospheric velocities in polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowsky, P.; Ruster, R.

    1985-01-01

    The mobile SOUSY radar was operated on Andoya in Northern Norway during the MAP/WINE campaign from November 1983 to February 1984 and for about two weeks in June 1984 to study the seasonal dependence of mesospheric structures and dynamics at polar latitudes. During the winter period, measurements were carried out on 57 days, primarily in coordination with the schedule of the rocket experiments. Echoes were detected in the troposphere and stratosphere up to 30 km and at mesospheric heights from about 50 to 90 km with a distinct maximum around noon. In summer, the radar system was operated continuously from 19th to the 28th of June 1984. Echoes occurred almost for 24 hours in the height range from 70 to 95 km showing no recognizable diurnal variation. Similar observations in polar latitudes were carried out for several years with the Poker Flat Radar in Alaska.

  1. A critical note on the IAGA-endorsed Polar Cap index procedure. Effects of solar wind sector structure and reverse polar convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauning, P.

    2015-01-01

    The International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) has recently endorsed a new Polar Cap (PC) index version to supersede the previous seven different versions of the PCN (North) index and the five different PCS (South) index versions. However, the new PC index has some adverse features which should be known and taken into account by users of the index. It uses in its derivation procedure an ''effective'' quiet day level (QDC) composed of a ''basic'' QDC and an added solar wind sector term related to the azimuthal component (B y ) of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The added IMF B y -related terms may introduce unjustified contributions to the PC index of more than 2 index units (mV m -1 ). Furthermore, cases of reverse convection during strong northward IMF B z (NBZ) conditions included in the database for calculation of index coefficients can cause unjustified index enhancements of 0.5-1 mV m -1 during calm conditions, reduction of index values by more than 20% during disturbed conditions, and inconsistencies between index coefficients and index values for the northern and southern polar caps. The aim here is to specify these adverse features and quantify their effects, and to suggest alternative steps for future modifications of the index procedure.

  2. A critical note on the IAGA-endorsed Polar Cap index procedure. Effects of solar wind sector structure and reverse polar convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauning, P. [Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-07-01

    The International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) has recently endorsed a new Polar Cap (PC) index version to supersede the previous seven different versions of the PCN (North) index and the five different PCS (South) index versions. However, the new PC index has some adverse features which should be known and taken into account by users of the index. It uses in its derivation procedure an ''effective'' quiet day level (QDC) composed of a ''basic'' QDC and an added solar wind sector term related to the azimuthal component (B{sub y}) of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The added IMF B{sub y}-related terms may introduce unjustified contributions to the PC index of more than 2 index units (mV m{sup -1}). Furthermore, cases of reverse convection during strong northward IMF B{sub z} (NBZ) conditions included in the database for calculation of index coefficients can cause unjustified index enhancements of 0.5-1 mV m{sup -1} during calm conditions, reduction of index values by more than 20% during disturbed conditions, and inconsistencies between index coefficients and index values for the northern and southern polar caps. The aim here is to specify these adverse features and quantify their effects, and to suggest alternative steps for future modifications of the index procedure.

  3. Paleointensity determinations during the Akaroa polarity reversal, New Zealand: New input from the multispecimen parallel differential pTRM method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, P.; Fanjat, G.; Poidras, T.; Hoffman, K. A.; Carvallo, C.; kennedy, B.

    2011-12-01

    We resampled two polarity reversals of late Miocene age (~ 9 Ma) recorded successively in the Akaroa volcano (Hoffman, 1986, Nature). Our main objective was to check old paleointensity determinations (Sherwood & Shaw, 1986, J. Geomag. Geoelec.) that yielded stronger values during the transitional period than during stable periods that preceded and followed the reversals. This observation is opposite to what is generally observed. An increase in intensity during the reversal would provide an extreme example of increasing secular variation. However, the experimental method used for determining the paleointensity, method of Shaw, is strongly questioned by the scientific community. A check of these data by the conventional Thellier method was required. Unfortunately, among the 72 sampled flows, only 4 yielded rock magnetic properties well suited for Thellier determinations. In most of the flows, the presence of large Multi-Domain grains of Ti-magnetite, which are frequently associated with Ti-maghemite, precludes any Thellier paleointensity determinations. We implement the domain-state independent paleointensity method (the multispecimen parallel differential pTRM, Dekkers & Bohnel, 2006, EPSL; Fabian & Leonhardt, 2010, EPSL) for 16 lava flows in which the MD Ti-magnetite are not oxidized. Thellier paleointensities obtained do not confirm the Sherwood results but show more scattered values of the intensity even during the stable periods of the field. To complete the data, multispecimen mesearements are being to be done.

  4. Reversible Decomposition of Secondary Phases in BaO Infiltrated LSM Electrodes-Polarization Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Marie Lund; McIntyre, Melissa D.; Norrman, Kion

    2016-01-01

    and Raman spectroscopy reveal the formation of a secondary phase, Ba3Mn2O8, on the electrode. During the in operando Raman investigation of the BaO-infiltrated La0.85Sr0.15MnO3±δ electrodes, experiments are performed at 300 and 500 °C with oxygen partial pressure 0.1 atm and with −1 or +1 V Applied...... for the reduced polarization resistance observed at open Circuit voltage (OCV) in an oxygen containing atmosphere. Furthermore, the results illustrate the dramatic differences between the electrode surface composition at OCV and during cathodic polarization. Overall, the results highlight the dynamic interactions...... between minor secondary phases and applied potential, a general effect that may be important for the high-performance frequently observed with ceramic electrodes prepared by infiltration....

  5. Magnetization reversal of ferromagnetic nanoparticles induced by a stream of polarized electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhushner, M.A.; Gatin, A.K.; Grishin, M.V.; Shub, B.R. [Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics of RAS, 4, Kosygin Street, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kim, V.P.; Khomutov, G.B. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Lenin Gory 1-2, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Ilegbusi, O.J. [University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32816-2450 (United States); Trakhtenberg, L.I. [Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics of RAS, 4, Kosygin Street, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    The remagnetization of ferromagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles of several thousand cubic nanometers by spin-polarized current is investigated. For this purpose, magnetite nanoparticles are synthesized and deposited on a conductive nonmagnetic substrate. The remagnetization is conducted in high-vacuum scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The STM tip from magnetized iron wire constitutes one electrode while the ferromagnetic nanoparticle on the graphite surface represents the second electrode. The measured threshold value of remagnetization current (I{sub thresh}=9 nA) is the lowest value of current at which remagnetization occurs. The change in nanoparticle magnetization is detected by the effect of giant magnetic resistance, specifically, the dependence of the weak polarized current (Ipolarized current on magnetic moment of small ferromagnetic nanoclusters. The peculiarities of size dependence of the observed effects are explained. - Highlights: • Ferromagnetic nanoparticle in STM with ferromagnetic tip. • Change of the direction of nanoparticle magnetization by current I>I{sub cr}=9 nA. • GMR effect used to control change of magnetization.

  6. Reversible and regionally selective downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB1 receptors in chronic daily cannabis smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Hirvonen, J; Goodwin, RS; Li, C-T; Terry, GE; Zoghbi, SS; Morse, C; Pike, VW; Volkow, ND; Huestis, MA; Innis, RB

    2011-01-01

    Chronic cannabis (marijuana, hashish) smoking can result in dependence. Rodent studies show reversible downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB1 (cannabinoid receptor type 1) receptors after chronic exposure to cannabis. However, whether downregulation occurs in humans who chronically smoke cannabis is unknown. Here we show, using positron emission tomography imaging, reversible and regionally selective downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB1 receptors in human subjects who chronically smoke ca...

  7. Polarization Signatures of Kink Instabilities in the Blazar Emission Region from Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haocheng; Taylor, Greg; Li, Hui; Guo, Fan

    2017-01-01

    Kink instabilities are likely to occur in the current-carrying magnetized plasma jets. Recent observations of the blazar radiation and polarization signatures suggest that the blazar emission region may be considerably magnetized. While the kink instability has been studied with first-principle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, the corresponding time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures have not been investigated. In this paper, we perform comprehensive polarization-dependent radiation modeling of the kink instability in the blazar emission region based on relativistic MHD (RMHD) simulations. We find that the kink instability may give rise to strong flares with polarization angle (PA) swings or weak flares with polarization fluctuations, depending on the initial magnetic topology and magnetization. These findings are consistent with observations. Compared with the shock model, the kink model generates polarization signatures that are in better agreement with the general polarization observations. Therefore, we suggest that kink instabilities may widely exist in the jet environment and provide an efficient way to convert the magnetic energy and produce multiwavelength flares and polarization variations.

  8. Polarization Signatures of Kink Instabilities in the Blazar Emission Region from Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haocheng; Taylor, Greg [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Li, Hui; Guo, Fan [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Kink instabilities are likely to occur in the current-carrying magnetized plasma jets. Recent observations of the blazar radiation and polarization signatures suggest that the blazar emission region may be considerably magnetized. While the kink instability has been studied with first-principle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, the corresponding time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures have not been investigated. In this paper, we perform comprehensive polarization-dependent radiation modeling of the kink instability in the blazar emission region based on relativistic MHD (RMHD) simulations. We find that the kink instability may give rise to strong flares with polarization angle (PA) swings or weak flares with polarization fluctuations, depending on the initial magnetic topology and magnetization. These findings are consistent with observations. Compared with the shock model, the kink model generates polarization signatures that are in better agreement with the general polarization observations. Therefore, we suggest that kink instabilities may widely exist in the jet environment and provide an efficient way to convert the magnetic energy and produce multiwavelength flares and polarization variations.

  9. Missing reversals in the geomagnetic polarity timescale: Their influence on the analysis and in constraining the process that generates geomagnetic reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzocchi, W.

    1997-03-01

    A major problem in defining the chronology of geomagnetic reversals is linked to the detection of short (short TIBR or to paleointensity fluctuations. Particular attention is paid to the influence of measurement errors estimated for the most recently published Cenozoic timescale. By following the minimalist philosophy of Occam's razor, which is particularly suitable for studying poorly known processes, the reliability of the simplest model, i.e., the Poisson process which is symmetric in polarity, can be checked. The results indicate the plausibility of a generalized renewal process; the only regularity is relative to the long-term trend, which is probably linked to core-mantle coupling. In detail, a uniform exponential trend in the last 80 Myr is found for the timescale; it is not presently possible to estimate the influence of the inclusion of tiny wiggles because they are well-resolved only in the last 30 Myr, a period in which both series are stationary. The sequences, with and without tiny wiggles, are symmetric in polarity, with no evidence of low-dimensional chaos and memory of past configurations. The empirical statistical distribution of the TIBR departs slightly from a theoretical exponential distribution, i.e., from a Poisson process, which can be explained by a lack of short anomalies, and/or by a generating process with wear-out properties (a more general renewal process). A real exponential distribution is sustainable only if the number of missing short TIBR in the last 30 Myr is larger than the number of tiny wiggles observed in the same period.

  10. Adaptive polarization image fusion based on regional energy dynamic weighted average

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yong-qiang; PAN Quan; ZHANG Hong-cai

    2005-01-01

    According to the principle of polarization imaging and the relation between Stokes parameters and the degree of linear polarization, there are much redundant and complementary information in polarized images. Since man-made objects and natural objects can be easily distinguished in images of degree of linear polarization and images of Stokes parameters contain rich detailed information of the scene, the clutters in the images can be removed efficiently while the detailed information can be maintained by combining these images. An algorithm of adaptive polarization image fusion based on regional energy dynamic weighted average is proposed in this paper to combine these images. Through an experiment and simulations,most clutters are removed by this algorithm. The fusion method is used for different light conditions in simulation, and the influence of lighting conditions on the fusion results is analyzed.

  11. Protists in the polar regions: comparing occurrence in the Arctic and Southern oceans using pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wolf

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the ongoing discussion of the distribution of protists, whether they are globally distributed or endemic to one or both of the polar regions is the subject of heated debate. In this study, we compared next-generation sequencing data from the Arctic and the Southern oceans to reveal the extent of similarities and dissimilarities between the protist communities in the polar regions. We found a total overlap of operational taxonomic units (OTUs between the two regions of 11.2%. On closer inspection of different taxonomic groups, the overlap ranged between 5.5% (haptophytes and 14.5% (alveolates. Within the different groups, the proportion of OTUs occurring in both regions greatly differed between the polar regions. On the one hand, the overlap between these two regions is remarkable, given the geographical distance between them. On the other hand, one could expect a greater overlap of OTUs between these regions on account of the similar environmental conditions. The overlap suggests a connection between the polar regions for at least certain species or that the evolutionary divergence has been slow, relative to the timescales of isolation. The different proportions of common OTUs among the groups or regions may be a result of different life cycle strategies or environmental adaptations.

  12. Characterization of the Morphometry of Impact Craters Hosting Polar Deposits in Mercury's North Polar Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpe Matthieu; Zuber, Maria T.; Yang, Di; Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Mazarico, Erwan; Vilas, Faith

    2012-01-01

    Earth-based radar images of Mercury show radar-bright material inside impact craters near the planet s poles. A previous study indicated that the polar-deposit-hosting craters (PDCs) at Mercury s north pole are shallower than craters that lack such deposits. We use data acquired by the Mercury Laser Altimeter on the MESSENGER spacecraft during 11 months of orbital observations to revisit the depths of craters at high northern latitudes on Mercury. We measured the depth and diameter of 537 craters located poleward of 45 N, evaluated the slopes of the northern and southern walls of 30 PDCs, and assessed the floor roughness of 94 craters, including nine PDCs. We find that the PDCs appear to have a fresher crater morphology than the non-PDCs and that the radar-bright material has no detectable influence on crater depths, wall slopes, or floor roughness. The statistical similarity of crater depth-diameter relations for the PDC and non-PDC populations places an upper limit on the thickness of the radar-bright material (< 170 m for a crater 11 km in diameter) that can be refined by future detailed analysis. Results of the current study are consistent with the view that the radar-bright material constitutes a relatively thin layer emplaced preferentially in comparatively young craters.

  13. NEAR-INFRARED POLARIZATION SOURCE CATALOG OF THE NORTHEASTERN REGIONS OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaeyeong; Pak, Soojong [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, 1 Seocheon-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Woong-Seob; Park, Won-Kee [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Tamura, Motohide, E-mail: jaeyeong@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: jeongws@kasi.re.kr [The University of Tokyo/National Astronomical Observatory of Japan/Astrobiology Center, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    We present a near-infrared band-merged photometric and polarimetric catalog for the 39′ × 69′ fields in the northeastern part of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), which were observed using SIRPOL, an imaging polarimeter of the InfraRed Survey Facility. This catalog lists 1858 sources brighter than 14 mag in the H band with a polarization signal-to-noise ratio greater than three in the J, H, or K{sub s} bands. Based on the relationship between the extinction and the polarization degree, we argue that the polarization mostly arises from dichroic extinctions caused by local interstellar dust in the LMC. This catalog allows us to map polarization structures to examine the global geometry of the local magnetic field, and to show a statistical analysis of the polarization of each field to understand its polarization properties. In the selected fields with coherent polarization position angles, we estimate magnetic field strengths in the range of 3−25 μG using the Chandrasekhar–Fermi method. This implies the presence of large-scale magnetic fields on a scale of around 100 parsecs. When comparing mid- and far-infrared dust emission maps, we confirmed that the polarization patterns are well aligned with molecular clouds around the star-forming regions.

  14. Effect of electric field on the performance of soil electro-bioremediation with a periodic polarity reversal strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, E; Villaseñor, J; Cañizares, P; Rodrigo, M A

    2016-03-01

    In this work, it is studied the effect of the electric fields (within the range 0.0-1.5 V cm(-1)) on the performance of electrobioremediation with polarity reversal, using a bench scale plant with diesel-spiked kaolinite with 14-d long tests. Results obtained show that the periodic changes in the polarity of the electric field results in a more efficient treatment as compared with the single electro-bioremediation process, and it does not require the addition of a buffer to keep the pH within a suitable range. The soil heating was not very important and it did not cause a change in the temperature of the soil up to values incompatible with the life of microorganisms. Low values of water transported by the electro-osmosis process were attained with this strategy. After only 14 d of treatment, by using the highest electric field studied in this work (1.5 V cm(-1)), up to 35.40% of the diesel added at the beginning of the test was removed, value much higher than the 10.5% obtained by the single bioremediation technology in the same period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Possible influence of the polarity reversal of the solar magnetic field on the various types of arrhythmias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannaropoulou, E; Papailiou, M; Mavromichalaki, H; Preka-Papadema, P; Gigolashvili, M; Tvildiani, L; Janashia, K; Papadima, Th

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years various researches have reached the conclusion that cosmic ray variations and geomagnetic disturbances are related to the condition of the human physiological state. In this study medical data concerning the number of incidents of different types of cardiac arrhythmias for the time period 1983 – 1992 which refer to 1902 patients in Tbilisi, Georgia were used. The smoothing method and the Pearson r-coefficients were used to examine the possible effect of different solar and geomagnetic activity parameters and cosmic ray intensity variations on the different types of arrhythmias. The time interval under examination was separated into two different time periods which coincided with the polarity reversal of the solar magnetic field that occurred in the years 1989-1990 and as a result a different behavior of all the above mentioned parameters as well as of the different types of arrhythmias was noticed during the two time intervals. In addition, changing of polarity sign of the solar magnetic field was found to affect the sign of correlation between the incidence of arrhythmias and the aforementioned parameters. The primary and secondary maxima observed in the solar parameters during the solar cycle 22, also appeared in several types of arrhythmias with a time lag of about five months.

  16. Analysis of aerosol optical depth evaluation in polar regions and associated uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ortiz de Galisteo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Some available processing algorithms used to calculate the aerosol optical depth from radiometric measurements were tested. The aim was to evaluate the associated uncertainties in polar regions due to the data processing, in order to adjust the methodology of the calculation and illustrate the importance of these error sources. The measurements were obtained during a sun photometer campaign in Ny-Ålesund within the framework of the POLAR-AOD project.

  17. Distribution of irregularities in the northern polar region determined from Hilat observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdougall, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Three years' observations of the Hilat satellite from stations Sondre, Churchill, and Tromso have been used to study the distributions of scintillations over the northern polar region. Two regions showed enhancement. Region (1) was an enhancement of phase scintillations when the line of sight to the satellite lay along an L shell and the observing station was under the auroral oval. Region (2) is revealed most clearly by amplitude scintillations and maximizes in an annular region several degrees poleward of the auroral oval. Region (1) is most likely associated with large-scale 'blobs' of ionization in the auroral zone; region (2) appears to be due to km-scale irregularities generated in the polar cap. 17 refs

  18. Polarization and infrared imaging of regions of star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moneti, A.

    1985-01-01

    Observational studies of two regions of star formation, the Taurus cloud and the BN-KL region of Orion, are presented. The magnetic field structure in the Taurus cloud was studied in order to investigate its possible role in the evolution of the cloud. It was found that the magnetic field is generally perpendicular to the elongated structures that make up the cloud, and it is deduced that the observed structure could be due to the effects of the magnetic field during the early stages of collapse. In addition, it was found that the magnetic field may have prevented the formation of massive stars by inhibiting the collapse of large cores, while not affecting the collapse of the small ones. Using a new near-infrared array camera, high resolution (1'') images of several young stars embedded in the cloud were obtained. Most of these sources have extended, spatially resolved circumstellar shells. High resolution images of the BN-KL region of Orion at four wavelengths between 1.65 and 4.7 μm were also obtained. At 1.65 μm a large trough is seen in the overall nebulosity; it is suggested that the observed trough is due to the doughnut of material around IRc2 as it obscures the background nebulosity

  19. O+ trough zones in the polar cap ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, James; Zeng, Wen; Jaafari, Fajer

    Regions of low-density troughs in O+ have been observed at 1 RE altitude in the polar cap ionosphere-magnetosphere region by the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment(TIDE) on the POLAR spacecraft. In this presentation, the UT Arlington Dynamic Fluid-Kinetic (DyFK) code is employed to investigate the formation of such O+ density troughs. We utilize convection paths of flux tubes in the high-latitude region as prescribed by an empirical convection model with solar wind inputs to track the evolution of ionospheric plasma transport and in particular O+ densities along these tubes with time/space. The flux tubes are subjected to auroral processes of precipitation and wave-driven ion heating when they pass through the auroral oval, which tends to elevate the plasma densities in these tubes. When the F-regions of such tubes traverse locations where the F-region is in darkness, recombination there causes the higher-altitude regions to drain and the densities to decline throughout. Owing to the varying effects of these processes, significant and low trough-like densities at higher altitudes developed along these flux tubes. The modeled densities near 6000 km altitudes will be compared with multiple POLAR passes featuring POLAR/TIDE-measured O+ densities for inside and outside of such trough regions.

  20. Unmanned Water Craft Identification and Adaptive Control in Low-Speed and Reversing Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    This paper treats L1 adaptive hovering control of an unmanned surface vehicle in a station-keeping mode where a region of zero control authority and under-actuation are main challenges. Low-speed and reversing dynamics are identied from full scale sea trials, and parameter uncertainty is estimate...

  1. Plasma behaviors in the open field region of reversed-field theta-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aso, Yoshiyuki; Hirano, Keiichi.

    1983-03-01

    A characteristic behavior of the plasma in an open field region of reversed field theta pinch has been studied with the guide field (GF) which extends the field line along the axial direction. The experimental result suggests that the rotaional instability may be induced in FRC after the plasma touches the wall at the ends of the open field. (author)

  2. Papposphaera obpyramidalis (Haptophyta, Papposphaeraceae): New findings from both Polar Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Helge Abildhauge; Egge, Jorun Karin; Heldal, Mikal

    2016-01-01

    Papposphaera obpyramidalis is reinvestigated based on additional high latitude sampling from the southern hemisphere. The material used here comprises better preserved transmission electron microscope (TEM) material including several cells with complete flagellation, as well as light microscopy (....... However, here we present also findings of the species from Arctic realms based on recent SEM surveys from the Svalbard region, indicating a bipolar distribution.......) of living material. The re-examination basically confirms the findings that were part of the species description but also adds details on, for example, nutritional mode and the presence of an underlayer of unmineralized scales. P. obpyramidalis has hitherto been considered confined to Antarctic waters...

  3. Temperature dependent polarization reversal mechanism in 0.94(Bi1/2Na1/2) TiO3-0.06Ba(Zr0.02Ti0.98)O3 relaxor ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaum, Julia; Simons, Hugh; Hudspeth, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    and structural investigation of the polarization reversal process in the prototypical lead-free relaxor 0.94(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-0.06Ba(Zr0.02Ti0.98)O3 reveals that an applied electric field can trigger depolarization and onset of relaxor-like behavior well below TF-R. The polarization reversal process can...... as such be described as a combination of (1) ferroelectric domain switching and (2) a reversible phase transition between two polar ferroelectric states mediated by a non-polar relaxor state. Furthermore, the threshold fields of the second, mediated polarization reversal mechanism depend strongly on temperature....... These results are concomitant with a continuous ferroelectric to relaxortransition occurring over a broad temperature range, during which mixed behavior is observed. The nature of polarization reversal can be illustrated in electric-field-temperature (E-T) diagrams showing the electric field amplitudes...

  4. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.; Wilson, C.L.; Severin, B.A.B. [eds.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with the polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; and (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks, (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosol and trace gases.

  5. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.; Wilson, C.L.; Severin, B.A.B. [eds.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks; (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosols and trace gases.

  6. Olanzapine Reverses MK-801-Induced Cognitive Deficits and Region-Specific Alterations of NMDA Receptor Subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Li, Jitao; Guo, Chunmei; Wang, Hongli; Sun, Yaxin; Wang, Han; Su, Yun-Ai; Li, Keqing; Si, Tianmei

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction constitutes an essential component in schizophrenia for its early presence in the pathophysiology of the disease and close relatedness to life quality of patients. To develop effective treatment of cognitive deficits, it is important to understand their neurobiological causes and to identify potential therapeutic targets. In this study, adopting repeated MK-801 treatment as an animal model of schizophrenia, we investigated whether antipsychotic drugs, olanzapine and haloperidol, can reverse MK-801-induced cognitive deficits and how the reversal processes recruited proteins involved in glutamate neurotransmission in rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus. We found that low-dose chronic MK-801 treatment impaired object-in-context recognition memory and reversal learning in the Morris water maze, leaving reference memory relatively unaffected, and that these cognitive deficits can be partially reversed by olanzapine, not haloperidol, treatment. At the molecular level, chronic MK-801 treatment resulted in the reduction of multiple N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits in rat mPFC and olanzapine, not haloperidol, treatment restored the levels of GluN1 and phosphorylated GluN2B in this region. Taken together, MK-801-induced cognitive deficits may be associated with region-specific changes in NMDA receptor subunits and the reversal of specific NMDA receptor subunits may underlie the cognition-enhancing effects of olanzapine. PMID:29375333

  7. Active Upper-atmosphere Chemistry and Dynamics from Polar Circulation Reversal on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teanby, Nicholas A.; Irwin, Patrick Gerard Joseph; Nixon, Conor A.; DeKok, Remco; Vinatier, Sandrine; Coustenis, Athena; Sefton-Nash, Elliot; Calcutt, Simon B.; Flasar, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Saturn's moon Titan has a nitrogen atmosphere comparable to Earth's, with a surface pressure of 1.4 bar. Numerical models reproduce the tropospheric conditions very well but have trouble explaining the observed middle-atmosphere temperatures, composition and winds. The top of the middle-atmosphere circulation has been thought to lie at an altitude of 450 to 500 kilometres, where there is a layer of haze that appears to be separated from the main haze deck. This 'detached' haze was previously explained as being due to the colocation of peak haze production and the limit of dynamical transport by the circulation's upper branch. Herewe report a build-up of trace gases over the south pole approximately two years after observing the 2009 post-equinox circulation reversal, from which we conclude that middle-atmosphere circulation must extend to an altitude of at least 600 kilometres. The primary drivers of this circulation are summer-hemisphere heating of haze by absorption of solar radiation and winter-hemisphere cooling due to infrared emission by haze and trace gases; our results therefore imply that these effects are important well into the thermosphere (altitudes higher than 500 kilometres). This requires both active upper-atmosphere chemistry, consistent with the detection of high-complexity molecules and ions at altitudes greater than 950 kilometres, and an alternative explanation for the detached haze, such as a transition in haze particle growth from monomers to fractal structures.

  8. Modeling polar cap F-region patches using time varying convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sojka, J.J.; Bowline, M.D.; Schunk, R.W.; Decker, D.T.; Valladares, C.E.; Sheehan, R.; Anderson, D.N.; Heelis, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Here the authors present the results of computerized simulations of the polar cap regions which were able to model the formation of polar cap patches. They used the Utah State University Time-Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM) and the Phillips Laboratory (PL) F-region models in this work. By allowing a time varying magnetospheric electric field in the models, they were able to generate the patches. This time varying field generates a convection in the ionosphere. This convection is similar to convective changes observed in the ionosphere at times of southward pointing interplanetary magnetic field, due to changes in the B y component of the IMF

  9. The Steens Mountain ( Oregon) geomagnetic polarity transition ( USA). 3. Its regional significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankinen, E.A.; Larson, E.E.; Gromme, C.S.; Prevot, M.; Coe, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Study of the variations of direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field as recorded by the Miocene lava flows on Steens Mountain, SE Oregon, has resulted in a detailed description of total field behavior during a reversal in polarity. In addition to information about the polarity reversal itself, the detailed paleomagnetic record includes several thousand years of geomagnetic history preceding and following the polarity transition at 15.5 Ma. To test the feasibility of using this record as a means of correlation in this part of the western US, comparisons are made of reconnaissance and previously published paleomagnetic records obtained from what has been thought to be the Steens Basalt or rocks of equivalent age. Despite the fact that many of these earlier studies were not detailed and were not intended for correlation purposes, convincing similarities among some of the records are evident. The Steens Basalt paleomagnetic record does, indeed, have potential as a correlation tool during this time of widespread basaltic volcanism. Concludes that findings indicate no post-20 Ma differential rotation between S-E Washington and S-central Oregon, in contrast to previous interpretations. -from Authors

  10. Evaluation of chromatographic conditions in reversed phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry systems for fingerprinting of polar and amphiphilic plant metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nikoline Juul; Tomasi, Giorgio; Christensen, Jan H.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic fingerprinting is a relatively young scientific discipline requiring robust, yet flexible and fit-for-purpose analytical methods. Here, we introduce a simple approach to select reversed phase LC systems with electrospray MS detection for fingerprinting of polar and amphiphilic plant met...

  11. Extremely rapid directional change during Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic polarity reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scardia, Giancarlo; Giaccio, Biagio; Liddicoat, Joseph C.; Nomade, Sebastien; Renne, Paul R.; Sprain, Courtney J.

    2014-11-01

    We report a palaeomagnetic investigation of the last full geomagnetic field reversal, the Matuyama-Brunhes (M-B) transition, as preserved in a continuous sequence of exposed lacustrine sediments in the Apennines of Central Italy. The palaeomagnetic record provides the most direct evidence for the tempo of transitional field behaviour yet obtained for the M-B transition. 40Ar/39Ar dating of tephra layers bracketing the M-B transition provides high-accuracy age constraints and indicates a mean sediment accumulation rate of about 0.2 mm yr-1 during the transition. Two relative palaeointensity (RPI) minima are present in the M-B transition. During the terminus of the upper RPI minimum, a directional change of about 180 ° occurred at an extremely fast rate, estimated to be less than 2 ° per year, with no intermediate virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) documented during the transit from the southern to northern hemisphere. Thus, the entry into the Brunhes Normal Chron as represented by the palaeomagnetic directions and VGPs developed in a time interval comparable to the duration of an average human life, which is an order of magnitude more rapid than suggested by current models. The reported investigation therefore provides high-resolution integrated palaeomagnetic and radioisotopic data that document the fine details of the anatomy and tempo of the M-B transition in Central Italy that in turn are crucial for a better understanding of Earth's magnetic field, and for the development of more sophisticated models that are able to describe its global structure and behaviour.

  12. Sensor development for in situ detection of concentration polarization and fouling of reverse osmosis membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrich, Kahlil T.; Goulbourne, Nakhiah C.

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate three polymer electroding techniques in developing a novel in situ sensor for an RO system using the electrical response of a thin film composite sensor. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to measure the sensor response when exposed to sodium chloride solutions with concentrations from 0.1 M to 0.8 M in both single and double bath configurations. An insulated carbon grease sensor was mechanically stable while a composite Direct Assembly Process (DAP) sensor was fragile upon hydration. Scanning electron microscopy results from an impregnation-reduction technique showed gold nanoparticles were deposited most effectively when presoaked in a potassium hydroxide solution and on an uncoated membrane; surface resistances remained too high for sensor implementation. Through thickness carbon grease sensors showed a transient response to changes in concentration, and no meaningful concentration sensitivity was noted for the time scales over which EIS measurements were taken. Surface carbon grease electrodes attached to the polyamide thin film were not sensitive to concentration. The impedance spectra indicated the carbon grease sensor was unable to detect changes in concentration in double bath experiments when implemented with the polyamide surface exposed to salt solutions. DAP sensors lacked a consistent response to changes in concentration too. A reverse double bath experiment with the polysulfone layer exposed to a constant concentration exhibited a transient impedance response similar to through thickness carbon grease sensors in a single bath at constant concentration. These results suggest that the microporous polysulfone layer is responsible for sensor response to concentration.

  13. Studies of the polar MLT region using SATI airglow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngmin

    To investigate atmospheric dynamics of the MLT (Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere) region, a ground-based instrument called SATI (Spectral Airglow Temperature Imager) was developed at York University. The rotational temperatures and emission rates of the OH (6-2) Meinel band and the O2 (0-1) Atmospheric band have been measured in the MLT region by the SATI instrument at Resolute Bay (74.68°N, 94.90°W) since November, 2001, and at the King Sejong station (62.22°S, 58.75°W) since February, 2002. The MLT measurements are examined for periodic oscillations in the ambient temperature and airglow emission rate. A dominant and coherent 4-hr oscillation is seen in both the OH and O2 temperature and emission rate at Resolute Bay in November, 2001. Tidal variation with a 12 hour period is shown in hourly averaged temperatures of the season 2001--2002 and the season 2003--2004. In addition, planetary waves with periods of 3 and 4.5 days are also seen in a longer interval. The observations at high latitudes have revealed that temperatures and emission rates are higher around the winter solstice. MLT cooling events were found at Resolute Bay in December, 2001 and February, 2002. They are compared with the UKMO (UK Meteorological Office) stratospheric assimilated data, and the MLT coolings coincide in time with the stratospheric warmings. A consistent inverse relationship of the OH temperatures and temperatures at 0.316 hPa is presented in the comparison. In previous studies of wave perturbations, the background (mean) values were normally subtracted from the instantaneous signal, but in the present investigation this was not done, allowing the long-term relationship to be examined. A positive relationship of the temperature and emission rate is seen from the SATI measurements for both short and long-term variations, suggesting that similar dynamical processes are responsible for both. This relationship is supported by satellite data from the SABER (Sounding of the

  14. CATACLYSMIC POLARITY SHIFT IS U.S. NATIONAL SECURITY PREPARED FOR THE NEXT GEOMAGNETIC POLE REVERSAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    impacts of a long-term electrical blackout would extend for months, possibly leading to food starvation and anarchy in the regions hit hardest by the CME...the 60 million Americans without power would be very vulnerable to starvation .85 Defeating the cascading effects of a total electrical blackout...could be common as the magnetic field weakens, triggering less reliability for critical systems used in war and during peacetime operations. In

  15. Initial Alignment for SINS Based on Pseudo-Earth Frame in Polar Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanbin; Liu, Meng; Li, Guangchun; Guang, Xingxing

    2017-06-16

    An accurate initial alignment must be required for inertial navigation system (INS). The performance of initial alignment directly affects the following navigation accuracy. However, the rapid convergence of meridians and the small horizontalcomponent of rotation of Earth make the traditional alignment methods ineffective in polar regions. In this paper, from the perspective of global inertial navigation, a novel alignment algorithm based on pseudo-Earth frame and backward process is proposed to implement the initial alignment in polar regions. Considering that an accurate coarse alignment of azimuth is difficult to obtain in polar regions, the dynamic error modeling with large azimuth misalignment angle is designed. At the end of alignment phase, the strapdown attitude matrix relative to local geographic frame is obtained without influence of position errors and cumbersome computation. As a result, it would be more convenient to access the following polar navigation system. Then, it is also expected to unify the polar alignment algorithm as much as possible, thereby further unifying the form of external reference information. Finally, semi-physical static simulation and in-motion tests with large azimuth misalignment angle assisted by unscented Kalman filter (UKF) validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Phytoremediation of disturbed lands in Polar Regions of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsutdinova, Evgeniya

    2017-04-01

    In the Northern regions the problem of restoration of disturbed lands as a result of anthropogenic activities is particularly acut. A large role for the success of native plants to take hold and re-establish themselves is to allow the natural process to work without human intervention. However observation shows that low reserves of available moisture, poor soil nutrients, exposure to wind and water erosion make impossible of a complete restoration of lands due to natural revegetation. One of the methods used to minimize the effect of these factors is the phytoremediation. Research on the Pelyatinskom gas condensate field in the Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets municipal district revealed the efficacy of biological remediation of awnless brome, wildrye siberian, red fescue and kentucky bluegrass. Geobotanical studies of the tailings fields in Yakutia showed that for the phytoremediation of tailings of alluvial deposits of diamonds slough grass can be successfully used, and on the dumps of coal deposits with a high degree of survival of the willow, poplar, larch, alder stand and pine. Development of technology for remediation of placer gold deposits of the Komsomol mine and Bilibino in Chukotka has shown the effectiveness of sowing common oat, wildrye and larch. The study of the experience of recultivation on objects of the "Transneft-Baltic" in the North-Western Federal district allowed us to select as the recommended mixtures of species: meadow fescue, cocksfoot, timothy grass, white and alsike clover and alfalfa. The multicomponent mixture of red fescue, awnless brome, meadow fescue, timothy grass, couch grass, kentucky bluegrass, beckman's grass were successfully used at the mine of the Bovanenkovo oil and gas condensate field. On the technological grounds of the complex pumping station in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous area willows were planted. Pine and willow trees were planted on quarry workings in the Northern taiga of Western Siberia land .Planting of pines has shown

  17. Application of NASA's Advanced Life Support Technologies in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The problems of obtaining adequate pure drinking water and disposing of liquid and solid waste in the U.S Arctic, a region where virtually all water is frozen solid for much of the year, has led to unsanitary solutions. Sanitation and a safe water supply are particularly problems in rural villages. These villages are without running water and use plastic buckets for toilets. The outbreak of diseases is believed to be partially attributable to exposure to human waste and lack of sanitation. Villages with the most frequent outbreaks of disease are those in which running water is difficult to obtain. Waste is emptied into open lagoons, rivers, or onto the sea coast. It does not degrade rapidly and in addition to affecting human health, can be harmful to the fragile ecology of the Arctic and the indigenous wildlife and fish populations. Current practices for waste management and sanitation pose serious human hazards as well as threaten the environment. NASA's unique knowledge of water/wastewater treatment systems for extreme environments, identified in the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment report entitled An Alaskan Challenge: Native Villagt Sanitation, may offer practical solutions addressing the issues of safe drinking water and effective sanitation practices in rural villages. NASA's advanced life support technologies are being combined with Arctic science and engineering knowledge to address the unique needs of the remote communities of Alaska through the Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) project. ALSEE is a collaborative effort involving the NASA, the State of Alaska, the University of Alaska, the North Slope Borough of Alaska, Ilisagvik College in Barrow and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The focus is a major issue in the State of Alaska and other areas of the Circumpolar North; the health and welfare of its people, their lives and the subsistence lifestyle in remote communities, economic opportunity, and care for the

  18. A brief report on the statistical study of net electric current in solar active regions with longitudinal fields of opposite polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yu

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic processes occurring in solar active regions are dominated by the solar magnetic field. As of now, observations using a solar magnetograph have supplied us with the vector components of a solar photospheric magnetic field. The two transverse components of a photospheric magnetic field allow us to compute the amount of electric current. We found that the electric current in areas with positive (negative) polarity due to the longitudinal magnetic field have both positive and negative signs in an active region, however, the net current is found to be an order-of-magnitude less than the mean absolute magnitude and has a preferred sign. In particular, we have statistically found that there is a systematic net electric current from areas with negative (positive) polarity to areas with positive (negative) polarity in solar active regions in the northern (southern) hemisphere, but during the solar minimum this tendency is reversed over time at some latitudes. The result indicates that there is weak net electric current in areas of solar active regions with opposite polarity, thus providing further details about the hemispheric helicity rule found in a series of previous studies.

  19. Large plasma density enhancements occurring in the northern polar region during the 6 April 2000 superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2014-06-01

    We focus on the ionospheric response of northern high-latitude region to the 6 April 2000 superstorm and aim to investigate how the storm-enhanced density (SED) plume plasma became distributed in the regions of auroral zone and polar cap plus to study the resultant ionospheric features and their development. Multi-instrument observational results combined with model-generated, two-cell convection maps permitted identifying the high-density plasma's origin and the underlying plasma transportation processes. Results show the plasma density feature of polar cap enhancement (PCE; 600 × 103 i+/cm3) appearing for 7 h during the main phase and characterized by increases reaching up to 6 times of the quiet time values. Meanwhile, strong westward convections ( 17,500 m/s) created low plasma densities in a wider region of the dusk cell. Oppositely, small ( 750 m/s) but rigorous westward drifts drove the SED plume plasma through the auroral zone, wherein plasma densities doubled. As the SED plume plasma traveled along the convection streamlines and entered the polar cap, a continuous enhancement of the tongue of ionization (TOI) developed under steady convection conditions. However, convection changes caused slow convections and flow stagnations and thus segmented the TOI feature by locally depleting the plasma in the affected regions of the auroral zone and polar cap. From the strong correspondence of polar cap potential drop and subauroral polarization stream (SAPS), we conclude that the SAPS E-field strength remained strong, and under its prolonged influence, the SED plume provided a continuous supply of downward flowing high-density plasma for the development and maintenance of PCEs.

  20. Diversity and dispersal capacities of a terrestrial algal genus Klebsormidium (Streptophyta) in polar regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ryšánek, D.; Elster, Josef; Kováčik, L.; Škaloud, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 4 (2016), s. 1-9, č. článku fiw039. ISSN 0168-6496 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : genetic diversity * Klebsormidium * phylogeography * polar regions Subject RIV: EH - Ecology , Behaviour Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2016

  1. Malaysia's EOC Strategy in Strengthening the Science Knowledge, Awareness and National Interest towards the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabudin, Ahmad Firdaus Ahmad; Said, Noor Azzah; Rahim, Rashidah Abdul; Ng, Theam Foo

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine Malaysia's involvement in the Polar Regions, in the context of education, outreach, and communication (EOC), and consequently, to determine the effectiveness of these initiatives. Using qualitative and quantitative research analyses, this study found that Malaysia's experiences in EOC can be used to increase public…

  2. Insights into bird wing evolution and digit specification from polarizing region fate maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Matthew; Signolet, Jason; Sherman, Adrian; Sang, Helen; Tickle, Cheryll

    2011-08-09

    The proposal that birds descended from theropod dinosaurs with digits 2, 3 and 4 was recently given support by short-term fate maps, suggesting that the chick wing polarizing region-a group that Sonic hedgehog-expressing cells-gives rise to digit 4. Here we show using long-term fate maps that Green fluorescent protein-expressing chick wing polarizing region grafts contribute only to soft tissues along the posterior margin of digit 4, supporting fossil data that birds descended from theropods that had digits 1, 2 and 3. In contrast, digit IV of the chick leg with four digits (I-IV) arises from the polarizing region. To determine how digit identity is specified over time, we inhibited Sonic hedgehog signalling. Fate maps show that polarizing region and adjacent cells are specified in parallel through a series of anterior to posterior digit fates-a process of digit specification that we suggest is involved in patterning all vertebrate limbs with more than three digits.

  3. Reversible and regionally selective downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB1 receptors in chronic daily cannabis smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, J; Goodwin, R S; Li, C-T; Terry, G E; Zoghbi, S S; Morse, C; Pike, V W; Volkow, N D; Huestis, M A; Innis, R B

    2012-06-01

    Chronic cannabis (marijuana, hashish) smoking can result in dependence. Rodent studies show reversible downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB(1) (cannabinoid receptor type 1) receptors after chronic exposure to cannabis. However, whether downregulation occurs in humans who chronically smoke cannabis is unknown. Here we show, using positron emission tomography imaging, reversible and regionally selective downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB(1) receptors in human subjects who chronically smoke cannabis. Downregulation correlated with years of cannabis smoking and was selective to cortical brain regions. After ∼4 weeks of continuously monitored abstinence from cannabis on a secure research unit, CB(1) receptor density returned to normal levels. This is the first direct demonstration of cortical cannabinoid CB(1) receptor downregulation as a neuroadaptation that may promote cannabis dependence in human brain.

  4. Polarization reversal in BaTiO{sub 3} nanostructures synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco-Davalos, Ivan; Ambriz-Vargas, Fabian [Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X1S2 (Canada); Gómez-Yáñez, Carlos [Departamento de Ingeniería en Metalurgia y Materiales, ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, UPALM, Zacatenco, CP 07738 DF, México (Mexico); Thomas, Reji, E-mail: reji.thomas@emt.inrs.ca [Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X1S2 (Canada); Ruediger, Andreas, E-mail: ruediger@emt.inrs.ca [Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X1S2 (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    Ferroelectric BaTiO{sub 3} nanostructures and thin films were deposited by a microwave assisted hydrothermal process at low temperatures (<250 °C) on metallic Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}/Si and Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} (100) substrates. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles dispersed in the Ba(OH){sub 2} alkaline solution are used as the precursors without any mineralizers. The incorporation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} into precursor solution served as a strong oxidant and catalyst for the uniform nucleation of BaTiO{sub 3} on the substrate surface. The polycrystalline and epitaxial nature of the films were confirmed by atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction studies. We report the ferroelectric behavior of BaTiO{sub 3} films on Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} (100) substrates by piezoresponse force microscopy. - Highlights: • Microwave assisted hydrothermal deposition of highly ordered BaTiO{sub 3} thin films on single crystal substrates. • Fast growth without the needof any mineralizers. • Moderate addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} significantly improves the surface coverage. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} substantially reduces hydrogen incorporation into the film and the associated leakage current. • Out-of-plane polarization reversal demonstrated locally.

  5. Determination of nitrate and nitrite in Hanford defense waste (HDW) by reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis (RPCE) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, S.G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the first application of reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis (RPCE) for rapid and accurate determination of nitrate and nitrite in Hanford Defense Waste (HDW). The method development was carried out by using Synthetic Hanford Waste (SHW), followed by the analysis of 4 real HDW samples. Hexamethonium bromide (HMB) was used as electroosmotic flow modifier in borate buffer at pH 9.2 to decrease the electroosmotic flow (EOF) in order to enhance the speed of analysis and the resolution of nitrate and nitrite in high ionic strength HDW samples. The application of this capillary zone electrophoresis method, when compared with ion chromatography for two major components of HDW, nitrate and nitrite slightly reduced analysis time, eliminated most pre-analysis handling of the highly radioactive sample, and cut analysis wastes by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The analysis of real HDW samples that were validated by using sample spikes showed a concentration range of 1.03 to 1.42 M for both nitrate. The migration times of the real HDW and the spiked HDW samples were within a precision of less than 3% relative standard deviation. The selectivity ratio test used for peak confirmation of the spiked samples was within 96% of the real sample. Method reliability was tested by spiking the matrix with 72.4 mM nitrate and nitrite. Recoveries for these spiked samples were 93-103%

  6. Signatures of the high-altitude polar cusp and dayside auroral regions as seen by the Viking electric field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, G.T.; Blomberg, L.G.; Faelthammar, C.G.; Erlandson, R.E.; Potemra, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Electric field and satellite potential observations along 42 Viking orbits in the high-altitude (2R E ) polar cusp and dayside auroral region have been examined. Within the cusp the plasma density usually reaches a maximum, and it is typically very homogeneous, in contrast to the irregular and lower density in the cleft and dayside auroral regions. The maxima in the plasma density are sometimes anticorrelated with the magnetic field strength, indicating a diamagnetic effect. The entire cusp and dayside auroral regions are characterized by irregular and burstlike electric fields, comprising field reversals on various scales (up to 3 min or 500 km), the larger scales, however, being rare in the cusp. Another common feature in these regions is the high correlation between mutually orthogonal components of the electric and magnetic fields, both for large-scale variations across spatial structures and for wave and pulsations in the ULF frequency range. The electric field signatures in the cusp (in the 1100-1300 MLT sector) are, however, characteristically different from the cleft and oval field signatures in that the electric field is usually less intense and less structured and not correlated with the substorm activity level

  7. Synthesis of sol–gel silica particles in reverse micelles with mixed-solvent polar cores: tailoring nanoreactor structure and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bürglová, Kristýna; Hlaváč, Jan [Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry (Czech Republic); Bartlett, John R., E-mail: jbartlett@usc.edu.au [University of the Sunshine Coast, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering (Australia)

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, we describe a new approach for producing metal oxide nano- and microparticles via sol–gel processing in confined media (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate reverse micelles), in which the chemical and physical properties of the polar aqueous core of the reverse micelles are modulated by the inclusion of a second polar co-solvent. The co-solvents were selected for their capacity to solubilise compounds with low water solubility and included dimethylsulfoxide, dimethylformamide, ethylene glycol, n-propanol, dimethylacetamide and N-methylpyrrolidone. A broad range of processing conditions across the sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate/cyclohexane/water phase diagram were identified that are suitable for preparing particles with dimensions <50 to >500 nm. In contrast, only a relatively narrow range of processing conditions were suitable for preparing such particles in the absence of the co-solvents, highlighting the role of the co-solvent in modulating the properties of the polar core of the reverse micelles. A mechanism is proposed that links the interactions between the various reactive sites on the polar head group of the surfactant and the co-solvent to the nucleation and growth of the particles.

  8. Digital Sequences and a Time Reversal-Based Impact Region Imaging and Localization Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Qian, Weifeng

    2013-01-01

    To reduce time and cost of damage inspection, on-line impact monitoring of aircraft composite structures is needed. A digital monitor based on an array of piezoelectric transducers (PZTs) is developed to record the impact region of impacts on-line. It is small in size, lightweight and has low power consumption, but there are two problems with the impact alarm region localization method of the digital monitor at the current stage. The first one is that the accuracy rate of the impact alarm region localization is low, especially on complex composite structures. The second problem is that the area of impact alarm region is large when a large scale structure is monitored and the number of PZTs is limited which increases the time and cost of damage inspections. To solve the two problems, an impact alarm region imaging and localization method based on digital sequences and time reversal is proposed. In this method, the frequency band of impact response signals is estimated based on the digital sequences first. Then, characteristic signals of impact response signals are constructed by sinusoidal modulation signals. Finally, the phase synthesis time reversal impact imaging method is adopted to obtain the impact region image. Depending on the image, an error ellipse is generated to give out the final impact alarm region. A validation experiment is implemented on a complex composite wing box of a real aircraft. The validation results show that the accuracy rate of impact alarm region localization is approximately 100%. The area of impact alarm region can be reduced and the number of PZTs needed to cover the same impact monitoring region is reduced by more than a half. PMID:24084123

  9. Magnetic Field Perturbations from Currents in the Dark Polar Regions During Quiet Geomagnetic Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Finlay, Chris; Hesse, M.

    2017-01-01

    In the day-side sunlit polar ionosphere the varying and IMF dependent convection creates strong ionospheric currents even during quiet geomagnetic conditions. Observations during such times are often excluded when using satellite data to model the internal geomagneticmain field. Observations from...... the night-side or local winter during quiet conditions are, however, also influenced by variations in the IMF. In this paper we briefly review the large scale features of the ionospheric currents in the polar regions with emphasis on the current distribution during undisturbed conditions. We examine...

  10. Study of the Effect of Active Regions on the Scattering Polarization in the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouich, M.; Badruddin

    2018-03-01

    The solar photospheric/chromospheric light exciting atoms/ions is not homogeneous because of the presence of active regions (ARs). The effect of ARs on the scattering polarization at the coronal level is an important ingredient for a realistic determination of the magnetic field. This effect is usually disregarded or mixed with other effects in the sense that the degree of its importance is not well known. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of atmospheric inhomogeneities on the coronal scattering polarization. We determined quantitatively the importance of the atmospheric inhomogeneities by using given geometries of solar ARs (plages and sunspots).

  11. Physics in the GeV region with polarized targets in electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    There is evidence from the D(γ,p)n reaction that the meson-exchange model is failing in the GeV region. Surprisingly, it appears that the new (Dγ,p)n data favor the energy dependence of the nuclear chromodynamics model rather that of the meson-exchange model. Application of the polarization method to electron scattering studies is in its infancy, and it is potentially a very powerful technique. The internal target method coupled with laser-driven polarized targets should represent an important tool for nuclear physics

  12. CryoSat Mission over Polar Region: Data quality status and product evolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, J.; Parrinello, T.; Féménias, P.; Fornari, M.; Scagliola, M.; Baker, S.; Brockley, D.; Mannan, R.; Hall, A.; Webb, E.; Garcia-Mondéjar, A.; Roca, M.; Mantovani, P. L.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, satellite radar altimetry has shown its ability to revolutionize our understanding of the ocean and climate. These advances were mainly limited to ice-free regions, leaving aside large portions of Polar Regions. Launched in 2010, the polar-orbiting CryoSat Satellite was designed to measure the changes in the thickness of polar sea ice and the elevation of the ice sheets and mountain glaciers. To reach this goal, the CryoSat products have to meet the highest performance, through constant improvements of the associated Instrument Processing Facility. Since April 2015, the CryoSat ice products are generated with the Baseline C; which represents a major processor upgrade. Several improvements have been implemented belong this new Baseline, such as SAR retracker optimized for Freeboard retrieval and a coarse slant correction, which is applied directly on the stack data in conjunction with the window delay alignment. The resulting waveforms show more power and the trailing edge is modified, leading to improved L2 geophysical parameters. This paper provides an overview of the CryoSat data characteristics, assessment and exploitation over Polar Regions. In this respect, new science-oriented diagnostics have been implemented to thoroughly understand the signatures within the altimeter signals over sea-ice and land ice areas, to validate the data and therefore propose potential way of improvements for next CryoSat processing Baselines.

  13. Some like it cold: microbial transformations of mercury in polar regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Kroer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of polar regions with mercury that is transported from lower latitudes as inorganic mercury has resulted in the accumulation of methylmercury (MeHg in food chains, risking the health of humans and wildlife. While production of MeHg has been documented in polar marine and terrestrial environments, little is known about the responsible transformations and transport pathways and the processes that control them. We posit that as in temperate environments, microbial transformations play a key role in mercury geochemical cycling in polar regions by: (1 methylating mercury by one of four proposed pathways, some not previously described; (2 degrading MeHg by activities of mercury resistant and other bacteria; and (3 carrying out redox transformations that control the supply of the mercuric ion, the substrate of methylation reactions. Recent analyses have identified a high potential for mercury-resistant microbes that express the enzyme mercuric reductase to affect the production of gaseous elemental mercury when and where daylight is limited. The integration of microbially mediated processes in the paradigms that describe mercury geochemical cycling is therefore of high priority especially in light of concerns regarding the effect of global warming and permafrost thawing on input of MeHg to polar regions.

  14. To the Extremes! A Teacher Research Experience Program in the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, J.; Bartholow, S.

    2014-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a teacher professional development program, began with the International Polar Year in 2004 and continues today in the United States. In 2007, the National Science Foundation designated PolarTREC as potentially transformative, meaning that the "research results often do not fit within established models or theories and may initially be unexpected or difficult to interpret; their transformative nature and utility might not be recognized until years later." PolarTREC brings U.S. K-12 educators and polar researchers together through an innovative teacher research experience model. Teachers spend three to six weeks in remote arctic and Antarctic field camps. Since 2007, over 100 teachers have been placed in field experiences throughout the Arctic and Antarctic and with half of them participating in field experiences in Antarctica. During their experience, teachers become research team members filling a variety of roles on the team. They also fulfil a unique role of public outreach officer, conducting live presentations about their field site and research as well as journaling, answering questions, and posting photos. Evaluation data collected over the past eight years on program participants shows that PolarTREC has clearly achieved it goals and strongly suggests programs that link teachers and researchers can have the potential to transform the nature of science education. By giving teachers the content knowledge, pedagogical tools, confidence, understanding of science in the broader society, and experiences with scientific inquiry, participating teachers are using authentic scientific research in their classrooms. Not surprisingly this has also led to increases in student interest and knowledge about the Polar Regions. In this presentation, we will highlight the best practices of teacher research experiences as well as discuss why it is vital to have teachers and researchers work together to communicate

  15. Contributions of Lateral and Orbital Frontal Regions to Abstract Rule Acquisition and Reversal in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Camera, Giancarlo; Bouret, Sebastien; Richmond, Barry J.

    2018-01-01

    The ability to learn and follow abstract rules relies on intact prefrontal regions including the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Here, we investigate the specific roles of these brain regions in learning rules that depend critically on the formation of abstract concepts as opposed to simpler input-output associations. To this aim, we tested monkeys with bilateral removals of either LPFC or OFC on a rapidly learned task requiring the formation of the abstract concept of same vs. different. While monkeys with OFC removals were significantly slower than controls at both acquiring and reversing the concept-based rule, monkeys with LPFC removals were not impaired in acquiring the task, but were significantly slower at rule reversal. Neither group was impaired in the acquisition or reversal of a delayed visual cue-outcome association task without a concept-based rule. These results suggest that OFC is essential for the implementation of a concept-based rule, whereas LPFC seems essential for its modification once established. PMID:29615854

  16. Economic Polarization Across European Union Regions in the years 2007–2012 at NUTS 2 Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piętak Łukasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the economic polarization in countries of the EU at NUTS 2 level in the years 2007–2012. The studies have to decide on positive or negative verification of the hypothesis, which states that the economic crisis of 2008–2013 had an influence on rising economic polarization in EU countries. The method used in this article is an application of some measures of economic polarization and inequality of income distribution. The carried out research did not allow for the positive verification of the hypothesis. Only in a few countries did the economic crisis have an influence on a reduction of the middle class. In most cases the economic collapse did not play any role in the raising of the economic polarization index. The statistical data used in this paper was taken from the following databases: Statistical Yearbook of the Regions – Poland from 2009 to 2013 and Eurostat – Regional statistics by NUTS classification*.

  17. Cloud Masking and Surface Temperature Distribution in the Polar Regions Using AVHRR and other Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Joey C.

    1995-01-01

    Surface temperature is one of the key variables associated with weather and climate. Accurate measurements of surface air temperatures are routinely made in meteorological stations around the world. Also, satellite data have been used to produce synoptic global temperature distributions. However, not much attention has been paid on temperature distributions in the polar regions. In the polar regions, the number of stations is very sparse. Because of adverse weather conditions and general inaccessibility, surface field measurements are also limited. Furthermore, accurate retrievals from satellite data in the region have been difficult to make because of persistent cloudiness and ambiguities in the discrimination of clouds from snow or ice. Surface temperature observations are required in the polar regions for air-sea-ice interaction studies, especially in the calculation of heat, salinity, and humidity fluxes. They are also useful in identifying areas of melt or meltponding within the sea ice pack and the ice sheets and in the calculation of emissivities of these surfaces. Moreover, the polar regions are unique in that they are the sites of temperature extremes, the location of which is difficult to identify without a global monitoring system. Furthermore, the regions may provide an early signal to a potential climate change because such signal is expected to be amplified in the region due to feedback effects. In cloud free areas, the thermal channels from infrared systems provide surface temperatures at relatively good accuracies. Previous capabilities include the use of the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) onboard the Nimbus-7 satellite which was launched in 1978. Current capabilities include the use of the Advance Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aboard NOAA satellites. Together, these two systems cover a span of 16 years of thermal infrared data. Techniques for retrieving surface temperatures with these sensors in the polar regions have

  18. The Venus Emissivity Mapper - Investigating the Atmospheric Structure and Dynamics of Venus' Polar Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widemann, T.; Marcq, E.; Tsang, C.; Mueller, N. T.; Kappel, D.; Helbert, J.; Dyar, M. D.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    Venus' climate evolution is driven by the energy balance of its global cloud layers. Venus displays the best-known case of polar vortices evolving in a fast-rotating atmosphere. Polar vortices are pervasive in the Solar System and may also be present in atmosphere-bearing exoplanets. While much progress has been made since the early suggestion that the Venus clouds are H2O-H2SO4 liquid droplets (Young 1973), several cloud parameters are still poorly constrained, particularly in the lower cloud layer and optically thicker polar regions. The average particle size is constant over most of the planet but increases toward the poles. This indicates that cloud formation processes are different at latitudes greater than 60°, possibly as a result of the different dynamical regimes that exist in the polar vortices (Carlson et al. 1993, Wilson et al. 2008, Barstow et al. 2012). Few wind measurements exist in the polar region due to unfavorable viewing geometry of currently available observations. Cloud-tracking data indicate circumpolar circulation close to solid-body rotation. E-W winds decrease to zero velocity close to the pole. N-S circulation is marginal, with extremely variable morphology and complex vorticity patterns (Sanchez-Lavega et al. 2008, Luz et al. 2011, Garate-Lopez et al. 2013). The Venus Emissivity Mapper (VEM; Helbert et al., 2016) proposed for NASA's Venus Origins Explorer (VOX) and the ESA M5/EnVision orbiters has the capability to better constrain the microphysics (vertical, horizontal, time dependence of particle size distribution, or/and composition) of the lower cloud particles in three spectral bands at 1.195, 1.310 and 1.510 μm at a spatial resolution of 10 km. Circular polar orbit geometry would provide an unprecedented study of both polar regions within the same mission. In addition, VEM's pushbroom method will allow short timescale cloud dynamics to be assessed, as well as local wind speeds, using repeated imagery at 90 minute intervals

  19. Thermal instabilities in the edge region of reversed-field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedert, J.; Mondt, J.P.

    1984-04-01

    Thermal stability of the edge region of reversed-field pinch configurations is analyzed within the context of a two-fluid model. Two major sources of instability are identified in combination with a parallel electric field: either an electron temperature gradient and/or a density gradient that leads to rapid growth (of several to many ohmic heating rates) over a region of several millimeters around the mode-rational surfaces in the edge region. The basic signature of both instabilities is electrostatic. In the case of the density gradient mode, the signature relies on the effects of electron compressibility, whereas the temperature gradient mode can be identified as the current-convective instability by taking the limit of zero diamagnetic drift, density gradient, thermal force, drift heat flux, and electron compressibility

  20. Pioneer 7 observations of plasma flow and field reversal regions in the distant geomagnetic tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.C.; Villante, U.; Lazarus, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    We present the results of an extensive analysis of plasma and magnetic field data from Pioneer 7 taken in the geomagnetic tail approximately 1000 R/sub E/ downstream from earth. The principal observations are (1) measurable fluxes of protons in the tail, flowing away from earth, sometimes with a double-peaked velocity distribution; (2) field reversal regions in which the field changes from radial to antiradial by a vector rotation in the north-south plane; and (3) general characteristics of the tail similar to those observed near earth with good correlation between taillike magnetic fields and plasma

  1. Pioneer 7 observations of plasma flow and field reversal regions in the distant geomagnetic tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. C.; Lazarus, A. J.; Villante, U.

    1975-01-01

    The present paper gives the results of an extensive analysis of plasma and magnetic-field data from Pioneer 7 taken in the geomagnetic tail approximately 1000 earth radii downstream from earth. The principal observations are: (1) measurable fluxes of protons in the tail, flowing away from earth, sometimes with a double-peaked velocity distribution; (2) field reversal regions in which the field changes from radial to antiradial by a vector rotation in the north-south plane; and (3) general characteristics of the tail similar to those observed near earth with good correlation between taillike magnetic fields and plasma.

  2. Snow and Ice Applications of AVHRR in Polar Regions: Report of a Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, K.; Bindschadler, R.; Casassa, G.; Comiso, J.; Eppler, D.; Fetterer, F.; Hawkins, J.; Key, J.; Rothrock, D.; Thomas, R.; hide

    1993-01-01

    The third symposium on Remote Sensing of Snow and Ice, organized by the International Glaciological Society, took place in Boulder, Colorado, 17-22 May 1992. As part of this meeting a total of 21 papers was presented on snow and ice applications of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data in polar regions. Also during this meeting a NASA sponsored Workshop was held to review the status of polar surface measurements from AVHRR. In the following we have summarized the ideas and recommendations from the workshop, and the conclusions of relevant papers given during the regular symposium sessions. The seven topics discussed include cloud masking, ice surface temperature, narrow-band albedo, ice concentration, lead statistics, sea-ice motion and ice-sheet studies with specifics on applications, algorithms and accuracy, following recommendations for future improvements. In general, we can affirm the strong potential of AVHRR for studying sea ice and snow covered surfaces, and we highly recommend this satellite data set for long-term monitoring of polar process studies. However, progress is needed to reduce the uncertainty of the retrieved parameters for all of the above mentioned topics to make this data set useful for direct climate applications such as heat balance studies and others. Further, the acquisition and processing of polar AVHRR data must become better coordinated between receiving stations, data centers and funding agencies to guarantee a long-term commitment to the collection and distribution of high quality data.

  3. General analysis for experimental studies of time-reversal-violating effects in slow neutron propagation through polarized matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamoreaux, S.K.; Golub, R.

    1994-01-01

    A general technique is developed for the analysis of proposed experimental studies of possible P,T-violating effects in the neutron-nucleus interaction based on low-energy neutron transmission through polarized matter. The analysis is applied to proposed experimental schemes and we determine the levels at which the absolute neutron polarization, magnetic fields, and target polarization must be controlled in order for these experiments to obtain a given sensitivity to P,T-violating effects

  4. Temperature dependent polarization reversal mechanism in 0.94(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-0.06Ba(Zr0.02Ti0.98)O3 relaxor ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaum, Julia; Simons, Hugh; Hudspeth, Jessica; Acosta, Matias; Daniels, John E.

    2015-12-01

    The temperature at which the electric field induced long-range ordered ferroelectric state undergoes transition into the short-range ordered relaxor state, TF-R, is commonly defined by the onset of strong dispersion of the dielectric permittivity. However, this combined macroscopic property and structural investigation of the polarization reversal process in the prototypical lead-free relaxor 0.94(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-0.06Ba(Zr0.02Ti0.98)O3 reveals that an applied electric field can trigger depolarization and onset of relaxor-like behavior well below TF-R. The polarization reversal process can as such be described as a combination of (1) ferroelectric domain switching and (2) a reversible phase transition between two polar ferroelectric states mediated by a non-polar relaxor state. Furthermore, the threshold fields of the second, mediated polarization reversal mechanism depend strongly on temperature. These results are concomitant with a continuous ferroelectric to relaxor transition occurring over a broad temperature range, during which mixed behavior is observed. The nature of polarization reversal can be illustrated in electric-field-temperature (E-T) diagrams showing the electric field amplitudes associated with different polarization reversal processes. Such diagrams are useful tools for identifying the best operational temperature regimes for a given composition in actuator applications.

  5. Investigation of a marine magnetic polarity reversal boundary in cross section at the northern boundary of the Kane Megamullion, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 23°40'N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Tivey, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    Near-bottom magnetic field measurements made by the submersible Nautile during the 1992 Kanaut Expedition define the cross-sectional geometry of magnetic polarity reversal boundaries and the vertical variation of crustal magnetization in lower oceanic crust exposed along the Kane Transform Fault (TF) at the northern boundary of the Kane Megamullion (KMM). The KMM exposes lower crust and upper mantle rocks on a low-angle normal fault that was active between 3.3 Ma and 2.1 Ma. The geometry of the polarity boundaries is estimated from an inversion of the submarine magnetic data for crustal magnetization. In general, the polarity boundaries dip away from the ridge axis along the Kane TF scarp, with a west dipping angle of ~45° in the shallow (Williams (2007) that the lower crust cools through the Curie temperature of magnetite to become magnetic, with the polarity boundaries representing both frozen isotherms and isochrons. We also test the effects of the rotation of this isotherm structure and/or footwall rotation and find that the magnetic polarity boundary geometry is not sensitive to these directional changes.

  6. Multi-Polarization ASAR Backscattering from Herbaceous Wetlands in Poyang Lake Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyong Sang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are one of the most important ecosystems on Earth. There is an urgent need to quantify the biophysical parameters (e.g., plant height, aboveground biomass and map total remaining areas of wetlands in order to evaluate the ecological status of wetlands. In this study, Environmental Satellite/Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ENVISAT/ASAR dual-polarization C-band data acquired in 2005 is tested to investigate radar backscattering mechanisms with the variation of hydrological conditions during the growing cycle of two types of herbaceous wetland species, which colonize lake borders with different elevation in Poyang Lake region, China. Phragmites communis (L. Trin. is semi-aquatic emergent vegetation with vertical stem and blade-like leaves, and the emergent Carex spp. has rhizome and long leaves. In this study, the potential of ASAR data in HH-, HV-, and VV-polarization in mapping different wetland types is examined, by observing their dynamic variations throughout the whole flooding cycle. The sensitivity of ASAR backscattering coefficients to vegetation parameters of plant height, fresh and dry biomass, and vegetation water content is also analyzed for Phragmites communis (L. Trin. and Carex spp. The research for Phragmites communis (L. Trin. shows that HH polarization is more sensitive to plant height and dry biomass than HV polarization. ASAR backscattering coefficients are relatively less sensitive to fresh biomass, especially in HV polarization. However, both are highly dependent on canopy water content. In contrast, the dependence of HH- and HV- backscattering from Carex community on vegetation parameters is poor, and the radar backscattering mechanism is controlled by ground water level.

  7. Mechanisms of impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhny, Alexander; Dyominov, Igor

    A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the atmosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the impact of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O on the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular on its expected recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circu-lation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the North to South Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar strato-spheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from Climate Change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abun-dance of the greenhouse gases on the long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2, essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weak-ness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in Antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification be-gins to be more effective in Arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard

  8. Galileo multispectral imaging of the north polar and eastern limb regions of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, M.J.S.; Greeley, R.; Greenberg, R.; McEwen, A.; Klaasen, K.P.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C.; Neukum, G.; Chapman, C.R.; Geissler, P.; Heffernan, C.; Breneman, H.; Anger, C.; Carr, M.H.; Davies, M.E.; Fanale, F.P.; Gierasch, P.J.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Johnson, T.V.; Pilcher, C.B.; Thompson, W.R.; Veverka, J.; Sagan, C.

    1994-01-01

    Multispectral images obtained during the Galileo probe's second encounter with the moon reveal the compositional nature of the north polar regions and the northeastern limb. Mare deposits in these regions are found to be primarily low to medium titanium lavas and, as on the western limb, show only slight spectral heterogeneity. The northern light plains are found to have the spectral characteristics of highlands materials, show little evidence for the presence of cryptomaria, and were most likely emplaced by impact processes regardless of their age.Multispectral images obtained during the Galileo probe's second encounter with the moon reveal the compositional nature of the north polar regions and the northeastern limb. Mare deposits in these regions are found to be primarily low to medium titanium lavas and, as on the western limb, show only slight spectral heterogeneity. The northern light plains are found to have the spectral characteristics of highlands materials, show little evidence for the presence of cryptomaria, and were most likely emplaced by impact processes regardless of their age.

  9. Diviner lunar radiometer observations of cold traps in the moon's south polar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, D.A.; Siegler, M.A.; Zhang, J.A.; Hayne, P.O.; Foote, E.J.; Bennett, K.A.; Vasavada, A.R.; Greenhagen, B.T.; Schofield, J.T.; McCleese, D.J.; Foote, M.C.; DeJong, E.; Bills, B.G.; Hartford, W.; Murray, B.C.; Allen, C.C.; Snook, K.; Soderblom, L.A.; Calcutt, S.; Taylor, F.W.; Bowles, N.E.; Bandfield, J.L.; Elphic, R.; Ghent, R.; Glotch, T.D.; Wyatt, M.B.; Lucey, P.G.

    2010-01-01

    Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment surface-temperature maps reveal the existence of widespread surface and near-surface cryogenic regions that extend beyond the boundaries of persistent shadow. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) struck one of the coldest of these regions, where subsurface temperatures are estimated to be 38 kelvin. Large areas of the lunar polar regions are currently cold enough to cold-trap water ice as well as a range of both more volatile and less volatile species. The diverse mixture of water and high-volatility compounds detected in the LCROSS ejecta plume is strong evidence for the impact delivery and cold-trapping of volatiles derived from primitive outer solar system bodies.

  10. Dynamics of the polar mesopause and lower thermosphere region as observed in the night airglow emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myraboe, H.K.

    1988-02-01

    This work utilizes night airglow emissions to deduce temperatures, dynamics, energetics, transport and photochemistry of the polar 80-110 km atmospheric region. The morphological behaviour of the polar 80-110 km region as seen in the night airglow emissions is best described by quasi regular to regular variations in the temperature and in the intensities of the emissions with periods ranging from minutes to a few days. Temperature amplitudes are seen from a few degrees up to ±50 K. Intensity changes up to several hundred percent may occur. Gravity waves from below are generally found to be present in the region, being responsible for much of the short period variations. The long period variations are seen to be related to circulation changes in the lower atmosphere. Stratospheric warmings are generally associated by a cooling of the 80-110 km region by a ratio approximately twice as large in amplitude as the heating at the 10 mbar level. The semidiurnal tide is found to be dominant with a peak to peak amplitude of about 5 K, in contrast to model calculations. Effects from geomagnetic phenomena on the energetics and dynamics of the region are not seen and, if present, have to be small or rare as compared to the influence from below. There is a mesopause temperature maximum at winter solstice. Pronounced differences in the day to day and seasonal behaviour of the odd oxygen associated nightglows at the North and South Pole are found. This may indicate fundamental differences at the two poles in the winter mesopause region circulation and energetics

  11. Dynamics and Morphology of Saturn’s North Polar Region During Cassini’s Final Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, John J.; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Dyudina, Ulyana A.; Ewald, Shawn; McCabe, Ryan M.; Gunnarson, Jacob; Garland, Justin; Gallego, Angelina

    2017-10-01

    We present an analysis of Saturn’s north polar region utilizing Cassini ISS images captured in visible and near-infrared wavelengths during late 2016 and 2017, including images captured during Cassini’s Grand Finale orbits. To measure the wind field in the region, we utilize the two-dimensional correlation imaging velocimetry (CIV) technique. We also calculate the relative vorticity and divergence from the wind field. To detect changes in the dynamics, we compare measurements of the wind, relative vorticity, and divergence in 2012 and 2013 with those from 2016/2017. We also compare cloud reflectivity between 2012/2013 and 2016/2017 in images that show the north pole under similar illumination conditions. To detect changes in cloud reflectivity, we utilize a Minnaert correction to calculate the zonal mean reflectivity as a function of latitude. Furthermore, we compare the winds and cloud reflectivity at several wavelengths in order to look for changes occurring at different altitudes. Our results indicate that while the dynamics of the north polar region have remained relatively stable, there have been significant morphology changes that have resulted in dramatic color changes. We hypothesize that these changes are a result of the seasonal cycle and linked to the increased production of photochemical hazes in the atmosphere. Our work has been supported by NASA PATM NNX14AK07G, NSF AAG 1212216, and NASA NESSF NNX15AQ70H.

  12. High Frequency Backscatter from the Polar and Auroral E-Region Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Victoriya V.

    The Earth's ionosphere contains collisional and partially-ionized plasma. The electric field, produced by the interaction between the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind, drives the plasma bulk motion, also known as convection, in the F-region of the ionosphere. It can also destabilize the plasma in the E-region, producing irregularities or waves. Intermediate-scale waves with wavelengths of hundreds of meters can cause scintillation and fading of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals, whereas the small-scale waves (lambda Network (SuperDARN). The theoretical part of this work focuses on symmetry properties of the general dispersion relation that describes wave propagation in the collisional plasma in the two-stream and gradient-drift instability regimes. The instability growth rate and phase velocity are examined under the presence of a background parallel electric field, whose influence is demonstrated to break the spatial symmetry of the wave propagation patterns. In the observational part of this thesis, a novel dual radar setup is used to examine E-region irregularities in the magnetic polar cap by probing the E-region along the same line from opposite directions. The phase velocity analysis together with raytracing simulations demonstrated that, in the polar cap, the radar backscatter is primarily controlled by the plasma density conditions. In particular, when the E-region layer is strong and stratified, the radar backscatter properties are controlled by the convection velocity, whereas for a tilted E-layer, the height and aspect angle conditions are more important. Finally, the fundamental dependence of the E-region irregularity phase velocity on the component of the plasma convection is investigated using two new SuperDARN radars at high southern latitudes where plasma convection estimates are accurately deduced from all SuperDARN radars in the southern hemisphere. Statistical analysis is presented showing that the predominance of the

  13. On the Topological Changes of Local Hurst Exponent in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolini, G.; De Michelis, P.

    2014-12-01

    Geomagnetic activity during magnetic substorms and storms is related to the dinamical and topological changes of the current systems flowing in the Earth's magnetosphere-ionosphere. This is particularly true in the case of polar regions where the enhancement of auroral electrojet current system is responsible for the observed geomagnetic perturbations. Here, using the DMA-technique we evaluate the local Hurst exponent (H"older exponent) for a set of 46 geomagnetic observatories, widely distributed in the northern hemisphere, during one of the most famous and strong geomagnetic storm, the Bastille event, and reconstruct a sequence of polar maps showing the dinamical changes of the topology of the local Hurst exponent with the geomagnetic activity level. The topological evolution of local Hurst exponent maps is discussed in relation to the dinamical changes of the current systems flowing in the polar ionosphere. G. Consolini has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant agreement no. 313038/STORM for this research.

  14. Optical polarization maps of star-forming regions in Perseus, Taurus, and Ophiuchus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, A.A.; Bastien, P.; Menard, F.; Myers, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    New optical linear polarization maps are presented of the star-forming regions near L1506 in Taurus, L1755 in Ophiuchus, and the complex of dark cloud which extends from L1448 in B5 in Perseus. The former two show a well-defined peak magnetic field direction in the plane of the sky with a finite dispersion about that peak which is smaller than would be expected for a random distribution of field distributions. The dispersion in the position angle of filamentary clouds within these complexes implies that clouds which appear elongated on the plane of the sky are not all associated with a pattern of polarization vectors particularly parallel or perpendicular to their geometry. Instead, clouds tend to be oriented at the angle formed by their axis and the mean direction of the local large-scale field. For the dark cloud complex, a bimodal distribution of the polarization vector angle is taken to result from at least two distributions of gas along the line of sight which appear as a complex in projection. 55 refs

  15. Mobile phase effects on the retention on polar columns with special attention to the dual hydrophilic interaction-reversed-phase liquid chromatography mechanism, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandera, Pavel; Hájek, Tomáš

    2018-01-01

    Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography on polar columns in aqueous-organic mobile phases has become increasingly popular for the separation of many biologically important compounds in chemical, environmental, food, toxicological, and other samples. In spite of many new applications appearing in literature, the retention mechanism is still controversial. This review addresses recent progress in understanding of the retention models in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. The main attention is focused on the role of water, both adsorbed by the column and contained in the bulk mobile phase. Further, the theoretical retention models in the isocratic and gradient elution modes are discussed. The dual hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography reversed-phase retention mechanism on polar columns is treated in detail, especially with respect to the practical use in one- and two-dimensional liquid chromatography separations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. In situ study on reverse polarity effect in Cu/Sn–9Zn/Ni interconnect undergoing liquid–solid electromigration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, M.L., E-mail: huang@dlut.edu.cn; Zhang, Z.J.; Zhao, N.; Yang, F.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Abnormal reverse polarity effect in Cu/Sn–9Zn/Ni interconnect during L–S EM was observed. • The reverse polarity effect was resulted from directional diffusion of Zn to cathode. • Positive effective charge number is responsible for directional diffusion of Zn atom. • The effective charge number value of Zn was calculated to be +0.63 based on a model. • This effect is beneficial to EM reliability of micro-bump solder interconnect. - Abstract: Synchrotron radiation real-time imaging technology was used to in situ study the interfacial reactions in Cu/Sn–9Zn/Ni solder interconnects undergoing liquid–solid electromigration (L–S EM). The reverse polarity effect, evidenced by the continuous growth of intermetallic compound (IMC) layer at the cathode and the thinning of the IMC layer at the anode, was resulted from the abnormal directional migration of Zn atoms toward the cathode in electric field. This abnormal migration behavior was induced by the positive effective charge number (Z{sup ∗}) of Zn atoms, which was calculated to be +0.63 based on the Cu fluxes and the consumption kinetics of the anode Cu. Irrespective of the flowing direction of electrons, the consumption of Cu film was obvious while that of Ni film was limited. The dissolution of anode Cu followed a linear relationship with time while that of cathode Cu followed a parabolic relationship with time. It is more damaging with electrons flowing from the Ni to the Cu than that from the Cu to the Ni. The simulated Zn concentration distributions gave an explanation on the relationship between abnormal migration behavior of Zn atoms and the dissolution of Cu film under electron wind force. The abnormal directional migration of Zn atoms toward the cathode prevented the dissolution of cathode substrate, which is beneficial to improve the EM reliability of micro-bump solder interconnects.

  17. Mediating Data and Building Community for Informed, Intelligent Decision Making for the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsifer, P. L.; Stieglitz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Much has been written about the state of data and related systems for the polar regions, however work remains to be done to achieve an envisioned integrated and well-defined pan-Arctic observing and data network that enables access to high quality data, expertise and information in support of scientific understanding, stakeholder needs, and agency operations. In this paper we argue that priorities for establishing such a network are in the area of machine-enhanced data mediation and the human aspects of community building. The authors have engaged in a U.S.-based, multi-agency process with the goal of applying modern cyberinfrastructure to improve capabilities for integrating data. A particular case-study focuses on establishing a carbon budget for the Arctic region. This effort contributes to broader global efforts aimed at establishing an international observing and data network. Results are based on a series meetings, workshops, systems design activities, and publications. Analysis reveals that there are a large number of polar data resources interacting in a network that functions as a data ecosystem. Given the size and complexity of the network, achieving broad data discovery and access and meaningful data integration (i.e. developing a carbon budget) will require advanced techniques including machine learning, semantic mediation, and the use of highly connected virtual research environments. To achieve the aforementioned goal will require a community of engaged researchers, technologists, and stakeholders to establish requirements and the social and organizational context needed for effective machine-based approaches. The results imply that: i) the polar research and application community must be more aware of advances in technology; ii) funders must adopt a long-term, sustainable infrastructure approach to systems development; iii) the community must work together to enable interoperability; iv) we must recognize that the challenge is socio-technical and

  18. Characterization of cosmic rays and direction dependence in the Polar Region up to 88 km altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zábori Balázs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The sounding rocket experiment REM-RED was developed to operate on board the REXUS-17 rocket in order to measure the intensity of cosmic rays. The experiment was launched from the ESRANGE Space Center (68 °N, 21 °E on the 17th of March 2015 at the beginning of the most intense geomagnetic storm within the preceding 10 years. The experiment provided the opportunity to measure the intensity of cosmic rays in the Polar Region up to an altitude of 88 km above sea level. Methods: The experiment employed Geiger-Müller (GM counters oriented with their axes perpendicular to each other in order to measure the cosmic ray intensity during the flight of the rocket. This measurement setup allowed performing direction-sensitive measurements as well. During the ascent phase the rocket was spinning and hence stabilized along its longitudinal axis looking close to the zenith direction. This phase of the flight was used for studying the direction dependence of the charged particle component of the cosmic rays. Results: In comparison with earlier, similar rocket experiments performed with GM tubes at lower geomagnetic latitudes, significantly higher cosmic radiation flux was measured above 50 km. A non-isotropic behavior was found below 50 km and described in detail for the first time in the Polar Region. This behavior is in good agreement with the results of the TECHDOSE experiment that used the same type of GM tubes on board the BEXUS-14 stratospheric balloon.

  19. Thermal Stability of Frozen Volatiles in the North Polar Region of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, David A.; Siegler, Matthew A.; Harmon, John K.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2012-01-01

    Earth-based radar observations have revealed the presence on Mercury of anomalously bright, depolarizing features that appear to be localized in the permanently shadowed regions of high-latitude impact craters [1]. Observations of similar radar signatures over a range of radar wavelengths implies that they correspond to deposits that are highly transparent at radar wavelengths and extend to depths of several meters below the surface [1]. Thermal models using idealized crater topographic profiles have predicted the thermal stability of surface and subsurface water ice at these same latitudes [2]. One of the major goals of the MESSENGER mission is to characterize the nature of radar-bright craters and presumed associated frozen volatile deposits at the poles of Mercury through complementary orbital observations by a suite of instruments [3]. Here we report on an examination of the thermal stability of water ice and other frozen volatiles in the north polar region of Mercury using topographic profiles obtained by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) instrument [4] in conjunction with a three-dimensional ray-tracing thermal model previously used to study the thermal environment of polar craters on the Moon [5].

  20. Pitch Angle Scattering of Upgoing Electron Beams in Jupiter's Polar Regions by Whistler Mode Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, S. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Clark, G.; Mauk, B. H.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Levin, S. M.

    2018-02-01

    The Juno spacecraft's Jupiter Energetic-particle Detector Instrument has observed field-aligned, unidirectional (upgoing) electron beams throughout most of Jupiter's entire polar cap region. The Waves instrument detected intense broadband whistler mode emissions occurring in the same region. In this paper, we investigate the pitch angle scattering of the upgoing electron beams due to interactions with the whistler mode waves. Profiles of intensity versus pitch angle for electron beams ranging from 2.53 to 7.22 Jovian radii show inconsistencies with the expected adiabatic invariant motion of the electrons. It is believed that the observed whistler mode waves perturb the electron motion and scatter them away from the magnetic field line. The diffusion equation has been solved by using diffusion coefficients which depend on the magnetic intensity of the whistler mode waves.

  1. Three decades of BGR airborne geophysical surveys over the polar regions - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaske, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) has been conducting geological polar research since 1979. A few years later BGR engaged in airborne geophysical projects. Investigation of the lithosphere of the continent and the continental margins was one of the key issues for BGR. Right from the beginning geophysical research was closely associated with the geological activities. The GANOVEX (German Antarctic North Victoria Land Expedition) program combined geological research with geophysical (mainly airborne) investigations. This proved to be a fruitful approach to many of the open questions regarding the tectonic development of the Ross Sea region. Aeromagnetic surveys evolved into a powerful tool for identifying geological structures and following them underneath the ice covered areas - not accessible to direct geological investigations. To achieve this aim it was essential to lay out these surveys with a relatively closely spaced line separation on the expense of covering large areas at the same time. Nevertheless, over many years of continues research areas of more than a just regional extent could be covered. This was, however, only possible through international collaboration. During the first years, working in the Ross Sea area, the cooperation with the US and Italian programs played a significant role, especially the GITARA (German-Italian Aeromagnetic Research in Antarctica) program has to be mentioned. GEOMAUD (Geoscientific Expedition to Dronning Maud Land) and the German-Australian joint venture PCMEGA (Prince Charles Mountains Expedition of Germany & Australia) expanded research activities to the East Antarctic shield area. In the International Polar Year (IPY), BGR played a leading role in the international project AGAP (Antarctica's GAmburtsev Province) as part of the main topic "Venture into Unknown Regions". AGAP was jointly conducted by the USA, Great Britain, Australia, China and Germany. While in the Ross Sea area even

  2. Polarization Properties and Magnetic Field Structures in the High-mass Star-forming Region W51 Observed with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Patrick M.; Tang, Ya-Wen; Ho, Paul T. P.; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Su, Yu-Nung; Takakuwa, Shigehisa

    2018-03-01

    We present the first ALMA dust polarization observations toward the high-mass star-forming regions W51 e2, e8, and W51 North in Band 6 (230 GHz) with a resolution of about 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 26 (∼5 mpc). Polarized emission in all three sources is clearly detected and resolved. Measured relative polarization levels are between 0.1% and 10%. While the absolute polarization shows complicated structures, the relative polarization displays the typical anticorrelation with Stokes I, although with a large scatter. Inferred magnetic (B) field morphologies are organized and connected. Detailed substructures are resolved, revealing new features such as comet-shaped B-field morphologies in satellite cores, symmetrically converging B-field zones, and possibly streamlined morphologies. The local B-field dispersion shows some anticorrelation with the relative polarization. Moreover, the lowest polarization percentages together with largest dispersions coincide with B-field convergence zones. We put forward \\sin ω , where ω is the measurable angle between a local B-field orientation and local gravity, as a measure of how effectively the B field can oppose gravity. Maps of \\sin ω for all three sources show organized structures that suggest a locally varying role of the B field, with some regions where gravity can largely act unaffectedly, possibly in a network of narrow magnetic channels, and other regions where the B field can work maximally against gravity.

  3. SOLAR CYCLE VARIATIONS OF THE RADIO BRIGHTNESS OF THE SOLAR POLAR REGIONS AS OBSERVED BY THE NOBEYAMA RADIOHELIOGRAPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitta, Nariaki V.; DeRosa, Marc L. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Dept/A021S, B/252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Sun, Xudong; Hoeksema, J. Todd [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We have analyzed daily microwave images of the Sun at 17 GHz obtained with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH) in order to study the solar cycle variations of the enhanced brightness in the polar regions. Unlike in previous works, the averaged brightness of the polar regions is obtained from individual images rather than from synoptic maps. We confirm that the brightness is anti-correlated with the solar cycle and that it has generally declined since solar cycle 22. Including images up to 2013 October, we find that the 17 GHz brightness temperature of the south polar region has decreased noticeably since 2012. This coincides with a significant decrease in the average magnetic field strength around the south pole, signaling the arrival of solar maximum conditions in the southern hemisphere more than a year after the northern hemisphere. We do not attribute the enhanced brightness of the polar regions at 17 GHz to the bright compact sources that occasionally appear in synthesized NoRH images. This is because they have no correspondence with small-scale bright regions in images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory with a broad temperature coverage. Higher-quality radio images are needed to understand the relationship between microwave brightness and magnetic field strength in the polar regions.

  4. A possible cause of the AO polarity reversal from winter to summer in 2010 and its relation to hemispheric extreme hot summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Yoshihiro; Otomi, Yuriko; Nakamura, Tetsu

    2013-04-01

    In 2010, the Northern Hemisphere, in particular Russia and Japan, experienced an abnormally hot summer characterized by record-breaking warm temperatures and associated with a strongly positive Arctic Oscillation (AO), that is, low pressure in the Arctic and high pressure in the midlatitudes. In contrast, the AO index the previous winter and spring (2009/2010) was record-breaking negative. The AO polarity reversal that began in summer 2010 can explain the abnormally hot summer. The winter sea surface temperatures (SST) in the North Atlantic Ocean showed a tripolar anomaly pattern—warm SST anomalies over the tropics and high latitudes and cold SST anomalies over the midlatitudes—under the influence of the negative AO. The warm SST anomalies continued into summer 2010 because of the large oceanic heat capacity. A model simulation strongly suggested that the AO-related summertime North Atlantic oceanic warm temperature anomalies remotely caused blocking highs to form over Europe, which amplified the positive summertime AO. Thus, a possible cause of the AO polarity reversal might be the "memory" of the negative winter AO in the North Atlantic Ocean, suggesting an interseasonal linkage of the AO in which the oceanic memory of a wintertime negative AO induces a positive AO in the following summer. Understanding of this interseasonal linkage may aid in the long-term prediction of such abnormal summer events.

  5. A possible cause of the AO polarity reversal from winter to summer in 2010 and its relation to hemispheric extreme summer weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otomi, Yuriko; Tachibana, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Tetsu

    2013-04-01

    In 2010, the Northern Hemisphere, in particular Russia and Japan, experienced an abnormally hot summer characterized by record-breaking warm temperatures and associated with a strongly positive Arctic Oscillation (AO), that is, low pressure in the Arctic and high pressure in the midlatitudes. In contrast, the AO index the previous winter and spring (2009/2010) was record-breaking negative. The AO polarity reversal that began in summer 2010 can explain the abnormally hot summer. The winter sea surface temperatures (SST) in the North Atlantic Ocean showed a tripolar anomaly pattern—warm SST anomalies over the tropics and high latitudes and cold SST anomalies over the midlatitudes—under the influence of the negative AO. The warm SST anomalies continued into summer 2010 because of the large oceanic heat capacity. A model simulation strongly suggested that the AO-related summertime North Atlantic oceanic warm temperature anomalies remotely caused blocking highs to form over Europe, which amplified the positive summertime AO. Thus, a possible cause of the AO polarity reversal might be the "memory" of the negative winter AO in the North Atlantic Ocean, suggesting an interseasonal linkage of the AO in which the oceanic memory of a wintertime negative AO induces a positive AO in the following summer. Understanding of this interseasonal linkage may aid in the long-term prediction of such abnormal summer events.

  6. Average thermospheric wind patterns over the polar regions, as observed by CHAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lühr

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the CHAMP accelerometer are utilized to investigate the average thermospheric wind distribution in the polar regions at altitudes around 400 km. This study puts special emphasis on the seasonal differences in the wind patterns. For this purpose 131 days centered on the June solstice of 2003 are considered. Within that period CHAMP's orbit is precessing once through all local times. The cross-track wind estimates of all 2030 passes are used to construct mean wind vectors for 918 equal-area cells. These bin averages are presented in corrected geomagnetic coordinates. Both hemispheres are considered simultaneously providing summer and winter responses for the same prevailing geophysical conditions. The period under study is characterized by high magnetic activity (Kp=4− but moderate solar flux level (F10.7=124. Our analysis reveals clear wind features in the summer (Northern Hemisphere. Over the polar cap there is a fast day-to-night flow with mean speeds surpassing 600 m/s in the dawn sector. At auroral latitudes we find strong westward zonal winds on the dawn side. On the dusk side, however, an anti-cyclonic vortex is forming. The dawn/dusk asymmetry is attributed to the combined action of Coriolis and centrifugal forces. Along the auroral oval the sunward streaming plasma causes a stagnation of the day-to-night wind. This effect is particularly clear on the dusk side. On the dawn side it is evident only from midnight to 06:00 MLT. The winter (Southern Hemisphere reveals similar wind features, but they are less well ordered. The mean day-to-night wind over the polar cap is weaker by about 35%. Otherwise, the seasonal differences are mainly confined to the dayside (06:00–18:00 MLT. In addition, the larger offset between geographic and geomagnetic pole in the south also causes hemispheric differences of the thermospheric wind distribution.

  7. Average thermospheric wind patterns over the polar regions, as observed by CHAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lühr

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the CHAMP accelerometer are utilized to investigate the average thermospheric wind distribution in the polar regions at altitudes around 400 km. This study puts special emphasis on the seasonal differences in the wind patterns. For this purpose 131 days centered on the June solstice of 2003 are considered. Within that period CHAMP's orbit is precessing once through all local times. The cross-track wind estimates of all 2030 passes are used to construct mean wind vectors for 918 equal-area cells. These bin averages are presented in corrected geomagnetic coordinates. Both hemispheres are considered simultaneously providing summer and winter responses for the same prevailing geophysical conditions. The period under study is characterized by high magnetic activity (Kp=4− but moderate solar flux level (F10.7=124. Our analysis reveals clear wind features in the summer (Northern Hemisphere. Over the polar cap there is a fast day-to-night flow with mean speeds surpassing 600 m/s in the dawn sector. At auroral latitudes we find strong westward zonal winds on the dawn side. On the dusk side, however, an anti-cyclonic vortex is forming. The dawn/dusk asymmetry is attributed to the combined action of Coriolis and centrifugal forces. Along the auroral oval the sunward streaming plasma causes a stagnation of the day-to-night wind. This effect is particularly clear on the dusk side. On the dawn side it is evident only from midnight to 06:00 MLT. The winter (Southern Hemisphere reveals similar wind features, but they are less well ordered. The mean day-to-night wind over the polar cap is weaker by about 35%. Otherwise, the seasonal differences are mainly confined to the dayside (06:00–18:00 MLT. In addition, the larger offset between geographic and geomagnetic pole in the south also causes hemispheric differences of the thermospheric wind distribution.

  8. Bouncing continents: insights into the physics of the polar regions of the Earth from the POLENET project in the International Polar Year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reading, Anya M

    2008-01-01

    When ice sheets melt, and reduce the load on the surface of the Earth, the land areas beneath them bounce back up. New, accurate observations are needed to investigate this uplift and its implications effectively. This article provides a topical starting point for investigating some applications of physics applied to the polar regions of the Earth, and interaction between the solid Earth, ice and oceans

  9. Source-to-sink cycling of aeolian sediment in the north polar region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R. C.; Kocurek, G.

    2012-12-01

    Aeolian sand dunes are prominent features on the landscapes of Earth, Mars, Venus and Titan and sedimentary deposits interpreted as aeolian in origin are found in the rock records of Earth and Mars. The widespread occurrence of aeolian dunes on the surface of these worlds and within their deep-time depositional records suggests that aeolian systems are and likely have been a default depositional environment for the Solar System. Within an aeolian source-to-sink context, we hypothesize that planet-specific boundary conditions strongly impact production, transport, accumulation and preservation of aeolian sediment, whereas dunes and dune-field patterns remain largely similar. This hypothesis is explored within the north polar region of Mars, which hosts the most extensive aeolian dune fields and aeolian sedimentary deposits yet recognized on Mars and appears to be a region of dynamic source-to-sink cycling of aeolian sediments. The Planum Boreum Cavi Unit rests beneath north polar ice cap of Mars and is composed of several hundred meters of niveo-aeolian dune cross-stratification. The overall architecture of the unit consists of sets of preserved dune topography with an upward increase in the abundance of ice. Dune sets are defined by stabilized, polygonally fractured bounding surfaces, erosional bounding surfaces and typical internal lee foresets made of sediment and ice. The accumulation of the Cavi Unit is interpreted as occurring through freezing and serves as an example of a cold temperature boundary condition on aeolian sediment accumulation. Preservation of the Cavi Unit arises because of deposition of the overlying ice cap and contrasts with preservation of aeolian sediment on Earth, which is largely driven by eustasy and tectonics. The Cavi Unit is thought to be one source of sediment for the north polar Olympia Undae Dune Field. The region of Olympia Undae near the Cavi Unit shows a reticulate dune field pattern composed of two sets of nearly orthogonal

  10. Polarized dependence of nonlinear susceptibility in a single layer graphene system in infrared region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solookinejad, G., E-mail: ghsolooki@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    In this study, the linear and nonlinear susceptibility of a single-layer graphene nanostructure driven by a weak probe light and an elliptical polarized coupling field is discussed theoretically. The Landau levels of graphene can be separated in infrared or terahertz regions under the strong magnetic field. Therefore, by using the density matrix formalism in quantum optic, the linear and nonlinear susceptibility of the medium can be derived. It is demonstrated that by adjusting the elliptical parameter, one can manipulate the linear and nonlinear absorption as well as Kerr nonlinearity of the medium. It is realized that the enhanced Kerr nonlinearity can be possible with zero linear absorption and nonlinear amplification at some values of elliptical parameter. Our results may be having potential applications in quantum information science based on Nano scales devices.

  11. 3 mm GMVA Observations of Total and Polarized Emission from Blazar and Radio Galaxy Core Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Casadio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present total and linearly polarized 3 mm Global mm-VLBI Array (GMVA; mm-VLBI: Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations at millimetre wavelengths images of a sample of blazars and radio galaxies from the VLBA-BU-BLAZAR 7 mm monitoring program designed to probe the innermost regions of active galactic nuclei (AGN jets and locate the sites of gamma-ray emission observed by the Fermi-LAT. The lower opacity at 3 mm and improved angular resolution—on the order of 50 microarcseconds—allow us to distinguish features in the jet not visible in the 7 mm VLBA data. We also compare two different methods used for the calibration of instrumental polarisation and we analyze the resulting images for some of the sources in the sample.

  12. Reverse osmosis plant maintenance and efficacy in chronic kidney disease endemic region in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasumana, Channa; Ranasinghe, Omesh; Ranasinghe, Sachini; Siriwardhana, Imalka; Gunatilake, Sarath; Siribaddana, Sisira

    2016-11-01

    Chronic Interstitial Nephritis in Agricultural Communities (CINAC) causes major morbidity and mortality for farmers in North-Central province (NCP) of Sri Lanka. To prevent the CINAC, reverse osmosis (RO) plants are established to purify the water and reduce the exposure to possible nephrotoxins through drinking water. We assessed RO plant maintenance and efficacy in NCP. We have interviewed 10 RO plant operators on plant establishment, maintenance, usage and funding. We also measured total dissolved solids (TDS in ppm) to assess the efficacy of the RO process. Most RO plants were operated by community-based organizations. They provide clean and sustainable water source for many in the NCP for a nominal fee, which tends to be variable. The RO plant operators carry out RO plant maintenance. However, maintenance procedures and quality management practices tend to vary from an operator to another. RO process itself has the ability to lower the TDS of the water. On average, RO process reduces the TDS to 29 ppm. The RO process reduces the impurities in water available to many individuals within CINAC endemic regions. However, there variation in maintenance, quality management, and day-to-day care between operators can be a cause for concern. This variability can affect the quality of water produced by RO plant, its maintenance cost and lifespan. Thus, uniform regulation and training is needed to reduce cost of maintenance and increase the efficacy of RO plants.

  13. Toward establishing a definitive Late-Mid Jurassic (M-series) Geomagnetic Polarity Reversal Time Scale through unraveling the nature of Jurassic Quiet Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, M.; Tivey, M.; Sager, W.

    2017-12-01

    Two major difficulties have hindered improving the accuracy of the Late-Mid Jurassic geomagnetic polarity time scale: a dearth of reliable high-resolution radiometric dates and the lack of a continuous Jurassic geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) record. We present the latest effort towards establishing a definitive Mid Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (M-series) GPTS model using three high-resolution, multi-level (sea surface [0 km], mid-water [3 km], and near-source [5.2 km]) marine magnetic profiles from a seamount-free corridor adjacent to the Waghenaer Fracture Zone in the western Pacific Jurassic Quiet Zone (JQZ). The profiles show a global coherency in magnetic anomaly correlations between two mid ocean ridge systems (i.e., Japanese and Hawaiian lineations). Their unprecedented high data resolution documents a detailed anomaly character (i.e., amplitudes and wavelengths). We confirm that this magnetic anomaly record shows a coherent anomaly sequence from M29 back in time to M42 with previously suggested from the Japanese lineation in the Pigafetta Basin. Especially noticeable is the M39-M41 Low Amplitude Zone defined in the Pigafetta Bsin, which potentially defines the bounds of JQZ seafloor. We assessed the anomaly source with regard to the crustal architecture, including the effects of Cretaceous volcanism on crustal magnetization and conclude that the anomaly character faithfully represents changes in geomagnetic field intensity and polarity over time and is mostly free of any overprint of the original Jurassic magnetic remanence by later Cretaceous volcanism. We have constructed polarity block models (RMS Japanese M-series sequence. The anomalously high reversal rates during a period of apparent low field intensity suggests a unique period of geomagnetic field behavior in Earth's history.

  14. Electronic simulation of the supported liquid membrane in electromembrane extraction systems: Improvement of the extraction by precise periodical reversing of the field polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moazami, Hamid Reza; Nojavan, Saeed; Zahedi, Pegah; Davarani, Saied Saeed Hosseiny

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple equivalent circuit has been proposed for a supported liquid membrane. • A dual charge transfer mechanism was proposed for electromembrane extraction. • An improvement was observed by precise periodical reversing of the field polarity. - Abstract: In order to understand the limitations of electromebrane extraction procedure better, a simple equivalent circuit has been proposed for a supported liquid membrane consisting of a resistor and a low leakage capacitor in series. To verify the equivalent circuit, it was subjected to a simulated periodical polarity changing potential and the resulting time variation of the current was compared with that of a real electromembrane extraction system. The results showed a good agreement between the simulated current patterns and those of the real ones. In order to investigate the impact of various limiting factors, the corresponding values of the equivalent circuit were estimated for a real electromembrane extraction system and were attributed to the physical parameters of the extraction system. A dual charge transfer mechanism was proposed for electromembrane extraction by combining general migration equation and fundamental aspects derived from the simulation. Dual mechanism comprises a current dependent contribution of analyte in total current and could support the possibility of an improvement in performance of an electromembrane extraction by application of an asymmetric polarity changing potential. The optimization of frequency and duty cycle of the asymmetric polarity exchanging potential resulted in a higher recovery (2.17 times greater) in comparison with the conventional electromebrane extraction. The simulation also provided more quantitative approaches toward the investigation of the mechanism of extraction and contribution of different limiting factors in electromembrane extraction. Results showed that the buildup of the double layer is the main limiting factor and the Joule heating has

  15. Exact solutions of sl-boson system in U(2l + 1) reversible O(2l + 2) transitional region

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Xin

    2002-01-01

    Exact eigen-energies and the corresponding wavefunctions of the interacting sl-boson system in U(2l + 1) reversible O(2l +2) transitional region are obtained by using an algebraic Bethe Ansatz with the infinite dimensional Lie algebraic technique. Numerical algorithm for solving the Bethe Ansatz equations by using mathematical package is also outlined

  16. ARCAD3-SAFARI coordinated study of auroral and polar F-region ionospheric irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villain, J.P.; Hanuise, C.; Beghin, C.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of F-region ionospheric irregularities have been performed with the SAFARI ground based HF radars and the ISOPROBE experiment on board the AUREOL-3 satellite. Among seven orbits during which the satellite trajectory was directly in the radar beam or in the vicinity, four of them have been analysed in detail. The spectral power of the electron density variations ΔNe/Ne has been calculated for wavelengths between 20 m and 1 km from the ISOPROBE high time resolution thermal plasma measurements. One spectrum is obtained every 1.2 sec., which corresponds to about 10 km along the satellite trajectory. The SAFARI experiment is a set of two HF coherent radars located at Lycksele (Sweden) and Oulu (Finland). These radars are sensitive to F-region ionospheric irregularities of 10 m wavelength in the polar and auroral ionosphere. The phase velocity of the irregularities obtained from the Doppler spectrum is related to the ambient plasma drift. The presence of echoes observed with the SAFARI radars is compared with the spectral power of the electron density variations deduced from the ISOPROBE in-situ measurements. A good agreement is found between the two sets of observations and a numerical value of the spectral power corresponding to detection of echoes by the radar is given. A synoptical view of the event is given and interpreted according to the existing theories on plasma irregularities

  17. Integrating multiscale polar active contours and region growing for microcalcifications segmentation in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arikidis, N S; Karahaliou, A; Skiadopoulos, S; Panagiotakis, G; Costaridou, L; Likaki, E

    2009-01-01

    Morphology of individual microcalcifications is an important clinical factor in microcalcification clusters diagnosis. Accurate segmentation remains a difficult task due to microcalcifications small size, low contrast, fuzzy nature and low distinguishability from surrounding tissue. A novel application of active rays (polar transformed active contours) on B-spline wavelet representation is employed, to provide initial estimates of microcalcification boundary. Then, a region growing method is used with pixel aggregation constrained by the microcalcification boundary estimates, to obtain the final microcalcification boundary. The method was tested on dataset of 49 microcalcification clusters (30 benign, 19 malignant), originating from the DDSM database. An observer study was conducted to evaluate segmentation accuracy of the proposed method, on a 5-point rating scale (from 5:excellent to 1:very poor). The average accuracy rating was 3.98±0.81 when multiscale active rays were combined to region growing and 2.93±0.92 when combined to linear polynomial fitting, while the difference in rating of segmentation accuracy was statistically significant (p < 0.05).

  18. Catalogue of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternal den locations in the Beaufort Sea and neighboring regions, Alaska, 1910-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Fischbach, Anthony S.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents data on the approximate locations and methods of discovery of 392 polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternal dens found in the Beaufort Sea and neighboring regions between 1910 and 2010 that are archived by the U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska. A description of data collection methods, biases associated with collection method, primary time periods, and spatial resolution are provided. Polar bears in the Beaufort Sea and nearby regions den on both the sea ice and on land. Standardized VHF surveys and satellite radio telemetry data provide a general understanding of where polar bears have denned in this region over the past 3 decades. Den observations made during other research activities and anecdotal reports from other government agencies, coastal residents, and industry personnel also are reported. Data on past polar bear maternal den locations are provided to inform the public and to provide information for natural resource agencies in planning activities to avoid or minimize interference with polar bear maternity dens.

  19. Novel amide polar-embedded reversed-phase column for the fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to determine polyether ionophores in environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, P; Borrull, F; Pocurull, E; Marcé, R M

    2012-11-09

    A fast chromatographic method has been developed that takes less than 5 min per run to determine five polyether ionophores with a novel amide polar-embedded reversed-phase column coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. A comparison between Oasis HLB and Oasis MAX sorbents for the solid-phase extraction was done. Oasis HLB sorbent gave recoveries close to 90% and the repeatability (%RSD, 25-100 ng/L, n=3) of the method was less than 7% for all compounds in all matrices. The presence of polyether ionophores in environmental waters such as river water and sewage was investigated. Monensin and narasin were frequently determined in influent and effluent sewage at concentrations from 10 ng/L to 47 ng/L in influents and from 6 ng/L to 34 ng/L in effluents. In river waters, polyether ionophores were not detected in any sample. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of cyclic current reversal polarization voltammetry for investigating the relationship between corrosion resistance and heat-treatment induced variations in microstructures of 400 C martensitic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Software for running a cyclic current reversal polarization voltammagram has been developed for use with a EG&G Princeton Applied Research Model 273 potentiostat/galvanostat system. The program, which controls the magnitude, direction and duration of an impressed galvanostatic current, will produce data in ASCII spreadsheets (Lotus, Quattro) for graphical representation of CCRPV voltammograms. The program was used to determine differences in corrosion resistance of 440 C martenstic stainless steel produced as a result of changes in microstructure effected by tempering. It was determined that tempering at all temperatures above 400 F resulted in increased polarizability of the material, with the increased likelihood that pitting would be initiated upon exposure to marine environments. These results will be used in development of remedial procedures for lowering the susceptibility of these alloys toward the stress corrosion cracking experienced in bearings used in high pressure oxygen turbopumps used in the main engines of space shuttle orbiters.

  1. LINEAR POLARIZATION OF CLASS I METHANOL MASERS IN MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ji-hyun; Byun, Do-Young; Kim, Kee-Tae; Kim, Jongsoo; Lyo, A-Ran; Vlemmings, W. H. T.

    2016-01-01

    Class I methanol masers are found to be good tracers of the interaction between outflows from massive young stellar objects with their surrounding media. Although polarization observations of Class II methanol masers have been able to provide information about magnetic fields close to the central (proto)stars, polarization observations of Class I methanol masers are rare, especially at 44 and 95 GHz. We present the results of linear polarization observations of 39 Class I methanol maser sources at 44 and 95 GHz. These two lines are observed simultaneously with one of the 21 m Korean VLBI Network telescopes in single-dish mode. Approximately 60% of the observed sources have fractional polarizations of a few percent in at least one transition. This is the first reported detection of linear polarization of the 44 GHz methanol maser. The two maser transitions show similar polarization properties, indicating that they trace similar magnetic environments, although the fraction of the linear polarization is slightly higher at 95 GHz. We discuss the association between the directions of polarization angles and outflows. We also discuss some targets having different polarization properties at both lines, including DR21(OH) and G82.58+0.20, which show the 90° polarization angle flip at 44 GHz.

  2. Synthesis of calcium-phosphorous doped TiO2 nanotubes by anodization and reverse polarization: A promising strategy for an efficient biofunctional implant surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Sofia A.; Patel, Sweetu B.; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T.; Filho, Paulo N.; Celis, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new surface modification methodology for bio-functionalization of TiO2 NTs is addressed • Bone-like structured TiO2 nanotubular surfaces containing Ca and P were synthesized. • Ca/P-doped TiO2 NTs enhanced adhesion and proliferation of osteoblastic-like cells. • The bio-functionalization granted improved bio-electrochemical stability to TiO2 NTs. - Abstract: The modification of surface features such as nano-morphology/topography and chemistry have been employed in the attempt to design titanium oxide surfaces able to overcome the current dental implants failures. The main goal of this study is the synthesis of bone-like structured titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanotubes enriched with Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorous (P) able to enhance osteoblastic cell functions and, simultaneously, display an improved corrosion behavior. To achieve the main goal, TiO 2 nanotubes were synthetized and doped with Ca and P by means of a novel methodology which relied, firstly, on the synthesis of TiO 2 nanotubes by anodization of titanium in an organic electrolyte followed by reverse polarization and/or anodization, in an aqueous electrolyte. Results show that hydrophilic bone-like structured TiO 2 nanotubes were successfully synthesized presenting a highly ordered nano-morphology characterized by non-uniform diameters. The chemical analysis of such nanotubes confirmed the presence of CaCO 3 , Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , CaHPO 4 and CaO compounds. The nanotube surfaces submitted to reverse polarization, presented an improved cell adhesion and proliferation compared to smooth titanium. Furthermore, these surfaces displayed a significantly lower passive current in artificial saliva, and so, potential to minimize their bio-degradation through corrosion processes. This study addresses a very simple and promising multidisciplinary approach bringing new insights for the development of novel methodologies to improve the outcome of osseointegrated implants.

  3. Geomagnetic reversals, polar ice and cosmic spherules: some recent measurements with a small dedicated accelerator mass-spectrometry facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisbeck, G.M.; Yiou, F.

    1987-01-01

    We have developed techniques for measuring the cosmogenic isotopes 10 Be (half-life 1.5 Ma) and 26 Al (716 ka) by using a small (ca. 2.2 MV) dedicated accelerator mass spectrometer facility. Three recent applications of such measurements are as follows. 1. 10 Be has been measured in marine-sediment cores at levels corresponding to three recent geomagnetic reversals. We observe an increase in 10 Be production at each of these times. The results give information on the form and length of the geomagnetic intensity changes during a reversal, and the level at which magnetic remanence is acquired in the sediments. 2. 10 Be has been measured over a 2083 m ice core, corresponding to the last climatic cycle, recovered from Vostok, Antarctica. The results suggest that the precipitation rate during the last Ice Age was about half of its present rate. There are also some indications of fairly rapid 10 Be production changes. 3. 10 Be and 26 Al have been measured in 'cosmic spherules' (small round objects, ca. 500 μm diameter) recovered in deep-sea sediments and in melt lakes on Greenland ice. The results confirm an extraterrestrial origin for such objects, as well as indicating that the parent bodies of most of them were irradiated in space as small (less than 1 cm) objects. These spherules thus very probably represent cometary debris. (author)

  4. Magnetic field configurations associated with polarity intrusion in a solar active region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, B.C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a new class of exact solutions describing the non-linear force-free-field above a spatially localized photospheric bipolar magnetic region. An essential feature is the variation in all three Cartesian directions and this could not be modelled adequately with previously known symmetric force-free fields. Sequences of force-free fields are constructed and analyzed to simulate the slow growth of a pair of spots on the photosphere. The acis connecting the spots executes roational motion, distorting the photospheric neutral line separating fluxes of opposite signs. We show directly from the analytic solutions that the resulting reversal of the positions of the spots relative to the background field is associated with (i) the creation of magnetic free energy, (ii) the severe shearing of localized low-lying loops in the vicinity where the photospheric transverse field aligns with the photospheric neutral line, and (iii) the emergence and disappearance of flux from the photosphere at these highly stressed regions. The model relates theoretically for the first time these different magnetic field features that have been suggested by observation and theoretical considerations to be flare precursors. A general formula, based on the virial theorem, is also given for the free energy of a force-free field, strictly in terms of the field value at the photosphere. This formula has obvious practical application. (orig.)

  5. Invited review: climate change impacts in polar regions: lessons from Antarctic moss bank archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royles, Jessica; Griffiths, Howard

    2015-03-01

    Mosses are the dominant plants in polar and boreal regions, areas which are experiencing rapid impacts of regional warming. Long-term monitoring programmes provide some records of the rate of recent climate change, but moss peat banks contain an unrivalled temporal record of past climate change on terrestrial plant Antarctic systems. We summarise the current understanding of climatic proxies and determinants of moss growth for contrasting continental and maritime Antarctic regions, as informed by 13C and 18O signals in organic material. Rates of moss accumulation are more than three times higher in the maritime Antarctic than continental Antarctica with growing season length being a critical determinant of growth rate, and high carbon isotope discrimination values reflecting optimal hydration conditions. Correlation plots of 13C and 18O values show that species (Chorisodontium aciphyllum / Polytrichum strictum) and growth form (hummock / bank) are the major determinants of measured isotope ratios. The interplay between moss growth form, photosynthetic physiology, water status and isotope composition are compared with developments of secondary proxies, such as chlorophyll fluorescence. These approaches provide a framework to consider the potential impact of climate change on terrestrial Antarctic habitats as well as having implications for future studies of temperate, boreal and Arctic peatlands. There are many urgent ecological and environmental problems in the Arctic related to mosses in a changing climate, but the geographical ranges of species and life-forms are difficult to track individually. Our goal was to translate what we have learned from the more simple systems in Antarctica, for application to Arctic habitats. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Polarization reversal and ferroelectric domain structure observed in electroded cesium dihydrogen phosphate crystals using an X-ray anomalous dispersion effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Toru; Amau, Toshirou; Kawata, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Kaoru; Mori, Koichi.

    1997-01-01

    We have carried out an X-ray intensity measurement and X-ray topography on electroded b plates of ferroelectric cesium dihydrogen phosphate, CsH 2 PO 4 (CDP), using a synchrotron radiation with a wavelength of 2.482 A above the Cs L 3 -absorption edge. We have found that integrated intensities I(150) and I(1-bar5-bar0) show an anomalously large breakdown of Friedel's law, I(150)/I(1-bar5-bar0)=10.4 at 125 K, and display a ferroelectric hysteresis loop. The hysteresis loop determines that spontaneous polarization is antiparallel to the b axes set in both ferroelectric crystal structures related by inversions. The (150) diffraction topography shows that a single domain turns into a lamellar domain structure without fractal aspects after short-circuiting the b plate. The atomic displacement associated with polarization reversal is shown in a crystal structure model of 180deg domains observed in the X-ray topography. (author)

  7. Proton transfer dynamics in a polar nanodroplet: ESIPT of 4'-n,n-dimethylamino-3-hydroxyflavone in AOT/alkane/water reverse micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Deborin [Department of Chemistry, University College of Science & Technology, University of Calcutta, 92, A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Batuta, Shaikh; Begum, Naznin Ara [Bio-Organic Chemistry Lab, Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235 (India); Mandal, Debabrata, E-mail: dmandal.chemistry@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University College of Science & Technology, University of Calcutta, 92, A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India)

    2017-04-15

    The excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) of the well-known fluorophore 4'-N,N-Dimethylamino-3-hydroxyflavone (DMA3HF) was studied in AOT/n-heptane/water reverse micelle solutions. For DMA3HF molecules located inside the AOT encapsulated polar nanodroplets, ESIPT from excited enol (E*) to tautomer (T*) forms was markedly inhibited, yielding time-constants of ≥100 ps, and followed the same trend as solvent relaxation when the ratio W= [H{sub 2}O]/[AOT] was varied. At W=0, the DMA3HF molecules were attached to the ionic AOT headgroups via strong intermolecular H-bonding, which hindered ESIPT. Addition of water changes the situation radically: water molecules form stronger H-bonds with AOT headgroups, displacing the DMA3HF, which are instead engaged in intermolecular H-bonded complexes of the type [DMA3HF···water]. ESIPT of these complex-bound fluorophores involves substantial rearrangement of H-bonding, and is coupled to solvation dynamics. With increasing W-value, solvation becomes faster, and so does ESIPT, reducing the yield of E* species. At the same time, the local environment within the nanodroplets become more more polar with gradual accumulation of water, which causes a monotonic red-shift of the E* emission peak.

  8. Radiometric and paleomagnetic evidence for the Emperor reversed polarity event at 0.46 ± 0.05 M.Y. in basalt lava flows from the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Duane E.; Dalrymple, G. Brent; Kuntz, Mel A.

    1981-01-01

    K-Ar and paleomagnetic data from cores through a sequence of basalt flows in the eastern Snake River Plain provide evidence for a brief (0.005 to 0.01 m.y.) reversal of the geomagnetic field 0.46 ± 0.05 m.y. ago. This reversed polarity event has also been found in sea-floor magnetic anomalies and in sediment cores and is probably the Emperor event of Ryan [1972].

  9. Geologic history of the polar regions of Mars based on Mars Global survey data. I. Noachian and Hesperian Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.L.; Kolb, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    During the Noachian Period, the south polar region of Mars underwent intense cratering, construction of three groups of volcanoes, widespread contractional deformation, resurfacing of low areas, and local dissection of valley networks; no evidence for polar deposits, ice sheets, or glaciation is recognized. South polar Hesperian geology is broadly characterized by waning impacts, volcanism, and tectonism. Emplacement of the polar Dorsa Argentea Formation (DAF) occurred during the Hesperian Period. Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter topographic data and Mars Orbiter Camera images elucidate stratigraphic, morphologic, and topographic relations, permitting the dividing of the DAF into eight members, which surround and underlie about half of the Amazonian south polar layered deposits. The lobate fronts and lack of typical volcanic-flow morphology of the six plains units indicate that they may be made up of debris flows. We think that these flows, tens of meters to 200 m thick, may have originated by the discharge of huge volumes of slurry fluidized by ground water or liquid CO2, perhaps triggered by local impacts, igneous activity, or basal melting beneath polar deposits. The cavi and rugged members include irregular depressions that penetrate the subsurface; some of the pits have raised rims. The depressions may have formed by collapse due to expulsion of subsurface material in which local explosive activity built up the raised rims. Further, smaller eruptions of volatile-rich material may have resulted in narrow, sinuous channel deposits within aggrading fine-grained unconsolidated material perhaps produced by gaseous discharge of subsurface volatiles; preferential erosion of the latter material could have produced the Dorsa Argentea-type ginuous ridges associated mainly with the DAF. Alternatively, the ridges may be eskers, but the lack of associated glacial and fluvial morphologies casts doubt on this interpretation. The knobby, degraded materials forming Scandia Colles

  10. The influence of charge and the distribution of charge in the polar region of phospholipids on the activity of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakim, D; Eibl, H

    1992-07-05

    Studies of the mechanism of lipid-induced regulation of the microsomal enzyme UDP-glucuronosyltransferase have been extended by examining the influence of charge within the polar region on the ability of lipids to activate delipidated pure enzyme. The effects of net negative charge, of charge separation in phosphocholine, and of the distribution of charge in the polar region of lipids were studied using the GT2p isoform isolated from pig liver. Prior experiments have shown that lipids with net negative charge inhibit the enzyme (Zakim, D., Cantor, M., and Eibl, H. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 5164-5169). The current experiments show that the extent of inhibition on a molar basis increases as the net negative charge increases from -1 to -2. The inhibitory effect of negatively charged lipids is on the functional state of the enzyme and is not due to electrostatic repulsion of negatively charged substrates of the enzyme. Although the inhibitory effect of net negative charge is removed when negative charge is balanced by a positive charge due to a quaternary nitrogen, neutrality of the polar region is not a sufficient condition for activation of the enzyme. In addition to a balance of charge between Pi and the quaternary nitrogen, the distance between the negative and positive charges and the orientation of the dipole created by them are critical for activation of GT2p. The negative and positive charges must be separated by the equivalent of three -CH2- groups for optimal activation by a lipid. Shortening this distance by one -CH2- unit leads to a lipid that is ineffective in activating the enzyme. Reversal of the orientation of the dipole in which the negative charge is on the polymethylene side of the lipid-water interface and the positive charge extends into water also produces a lipid that is not effective for activating GT2p. On the other hand, lipids with phosphoserine as the polar region, which has the "normal" P-N distance but carries a net negative charge, do

  11. Studying the Representation Accuracy of the Earth's Gravity Field in the Polar Regions Based on the Global Geopotential Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneshov, V. N.; Nepoklonov, V. B.

    2018-05-01

    The development of studies on estimating the accuracy of the Earth's modern global gravity models in terms of the spherical harmonics of the geopotential in the problematic regions of the world is discussed. The comparative analysis of the results of reconstructing quasi-geoid heights and gravity anomalies from the different models is carried out for two polar regions selected within a radius of 1000 km from the North and South poles. The analysis covers nine recently developed models, including six high-resolution models and three lower order models, including the Russian GAOP2012 model. It is shown that the modern models determine the quasi-geoid heights and gravity anomalies in the polar regions with errors of 5 to 10 to a few dozen cm and from 3 to 5 to a few dozen mGal, respectively, depending on the resolution. The accuracy of the models in the Arctic is several times higher than in the Antarctic. This is associated with the peculiarities of gravity anomalies in every particular region and with the fact that the polar part of the Antarctic has been comparatively less explored by the gravity methods than the polar Arctic.

  12. Atmospheric Modeling of the Martian Polar Regions: One Mars Year of CRISM EPF Observations of the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. J.; Wolff, M. J.

    2009-03-01

    We have used CRISM Emission Phase Function gimballed observations to investigate atmospheric dust/ice opacity and surface albedo in the south polar region for the first Mars year of MRO operations. This covers the MY28 "dust event" and cap recession.

  13. Nonlinear Right-Hand Polarized Wave in Plasma in the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasovitskiy, V. B.; Turikov, V. A.

    2018-05-01

    The propagation of a nonlinear right-hand polarized wave along an external magnetic field in subcritical plasma in the electron cyclotron resonance region is studied using numerical simulations. It is shown that a small-amplitude plasma wave excited in low-density plasma is unstable against modulation instability with a modulation period equal to the wavelength of the excited wave. The modulation amplitude in this case increases with decreasing detuning from the resonance frequency. The simulations have shown that, for large-amplitude waves of the laser frequency range propagating in plasma in a superstrong magnetic field, the maximum amplitude of the excited longitudinal electric field increases with the increasing external magnetic field and can reach 30% of the initial amplitude of the electric field in the laser wave. In this case, the energy of plasma electrons begins to substantially increase already at magnetic fields significantly lower than the resonance value. The laser energy transferred to plasma electrons in a strong external magnetic field is found to increase severalfold compared to that in isotropic plasma. It is shown that this mechanism of laser radiation absorption depends only slightly on the electron temperature.

  14. GeoMapApp as a platform for visualizing marine data from Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, F. O.; Ryan, W. B.; Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V.; Goodwillie, A. M.; O'hara, S. H.; Weissel, R.; McLain, K.; Chinhong, C.; Arko, R. A.; Chan, S.; Morton, J. J.; Pomeroy, D.

    2012-12-01

    To maximize the investment in expensive fieldwork the resulting data should be re-used as much as possible. In addition, unnecessary duplication of data collection effort should be avoided. This becomes even more important if access to field areas is as difficult and expensive as it is in Polar Regions. Making existing data discoverable in an easy to use platform is key to improve re-use and avoid duplication. A common obstacle is that use of existing data is often limited to specialists who know of the data existence and also have the right tools to view and analyze these data. GeoMapApp is a free, interactive, map based tool that allows users to discover, visualize, and analyze a large number of data sets. In addition to a global view, it provides polar map projections for displaying data in Arctic and Antarctic areas. Data that have currently been added to the system include Arctic swath bathymetry data collected from the USCG icebreaker Healy. These data are collected almost continuously including from cruises where bathymetry is not the main objective and for which existence of the acquired data may not be well known. In contrast, existence of seismic data from the Antarctic continental margin is well known in the seismic community. They are archived at and can be accessed through the Antarctic Seismic Data Library System (SDLS). Incorporating these data into GeoMapApp makes an even broader community aware of these data and the custom interface, which includes capabilities to visualize and explore these data, allows users without specific software or knowledge of the underlying data format to access the data. In addition to investigating these datasets, GeoMapApp provides links to the actual data sources to allow specialists the opportunity to re-use the original data. Important identification of data sources and data references are achieved on different levels. For access to the actual Antarctic seismic data GeoMapApp links to the SDLS site, where users have

  15. TADPOL: A 1.3 mm Survey of Dust Polarization in Star-forming Cores and Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Kwon, Woojin; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Carpenter, John M.; Crutcher, Richard M.; Fiege, Jason D.; Franzmann, Erica; Hakobian, Nicholas S.; Heiles, Carl; Houde, Martin; Hughes, A. Meredith; Lamb, James W.; Looney, Leslie W.; Marrone, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    We present λ 1.3 mm Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy observations of dust polarization toward 30 star-forming cores and eight star-forming regions from the TADPOL survey. We show maps of all sources, and compare the ~2".5 resolution TADPOL maps with ~20" resolution polarization maps from single-dish submillimeter telescopes. Here we do not attempt to interpret the detailed B-field morphology of each object. Rather, we use average B-field orientations to derive conclusi...

  16. Structural features in the HIV-1 repeat region facilitate strand transfer during reverse transcription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, B.; Vastenhouw, N. L.; Klasens, B. I.; Huthoff, H.

    2001-01-01

    Two obligatory DNA strand transfers take place during reverse transcription of a retroviral RNA genome. The first strand transfer is facilitated by terminal repeat (R) elements in the viral genome. This strand-transfer reaction depends on base pairing between the cDNA of the 5'R and the 3'R. There

  17. A New Lunar Topographic Map of the Moon by KAGUYA-LALT: The First Precise Topography of the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, H.; Ishihara, Y.; Noda, H.; Goossens, S.; Tazawa, S.; Kawano, N.; Sasaki, S.; Oberst, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Japanese lunar explorer KAGUYA (SELENE) was launched successfully on September 14th, 2007. A laser altimeter (LALT) is on board the main orbiter of KAGUYA. The objectives of LALT are (1) determination of lunar global figure, (2) studies in internal structure and surface processes, (3) exploration of the lunar pole regions, and (4) reduction of lunar occultation data. LALT transmits laser pulses whose time width is about 20 nano-seconds and pulse interval is 1 second. Range accuracy is up to 5m. The range data are transformed to the topography of the moon with the aid of position and attitude data of the main orbiter. From the end of December 2007, LALT started continuous operation and a global topography map with unprecedented resolution was produced. Lunar mean radius is estimated as 1737.15±0.01 km and the COM-COF offset is 1.94 km based on the spherical harmonic model STM359_grid-02 derived from LALT topography. The amplitude of the power spectrum of STM359_grid-02 is larger than that of the previous model at L>30 degrees, which may reflect the process of basin formation and/or crustal evolution. In the polar regions where previous CLEMENTINE altimeter did not cover, many topographic features that were difficult to see on the imagery from spacecraft or ground based radar are discovered. The sunlit rate in the lunar polar regions is estimated by using the polar topographic map made from LALT topography. We found that i) the highest sunlit rate is 93~96 % in both polar regions and ii) the eternal shadow area is smaller than previous estimations. These results will be of great use for the planning of the lunar polar exploration in near future.

  18. First measurement of target and double spin asymmetries for polarized e- polarized p --> e p pi0 in the nucleon resonance region above the Delta(1232)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biselli, Angela; Burkert, Volker; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Asryan, Gegham; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Baillie, Nathan; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Battaglieri, Marco; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bellis, Matthew; Benmouna, Nawal; Berman, Barry; Blaszczyk, Lukasz; Bookwalter, Craig; Boyarinov, Sergey; Bosted, Peter; Bradford, Robert; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, William; Brooks, William; Bultmann, S.; Bueltmann, Stephen; Butuceanu, Cornel; Calarco, John; Careccia, Sharon; Carman, Daniel; Casey, Liam; Chen, Shifeng; Cheng, Lu; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Coltharp, Philip; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; Dale, Daniel; Dashyan, Natalya; De Masi, Rita; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Deur, Alexandre; Dhamija, Seema; Dickson, Richard; Djalali, Chaden; Dodge, Gail; Doughty, David; Dugger, Michael; Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Egiyan, Hovanes; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fedotov, Gleb; Feuerbach, Robert; Fersch, Robert; Forest, Tony; Fradi, Ahmed; Garcon, Michel; Gavalian, Gagik; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Goetz, John; Gohn, Wesley; Gothe, Ralf; Graham, Lewis; Griffioen, Keith; Guidal, Michel; Guler, Nevzat; Guo, Lei; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hanretty, Charles; Hassall, Neil; Hicks, Kenneth; Hleiqawi, Ishaq; Holtrop, Maurik; Hyde, Charles; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Ito, Mark; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Johnstone, John; Joo, Kyungseon; Juengst, Henry; Kalantarians, Narbe; Keller, Dustin; Kellie, James; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Kossov, Mikhail; Krahn, Zebulun; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Joachim; Kuhn, Sebastian; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Viacheslav; Lachniet, Jeff; Laget, Jean; Langheinrich, Jorn; Lawrence, David; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; MacCormick, Marion; Markov, Nikolai; Mattione, Paul; McKinnon, Bryan; McNabb, John; Mecking, Bernhard; Mestayer, Mac; Meyer, Curtis; Mibe, Tsutomu; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Mirazita, Marco; Mokeev, Viktor; Moreno, Brahim; Moriya, Kei; Morrow, Steven; Moteabbed, Maryam; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Mutchler, Gordon; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Niczyporuk, Bogdan; Niroula, Megh; Niyazov, Rustam; Nozar, Mina; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Park, Kil; Park, Seungkyung; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Paterson, Craig; Pereira, Sergio; Pierce, Joshua; Pivnyuk, Nikolay; Pogorelko, Oleg; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Price, John; Prok, Yelena; Protopopescu, Dan; Raue, Brian; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Sabatie, Franck; Saini, Mukesh; Salamanca, Julian; Salgado, Carlos; Santoro, Joseph; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Schott, Diane; Schumacher, Reinhard; Serov, Vladimir; Sharabian, Youri; Sharov, Dmitri; Shvedunov, Nikolay; Smith, Elton; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stavinskiy, Aleksey; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stokes, Burnham; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Taiuti, Mauro; Tedeschi, David; Tkabladze, Avtandil; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Todor, Luminita; Ungaro, Maurizio; Vineyard, Michael; Vlassov, Alexander; Watts, Daniel; Weinstein, Lawrence; Weygand, Dennis; Williams, M.; Wolin, Elliott; Wood, Michael; Yegneswaran, Amrit; Yurov, Mikhail; Zana, Lorenzo; Zhang, Jixie; Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Zhiwen

    2008-10-01

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.78.045204
    The exclusive channel polarized proton(polarized e,e prime p)pi0 was studied in the first and second nucleon resonance regions in the Q2 range from 0.187 to 0.770 GeV2 at Jefferson Lab using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). Longitudinal target and beam-target asymmetries were extracted over a large range of center-of-mass angles of the pi0 and compared to the unitary isobar model MAID, the dynamic model by Sato and Lee, and the dynamic model DMT. A strong sensitivity to individual models was observed, in particular for the target asymmetry and in the higher invariant mass region. This data set, once included in the global fits of the above models, is expected to place strong constraints on the electrocoupling amplitudes A_{1/2} and S_{1/2} for the Roper resonance N(1400)P11, and the N(1535)S11 and N(1520)D13 states.

  19. Reflectance of Mercury's Polar Regions: Calibration and Implications for Mercury's Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, G. A.; Sun, X.; Cao, A.; Deutsch, A. N.; Head, J. W.

    2018-05-01

    Calibration of laser altimeter reflectances under widely varying conditions is supported by laboratory data from an engineering simulator to address the distribution of volatile deposits in Mercury's polar cold traps.

  20. Synthesis of calcium-phosphorous doped TiO{sub 2} nanotubes by anodization and reverse polarization: A promising strategy for an efficient biofunctional implant surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Sofia A., E-mail: sofiafonso@msn.com [CMEMS – Center of MicroElectroMechanical Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minho, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); IBTN/US – American Branch of the Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine, UIC College of Dentistry, 60612 Chicago, IL (United States); Patel, Sweetu B. [IBTN/US – American Branch of the Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine, UIC College of Dentistry, 60612 Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 49931 Houghton, MI (United States); Sukotjo, Cortino [IBTN/US – American Branch of the Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine, UIC College of Dentistry, 60612 Chicago, IL (United States); Departmenmt of Restorative Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 60612 Chicago, IL (United States); Mathew, Mathew T. [IBTN/US – American Branch of the Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine, UIC College of Dentistry, 60612 Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, 60612 Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Biomedical Science, UIC School of Medicine at Rockford, 61107 Rockford, IL (United States); Filho, Paulo N. [IBTN/Br – Brazilian Branch of the Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Ciências, 17033-360 Bauru, São Paulo (Brazil); Faculdade de Ciências, Departamento de Física, UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, 17033-360 Bauru, São Paulo (Brazil); Celis, Jean-Pierre [Department of Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); and others

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • A new surface modification methodology for bio-functionalization of TiO2 NTs is addressed • Bone-like structured TiO2 nanotubular surfaces containing Ca and P were synthesized. • Ca/P-doped TiO2 NTs enhanced adhesion and proliferation of osteoblastic-like cells. • The bio-functionalization granted improved bio-electrochemical stability to TiO2 NTs. - Abstract: The modification of surface features such as nano-morphology/topography and chemistry have been employed in the attempt to design titanium oxide surfaces able to overcome the current dental implants failures. The main goal of this study is the synthesis of bone-like structured titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanotubes enriched with Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorous (P) able to enhance osteoblastic cell functions and, simultaneously, display an improved corrosion behavior. To achieve the main goal, TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were synthetized and doped with Ca and P by means of a novel methodology which relied, firstly, on the synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes by anodization of titanium in an organic electrolyte followed by reverse polarization and/or anodization, in an aqueous electrolyte. Results show that hydrophilic bone-like structured TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were successfully synthesized presenting a highly ordered nano-morphology characterized by non-uniform diameters. The chemical analysis of such nanotubes confirmed the presence of CaCO{sub 3}, Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, CaHPO{sub 4} and CaO compounds. The nanotube surfaces submitted to reverse polarization, presented an improved cell adhesion and proliferation compared to smooth titanium. Furthermore, these surfaces displayed a significantly lower passive current in artificial saliva, and so, potential to minimize their bio-degradation through corrosion processes. This study addresses a very simple and promising multidisciplinary approach bringing new insights for the development of novel methodologies to improve the outcome of osseointegrated

  1. In Situ Atmospheric Pressure Measurements in the Martian Southern Polar Region: Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor Meteorology Package on the Mars Polar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Siili, T.; Crisp, D.

    1998-01-01

    Pressure observations are crucial for the success of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Meteorology (MET) package onboard the Mars Polar Lander (MPL), due for launch early next year. The spacecraft is expected to land in December 1999 (L(sub s) = 256 degrees) at a high southern latitude (74 degrees - 78 degrees S). The nominal period of operation is 90 sols but may last up to 210 sols. The MVACS/MET experiment will provide the first in situ observations of atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind, and humidity in the southern hemisphere of Mars and in the polar regions. The martian atmosphere goes through a large-scale atmospheric pressure cycle due to the annual condensation/sublimation of the atmospheric CO2. Pressure also exhibits short period variations associated with dust storms, tides, and other atmospheric events. A series of pressure measurements can hence provide us with information on the large-scale state and dynamics of the atmosphere, including the CO2 and dust cycles as well as local weather phenomena. The measurements can also shed light on the shorter time scale phenomena (e.g., passage of dust devils) and hence be important in contributing to our understanding of mixing and transport of heat, dust, and water vapor.

  2. TADPOL: A 1.3 mm SURVEY OF DUST POLARIZATION IN STAR-FORMING CORES AND REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Heiles, Carl; Kwon, Woojin; Carpenter, John M.; Lamb, James W.; Pillai, Thushara; Crutcher, Richard M.; Hakobian, Nicholas S.; Looney, Leslie W.; Fiege, Jason D.; Franzmann, Erica; Houde, Martin; Hughes, A. Meredith; Marrone, Daniel P.; Matthews, Brenda C.; Pound, Marc W.; Rahman, Nurur; Sandell, Göran

    2014-01-01

    We present λ 1.3 mm Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy observations of dust polarization toward 30 star-forming cores and eight star-forming regions from the TADPOL survey. We show maps of all sources, and compare the ∼2.''5 resolution TADPOL maps with ∼20'' resolution polarization maps from single-dish submillimeter telescopes. Here we do not attempt to interpret the detailed B-field morphology of each object. Rather, we use average B-field orientations to derive conclusions in a statistical sense from the ensemble of sources, bearing in mind that these average orientations can be quite uncertain. We discuss three main findings. (1) A subset of the sources have consistent magnetic field (B-field) orientations between large (∼20'') and small (∼2.''5) scales. Those same sources also tend to have higher fractional polarizations than the sources with inconsistent large-to-small-scale fields. We interpret this to mean that in at least some cases B-fields play a role in regulating the infall of material all the way down to the ∼1000 AU scales of protostellar envelopes. (2) Outflows appear to be randomly aligned with B-fields; although, in sources with low polarization fractions there is a hint that outflows are preferentially perpendicular to small-scale B-fields, which suggests that in these sources the fields have been wrapped up by envelope rotation. (3) Finally, even at ∼2.''5 resolution we see the so-called polarization hole effect, where the fractional polarization drops significantly near the total intensity peak. All data are publicly available in the electronic edition of this article

  3. Dune field pattern formation and recent transporting winds in the Olympia Undae Dune Field, north polar region of Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Ewing, Ryan C.; Peyret, Aymeric-Pierre B.; Kocurek, Gary; Bourke, Mary

    2010-01-01

    High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) imagery of the central Olympia Undae Dune Field in the north polar region of Mars shows a reticulate dune pattern consisting of two sets of nearly orthogonal dune crestlines, with apparent slipfaces on the primary crests, ubiquitous wind ripples, areas of coarse-grained wind ripples, and deflated interdune areas. Geomorphic evidence and dune field pattern analysis of dune crest length, spacing, defect density, and orientation indicates that ...

  4. Brain region distribution and patterns of bioaccumulative perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates in east greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigated the comparative accumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in eight brain regions of polar bears (Ursus maritimus, n = 19) collected in 2006 from Scoresby Sound, East Greenland. The PFAAs studied were perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs, C(6) -C(15) chain lengths) and sulfonates (C(4) , C(6) , C(8) , and C(10) chain lengths) as well as selected precursors including perfluorooctane sulfonamide. On a wet-weight basis, blood-brain barrier transport of PFAAs occurred for all brain regions, although inner regions of the brain closer to incoming blood flow (pons/medulla, thalamus, and hypothalamus) contained consistently higher PFAA concentrations compared to outer brain regions (cerebellum, striatum, and frontal, occipital, and temporal cortices). For pons/medulla, thalamus, and hypothalamus, the most concentrated PFAAs were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), ranging from 47 to 58 ng/g wet weight, and perfluorotridecanoic acid, ranging from 43 to 49 ng/g wet weight. However, PFOS and the longer-chain PFCAs (C(10) -C(15) ) were significantly (p  0.05) different among brain regions. The burden of the sum of PFCAs, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide in the brain (average mass, 392 g) was estimated to be 46 µg. The present study demonstrates that both PFCAs and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates cross the blood-brain barrier in polar bears and that wet-weight concentrations are brain region-specific. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  5. The Great Solar Active Region NOAA 12192: Helicity Transport, Filament Formation, and Impact on the Polar Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Gordon; McMaken, Tyler C.

    2017-08-01

    The solar active region (AR), NOAA 12192, appeared in 2014 October as the largest AR in 24 years. Here we examine the counterintuitive nature of two diffusion-driven processes in the region: the role of helicity buildup in the formation of a major filament, and the relationship between the effects of supergranular diffusion and meridional flow on the AR and on the polar field. Quantitatively, calculations of current helicity and magnetic twist from Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) vector magnetograms indicate that, though AR 12192 emerged with negative helicity, positive helicity from subsequent flux emergence, consistent with the hemispheric sign-preference of helicity, increased over time within large-scale, weak-field regions such as those near the polarity inversion line (PIL). Morphologically, Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of filament barbs, sigmoidal patterns, and bases of Fe xii stalks initially exhibited signatures of negative helicity, and the long filament that subsequently formed had a strong positive helicity consistent with the helicity buildup along the PIL. We find from full-disk HMI magnetograms that AR 12192's leading positive flux was initially closer to the equator but, owing either to the region’s magnetic surroundings or to its asymmetric flux density distribution, was transported poleward more quickly on average than its trailing negative flux, contrary to the canonical pattern of bipole flux transport. This behavior caused the AR to have a smaller effect on the polar fields than expected and enabled the formation of the very long neutral line where the filament formed.

  6. Carnosine reverses the aging-induced down regulation of brain regional serotonergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumyabrata; Ghosh, Tushar K; Poddar, Mrinal K

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the role of carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide biomolecule, on brain regional (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla) serotonergic system during aging. Results showed an aging-induced brain region specific significant (a) increase in Trp (except cerebral cortex) and their 5-HIAA steady state level with an increase in their 5-HIAA accumulation and declination, (b) decrease in their both 5-HT steady state level and 5-HT accumulation (except cerebral cortex). A significant decrease in brain regional 5-HT/Trp ratio (except cerebral cortex) and increase in 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio were also observed during aging. Carnosine at lower dosages (0.5-1.0μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) didn't produce any significant response in any of the brain regions, but higher dosages (2.0-2.5μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) showed a significant response on those aging-induced brain regional serotonergic parameters. The treatment with carnosine (2.0μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days), attenuated these brain regional aging-induced serotonergic parameters and restored towards their basal levels that observed in 4 months young control rats. These results suggest that carnosine attenuates and restores the aging-induced brain regional down regulation of serotonergic system towards that observed in young rats' brain regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radio-continuum study of the supernova remnants in the large Magellanic Cloud: An SNR with a highly polarized breakout region: SNR J0455-6838

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of new moderate resolution ATCA observations of SNR J0455-6838. We found that this SNR exhibits a mostly typical appearance with rather steep and curved α=-0.81±0.18 and D=43×31±1 pc. Regions of high polarization were detected, including unusually strong (~70% region corresponding to the northern breakout. Such a strong polarization in breakout regions has not been observed in any other SNR.

  8. Mineralogy and Iron Content of the Lunar Polar Regions Using the Kaguya Spectral Profiler and the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemelin, M.; Lucey, P. G.; Trang, D.; Jha, K.

    2016-12-01

    The lunar polar regions are of high scientific interest, but the extreme lighting conditions have made quantitative analyses using reflectance spectra difficult; some regions are in permanent shadow, and flat surfaces are difficult to correct photometrically due to the extreme grazing incidence and low signal available. Thus, most mineral maps derived from visible and near infrared reflectance spectra have been constrained to within 50° in latitude. The mineralogy of the polar regions, or 44% of the lunar surface, is almost entirely unknown. A few studies have provided compositional analysis based on the spectral shape (where strong absorption bands were present) of lithologies dominated by one or two minerals. In this study, we take a novel approach and use strong signal and well-calibrated reflectance acquired by two different instruments, the Kaguya Spectra Profiler (SP) and the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), in order to derive the first FeO and mineral maps of the polar regions at a spatial resolution of 1 km per pixel. We use reflectance ratios from SP and calibrated reflectance data from LOLA to derive the first polar maps of FeO, which are within 2 wt.% of the FeO measured by the Lunar Prospector Gamma-Ray spectrometer up to 85° in latitude. We then use the reflectance data from SP and Hapke radiative transfer model to compute the abundance of olivine, low-calcium pyroxene, high-calcium pyroxene and plagioclase, using FeO as a constraint. The radiative transfer model yields an error in mineral abundances of 9 wt.%. We use the mineral maps to study the composition of 27 central peaks and 5 basin rings in the polar regions, and relate their composition to their depth of origin in the lunar crust. We find that the central peaks and basin rings in Feldspathic Highlands Terrane are mostly anorthositic in composition, with modal plagioclase content ranging between 66 and 92 wt.%. The central peaks and basin rings in the South Pole-Aitken basin are noritic

  9. Plasma polarization spectroscopy. Time resolved spectroscopy in soft x-ray region on recombining plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Hasuo, Masahiro; Atake, Makoto; Hasegawa, Noboru; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    We present an experimental study of polarization of emission radiations from recombining plasmas generated by the interaction of 60 fs ultra-short laser pulses with a gas jet. Time-resolved spectroscopy with a temporal resolution of 5 ps with repetitive accumulation is used to follow the recombination time histories. (author)

  10. Numerical simulation of wind-sand movement in the reversed flow region of a sand dune with a bridge built downstream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Huang, Ning; Xu, Bin; Wang, Wenbo

    2018-04-23

    A bridge built inside the reversed flow region of a sand dune will change the characteristics of wind-sand movement in this region. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation and discrete particle tracing are used to simulate the wind-sand movement around a sand dune with a bridge built inside the reversed region. Three cases with different bridge positions are studied. The results show that 1) compared with the isolated dune case, a tall bridge built at the leeward toe leads to an increase in the deposition rate on the leeward slope and a longer reversed flow region downstream of the sand dune; meanwhile, the high speed of crosswind on the bridge indicates that some measures should be taken to protect trains from strong crosswind; 2) a low bridge at the leeward toe has little effect on the sand deposition and reversed flow region of the dune; however, low sand transport rate and crosswind speed on the bridge show that anti-crosswind/sand measures should be taken according to the actual situation and 3) a low bridge on the leeward slope has little effect on the length of reversed flow region, however, high crosswind speed and sand flux on the bridge reveal the need of anti-crosswind/sand measures on the bridge. Moreover, the bridges in the reversed flow region increase the sand flux near the leeward crest; as a result, the moving patterns of the sand dune are changed.

  11. Influence of Arctic Sea Ice Extent on Polar Cloud Fraction and Vertical Structure and Implications for Regional Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Stephen P.; Strey, Sara T.; Spinhirne, James; Markus, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Recent satellite lidar measurements of cloud properties spanning a period of 5 years are used to examine a possible connection between Arctic sea ice amount and polar cloud fraction and vertical distribution. We find an anticorrelation between sea ice extent and cloud fraction with maximum cloudiness occurring over areas with little or no sea ice. We also find that over ice!free regions, there is greater low cloud frequency and average optical depth. Most of the optical depth increase is due to the presence of geometrically thicker clouds over water. In addition, our analysis indicates that over the last 5 years, October and March average polar cloud fraction has increased by about 7% and 10%, respectively, as year average sea ice extent has decreased by 5% 7%. The observed cloud changes are likely due to a number of effects including, but not limited to, the observed decrease in sea ice extent and thickness. Increasing cloud amount and changes in vertical distribution and optical properties have the potential to affect the radiative balance of the Arctic region by decreasing both the upwelling terrestrial longwave radiation and the downward shortwave solar radiation. Because longwave radiation dominates in the long polar winter, the overall effect of increasing low cloud cover is likely a warming of the Arctic and thus a positive climate feedback, possibly accelerating the melting of Arctic sea ice.

  12. The Influence of Arctic Sea Ice Extent on Polar Cloud Fraction and Vertical Structure and Implications for Regional Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Stephen P.; Strey, Sara T.; Spinhirne, James; Markus, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Recent satellite lidar measurements of cloud properties spanning a period of five years are used to examine a possible connection between Arctic sea ice amount and polar cloud fraction and vertical distribution. We find an anti-correlation between sea ice extent and cloud fraction with maximum cloudiness occurring over areas with little or no sea ice. We also find that over ice free regions, there is greater low cloud frequency and average optical depth. Most of the optical depth increase is due to the presence of geometrically thicker clouds over water. In addition, our analysis indicates that over the last 5 years, October and March average polar cloud fraction has increased by about 7 and 10 percent, respectively, as year average sea ice extent has decreased by 5 to 7 percent. The observed cloud changes are likely due to a number of effects including, but not limited to, the observed decrease in sea ice extent and thickness. Increasing cloud amount and changes in vertical distribution and optical properties have the potential to affect the radiative balance of the Arctic region by decreasing both the upwelling terrestrial longwave radiation and the downward shortwave solar radiation. Since longwave radiation dominates in the long polar winter, the overall effect of increasing low cloud cover is likely a warming of the Arctic and thus a positive climate feedback, possibly accelerating the melting of Arctic sea ice.

  13. Determining the source region of auroral emissions in the prenoon oval using coordinated Polar BEAR UV-imaging and DMSP particle measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Patrick T.; Meng, CHING-I.; Huffman, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The Polar Beacon Experiment and Auroral Research (Polar BEAR) satellite included the capability for imaging the dayside auroral oval in full sunlight at several wavelengths. Particle observations from the DMSP F7 satellite during dayside auroral oval crossings are compared with approximately simultaneous Polar BEAR 1356-A images to determine the magnetospheric source region of the dayside auroral oval. The source region is determined from the DMSP particle data, according to recent work concerning the classification and identification of precipitation source regions. The close DMSP/Polar BEAR coincidences all occur when the former satellite is located between 0945 and 1000 MLT. Instances of auroral arcs mapping to each of several different regions, including the boundary plasma sheet, the low-latitude boundary layer, and the plasma mantle were found. It was determined that about half the time the most prominent auroral arcs are located at the interfaces between distinct plasma regions, at least at the local time studied here.

  14. Polarized protons at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1990-12-01

    The Physics case is presented for the use of polarized protons at RHIC for one or two months each year. This would provide a facility with polarizations of approx-gt 50% high luminosity ∼2.0 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 , the possibility of both longitudinal and transverse polarization at the interaction regions, and frequent polarization reversal for control of systematic errors. The annual integrated luminosity for such running (∼10 6 sec per year) would be ∫ Ldt = 2 x 10 38 cm -2 -- roughly 20 times the total luminosity integrated in ∼ 10 years of operation of the CERN Collider (∼10 inverse picobarns, 10 37 cm -2 ). This facility would be unique in the ability to perform parity-violating measurements and polarization test of QCD. Also, the existence of p-p collisions in a new energy range would permit the study of ''classical'' reactions like the total cross section and elastic scattering, etc., and serve as a complement to measurements from p-bar p colliders. 11 refs

  15. A one stop website for sharing sea ice, ocean and ice sheet data over the polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Cheng, X.; Liu, J.; Hui, F.; Ding, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The polar regions, including the Arctic and Antarctic, are changing rapidly. Our capabilities to remotely monitor the state of the polar regions are increasing greatly. Satellite and airborne technologies have been deployed and further improvements are underway. Meanwhile, various algorithms have been developed to retrieve important parameters to maximize the effectiveness of available remote sensing data. These technologies and algorithms promise to greatly increase our understanding of variations in sea ice, ocean and ice sheet. However, so much information is scattered out there. It is challenging to find exactly what you are looking for by just searching it through the network. Therefore, we try to establish a common platform to sharing some key parameters for the polar regions. A group of scientists from Beijing Normal University and University at Albany developed a website as a "one-stop shop" for the current state of the polar regions. The website provides real-time (or near real-time) key parameters derived from a variety of operational satellites in an understandable, accessible and credible way. Three types of parameter, which are sea ice, ocean and ice sheet respectively, are shown and available to be downloaded in the website. Several individual parameters are contained in a specific type of parameter. The parameters of sea ice include sea ice concentration, sea ice thickness, melt pond, sea ice leads and sea ice drift. The ocean parameters contain sea surface temperature and sea surface wind. Ice sheet balance, ice velocity and some other parameters are classified into the type of ice sheet parameter. Some parameters are well-calibrated and available to be obtained from other websites, such as sea ice concentration, sea ice thickness sea surface temperature. Since these parameters are retrieved from different sensors, such as SSMI, AMSR2 etc., data format, spatial resolution of the parameters are not unified. We collected and reprocessed these

  16. Polarization-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing of CdS nanocrystals in a nonresonant region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, S.M.; Seo, J.T.; Yang, Q.; Creemore, L.; Battle, R.; Tabibi, B.; Yu, W.

    2006-01-01

    The third-order susceptibilities of various concentrations of TOPO-passivated CdS nanocrystals (NCs) with the size near the Bohr radius were investigated using polarization-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) in a nonresonant excitation region with 532 nm wavelength and 8 ns pulse width. The second hyperpolarizabilities left angle γ h xxxx right angle and left angle γ h xyyx right angle of the CdS NCs were ∝1.25 x 10 -42 m 5 /V 2 and ∝3.66 x 10 -43 m 5 /V 2 , respectively. The ratio (left angle γ h xyyx right angle / left angle γ h xxxx right angle) of the hyperpolarizabilities was ∝0.29 that indicated a large contribution of electronic polarization process to the third-order nonlinearity of CdS NCs. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. The formation of multiple layers of ice particles in the polar summer mesopause region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a two-dimensional theoretical model to study the formation process of multiple layers of small ice particles in the polar summer mesosphere as measured by rockets and associated with polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE. The proposed mechanism primarily takes into account the transport processes induced by gravity waves through collision coupling between the neutral atmosphere and the ice particles. Numerical solutions of the model indicate that the dynamic influence of wind variation induced by gravity waves can make a significant contribution to the vertical and horizontal transport of ice particles and ultimately transform them into thin multiple layers. Additionally, the pattern of the multiple layers at least partially depends on the vertical wavelength of the gravity wave, the ice particle size and the wind velocity. The results presented in this paper will be helpful to better understand the occurrence of multiple layers of PMSE as well as its variation process.

  18. Retention prediction of highly polar ionizable solutes under gradient conditions on a mixed-mode reversed-phase and weak anion-exchange stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkatzopoulou, P; Fasoula, S; Gika, H; Nikitas, P; Pappa-Louisi, A

    2015-05-29

    In the present work the retention of three highly polar and ionizable solutes - uric acid, nicotinic acid and ascorbic acid - was investigated on a mixed-mode reversed-phase and weak anion-exchange (RP/WAX) stationary phase in buffered aqueous acetonitrile (ACN) mobile phases. A U-shaped retention behavior was observed for all solutes with respect to the eluent organic modifier content studied in a range of 5-95% (v/v). This retention behavior clearly demonstrates the presence of a HILIC-type retention mechanism at ACN-rich hydro-organic eluents and an RP-like retention at aqueous-rich hydro-organic eluents. Hence, this column should be promising for application under both RP and HILIC gradient elution modes. For this reason, a series of programmed elution runs were carried out with increasing (RP) and decreasing (HILIC) organic solvent concentration in the mobile phase. This dual gradient process was successfully modeled by two retention models exhibiting a quadratic or a cubic dependence of the logarithm of the solute retention factor (lnk) upon the organic modifier volume fraction (φ). It was found that both models produced by gradient retention data allow the prediction of solute retention times for both types of programmed elution on the mixed-mode column. Four, in the case of the quadratic model, or five, in the case of the cubic model, initial HILIC- and RP-type gradient runs gave satisfactory retention predictions of any similar kind elution program, even with different flow rate, with an overall error of only 2.5 or 1.7%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. ROTATIONAL VARIABILITY OF EARTH'S POLAR REGIONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR DETECTING SNOWBALL PLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Robinson, Tyler; Agol, Eric; Meadows, Victoria S.; Shields, Aomawa L.; Livengood, Timothy A.; Deming, Drake; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Wellnitz, Dennis D.; Charbonneau, David; Lisse, Carey M.; Seager, Sara

    2011-01-01

    We have obtained the first time-resolved, disk-integrated observations of Earth's poles with the Deep Impact spacecraft as part of the EPOXI mission of opportunity. These data mimic what we will see when we point next-generation space telescopes at nearby exoplanets. We use principal component analysis (PCA) and rotational light curve inversion to characterize color inhomogeneities and map their spatial distribution from these unusual vantage points, as a complement to the equatorial views presented by Cowan et al. in 2009. We also perform the same PCA on a suite of simulated rotational multi-band light curves from NASA's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional spectral Earth model. This numerical experiment allows us to understand what sorts of surface features PCA can robustly identify. We find that the EPOXI polar observations have similar broadband colors as the equatorial Earth, but with 20%-30% greater apparent albedo. This is because the polar observations are most sensitive to mid-latitudes, which tend to be more cloudy than the equatorial latitudes emphasized by the original EPOXI Earth observations. The cloudiness of the mid-latitudes also manifests itself in the form of increased variability at short wavelengths in the polar observations and as a dominant gray eigencolor in the south polar observation. We construct a simple reflectance model for a snowball Earth. By construction, our model has a higher Bond albedo than the modern Earth; its surface albedo is so high that Rayleigh scattering does not noticeably affect its spectrum. The rotational color variations occur at short wavelengths due to the large contrast between glacier ice and bare land in those wavebands. Thus, we find that both the broadband colors and diurnal color variations of such a planet would be easily distinguishable from the modern-day Earth, regardless of viewing angle.

  20. Looking Through the Ice: Searching for Past and Present Habitable Zones in the Martian North Polar Region Using MOLA DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, M. C.; Farmer, J. D.

    2002-12-01

    Hydrothermal systems have been acknowledged as important gateways to accessing a potential subsurface biology (extant or extinct) on Mars. Groundwater circulation, sustained for up to one billion years by large plutonic bodies (as modeled by previous authors), might well be capable of tapping into a deep subsurface biosphere and subsequently carrying members of microbial communities to the surface. Hence, future robotic missions with near surface drilling capabilities may be able to unearth cryopreserved biosignatures, or perhaps extant organisms, in the midst of the hydrothermal system itself. Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) constructed from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data have proved to be a valuable tool in the search for potential habitable zones for extant and extinct life, and the detection of possible hydrothermal systems on Mars. When formatted for use in a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) software package such as ESRI's ArcView, MOLA data can be used to compose DEMs. Those DEMs can, in turn, be used to create contour maps, to allow profiling through features of interest, and to generate hillshaded views, which provide an image-like perspective of a selected area. Furthermore, DEMs eliminate many problems associated with photographic images such as over-/underexposure, poor focus, and albedo values too high or low for optimal observations. During this study, DEMs were used in the analysis of several regions north of 70° N latitude, in the Martian north polar cap and polar cap margin. The regions were selected during a Viking image survey that concentrated on the location of surface expressions of potential magma-ice interactions, and hence past or present hydrothermal activity. Specific features sought included individual volcanoes and volcanic fields, as well as pseudocrater fields, subglacial volcanic constructs (such as tuyas and tindar ridges), fluvial channels and outwash plains (indicative of j”kulhlaup flooding events), possible

  1. Chemical characterization by GC-MS and phytotoxic potential of non-polar and polar fractions of seeds of Dioteryx odorata (Aubl. Willd. from Venezuelan regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto de J. Oliveros-Bastidas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipteryx odorata (Aubl. Willd. is a tall arboreal species native to Central and Northern South America. This paper describes the chemical characterization and phytotoxic potential of polar and non-polar extracts from D. odorata seeds. Structural determinations were accomplished by chemical derivatization and analyzed by GC/MS. The chemical composition of the non-polar fraction (hexane and dichloromethane presented fatty acids as major constituent. Medium polar and polar fractions (ethyl acetate and ethanol: water contained carboxylic acid and high 6,7-Dyhidroxycoumarin-β-D-glucopyranoside content, not previously reported for seeds of D. odorata. Extracts showed a significant level of phytotoxic activity, correlated to the content of coumarin derivatives, predominantly in the polar fraction.

  2. The in-capillary DPPH-capillary electrophoresis-the diode array detector combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode for screening and quantifying major antioxidants in Cuscuta chinensis Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiao; Tian, Ji; Li, Jin; Azietaku, John Teye; Zhang, Bo-Li; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Chang, Yan-Xu

    2016-07-01

    An in-capillary 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-CE-the DAD (in-capillary DPPH-CE-DAD) combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode has been developed to screen and quantify the active antioxidant components of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. The operation parameters were optimized with regard to the pH and concentration of buffer solution, SDS, β-CDs, organic modifier, as well as separation voltage and temperature. Six antioxidants including chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, hyperin, isoquercitrin, and astragalin were screened and the total antioxidant activity of the complex matrix was successfully evaluated based on the decreased peak area of DPPH by the established DPPH-CE-DAD method. Sensitivity was enhanced under reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode and 10- to 31-fold of magnitude improvement in detection sensitivity for each analyte was attained. The results demonstrated that the newly established in-capillary DPPH-CE-DAD method combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode could integrate sample concentration, the oxidizing reaction, separation, and detection into one capillary to fully automate the system. It was considered a suitable technique for the separation, screening, and determination of trace antioxidants in natural products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Dynamic alteration of regional cerebral blood flow during carotid compression and proof of reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahi, Kouichi; Hori, M; Hamasaki, N; Sato, S; Nakanishi, H; Kuwatsuru, R; Sasai, K; Aoki, S

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to non-invasively visualize changes in regional cerebral blood flow caused by manual compression of the carotid artery. To visualize dynamic changes in regional cerebral blood flow during and after manual compression of the carotid artery. Two healthy volunteers were recruited. Anatomic features and flow directions in the circle of Willis were evaluated with time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and two-dimensional phase-contrast (2DPC) MRA, respectively. Regional cerebral blood flow was visualized with territorial arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging (TASL-MRI). TASL-MRI and 2DPC-MRA were performed in three states: at rest, during manual compression of the right carotid artery, and after decompression. In one volunteer, time-space labeling inversion pulse (Time-SLIP) MRA was performed to confirm collateral flow. During manual carotid compression, in one volunteer, the right thalamus changed to be fed only by the vertebrobasilar system, and the right basal ganglia changed to be fed by the left internal carotid artery. In the other volunteer, the right basal ganglia changed to be fed by the vertebrobasilar system. 2DPC-MRA showed that the flow direction changed in the right A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery and the right posterior communicating artery. Perfusion patterns and flow directions recovered after decompression. Time-SLIP MRA showed pial vessels and dural collateral circulation when the right carotid artery was manually compressed. Use of TASL-MRI and 2DPC-MRA was successful for non-invasive visualization of the dynamic changes in regional cerebral blood flow during and after manual carotid compression

  4. The Great Solar Active Region NOAA 12192: Helicity Transport, Filament Formation, and Impact on the Polar Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMaken, Tyler C. [National Solar Observatory REU Program, 3665 Discovery Drive, 3rd Floor, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Petrie, Gordon J. D., E-mail: tmcmaken@gmail.com, E-mail: gpetrie@noao.edu [National Solar Observatory, 3665 Discovery Drive, 3rd Floor, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    The solar active region (AR), NOAA 12192, appeared in 2014 October as the largest AR in 24 years. Here we examine the counterintuitive nature of two diffusion-driven processes in the region: the role of helicity buildup in the formation of a major filament, and the relationship between the effects of supergranular diffusion and meridional flow on the AR and on the polar field. Quantitatively, calculations of current helicity and magnetic twist from Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) vector magnetograms indicate that, though AR 12192 emerged with negative helicity, positive helicity from subsequent flux emergence, consistent with the hemispheric sign-preference of helicity, increased over time within large-scale, weak-field regions such as those near the polarity inversion line (PIL). Morphologically, Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of filament barbs, sigmoidal patterns, and bases of Fe xii stalks initially exhibited signatures of negative helicity, and the long filament that subsequently formed had a strong positive helicity consistent with the helicity buildup along the PIL. We find from full-disk HMI magnetograms that AR 12192's leading positive flux was initially closer to the equator but, owing either to the region’s magnetic surroundings or to its asymmetric flux density distribution, was transported poleward more quickly on average than its trailing negative flux, contrary to the canonical pattern of bipole flux transport. This behavior caused the AR to have a smaller effect on the polar fields than expected and enabled the formation of the very long neutral line where the filament formed.

  5. Production of positive pions from polarized protons by linearly polarized photons in the energy region 300--420 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Get' man, V.A.; Gorbenko, V.G.; Grushin, V.F.; Derkach, A.Y.; Zhebrovskii, Y.V.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kolesnikov, L.Y.; Luchanin, A.A.; Rubashkin, A.L.; Sanin, V.M.; Sorokin, P.V.; Sporov, E.A.; Telegin, Y.N.; Shalatskii, S.V.

    1980-10-01

    A technique for measurement of the polarization observables ..sigma.., P, and T for the reaction ..gamma..p..-->..n..pi../sup +/ in a doubly polarized experiment (polarized proton target + linearly polarized photon beam) is described. Measurements of the angular distributions of these observables in the range of pion emission angles 30--150/sup 0/ are presented for four photon energies from 300 to 420 MeV. Inclusion of the new experimental data in an energy-independent multipole analysis of photoproduction from protons permits a more reliable selection of solutions to be made.

  6. Microbiological and ecological responses to global environmental changes in polar regions (MERGE): An IPY core coordinating project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, Takeshi; Wilmotte, Annick

    2009-11-01

    An integrated program, “Microbiological and ecological responses to global environmental changes in polar regions” (MERGE), was proposed in the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008 and endorsed by the IPY committee as a coordinating proposal. MERGE hosts original proposals to the IPY and facilitates their funding. MERGE selected three key questions to produce scientific achievements. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in terrestrial, lacustrine, and supraglacial habitats were targeted according to diversity and biogeography; food webs and ecosystem evolution; and linkages between biological, chemical, and physical processes in the supraglacial biome. MERGE hosted 13 original and seven additional proposals, with two full proposals. It respected the priorities and achievements of the individual proposals and aimed to unify their significant results. Ideas and projects followed a bottom-up rather than a top-down approach. We intend to inform the MERGE community of the initial results and encourage ongoing collaboration. Scientists from non-polar regions have also participated and are encouraged to remain involved in MERGE. MERGE is formed by scientists from Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Spain, UK, Uruguay, USA, and Vietnam, and associates from Chile, Denmark, Netherlands, and Norway.

  7. Rapid climate variability during warm and cold periods in polar regions and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masson-Delmotte, V.; Landais, A.; Combourieu-Nebout, N.

    2005-01-01

    Typical rapid climate events punctuating the last glacial period in Greenland, Europe and Antarctica are compared to two rapid events occurring under warmer conditions: (i) Dansgaard-Oeschger event 25, the first abrupt warming occurring during last glacial inception; (ii) 8.2 ka BP event, the only...... rapid cooling recorded during the Holocene in Greenland ice cores and in Ammersee, Germany. The rate of warming during previous warmer interglacial periods is estimated from polar ice cores to 1.5 °C per millennium, without abrupt changes. Climate change expected for the 21st century should however...

  8. Photoproduction of positive pions from polarized protons in the region of the first resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Get' man, V.A.; Gorbenko, V.G.; Derkach, A.Y.; Zhebrovskii, Y.V.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kolesnikov, L.Y.; Kuz' menko, V.S.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Ranyuk, Y.N.; Rubashkin, A.L.; Sanin, V.M.; Sorokin, P.V.; Sporov, E.A.; Telegin, Y.N.; Shalatskii, S.V.; Grushin, V.F.

    1980-04-01

    A technique for measuring the T asymmetry for the process ..gamma..p ..-->.. n..pi../sup +/ using a polarized proton target and a quasimonochromatic beam of photons is described. The results of measuring T in the range of pion-emission angles theta(/sub ..pi../ = 3 to 150/sup 0/ at a photon energy of 340 MeV are presented and discussed. It is shown that the results obtained allow a more reliable selection of the solutions of the energy-independent multipole analysis.

  9. What About Sea Ice? People, animals, and climate change in the polar regions: An online resource for the International Polar Year and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfrow, S.; Meier, W. N.; Wolfe, J.; Scott, D.; Leon, A.; Weaver, R.

    2005-12-01

    Decreasing Arctic sea ice has been one of the most noticeable changes on Earth over the past quarter-century. The years 2002 through 2005 have had much lower summer sea ice extents than the long-term (1979-2000). Reduced sea ice extent has a direct impact on Arctic wildlife and people, as well as ramifications for regional and global climate. Students, educators, and the general public want and need to have a better understanding of sea ice. Most of us are unfamiliar with sea ice: what it is, where it occurs, and how it affects global climate. The upcoming International Polar Year will provide an opportunity for the public to learn about sea ice. Here, we provide an overview of sea ice, the changes that the sea ice is undergoing, and information about the relation between sea ice and climate. The information presented here is condensed from the National Snow and Ice Data Center's new 'All About Sea Ice' Web site (http://www.nsidc.org/seaice/), a comprehensive resource of information for sea ice.

  10. Innovative optical spectrometers for ice core sciences and atmospheric monitoring at polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Roberto; Alemany, Olivier; Chappellaz, Jérôme; Desbois, Thibault; Faïn, Xavier; Kassi, Samir; Kerstel, Erik; Legrand, Michel; Marrocco, Nicola; Méjean, Guillaume; Preunkert, Suzanne; Romanini, Daniele; Triest, Jack; Ventrillard, Irene

    2015-04-01

    In this talk recent developments accomplished from a collaboration between the Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Physique (LIPhy) and the Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'Environnement (LGGE) both in Grenoble (France), are discussed, covering atmospheric chemistry of high reactive species in polar regions and employing optical spectrometers for both in situ and laboratory measurements of glacial archives. In the framework of an ANR project, a transportable spectrometer based on the injection of a broadband frequency comb laser into a high-finesse optical cavity for the detection of IO, BrO, NO2 and H2CO has been realized.[1] The robust spectrometer provides shot-noise limited measurements for as long as 10 minutes, reaching detection limits of 0.04, 2, 10 and 200 ppt (2σ) for the four species, respectively. During the austral summer of 2011/12 the instrument has been used for monitoring, for the first time, NO2, IO and BrO at Dumont d'Urville Station at East of Antarctica. The measurements highlighted a different chemistry between East and West coast, with the halogen chemistry being promoted to the West and the OH and NOx chemistry on the East.[2] In the framework of a SUBGLACIOR project, an innovative drilling probe has been realized. The instrument is capable of retrieving in situ real-time vertical profiles of CH4 and δD of H2O trapped inside the ice sheet down to more than 3 km of depth within a single Antarctic season. The drilling probe containing an embedded OFCEAS (optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy) spectrometer will be extremely useful for (i) identify potential sites for investigating the oldest ice (aiming 1.5 Myrs BP records for resolving a major climate reorganization called the Mid-Pleistocene transition occurred around 1 Myrs ago) and (ii) providing direct access to past temperatures and climate cycles thanks to the vertical distribution of two key climatic signatures.[3] The spectrometer provides detection

  11. A changing world: Using nuclear techniques to investigate the impact of climate change on polar and mountainous regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are being used in polar and mountainous regions to study climate change and its impact on the quality of land, water and ecosystems in order to better conserve and manage these resources. Researchers from around the world will be using data from 13 benchmark sites to draw conclusions about the effects of the rapidly changing climate on the Arctic, mountains and the western part of Antarctica, which have alarmed communities, environmentalists, scientists and policy makers. Between July 2015 and July 2016 they will be using isotopic and nuclear techniques, as well as geochemical and biological analytical methods from other scientific disciplines. This will enable them to track soil and water, to monitor the movement of soil and sediment and to assess the effects of melting permafrost on the atmosphere, as well as on the land, water and fragile ecosystems of mountainous and polar regions. The measurements follow numerous on-site tests carried out since November 2014 to perfect the sampling technique.

  12. Photofission of NAT Pt by monochromatic and polarized photons in the quasi-deuteron region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, Eduardo de.

    1992-01-01

    The measurement of the Nat Pt photofission yield at 69 MeV of effective average energy of the incident photon is made using a polarized and monochromatic photon beam from the LADON system of the National Laboratory of Frascati, Italy, produced by inverse Compton scattering of laser light by high energy electrons of the ADONE Accelerator and using as fission track solid detector the Makrofol, being the developing made by usual procedure. The experimental value of the nuclear fissionability is compared to a theoretical value obtained following a model at two stages: in the first, the photon energy is absorbed by a neutron-proton pair inducing to the nucleus excitation, and in the second the nucleus de-excites due to the competition between nucleon evaporation and fission. The effect of fast nucleon emission during the first stage and the successive evaporation of neutrons in the second stage are considered. 40 refs, 12 figs, 9 tabs

  13. Seasonal and regional differentiation of bio-optical properties within the north polar Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramska, Malgorzata; Stramski, Dariusz; Kaczmarek, SłAwomir; Allison, David B.; Schwarz, Jill

    2006-08-01

    Using field data from the north polar Atlantic, we examined seasonal variability of the spectral absorption, a(λ), and backscattering, bb(λ), coefficients of surface waters in relation to phytoplankton pigments. For a given chlorophyll a concentration, the concentrations of accessory pigments were lower in spring than in summer. This effect contributed to lower chlorophyll-specific absorption of phytoplankton and total particulate matter in spring. The spring values of the green-to-blue band ratio of a(λ) were higher than the summer ratios. The blue-to-green ratios of bb(λ) were also higher in spring. The higher bb values and lower blue-to-green bb ratios in summer were likely associated with higher concentrations of detrital particles in summer compared to spring. Because the product of these band ratios of a and bb is a proxy for the blue-to-green ratio of remote-sensing reflectance, the performance of ocean color band-ratio algorithms for estimating pigments is significantly affected by seasonal shifts in the relationships between absorption, backscattering, and chlorophyll a. Our results suggest that the algorithm for the spring season would predict chlorophyll a that is higher by as much as a factor of 4-6 compared to that predicted from the summer algorithm. This indicates a need for a seasonal approach in the north polar Atlantic. However, we also found that a fairly good estimate of the particulate beam attenuation coefficient at 660 nm (a proxy for total particulate matter or particulate organic carbon concentration) can be obtained by applying a single blue-to-green band-ratio algorithm regardless of the season.

  14. Pion elastic scattering from polarized 13C in the energy region of the P33 resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yifen, Yen

    1992-08-01

    Asymmetries (A y ) and differential cross sections (dσ/dΩ) were measured for π + and π - elastic scattering using polarized and unpolarized 13 C targets. The experiment was done at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility with the pion beam from the Low Energy Pion channel. The scattered pions were detected with the Large Acceptance Spectrometer. The 13 C nuclei in 13 C-enriched 1-butanol were polarized by the dynamic nuclear polarilization method. Angular distributions of both A y and dσ/dΩ were measured below the P 33 resonance at the incident energy of 130 MeV for π + and π - , and above the resonance at 223 MeV for π + and at 226 MeV for π - . In addition, A y and dσ/dΩ were measured in a range of momentum transfers, 1.75 ≤ q ≤ 2.05 fm - , at several energies. At 130 MeV, the values of A y are significantly different from zero for π - scattering. For π + at 130 MeV and for both π - and π + at all other energies, the A y are mostly consistent with zero. Theoretical analyses were done using different nuclear structure models. The data were not reproduced by the presently available nuclear wave functions. It was found that the asymmetry is strongly sensitive to the quadrupole spin flip part of the transition. The data of this thesis complement measurements of the magnetic form factor from electron scattering. In attempts to fit both the asymmetry and the magnetic form factor, it was found that the pion asymmetry data are not reproduced by the wavefunctions which fit the magnetic form factor at low momentum transfers

  15. Nuclear polarization and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaettli, H.

    1985-01-01

    Different possibilities for the use of polarized nuclei in thermal neutron scattering on condensed matter are reviewed. Highly polarized nuclei are the starting point for studying dipolar magnetic order. Systematic measurement of spin-dependent scattering lengths is possible on samples with polarized nuclei. Highly polarized hydrogen should help to unravel complicated structures in chemistry and biology. The use of polarized proton targets as an energy-independent neutron polarizer in the thermal and epithermal region should be considered afresh. (author)

  16. Extended high circular polarization in the Orion massive star forming region: implications for the origin of homochirality in the solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukue, Tsubasa; Tamura, Motohide; Kandori, Ryo; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Hough, James H; Bailey, Jeremy; Whittet, Douglas C B; Lucas, Philip W; Nakajima, Yasushi; Hashimoto, Jun

    2010-06-01

    We present a wide-field (approximately 6' x 6') and deep near-infrared (K(s) band: 2.14 mum) circular polarization image in the Orion nebula, where massive stars and many low-mass stars are forming. Our results reveal that a high circular polarization region is spatially extended (approximately 0.4 pc) around the massive star-forming region, the BN/KL nebula. However, other regions, including the linearly polarized Orion bar, show no significant circular polarization. Most of the low-mass young stars do not show detectable extended structure in either linear or circular polarization, in contrast to the BN/KL nebula. If our solar system formed in a massive star-forming region and was irradiated by net circularly polarized radiation, then enantiomeric excesses could have been induced, through asymmetric photochemistry, in the parent bodies of the meteorites and subsequently delivered to Earth. These could then have played a role in the development of biological homochirality on Earth.

  17. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  18. Pricing Models for Dual-channel Reverse Supply Chain Considering Regional Differences under “Internet Recycling” Mode in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Li, Peng; Chen, Juhong

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the Internet technology has been deeply influencing recycling industry to make it more intelligent and interconnected. However, most existing papers on “Internet Recycling” neglected the problem of pricing strategy under online and offline channels for different levels of recyclers. Moreover, the effect of regional differences has been emphasized a lot in dual-channel forward supply chain, but recycling field has seldom been concerned about it. In this paper, a recycling system consisting of one recycling center and several third-party recyclers (TPR) was investigated based on traditional mode and dual-channel mode. The dual-channel reverse supply chain model is transformed from traditional mode by the introduction of online channel. It involves two recycling modes, as recycling centre for online recovery and “Recycling center+TPR” for offline recovery. By establishing pricing strategies based on Stackelberg game model, the impacts of regional differences were analysed. Finally, numerical analysis was given to illustrate the effectiveness of the pricing mechanisms and strategies.

  19. Solar Lyman-Alpha Polarization Observation of the Chromosphere and Transition Region by the Sounding Rocket Experiment CLASP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukage, Noriyuki; Kano, Ryohei; Bando, Takamasa; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Kubo, Masahito; Katsukawa, Yukio; Ishikawa, Shinnosuke; Hara, Hiroshi; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Giono, Gabriel; hide

    2015-01-01

    We are planning an international rocket experiment Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is (2015 planned) that Lyman a line (Ly(alpha) line) polarization spectroscopic observations from the sun. The purpose of this experiment, detected with high accuracy of the linear polarization of the Ly(alpha) lines to 0.1% by using a Hanle effect is to measure the magnetic field of the chromosphere-transition layer directly. For polarization photometric accuracy achieved that approx. 0.1% required for CLASP, it is necessary to realize the monitoring device with a high throughput. On the other hand, Ly(alpha) line (vacuum ultraviolet rays) have a sensitive characteristics that is absorbed by the material. We therefore set the optical system of the reflection system (transmission only the wavelength plate), each of the mirrors, subjected to high efficiency of the multilayer coating in accordance with the role. Primary mirror diameter of CLASP is about 30 cm, the amount of heat about 30,000 J is about 5 minutes of observation time is coming mainly in the visible light to the telescope. In addition, total flux of the sun visible light overwhelmingly large and about 200 000 times the Ly(alpha) line wavelength region. Therefore, in terms of thermal management and 0.1% of the photometric measurement accuracy achieved telescope, elimination of the visible light is essential. We therefore, has a high reflectivity (> 50%) in Lya line, visible light is a multilayer coating be kept to a low reflectance (Science was achieved a high throughput as a device for a vacuum ultraviolet ray of the entire system less than 5% (CCD of QE is not included).

  20. The freshwater balance of polar regions in transient simulations from 1500 to 2100 AD using a comprehensive coupled climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, Flavio; Raible, Christoph C.; Hofer, Dominik; Stocker, Thomas F. [University of Bern, Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, Bern (Switzerland)

    2012-07-15

    The ocean and sea ice in both polar regions are important reservoirs of freshwater within the climate system. While the response of these reservoirs to future climate change has been studied intensively, the sensitivity of the polar freshwater balance to natural forcing variations during preindustrial times has received less attention. Using an ensemble of transient simulations from 1500 to 2100 AD we put present-day and future states of the polar freshwater balance in the context of low frequency variability of the past five centuries. This is done by focusing on different multi-decadal periods of characteristic external forcing. In the Arctic, freshwater is shifted from the ocean to sea ice during the Maunder Minimum while the total amount of freshwater within the Arctic domain remains unchanged. In contrast, the subsequent Dalton Minimum does not leave an imprint on the slow-reacting reservoirs of the ocean and sea ice, but triggers a drop in the import of freshwater through the atmosphere. During the twentieth and twenty-first century the build-up of freshwater in the Arctic Ocean leads to a strengthening of the liquid export. The Arctic freshwater balance is shifted towards being a large source of freshwater to the North Atlantic ocean. The Antarctic freshwater cycle, on the other hand, appears to be insensitive to preindustrial variations in external forcing. In line with the rising temperature during the industrial era the freshwater budget becomes increasingly unbalanced and strengthens the high latitude's Southern Ocean as a source of liquid freshwater to lower latitude oceans. (orig.)

  1. High Resolution Topography of Polar Regions from Commercial Satellite Imagery, Petascale Computing and Open Source Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Paul; Porter, Claire; Cloutier, Michael; Howat, Ian; Noh, Myoung-Jong; Willis, Michael; Kramer, WIlliam; Bauer, Greg; Bates, Brian; Williamson, Cathleen

    2017-04-01

    Surface topography is among the most fundamental data sets for geosciences, essential for disciplines ranging from glaciology to geodynamics. Two new projects are using sub-meter, commercial imagery licensed by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and open source photogrammetry software to produce a time-tagged 2m posting elevation model of the Arctic and an 8m posting reference elevation model for the Antarctic. When complete, this publically available data will be at higher resolution than any elevation models that cover the entirety of the Western United States. These two polar projects are made possible due to three equally important factors: 1) open-source photogrammetry software, 2) petascale computing, and 3) sub-meter imagery licensed to the United States Government. Our talk will detail the technical challenges of using automated photogrammetry software; the rapid workflow evolution to allow DEM production; the task of deploying the workflow on one of the world's largest supercomputers; the trials of moving massive amounts of data, and the management strategies the team needed to solve in order to meet deadlines. Finally, we will discuss the implications of this type of collaboration for future multi-team use of leadership-class systems such as Blue Waters, and for further elevation mapping.

  2. Brain region-specific perfluoroalkylated sulfonate (PFSA) and carboxylic acid (PFCA) accumulation and neurochemical biomarker responses in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kathrine Eggers; Basu, Niladri; Letcher, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    to bioaccumulate in lipid rich tissues of the brain among other tissues such as liver, and can reach high concentrations in top predators including the polar bear. PFCA and PFSA bioaccummulation in the brain has the potential to pose neurotoxic effects and therefore we conducted a study to investigate...... if variations in neurochemical transmitter systems i.e. the cholinergic, glutaminergic, dopaminergic and GABAergic, could be related to brain-specific bioaccumulation of PFASs in East Greenland polar bears. Nine brain regions from nine polar bears were analyzed for enzyme activity (monoamine oxidase (MAO...... regions, whereas GS activity was positively correlated with PFASs primarily in occipital lobe. Results from the present study support the hypothesis that PFAS concentrations in polar bears from East Greenland have exceeded the threshold limits for neurochemical alterations. It is not known whether...

  3. Neutron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firk, F.W.K.

    1976-01-01

    Some recent experiments involving polarized neutrons are discussed; they demonstrate how polarization studies provide information on fundamental aspects of nuclear structure that cannot be obtained from more traditional neutron studies. Until recently, neutron polarization studies tended to be limited either to very low energies or to restricted regions at higher energies, determined by the kinematics of favorable (p, vector n) and (d, vector n) reactions. With the advent of high intensity pulsed electron and proton accelerators and of beams of vector polarized deuterons, this is no longer the case. One has entered an era in which neutron polarization experiments are now being carried out, in a routine way, throughout the entire range from thermal energies to tens-of-MeV. The significance of neutron polarization studies is illustrated in discussions of a wide variety of experiments that include the measurement of T-invariance in the β-decay of polarized neutrons, a search for the effects of meson exchange currents in the photo-disintegration of the deuteron, the determination of quantum numbers of states in the fission of aligned 235 U and 237 Np induced by polarized neutrons, and the double- and triple-scattering of fast neutrons by light nuclei

  4. FARADAY ROTATION: EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELD REVERSALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melrose, D. B.

    2010-01-01

    The standard formula for the rotation measure (RM), which determines the position angle, ψ = RMλ 2 , due to Faraday rotation, includes contributions only from the portions of the ray path where the natural modes of the plasma are circularly polarized. In small regions of the ray path where the projection of the magnetic field on the ray path reverses sign (called QT regions) the modes are nearly linearly polarized. The neglect of QT regions in estimating RM is not well justified at frequencies below a transition frequency where mode coupling changes from strong to weak. By integrating the polarization transfer equation across a QT region in the latter limit, I estimate the additional contribution Δψ needed to correct this omission. In contrast with a result proposed by Broderick and Blandford, Δψ is small and probably unobservable. I identify a new source of circular polarization, due to mode coupling in an asymmetric QT region. I also identify a new circular-polarization-dependent correction to the dispersion measure at low frequencies.

  5. FARADAY ROTATION: EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELD REVERSALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melrose, D B [SIfA, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2010-12-20

    The standard formula for the rotation measure (RM), which determines the position angle, {psi} = RM{lambda}{sup 2}, due to Faraday rotation, includes contributions only from the portions of the ray path where the natural modes of the plasma are circularly polarized. In small regions of the ray path where the projection of the magnetic field on the ray path reverses sign (called QT regions) the modes are nearly linearly polarized. The neglect of QT regions in estimating RM is not well justified at frequencies below a transition frequency where mode coupling changes from strong to weak. By integrating the polarization transfer equation across a QT region in the latter limit, I estimate the additional contribution {Delta}{psi} needed to correct this omission. In contrast with a result proposed by Broderick and Blandford, {Delta}{psi} is small and probably unobservable. I identify a new source of circular polarization, due to mode coupling in an asymmetric QT region. I also identify a new circular-polarization-dependent correction to the dispersion measure at low frequencies.

  6. Chemical cycling and deposition of atmospheric mercury in polar regions: review of recent measurements and comparison with models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Angot

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is a worldwide contaminant that can cause adverse health effects to wildlife and humans. While atmospheric modeling traces the link from emissions to deposition of Hg onto environmental surfaces, large uncertainties arise from our incomplete understanding of atmospheric processes (oxidation pathways, deposition, and re-emission. Atmospheric Hg reactivity is exacerbated in high latitudes and there is still much to be learned from polar regions in terms of atmospheric processes. This paper provides a synthesis of the atmospheric Hg monitoring data available in recent years (2011–2015 in the Arctic and in Antarctica along with a comparison of these observations with numerical simulations using four cutting-edge global models. The cycle of atmospheric Hg in the Arctic and in Antarctica presents both similarities and differences. Coastal sites in the two regions are both influenced by springtime atmospheric Hg depletion events and by summertime snowpack re-emission and oceanic evasion of Hg. The cycle of atmospheric Hg differs between the two regions primarily because of their different geography. While Arctic sites are significantly influenced by northern hemispheric Hg emissions especially in winter, coastal Antarctic sites are significantly influenced by the reactivity observed on the East Antarctic ice sheet due to katabatic winds. Based on the comparison of multi-model simulations with observations, this paper discusses whether the processes that affect atmospheric Hg seasonality and interannual variability are appropriately represented in the models and identifies research gaps in our understanding of the atmospheric Hg cycling in high latitudes.

  7. Increased Regional Epicardial Fat Volume Associated with Reversible Myocardial Ischemia in Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Tuba; Greer, Christine; Thadani, Samir R.; Kato, Tomoko S.; Bhatia, Ketan; Shimbo, Daichi; Konkak, Andrew; Bokhari, Sabahat; Einstein, Andrew J.; Schulze, P. Christian

    2015-01-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue is a source of pro-inflammatory cytokines and has been linked to the development of coronary artery disease. No study has systematically assessed the relationship between local epicardial fat volume (EFV) and myocardial perfusion defects. We analyzed EFV in patients undergoing SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging combined with computed tomography (CT) for attenuation correction. Low-dose CT without contrast was performed in 396 consecutive patients undergoing SPECT imaging for evaluation of coronary artery disease. Regional thickness, cross-sectional areas, and total EFV were assessed. 295 patients had normal myocardial perfusion scans and 101 had abnormal perfusion scans. Mean EFVs in normal, ischemic, and infarcted hearts were 99.8 ± 82.3 cm3, 156.4 ± 121.9 cm3, and 96.3 ± 102.1 cm3, respectively (P < 0.001). Reversible perfusion defects were associated with increased local EFV compared to normal perfusion in the distribution of the right (69.2 ± 51.5 vs 46.6 ± 32.0 cm3; P = 0.03) and left anterior descending coronary artery (87.1 ± 76.4 vs 46.7 ± 40.6 cm3; P = 0.005). Our results demonstrate increased regional epicardial fat in patients with active myocardial ischemia compared to patients with myocardial scar or normal perfusion on nuclear perfusion scans. Our results suggest a potential role for cardiac CT to improve risk stratification in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. PMID:25339129

  8. ARCAD3-SAFARI coordinated study of auroral and polar F-region ionospheric irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villain, J.P.; Hanuise, C.

    1986-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of F-region ionospheric irregularities have been performed with the SAFARI ground-based HF radars and the ISOPROBE experiment on board the AUREOL-3 satellite. Among seven orbits during which the satellite trajectory was directly in the radar beam or in the vicinity, four of them have been analyzed in detail. The spectral power of the electron density variations ΔNsub(e)/Nsub(e) has been calculated for wavelengths between 20 m and 1 km from the isoprobe high time resolution thermal plasma measurements. One spectrum is obtained every 1.2 s, a time which corresponds to about 10 km along the satellite trajectory. The presence of echoes observed in the F-region with the SAFARI radars is compared with the spectral power of the electron density variations deduced from the ISOPROBE ''in situ'' measurements. A good agreement is found between the two sets of observations and a numerical value of the spectral power corresponding to detection of echoes by the radar is given. A synoptical view of the event is given and interpreted according to the existing theories of plasma irregularities

  9. PoLAR Voices: Informing Adult Learners about the Science and Story of Climate Change in the Polar Regions Through Audio Podcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinney, A.; Murray, M. S.; Gobroski, K. A.; Topp, R. M.; Pfirman, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The resurgence of audio programming with the advent of podcasting in the early 2000s spawned a new medium for communicating advances in science, research, and technology. To capitalize on this informal educational outlet, the Arctic Institute of North America partnered with the International Arctic Research Center, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the UA Museum of the North to develop a podcast series called PoLAR Voices for the Polar Learning and Responding (PoLAR) Climate Change Education Partnership. PoLAR Voices is a public education initiative that uses creative storytelling and novel narrative structures to immerse the listener in an auditory depiction of climate change. The programs will feature the science and story of climate change, approaching topics from both the points of view of researchers and Arctic indigenous peoples. This approach will engage the listener in the holistic story of climate change, addressing both scientific and personal perspectives, resulting in a program that is at once educational, entertaining and accessible. Feedback is being collected at each stage of development to ensure the content and format of the program satisfies listener interests and preferences. Once complete, the series will be released on thepolarhub.org and on iTunes. Additionally, blanket distribution of the programs will be accomplished via radio broadcast in urban, rural and remote areas, and in multiple languages to increase distribution and enhance accessibility.

  10. Geomagnetic Reversals during the Phanerozoic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhinny, M W

    1971-04-09

    An antalysis of worldwide paleomagnetic measurements suggests a periodicity of 350 x 10(6) years in the polarity of the geomagnetic field. During the Mesozoic it is predominantly normal, whereas during the Upper Paleozoic it is predominantly reversed. Although geomagnetic reversals occur at different rates throughout the Phanerozoic, there appeaars to be no clear correlation between biological evolutionary rates and reversal frequency.

  11. Two-step transition towards the reversibility region in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8-δ single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoriza, H.; de La Cruz, F.; Mitzi, D. B.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1992-10-01

    We have performed magnetization measurements on Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8-δ single crystals in the c^ crystallographic direction for fields from 2 Oe up to 700 Oe. The results strongly suggest that the reversible thermodynamic region is achieved after the vortex flux structure shows an abrupt transition at a temperature lower than that determined by the irreversibility line.

  12. DUST IN THE POLAR REGION AS A MAJOR CONTRIBUTOR TO THE INFRARED EMISSION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenig, S. F.; Antonucci, R. [Department of Physics, University of California in Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93109 (United States); Kishimoto, M.; Tristram, K. R. W.; Asmus, D.; Weigelt, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Prieto, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Gandhi, P. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Burtscher, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrae, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Duschl, W. J., E-mail: shoenig@physics.ucsb.edu [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Leibnizstr. 15, D-24098, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-07-10

    Dust around active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is distributed over a wide range of spatial scales and can be observed in the infrared (IR). It is generally assumed that the distribution on parsec scales forms a geometrically and optically thick entity in the equatorial plane around the accretion disk and broad-line region-dubbed {sup d}ust torus{sup -}that emits the bulk of the subarcsecond-scale IR emission and gives rise to orientation-dependent obscuration. However, recent IR interferometry studies with unprecedented position angle (P.A.) and baseline coverage on these small scales in two obscured (type 2) AGNs have revealed that the majority of the mid-IR emission in these objects is elongated in the polar direction. These observations are difficult to reconcile with the standard interpretation that most of the parsec-scale mid-IR emission in AGNs originate from the torus and challenges the justification of using simple torus models to model the broadband IR emission. Here, we report detailed interferometry observations of the unobscured (type 1) AGN in NGC 3783 that allow us to constrain the size, elongation, and direction of the mid-IR emission with high accuracy. The mid-IR emission is characterized by a strong elongation toward position angle P.A. -52 Degree-Sign , closely aligned with the polar axis (P.A. -45 Degree-Sign ). We determine half-light radii along the major and minor axes at 12.5 {mu}m of (20.0 {+-} 3.0) mas Multiplication-Sign (6.7 {+-} 1.0) mas or (4.23 {+-} 0.63) pc Multiplication-Sign (1.42 {+-} 0.21) pc, which corresponds to intrinsically scaled sizes of (69.4 {+-} 10.8) r{sub in} Multiplication-Sign (23.3 {+-} 3.5) r{sub in} for the inner dust radius of r{sub in} = 0.061 pc as inferred from near-IR reverberation mapping. This implies an axis ratio of 3:1, with about 60%-90% of the 8-13 {mu}m emission associated with the polar-elongated component. It is quite likely that the hot-dust emission as recently resolved by near-IR interferometry is

  13. Semi-automatic measures of activity in selected south polar regions of Mars using morphological image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Klaus-Michael; Portyankina, Ganna; Pommerol, Antoine; Thomas, Nicolas

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has been used to monitor the seasonal evolution of several regions at high southern latitudes. Of particular interest have been jet-like activities that may result from the process described by Kieffer (2007), involving translucent CO2 ice. These jets are assumed to create fan-shaped ground features, as studied e.g. in Hansen et.al. (2010) and Portyankina et.al. (2010). In Thomas et.al. (2009), a small region of interest (ROI) inside the south polar Inca City region (81° S, 296° E) was defined for which the seasonal change of the number of fans was determined. This ROI was chosen for its strong visual variability in ground features. The mostly manual counting work showed, that the number of apparent fans increases monotonously for a considerable amount of time from the beginning of the spring time observations at Ls of 178° until approx. 230° , following the increase of available solar energy for the aforementioned processes of the Kieffer model. This fact indicates that the number of visual fan features can be used as an activity measure for the seasonal evolution of this area, in addition to commonly used evolution studies of surface reflectance. Motivated by these results, we would like to determine the fan count evolution for more south polar areas like Ithaca, Manhattan, Giza and others. To increase the reproducibility of the results by avoiding potential variability in fan shape recognition by human eye and to increase the production efficiency, efforts are being undertaken to automise the fan counting procedure. The techniques used, cleanly separated in different stages of the procedure, the difficulties for each stage and an overview of the tools used at each step will be presented. After showing a proof of concept in Aye et.al. (2010), for a ROI that is comparable to the one previously used for manual counting in Thomas et.al. (2009), we now will show

  14. An unusual giant spiral arc in the polar cap region during the northward phase of a Coronal Mass Ejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rosenqvist

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The shock arrival of an Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME at ~09:50 UT on 22 November 1997 resulted in the development of an intense (Dst<−100 nT geomagnetic storm at Earth. In the early, quiet phase of the storm, in the sheath region of the ICME, an unusual large spiral structure (diameter of ~1000 km was observed at very high latitudes by the Polar UVI instrument. The evolution of this structure started as a polewardly displaced auroral bulge which further developed into the spiral structure spreading across a large part of the polar cap. This study attempts to examine the cause of the chain of events that resulted in the giant auroral spiral. During this period the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF was dominantly northward (Bz>25 nT with a strong duskward component (By>15 nT resulting in a highly twisted tail plasma sheet. Geotail was located at the equatorial dawnside magnetotail flank and observed accelerated plasma flows exceeding the solar wind bulk velocity by almost 60%. These flows are observed on the magnetosheath side of the magnetopause and the acceleration mechanism is proposed to be typical for strongly northward IMF. Identified candidates to the cause of the spiral structure include a By induced twisted magnetotail configuration, the development of magnetopause surface waves due to the enhanced pressure related to the accelerated magnetosheath flows aswell as the formation of additional magnetopause deformations due to external solar wind pressure changes. The uniqeness of the event indicate that most probably a combination of the above effects resulted in a very extreme tail topology. However, the data coverage is insufficient to fully investigate the physical mechanism behind the observations.

  15. Observation of electron biteout regions below sporadic E layers at polar latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Lehmacher

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The descent of a narrow sporadic E layer near 95 km altitude over Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska was observed with electron probes on two consecutive sounding rockets and with incoherent scatter radar during a 2 h period near magnetic midnight. A series of four trimethyl aluminum chemical releases demonstrated that the Es layer remained just slightly above the zonal wind node, which was slowly descending due to propagating long-period gravity waves. The location of the layer is consistent with the equilibrium position due to combined action of the wind shear and electric fields. Although the horizontal electric field could not be measured directly, we estimate that it was ~ 2 mV m−1 southward, consistent with modeling the vertical ion drift, and compatible with extremely quiet conditions. Both electron probes observed deep biteout regions just below the Es enhancements, which also descended with the sporadic layers. We discuss several possibilities for the cause of these depletions; one possibility is the presence of negatively charged, nanometer-sized mesospheric smoke particles. Such particles have recently been detected in the upper mesosphere, but not yet in immediate connection with sporadic E. Our observations of electron depletions suggest a new process associated with sporadic E.

  16. Investigation of mutations in the SRY, SOX9, and DAX1 genes in sex reversal patients from the Sichuan region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Ding, X P; Wei, X; Li, L X

    2014-03-12

    We investigated the molecular genetic mechanism of sex reversal by exploring the relationship between mutations in the sex-determining genes SRY, SOX9, and DAX1 with genetic sex reversal disease. Mutations in the three key genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing after karyotype analysis. The mutations detected were then aligned with a random sample of 100 normal sequences and the NCBI sequence database in order to confirm any new mutations. Furthermore, the copy number of SOX9 was measured by fluorescence quantitative PCR. Seven of the 10 male sex reversal patients (46, XX) contained an excess copy of the SRY gene, while one of the eight female sex reversal patients (46, XY) was lacking the SRY gene. Additionally, a new mutation (T-A, Asp24Lys) was detected in one female sex reversal patient (46, XY). No other mutation was detected in the analysis of SOX9 and DAX1, with the exception of an insertion mutation (c.35377791insG) found in the testicular-specific enhancer (TESCO) sequences in an SRY-positive female sex reversal patient (46, XY). Eight of the 18 sex reversal cases (44.4%) showed obvious connections with SRY gene translocations, mutations, or deletions, which was significantly higher than that reported previously (33.3%), indicating a need to further expand the range of sample collection. Overall, these results indicated that the main mechanism of sex reversal are not associated with mutations in the coding regions of SOX9 and DAX1 or copy number variations of SOX9, which is consistent with results of previous studies.

  17. Determining the source region of auroral emissions in the prenoon oval using coordinated Polar BEAR UV-imaging and DMSP particle measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, P.T.; Meng, C.I.; Huffman, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    The Polar Beacon Experiment and Auroral Research (Polar BEAR) satellite included the capability for imaging the dayside auroral oval in full sunlight at several wavelengths. The authors compare particle observations from the DMSP F7 satellite during dayside auroral oval crossings with approximately simultaneous Polar BEAR 1,356-angstrom images to determine the magnetospheric source region of the dayside auroral oval. The source region is determined from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) particle data, according to recent work concerning the classification and identification of precipitation source regions. The close DMSP/Polar BEAR coincidences all occur when the former satellite is located between 0945 and 1,000 MLT. The authors found instances of auroral arcs mapping to each of several different regions, including the boundary plasma sheet, the low-latitude boundary layer, and the plasma mantle. However, the results indicate that about half the time the most prominent auroral arcs are located at the interfaces between distinct plasma regions, at least at the local time studied here

  18. Surface temperatures in the polar regions from Nimbus 7 temperature humidity infrared radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    1994-01-01

    Monthly surface temperatures in the Arctic and Antarctic regions have been derived from the 11.5 micrometer thermal infrared channel of the Nimbus 7 temperature humidity infrared radiometer (THIR) for a whole year in 1979 and for a winter and a summer month from 1980 through 1985. The data set shows interannual variability and provides spatial details that allow identification of temperature patterns over sea ice and ice sheet surfaces. For example, the coldest spot in the southern hemisphere is observed to be consistently in the Antarctic plateau in the southern hemisphere, while that in the northern hemisphere is usually located in Greenland, or one of three other general areas: Siberia, the central Arctic, or the Canadian Archipelago. Also, in the southern hemisphere, the amplitude of the seasonal fluctuation of ice sheet temperatures is about 3 times that of sea ice, while in the northern hemisphere, the corresponding fluctuations for the two surfaces are about the same. The main sources of error in the retrieval are cloud and other atmospheric effects. These were minimized by first choosing the highest radiance value from the set of measurements during the day taken within a 30 km by 30 km grid of each daily map. Then the difference of daily maps was taken and where the difference is greater than a certain threshold (which in this case is 12 C), the data element is deleted. Overall, the monthly maps derived from the resulting daily maps are spatially and temporally consistent, are coherent with the topograph y of the Antarctic continent and the location of the sea ice edge, and are in qualitative agreement with climatological data. Quantitatively, THIR data are in good agreement with Antarctic ice sheet surface air temperature station data with a correlation coefficient of 0.997 and a standard deviation of 2.0 C. The absolute values are not as good over the sea ice edges, but a comparison with Russian 2-m drift station temperatures shows very high correlation

  19. Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Land-Water-Ecosystem Quality in Polar and Mountainous Regions: A New Interregional Project (INT5153)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dercon, Gerd [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Subprogramme, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, IAEA, Seibersdorf (Austria); Gerardo-Abaya, Jane [Division for Asia and the Pacific Section 2, Department of Technical Cooperation, IAEA, Vienna (Austria); Mavlyudov, Bulat [Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); others, and

    2014-07-15

    The INT5153 project aims to improve the understanding of the impact of climate change on fragile polar and mountainous ecosystems on both a local and global scale for their better management and conservation. Seven core and five related benchmark sites have been selected from different global regions for specific assessments of the impact of climate change with the following expected outcomes and outputs: Outcomes: • Improved understanding of the impact of climate change on the cryosphere in polar and mountainous ecosystems and its effects on landwater- ecosystem quality at both local and global scales. • Recommendations for improvement of regional policies for soil and agricultural water management, conservation, and environmental protection in polar and mountainous regions. Outputs: • Specific strategies to minimize the adverse effects of, and adapt to, reduced seasonal snow and glacier covered areas on land-water-ecosystem quality in polar and mountain regions across the world. • Enhanced interregional network of laboratories and institutions competent in the assessment of climate change impacts on the cryosphere and land-water-ecosystem quality, using isotopic and nuclear techniques. • Increased number of young scientists trained in the use of isotope and nuclear techniques to assess the impact of climate change on the cryosphere and land-water-ecosystem quality in polar and mountainous ecosystems. • Platform/database with global access for continuing work and monitoring of impact of climate change on fragile polar and mountainous ecosystems at local and global scales, as well as for communicating findings to policy makers and communities. • Improved understanding of the effects of climate change disseminated through appropriate publications, policy briefs, and through a dedicated internet platform. • Methodologies and protocols for investigations in specific ecosystems and conservation/adaptation measures for agriculture areas.

  20. Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Land-Water-Ecosystem Quality in Polar and Mountainous Regions: A New Interregional Project (INT5153)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dercon, Gerd; Gerardo-Abaya, Jane; Mavlyudov, Bulat

    2014-01-01

    The INT5153 project aims to improve the understanding of the impact of climate change on fragile polar and mountainous ecosystems on both a local and global scale for their better management and conservation. Seven core and five related benchmark sites have been selected from different global regions for specific assessments of the impact of climate change with the following expected outcomes and outputs: Outcomes: • Improved understanding of the impact of climate change on the cryosphere in polar and mountainous ecosystems and its effects on landwater- ecosystem quality at both local and global scales. • Recommendations for improvement of regional policies for soil and agricultural water management, conservation, and environmental protection in polar and mountainous regions. Outputs: • Specific strategies to minimize the adverse effects of, and adapt to, reduced seasonal snow and glacier covered areas on land-water-ecosystem quality in polar and mountain regions across the world. • Enhanced interregional network of laboratories and institutions competent in the assessment of climate change impacts on the cryosphere and land-water-ecosystem quality, using isotopic and nuclear techniques. • Increased number of young scientists trained in the use of isotope and nuclear techniques to assess the impact of climate change on the cryosphere and land-water-ecosystem quality in polar and mountainous ecosystems. • Platform/database with global access for continuing work and monitoring of impact of climate change on fragile polar and mountainous ecosystems at local and global scales, as well as for communicating findings to policy makers and communities. • Improved understanding of the effects of climate change disseminated through appropriate publications, policy briefs, and through a dedicated internet platform. • Methodologies and protocols for investigations in specific ecosystems and conservation/adaptation measures for agriculture areas

  1. Reversal reaction in borderline leprosy is associated with a polarized shift to type 1-like Mycobacterium leprae T cell reactivity in lesional skin: a follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, C. E.; Wierenga, E. A.; Buffing, A. A.; Chand, M. A.; Faber, W. R.; Das, P. K.

    1997-01-01

    Borderline leprosy patients often undergo acute changes in immune reactivity that manifest as reversal reaction (RR) in the course of the disease. RR is associated with an exacerbated local delayed-type cellular immune response to Mycobacterium leprae and is responsible for severe tissue damage. We

  2. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ON RHIC SPIN PHYSICS III AND IV, POLARIZED PARTONS AT HIGH Q2 REGION (VOLUME 31)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BUNCE, G.; VIGDOR, S.

    2001-01-01

    International workshop on II Polarized Partons at High Q2 region 11 was held at the Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan on October 13-14, 2000, as a satellite of the international conference ''SPIN 2000'' (Osaka, Japan, October 16-21,2000). This workshop was supported by RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) and by Yukawa Institute. The scientific program was focused on the upcoming polarized collider RHIC. The workshop was also an annual meeting of RHIC Spin Collaboration (RSC). The number of participants was 55, including 28 foreign visitors and 8 foreign-resident Japanese participants, reflecting the international nature of the RHIC spin program. At the workshop there were 25 oral presentations in four sessions, (1) RHIC Spin Commissioning, (2) Polarized Partons, Present and Future, (3) New Ideas on Polarization Phenomena, (4) Strategy for the Coming Spin Running. In (1) the successful polarized proton commissioning and the readiness of the accelerator for the physics program impressed us. In (2) and (3) active discussions were made on the new structure function to be firstly measured at RHIC, and several new theoretical ideas were presented. In session (4) we have established a plan for the beam time requirement toward the first collision of polarized protons. These proceedings include the transparencies presented at the workshop. The discussion on ''Strategy for the Coming Spin Running'' was summarized by the chairman of the session, S. Vigdor and G. Bunce

  3. Dune field pattern formation and recent transporting winds in the Olympia Undae Dune Field, north polar region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Ryan C.; Peyret, Aymeric-Pierre B.; Kocurek, Gary; Bourke, Mary

    2010-08-01

    High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) imagery of the central Olympia Undae Dune Field in the north polar region of Mars shows a reticulate dune pattern consisting of two sets of nearly orthogonal dune crestlines, with apparent slipfaces on the primary crests, ubiquitous wind ripples, areas of coarse-grained wind ripples, and deflated interdune areas. Geomorphic evidence and dune field pattern analysis of dune crest length, spacing, defect density, and orientation indicates that the pattern is complex, representing two constructional generations of dunes. The oldest and best-organized generation forms the primary crestlines and is transverse to circumpolar easterly winds. Gross bed form-normal analysis of the younger pattern of crestlines indicates that it emerged with both circumpolar easterly winds and NE winds and is reworking the older pattern. Mapping of secondary flow fields over the dunes indicates that the most recent transporting winds were from the NE. The younger pattern appears to represent an influx of sediment to the dune field associated with the development of the Olympia Cavi reentrant, with NE katabatic winds channeling through the reentrant. A model of the pattern reformation based upon the reconstructed primary winds and resulting secondary flow fields shows that the development of the secondary pattern is controlled by the boundary condition of the older dune topography.

  4. The influence of IMF cone angle on invariant latitudes of polar region footprints of FACs in the magnetotail: Cluster observatio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Z.; Shi, J.; Zhang, J.; Kistler, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) cone angle θ (the angle between the IMF direction and the Sun-Earth line) on the invariant latitudes (ILATs) of the footprints of the field-aligned currents (FACs) in the magnetotail has been investigated. We performed a statistic study of 542 FAC cases observed by the four Cluster spacecraft in the northern hemisphere. The results show that the large FAC (>10 nA/m2) cases occur at the low ILATs (60º, which implies the footprints of the large FACs mainly expand equatorward with large IMF cone angle. The equatorward boundary of the FAC footprints in the polar region decreases with the IMF cone angle especially when IMF Bz is positive. There is almost no correlation or a weak positive correlation of the poleward boundary and IMF cone angle no matter IMF is northward or southward. The equatorward boundary is more responsive to the IMF cone angle. Compared to the equatorward boundary, the center of the FAC projected location changes very little. This is the first time a correlation between FAC projected location and IMF cone angle has been determined.

  5. A polar-region-adaptable systematic bias collaborative measurement method for shipboard redundant rotational inertial navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Wu, Wenqi; Wei, Guo; Lian, Junxiang; Yu, Ruihang

    2018-05-01

    The shipboard redundant rotational inertial navigation system (RINS) configuration, including a dual-axis RINS and a single-axis RINS, can satisfy the demand of marine INSs of especially high reliability as well as achieving trade-off between position accuracy and cost. Generally, the dual-axis RINS is the master INS, and the single-axis RINS is the hot backup INS for high reliability purposes. An integrity monitoring system performs a fault detection function to ensure sailing safety. However, improving the accuracy of the backup INS in case of master INS failure has not been given enough attention. Without the aid of any external information, a systematic bias collaborative measurement method based on an augmented Kalman filter is proposed for the redundant RINSs. Estimates of inertial sensor biases can be used by the built-in integrity monitoring system to monitor the RINS running condition. On the other hand, a position error prediction model is designed for the single-axis RINS to estimate the systematic error caused by its azimuth gyro bias. After position error compensation, the position information provided by the single-axis RINS still remains highly accurate, even if the integrity monitoring system detects a dual-axis RINS fault. Moreover, use of a grid frame as a navigation frame makes the proposed method applicable in any area, including the polar regions. Semi-physical simulation and experiments including sea trials verify the validity of the method.

  6. Polarized BRDF measurement of steel E235B in the near-infrared region: Based on a self-designed instrument with absolute measuring method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanlei; Yu, Kun; Liu, Zilong; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Yufang

    2018-06-01

    The spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution (BRDF) offers a complete description of the optical properties of the opaque material. Numerous studies on BRDF have been conducted for its important role in scientific research and industrial production. However, most of these studies focus on the visible region and unpolarized BRDF, and the spectral polarized BRDF in the near-infrared region is rarely reported. In this letter, we propose an absolute method to measure the spectral BRDF in the near-infrared region, and the detailed derivation is presented. A self-designed instrument is set up for the absolute measurement of BRDF. The reliability of this method is verified by comparing the experimental data of the three metal (aluminum, silver and gold) mirrors with the reference data. The in-plane polarized BRDF of steel E235B are measured, and the influence of incident angle and roughness on the BRDF are discussed. The degree of linear polarization (DOLP) are determined based on the polarized BRDF. The results indicate that both the roughness and incident angle have distinct influence on the BRDF and DOLP.

  7. Reversible Stress Cardiomyopathy Presenting as Acute Coronary Syndrome with Elevated Troponin in the Absence of Regional Wall Motion Abnormalities: A Forme Fruste of Stress Cardiomyopathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Anantha Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of reversible stress cardiomyopathy in a surgical patient, described here as a forme fruste due to its atypical features. It is important to recognize such unusual presentation of stress cardiomyopathy that mimics acute coronary syndrome. Stress cardiomyopathy commonly presents as acute coronary syndrome and is characterized by typical or atypical variants of regional wall motion abnormalities. We report a 60-year-old Caucasian male with reversible stress cardiomyopathy following a sternal fracture fixation. Although the patient had several typical features of stress cardiomyopathy including physical stress, ST-segment elevation, elevated cardiac biomarkers and normal epicardial coronaries, there were few features that were atypical, including unusual age, gender, absence of regional wall motion abnormalities, high lateral ST elevation, and high troponin-ejection fraction product. In conclusion, this could represent a forme fruste of stress cardiomyopathy.

  8. Polarized nuclear target based on parahydrogen induced polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Budker, D.; Ledbetter, M. P.; Appelt, S.; Bouchard, L. S.; Wojtsekhowski, B.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss a novel concept of a polarized nuclear target for accelerator fixed-target scattering experiments, which is based on parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). One may be able to reach a 33% free-proton polarization in the ethane molecule. The potential advantages of such a target include operation at zero magnetic field, fast ($\\sim$100 Hz) polarization reversal, and operation with large intensity of an electron beam.

  9. Evidence for Surface Water Ice in the Lunar Polar Regions Using Reflectance Measurements from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter and Temperature Measurements from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Lucey, Paul G.; Lemelin, Myriam; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Siegler, Matthew A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Aharonson, Oded; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Hayne, Paul O.; Neumann, Gregory A.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We find that the reflectance of the lunar surface within 5 deg of latitude of theSouth Pole increases rapidly with decreasing temperature, near approximately 110K, behavior consistent with the presence of surface water ice. The North polar region does not show this behavior, nor do South polar surfaces at latitudes more than 5 deg from the pole. This South pole reflectance anomaly persists when analysis is limited to surfaces with slopes less than 10 deg to eliminate false detection due to the brightening effect of mass wasting, and also when the very bright south polar crater Shackleton is excluded from the analysis. We also find that south polar regions of permanent shadow that have been reported to be generally brighter at 1064 nm do not show anomalous reflectance when their annual maximum surface temperatures are too high to preserve water ice. This distinction is not observed at the North Pole. The reflectance excursion on surfaces with maximum temperatures below 110K is superimposed on a general trend of increasing reflectance with decreasing maximum temperature that is present throughout the polar regions in the north and south; we attribute this trend to a temperature or illumination-dependent space weathering effect (e.g. Hemingway et al. 2015). We also find a sudden increase in reflectance with decreasing temperature superimposed on the general trend at 200K and possibly at 300K. This may indicate the presence of other volatiles such as sulfur or organics. We identified and mapped surfaces with reflectances so high as to be unlikely to be part of an ice-free population. In this south we find a similar distribution found by Hayne et al. 2015 based on UV properties. In the north a cluster of pixels near that pole may represent a limited frost exposure.

  10. Evidence for surface water ice in the lunar polar regions using reflectance measurements from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter and temperature measurements from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Lucey, Paul G.; Lemelin, Myriam; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Siegler, Matthew A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Aharonson, Oded; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Hayne, Paul O.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Paige, David A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2017-08-01

    We find that the reflectance of the lunar surface within 5° of latitude of the South Pole increases rapidly with decreasing temperature, near ∼110 K, behavior consistent with the presence of surface water ice. The North polar region does not show this behavior, nor do South polar surfaces at latitudes more than 5° from the pole. This South pole reflectance anomaly persists when analysis is limited to surfaces with slopes less than 10° to eliminate false detection due to the brightening effect of mass wasting, and also when the very bright south polar crater Shackleton is excluded from the analysis. We also find that south polar regions of permanent shadow that have been reported to be generally brighter at 1064 nm do not show anomalous reflectance when their annual maximum surface temperatures are too high to preserve water ice. This distinction is not observed at the North Pole. The reflectance excursion on surfaces with maximum temperatures below 110 K is superimposed on a general trend of increasing reflectance with decreasing maximum temperature that is present throughout the polar regions in the north and south; we attribute this trend to a temperature or illumination-dependent space weathering effect (e.g. Hemingway et al., 2015). We also find a sudden increase in reflectance with decreasing temperature superimposed on the general trend at 200 K and possibly at 300 K. This may indicate the presence of other volatiles such as sulfur or organics. We identified and mapped surfaces with reflectances so high as to be unlikely to be part of an ice-free population. In this south we find a similar distribution found by Hayne et al. (2015) based on UV properties. In the north a cluster of pixels near that pole may represent a limited frost exposure.

  11. Polar Kerr Effect from Time-Reversal Symmetry Breaking in the Heavy-Fermion Superconductor PrOs4Sb12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson-Falk, E. M.; Schemm, E. R.; Aoki, Y.; Maple, M. B.; Kapitulnik, A.

    2018-05-01

    We present polar Kerr effect measurements of the filled skutterudite superconductor PrOs4 Sb12 . Simultaneous ac susceptibility measurements allow us to observe the superconducting transition under the influence of heating from the optical beam. A nonzero Kerr angle θK develops below the superconducting transition, saturating at ˜300 nrad at low temperatures. This result is repeated across several measurements of multiple samples. By extrapolating the measured θK(T ) to zero optical power, we are able to show that the Kerr angle onset temperature in one set of measurements is consistent with the transition to the B phase at TC 2. We discuss the possible explanations for this result and its impact on the understanding of multiphase and inhomogeneous superconductivity in PrOs4 Sb12 .

  12. Features of ozone intraannual variability in polar regions based on ozone sounding data obtained at the Resolute and Amundsen-Scott stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, A.N.; Sitnov, S.A. (AN SSSR, Institut Fiziki Atmosfery, Moscow (USSR))

    1991-04-01

    Ozone sounding data obtained at the Resolute and Amundsen-Scott stations are used to analyze ozone intraannual variability in Southern and Northern polar regions. For the Arctic, in particular, features associated with winter stratospheric warmings, stratospheric-tropospheric exchange, and the isolated evolution of surface ozone are noted. Correlative connections between ozone and temperature making it possible to concretize ozone variability mechanisms are analyzed. 31 refs.

  13. Polarized neutron reflectometry in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, H.

    2005-01-01

    A simple method is described to maintain the polarization of a neutron beam on its way through the large magnetic stray fields produced by a vertical field of a cryomagnet with a split-coil geometry. The two key issues are the proper shielding of the neutron spin flippers and an additional radial field component in order to guide the neutron spin through the region of the null point (i.e., point of reversal for the vertical field component). Calculations of the neutron's spin rotation as well as polarized neutron reflectometry experiments on an ErFe 2 /DyFe 2 multilayer show the perfect performance of the used setup. The recently commissioned cryomagnet M5 with a maximum vertical field of up to 7.2 T in asymmetric mode for polarized neutrons and 9 T in symmetric mode for unpolarized neutrons was used on the C5 spectrometer in reflectometry mode, at the NRU reactor in Chalk River, Canada

  14. Improved Detection of Lassa Virus by Reverse Transcription-PCR Targeting the 5′ Region of S RNA▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ölschläger, Stephan; Lelke, Michaela; Emmerich, Petra; Panning, Marcus; Drosten, Christian; Hass, Meike; Asogun, Danny; Ehichioya, Deborah; Omilabu, Sunday; Günther, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    The method of choice for the detection of Lassa virus is reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. However, the high degree of genetic variability of the virus poses a problem with the design of RT-PCR assays that will reliably detect all strains. Recently, we encountered difficulties in detecting some strains from Liberia and Nigeria in a commonly used glycoprotein precursor (GPC) gene-specific RT-PCR assay (A. H. Demby, J. Chamberlain, D. W. Brown, and C. S. Clegg, J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:2898-2903, 1...

  15. Polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    The book on 'polarized neutrons' is intended to inform researchers in condensed matter physics and chemistry of the diversity of scientific problems that can be investigated using polarized neutron beams. The contents include chapters on:- neutron polarizers and instrumentation, polarized neutron scattering, neutron polarization analysis experiments and precessing neutron polarization. (U.K.)

  16. Assessment of the Global and Regional Land Hydrosphere and Its Impact on the Balance of the Geophysical Excitation Function of Polar Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wińska, Małgorzata; Nastula, Jolanta; Kołaczek, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    The impact of continental hydrological loading from land water, snow and ice on polar motion excitation, calculated as hydrological angular momentum (HAM), is difficult to estimate, and not as much is known about it as about atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) and oceanic angular momentum (OAM). In this paper, regional hydrological excitations to polar motion are investigated using monthly terrestrial water storage data derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission and from the five models of land hydrology. The results show that the areas where the variance shows large variability are similar for the different models of land hydrology and for the GRACE data. Areas which have a small amplitude on the maps make an important contribution to the global hydrological excitation function of polar motion. The comparison of geodetic residuals and global hydrological excitation functions of polar motion shows that none of the hydrological excitation has enough energy to significantly improve the agreement between the observed geodetic excitation and geophysical ones.

  17. Discrimination of coastal wetland environments in the Amazon region based on multi-polarized L-band airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir M.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Rodrigues, Suzan W. P.; Costa, Francisco R.; Mura, José C.; Gonçalves, Fabrício D.

    2011-11-01

    This study assessed the use of multi-polarized L-band images for the identification of coastal wetland environments in the Amazon coast region of northern Brazil. Data were acquired with a SAR R99B sensor from the Amazon Surveillance System (SIVAM) on board a Brazilian Air Force jet. Flights took place in the framework of the 2005 MAPSAR simulation campaign, a German-Brazilian feasibility study focusing on a L-band SAR satellite. Information retrieval was based on the recognition of the interaction between a radar signal and shallow-water morphology in intertidal areas, coastal dunes, mangroves, marshes and the coastal plateau. Regarding the performance of polarizations, VV was superior for recognizing intertidal area morphology under low spring tide conditions; HH for mapping coastal environments covered with forest and scrub vegetation such as mangrove and vegetated dunes, and HV was suitable for distinguishing transition zones between mangroves and coastal plateau. The statistical results for the classification maps expressed by kappa index and general accuracy were 83.3% and 0.734 for the multi-polarized color composition (R-HH, G-HV, B-VV), 80.7% and 0.694% for HH, 79.7% and 0.673% for VV, and 77.9% and 0.645% for HV amplitude image. The results indicate that use of multi-polarized L-band SAR is a valuable source of information aiming at the identification and discrimination of distinct geomorphic targets in tropical wetlands.

  18. Simulation study of wave phenomena from the sheath region in single frequency capacitively coupled plasma discharges; field reversals and ion reflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.; Turner, M. M. [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2013-07-15

    Capacitively coupled radio-frequency (RF) discharges have great significance for industrial applications. Collisionless electron heating in such discharges is important, and sometimes is the dominant mechanism. This heating is usually understood to originate in a stochastic interaction between electrons and the electric fields. However, other mechanisms may also be important. There is evidence of wave emission with a frequency near the electron plasma frequency, i.e., ω{sub pe}, from the sheath region in collisionless capacitive RF discharges. This is the result of a progressive breakdown of quasi-neutrality close to the electron sheath edge. These waves are damped in a few centimeters during their propagation from the sheath towards the bulk plasma. The damping occurs because of the Landau damping or some related mechanism. This research work reports that the emission of waves is associated with a field reversal during the expanding phase of the sheath. Trapping of electrons near to this field reversal region is observed. The amplitude of the wave increases with increasing RF current density amplitude J(tilde sign){sub 0} until some maximum is reached, beyond which the wave diminishes and a new regime appears. In this new regime, the density of the bulk plasma suddenly increases because of ion reflection, which occurs due to the presence of strong field reversal near sheath region. Our calculation shows that these waves are electron plasma waves. These phenomena occur under extreme conditions (i.e., higher J(tilde sign){sub 0} than in typical experiments) for sinusoidal current waveforms, but similar effects may occur with non-sinusoidal pulsed waveforms for conditions of experimental interest, because the rate of change of current is a relevant parameter. The effect of electron elastic collisions on plasma waves is also investigated.

  19. Tuning Stilbene Photochemistry by Fluorination: State Reordering Leads to Sudden Polarization near the Franck-Condon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioffe, Ilya N; Quick, Martin; Quick, Michael T; Dobryakov, Alexander L; Richter, Celin; Granovsky, Alex A; Berndt, Falko; Mahrwald, Rainer; Ernsting, Nikolaus P; Kovalenko, Sergey A

    2017-10-25

    Spontaneous polarization of a nonpolar molecule upon photoexcitation (the sudden polarization effect) earlier discussed for 90°-twisted alkenes is observed and calculated for planar ring-fluorinated stilbenes, trans-2,3,5,6,2',3',5',6'-octofluorostilbene (tF2356) and trans-2,3,4,5,6,2',3',4',5',6'-decafluorostilbene (tF23456). Due to the fluorination, Franck-Condon states S 1 FC and S 2 FC are dominated by the quasi-degenerate HOMO-1 → LUMO and HOMO-2 → LUMO excitations, while their interaction gives rise to a symmetry-broken zwitterionic S 1 state. After optical excitation of tF2356, one observes an ultrafast (∼0.06 ps) evolution that reflects relaxation from initial nonpolar S 3 FC to long-lived (1.3 ns in n-hexane and 3.4 ns in acetonitrile) polar S 1 . The polarity of S 1 is evidenced by a solvatochromic shift of its fluorescence band. The experimental results provide a sensitive test for quantum-chemical calculations. In particular, our calculations agree with the experiment, and raise concerns about the applicability of the common TDDFT approach to relatively simple stilbenic systems.

  20. Comparing lightning polarity and cloud microphysical properties over regions of high ground flash density in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, LA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find a correlation between lightning polarity and microphysical properties of a storm cloud, for events where large amounts of lightning damage have occured and/or there has been a reported lightning-related fatality....

  1. Reverse Algols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, K. C.

    1989-01-01

    Reverse Algols, binary systems with a semidetached configuration in which the more massive component is in contact with the critical equipotential surface, are examined. Observational evidence for reverse Algols is presented and the parameters of seven reverse Algols are listed. The evolution of Algols and reverse Algols is discussed. It is suggested that, because reverse Algols represent the premass-reversal semidetached phase of close binary evolution, the evolutionary time scale between regular and reverse Algols is the ratio of the number of confirmed systems of these two Algol types.

  2. Unusual Polar Conditions in Solar Cycle 24 and Their Implications for Cycle 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Yashiro, Seiji; Akiyama, Sachiko

    2016-01-01

    We report on the prolonged solar-maximum conditions until late 2015 at the north-polar region of the Sun indicated by the occurrence of high-latitude prominence eruptions (PEs) and microwave brightness temperature close to the quiet-Sun level. These two aspects of solar activity indicate that the polarity reversal was completed by mid-2014 in the south and late 2015 in the north. The microwave brightness in the south-polar region has increased to a level exceeding the level of the Cycle 23/24 minimum, but just started to increase in the north. The northsouth asymmetry in the polarity reversal has switched from that in Cycle 23. These observations lead us to the hypothesis that the onset of Cycle 25 in the northern hemisphere is likely to be delayed with respect to that in the southern hemisphere. We find that the unusual condition in the north is a direct consequence of the arrival of poleward surges of opposite polarity from the active region belt. We also find that multiple rush-to-the-pole episodes were indicated by the PE locations that lined up at the boundary between opposite-polarity surges. The high-latitude PEs occurred in the boundary between the incumbent polar flux and the insurgent flux of opposite polarity.

  3. Reverse Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikova, Olga

    2016-01-01

    This thesis was focused on the analysis of the concept of reverse logistics and actual reverse processes which are implemented in mining industry and finding solutions for the optimization of reverse logistics in this sphere. The objective of this paper was the assessment of the development of reverse logistics in mining industry on the example of potash production. The theoretical part was based on reverse logistics and mining waste related literature and provided foundations for further...

  4. ST5 Observations of the Imbalance of Region 1 and 2 Field-Aligned Currents and Its Implication to the Cross-Polar Cap Pedersen Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guan; Slavin, J. A.; Strangeway, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we use the in-situ magnetic field observations from Space Technology 5 mission to quantify the imbalance of Region 1 (R1) and Region 2 (R2) currents. During the three-month duration of the ST5 mission, geomagnetic conditions range from quiet to moderately active. We find that the R1 current intensity is consistently stronger than the R2 current intensity both for the dawnside and the duskside large-scale field-aligned current system. The net currents flowing into (out of) the ionosphere in the dawnside (duskside) are in the order of 5% of the total R1 currents. We also find that the net currents flowing into or out of the ionosphere are controlled by the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction in the same way as the field-aligned currents themselves are. Since the net currents due to the imbalance of the R1 and R2 currents require that their closure currents flow across the polar cap from dawn to dusk as Pedersen currents, our results indicate that the total amount of the cross-polar cap Pedersen currents is in the order of 0.1 MA. This study, although with a very limited dataset, is one of the first attempts to quantify the cross-polar cap Pedersen currents. Given the importance of the Joule heating due to Pedersen currents to the high-latitude ionospheric electrodynamics, quantifying the cross-polar cap Pedersen currents and associated Joule heating is needed for developing models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  5. The Contribution of Water Ice Clouds to the Water Cycle in the North Polar Region of Mars: Preliminary Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, D. S.; Tamppari, L. K.

    2000-01-01

    While it has long been known that Mars' north residual polar cap and the Martian regolith are significant sources of atmospheric water vapor, the amount of water vapor observed in the northern spring season by the Viking Mars Atmospheric Water Detector instrument (MAWD) cannot be attributed to cap and regolith sources alone. Kahn suggested that ice hazes may be the mechanism by which additional water is supplied to the Martian atmosphere. Additionally, a significant decrease in atmospheric water vapor was observed in the late northern summer that could not be correlated with the return of the cold seasonal C02 ice. While the detection of water ice clouds on Mars indicate that water exists in Mars' atmosphere in several different phases, the extent to which water ice clouds play a role in moving water through the Martian atmosphere remains uncertain. Work by Bass et. al. suggested that the time dependence of water ice cap seasonal variability and the increase in atmospheric water vapor depended on the polar cap center reaching 200K, the night time saturation temperature. Additionally, they demonstrated that a decrease in atmospheric water vapor may be attributed to deposition of water ice onto the surface of the polar cap; temperatures were still too warm at this time in the summer for the deposition of carbon dioxide. However, whether water ice clouds contribute significantly to this variability is unknown. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

  6. Detailed EXOSAT and optical observations of the intermediate polar 3A0729+103: discovery of two medium energy X-ray emission regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHardy, I.M.; Pye, J.P.; Fairall, A.P.; Menzies, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    EXOSAT observations of the intermediate polar cataclysmic variable 3A0729+103 reveal a strong orbital modulation, with the 2-4KeV X-rays being significantly more modulated than the 4-6keV X-rays, indicative of photoelectric absorption. The 913 second modulation which is very prominent in the optical light curve, is weakly detected in the medium-energy X-ray light curve, confirming that it represents the white dwarf spin period. These observations are well explained by a combination of two sources of medium-energy X-ray emission. The presence of two emission regions is also clearly seen in the optical spectroscopy, particularly in the intensity of the He II4686 line which has two peaks during the orbit. The authors identify the two optical emission regions with the two X-ray emission regions. (author)

  7. Structure of the auroral precipitation region in the dawn sector: relationship to convection reversal boundaries and field-aligned currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Feldstein

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Simultaneous DMSP F7 and Viking satellite measurements of the dawnside high-latitude auroral energy electron and ion precipitation show that the region of the low and middle altitude auroral precipitation consists of three characteristic plasma regimes. The recommendation of the IAGA Working Group IIF/III4 at the IAGA Assembly in Boulder, July 1995 to decouple the nomenclature of ionospheric populations from magnetospheric population is used for their notation. The most equatorial regime is the Diffuse Auroral Zone (DAZ of diffuse spatially unstructured precipitating electrons. It is generated by the plasma injection to the inner magnetosphere in the nightside and the subsequent drift plasma to the dawnside around the Earth. Precipitating particles have a hard spectrum with typical energies of electrons and ions of more than 3 keV. In the DAZ, the ion pitch-angle distribution is anisotropic, with the peak near 90°. The next part is the Auroral Oval (AO, a structured electron regime which closely resembles the poleward portion of the night-side auroral oval. The typical electron energy is several keV, and the ion energy is up to 10 keV. Ion distributions are pre-dominantly isotropic. In some cases, this plasma regime may be absent in the pre-noon sector. Poleward of the Auroral Oval, there is the Soft Small Scale Luminosity (SSSL regime. It is caused by structured electron and ion precipitation with typical electron energy of about 0.3 keV and ion energy of about 1 keV. The connection of these low-altitude regimes with plasma domains of the distant magnetosphere is discussed. For mapping of the plasma regimes to the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere, the empirical model by Tsyganenko (1995 and the conceptual model by Alexeev et al. (1996 are used. The DAZ is mapped along the magnetic field lines to the Remnant Layer (RL, which is located in the outer radiation belt region; the zone of structured electrons and isotropic ion

  8. Structure of the auroral precipitation region in the dawn sector: relationship to convection reversal boundaries and field-aligned currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Feldstein

    Full Text Available

    Abstract. Simultaneous DMSP F7 and Viking satellite measurements of the dawnside high-latitude auroral energy electron and ion precipitation show that the region of the low and middle altitude auroral precipitation consists of three characteristic plasma regimes. The recommendation of the IAGA Working Group IIF/III4 at the IAGA Assembly in Boulder, July 1995 to decouple the nomenclature of ionospheric populations from magnetospheric population is used for their notation. The most equatorial regime is the Diffuse Auroral Zone (DAZ of diffuse spatially unstructured precipitating electrons. It is generated by the plasma injection to the inner magnetosphere in the nightside and the subsequent drift plasma to the dawnside around the Earth. Precipitating particles have a hard spectrum with typical energies of electrons and ions of more than 3 keV. In the DAZ, the ion pitch-angle distribution is anisotropic, with the peak near 90°. The next part is the Auroral Oval (AO, a structured electron regime which closely resembles the poleward portion of the night-side auroral oval. The typical electron energy is several keV, and the ion energy is up to 10 keV. Ion distributions are pre-dominantly isotropic. In some cases, this plasma regime may be absent in the pre-noon sector. Poleward of the Auroral Oval, there is the Soft Small Scale Luminosity (SSSL regime. It is caused by structured electron and ion precipitation with typical electron energy of about 0.3 keV and ion energy of about 1 keV. The connection of these low-altitude regimes with plasma domains of the distant magnetosphere is discussed. For mapping of the plasma regimes to the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere, the empirical model by Tsyganenko (1995 and the conceptual model by Alexeev et al. (1996 are used. The DAZ is mapped along the magnetic field lines to the Remnant Layer (RL, which is located in the outer radiation belt region; the zone of structured

  9. Contribution of the C-terminal tri-lysine regions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase for efficient reverse transcription and viral DNA nuclear import

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowke Keith R

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to mediating the integration process, HIV-1 integrase (IN has also been implicated in different steps during viral life cycle including reverse transcription and viral DNA nuclear import. Although the karyophilic property of HIV-1 IN has been well demonstrated using a variety of experimental approaches, the definition of domain(s and/or motif(s within the protein that mediate viral DNA nuclear import and its mechanism are still disputed and controversial. In this study, we performed mutagenic analyses to investigate the contribution of different regions in the C-terminal domain of HIV-1 IN to protein nuclear localization as well as their effects on virus infection. Results Our analysis showed that replacing lysine residues in two highly conserved tri-lysine regions, which are located within previously described Region C (235WKGPAKLLWKGEGAVV and sequence Q (211KELQKQITK in the C-terminal domain of HIV-1 IN, impaired protein nuclear accumulation, while mutations for RK263,4 had no significant effect. Analysis of their effects on viral infection in a VSV-G pseudotyped RT/IN trans-complemented HIV-1 single cycle replication system revealed that all three C-terminal mutant viruses (KK215,9AA, KK240,4AE and RK263,4AA exhibited more severe defect of induction of β-Gal positive cells and luciferase activity than an IN class 1 mutant D64E in HeLa-CD4-CCR5-β-Gal cells, and in dividing as well as non-dividing C8166 T cells, suggesting that some viral defects are occurring prior to viral integration. Furthermore, by analyzing viral DNA synthesis and the nucleus-associated viral DNA level, the results clearly showed that, although all three C-terminal mutants inhibited viral reverse transcription to different extents, the KK240,4AE mutant exhibited most profound effect on this step, whereas KK215,9AA significantly impaired viral DNA nuclear import. In addition, our analysis could not detect viral DNA integration in each C

  10. Polarization of lanthanum nucleus by dynamic polarization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Toshikazu; Ishimoto, Shigeru; Masuda, Yasuhiro; Morimoto, Kimio

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been carried out concerning the application of a dynamic polarization method to polarizing lanthanum fluoride single crystal to be employed as target in experiments with time reversal invariance. The present report briefly outlines the dynamic polarization method and describes some preliminary studies carried out so far. Dynamic polarization is of particular importance because no techniques are currently available that can produce highly polarized static nucleus. Spin interaction between electrons and protons (nuclei) plays a major role in the dynamic polarization method. In a thermal equilibrium state, electrons are polarized almost completely while most protons are not polarized. Positively polarized proton spin is produced by applying microwave to this system. The most hopeful candidate target material is single crystal of LaF 3 containing neodymium because the crystal is chemically stable and easy to handle. The spin direction is of great importance in experiments with time reversal invariance. The spin of neutrons in the target can be cancelled by adjusting the external magnetic field applied to a frozen polarized target. In a frozen spin state, the polarity decreases slowly with a relaxation time that depends on the external magnetic field and temperature. (N.K.)

  11. In vivo and in vitro changes in neurochemical parameters related to mercury concentrations from specific brain regions of polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Anke; Kwan, Michael; Chan, Hing Man

    2014-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) has been detected in polar bear brain tissue, but its biological effects are not well known. Relationships between Hg concentrations and neurochemical enzyme activities and receptor binding were assessed in the cerebellum, frontal lobes, and occipital lobes of 24 polar bears collected from Nunavik (Northern Quebec), Canada. The concentration-response relationship was further studied with in vitro experiments using pooled brain homogenate of 12 randomly chosen bears. In environmentally exposed brain samples, there was no correlative relationship between Hg concentration and cholinesterase (ChE) activity or muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) binding in any of the 3 brain regions. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity in the occipital lobe showed a negative correlative relationship with total Hg concentration. In vitro experiments, however, demonstrated that Hg (mercuric chloride and methylmercury chloride) can inhibit ChE and MAO activities and muscarinic mAChR binding. These results show that Hg can alter neurobiochemical parameters but the current environmental Hg exposure level does have an effect on the neurochemistry of polar bears from northern Canada. © 2014 SETAC.

  12. Measurement of the vector np → dπ{sup 0}π{sup 0} reaction with polarized beam in the region of the d*(2380) resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adlarson, P.; Calen, H.; Fransson, K.; Gullstroem, C.O.; Heijkenskjoeld, L.; Johansson, T.; Marciniewski, P.; Wolke, M.; Zlomanczuk, J. [Uppsala University, Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, Uppsala (Sweden); Augustyniak, W.; Marianski, B.; Morsch, H.P.; Trzcinski, A.; Zupranski, P. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Department of Nuclear Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Bardan, W.; Ciepal, I.; Czerwinski, E.; Jarczyk, L.; Kamys, B.; Khatri, G.; Kistryn, S.; Krzemien, W.; Magiera, A.; Moskal, P.; Rudy, Z.; Rundel, O.; Schaetti-Ozerianska, I.; Skurzok, M.; Smyrski, J.; Wronska, A.; Zielinski, M.J. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Bashkanov, M. [University of Edinburgh, James Clerk Maxwell Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Bergmann, F.S.; Demmich, K.; Huesken, N.; Khoukaz, A.; Sitterberg, K.; Taeschner, A. [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Muenster (Germany); Berlowski, M.; Stepaniak, J. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, High Energy Physics Department, Warsaw (Poland); Bhatt, H.; Varma, R. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Department of Physics, Powai, Maharashtra (India); Bondar, A.; Kuzmin, A.; Shwartz, B. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics of SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Buescher, M.; Engels, R.; Goldenbaum, F.; Hejny, V.; Khan, F.A.; Lersch, D.; Lorentz, B.; Ohm, H.; Prasuhn, D.; Schadmand, S.; Sefzick, T.; Serdyuk, V.; Stassen, R.; Sterzenbach, G.; Stockhorst, H.; Zurek, M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Clement, H. [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); University of Tuebingen, Kepler Center for Astro- and Particle Physics, Tuebingen (Germany); Erven, A.; Erven, W.; Kemmerling, G.; Kleines, H.; Wuestner, P. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Zentralinstitut fuer Engineering, Elektronik und Analytik, Juelich (Germany); Eyrich, W.; Zink, A. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); Fedorets, P. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Foehl, K. [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Goswami, A.; Roy, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Department of Physics, Indore, Madhya Pradesh (India); Grigoryev, K. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, High Energy Physics Division, Gatchina, Leningrad district (Russian Federation); Kirillov, D.A.; Piskunov, N.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Physics, Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energiy Physics, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Klos, B.; Stephan, E. [University of Silesia, August Chelkowski Institute of Physics, Katowice (Poland); Kulessa, P.; Pysz, K.; Siudak, R.; Szczurek, A. [Polish Academy of Sciences, The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Kupsc, A.; Pszczel, D. [Uppsala University, Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, Uppsala (Sweden); National Centre for Nuclear Research, High Energy Physics Department, Warsaw (Poland); Lalwani, K. [Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, JLN Marg, Department of Physics, Jaipur, Rajasthan (India); Maier, R.; Stroeher, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, JARA-FAME, Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Perez del Rio, E. [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Pyszniak, A. [Uppsala University, Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, Uppsala (Sweden); Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (PL); Ritman, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (DE); Forschungszentrum Juelich, JARA-FAME, Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, Juelich (DE); RWTH Aachen, Aachen (DE); Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik I, Bochum (DE); Sawant, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Department of Physics, Powai, Maharashtra (IN); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (DE); Skorodko, T. [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (DE); University of Tuebingen, Kepler Center for Astro- and Particle Physics, Tuebingen (DE); Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (RU); Sopov, V. [State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (RU); Yamamoto, A. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organisation KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (JP); Zabierowski, J. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Department of Astrophysics, Lodz (PL); Collaboration: WASA-at-COSY Collaboration

    2016-05-15

    We report on a high-statistics measurement of the most basic double-pionic fusion reaction vector np→dπ{sup 0}π{sup 0} over the energy region of the d*(2380) resonance by use of a polarized deuteron beam and observing the double fusion reaction in the quasifree scattering mode. The measurements were performed with the WASA detector setup at COSY. The data reveal substantial analyzing powers and confirm conclusions about the d* resonance obtained from unpolarized measurements. We also confirm the previous unpolarized data obtained under complementary kinematic conditions. (orig.)

  13. Polar Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    18 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark-outlined polygons on a frost-covered surface in the south polar region of Mars. In summer, this surface would not be bright and the polygons would not have dark outlines--these are a product of the presence of seasonal frost. Location near: 77.2oS, 204.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  14. Effectiveness of household reverse-osmosis systems in a Western U.S. region with high arsenic in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Mark; Seiler, Ralph L.; Meinert, Michael

    2008-01-01

    It is well known to the public in Lahontan Valley in rural Nevada, USA, that local aquifers produce water with varied, but sometimes very high concentrations of arsenic (> 4 ppm). As a result, many residents of the area have installed household reverse-osmosis (RO) systems to produce drinking water. We examined performance of RO systems and factors associated with arsenic removal efficiency in 59 households in Lahontan Valley. The sampling results indicated that RO systems removed an average of 80.2% of arsenic from well water. In 18 of the 59 households, arsenic concentrations exceeded 10 ppb in treated water, with a maximum in treated water of 180 ppb. In 3 of the 59 households, RO treatment had little effect on specific conductance, indicating that the RO system was not working properly. Two main factors lead to arsenic levels in treated water exceeding drinking-water standards in the study area. First, arsenic concentrations were high enough in some Lahontan Valley wells that arsenic levels exceeded 10 ppb even though RO treatment removed more than 95% of the arsenic. Second, trivalent As +3 was the dominant arsenic species in approximately 15% of the wells, which significantly reduced treatment efficiency. Measurements of specific conductance indicated that efficiency in reducing arsenic levels did not always correlate with reductions in total dissolved solids. As a consequence, improvements in taste of the water or simple measurements of specific conductance made by technicians to test RO systems can mislead the public into assuming the water meets safety standards. Actual measurements of treated water are necessary to assure that household RO systems are reducing arsenic concentrations to safe levels, particularly in areas where groundwater has high arsenic concentrations or where As +3 is the dominant species

  15. Reverse Osmosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    many applications, one of which is desalination of seawater. The inaugural Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded in 1901 to van 't Hoff for his seminal work in this area. The present article explains the principle of osmosis and reverse osmosis. Osmosis and Reverse Osmosis. As the name suggests, reverse osmosis is the ...

  16. Polarized particles in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenev, Ya.S.; Kondratenko, A.M.; Serednyakov, S.I.; Skrinskij, A.N.; Tumajkin, G.M.; Shatunov, Yu.M.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments with polarized beams on the VEPP-2M and SPEAK storage rings are described. Possible methods of producing polarized particle beams in storage rings as well as method of polarization monitoring are counted. Considered are the processes of radiation polarization of electrons and positrons. It is shown, that to preserve radiation polarization the introduction of regions with a strong sign-variable magnetic field is recommended. Methods of polarization measurement are counted. It is suggested for high energies to use dependence of synchrotron radiation power on transverse polarization of electrons and positrons. Examples of using polarizability of colliding beams in storage rings are presented

  17. Brain region-specific perfluoroalkylated sulfonate (PFSA) and carboxylic acid (PFCA) accumulation and neurochemical biomarker responses in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers Pedersen, Kathrine; Basu, Niladri; Letcher, Robert; Greaves, Alana K; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2015-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is a growing class of contaminants in the Arctic environment, and include the established perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs; especially perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)) and carboxylic acids (PFCAs). PFSAs and PFCAs of varying chain length have been reported to bioaccumulate in lipid rich tissues of the brain among other tissues such as liver, and can reach high concentrations in top predators including the polar bear. PFCA and PFSA bioaccummulation in the brain has the potential to pose neurotoxic effects and therefore we conducted a study to investigate if variations in neurochemical transmitter systems i.e. the cholinergic, glutaminergic, dopaminergic and GABAergic, could be related to brain-specific bioaccumulation of PFASs in East Greenland polar bears. Nine brain regions from nine polar bears were analyzed for enzyme activity (monoamine oxidase (MAO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutamine synthetase (GS)) and receptor density (dopamine-2 (D2), muscarinic cholinergic (mAChR) and gamma-butyric acid type A (GABA-A)) along with PFSA and PFCA concentrations. Average brain ∑PFSA concentration was 25ng/g ww where PFOS accounted for 91%. Average ∑PFCA concentration was 88ng/g ww where PFUnDA, PFDoDA and PFTrDA combined accounted for 79%. The highest concentrations of PFASs were measured in brain stem, cerebellum and hippocampus. Correlative analyses were performed both across and within brain regions. Significant positive correlations were found between PFASs and MAO activity in occipital lobe (e.g. ∑PFCA; rp=0.83, p=0.041, n=6) and across brain regions (e.g. ∑PFCA; rp=0.47, p=0.001, ∑PFSA; rp=0.44, p>0.001; n=50). GABA-A receptor density was positively correlated with two PFASs across brain regions (PFOS; rp=0.33, p=0.02 and PFDoDA; rp=0.34, p=0.014; n=52). Significant negative correlations were found between mAChR density and PFASs in cerebellum (e.g. ∑PFCA; rp=-0.95, p=0.013, n=5) and across brain regions (e.g.

  18. Analyzing power measurement of pp elastic scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region with the 200-GeV/c polarized-proton beam at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akchurin, N.; Langland, J.; Onel, Y.; Bonner, B.E.; Corcoran, M.D.; Cranshaw, J.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Nessi, M.; Nguyen, C.; Roberts, J.B.; Skeens, J.; White, J.L.; Bravar, A.; Giacomich, R.; Penzo, A.; Schiavon, P.; Zanetti, A.; Bystricky, J.; Lehar, F.; de Lesquen, A.; van Rossum, L.; Cossairt, J.D.; Read, A.L.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Matulenko, Y.A.; Meschanin, A.P.; Nurushev, S.B.; Patalakha, D.I.; Rykov, V.L.; Solovyanov, V.L.; Vasiliev, A.N.; Grosnick, D.P.; Hill, D.A.; Laghai, M.; Lopiano, D.; Ohashi, Y.; Shima, T.; Spinka, H.; Stanek, R.W.; Underwood, D.G.; Yokosawa, A.; Funahashi, H.; Goto, Y.; Imai, K.; Itow, Y.; Makino, S.; Masaike, A.; Miyake, K.; Nagamine, T.; Saito, N.; Yamashita, S.; Iwatani, K.; Kuroda, K.; Michalowicz, A.; Luehring, F.C.; Miller, D.H.; Maki, T.; Pauletta, G.; Rappazzo, G.F.; Salvato, G.; Takashima, R.

    1993-01-01

    The analyzing power A N of proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region has been measured using the 200-GeV/c Fermilab polarized proton beam. A theoretically predicted interference between the hadronic non-spin-flip amplitude and the electromagnetic spin-flip amplitude is shown for the first time to be present at high energies in the region of 1.5x10 -3 to 5.0x10 -2 (GeV/c) 2 four-momentum transfer squared, and our results are analyzed in connection with theoretical calculations. In addition, the role of possible contributions of the hadronic spin-flip amplitude is discussed

  19. Enhanced spin polarization of elastic electron scattering from alkaline-earth-metal atoms in Ramsauer-Townsend and low-lying shape resonance regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, J.; Zhang, Z.

    1993-01-01

    Spin polarizations (SP's) of elastic electron scattering from alkaline-earth-metal atoms in Ramsauer-Townsend (RT) and low-lying shape resonance (SR) regions are calculated using a relativistic method. The detailed SP distributions both with scattering angle and with electron energy are presented via the energy- and angle-dependent surfaces of SP parameters. It is shown that the SP effects of the collisions of electrons with Ca, Sr, and Ba atoms in the RT region are significant in a considerable area on the energy-angle plane and that the spin-orbit interaction is well increased around the low-lying p-wave SR states of Be and Mg and the d-wave SR states of Ca, Sr, and Ba

  20. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in Xenopus eggs: Regional differences related to animal/vegetal polarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, S.W. de; Bluemink, J.G.; Dictus, W.J.A.G.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van; Tetteroo, P.A.T.; Tertoolen, L.G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Regional differences in the lateral mobility properties of plasma membrane lipids were studied in unfertilized and fertilized Xenopus eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements. Out of a variety of commonly used lipid probes only the aminofluorescein- -1abelled fatty

  1. Effects of pulse ON and OFF time and electrode types on the material removal rate and tool wear rate of the Ti-6Al-4V Alloy using EDM machining with reverse polarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, L.; Geeta Krishna, P.; Venugopal, L.; Prasad, N. E. C.

    2018-03-01

    Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is an unconventional metal removal process that is extensively used for removing the difficult-to-machine metal such as Ti alloys, super alloys and metal matrix composites. This paper investigates the effects of pulse (ON/OFF) time on EDM machining characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using copper and graphite as electrodes in reverse polarity condition. Full factorial design method was used to design the experiments. Two variables (Pulse On and OFF) with three levels are considered. The output variables are the tool wear rate and the material removal rate. The important findings from the present work are: (1) the material removal rate (MRR) increases gradually with an increase of the Pulse ON time whereas the change is insignificant with an increase of the Pulse OFF time, (2) Between copper and graphite electrodes, the copper electrode is proved to be good in terms of MRR, (3) a combination of high pulse ON time and OFF time is desirable for high MRR rate in the Cu electrode whereas for the graphite electrode, a combination of high pulse ON time and low pulse OFF time is desirable for high MRR rate, (4) the tool wear rate (TWR) reduces with the Pulse On or OFF time, the rate of TWR is uniform for the graphite electrode in contrast to abrupt decrease from 25 to 50 μs (pulse ON time) in the copper electrode, (5) In order to keep the TWR as minimum possible, it is desirable to have a combination of high pulse ON time and OFF time for both the copper and the graphite electrode.

  2. A Damping Grid Strapdown Inertial Navigation System Based on a Kalman Filter for Ships in Polar Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiquan; Fang, Tao; Luo, Li; Zhao, Lin; Che, Fengzhu

    2017-07-03

    The grid strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) used in polar navigation also includes three kinds of periodic oscillation errors as common SINS are based on a geographic coordinate system. Aiming ships which have the external information to conduct a system reset regularly, suppressing the Schuler periodic oscillation is an effective way to enhance navigation accuracy. The Kalman filter based on the grid SINS error model which applies to the ship is established in this paper. The errors of grid-level attitude angles can be accurately estimated when the external velocity contains constant error, and then correcting the errors of the grid-level attitude angles through feedback correction can effectively dampen the Schuler periodic oscillation. The simulation results show that with the aid of external reference velocity, the proposed external level damping algorithm based on the Kalman filter can suppress the Schuler periodic oscillation effectively. Compared with the traditional external level damping algorithm based on the damping network, the algorithm proposed in this paper can reduce the overshoot errors when the state of grid SINS is switched from the non-damping state to the damping state, and this effectively improves the navigation accuracy of the system.

  3. Test of time reversal invariance in p-p elastic scattering at 198.5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.A.; Greeniaus, L.G.; Moss, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    A precise measurement of the polarization-analyzing power difference in p-p elastic scattering has been made at 198.5 MeV to improve the experimental limits on time reversal violation in proton-proton scattering in this energy region. The experiment was performed in a kinematic regime where sensitivities to time reversal violating amplitudes should be high. Experimental methods which eliminated the need to refer to absolute values of the beam polarization or to the analyzing power of a polarimeter were used. The result is (P-A) = 0.0047 with a statistical uncertainty of +- 0.0025 and a systematic uncertainty of +- 0.0015

  4. Snow nitrate photolysis in polar regions and the mid-latitudes: Impact on boundary layer chemistry and implications for ice core records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatko, Maria C.

    The formation and recycling of nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO 2) associated with snow nitrate photolysis has important implications for air quality and the preservation of nitrate in ice core records. This dissertation examines snow nitrate photolysis in polar and mid-latitude regions using field and laboratory based observations combined with snow chemistry column models and a global chemical transport model to explore the impacts of snow nitrate photolysis on boundary layer chemistry and the preservation of nitrate in polar ice cores. Chapter 1 describes how a global chemical transport model is used to calculate the photolysis-driven flux and redistribution of nitrogen across Antarctica, and Chapter 2 presents similar work for Greenland. Snow-sourced NOx is most dependent on the quantum yield for nitrate photolysis as well as the concentration of photolabile nitrate and light-absorbing impurities (e.g., black carbon, dust, organics) in snow. Model-calculated fluxes of snow-sourced NOx are similar in magnitude in Antarctica (0.5--7.8x108 molec cm-2 s -1) and Greenland (0.1--6.4x108 molec cm-2 s-1) because both nitrate and light-absorbing impurity concentrations in snow are higher (by factors of 2 and 10, respectively) in Greenland. Snow nitrate photolysis influences boundary layer chemistry and ice-core nitrate preservation less in Greenland compared to Antarctica largely due to Greenland's proximity to NOx-source regions. Chapter 3 describes how a snow chemistry column model combined with chemistry and optical measurements from the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS) 2014 is used to calculate snow-sourced NOx in eastern Utah. Daily-averaged fluxes of snow-sourced NOx (2.9x10 7--1.3x108 molec cm-2 s-1) are similar in magnitude to polar snow-sourced NO x fluxes, but are only minor components of the Uintah Basin boundary layer NOx budget and can be neglected when developing ozone reduction strategies for the region. Chapter 4 presents chemical and optical

  5. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in Xenopus eggs: regional differences related to animal/vegetal polarity become extreme upon fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dictus, W J; van Zoelen, E J; Tetteroo, P A; Tertoolen, L G; de Laat, S W; Bluemink, J G

    1984-01-01

    Regional differences in the lateral mobility properties of plasma membrane lipids have been studied in unfertilized and fertilized Xenopus eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements. Out of a variety of commonly used lipid probes only the aminofluorescein-labeled fatty acids HEDAF (5-(N-hexadecanoyl)-aminofluorescein) and TEDAF (5-(N-tetradecanoyl)-aminofluorescein) appear to partition into the plasma membrane. Under all experimental conditions used these molecules show partial recovery upon photobleaching indicating the existence of lipidic microdomains. In the unfertilized egg the mobile fraction of plasma membrane lipids (approximately 50%) has a fivefold smaller lateral diffusion coefficient (D = 1.5 X 10(-8) cm2/sec) in the animal than in the vegetal plasma membrane (D = 7.6 X 10(-8) cm2/sec). This demonstrates the presence of an animal/vegetal polarity within the Xenopus egg plasma membrane. Upon fertilization this polarity is strongly (greater than 100X) enhanced leading to the formation of two distinct macrodomains within the plasma membrane. At the animal side of the egg lipids are completely immobilized on the time scale of FPR measurements (D less than 10(-10) cm2/sec), whereas at the vegetal side D is only slightly reduced (D = 4.4 X 10(-8) cm2/sec). The immobilization of animal plasma membrane lipids, which could play a role in the polyspermy block, probably arises by the fusion of cortical granules which are more numerous here. The transition between the animal and the vegetal domain is sharp and coincides with the boundary between the presumptive ecto- and endoderm. The role of regional differences in the plasma membrane is discussed in relation to cell diversification in early development.

  6. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in Xenopus eggs: Regional differences related to animal/vegetal polarity

    OpenAIRE

    Laat, S.W. de; Bluemink, J.G.; Dictus, W.J.A.G.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van; Tetteroo, P.A.T.; Tertoolen, L.G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Regional differences in the lateral mobility properties of plasma membrane lipids were studied in unfertilized and fertilized Xenopus eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements. Out of a variety of commonly used lipid probes only the aminofluorescein- -1abelled fatty acids HEDAF (5-(N-hexadecanoyl)- aminofluorescein) and TEDAF (5-(N-tetradecanoyl)-aminofluorescein) appear to distribute itself in the plasma membrane. Under all experimental conditions used these molecules s...

  7. The reversal of the Sun’s magnetic field in cycle 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mordvinov A.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of synoptic data from the Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM of the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS and the NASA/NSO Spectromagnetograph (SPM at the NSO/Kitt Peak Vacuum Telescope facility shows that the reversals of solar polar magnetic fields exhibit elements of a stochastic process, which may include the development of specific patterns of emerging magnetic flux, and the asymmetry in activity between Northern and Southern hemispheres. The presence of such irregularities makes the modeling and prediction of polar field reversals extremely hard if possible. In a classical model of solar activity cycle, the unipolar magnetic regions (UMRs of predominantly following polarity fields are transported polewards due to meridional flows and diffusion. The UMRs gradually cancel out the polar magnetic field of the previous cycle, and rebuild the polar field of opposite polarity setting the stage for the next cycle. We show, however, that this deterministic picture can be easily altered by the developing of a strong center of activity, or by the emergence of an extremely large active region, or by a ‘strategically placed’ coronal hole. We demonstrate that the activity occurring during the current cycle 24 may be the result of this randomness in the evolution of the solar surface magnetic field.

  8. Constraining the Depth of Polar Ice Deposits and Evolution of Cold Traps on Mercury with Small Craters in Permanently Shadowed Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Ariel N.; Head, James W.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Chabot, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    Earth-based radar observations revealed highly reflective deposits at the poles of Mercury [e.g., 1], which collocate with permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) detected from both imagery and altimetry by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft [e.g., 2]. MESSENGER also measured higher hydrogen concentrations at the north polar region, consistent with models for these deposits to be composed primarily of water ice [3]. Enigmatic to the characterization of ice deposits on Mercury is the thickness of these radar-bright features. A current minimum bound of several meters exists from the radar measurements, which show no drop in the radar cross section between 13- and 70-cm wavelength observations [4, 5]. A maximum thickness of 300 m is based on the lack of any statistically significant difference between the height of craters that host radar-bright deposits and those that do not [6]. More recently, this upper limit on the depth of a typical ice deposit has been lowered to approximately 150 m, in a study that found a mean excess thickness of 50 +/- 35 m of radar-bright deposits for 6 craters [7]. Refining such a constraint permits the derivation of a volumetric estimate of the total polar ice on Mercury, thus providing insight into possible sources of water ice on the planet. Here, we take a different approach to constrain the thickness of water-ice deposits. Permanently shadowed surfaces have been resolved in images acquired with the broadband filter on MESSENGER's wide-angle camera (WAC) using low levels of light scattered by crater walls and other topography [8]. These surfaces are not featureless and often host small craters (less than a few km in diameter). Here we utilize the presence of these small simple craters to constrain the thickness of the radar-bright ice deposits on Mercury. Specifically, we compare estimated depths made from depth-to-diameter ratios and depths from individual Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA

  9. Detection of viable cortical neurons using benzodiazepine receptor imaging after reversible focal ischaemia in rats: comparison with regional cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Nakano, Takayuki; Yutani, Kenji; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Kusuoka, Hideo; Nakamura, Hironobu

    2000-01-01

    To elucidate the utility of benzodiazepine receptor imaging for the detection of viable cortical neurons, dual-tracer autoradiography using iodine-125 iomazenil (IMZ) and iodine-123 N-isopropyl-4-iodoamphetamine (IMP) was performed in a model of reversible focal ischaemia during the acute and subacute phases. The right middle cerebral artery of anaesthetized rats was occluded for 60 min using an intraluminal filament and reperfused. In the acute phase study, 125 I-IMZ (370 kBq) was injected via the femoral vein at 2 h after reperfusion, and 123 I-IMP (37 MBq) was injected at 50 min post-injection. Rats were sacrificed 10 min after the injection of 123 I-IMP. In the subacute phase study, the same procedure was performed at 5 days after reperfusion. In the acute phase, the IMP uptake was significantly decreased in almost all areas of the lesioned hemisphere, an exception being the cerebellum; however, the IMZ uptake was significantly decreased only in ischaemic cores. The discrepancy between IMZ and IMP uptake was observed in the lateral neocortex and the lateral caudate putamen (CPu), which were most frequently damaged in this ischaemic model. In the subacute phase, the IMZ uptake in lesioned rats was significantly decreased only in the parietal lobe and hippocampus, though the IMP uptake was decreased in many regions of lesioned hemispheres (the frontal, parietal cortex, CPu, hippocampus and thalamus). Histopathological findings indicated that both the IMP and the IMZ uptake was markedly decreased in necrotic areas. Although the IMP uptake was significantly decreased in the ischaemic areas, the IMZ uptake was maintained in these areas. These results suggest that benzodiazepine receptor imaging is superior to regional cerebral blood flow imaging for the detection of viable cortical neurons in both the acute and subacute phases of ischaemia. (orig.)

  10. Detection of viable cortical neurons using benzodiazepine receptor imaging after reversible focal ischaemia in rats: comparison with regional cerebral blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshiyuki [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka National Hospital (Japan); Nakano, Takayuki; Yutani, Kenji; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Div. of Tracer Kinetics, Osaka University Medical School (Japan); Kusuoka, Hideo [Clinical Research Institute, Osaka National Hospital (Japan); Nakamura, Hironobu [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka University Medical School (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    To elucidate the utility of benzodiazepine receptor imaging for the detection of viable cortical neurons, dual-tracer autoradiography using iodine-125 iomazenil (IMZ) and iodine-123 N-isopropyl-4-iodoamphetamine (IMP) was performed in a model of reversible focal ischaemia during the acute and subacute phases. The right middle cerebral artery of anaesthetized rats was occluded for 60 min using an intraluminal filament and reperfused. In the acute phase study, {sup 125}I-IMZ (370 kBq) was injected via the femoral vein at 2 h after reperfusion, and {sup 123}I-IMP (37 MBq) was injected at 50 min post-injection. Rats were sacrificed 10 min after the injection of {sup 123}I-IMP. In the subacute phase study, the same procedure was performed at 5 days after reperfusion. In the acute phase, the IMP uptake was significantly decreased in almost all areas of the lesioned hemisphere, an exception being the cerebellum; however, the IMZ uptake was significantly decreased only in ischaemic cores. The discrepancy between IMZ and IMP uptake was observed in the lateral neocortex and the lateral caudate putamen (CPu), which were most frequently damaged in this ischaemic model. In the subacute phase, the IMZ uptake in lesioned rats was significantly decreased only in the parietal lobe and hippocampus, though the IMP uptake was decreased in many regions of lesioned hemispheres (the frontal, parietal cortex, CPu, hippocampus and thalamus). Histopathological findings indicated that both the IMP and the IMZ uptake was markedly decreased in necrotic areas. Although the IMP uptake was significantly decreased in the ischaemic areas, the IMZ uptake was maintained in these areas. These results suggest that benzodiazepine receptor imaging is superior to regional cerebral blood flow imaging for the detection of viable cortical neurons in both the acute and subacute phases of ischaemia. (orig.)

  11. Chemical reactions in reverse micelle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Dean W.; Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.; Consani, Keith A.

    1993-08-24

    This invention is directed to conducting chemical reactions in reverse micelle or microemulsion systems comprising a substantially discontinuous phase including a polar fluid, typically an aqueous fluid, and a microemulsion promoter, typically a surfactant, for facilitating the formation of reverse micelles in the system. The system further includes a substantially continuous phase including a non-polar or low-polarity fluid material which is a gas under standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and which is generally a water-insoluble fluid in a near critical or supercritical state. Thus, the microemulsion system is maintained at a pressure and temperature such that the density of the non-polar or low-polarity fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. The method of carrying out chemical reactions generally comprises forming a first reverse micelle system including an aqueous fluid including reverse micelles in a water-insoluble fluid in the supercritical state. Then, a first reactant is introduced into the first reverse micelle system, and a chemical reaction is carried out with the first reactant to form a reaction product. In general, the first reactant can be incorporated into, and the product formed in, the reverse micelles. A second reactant can also be incorporated in the first reverse micelle system which is capable of reacting with the first reactant to form a product.

  12. Effects of atmospheric oscillations on the field-aligned ion motions in the polar F-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Oyama

    Full Text Available The field-aligned neutral oscillations in the F-region (altitudes between 165 and 275 km were compared using data obtained simultaneously with two independent instruments: the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT UHF radar and a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI. During the night of February 8, 1997, simultaneous observations with these instruments were conducted at Tromsø, Norway. Theoretically, the field-aligned neutral wind velocity can be obtained from the field-aligned ion velocity and by diffusion and ambipolar diffusion velocities. We thus derived field-aligned neutral wind velocities from the plasma velocities in EISCAT radar data. They were compared with those observed with the FPI (λ=630.0 nm, which are assumed to be weighted height averages of the actual neutral wind. The weighting function is the normalized height dependent emission rate. We used two model weighting functions to derive the neutral wind from EISCAT data. One was that the neutral wind velocity observed with the FPI is velocity integrated over the entire emission layer and multiplied by the theoretical normalized emission rate. The other was that the neutral wind velocity observed with the FPI corresponds to the velocity only around an altitude where the emission rate has a peak. Differences between the two methods were identified, but not completely clarified. However, the neutral wind velocities from both instruments had peak-to-peak correspondences at oscillation periods of about 10–40 min, shorter than that for the momentum transfer from ions to neutrals, but longer than from neutrals to ions. The synchronizing motions in the neutral wind velocities suggest that the momentum transfer from neutrals to ions was thought to be dominant for the observed field-aligned oscillations rather than the transfer from ions to neutrals. It is concluded that during the observation, the plasma oscillations observed with the EISCAT radar at different altitudes

  13. Ice ages and geomagnetic reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    There have been speculations on the relationship between climatic cooling and polarity reversals of the earth's magnetic field during the Pleistocene. Two of the common criticisms on this relationship have been the reality of these short duration geomagnetic events and the accuracy of their dates. Champion et al. (1988) have reviewed recent progress in this area. They identified a total of 10 short-duration polarity events in the last 1 Ma and 6 of these events have been found in volcanic rocks, which also have K-Ar dates. Supposing that the speculated relationship between climatic cooling and geomagnetic reversals actually exist, two mechanisms that assume climatic cooling causes short period magnetic reversals will be investigated. These two methods are core-mantle boundary topography and transfer of the rotational energy to the core.

  14. Productive structure and production relations between polarized region by Londrina and the rest of Paraná in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Moretto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article had as objective estimate the sector linkages and the overflowing of the production multiplier between the North of Parana and the Rest of Parana, using the interregional input-output matrix for 1995. The main results showed that a agriculture and food processing sectors stood out in the productive structure of North of Parana State, comparing to the Rest of Parana State, as disseminators of inter-sector relations b the industrial structure of the Rest of Parana presented more diversification as compared to the North Region, showing less dependence on agriculture and food processing sectors for its dynamic; c the overflowing effect of the production multiplier in the direction Rest of Parana-North of Parana was 4,9%, whereas in the direction North of Parana-Rest of Parana it was 12%, revealing a greater dependency of the productive process of the North of Parana vis-a-vis the Rest of Parana; d the Rest of Parana, although more diversified in its productive structure, showed more dependence on the North of Parana as for the answer to the input requirements of the food processing sectors when facing growth in its final demand.

  15. Microbial and viral-like rhodopsins present in coastal marine sediments from four polar and subpolar regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, José L.; Golemba, Marcelo; Hernández, Edgardo; Lozada, Mariana; Dionisi, Hebe; Jansson, Janet K.; Carroll, Jolynn; Lundgren, Leif; Sjöling, Sara; Mac Cormack, Walter P.; Sobecky, Patricia

    2016-11-03

    Rhodopsins are broadly distributed. In this work, we analyzed 23 metagenomes corresponding to marine sediment samples from four regions that share cold climate conditions (Norway; Sweden; Argentina and Antarctica). In order to investigate the genes evolution of viral rhodopsins, an initial set of 6224 bacterial rhodopsin sequences according to COG5524 were retrieved from the 23 metagenomes. After selection by the presence of transmembrane domains and alignment, 123 viral (51) and non-viral (72) sequences (>50 amino acids) were finally included in further analysis. Viral rhodopsin genes were homologs of Phaeocystis globosa virus and Organic lake Phycodnavirus. Non-viral microbial rhodopsin genes were ascribed to Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus and Cryptophyta and Fungi. A rescreening using Blastp, using as queries the viral sequences previously described, retrieved 30 sequences (>100 amino acids). Phylogeographic analysis revealed a geographical clustering of the sequences affiliated to the viral group. This clustering was not observed for the microbial non-viral sequences. The phylogenetic reconstruction allowed us to propose the existence of a putative ancestor of viral rhodopsin genes related to Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi. This is the first report about the existence of a phylogeographic association of the viral rhodopsin sequences from marine sediments.

  16. Meteor radar observations of vertically propagating low-frequency inertia-gravity waves near the southern polar mesopause region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, I.-S.; Lee, C.; Kim, J.-H.; Jee, G.; Kim, Y.-H.; Choi, H.-J.; Chun, H.-Y.; Kim, Y. H.

    2017-04-01

    Vertically propagating low-frequency inertia-gravity waves (IGWs) are retrieved from meteor radar winds observed at King Sejong Station (KSS: 62.22°S, 58.78°W), Antarctica. IGW horizontal winds extracted from temporal band-pass filtering in regular time-height bins show the frequent occurrence of IGWs with the downward phase progression and the counterclockwise rotation of their horizontal wind vectors with time (i.e., upward energy propagation) near the mesopause region throughout the whole year of 2014. The vertical wavelengths of the observed IGWs roughly range from 14 km to more than 20 km, which is consistent with previous observational studies on the mesospheric IGWs over Antarctica. Stokes parameters and rotary spectra computed from the hodographs of the IGW horizontal wind components reveal that the intrinsic frequencies of the upward propagating IGWs are |f|-3|f| with seasonal variations of the relative predominance between |f|-2|f| and 2|f|-3|f|, where f is the Coriolis parameter at KSS. The hodograph analysis also indicates that the N-S propagation is dominant in austral summer, while the NE-SW propagation is pronounced in austral winter. The propagation direction is discussed in relation to the generation of IGWs due to dynamical imbalances occurring in the tropospheric and stratospheric jet flow systems. Ray tracing results indicate that the N-S propagation in summer may be due to the jet flow systems roughly north of KSS and the NE-SW propagation in winter may be either the SW propagation from the jet flow systems northeast of KSS or the NE propagation (around the South Pole) from the south of Australia and Southern Indian and Pacific Oceans.

  17. Magnetic reversals from planetary dynamo waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheyko, Andrey; Finlay, Chris; Jackson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    A striking feature of many natural dynamos is their ability to undergo polarity reversals. The best documented example is Earth's magnetic field, which has reversed hundreds of times during its history. The origin of geomagnetic polarity reversals lies in a magnetohydrodynamic process that takes ...... to kinematic dynamo waves. Because our results are relevant in a regime of low viscosity and high magnetic diffusivity, and with geophysically appropriate boundary conditions, this form of dynamo wave may also be involved in geomagnetic reversals.......A striking feature of many natural dynamos is their ability to undergo polarity reversals. The best documented example is Earth's magnetic field, which has reversed hundreds of times during its history. The origin of geomagnetic polarity reversals lies in a magnetohydrodynamic process that takes...... place in Earth's core, but the precise mechanism is debated. The majority of numerical geodynamo simulations that exhibit reversals operate in a regime in which the viscosity of the fluid remains important, and in which the dynamo mechanism primarily involves stretching and twisting of field lines...

  18. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Horimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hasegawa, Noboru; Sukegawa, Kouta; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    The electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in plasma can be anisotropic in laser-produced plasmas. We have developed a new technique to evaluate the polarization degree of the emission lines in the extreme vacuum ultra violet wavelength region. The polarization of the emission lines and the continuums from the lithium-like nitrogen and from helium- and hydrogen-like carbon in recombining plasma is evaluated. Particle simulation in the velocity space gives the time scale for relaxation of anisotropic EVDFs. (author)

  19. Measurement of K/sub NN/, K/sub SS/, K/sub SL/, and K/sub LL/ in polarized np → polarized pn at 800 MeV in the CEX region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransome, R.D.; Hollas, C.L.; Riley, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    The spin transfer parameters K/sub NN/, K/sub SS/, K/sub SL/, and K/sub LL/ have been measured for np elastic scattering at 800 MeV between 165 0 and 180 0 c.m. The parameters K/sub NN/ and K/sub LL/ are in good agreement with the quasi-free reaction polarized pd → polarized npp at 180 0

  20. Application of polarization ellipse technique for analysis of ULF magnetic fields from two distant stations in Koyna-Warna seismoactive region, West India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dudkin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A new approach is developed to find the source azimuth of the ultra low frequency (ULF electromagnetic (EM signals believed to be emanating from well defined seismic zone. The method is test applied on magnetic data procured from the seismoactive region of Koyna-Warna, known for prolonged reservoir triggered seismicity. Extremely low-noise, high-sensitivity LEMI-30 search coil magnetometers were used to measure simultaneously the vector magnetic field in the frequency range 0.001–32 Hz at two stations, the one located within and another ~100 km away from the seismic active zone. During the observation campaign extending from 15 March to 30 June 2006 two earthquakes (EQs of magnitude (ML>4 occurred, which are searched for the presence of precursory EM signals.

    Comparison of polarization ellipses (PE parameters formed by the magnetic field components at the measurement stations, in select frequency bands, allows discrimination of seismo-EM signals from the natural background ULF signals of magnetospheric/ionospheric origin. The magnetic field components corresponding to spectral bands dominated by seismo-EM fields define the PE plane which at any instant contains the source of the EM fields. Intersection lines of such defined PE planes for distant observation stations clutter in to the source region. Approximating the magnetic-dipole configuration for the source, the magnetic field components along the intersection lines suggest that azimuth of the EM source align in the NNW-SSE direction. This direction well coincides with the orientation of nodal plane of normal fault plane mechanism for the two largest EQs recorded during the campaign. More significantly the correspondence of this direction with the tectonic controlled trend in local seismicity, it has been surmised that high pressure fluid flow along the fault that facilitate EQs in the region may also be the source mechanism for EM fields by electrokinetic effect.

  1. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  2. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ON RHIC SPIN PHYSICS III AND IV, POLARIZED PARTONS AT HIGH Q2 REGION, AUGUST 3, 2000 AT BNL, OCTOBER 14, 2000 AT KYOTO UNIVERSITY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BUNCE, G.; VIGDOR, S.

    2001-03-15

    International workshop on II Polarized Partons at High Q2 region 11 was held at the Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan on October 13-14, 2000, as a satellite of the international conference ''SPIN 2000'' (Osaka, Japan, October 16-21,2000). This workshop was supported by RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) and by Yukawa Institute. The scientific program was focused on the upcoming polarized collider RHIC. The workshop was also an annual meeting of RHIC Spin Collaboration (RSC). The number of participants was 55, including 28 foreign visitors and 8 foreign-resident Japanese participants, reflecting the international nature of the RHIC spin program. At the workshop there were 25 oral presentations in four sessions, (1) RHIC Spin Commissioning, (2) Polarized Partons, Present and Future, (3) New Ideas on Polarization Phenomena, (4) Strategy for the Coming Spin Running. In (1) the successful polarized proton commissioning and the readiness of the accelerator for the physics program impressed us. In (2) and (3) active discussions were made on the new structure function to be firstly measured at RHIC, and several new theoretical ideas were presented. In session (4) we have established a plan for the beam time requirement toward the first collision of polarized protons. These proceedings include the transparencies presented at the workshop. The discussion on ''Strategy for the Coming Spin Running'' was summarized by the chairman of the session, S. Vigdor and G. Bunce.

  3. Detection of polar vapours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for monitoring for polar vapours in a gas consists of (i) a body member defining a passage through which a continuous stream of the gas passes; (ii) an ionising source associated with a region of the passage such that ionization of the gas stream takes place substantially only within the region and also any polar vapour molecules present therein will react with the gas formed to generate ion clusters; and (iii) an electrode for collecting ions carried by the gas stream, the electrode being positioned in the passage downstream of the region and separated from the region by a sufficient distance to ensure that no substantial number of the gas ions formed in said region remains in the gas stream at the collector electrode whilst ensuring that a substantial proportion of the ion clusters formed in the region does remain in the gas stream at the collector electrode. (author)

  4. On the relations between proton influx and D-region electron densities during the polar-cap absorption event of 28-29 October 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hargreaves

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Observations by incoherent-scatter radar have been applied to explore relationships between the fluxes of incident protons and the resulting D-region electron densities during a polar-cap radio-absorption event. Using proton flux data from a GOES geosynchronous satellite, the energy band having the greatest influence at a selected height is estimated by a process of trial and error, and empirical relationships are defined. The height profiles of the effective recombination coefficient are determined for day and night, and the transition over the evening twilight is investigated for the height range 60-70 km.

    The results show that the day-night change is confined to heights below 80 km, night-time values at the lower levels being consistent with a balance between negative ions and electrons controlled by 3-body attachment and collisional detachment. The daytime results confirm that, contrary to the prediction of some chemical models, a square-law continuity equation may be strictly applied. It is confirmed that, as previously reported, the timing of the sunset change varies with altitude.

  5. On the relations between proton influx and D-region electron densities during the polar-cap absorption event of 28-29 October 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hargreaves

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Observations by incoherent-scatter radar have been applied to explore relationships between the fluxes of incident protons and the resulting D-region electron densities during a polar-cap radio-absorption event. Using proton flux data from a GOES geosynchronous satellite, the energy band having the greatest influence at a selected height is estimated by a process of trial and error, and empirical relationships are defined. The height profiles of the effective recombination coefficient are determined for day and night, and the transition over the evening twilight is investigated for the height range 60-70 km. The results show that the day-night change is confined to heights below 80 km, night-time values at the lower levels being consistent with a balance between negative ions and electrons controlled by 3-body attachment and collisional detachment. The daytime results confirm that, contrary to the prediction of some chemical models, a square-law continuity equation may be strictly applied. It is confirmed that, as previously reported, the timing of the sunset change varies with altitude.

  6. Polarized Structure Function $\\sigma_{LT'}$ for $p({\\vec e},e'K^+)\\Lambda$ in the Nucleon Resonance Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Raue, Brian; Ambrozewicz, Pawel; Carman, Daniel; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Anciant, Eric; Anghinolfi, Marco; Asavapibhop, Burin; Asryan, Gegham; Audit, Gerard; Auger, Thierry; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Baillie, Nathan; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Barrow, Steve; Battaglieri, Marco; Beard, Kevin; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bektasoglu, Mehmet; Bellis, Matthew; Benmouna, Nawal; Berman, Barry; Biselli, Angela; Blaszczyk, Lukasz; Bonner, Billy; Bouchigny, Sylvain; Boyarinov, Sergey; Bradford, Robert; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, William; Brooks, William; Burkert, Volker; Butuceanu, Cornel; Calarco, John; Careccia, Sharon; Casey, Liam; Cetina, Catalina; Chen, Shifeng; Cheng, Lu; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Coltharp, Philip; Cords, Dieter; Corvisiero, Pietro; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; Dale, Daniel; Dashyan, Natalya; De Masi, Rita; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Dennis, Lawrence; Deur, Alexandre; Dhuga, Kalvir; Dickson, Richard; Djalali, Chaden; Dodge, Gail; Doughty, David; Dragovitsch, Peter; Dugger, Michael; Dytman, Steven; Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Egiyan, Hovanes; Egiyan, Kim; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fatemi, Renee; Fedotov, Gleb; Feldman, Gerald; Feuerbach, Robert; Forest, Tony; Fradi, Ahmed; Funsten, Herbert; Garcon, Michel; Gavalian, Gagik; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girard, Pascal; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Goetz, John; Gothe, Ralf; Gothe, Ralf; Griffioen, Keith; Guidal, Michel; Guillo, Matthieu; Guler, Nevzat; Guo, Lei; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hanretty, Charles; Hardie, John; Heddle, David; Hersman, F.; Hicks, Kenneth; Hleiqawi, Ishaq; Holtrop, Maurik; Hu, Jicun; Hyde, Charles; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Ito, Mark; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Johnstone, John; Joo, Kyungseon; Juengst, Henry; Kalantarians, Narbe; Kellie, James; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Kui; Kim, Kyungmo; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Kossov, Mikhail; Krahn, Zebulun; Kramer, Laird; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Joachim; Kuhn, Sebastian; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Viacheslav; Lachniet, Jeff; Laget, Jean; Langheinrich, Jorn; Lawrence, David; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; Lukashin, Konstantin; MacCormick, Marion; Manak, Joseph; Markov, Nikolai; Mattione, Paul; McAleer, Simeon; McKinnon, Bryan; McNabb, John; Mecking, Bernhard; Mestayer, Mac; Meyer, Curtis; Mibe, Tsutomu; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Minehart, Ralph; Mirazita, Marco; Miskimen, Rory; Mokeev, Viktor; Moreno, Brahim; Moriya, Kei; Morrow, Steven; Moteabbed, Maryam; Mueller, James; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Mutchler, Gordon; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Niczyporuk, Bogdan; Niroula, Megh; Niyazov, Rustam; Nozar, Mina; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Park, Kijun; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Paterson, Craig; Pereira, Sergio; Peterson, Gerald; Philips, Sasha; Pierce, Joshua; Pivnyuk, Nikolay; Pocanic, Dinko; Pogorelko, Oleg; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Preedom, Barry; Price, John; Procureur, Sebastien; Prok, Yelena; Protopopescu, Dan; Qin, Liming; Riccardi, Gregory; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Rubin, Philip; Sabatie, Franck; Salamanca, Julian; Salgado, Carlos; Santoro, Joseph; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Sayre, Donald; Schumacher, Reinhard; Serov, Vladimir; Shafi, Aziz; Sharabian, Youri; Sharov, Dmitri; Shvedunov, Nikolay; Simionatto, Sebastio; Skabelin, Alexander; Smith, Elton; Smith, Lee; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stavinsky, Aleksey; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stokes, Burnham; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Taiuti, Mauro; Taylor, Shawn; Tedeschi, David; Thoma, Ulrike; Thompson, Richard; Tkabladze, Avtandil; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Ungaro, Maurizio; Vineyard, Michael; Vlassov, Alexander; Wang,

    2008-06-01

    The first measurements of the polarized structure function $\\sigma_{LT'}$ for the reaction $p(\\vec e,e'K^+)\\Lambda$ in the nucleon resonance region are reported. Measurements are included from threshold up to $W$=2.05 GeV for central values of $Q^2$ of 0.65 and 1.00 GeV$^2$, and nearly the entire kaon center-of-mass angular range. $\\sigma_{LT'}$ is the imaginary part of the longitudinal-transverse response and is expected to be sensitive to interferences between competing intermediate s-channel resonances, as well as resonant and non-resonant processes. The results for $\\sigma_{LT'}$ are comparable in magnitude to previously reported results from CLAS for $\\sigma_{LT}$, the real part of the same response. An intriguing sign change in $\\sigma_{LT'}$ is observed in the high $Q^2$ data at $W\\approx 1.9$ GeV. Comparisons to several existing model predictions are shown.

  7. Atmospheric loss from the dayside open polar region and its dependence on geomagnetic activity: implications for atmospheric escape on evolutionary timescales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Slapak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the total O+ escape rate from the dayside open polar region and its dependence on geomagnetic activity, specifically Kp. Two different escape routes of magnetospheric plasma into the solar wind, the plasma mantle, and the high-latitude dayside magnetosheath have been investigated separately. The flux of O+ in the plasma mantle is sufficiently fast to subsequently escape further down the magnetotail passing the neutral point, and it is nearly 3 times larger than that in the dayside magnetosheath. The contribution from the plasma mantle route is estimated as  ∼ 3. 9 × 1024exp(0. 45 Kp [s−1] with a 1 to 2 order of magnitude range for a given geomagnetic activity condition. The extrapolation of this result, including escape via the dayside magnetosheath, indicates an average O+ escape of 3 × 1026 s−1 for the most extreme geomagnetic storms. Assuming that the range is mainly caused by the solar EUV level, which was also larger in the past, the average O+ escape could have reached 1027–28 s−1 a few billion years ago. Integration over time suggests a total oxygen escape from ancient times until the present roughly equal to the atmospheric oxygen content today.

  8. Constraining the thickness of polar ice deposits on Mercury using the Mercury Laser Altimeter and small craters in permanently shadowed regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Ariel N.; Head, James W.; Chabot, Nancy L.; Neumann, Gregory A.

    2018-05-01

    Radar-bright deposits at the poles of Mercury are located in permanently shadowed regions, which provide thermally stable environments for hosting and retaining water ice on the surface or in the near subsurface for geologic timescales. While the areal distribution of these radar-bright deposits is well characterized, their thickness, and thus their total mass and volume, remain poorly constrained. Here we derive thickness estimates for selected water-ice deposits using small, simple craters visible within the permanently shadowed, radar-bright deposits. We examine two endmember scenarios: in Case I, these craters predate the emplacement of the ice, and in Case II, these craters postdate the emplacement of the ice. In Case I, we find the difference between estimated depths of the original unfilled craters and the measured depths of the craters to find the estimated infill of material. The average estimated infilled material for 9 craters assumed to be overlain with water ice is ∼ 41-14+30 m, where 1-σ standard error of the mean is reported as uncertainty. Reported uncertainties are for statistical errors only. Additional systematic uncertainty may stem from georeferencing the images and topographic datasets, from the radial accuracy of the altimeter measurements, or from assumptions in our models including (1) ice is flat in the bowl-shaped crater and (2) there is negligible ice at the crater rims. In Case II, we derive crater excavation depths to investigate the thickness of the ice layer that may have been penetrated by the impact. While the absence of excavated regolith associated with the small craters observed suggests that impacts generally do not penetrate through the ice deposit, the spatial resolution and complex illumination geometry of images may limit the observations. Therefore, it is not possible to conclude whether the small craters in this study penetrate through the ice deposit, and thus Case II does not provide a constraint on the ice thickness

  9. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  10. Pliocene geomagnetic polarity epochs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, G.B.; Cox, A.; Doell, Richard R.; Gromme, C.S.

    1967-01-01

    A paleomagnetic and K-Ar dating study of 44 upper Miocene and Pliocene volcanic units from the western United States suggests that the frequency of reversals of the earth's magnetic field during Pliocene time may have been comparable with that of the last 3.6 m.y. Although the data are too limited to permit the formal naming of any new polarity epochs or events, four polarity transitions have been identified: the W10 R/N boundary at 3.7 ?? 0.1 m.y., the A12 N/R boundary at 4.9 ?? 0.1 m.y., the W32 N/R boundary at 9.0 ?? 0.2m.y., and the W36 R/N boundary at 10.8 ?? 0.3 - 1.0 m.y. The loss of absolute resolution of K-Ar dating in older rocks indicates that the use of well defined stratigraphic successions to identify and date polarity transitions will be important in the study of Pliocene and older reversals. ?? 1967.

  11. Instrumentation to handle thermal polarized neutron beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate devices needed to handle the polarization of thermal neutron beams: Ï/2-flippers (to start/stop Larmor precession) and Ï-flippers (to reverse polarization/precession direction) and illustrate how these devices are used to investigate the properties of matter and of the

  12. Identification of pathogenic Nocardia species by reverse line blot hybridization targeting the 16S rRNA and 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Sorrell, Tania C; Cao, Yongyan; Lee, Ok Cha; Liu, Ying; Sintchenko, Vitali; Chen, Sharon C A

    2010-02-01

    Although 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis is employed most often for the definitive identification of Nocardia species, alternate molecular methods and polymorphisms in other gene targets have also enabled species determinations. We evaluated a combined Nocardia PCR-based reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay based on 16S and 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer region polymorphisms to identify 12 American Type Culture Collection and 123 clinical Nocardia isolates representing 14 species; results were compared with results from 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Thirteen 16S rRNA gene-based (two group-specific and 11 species-specific) and five 16S-23S spacer-targeted (two taxon-specific and three species-specific) probes were utilized. 16S rRNA gene-based probes correctly identified 124 of 135 isolates (sensitivity, 92%) but were unable to identify Nocardia paucivorans strains (n = 10 strains) and a Nocardia asteroides isolate with a novel 16S rRNA gene sequence. Nocardia farcinica and Nocardia cyriacigeorgica strains were identified by the sequential use of an N. farcinica-"negative" probe and a combined N. farcinica/N. cyriacigeorgica probe. The assay specificity was high (99%) except for weak cross-reactivity between the Nocardia brasiliensis probe with the Nocardia thailandica DNA product; however, cross-hybridization with closely related nontarget species may occur. The incorporation of 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer-based probes enabled the identification of all N. paucivorans strains. The overall sensitivity using both probe sets was >99%. Both N. farcinica-specific 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer-directed probes were required to identify all N. farcinica stains by using this probe set. The study demonstrates the utility of a combined PCR/RLB assay for the identification of clinically relevant Nocardia species and its potential for studying subtypes of N. farcinica. Where species assignment is ambiguous or not possible, 16S rRNA gene sequencing is recommended.

  13. Polarization parameters. sigma. , T, and P for the reaction. gamma. p. -->. p. pi. /sup 0/ in the region of the first resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, A.A.; Get' man, V.A.; Gorbenko, V.G.; Gushchin, V.A.; Derkach, A.Y.; Zhebrovskii, Y.V.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kolesnikov, L.Y.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Rubashkin, A.L.; Sorokin, P.V.; Sporov, E.A.; Telegin, Y.N.

    1982-03-01

    We report an experimental study of the ..sigma.., T, and P parameters of the cross section for the reaction ..gamma..p..-->..p..pi../sup 0/ for photon energies 300, 320, 350, 380, 400, 420 MeV in the range of pion emission angles 60--135/sup 0/ c.m.s. The technique of a double polarization experiment with use of linearly polarized photons and a polarized proton target is described. The experimental results are compared with the predictions of theoretical analyses.

  14. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-09-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  15. Generation and control of spin-polarized photocurrents in GaMnAs heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Anibal T., E-mail: anibal@df.ufscar.br; Farinas, Paulo F.; Studart, Nelson [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); DISSE - Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Nanodispositivos Semicondutores, CNPq/MCT, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Castelano, Leonardo K. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Degani, Marcos H.; Maialle, Marcelo Z. [Faculdade de Ciências Aplicadas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13484-350 Limeira, SP (Brazil); DISSE - Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Nanodispositivos Semicondutores, CNPq/MCT, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-01-13

    Photocurrents are calculated for a specially designed GaMnAs semiconductor heterostructure. The results reveal regions in the infrared range of the energy spectrum, in which the proposed structure is remarkably spin-selective. For such photon energies, the generated photocurrents are strongly spin-polarized. Application of a relatively small static bias in the growth direction of the structure is predicted to efficiently reverse the spin-polarization for some photon energies. This behavior suggests the possibility of conveniently simple switching mechanisms. The physics underlying the results is studied and understood in terms of the spin-dependent properties emerging from the particular potential profile of the structure.

  16. Surface structure of YBa2Cu3O7-x probed by reversed-bias scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, H.L.; Markert, J.T.; Lozanne, A.L.d.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of scanning tunneling microscopy studies on high-quality single crystals of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) which were cleaved along a basal plane in situ at 20 K prior to measurement. The initial results of a systematic study of the YBCO surface are presented. Reversed-bias images of the CuO chain layer reveal modulations 3.3±0.3|b|=1.3±0.1 nm in wavelength which change phase by 180 degree under bias polarity reversal along solid chains, and are invariant under bias polarity reversal at a point defect. Regions of sharp unit-cell-sized square corrugations with disordered islands are also observed. We interpret these new results in terms of our previous model [H. L. Edwards, J. T. Markert, and A. L. de Lozanne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2967 (1992)] of the cleaved YBCO surface

  17. Polar bears at risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, S.; Rosentrater, L.; Eid, P.M. [WWF International Arctic Programme, Oslo (Norway)

    2002-05-01

    Polar bears, the world's largest terrestrial carnivore, spend much of their lives on the arctic sea ice. This is where they hunt and move between feeding, denning, and resting areas. The world population, estimated at 22,000 bears, is made up of 20 relatively distinct populations varying in size from a few hundred to a few thousand animals. About 60 per cent of all polar bears are found in Canada. In general, the status of this species is stable, although there are pronounced differences between populations. Reductions in the extent and thickness of sea ice has lead the IUCN Polar Bear Specialist Group to describe climate change as one of the major threats facing polar bears today. Though the long-term effects of climate change will vary in different areas of the Arctic, impacts on the condition and reproductive success of polar bears and their prey are likely to be negative. Longer ice-free periods resulting from earlier break-up of sea ice in the spring and later formation in the fall is already impacting polar bears in the southern portions of their range. In Canada's Hudson Bay, for example, bears hunt on the ice through the winter and into early summer, after which the ice melts completely, forcing bears ashore to fast on stored fat until freeze-up in the fall. The time bears have on the ice to hunt and build up their body condition is cut short when the ice melts early. Studies from Hudson Bay show that for every week earlier that ice break-up occurs, bears will come ashore 10 kg lighter and in poorer condition. It is likely that populations of polar bears dividing their time between land and sea will be severely reduced and local extinctions may occur as greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise and sea ice melts. Expected changes in regional weather patterns will also impact polar bears. Rain in the late winter can cause maternity dens to collapse before females and cubs have departed, thus exposing occupants to the elements and to predators. Such

  18. Ionic polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    Ferroelectricity occurs in many different kinds of materials. Many of the technologically important solids, which are ferroelectric, can be classified as ionic. Any microscopic theory of ferroelectricity must contain a description of local polarization forces. We have collaborated in the development of a theory of ionic polarization which is quite successful. Its basic assumption is that the polarization is derived from the properties of the individual ions. We have applied this theory successfully to diverse subjects as linear and nonlinear optical response, phonon dispersion, and piezoelectricity. We have developed numerical methods using the local Density approximation to calculate the multipole polarizabilities of ions when subject to various fields. We have also developed methods of calculating the nonlinear hyperpolarizability, and showed that it can be used to explain light scattering experiments. This paper elaborates on this polarization theory

  19. Review of polarized ammonium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tatsuo

    1987-01-01

    Recently, ammonia (NH 3 ) and deutron ammonia (ND 3 ), instead of conventional alcohol substances, have been used more frequently as a polarized target substance for experiments of polarization at high energy regions. This article reviews major features of the polarized (deutron) ammonia targets. The dynamic nuclear polarization (DNT) method is widely used in high energy polarization experiments. While only a low polarization degree of hydrogen nucleus of 1.7 percent can be obtained by the Brute force method, DNP can produce polarization as high as ∼ 90 percent (2.5 T, ∼ 200 mK). In 1979, ammonia was irradiated with radiations to form NH 2 free radicals, resulting in the achievement of a high polarization degree of greater than 90 percent (hydrogen). Since then, ammonia and deutron ammonia have increasingly been replacing alcohols including butanol. Irradiation of a target substance with radiations destroys the structure of the substance, leading to a decrease in polarization degree. However, ammonia produces unpaired electrons as a result of irradiation, allowing it to be highly resistant to radiation. This report also present some study results, including observations on effects of radiation on the polarization degree of a target, effects of annealing, and polarization of 14 N. A process for producing an ammonia target is also described. (Nogami, K.)

  20. Polarization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.

    1977-02-01

    In a theoretical review of polarization experiments two important points are emphasized: (a) their versatility and their relevance to a large variety of aspects of hadron physics (tests of basic symmetries; a probe of strong interaction dynamics; a tool for hadron spectroscopy); (b) the wealth of experimental data on polarization parameters in pp and np scattering in the Regge language and in the diffraction language. (author)

  1. Change in the F region structure of a polar ionosphere at the change of the Y component sighn of the interplanetary magnetic field. Svalgaard-Mansurov effect in the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal'perin, Yu.I.; Zosimova, A.G.; Larina, T.N.; Mozhaev, A.M.; Osipov, N.K.; Ponomarev, Yu.N.

    1980-01-01

    Model calculations of the planetary picture of the polar ionosphere characteristics taking into account modern models of magnetospheric convection are carried out. The results of direct measurements of the lateral component of the convection rate in the day polar cusp region obtained by the ''Kosmos-184'' satellite in 1967 indicative of rotation of the zonal convection component direction with tha change of the Bsub(y) component sign of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). It is shown that the change of the IMF Bsub(y) sign and the following change of the convection picture in the polar cap must cause a quick (10 3 s) change of the planetary picture of the polar ionosphere characteristics in the F region peak and higher, i.e. ''the Svalgard-Mansurov ionospheric effect''. The amplitude of the variations and their character are defined by the relation of the solar and auroral ionization, and, therefore, they strongly depend on the universal time, season and auroral activity, that hampers comparison of the calculations with the experiment. The experimental data obtained from satellites and indicative of the reality of the described ionospheric Bsub(y) effect are presented. Thus, the data of many years on the ionospheric measurements from the Earth and satellites parallel with the magnetic measurements can be used to specify parameters describing the magnetospheric convection picture [ru

  2. Valleytronics in merging Dirac cones: All-electric-controlled valley filter, valve, and universal reversible logic gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Yee Sin; Yang, Shengyuan A.; Zhang, C.; Ma, Zhongshui; Ang, L. K.

    2017-12-01

    Despite much anticipation of valleytronics as a candidate to replace the aging complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) based information processing, its progress is severely hindered by the lack of practical ways to manipulate valley polarization all electrically in an electrostatic setting. Here, we propose a class of all-electric-controlled valley filter, valve, and logic gate based on the valley-contrasting transport in a merging Dirac cones system. The central mechanism of these devices lies on the pseudospin-assisted quantum tunneling which effectively quenches the transport of one valley when its pseudospin configuration mismatches that of a gate-controlled scattering region. The valley polarization can be abruptly switched into different states and remains stable over semi-infinite gate-voltage windows. Colossal tunneling valley-pseudomagnetoresistance ratio of over 10 000 % can be achieved in a valley-valve setup. We further propose a valleytronic-based logic gate capable of covering all 16 types of two-input Boolean logics. Remarkably, the valley degree of freedom can be harnessed to resurrect logical reversibility in two-input universal Boolean gate. The (2 +1 ) polarization states (two distinct valleys plus a null polarization) reestablish one-to-one input-to-output mapping, a crucial requirement for logical reversibility, and significantly reduce the complexity of reversible circuits. Our results suggest that the synergy of valleytronics and digital logics may provide new paradigms for valleytronic-based information processing and reversible computing.

  3. Polarization measurement for internal polarized gaseous targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhenyu; Ye Yunxiu; Lv Haijiang; Mao Yajun

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an introduction to internal polarized gaseous targets, polarization method, polarization measurement method and procedure. To get the total nuclear polarization of hydrogen atoms (including the polarization of the recombined hydrogen molecules) in the target cell, authors have measured the parameters relating to atomic polarization and polarized hydrogen atoms and molecules. The total polarization of the target during our measurement is P T =0.853 ± 0.036. (authors)

  4. Sources of polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, L.

    1983-01-01

    Various sources of polarized neutrons are reviewed. Monoenergetic source produced with unpolarized or polarized beams, white sources of polarized neutrons, production by transmissions through polarized hydrogen targets and polarized thermal neutronsare discussed, with appropriate applications included. (U.K.)

  5. The polar mesosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Ray; Murphy, Damian

    2008-01-01

    The mesosphere region, which lies at the edge of space, contains the coldest layer of the Earth's atmosphere, with summer temperatures as low as minus 130 °C. In this extreme environment ice aerosol layers have appeared since the dawn of industrialization—whose existence may arguably be linked to human influence—on yet another layer of the Earth's fragile atmosphere. Ground-based and space-based experiments conducted in the Arctic and Antarctic during the International Polar Year (IPY) aim to address limitations in our knowledge and to advance our understanding of thermal and dynamical processes at play in the polar mesosphere

  6. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  7. Reversible Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... in different ways. The presence and absence of diverse materials, both natural and political, is what distinguishes them from each other. Arguments are presented for a more symmetric relation between the scientific statistical text and the reader. I will argue that a more symmetric relation can be achieved...

  8. Optical reversible programmable Boolean logic unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2012-07-20

    Computing with reversibility is the only way to avoid dissipation of energy associated with bit erase. So, a reversible microprocessor is required for future computing. In this paper, a design of a simple all-optical reversible programmable processor is proposed using a polarizing beam splitter, liquid crystal-phase spatial light modulators, a half-wave plate, and plane mirrors. This circuit can perform 16 logical operations according to three programming inputs. Also, inputs can be easily recovered from the outputs. It is named the "reversible programmable Boolean logic unit (RPBLU)." The logic unit is the basic building block of many complex computational operations. Hence the design is important in sense. Two orthogonally polarized lights are defined here as two logical states, respectively.

  9. Two ENSO episodes with reversed impacts on the regional precipitation of the northeastern South America Dos eventos ENSO con impactos opuestos sobre la precipitación regional en el noreste de Sudamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo B. de Souza

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic analyses of two ENSO episodes observed during 1954-55 (La Niña and 1972-73 (El Niño over tropical Pacific Ocean are reported. These years were marked by reversed impact on the regional precipitation observed over the northeastern South America. The observational results showed that, in the Pacific Ocean, the La Niña stayed well configured during both summer and autumn of 1954-55, however the El Niño presented its mature phase during summer of 1972-73 and an abrupt decline during autumn of 1973. On the other hand, the large-scale oceanic and atmospheric patterns related to the intertropical Atlantic SST gradient, created dynamic conditions that modulated the positioning of ITCZ in the equatorial Atlantic and regulated significantly the rainfall anomalies observed in the northeastern South America, overcoming the effect of the ENSO mode observed in the tropical Pacific.En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio de diagnóstico de los eventos ENSO ocurridos en 1954-55 (La Niña y 1972-73 (El Niño. Durante 1954-55 (1972-73, se observaron anomalías de temperaturas de la superficie del mar (TSM positivas (negativas en el Atlántico Norte y negativas (positivas en el Atlántico Sur, lo que define la fase positiva (negativa del dipolo Atlántico. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que pese a la ocurrencia del evento La Niña (El Niño en el Pacífico, la configuración del dipolo positivo (negativo en el Atlántico creó las condiciones favorables para mantener la ITCZ al norte (sur del Ecuador. En consecuencia, se encontró un déficit (exceso de precipitación en el nor-noreste brasileño durante DEF y MAM de 1954-55 (1972-73. Por lo tanto, durante estos años la configuración anómala de TSM en el Atlántico moduló las anomalías de lluvia observadas en el Amazonas y noreste de Brasil, superando el efecto del ENSO.

  10. Magnetic reversals from planetary dynamo waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheyko, Andrey; Finlay, Christopher C; Jackson, Andrew

    2016-11-24

    A striking feature of many natural dynamos is their ability to undergo polarity reversals. The best documented example is Earth's magnetic field, which has reversed hundreds of times during its history. The origin of geomagnetic polarity reversals lies in a magnetohydrodynamic process that takes place in Earth's core, but the precise mechanism is debated. The majority of numerical geodynamo simulations that exhibit reversals operate in a regime in which the viscosity of the fluid remains important, and in which the dynamo mechanism primarily involves stretching and twisting of field lines by columnar convection. Here we present an example of another class of reversing-geodynamo model, which operates in a regime of comparatively low viscosity and high magnetic diffusivity. This class does not fit into the paradigm of reversal regimes that are dictated by the value of the local Rossby number (the ratio of advection to Coriolis force). Instead, stretching of the magnetic field by a strong shear in the east-west flow near the imaginary cylinder just touching the inner core and parallel to the axis of rotation is crucial to the reversal mechanism in our models, which involves a process akin to kinematic dynamo waves. Because our results are relevant in a regime of low viscosity and high magnetic diffusivity, and with geophysically appropriate boundary conditions, this form of dynamo wave may also be involved in geomagnetic reversals.

  11. Features of the low-frequency polarization response in the region of the ferroelectric phase transition in multiferroic TbMnO.sub.3./sub.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trepakov, Vladimír; Kvyatkovskii, O.E.; Savinov, Maxim; Dejneka, Alexandr; Wang, X.; Cheong, S.W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 10 (2016), s. 2021-2026 ISSN 1063-7834 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : low-frequency * polarization response * ferroelectric, phase * transition * multiferroic * TbMnO 3 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.860, year: 2016

  12. Three-dimensional Radiative Transfer Simulations of the Scattering Polarization of the Hydrogen Lyalpha Line in a Magnetohydrodynamic Model of the Chromosphere-Corona Transition Region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpán, Jiří; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Leenaarts, J.; Carlsson, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 803, č. 2 (2015), 65/1-65/15 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP209/12/P741 Grant - others:EU(XE) COST action MP1104 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : polarization * radiative transfer * scattering Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.909, year: 2015

  13. Polarization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurushev, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    Brief review is presented of the high energy polarization study including experimental data and the theoretical descriptions. The mostimportant proposals at the biggest accelerators and the crucial technical developments are also listed which may become a main-line of spin physics. 35 refs.; 10 figs.; 4 tabs

  14. Polar Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    These three images were taken on three different orbits over the north polar cap in April 1999. Each shows a different part of the same ice-free trough. The left and right images are separated by a distance of more than 100 kilometers (62 miles). Note the similar layers in each image.

  15. The topology of intrasector reversals of the interplanetary magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, S. W.; Crooker, N. U.; Gosling, J. T.

    1996-11-01

    A technique has been developed recently to determine the polarities of interplanetary magnetic fields relative to their origins at the Sun by comparing energetic electron flow directions with local magnetic field directions. Here we use heat flux electrons from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) plasma detector on the ISEE 3 spacecraft to determine the field polarities. We examine periods within well-defined magnetic sectors when the field directions appear to be reversed from the normal spiral direction of the sector. About half of these intrasector field reversals (IFRs) are cases in which the polarities match those of the surrounding sectors, indicating that those fields have been folded back toward the Sun. The more interesting cases are those with polarity reversals. We find no clear cases of isolated reverse polarity fields, which suggests that islands of reverse polarity in the solar source dipole field probably do not exist. The IFRs with polarity reversals are strongly associated with periods of bidirectional electron flows, suggesting that those fields occur only in conjunction with closed fields. We propose that both those IFRs and the bidirectional flows are signatures of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In that case, many interplanetary CMEs are larger and more complex than previously thought, consisting of both open and closed field components.

  16. Analysis of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) in sex reversed patients: point-mutation in SRY causing sex-reversion in a 46,XY female

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Jørn; Schwartz, M; Skakkebaek, N E

    1992-01-01

    The first and essential step in normal sexual differentiation takes place during the 5th-6th week of gestation. The testis determining factor (TDF) directs the undifferentiated gonad into a testis, which secretes hormones responsible for normal male development. A new candidate for TDF has recently...... been reported, and it has been called the sex determining region of the Y (SRY). The hypothesis has been supported by the finding of XX individuals with SRY, and two females with 46,XY karyotype and a mutation in SRY. However, XX males without SRY has been reported, and the role of SRY still has...... to be determined. We have tested three human females with 46,XY karyotype and gonadal dysgenesis and two 46,XX males for the presence of SRY using the polymerase chain reaction and subsequent DNA sequencing. Both 46,XX males contained SRY, whereas one of the 46,XY females had suffered a point mutation in SRY...

  17. Recent advance in polar seismology: Global impact of the International Polar Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanao, Masaki; Zhao, Dapeng; Wiens, Douglas A.; Stutzmann, Éléonore

    2015-03-01

    The most exciting initiative for the recent polar studies was the International Polar Year (IPY) in 2007-2008. The IPY has witnessed a growing community of seismologists who have made considerable efforts to acquire high-quality data in polar regions. It also provided an excellent opportunity to make significant advances in seismic instrumentation of the polar regions to achieve scientific targets involving global issues. Taking these aspects into account, we organize and publish a special issue in Polar Science on the recent advance in polar seismology and cryoseismology as fruitful achievements of the IPY.

  18. Juno/JEDI observations of 0.01 to >10 MeV energetic ions in the Jovian auroral regions: Anticipating a source for polar X-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, D. K.; Mauk, B. H.; Paranicas, C. P.; Clark, G.; Kollmann, P.; Rymer, A. M.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Levin, S. M.

    2017-07-01

    After a successful orbit insertion, the Juno spacecraft completed its first 53.5 day orbit and entered a very low altitude perijove with the full scientific payload operational for the first time on 27 August 2016. The Jupiter Energetic particle Detector Instrument measured ions and electrons over the auroral regions and through closest approach, with ions measured from 0.01 to >10 MeV, depending on species. This report focuses on the composition of the energetic ions observed during the first perijove of the Juno mission. Of particular interest are the ions that precipitate from the magnetosphere onto the polar atmosphere and ions that are accelerated locally by Jupiter's powerful auroral processes. We report preliminary findings on the spatial variations, species, including energy and pitch angle distributions throughout the prime science region during the first orbit of the Juno mission. The prime motivation for this work was to examine the heavy ions that are thought to be responsible for the observed polar X-rays. Jupiter Energetic particle Detector Instrument (JEDI) did observe precipitating heavy ions with energies >10 MeV, but for this perijove the intensities were far below those needed to account for previously observed polar X-ray emissions. During this survey we also found an unusual signal of ions between oxygen and sulfur. We include here a report on what appears to be a transitory observation of magnesium, or possibly sodium, at MeV energies through closest approach.

  19. Lunar true polar wander inferred from polar hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, M A; Miller, R S; Keane, J T; Laneuville, M; Paige, D A; Matsuyama, I; Lawrence, D J; Crotts, A; Poston, M J

    2016-03-24

    The earliest dynamic and thermal history of the Moon is not well understood. The hydrogen content of deposits near the lunar poles may yield insight into this history, because these deposits (which are probably composed of water ice) survive only if they remain in permanent shadow. If the orientation of the Moon has changed, then the locations of the shadowed regions will also have changed. The polar hydrogen deposits have been mapped by orbiting neutron spectrometers, and their observed spatial distribution does not match the expected distribution of water ice inferred from present-day lunar temperatures. This finding is in contrast to the distribution of volatiles observed in similar thermal environments at Mercury's poles. Here we show that polar hydrogen preserves evidence that the spin axis of the Moon has shifted: the hydrogen deposits are antipodal and displaced equally from each pole along opposite longitudes. From the direction and magnitude of the inferred reorientation, and from analysis of the moments of inertia of the Moon, we hypothesize that this change in the spin axis, known as true polar wander, was caused by a low-density thermal anomaly beneath the Procellarum region. Radiogenic heating within this region resulted in the bulk of lunar mare volcanism and altered the density structure of the Moon, changing its moments of inertia. This resulted in true polar wander consistent with the observed remnant polar hydrogen. This thermal anomaly still exists and, in part, controls the current orientation of the Moon. The Procellarum region was most geologically active early in lunar history, which implies that polar wander initiated billions of years ago and that a large portion of the measured polar hydrogen is ancient, recording early delivery of water to the inner Solar System. Our hypothesis provides an explanation for the antipodal distribution of lunar polar hydrogen, and connects polar volatiles to the geologic and geophysical evolution of the Moon

  20. Study of Jupiter polarization properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolkvadze, O.R.

    1980-01-01

    Investigations into polarization properties of the Jupiter reflected light were carried on at the Abastumani astrophysical observatory in 1967, 1968 and 1969 in the four spectral ranges: 4000, 4800, 5400 and 6600 A deg. Data on light polarization in different parts of the Jupiter visible disk are given. Curves of dependence of the planet light polarization degree on a phase angle are plotted. It is shown that in the central part of the visible planet disk the polarization degree is low. Atmosphere is in a stable state in this part of Jupiter. Mean radius of particles of a cloud layer is equal to 0.26μ, and optical thickness of overcloud atmosphere tau=0.05. Height of transition boundary of the cloud layer into overcloud gas atmosphere changes from year to year at the edges of the equatorial zone. Optical thickness of overcloud atmosphere changes also with changing height of a transient layer. The polar Jupiter regions possess a high degree of polarization which depends on a latitude. Polarization increases monotonously with the latitude and over polar regions accepts a maximum value [ru

  1. Sulfur mass loading of the atmosphere from volcanic eruptions: Calibration of the ice core record on basis of sulfate aerosol deposition in polar regions from the 1982 El Chichon eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Haraldur; Laj, Paolo

    1990-01-01

    Major volcanic eruptions disperse large quantities of sulfur compound throughout the Earth's atmosphere. The sulfuric acid aerosols resulting from such eruptions are scavenged by snow within the polar regions and appear in polar ice cores as elevated acidity layers. Glacio-chemical studies of ice cores can, thus, provide a record of past volcanism, as well as the means for understanding the fate of volcanic sulfur in the atmosphere. The primary objectives of this project are to study the chemistry and physical properties of volcanic fallout in a Greenland Ice Core in order to evaluate the impact of the volcanic gases on the atmospheric chemistry and the total atmospheric mass of volcanic aerosols emitted by major volcanic eruptions. We propose to compare the ice core record to other atmospheric records performed during the last 10 years to investigate transport and deposition of volcanic materials.

  2. The Polar Cusp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtet, J.A.; Egeland, A.

    1985-01-01

    The upper atmosphere at high latitudes is often called the ''earth's window to outer space.'' Through various electrodynamic coupling processes, as well as direct transfer of particles, many of the geophysical effects displayed are direct manifestations of phenomena occurring in deep space. The high latitude ionosphere also exerts a feedback on the regions of the magnetosphere and atmosphere to which it is coupled. Of particular interest are the sections of the near space known as the Polar Cusp. A vast portion of the Earth's magnetic field envelope is electrically connected to these regions. This geometry results in a spatial mapping of the magnetospheric processes and a focusing on the ionosphere. In the Polar Cusps, the solar wind plasma also has direct access to the upper atmosphere

  3. Epitaxial engineering of polar ɛ-Ga2O3 for tunable two-dimensional electron gas at the heterointerface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Beom; Mishra, Rohan

    2018-04-01

    We predict the formation of a polarization-induced two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the interface of ɛ-Ga2O3 and CaCO3, wherein the density of the 2DEG can be tuned by reversing the spontaneous polarization in ɛ-Ga2O3, for example, with an applied electric field. ɛ-Ga2O3 is a polar and metastable ultra-wide band-gap semiconductor. We use density-functional theory (DFT) calculations and coincidence-site lattice model to predict the region of epitaxial strain under which ɛ-Ga2O3 can be stabilized over its other competing polymorphs and suggest promising substrates. Using group-theoretical methods and DFT calculations, we show that ɛ-Ga2O3 is a ferroelectric material where the spontaneous polarization can be reversed through a non-polar phase by using an electric field. Based on the calculated band alignment of ɛ-Ga2O3 with various substrates, we show the formation of a 2DEG with a high sheet charge density of 1014 cm-2 at the interface with CaCO3 due to the spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in ɛ-Ga2O3, which makes the system attractive for high-power and high-frequency applications.

  4. Properties of Pliocene sedimentary geomagnetic reversal records from the Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Linssen, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    In the history of the Earth the dipolar geomagnetic field has frequently reversed polarity. Though this property was already known early this century (Brunhes, 1906), nowadays the characteristics and the origin of polarity transitions are still largely unknown. The geomagnetic field and its variations are recorded in rocks as a natural remanent magnetization (NRM) during the formation of these rocks. The study of the NRM in sedimentary reversal records is the subject of this dissertation.

  5. Simultaneous liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry determination of both polar and "multiresidue" pesticides in food using parallel hydrophilic interaction/reversed-phase liquid chromatography and a hybrid sample preparation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Molina, José; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2017-09-29

    Pesticide testing of foodstuffs is usually accomplished with generic wide-scope multi-residue methods based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). However, this approach does not cover some special pesticides, the so called "single-residue method" compounds, that are hardly compatible with standard reversed-phase (RP) separations due to their specific properties. In this article, we propose a comprehensive strategy for the integration of single residue method compounds and standard multiresidue pesticides within a single run. It is based on the use of a parallel LC column assembly with two different LC gradients performing orthogonal hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and reversed-phase (RPLC) chromatography within one analytical run. Two sample aliquots were simultaneously injected on each column, using different gradients, being the eluents merged post-column prior to mass spectrometry detection. The approach was tested with 41 multiclass pesticides covering a wide range of physicochemical properties across several orders of log K ow (from -4 to +5.5). With this assembly, distinct separation from the void was attained for all the pesticides studied, keeping similar performance in terms of sensitivity, peak area reproducibility (pesticides) method was evaluated based on solvent extraction with MeOH and acetonitrile followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction, delivering appropriate recoveries for most of the pesticides included in the study within the log K ow in the range from -4 to +5.5. The proposed strategy may be extended to other fields such as sport drug testing or environmental analysis, where the same type of variety of analytes featuring poor retention within a single chromatographic separation occurs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Some new approaches to the study of the Earth's magnetic field reversals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Consolini

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Paleomagnetic studies clearly show that the polarity of the magnetic fi eld has been subject to reversals. It is generally assumed that polarity intervals are exponentially distributed. Here, the geomagnetic polarity reversal record, for the past 166 Ma, is analysed and a new approach to the study of the reversals is presented. In detail, the occurrence of 1/f-noise in the Power Spectral Density (PSD, relative to geomagnetic fi eld reversals, the existence of a Zipf's law behaviour for the cumulative distribution of polarity intervals, and the occurrence of punctuated equilibrium, as shown by a sort of Devil's staircase for the reversal time series, are investigated. Our results give a preliminary picture of the dynamical state of the geomagnetic dynamo suggesting that the geodynamo works in a marginally stable out-of-equilibrium confi guration, and that polarity reversals are equivalent to a sort of phase transition between two metastable states.

  7. Promoting Diversity Through Polar Interdisciplinary Coordinated Education (Polar ICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, J. D.; Hotaling, L. A.; Garza, C.; Van Dyk, P. B.; Hunter-thomson, K. I.; Middendorf, J.; Daniel, A.; Matsumoto, G. I.; Schofield, O.

    2017-12-01

    Polar Interdisciplinary Coordinated Education (ICE) is an education and outreach program designed to provide public access to the Antarctic and Arctic regions through polar data and interactions with the scientists. The program provides multi-faceted science communication training for early career scientists that consist of a face-to face workshop and opportunities to apply these skills. The key components of the scientist training workshop include cultural competency training, deconstructing/decoding science for non-expert audiences, the art of telling science stories, and networking with members of the education and outreach community and reflecting on communication skills. Scientists partner with educators to provide professional development for K-12 educators and support for student research symposia. Polar ICE has initiated a Polar Literacy initiative that provides both a grounding in big ideas in polar science and science communication training designed to underscore the importance of the Polar Regions to the public while promoting interdisciplinary collaborations between scientists and educators. Our ultimate objective is to promote STEM identity through professional development of scientists and educators while developing career awareness of STEM pathways in Polar science.

  8. Characterization of Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Associated Mutations in the RNase H Region of HIV-1 Subtype C Infected Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngcapu, Sinaye; Theys, Kristof; Libin, Pieter; Marconi, Vincent C; Sunpath, Henry; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Gordon, Michelle L

    2017-11-08

    The South African national treatment programme includes nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in both first and second line highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens. Mutations in the RNase H domain have been associated with resistance to NRTIs but primarily in HIV-1 subtype B studies. Here, we investigated the prevalence and association of RNase H mutations with NRTI resistance in sequences from HIV-1 subtype C infected individuals. RNase H sequences from 112 NRTI treated but virologically failing individuals and 28 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive individuals were generated and analysed. In addition, sequences from 359 subtype C ART-naive sequences were downloaded from Los Alamos database to give a total of 387 sequences from ART-naive individuals for the analysis. Fisher's exact test was used to identify mutations and Bayesian network learning was applied to identify novel NRTI resistance mutation pathways in RNase H domain. The mutations A435L, S468A, T470S, L484I, A508S, Q509L, L517I, Q524E and E529D were more prevalent in sequences from treatment-experienced compared to antiretroviral treatment naive individuals, however, only the E529D mutation remained significant after correction for multiple comparison. Our findings suggest a potential interaction between E529D and NRTI-treatment; however, site-directed mutagenesis is needed to understand the impact of this RNase H mutation.

  9. Properties of Pliocene sedimentary geomagnetic reversal records from the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linssen, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    In the history of the Earth the dipolar geomagnetic field has frequently reversed polarity. Though this property was already known early this century (Brunhes, 1906), nowadays the characteristics and the origin of polarity transitions are still largely unknown. The geomagnetic field and its

  10. Geomagnetic Polarity Epochs: Sierra Nevada II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A; Doell, R R; Dalrymple, G B

    1963-10-18

    Ten new determinations on volcanic extrusions in the Sierra Nevada with potassium-argon ages of 3.1 million years or less indicate that the remanent magnetizations fall into two groups, a normal group in which the remanent magnetization is directed downward and to the north, and a reversed group magnetized up and to the south. Thermomagnetic experiments and mineralogic studies fail to provide an explanation of the opposing polarities in terms of mineralogic control, but rather suggest that the remanent magnetization reflects reversals of the main dipole field of the earth. All available radiometric ages are consistent with this field-reversal hypothesis and indicate that the present normal polarity epoch (N1) as well as the previous reversed epoch (R1) are 0.9 to 1.0 million years long, whereas the previous normal epoch (N2) was at least 25 percent longer.

  11. DISCOVERY OF POLARIZATION REVERBERATION IN NGC 4151

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskell, C. Martin; Shoji, Masatoshi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); Goosmann, Rene W. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, 11 rue de l' Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Merkulova, Nelly I.; Shakhovskoy, Nikolay M., E-mail: martin.gaskell@uv.cl, E-mail: mshoji@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: rene.goosmann@astro.unistra.fr [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Nauchny, Crimea 98409 (Ukraine)

    2012-04-20

    Observations of the optical polarization of NGC 4151 in 1997-2003 show variations of an order of magnitude in the polarized flux while the polarization position angle remains constant. The amplitude of variability of the polarized flux is comparable to the amplitude of variability of the total U-band flux, except that the polarized flux follows the total flux with a lag of 8 {+-} 3 days. The time lag and the constancy of the position angle strongly favor a scattering origin for the variable polarization rather than a non-thermal synchrotron origin. The orientation of the position angle of the polarized flux (parallel to the radio axis) and the size of the lag imply that the polarization arises from electron scattering in a flattened region within the low-ionization component of the broad-line region. Polarization from dust scattering in the equatorial torus is ruled out as the source of the lag in polarized flux because it would produce a larger lag and, unless the half-opening angle of the torus is >53 Degree-Sign , the polarization would be perpendicular to the radio axis. We note a long-term change in the percentage of polarization at similar total flux levels, and this could be due either to changing non-axisymmetry in the optical continuum emission or a change in the number of scatterers on a timescale of years.

  12. Polarization properties of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-based double layer-type oxygen electrodes for reversible SOFCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Y.; Nishino, H.; Ashidate, S.; Kokubo, H.; Watanabe, M.; Uchida, H.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed double layer-type (catalyst layer/current collecting layer) oxygen electrodes (DLE) for reversible SOFCs. As the catalyst layer (cathode for SOFC and anode for steam electrolysis) interfaced with a samaria-doped ceria [(CeO 2 ) 0.8 (SmO 1.5 ) 0.2 , SDC] interlayer/YSZ solid electrolyte, mixed conducting La 0.6 Sr 0.4 Co 0.2 Fe 0.8 O 3 (LSCF) and SDC particles were employed. The current collecting porous LSCF layer was formed on the catalyst layer. By controlling the SDC content, as well as the thickness and porosity of the catalyst layer, the gas diffusion rate and the conduction networks for electrons and oxide ions were optimized, resulting in a marked reduction of the overpotential. The LSCF + SDC/LSCF DLE exhibited higher performance than single-layer electrodes of LSCF + SDC or LSCF; the IR-free anode potential vs. an air reference electrode was 0.12 V (corresponding to an overpotential of 0.08 V) at 0.5 A cm -2 and 900 deg. C under an atmosphere of O 2 (1 atm)

  13. Polar pesticide contamination of an urban and peri-urban tropical watershed affected by agricultural activities (Yaoundé, Center Region, Cameroon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branchet, Perrine; Cadot, Emmanuelle; Fenet, Hélène; Sebag, David; Ngatcha, Benjamin Ngounou; Borrell-Estupina, Valérie; Ngoupayou, Jules Remy Ndam; Kengne, Ives; Braun, Jean-Jacques; Gonzalez, Catherine

    2018-04-18

    Urban agriculture is crucial to local populations, but the risk of it contaminating water has rarely been documented. The aim of this study was to assess pesticide contamination of surface waters from the Méfou watershed (Yaoundé, Cameroon) by 32 selected herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides (mainly polar) according to their local application, using both grab sampling and polar organic compounds integrative samplers (POCIS). Three sampling campaigns were conducted in the March/April and October/November 2015 and June/July 2016 rainy seasons in urban and peri-urban areas. The majority of the targeted compounds were detected. The quantification frequencies of eight pesticides were more than 20% with both POCIS and grab sampling, and that of diuron and atrazine reached 100%. Spatial differences in contamination were evidenced with higher contamination in urban than peri-urban rivers. In particular, diuron was identified as an urban contaminant of concern because its concentrations frequently exceeded the European water quality guideline of 0.200 μg/L in freshwater and may thus represent an ecological risk due to a risk quotient > 1 for algae observed in 94% of grab samples. This study raises concerns about the impacts of urban agriculture on the quality of water resources and to a larger extent on the health of the inhabitants of cities in developing countries. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  14. Strategic Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Adam; Kalai, Ehud

    2001-08-01

    In joint decision making, similarly minded people may take opposite positions. Consider the example of a marriage in which one spouse gives generously to charity while the other donates nothing. Such "polarization" may misrepresent what is, in actuality, a small discrepancy in preferences. It may be that the donating spouse would like to see 10% of their combined income go to charity each year, while the apparently frugal spouse would like to see 8% donated. A simple game-theoretic analysis suggests that the spouses will end up donating 10% and 0%, respectively. By generalizing this argument to a larger class of games, we provide strategic justification for polarization in many situations such as debates, shared living accommodations, and disciplining children. In some of these examples, an arbitrarily small disagreement in preferences leads to an arbitrarily large loss in utility for all participants. Such small disagreements may also destabilize what, from game-theoretic point of view, is a very stable equilibrium. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  15. Tests of time reversal in neutron-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments to test time-reversal invariance are discussed. The experiments are based on observables constructed from the momentum and spin vectors of epithermal neutrons and from the spin of an aligned or polarized target. It is shown that the proposed tests are detailed balance tests of time-reversal invariance. The status of the experiments is briefly reviewed. 14 refs., 5 figs

  16. Polar Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    independently has a 10% chance of being flipped. Then the decoder should use the majority vote rule: if y is (0, 0, 0), (0, 0, 1), (0, 1, 0), or (1, 0, 0... tensor power, and BN is a square matrix called the bit-reversal operator. Therefore G−1N = (F ⊗n) −1 B−1N . Section VII.B of [1] shows that B −1 N...BN . 18 Also we see by direct computation that FF = I2. Using the tensor product identity (AC) ⊗ (BD) = (A⊗B)(C⊗D), we get that (F ⊗F )(F ⊗F ) = I2

  17. Rotating Reverse-Osmosis for Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueptow, RIchard M.

    2004-01-01

    A new design for a water-filtering device combines rotating filtration with reverse osmosis to create a rotating reverse- osmosis system. Rotating filtration has been used for separating plasma from whole blood, while reverse osmosis has been used in purification of water and in some chemical processes. Reverse- osmosis membranes are vulnerable to concentration polarization a type of fouling in which the chemicals meant not to pass through the reverse-osmosis membranes accumulate very near the surfaces of the membranes. The combination of rotating filtration and reverse osmosis is intended to prevent concentration polarization and thereby increase the desired flux of filtered water while decreasing the likelihood of passage of undesired chemical species through the filter. Devices based on this concept could be useful in a variety of commercial applications, including purification and desalination of drinking water, purification of pharmaceutical process water, treatment of household and industrial wastewater, and treatment of industrial process water. A rotating filter consists of a cylindrical porous microfilter rotating within a stationary concentric cylindrical outer shell (see figure). The aqueous suspension enters one end of the annulus between the inner and outer cylinders. Filtrate passes through the rotating cylindrical microfilter and is removed via a hollow shaft. The concentrated suspension is removed at the end of the annulus opposite the end where the suspension entered.

  18. Regional development and regional policy

    OpenAIRE

    Šabić, Dejan; Vujadinović, Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Economic polarization is a process that is present at global, national and regional level. Economic activity is extremely spatially concentrated. Cities and developed regions use the agglomeration effect to attract labor and capital, thus achieving more favorable economic conditions than the agrarian region. Scientific research and European experiences over the past decades have contributed to the discrepancy among theorists about the causes and consequences of regional inequalities. Regional...

  19. Polarized secondary radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaika, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods of polarized radioactive nuclei beam production: a) a method nuclear interaction of the non-polarized or polarized charged projectiles with target nuclei; b) a method of polarization of stopped reaction radioactive products in a special polarized ion source with than following acceleration; c) a polarization of radioactive nuclei circulating in a storage ring are considered. Possible life times of the radioactive ions for these methods are determined. General schemes of the polarization method realizations and depolarization problems are discussed

  20. Polar crane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makosinski, S.

    1981-01-01

    In many applications polar cranes have to be repeatedly positioned with high accuracy. A guidance system is disclosed which has two pairs of guides. Each guide consists of two rollers carried by a sheave rotatable mounted on the crane bridge, the rollers being locatable one on each side of a guideway, e.g. the circular track on which the bridge runs. The pairs of guides are interconnected by respective rope loops which pass around and are locked to the respective pairs of sheaves in such a manner that movement of one guide results in equal movement of the other guide in a sense to maintain the repeatability of positioning of the centre of the bridge. A hydraulically-linked guide system is also described. (author)

  1. Alterations in apoptotic caspases and antioxidant enzymes in arsenic exposed rat brain regions: reversal effect of essential metals and a chelating agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadeyala, Praveen Kumar; Sannadi, Saritha; Gottipolu, Rajarami Reddy

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic (As) widely studied for its effects as a neurotoxicant. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of calcium, zinc or monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA), either individually or in combination on As induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in brain regions (cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum) of postnatal day (PND) 21, 28 and 3 months old rats. Arsenic exposure significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) with increase in glutathione s transferase (GST) while lipid peroxidation (LPx), arsenic levels, mRNA expression of caspase 3 and 9 were significantly increased in different brain regions. Arsenic induced alterations in these parameters were greater in PND 28 and more pronounced in cerebral cortex. From the results it is evident that combined supplementation of calcium and zinc along with MiADMSA would be most effective compared to individual administration in reducing arsenic induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Magnetization reversal in ferromagnetic film through solitons by electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veerakumar, V.; Daniel, M.

    2001-07-01

    We study the reversal of magnetization in an isotopic ferromagnetic film free from charges by exposing it to a circularly polarized electromagnetic (EM) field. The magnetization excitations are obtained in the form of line and lump solitons of the completely integrable modified KP-II equation which is derived using a reductive perturbation method from the set of coupled Landau-Lifschitz and Maxwell equations. It is observed that when the polarization of the EM-field is reversed followed by a rotation, for every (π)/2-degrees, the magnetization is reversed. (author)

  3. Kinetic Line Voronoi Operations and Their Reversibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mioc, Darka; Anton, François; Gold, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In Geographic Information Systems the reversibility of map update operations has not been explored yet. In this paper we are using the Voronoi based Quad-edge data structure to define reversible map update operations. The reversibility of the map operations has been formalised at the lowest level...... mechanisms and dynamic map visualisations. In order to use the reversibility within the kinetic Voronoi diagram of points and open oriented line segments, we need to assure that reversing the map commands will produce exactly the changes in the map equivalent to the previous map states. To prove...... that reversing the map update operations produces the exact reverse changes, we show an isomorphism between the set of complex operations on the kinetic Voronoi diagram of points and open oriented line segments and the sets of numbers of new / deleted Voronoi regions induced by these operations, and its...

  4. Constraining the reversing and non-reversing modes of the geodynamo. New insights from magnetostratigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Y.; Pavlov, V.; Shatsillo, A.; Hulot, G.

    2015-12-01

    Constraining the evolution in the geomagnetic reversal frequency over hundreds of million years is not a trivial matter. Beyond the fact that there are long periods without reversals, known as superchrons, and periods with many reversals, the way the reversal frequency changes through time during reversing periods is still debated. A smooth evolution or a succession of stationary segments have both been suggested to account for the geomagnetic polarity time scale since the Middle-Late Jurassic. Sudden changes from a reversing mode to a non-reversing mode of the geodynamo may also well have happened, the switch between the two modes having then possibly been controlled by the thermal conditions at the core-mantle boundary. There is, nevertheless, a growing set of magnetostratigraphic data, which could help decipher a proper interpretation of the reversal history, in particular in the early Paleozoic and even during the Precambrian. Although yielding a fragmentary record, these data reveal the occurrence of both additional superchrons and periods characterized by extremely high, not to say extraordinary, magnetic reversal frequencies. In this talk, we will present a synthesis of these data, mainly obtained from Siberia, and discuss their implication for the magnetic reversal behavior over the past billion years.

  5. High resolution polarimetry of the Sun at 3. 7 and 11. 1 cm wavelengths. [Stokes parameters, polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, K R [Tufts Univ., Medford, Mass. (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1977-04-01

    The four Stokes parameters are presented for interferometric observations of the Sun at wavelengths of lambda=3.7 cm and lambda=11 cm with angular resolutions between 2.7 and 36.7 seconds of arc. An H..cap alpha.. solar flare of importance SN and type C has a radio wavelength (lambda=3.7 cm) size of 5 seconds of arc, a flux density of 0.3 x 10/sup -22/Wm/sup -2/Hz/sup -1/, and a brightness temperature on the order of 10/sup 7/K. The radio flare is 30% left circularly polarized at lambda=3.7 cm, 70% left circularly polarized at lambda=11 cm, and no detectable linear polarization was observed at either wavelength. During a forty hour observation of sunspot region McMath No 13926 no substantial variations in circular polarization were observed, whereas one hour prior to the eruption of a solar flare dramatic changes in circular polarization were observed. Small scale features whose angular sizes are on the order of five seconds of arc exhibit changes of circular polarization of up to 80%. At times other than those immediately preceding flare emission, the degree of circular polarization was the same as the two wavelengths but the sign was reversed. This situation can be explained if magnetic fields of intensity H<=1000 G and electron densities of Nsub(e)>=10/sup 7/cm/sup -3/ are present.

  6. Spin asymmetries $A_1$ of the proton and the deuteron in the low $x$ and low $Q^2$ region from polarized high energy muon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067425; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; De Botton, N R; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Eichblatt, S; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garzón, J A; Gilly, H; Giorgi, M A; von Goeler, E; Görtz, S; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Haft, K; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Karev, A G; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kiselev, Yu F; Krämer, Dietrich; Kröger, W; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Litmaath, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Meyer, W T; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Miyachi, Y; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nassalski, J P; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Ozben, C; Pereira, H; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Piegaia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Puntaferro, R; Rädel, G; Reicherz, G; Roberts, J; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stiegler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Tessarotto, F; Thers, D; Tlaczala, W; Tripet, A; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Whitten, C; Willumeit, R; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K; Zhao, J

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of the spin asymmetries $A_1$ of the proton and the deuteron in the kinematic region extending down to $x=6\\cdot 10^{-5}$ and $Q^2=0.01$ GeV$^2$. The data were taken with a dedicated low $x$ trigger, which required hadron detection in addition to the scattered muon, so as to reduce the background at low $x$. The results complement our previous measurements and the two sets are consistent in the overlap region. No sig\\-ni\\-fi\\-cant spin effects are found in the newly explored region.

  7. Managing Reverse Logistics or Reversing Logistics Management?

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Marisa

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the past, supply chains were busy fine-tuning the logistics from raw material to the end customer. Today an increasing flow of products is going back in the chain. Thus, companies have to manage reverse logistics as well.This thesis contributes to a better understanding of reverse logistics. The thesis brings insights on reverse logistics decision-making and it lays down theoretical principles for reverse logistics as a research field.In particular it puts together a framework ...

  8. Polarization of Coronal Forbidden Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hao; Qu, Zhongquan [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650011 (China); Landi Degl’Innocenti, Egidio, E-mail: sayahoro@ynao.ac.cn [Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Università di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2017-03-20

    Since the magnetic field is responsible for most manifestations of solar activity, one of the most challenging problems in solar physics is the diagnostics of solar magnetic fields, particularly in the outer atmosphere. To this end, it is important to develop rigorous diagnostic tools to interpret polarimetric observations in suitable spectral lines. This paper is devoted to analyzing the diagnostic content of linear polarization imaging observations in coronal forbidden lines. Although this technique is restricted to off-limb observations, it represents a significant tool to diagnose the magnetic field structure in the solar corona, where the magnetic field is intrinsically weak and still poorly known. We adopt the quantum theory of polarized line formation developed in the framework of the density matrix formalism, and synthesize images of the emergent linear polarization signal in coronal forbidden lines using potential-field source-surface magnetic field models. The influence of electronic collisions, active regions, and Thomson scattering on the linear polarization of coronal forbidden lines is also examined. It is found that active regions and Thomson scattering are capable of conspicuously influencing the orientation of the linear polarization. These effects have to be carefully taken into account to increase the accuracy of the field diagnostics. We also found that linear polarization observation in suitable lines can give valuable information on the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in the solar corona.

  9. The polarization of NGC 1068

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Jeremy; Axon, D.J.; Hough, J.H.; Heathcote, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    Broad-band polarimetry of NGC 1068 over the wavelength range 0.36-4.8μm is presented, together with high-resolution spectropolarimetry of the Hβ, [O III] and Hα, [N II] regions of the spectrum. We recognize several different polarization components and conclude that they can all be accounted for by processes involving dust. Optical continuum polarization and broad features associated with the Balmer emission lines are due to scattering into the line of sight, of radiation from an obscured Seyfert I nucleus. We argue that the scattering is probably by dust in the narrow line region, but cannot exclude the possibility of electron scattering. (author)

  10. Reverse trends of TEX86 temperature in coastal areas of the East China Sea over the last 100 years: implication for global warming and regional circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y.; Xing, L.; Zhang, T.

    2017-12-01

    To reconstruct and compare the SST changes in different regions of the ECS over the last 100 years, in this study, we analyzed iGDGTs compounds and TEX86 index in two sediment cores (DH5-1 and DH6-2) from the inner shelf of the East China Sea (ECS). GDGT-0 and GDGT-5 in the two cores account for 80% of iGDGTs, significantly more abundant than the other iGDGTs compounds. It is also found that iGDGTs are mainly derived from marine Thaumarchaeota. TEXH86 temperatures varied from 17 °C to 22 °C (average 19.4 °C), showing a gradual increase in Core DH5-1 near the Changjiang River Estuary, corresponding to global warming and temperature rise in the ECS over the last 100 years. However, in Core DH6-2 further away from the Changjiang River Estuary, TEXH86 temperatures gradually decreased over the last 80 years with a range of 15.3 °C-18.3 °C, which is attributed to the strengthened near-shore Kuroshio Branch Current transporting more subsurface cold water to the ECS coastal area. In future, more sites should be investigated to confirm the range of the coastal area where the decrease in SST is caused by upwelling subsurface water.

  11. Bias polarity-sensitive electrical failure characteristics of ZnSe nanowire in metal–semiconductor–metal nanostructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bias polarity on the electrical breakdown behavior of the single ZnSe nanowire (NW in the metal–semiconductor–metal (M–S–M nanostructure under high current density and high bias conditions has been studied in the present paper. The experimental results show that the failure of the ZnSe NW in M–S–M nanostructure was sensitive to bias polarity since the NW commonly collapsed at the negatively biased Au metal electrode due to high Joule heat produced in NW at the reversely biased Schottky barrier. Thus, the electrical breakdown behavior of the ZnSe NW was highly dominated by the cathode-controlled mode due to the high resistance of the depletion region of ZnSe NW at the reversely biased Schottky contact.

  12. Solar Open Flux Migration from Pole to Pole: Magnetic Field Reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, G-H; Lin, C-H; Lee, L C

    2017-08-25

    Coronal holes are solar regions with low soft X-ray or low extreme ultraviolet intensities. The magnetic fields from coronal holes extend far away from the Sun, and thus they are identified as regions with open magnetic field lines. Coronal holes are concentrated in the polar regions during the sunspot minimum phase, and spread to lower latitude during the rising phase of solar activity. In this work, we identify coronal holes with outward and inward open magnetic fluxes being in the opposite poles during solar quiet period. We find that during the sunspot rising phase, the outward and inward open fluxes perform pole-to-pole trans-equatorial migrations in opposite directions. The migration of the open fluxes consists of three parts: open flux areas migrating across the equator, new open flux areas generated in the low latitude and migrating poleward, and new open flux areas locally generated in the polar region. All three components contribute to the reversal of magnetic polarity. The percentage of contribution from each component is different for different solar cycle. Our results also show that the sunspot number is positively correlated with the lower-latitude open magnetic flux area, but negatively correlated with the total open flux area.

  13. Observation of the reversed current effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, I.R.; Silawatshananai, C.

    1979-05-01

    The paper describes an observation of the reversed current effect, and its consequences, in a 'stabilized' Z-pinch. Magnetic probe measurements and holographic interferometry were used to follow the development of a reversed current layer and to pinpoint its location in the outer region of the pinched plasma column. The subsequent ejection of the outer plasma layer was observed using fast photography

  14. Managing Reverse Logistics or Reversing Logistics Management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the past, supply chains were busy fine-tuning the logistics from raw material to the end customer. Today an increasing flow of products is going back in the chain. Thus, companies have to manage reverse logistics as well.This thesis contributes to a better understanding of reverse

  15. Fiscal 1999 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Regional consortium activity in its 3rd year (Research and development of reverse engineering system for local craftwork articles); 1999 nendo chiiki kogeihin muke reverse engineering system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The effort concerns Ryukyu craftwork articles. Reverse engineering used to be regarded as a technique of imitation or duplication but today it is drawing attention as a concept of positively utilizing the directionality of information flow in the integrated environment. In the development of a reverse information system, novel designs are created by utilizing a 3-dimensional data base, a high-efficiency fabrication technology for metal patterns for the press-molding of glass is established incorporating some fabrication diagnosing techniques, and a system is constructed under which fabrication accuracy is evaluated and difference data are fed back. In the development of technologies for metal pattern cutting and surface reforming, a metal pattern fabrication technology for molding glass, low in cost and high in performance, is systematized, which enables short delivery. In the diversification of glass products, Ryukyu patterns are collected and Ryukyu glass products are tentatively manufactured by press-molding, and a good result is achieved. In the field of total system technology, basic technologies for an advanced and integrated common production base are established. A virtual reality assisted designing system is developed, under which the designer feels force on the finger tips when preparing a shape for a 3-dimensional structure. (NEDO)

  16. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in Xenopus eggs: Regional differences related to animal/vegetal polarity become extreme upon fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluemink, J.G.; Dictus, W.J.A.G.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van; Tetteroo, P.A.T.; Tertoolen, L.G.J.; Laat, S.W. de

    1984-01-01

    Regional differences in the lateral mobility properties of plasma membrane lipids have been studied in unfertilized and fertilizedxaqpus eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements. Out of a variety of commonly used lipid probes only the aminofluorescein-labeled fatty acids

  17. Reversible Thermoset Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor); Hreha, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of a reversible thermoset adhesive formed by incorporating thermally-reversible cross-linking units and a method for making the reversible thermoset adhesive are provided. One approach to formulating reversible thermoset adhesives includes incorporating dienes, such as furans, and dienophiles, such as maleimides, into a polymer network as reversible covalent cross-links using Diels Alder cross-link formation between the diene and dienophile. The chemical components may be selected based on their compatibility with adhesive chemistry as well as their ability to undergo controlled, reversible cross-linking chemistry.

  18. Report of the polarization group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.; Kondo, K.; Martin, F.; Manning, G.; Miller, D.; Prescott, C.

    1975-01-01

    The use of longitudinal polarization in the reaction e + e - → μ + μ - was studied. Modifications of the magnetic insertion which could reduce synchrotron radiation by two or more were considered. In addition, a specific design is suggested which incorporates the optimized magnetic configuration; it is assumed that no particle detection is necessary near the interaction vertex and the synchrotron radiation is ''dumped'' up - and downstream. Also considered were vacuum chambers in which the synchrotron radiation is absorbed locally so that shielded regions are provided for detectors near the interaction vertex. A scheme for rotating the polarization outside the experiment areas is detailed; in this way the design of experiments is greatly simplified. Local intense ionization of residual gas in the interaction region due to synchrotron radiation at the insertion was studied. Finally, some general considerations in the production and measurement of beam polarization are summarized. 2 figures

  19. Reverse innovation in maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz, Tabassum; Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Nathan, Hannah L; Payne, Beth; Magee, Laura A

    2017-09-01

    Reverse innovation, defined as the flow of ideas from low- to high-income settings, is gaining traction in healthcare. With an increasing focus on value, investing in low-cost but effective and innovative solutions can be of mutual benefit to both high- and low-income countries. Reverse innovation has a role in addressing maternal health challenges in high-income countries by harnessing these innovative solutions for vulnerable populations especially in rural and remote regions. In this paper, we present three examples of 'reverse innovation' for maternal health: a low-cost, easy-to-use blood pressure device (CRADLE), a diagnostic algorithm (mini PIERS) and accompanying mobile app (PIERS on the Move), and a novel method for mapping maternal outcomes (MOM).

  20. Neutron polarization in polarized 3He targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.; Gibson, B.F.; Payne, G.L.; Bernstein, A.M.; Chupp, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    Simple formulas for the neutron and proton polarizations in polarized 3 He targets are derived assuming (1) quasielastic final states; (2) no final-state interactions; (3) no meson-exchange currents; (4) large momentum transfers; (5) factorizability of 3 He SU(4) response-function components. Numerical results from a wide variety of bound-state solutions of the Faddeev equations are presented. It is found that this simple model predicts the polarization of neutrons in a fully polarized 3 He target to be 87%, while protons should have a slight residual polarization of -2.7%. Numerical studies show that this model works very well for quasielastic electron scattering

  1. Observations of MeV electrons in Jupiter's innermost radiation belts and polar regions by the Juno radiation monitoring investigation: Perijoves 1 and 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Heidi N.; Santos-Costa, Daniel; Jørgensen, John Leif

    2017-01-01

    Juno's “Perijove 1” (27 August 2016) and “Perijove 3” (11 December 2016) flybys through the innermost region of Jupiter's magnetosphere (radial distances ... Investigation collected particle counts and noise signatures from penetrating high-energy particle impacts in images acquired by the Stellar Reference Unit and Advanced Stellar Compass star trackers, and the Jupiter Infrared Auroral Mapper infrared imager. This coordinated observation campaign sampled radiation...

  2. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in Xenopus eggs: Regional differences related to animal/vegetal polarity become extreme upon fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Bluemink, J.G.; Dictus, W.J.A.G.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van; Tetteroo, P.A.T.; Tertoolen, L.G.J.; Laat, S.W. de

    1984-01-01

    Regional differences in the lateral mobility properties of plasma membrane lipids have been studied in unfertilized and fertilizedxaqpus eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements. Out of a variety of commonly used lipid probes only the aminofluorescein-labeled fatty acids HEDAF (5-(N-hexadecanoyl)-aminofluorescein) and TEDAF (5-(N-tetradecanoyl)-aminofluorescein) appear to partition into the plasma membrane. Under all experimental conditions used these molecules show par...

  3. Tubal Ligation Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seal off the fallopian tubes, such as the Essure or Adiana systems, generally aren't reversible. Why ... electrocautery). Some types of sterilization, such as the Essure or Adiana systems, aren't considered reversible. Risks ...

  4. Polarization in free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadichev, V.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Polarization of electromagnetic radiation is required very often in numerous scientific and industrial applications: studying of crystals, molecules and intermolecular interaction high-temperature superconductivity, semiconductors and their transitions, polymers and liquid crystals. Using polarized radiation allows to obtain important data (otherwise inaccessible) in astrophysics, meteorology and oceanology. It is promising in chemistry and biology for selective influence on definite parts of molecules in chain synthesis reactions, precise control of various processes at cell and subcell levels, genetic engineering etc. Though polarization methods are well elaborated in optics, they can fail in far-infrared, vacuum-ultraviolet and X-ray regions because of lack of suitable non-absorbing materials and damaging of optical elements at high specific power levels. Therefore, it is of some interest to analyse polarization of untreated FEL radiation obtained with various types of undulators, with and without axial magnetic field. The polarization is studied using solutions for electron orbits in various cases: plane or helical undulator with or without axial magnetic field, two plane undulators, a combination of right- and left-handed helical undulators with equal periods, but different field amplitudes. Some examples of how a desired polarization (elliptical circular or linear) can be obtained or changed quickly, which is necessary in many experiments, are given.

  5. Tracking polar lows in CLM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, M.; Storch, H. von [Inst. for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht (Germany); Meteorological Inst., Univ. of Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    Polar lows are severe cyclones in sub-polar oceans sized beyond the resolved scale of existing global reanalysis products. We used the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses data to drive a regional climate model (CLM) in order to reproduce finer resolved atmospheric fields over the North Atlantic over a two year period. In these fields we detected polar lows by means of a detection algorithm based on a spatial digital bandpass filter. CLM was run in two different ways, the conventional way and with additionally prescribing the analysed large scale situation. The resulting temporal and spatial distributions of polar lows between the different simulations are compared. A reasonable seasonal cycle and spatial distribution was found for all simulations. A lower number of polar lows in the spectral nudged simulation indicates a closer vicinity to reality. Higher temporal and spatial variability between the conventional simulations suggest a more random generation of polar lows. Frequency distributions of track-lengths reveal shorter tracks when nudging is applied. Maximum wind speeds reveal only minor, insignificant differences between all runs and are higher in conventional mode. (orig.)

  6. Polar Biomedical Research - An Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    on agriculture and imported food and fuel silviculture Attenuated solar spectrum Reduces ultraviolet radiation, leading to possible vitamin D...for an expanded population. Any experiments in polar regions in food production involving geothermal heat, solar energy, hydroponics, or aquaculture...to water problems are those of accumulation of solid waste. During winter, such waste, including garbage and disposable diapers , near dwellings is a

  7. Tungsten behaviour under anodic polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vas'ko, A.T.; Patsyuk, F.N.

    1980-01-01

    Electrochemical investigations have been carried out to identify the state of elements of the tungsten galvanic coating. Active zones on anode polarization curves in the hydrogen region of galvanic tungsten are established. The difference in the behaviour of monocrystal and galvanic tungsten electrodes is shown to be connected with the oxidation of hydrogen in the galvanic sediment

  8. Polarized tagged photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximon, L.C.; Ganz, Eric; Aniel, Thierry; Miniac, Arlette de.

    1982-03-01

    We consider in detail the differential cross section for polarized bremsstrahlung for angles and energies in the range of interest for a tagging system and derive a high energy, small angle approximation for this cross section. We use these approximations to determine the maxima and minima of the cross sections for these two polarization states, dσperpendicular and dσparallel, and to evaluate these cross sections at the extrema. It is shown that both dσperpendicular and dσparallel have a very sharp dip in the region of small momentum transfers. However, their behavior in the region of the dip, as a function of the azimuthal angle phi, is quite different over most of the photon spectrum. The cross section dσperpendicular behaves similarly to the cross section for unpolarized photons in that as phi increases, the sharp dip vanishes, the minimum fuses with the second maximum, and the cross section then has only a single maximum. In contrast, the sharp dip in the cross section dσparallel remains as phi increases. Coulomb corrections to the Born approximation are considered, and do not fill in these dips

  9. Can polar bear hairs absorb environmental energy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ji-Huan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A polar bear (Ursus maritimus has superior ability to survive in harsh Arctic regions, why does the animal have such an excellent thermal protection? The present paper finds that the unique labyrinth cavity structure of the polar bear hair plays an important role. The hair can not only prevent body temperature loss but can also absorb energy from the environment.

  10. Polar and Alpine Microbiology - Earth's Cryobiosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elster, Josef; Margesin, R.; Wagner, D.; Häggblom, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-4, č. článku fiw221. ISSN 0168-6496 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : diversity * Polar regions * Polar Microbiology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2016

  11. Reverse logistics - a framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we define and compare Reverse Logistics definitions. We start by giving an understanding framework of Reverse Logistics: the why-what-how. By this means, we put in context the driving forces for Reverse Logistics, a typology of return reasons, a classification of

  12. Detailed Jaramillo field reversals recorded in lake sediments from Armenia - Lower mantle influence on the magnetic field revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirscher, U.; Winklhofer, M.; Hackl, M.; Bachtadse, V.

    2018-02-01

    While it is well established that the Earth's magnetic field is generated by a self sustaining dynamo that reversed its polarity at irregular intervals in the geological past, the very mechanisms causing field reversals remain obscure. Paleomagnetic reconstructions of polarity transitions have been essential for physically constraining the underlying mechanisms in terms of time scale, but thus far remain ambiguous with regard to the transitional field geometry. Here we present new paleomagnetic records from a rapidly deposited lacustrine sediment sequence with extraordinarily stable paleomagnetic signals, which has captured in unprecedented detail the bottom (reverse to normal: R-N) and top (normal to reverse: N-R) transitions of the Jaramillo subchron (at 1.072 Ma and at 0.988 Ma). The obtained virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) path indicates an oscillatory transitional field behavior with four abrupt transequatorial precursory jumps across the Pacific. The distribution of VGP positions indicates regions of preferred occurrence. Our results are in agreement with previously proposed bands of transitional VGP occurrence over the Americas and Australia/northwest Pacific. Additionally, our VGP positions seem to avoid large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) above the core mantle boundary (CMB). Thus, our data supports the idea that the transitional field geometry is controlled by heat flux heterogeneities at the CMB linked to LLSVPs.

  13. Polarized electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prepost, R.

    1994-01-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented

  14. Polarized electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prepost, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented.

  15. Quasi 2D electronic states with high spin-polarization in centrosymmetric MoS2 bulk crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlmann, Mathias; Aguilera, Irene; Bihlmayer, Gustav; Młyńczak, Ewa; Eschbach, Markus; Döring, Sven; Gospodarič, Pika; Cramm, Stefan; Kardynał, Beata; Plucinski, Lukasz; Blügel, Stefan; Schneider, Claus M.

    2016-06-01

    Time reversal dictates that nonmagnetic, centrosymmetric crystals cannot be spin-polarized as a whole. However, it has been recently shown that the electronic structure in these crystals can in fact show regions of high spin-polarization, as long as it is probed locally in real and in reciprocal space. In this article we present the first observation of this type of compensated polarization in MoS2 bulk crystals. Using spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), we directly observed a spin-polarization of more than 65% for distinct valleys in the electronic band structure. By additionally evaluating the probing depth of our method, we find that these valence band states at the point in the Brillouin zone are close to fully polarized for the individual atomic trilayers of MoS2, which is confirmed by our density functional theory calculations. Furthermore, we show that this spin-layer locking leads to the observation of highly spin-polarized bands in ARPES since these states are almost completely confined within two dimensions. Our findings prove that these highly desired properties of MoS2 can be accessed without thinning it down to the monolayer limit.

  16. Polarized neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abov, Yu.G.; Novitskij, V.V.; Alfimenkov, V.P.; Galinskij, E.M.; Mareev, Yu.D.; Pikel'ner, L.B.; Chernikov, A.N.; Lason', L.; Tsulaya, V.M.; Tsulaya, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The polarized neutron spectrometer, intended for studying the interaction of polarized neutrons with nuclei and condensed media in the area of energies from thermal up to several electron-volt, is developed at the IBR-2 reactor (JINR, Dubna). Diffraction on the Co(92%)-Fe(8%) magnetized monocrystals is used for the neutron polarization and polarization analysis. The neutron polarization within the whole energy range equals ∼ 95% [ru

  17. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 regional consortium R and D project. Regional consortium energy field / research and development of a reverse engineering system for local industrial articles (first fiscal year); 1997 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki consortium bun`ya / chiiki kogeihin muke reverse engineering system no kenkyu kaihatsu (daiichi nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper described the fiscal 1997 result of the research on the application of local industrial article use reverse engineering (RE, it had been regarded as imitation and reproduction technology, but has recently been as a part of the production information integration). With the actual local industrial article as standard, which has features in design and was added with local traditionality, such as glass having 3D free-form surface, 3D shape information modeling technology RE is developed, and a system for direct automatic metal mold processing is established, aiming at shortening of delivery date, cost reduction and higher grade. The target of the research is Okinawa prefecture. In fiscal 1997, study was made of the speeding-up of the non-contact 3D shape information inputting (multi-point simultaneous inputting by CCD of the laser reflected light of the actual model) and the data storage technology. Cast iron was selected as molding materials, judging from reactivity/machinability with heat resistant glass. Also studied was the blend of glass materials suitable for press forming. Further, studies were proceeded with of development of intellectual cutting tools into which sensor function is integrated and of virtual reality for facilitating/accelerating the design up to metal mold manufacturing. 39 refs., 88 figs., 21 tabs.

  18. Study on condensed media with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabkin, G.M.

    1974-01-01

    In this paper are considered the results of a study of the secondary magnetic superstructure of ferromagnets in the phase transition region by means of polarized neutrons. The results obtained are compared with experimental data

  19. Mechanism of Cyclically Polarity Reversing Solar Magnetic Cycle as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    solar dynamo mechanism that generates electric current and magnetic field by plasma flows ... rotating body in the Universe. We also mention a list ... verifications of any solar cycle dynamo theories of short and long term behaviors of the Sun, ...

  20. Modeling optical and UV polarization of AGNs. IV. Polarization timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Lobos, P. A.; Goosmann, R. W.; Marin, F.; Savić, D.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Optical observations cannot resolve the structure of active galactic nuclei (AGN), and a unified model for AGN was inferred mostly from indirect methods, such as spectroscopy and variability studies. Optical reverberation mapping allowed us to constrain the spatial dimension of the broad emission line region and thereby to measure the mass of supermassive black holes. Recently, reverberation was also applied to the polarized signal emerging from different AGN components. In principle, this should allow us to measure the spatial dimensions of the sub-parsec reprocessing media. Aim. We conduct numerical modeling of polarization reverberation and provide theoretical predictions for the polarization time lag induced by different AGN components. The model parameters are adjusted to the observational appearance of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151. Methods: We modeled scattering-induced polarization and tested different geometries for the circumnuclear dust component. Our tests included the effects of clumpiness and different dust prescriptions. To further extend the model, we also explored the effects of additional ionized winds stretched along the polar direction, and of an equatorial scattering ring that is responsible for the polarization angle observed in pole-on AGN. The simulations were run using a time-dependent version of the STOKES code. Results: Our modeling confirms the previously found polarization characteristics as a function of the observer`s viewing angle. When the dust adopts a flared-disk geometry, the lags reveal a clear difference between type 1 and type 2 AGN. This distinction is less clear for a torus geometry where the time lag is more sensitive to the geometry and optical depth of the inner surface layers of the funnel. The presence of a scattering equatorial ring and ionized outflows increased the recorded polarization time lags, and the polar outflows smooths out dependence on viewing angle, especially for the higher optical depth of the

  1. Theoretical model of polar cap auroral arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.R.; Burke, W.J.; USAF, Bedford, MA)

    1985-01-01

    A theory of the polar cap auroral arcs is proposed under the assumption that the magnetic field reconnection occurs in the cusp region on tail field lines during northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. Requirements of a convection model during northward IMF are enumerated based on observations and fundamental theoretical considerations. The theta aurora can be expected to occur on the closed field lines convecting sunward in the central polar cap, while the less intense regular polar cap arcs can occur either on closed or open field lines. The dynamo region for the polar cap arcs is required to be on closed field lines convecting tailward in the plasma sheet which is magnetically connected to the sunward convection in the central polar cap. 43 references

  2. Reversible flowchart languages and the structured reversible program theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Many irreversible computation models have reversible counterparts, but these are poorly understood at present. We introduce reversible flowcharts with an assertion operator and show that any reversible flowchart can be simulated by a structured reversible flowchart using only three control flow...... operators. Reversible flowcharts are r- Turing-complete, meaning that they can simuluate reversible Turing machines without garbage data. We also demonstrate the injectivization of classical flowcharts into reversible flowcharts. The reversible flowchart computation model provides a theoretical...

  3. Polarized targets and beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.

    1985-01-01

    First the experimental situation of the single-pion photoproduction and the photodisintegration of the deuteron is briefly discussed. Then a description of the Bonn polarization facilities is given. The point of main effort is put on the polarized target which plays a vital role in the program. A facility for photon induced double polarization experiments at ELSA will be presented in section 4. Properties of a tensor polarized deuteron target are discussed in section 5. The development in the field of polarized targets, especially on new target materials, enables a new generation of polarized target experiments with (polarized) electrons. Some comments on the use of a polarized target in combination with electron beams will be discussed in section 6. Electron deuteron scattering from a tensor polarized deuteron target is considered and compared with other experimental possibilities. (orig./HSI)

  4. POLARIZATION REMOTE SENSING PHYSICAL MECHANISM, KEY METHODS AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available China's long-term planning major projects "high-resolution earth observation system" has been invested nearly 100 billion and the satellites will reach 100 to 2020. As to 2/3 of China's area covered by mountains,it has a higher demand for remote sensing. In addition to light intensity, frequency, phase, polarization is also the main physical characteristics of remote sensing electromagnetic waves. Polarization is an important component of the reflected information from the surface and the atmospheric information, and the polarization effect of the ground object reflection is the basis of the observation of polarization remote sensing. Therefore, the effect of eliminating the polarization effect is very important for remote sensing applications. The main innovations of this paper is as follows: (1 Remote sensing observation method. It is theoretically deduced and verified that the polarization can weaken the light in the strong light region, and then provide the polarization effective information. In turn, the polarization in the low light region can strengthen the weak light, the same can be obtained polarization effective information. (2 Polarization effect of vegetation. By analyzing the structure characteristics of vegetation, polarization information is obtained, then the vegetation structure information directly affects the absorption of biochemical components of leaves. (3 Atmospheric polarization neutral point observation method. It is proved to be effective to achieve the ground-gas separation, which can achieve the effect of eliminating the atmospheric polarization effect and enhancing the polarization effect of the object.

  5. Introduction to reversible computing

    CERN Document Server

    Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2013-01-01

    Few books comprehensively cover the software and programming aspects of reversible computing. Filling this gap, Introduction to Reversible Computing offers an expanded view of the field that includes the traditional energy-motivated hardware viewpoint as well as the emerging application-motivated software approach. Collecting scattered knowledge into one coherent account, the book provides a compendium of both classical and recently developed results on reversible computing. It explores up-and-coming theories, techniques, and tools for the application of rever

  6. Polar Applications of Spaceborne Scatterometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Wind scatterometers were originally developed for observation of near-surface winds over the ocean. They retrieve wind indirectly by measuring the normalized radar cross section (σo) of the surface, and estimating the wind via a geophysical model function relating σo to the vector wind. The σo measurements have proven to be remarkably capable in studies of the polar regions where they can map snow cover; detect the freeze/thaw state of forest, tundra, and ice; map and classify sea ice; and track icebergs. Further, a long time series of scatterometer σo observations is available to support climate studies. In addition to fundamental scientific research, scatterometer data are operationally used for sea-ice mapping to support navigation. Scatterometers are, thus, invaluable tools for monitoring the polar regions. In this paper, a brief review of some of the polar applications of spaceborne wind scatterometer data is provided. The paper considers both C-band and Ku-band scatterometers, and the relative merits of fan-beam and pencil-beam scatterometers in polar remote sensing are discussed. PMID:28919936

  7. $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ polarization at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Donghee

    2010-01-01

    At the COMPASS experiment $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ particles are produced with high statistics in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) processes of 160 GeV/c polarized muons. Since both, beam and target, are polarized, various studies on the $\\Lambda$ polarization are possible. We present results on the longitudinal polarization transfer from muons to $\\Lambda$ hyperons produced by scattering off an unpolarized isoscalar target and preliminary results on the transverse $\\Lambda$ polarization with a transversely polarized proton target. The $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ polarization can be studied by measuring the acceptance corrected angular distribution of its decay products. The longitudinal spin transfers to $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ produced in the current fragmentation region exhibit different behaviours as a function of $x_{Bj}$ and $x_{F}$. The $x_{Bj}$ and $x_{F}$ dependences of $\\Lambda$ polarization are compatible with zero, while $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ polarization tends to increase with $x_{F}$. Info...

  8. Observations of polarization of stellar radiation in R-associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlova, L.A.; Rspaev, F.K.

    1986-01-01

    New observational data have been obtained on BVR polarization parameters of stars in reflection nebulae in the Cas, Per R1, Ser, CMa R1 regions. Several stars are found to show variable polarization. For some of stars intrinsic polarization is derived. The effect of interstellar polarization has been taken into account by means of the Serkovski method. The connection of polarization vector with nebula structure considered. The local magnetic field is detected for CMa R1 region the scale of which is defined by association diameter

  9. Scattering with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the history of neutron scattering, it was shown very soon that the use of polarized neutron beams brings much more information than usual scattering with unpolarized neutrons. We shall develop here the different scattering methods that imply polarized neutrons: 1) polarized beams without polarization analysis, the flipping ratio method; 2) polarized beams with a uniaxial polarization analysis; 3) polarized beams with a spherical polarization analysis. For all these scattering methods, we shall give examples of the physical problems which can been solved by these methods, particularly in the field of magnetism: investigation of complex magnetic structures, investigation of spin or magnetization densities in metals, insulators and molecular compounds, separation of magnetic and nuclear scattering, investigation of magnetic properties of liquids and amorphous materials and even, for non magnetic material, separation between coherent and incoherent scattering. (author)

  10. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  11. Reversibility of female sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, A M; Hulka, J; Peretz, A

    1985-04-01

    The discussion considers the current status of reversibility of sterilization in the US and describes clinical and experimental efforts for developing techniques designed for reversibility. It focuses on regret following sterilization, reversal potential of current sterilization techniques, patient selection, current reversal techniques, results of sterilization procedures, experimental approaches to reversal of current techniques of sterilization, and sterilization procedures devised for reversibility, in humans and in animals. Request is the 1st stage of reversal, but a request for sterilization reversal (SR) does not always mean regret for a decision made at the time. Frequently it is a wish to restore fertility because life circumstances have changed after a sterilization that was ppropriate at the time it was performed. Schwyhart and Kutner reviewed 22 studies published between 1949-69 in which they found that the percentage of patients regretting the procedure ranged from 1.3-15%. Requests for reversal remain low in most countries, but if sterilization becomes a more popular method of contraception, requests will also increase. The ideal operation considered as a reversaible method of sterilization should include an easy, reliable outpatient method of tubal occlusion with miniml risk or patient discomfort that subsequently could be reversed without the need for a major surgical intervention. Endoscopic methods have progressed toward the 1st objective. A recent search of the literature uncovered few series of SR of more than 50 cases. The 767 operations found were analyzed with regard to pregnancy outcome. The precent of live births varied from 74-78.8%, and the occurance of tubal pregnancies ranged from 1.7-6.5%. All of the confounding variables in patient selection and small numbers of reported procedures preclude any conclusion about the different techniques or the number of operations that give a surgeon a level of expertise. Few authors classify their

  12. Polarization Of Light In The Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Kinsell L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a characterization of the fields of light polarization with which the optical designer or user of optical devices in the natural environment must be concerned. After a brief historical outline of the principal developments in polarization theory and observations during the last two centuries, the main emphasis is on the two primary processes responsible for the polarization of light in nature--scattering of light by particles of the atmosphere and reflection from soils, vegetation, snow, and water at the earth's surface. Finally, a seven minute film on polarization effects which can be seen in everyday surroundings will be shown. Scattering by atmospheric particles is responsible for high values of polarization in various atmospheric conditions and at certain scattering geometries. Such scattering particles include molecules of the atmospheric gases, aerosols of dust, haze, and air pollution, water droplets of fog and clouds, and the ice crystals of cirrus. It is seen that development of the theory of scattering by such particles has outstripped the measurements necessary for validation of the theory, a fact which points up the importance of symposia such as the present one. The reverse is true, however, for the polarizing properties of natural surfaces. Only in the case of still water is the theory of reflection adequate to characterize in a quantitative fashion the polarizing effects produced by the reflection of light from such natural surfaces. Polarization of light by reflection from vegetation is of prime importance in a remote sensing context, but much further work is needed to characterize vegetative reflectance for the purpose. The short film on polarization effects provides a good visualization technique and training aid for students interested in the field.

  13. Techniques in polarization physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausnitzer, G.

    1974-01-01

    A review of the current status of the technical tools necessary to perform different kinds of polarization experiments is presented, and the absolute and relative accuracy with which data can be obtained is discussed. A description of polarized targets and sources of polarized fast neutrons is included. Applications of polarization techniques to other fields is mentioned briefly. (14 figures, 3 tables, 110 references) (U.S.)

  14. Polarized Moessbauer transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barb, D.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of the emission, absorption and scattering of polarized gamma rays are reviewed for a general case of combined magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions; various possibilities of obtaining polarized gamma sources are described and examples are given of the applications of Moessbauer spectroscopy with polarized gamma rays in solving problems of solid state physics. (A.K.)

  15. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  16. Calculation of polarization effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1983-09-01

    Basically there are two areas of accelerator applications that involve beam polarization. One is the acceleration of a polarized beam (most likely a proton beam) in a synchrotron. Another concerns polarized beams in an electron storage ring. In both areas, numerical techniques have been very useful

  17. Quantum reverse hypercontractivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubitt, Toby [Department of Computer Science, University College London, London, United Kingdom and Centre for Quantum Information and Foundations, DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kastoryano, Michael [NBIA, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Montanaro, Ashley [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Temme, Kristan [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We develop reverse versions of hypercontractive inequalities for quantum channels. By generalizing classical techniques, we prove a reverse hypercontractive inequality for tensor products of qubit depolarizing channels. We apply this to obtain a rapid mixing result for depolarizing noise applied to large subspaces and to prove bounds on a quantum generalization of non-interactive correlation distillation.

  18. Atrioventricular Pacemaker Lead Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet K Aktas, MD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During cardiac surgery temporary epicardial atrial and ventricular leads are placed in case cardiac pacing is required postoperatively. We present the first reported series of patients with reversal of atrioventricular electrodes in the temporary pacemaker without any consequent deleterious hemodynamic effect. We review the electrocardiographic findings and discuss the findings that lead to the discovery of atrioventricular lead reversal.

  19. Regional stratospheric warmings in the Pacific-Western Canada (PWC sector during winter 2004/2005: implications for temperatures, winds, chemical constituents and the characterization of the Polar vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The vortex during winter 2004/2005 was interesting for several reasons. It has been described as "cold" stratospherically, with relatively strong westerly winds. Losses of ozone until the final warming in March were considerable, and comparable to the cold 1999–2000 winter. There were also modest warming events, indicated by peaks in 10 hPa zonal mean temperatures at high latitudes, near 1 January and 1 February. Events associated with a significant regional stratospheric warming in the Pacific-Western Canada (PWC sector then began and peaked toward the end of February, providing strong longitudinal variations in dynamical characteristics (Chshyolkova et al., 2007; hereafter C07. The associated disturbed vortex of 25 February was displaced from the pole and either elongated (upper or split into two cyclonic centres (lower.

    Observations from Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS on Aura are used here to study the thermal characteristics of the stratosphere in the Canadian-US (253° E and Scandinavian-Europe (16° E sectors. Undisturbed high latitude stratopause (55 km zonal mean temperatures during the mid-winter (December–February reached 270 K, warmer than empirical-models such as CIRA-86, suggesting that seasonal polar warming due to dynamical influences affects the high altitude stratosphere as well as the mesosphere. There were also significant stratopause differences between Scandinavia and Canada during the warming events of 1 January and 1 February, with higher temperatures near 275 K at 16° E. During the 25 February "PWC" event a warming occurred at low and middle stratospheric heights (10–30 km: 220 K at 253° E and the stratopause cooled; while over Scandinavia-Europe the stratosphere below ~30 km was relatively cold at 195 K and the stratopause became even warmer (>295 K and lower (~45 km. The zonal winds followed the associated temperature gradients so that the vertical and latitudinal gradients of the winds differed strongly

  20. Regional stratospheric warmings in the Pacific-Western Canada (PWC sector during winter 2004/2005: implications for temperatures, winds, chemical constituents and the characterization of the Polar vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The vortex during winter 2004/2005 was interesting for several reasons. It has been described as "cold" stratospherically, with relatively strong westerly winds. Losses of ozone until the final warming in March were considerable, and comparable to the cold 1999–2000 winter. There were also modest warming events, indicated by peaks in 10 hPa zonal mean temperatures at high latitudes, near 1 January and 1 February. Events associated with a significant regional stratospheric warming in the Pacific-Western Canada (PWC sector then began and peaked toward the end of February, providing strong longitudinal variations in dynamical characteristics (Chshyolkova et al., 2007; hereafter C07. The associated disturbed vortex of 25 February was displaced from the pole and either elongated (upper or split into two cyclonic centres (lower. Observations from Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS on Aura are used here to study the thermal characteristics of the stratosphere in the Canadian-US (253° E and Scandinavian-Europe (16° E sectors. Undisturbed high latitude stratopause (55 km zonal mean temperatures during the mid-winter (December–February reached 270 K, warmer than empirical-models such as CIRA-86, suggesting that seasonal polar warming due to dynamical influences affects the high altitude stratosphere as well as the mesosphere. There were also significant stratopause differences between Scandinavia and Canada during the warming events of 1 January and 1 February, with higher temperatures near 275 K at 16° E. During the 25 February "PWC" event a warming occurred at low and middle stratospheric heights (10–30 km: 220 K at 253° E and the stratopause cooled; while over Scandinavia-Europe the stratosphere below ~30 km was relatively cold at 195 K and the stratopause became even warmer (>295 K and lower (~45 km. The zonal winds followed the associated temperature gradients so that the vertical and latitudinal gradients of the winds differed strongly between

  1. Static characteristics and short channel effect in enhancement-mode AlN/GaN/AlN N-polar MISFET with self-aligned source/drain regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bin; Wei Lan; Wen Cai

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to simulate the I–V static characteristic of the enhancement-mode (E-mode) N-polar GaN metal—insulator—semiconductor field effect transistor (MISFET) with self-aligned source/drain regions. Firstly, with SILVACO TCAD device simulation, the drain—source current as a function of the gate—source voltage is calculated and the dependence of the drain—source current on the drain—source voltage in the case of different gate—source voltages for the device with a 0.62 μm gate length is investigated. Secondly, a comparison is made with the experimental report. Lastly, the transfer characteristic with different gate lengths and different buffer layers has been performed. The results show that the simulation is in accord with the experiment at the gate length of 0.62 μm and the short channel effect becomes pronounced as gate length decreases. The E-mode will not be held below a 100 nm gate length unless both transversal scaling and vertical scaling are being carried out simultaneously. (semiconductor devices)

  2. Turbulent transport in reversed field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.P.; Roberts, K.V.

    1976-01-01

    MHD stability of the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) relies on reversal of the toroidal field component in the outer plasma region. Interest in this configuration comes from its potential economic advantages as a thermonuclear reactor, since compared to a Tokamak the RFP supports a higher value of β, the ratio between plasma and total magnetic pressure. Results of computations on the time-evolution of the RFP using a 1D MHD model are reported. (orig./GG) [de

  3. Nup358 interacts with Dishevelled and aPKC to regulate neuronal polarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankhuri Vyas

    2013-10-01

    Par polarity complex, consisting of Par3, Par6, and aPKC, plays a conserved role in the establishment and maintenance of polarization in diverse cellular contexts. Recent reports suggest that Dishevelled (Dvl, a cytoplasmic mediator of Wnt signalling, interacts with atypical protein kinase C and regulates its activity during neuronal differentiation and directed cell migration. Here we show that Nup358 (also called RanBP2, a nucleoporin previously implicated in polarity during directed cell migration, interacts with Dishevelled and aPKC through its N-terminal region (BPN and regulates axon–dendrite differentiation of cultured hippocampal neurons. Depletion of endogenous Nup358 leads to generation of multiple axons, whereas overexpression of BPN abrogates the process of axon formation. Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Dvl or inhibition of aPKC by a pseudosubstrate inhibitor significantly reverses the multiple axon phenotype produced by Nup358 depletion. Collectively, these data suggest that Nup358 plays an important role in regulating neuronal polarization upstream to Dvl and aPKC.

  4. Bates GaAs polarized electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.R.; Cates, G.; Michaels, R.; Hughes, V.W.; Lubell, M.S.; Souder, P.A.

    1983-05-01

    In order to pursue measurements of parity violating effects of the neutral weak current, we have developed a polarized electron source suitable for installation at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator. The source is designed to provide a high peak-current pulsed beam that has a approx. 1% duty factor and that is extremely stable under helicity reversal. 34 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  5. Optimization of incident EC wave polarization in real-time polarization scan experiments on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, Toru I.; Mizuno, Yoshinori; Makino, Ryohei

    2016-01-01

    Real-time polarization scan experiments were performed on the Large Helical Device (LHD) to search an optimal incident wave polarization for electron cyclotron resonance heating. The obtained optimal polarization state to maximize the power absorption to the LHD plasma is compared with the ray-tracing code that includes mode content analyses, which indicates that the calculated results are generally in good agreement with the experimental results. The analyses show that optimal coupling to plasma waves requires a fine adjustment for an incident wave polarization even for perpendicular injection due to the finite density profile and the magnetic shear at the peripheral region. (author)

  6. Dynamical similarity of geomagnetic field reversals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valet, Jean-Pierre; Fournier, Alexandre; Courtillot, Vincent; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio

    2012-10-04

    No consensus has been reached so far on the properties of the geomagnetic field during reversals or on the main features that might reveal its dynamics. A main characteristic of the reversing field is a large decrease in the axial dipole and the dominant role of non-dipole components. Other features strongly depend on whether they are derived from sedimentary or volcanic records. Only thermal remanent magnetization of lava flows can capture faithful records of a rapidly varying non-dipole field, but, because of episodic volcanic activity, sequences of overlying flows yield incomplete records. Here we show that the ten most detailed volcanic records of reversals can be matched in a very satisfactory way, under the assumption of a common duration, revealing common dynamical characteristics. We infer that the reversal process has remained unchanged, with the same time constants and durations, at least since 180 million years ago. We propose that the reversing field is characterized by three successive phases: a precursory event, a 180° polarity switch and a rebound. The first and third phases reflect the emergence of the non-dipole field with large-amplitude secular variation. They are rarely both recorded at the same site owing to the rapidly changing field geometry and last for less than 2,500 years. The actual transit between the two polarities does not last longer than 1,000 years and might therefore result from mechanisms other than those governing normal secular variation. Such changes are too brief to be accurately recorded by most sediments.

  7. PolarTREC: Successful Methods and Tools for Attaining Broad Educational Impacts with Interdisciplinary Polar Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K. M.; Warburton, J.; Owens, R.; Warnick, W. K.

    2008-12-01

    PolarTREC--Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), is a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded International Polar Year (IPY) project in which K-12 educators participate in hands-on field experiences in the polar regions, working closely with IPY scientists as a pathway to improving science education. Developing long-term teacher- researcher collaborations through PolarTREC ensures up-to-date climate change science content will permeate the K-12 education system long after the IPY. By infusing education with the cutting edge science from the polar regions, PolarTREC has already shown an increase in student and public knowledge of and interest in the polar regions and global climate change. Preliminary evaluations have shown that PolarTREC's program activities have many positive impacts on educators and their ability to teach science concepts and improve their teaching methods. Additionally, K-12 students polled in interest surveys showed significant changes regarding the importance of understanding the polar regions as a person in today's world. Researchers have been overwhelmingly satisfied with PolarTREC and cited several specific strengths, including the program's crucial link between the teachers' field research experiences and their classroom and the extensive training provided to teachers prior to their expedition. This presentation will focus on other successful components of the PolarTREC program and how researchers and organizations might use these tools to reach out to the public for long-term impacts. Best practices include strategies for working with educators and the development of an internet-based platform for teachers and researchers to interact with the public, combining several communication tools such as online journals and forums, real-time Internet seminars, lesson plans, activities, audio, and other educational resources that address a broad range of scientific

  8. A sustainable future for the polar regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalal-Clayton, Barry; Wilson, Emma

    2008-04-15

    The spectre of change is galvanising debate about the future of the poles. Climatic shifts look set to affect both profoundly. As the ice melts, new marine transport routes will open up. The exploitation of natural resources could expand significantly. Further risks include marine acidification, the migration of commercial fish species and coastal erosion. In the Arctic, traditional livelihoods could suffer. Meanwhile, national claims of sovereignty over areas of ocean floor are fuelling fears of a new 'cold war' over access to mineral resources in sensitive environments. Clearly, science alone cannot address the challenges facing the poles: a coherent strategy for sustainable development is urgently needed.

  9. A sustainable future for the polar regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalal-Clayton, Barry; Wilson, Emma

    2008-04-15

    The spectre of change is galvanising debate about the future of the poles. Climatic shifts look set to affect both profoundly. As the ice melts, new marine transport routes will open up. The exploitation of natural resources could expand significantly. Further risks include marine acidification, the migration of commercial fish species and coastal erosion. In the Arctic, traditional livelihoods could suffer. Meanwhile, national claims of sovereignty over areas of ocean floor are fuelling fears of a new 'cold war' over access to mineral resources in sensitive environments. Clearly, science alone cannot address the challenges facing the poles: a coherent strategy for sustainable development is urgently needed.

  10. Acceleration of polarized particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1992-05-01

    The spin kinetics of polarized beams in circular accelerators is reviewed in the case of spin-1/2 particles (electrons and protons) with emphasis on the depolarization phenomena. The acceleration of polarized proton beams in synchrotrons is described together with the cures applied to reduce depolarization, including the use of 'Siberian Snakes'. The in-situ polarization of electrons in storage rings due to synchrotron radiation is studied as well as depolarization in presence of ring imperfections. The applications of electron polarization to accurately calibrate the rings in energy and to use polarized beams in colliding-beam experiments are reviewed. (author) 76 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  11. Terahertz radiation by subpicosecond spin-polarized photocurrent originating from Dirac electrons in a Rashba-type polar semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yuto; Kida, Noriaki; Miyamoto, Tatsuya; Kanou, Manabu; Sasagawa, Takao; Okamoto, Hiroshi

    2018-04-01

    The spin-splitting energy bands induced by the relativistic spin-orbit interaction in solids provide a new opportunity to manipulate the spin-polarized electrons on the subpicosecond timescale. Here, we report one such example in a bulk Rashba-type polar semiconductor BiTeBr. Strong terahertz electromagnetic waves are emitted after the resonant excitation of the interband transition between the Rashba-type spin-splitting energy bands with a femtosecond laser pulse circularly polarized. The phase of the emitted terahertz waves is reversed by switching the circular polarization. This suggests that the observed terahertz radiation originates from the subpicosecond spin-polarized photocurrents, which are generated by the asymmetric depopulation of the Dirac state. Our result provides a way for the current-induced terahertz radiation and its phase control by the circular polarization of incident light without external electric fields.

  12. Polar bears and sea ice habitat change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Atwood, Todd C.; Butterworth, Andy

    2017-01-01

    The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is an obligate apex predator of Arctic sea ice and as such can be affected by climate warming-induced changes in the extent and composition of pack ice and its impacts on their seal prey. Sea ice declines have negatively impacted some polar bear subpopulations through reduced energy input because of loss of hunting habitats, higher energy costs due to greater ice drift, ice fracturing and open water, and ultimately greater challenges to recruit young. Projections made from the output of global climate models suggest that polar bears in peripheral Arctic and sub-Arctic seas will be reduced in numbers or become extirpated by the end of the twenty-first century if the rate of climate warming continues on its present trajectory. The same projections also suggest that polar bears may persist in the high-latitude Arctic where heavy multiyear sea ice that has been typical in that region is being replaced by thinner annual ice. Underlying physical and biological oceanography provides clues as to why polar bear in some regions are negatively impacted, while bears in other regions have shown no apparent changes. However, continued declines in sea ice will eventually challenge the survival of polar bears and efforts to conserve them in all regions of the Arctic.

  13. Eddy intrusion of hot plasma into the polar cap and formation of polar-cap arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Y.T.; Gorney, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    We present plasma and electric field data obtained by the S3-3 satellite over the polar caps. We demonstrate that: (1) plasma signatures in the polar cap arc formation region near 5000 km altitude show clear intrusions of plasma sheet (approx.keV) and magneto sheath (approx.100 eV) plasma into a background of low-energy polar cap plasma; (2) the combined plasma and electric field signatures (electron inverted-V, ion beam and delxE<0) are exactly the same as in the evening discrete arc. We interpret this equivalence of polar cap and evening discrete arc signatures as indication that their formation processes are identical. The spatial structures of polar cap electric fields and the associated plasma signatures are consistent with the hypothesis that plasma intrusion into the polar cap takes the form of multiple cellular eddies. This hypothesis provides a unifying view of arc formation and arc configurations

  14. Polarization effects. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.

    1981-01-01

    The use of polarized proton beams in ISABELLE is important for several general reasons: (1) With a single longitudinally polarized proton beam, effects involving parity violation can be identified and hence processes involving weak interactions can be separated from those involving strong and electromagnetic interactions. (2) Spin effects are important in the strong interactions and can be useful for testing QCD. The technique for obtaining polarized proton beams in ISABELLE appears promising, particularly in view of the present development of a polarized proton beam for the AGS. Projections for the luminosity in ISABELLE for collisions of polarized protons - one or both beams polarized with longitudinal or transverse polarization - range from 1/100 to 1 times the luminosity for unpolarized protons.

  15. The Physics of Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2015-10-01

    The introductory lecture that has been delivered at this Symposium is a condensed version of an extended course held by the author at the XII Canary Island Winter School from November 13 to November 21, 2000. The full series of lectures can be found in Landi Degl'Innocenti (2002). The original reference is organized in 20 Sections that are here itemized: 1. Introduction, 2. Description of polarized radiation, 3. Polarization and optical devices: Jones calculus and Muller matrices, 4. The Fresnel equations, 5. Dichroism and anomalous dispersion, 6. Polarization in everyday life, 7. Polarization due to radiating charges, 8. The linear antenna, 9. Thomson scattering, 10. Rayleigh scattering, 11. A digression on Mie scattering, 12. Bremsstrahlung radiation, 13. Cyclotron radiation, 14. Synchrotron radiation, 15. Polarization in spectral lines, 16. Density matrix and atomic polarization, 17. Radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations, 18. The amplification condition in polarized radiative transfer, and 19. Coupling radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations.

  16. Ferroelectric Polarization in Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Thin Films on Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, S. B.; Tofail, S. A. M.; Kholkin, A. L.; Wojtaś, M.; Gregor, M.; Gandhi, A. A.; Wang, Y.; Bauer, S.; Krause, M.; Plecenik, A.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals in natural form are a major component of bone- a known piezoelectric material. Synthetic hydroxyapatite is widely used in bone grafts and prosthetic pyroelectric coatings as it binds strongly with natural bone. Nanocrystalline synthetic hydroxyapatite films have recently been found to exhibit strong piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity. While a spontaneous polarization in hydroxyapatite has been predicted since 2005, the reversibility of this polarization (i.e. ferroelectricity) requires experimental evidence. Here we use piezoresponse force microscopy to demonstrate that nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite indeed exhibits ferroelectricity: a reversal of polarization under an electrical field. This finding will strengthen investigations on the role of electrical polarization in biomineralization and bone-density related diseases. As hydroxyapatite is one of the most common biocompatible materials, our findings will also stimulate systematic exploration of lead and rare-metal free ferroelectric devices for potential applications in areas as diverse as in vivo and ex vivo energy harvesting, biosensing and electronics. PMID:23884324

  17. Freeing data through The Polar Information Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, T.; Chen, R. S.; Parsons, M. A.; Carlson, D. J.; Cass, K.; Finney, K.; Wilbanks, J.; Jochum, K.

    2010-12-01

    The polar regions are changing rapidly with dramatic global effect. Wise management of resources, improved decision support, and effective international cooperation on resource and geopolitical issues require deeper understanding and better prediction of these changes. Unfortunately, polar data and information remain scattered, scarce, and sporadic. Inspired by the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 that established the Antarctic as a global commons to be used only for peaceful purposes and scientific research, we assert that data and information about the polar regions are themselves “public goods” that should be shared ethically and with minimal constraint. ICSU’s Committee on Data (CODATA) therefore started the Polar Information Commons (PIC) as an open, virtual repository for vital scientific data and information. The PIC provides a shared, community-based cyber-infrastructure fostering innovation, improving scientific efficiency, and encouraging participation in polar research, education, planning, and management. The PIC builds on the legacy of the International Polar Year (IPY), providing a long-term framework for access to and preservation of both existing and future data and information about the polar regions. Rapid change demands rapid data access. The PIC system enables scientists to quickly expose their data to the world and share them through open protocols on the Internet. A PIC digital label will alert users and data centers to new polar data and ensure that usage rights are clear. The PIC utilizes the Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data, which promotes open data access through the public domain coupled with community norms of practice to ensure use of data in a fair and equitable manner. A set of PIC norms has been developed in consultation with key polar data organizations and other stakeholders. We welcome inputs from the broad science community as we further develop and refine the PIC approach and move ahead with

  18. Optical pulling force on a magneto-dielectric Rayleigh sphere in Bessel tractor polarized beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitri, F.G.; Li, R.X.; Yang, R.P.; Guo, L.X.; Ding, C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    The optical radiation force induced by Bessel (vortex) beams on a magneto-dielectric subwavelength sphere is investigated with particular emphasis on the beam polarization and order l (or topological charge). The analysis is focused on identifying the regions and some of the conditions to achieve retrograde motion of the sphere centered on the axis of wave propagation of the incident beam, or shifted off-axially. Exact non-paraxial analytical solutions are established, and computations for linear, circular, radial, azimuthal and mixed polarizations of the individual plane wave components forming the Bessel (vortex) beams by means of the angular spectrum decomposition method (ASDM) illustrate the theory with particular emphasis on the tractor (i.e. reversal) behavior of the force. This effect results in the pulling of the magneto-dielectric sphere against the forward linear momentum density flux associated with the incoming waves. Should some conditions related to the choice of the beam parameters as well as the permittivity and permeability of the sphere be met, the optical force vanishes and reverses sign. Moreover, the beam polarization is shown to affect differently the axial negative pulling force for either the zeroth- or the first-order Bessel beam. When the sphere is centered on the beam′s axis, the axial force component is always negative for the zeroth-order Bessel beam except for the radial and azimuthal polarization configurations. Nonetheless, for the first-order Bessel beam, the axial force is negative for the radial polarization case only. Additional tractor beam effects arise when the sphere departs from the center of the beam. It is also demonstrated that the tractor beam effect arises from the force component originating from the cross-interaction between the electric and magnetic dipoles. Potential applications are in particle manipulation, optical levitation, tractor beam tweezers, and other emergent technologies using polarized Bessel beams on

  19. Note on polarized RHIC bunch arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss what combinations of bunch polarization in the two RHIC rings are necessary to do the physics measurements at various interaction regions. We also consider the bunches for both the pion inclusive and p-p elastic polarization measurements. Important factors to consider are the direction of the polarization with respect to the momentum in each bunch, the beam gas backgrounds, and the simulation of zero - polarization in one beam by averaging + and - helicity, and luminosity monitoring for normalization. These considerations can be addressed by setting the relative number of each of the 9 combinations possible at each of the 6 interaction regions. The combinations are (+ empty -) yellow X (+ empty -)blue, where yellow and blue are the counter-rotating rings

  20. An algebra of reversible computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We design an axiomatization for reversible computation called reversible ACP (RACP). It has four extendible modules: basic reversible processes algebra, algebra of reversible communicating processes, recursion and abstraction. Just like process algebra ACP in classical computing, RACP can be treated as an axiomatization foundation for reversible computation.

  1. Polar heating in Saturn's thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. A. Smith

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A 3-D numerical global circulation model of the Kronian thermosphere has been used to investigate the influence of polar heating. The distributions of temperature and winds resulting from a general heat source in the polar regions are described. We show that both the total energy input and its vertical distribution are important to the resulting thermal structure. We find that the form of the topside heating profile is particularly important in determining exospheric temperatures. We compare our results to exospheric temperatures from Voyager occultation measurements (Smith et al., 1983; Festou and Atreya, 1982 and auroral H3+ temperatures from ground-based spectroscopic observations (e.g. Miller et al., 2000. We find that a polar heat source is consistent with both the Smith et al. determination of T∞~400 K at ~30° N and auroral temperatures. The required heat source is also consistent with recent estimates of the Joule heating rate at Saturn (Cowley et al., 2004. However, our results show that a polar heat source can probably not explain the Festou and Atreya determination of T∞~800 K at ~4° N and the auroral temperatures simultaneously. Keywords. Ionosphere (Planetary ionosphere – Magnetospherica physics (Planetary magnetospheres – Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (Thermospheric dynamics

  2. Wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavko, G.E.

    1974-01-01

    The wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization was measured for twelve stars in three regions of the Milky Way. A 120A bandpass was used to measure the polarization at a maximum of sixteen wavelengths evenly spaced between 2.78μ -1 (3600A) and 1.28μ -1 (7800A). For such a wide wavelength range, the wavelength resolution is superior to that of any previously reported polarization measurements. The new scanning polarimeter built by W. A. Hiltner of the University of Michigan was used for the observations. Very broad structure was found in the wavelength dependence of the polarization. Extensive investigations were carried out to show that the structure was not caused by instrumental effects. The broad structure observed is shown to be in agreement with concurrent extinction measurements for the same stars. Also, the observed structure is of the type predicted when a homogeneous silicate grain model is fitted to the observed extinction. The results are in agreement with the hypothesis that the very broad band structure seen in the extinction is produced by the grains. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  3. Application of circular polarized synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Tsuneaki; Kawata, Hiroshi

    1988-03-01

    The idea of using the polarizing property of light for physical experiment by controlling it variously has been known from old time, and the Faraday effect and the research by polarizing microscopy are its examples. The light emitted from the electron orbit of an accelerator has the different polarizing characteristics from those of the light of a laboratory light source, and as far as observing it within the electron orbit plane, it becomes linearly polarized light. By utilizing this property well, research is carried out at present in synchrotron experimental facilities. Recently, the technology related to the insert type light cources using permanent magnets has advanced remarkably, and circular polarized light has become to be producible. If the light like this can be obtained with the energy not only in far ultraviolet region but also to x-ray region at high luminance, new possibility should open. At the stage that the design of an insert type light source was finished, and its manufacture was started, the research on the method of evaluating the degree of circular polarization and the research on the utilization of circular polarized synchrotron radiation are earnestly carried out. In this report, the results of researches presented at the study meeting are summarized. Moreover, the design and manufacture of the beam lines for exclusive use will be carried out. (Kako, I.)

  4. Polarization encoded all-optical multi-valued shift operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jitendra Nath; Bhowmik, Panchatapa

    2014-08-01

    Polarization encoded multi-valued (both ternary and quaternary logic) shift operators have been designed using linear optical devices only. There are six ternary and 24 quaternary shift operators in multi-valued system. These are also known as reversible literals. This circuit will be useful in future all-optical multi-valued logic based information processing system. Different states of polarization of light are taken as different logic states.

  5. Stability of polarization in organic ferroelectric metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalbitz, Rene; Fruebing, Peter; Gerhard, Reimund [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, 14476, Potsdam (Germany); Taylor, Martin [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Dean Street, Bangor Gwynedd, LL57 1UT (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    Ferroelectric field effect transistors (FeFETs) offer the prospect of an organic-based memory device. Since the charge transport in such devices is confined to the interface between the insulator and the semiconductor, the focus of the present study was on the investigation of this region. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of all-organic MIS devices with poly(vinylidenefluoride- trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) as gate insulator and poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT) as semiconductor were carried out. When the structure was driven into depletion, a positive flat-band voltage shift was observed arising from the change in polarization state of the ferroelectric insulator. When driven into accumulation, the polarization was reversed. It is shown that both polarization states are stable. However, negative charge trapped at the interface during the depletion cycle masks the negative shift in flat-band voltage expected during the sweep to accumulation voltages. Measurements on P(VDF-TrFE)/P3HT based FeFETs yield further evidence for fixed charges at the interface. Output characteristics suggest the injection of negative charges into the interface region when a depletion voltage is applied between source and gate contact.

  6. Temperature-dependent magnetic field effect study on exciplex luminescence: probing the triton X-100 reverse micelle in cyclohexane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Doyel; Nath, Deb Narayan

    2007-09-20

    The microenvironment within the reverse micelle of the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) in cyclohexane has been investigated by studying the magnetic field effect (MFE) on pyrene-dimethylaniline exciplex luminescence. The nature of exciplex fluorescence and its behavior in the presence of a magnetic field have been found to vary significantly with the water content of the medium. Results are discussed in light of multiple exciplex formation within the micelle which is further supported by the fluorescence lifetime measurements. Those exciplexes emitting at longer wavelength are found to be magnetic field sensitive while those emitting toward the blue region of the spectrum are insensitive toward magnetic field. Since the exciplex's emission characteristics and magnetic field sensitivity depend on its immediate surrounding, it has been concluded that the environment within the micelle is nonuniform. With an increase in hydration level, different zones of varying polarity are created within the reverse micelle. It has been pointed out that the magnetic field sensitive components reside inside the polar core of the micelle while those located near the hydrocarbon tail are field insensitive. However it has been presumed that an interconversion between the different types of exciplexes is possible. The environment within the reverse micelle is found to be largely affected by the change in temperature, and this is reflected in the exciplex emission property and the extent of magnetic field effect. Interestingly, the variation of MFE with temperature follows different trends in the dry and the wet reverse micelle. A comparison has been drawn with the reverse micelle of the ionic surfactant to get an insight into the difference between the various types of micellar environment.

  7. Workshop on polarized neutron filters and polarized pulsed neutron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shinichi

    2004-07-01

    The workshop was held in KEK by thirty-three participants on April 26, 2004. The polarized neutron filter method was only discussed. It consists of three parts; the first part was discussed on the polarized neutron methods, the second part on the polarized neutron experiments and the third on the pulse neutron spectrometer and polarized neutron experiments. The six papers were presented such as the polarized 3 He neutron spin filter, neutron polarization by proton polarized filter, soft master and neutron scattering, polarized neutron in solid physics, polarization experiments by chopper spectroscope and neutron polarization system in superHRPD. (S.Y.)

  8. PolarTREC—A Model Program for Taking Polar Literacy into the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, J.; Timm, K.; Larson, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Polar TREC—Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, is a three-year (2007-2009) NSF-funded International Polar Year (IPY) teacher professional development program that advances Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education by improving teacher content knowledge and instructional practices through Teacher Research Experiences (TRE) in the Arctic and Antarctic. Leveraging profound changes and fascinating science taking place in the polar regions, PolarTREC broadly disseminates activities and products to students, educators, researchers, and the public, connecting them with the Arctic and Antarctica and sustaining the widespread interest in the polar regions and building on the enthusiasm that was generated through IPY. Central to the PolarTREC Teacher Research Experience Model, over 40 teachers have spent two to eight weeks participating in hands-on research in the polar regions and sharing their experiences with diverse audiences via live events, online multimedia journals, and interactive bulletin boards. The Connecting Arctic/Antarctic Researchers and Educators (CARE) Network unifies learning community members participants, alumni, and others, developing a sustainable association of education professionals networking to share and apply polar STEM content and pedagogical skills. Educator and student feedback from preliminary results of the program evaluation has shown that PolarTREC’s comprehensive program activities have many positive impacts on educators and their ability to teach science concepts and improve their teaching methods. Additionally, K-12 students polled in interest surveys showed significant changes in key areas including amount of time spent in school exploring research activities, importance of understanding science for future work, importance of understanding the polar regions as a person in today’s world, as well as increased self-reported knowledge and interest in numerous science content areas. Building

  9. Instrumentation with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeni, P.; Muenzer, W.; Ostermann, A.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron scattering with polarization analysis is an indispensable tool for the investigation of novel materials exhibiting electronic, magnetic, and orbital degrees of freedom. In addition, polarized neutrons are necessary for neutron spin precession techniques that path the way to obtain extremely high resolution in space and time. Last but not least, polarized neutrons are being used for fundamental studies as well as very recently for neutron imaging. Many years ago, neutron beam lines were simply adapted for polarized beam applications by adding polarizing elements leading usually to unacceptable losses in neutron intensity. Recently, an increasing number of beam lines are designed such that an optimum use of polarized neutrons is facilitated. In addition, marked progress has been obtained in the technology of 3 He polarizers and the reflectivity of large-m supermirrors. Therefore, if properly designed, only factors of approximately 2-3 in neutron intensity are lost. It is shown that S-benders provide neutron beams with an almost wavelength independent polarization. Using twin cavities, polarized beams with a homogeneous phase space and P>0.99 can be produced without significantly sacrificing intensity. It is argued that elliptic guides, which are coated with large m polarizing supermirrors, provide the highest flux.

  10. Giant flexoelectric polarization in a micromachined ferroelectric diaphragm

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhihong

    2012-08-14

    The coupling between dielectric polarization and strain gradient, known as flexoelectricity, becomes significantly large on the micro- and nanoscale. Here, it is shown that giant flexoelectric polarization can reverse remnant ferroelectric polarization in a bent Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48) O3 (PZT) diaphragm fabricated by micromachining. The polarization induced by the strain gradient and the switching behaviors of the polarization in response to an external electric field are investigated by observing the electromechanical coupling of the diaphragm. The method allows determination of the absolute zero polarization state in a PZT film, which is impossible using other existing methods. Based on the observation of the absolute zero polarization state and the assumption that bending of the diaphragm is the only source of the self-polarization, the upper bound of flexoelectric coefficient of PZT film is calculated to be as large as 2.0 × 10-4 C m -1. The strain gradient induced by bending the diaphragm is measured to be on the order of 102 m-1, three orders of magnitude larger than that obtained in the bulk material. Because of this large strain gradient, the estimated giant flexoelectric polarization in the bent diaphragm is on the same order of magnitude as the normal remnant ferroelectric polarization of PZT film. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. NICMOS POLARIMETRY OF 'POLAR-SCATTERED' SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcheldor, D.; Robinson, A.; Axon, D. J.; Young, S.; Quinn, S.; Smith, J. E.; Hough, J.; Alexander, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclei of Seyfert 1 galaxies exhibit a range of optical polarization characteristics that can be understood in terms of two scattering regions producing orthogonal polarizations: an extended polar scattering region (PSR) and a compact equatorial scattering region (ESR), located within the circum-nuclear torus. Here we present NICMOS 2.0 μm imaging polarimetry of six 'polar-scattered' Seyfert 1 (S1) galaxies, in which the PSR dominates the optical polarization. The unresolved nucleus ( 2μm ) is consistent with the average for the optical spectrum(θ v ), implying that the nuclear polarization is dominated by polar scattering at both wavelengths. The same is probably true for NGC 3227. In both NGC 4593 and Mrk 766, there is a large difference between θ 2μm and θ v off-nucleus, where polar scattering is expected to dominate. This may be due to contamination by interstellar polarization in NGC 4593, but there is no clear explanation in the case of the strongly polarized Mrk 766. Lastly, in Mrk 1239, a large change (∼60 0 ) in θ 2 μ m between the nucleus and the annulus indicates that the unresolved nucleus and its immediate surroundings have different polarization states at 2 μm, which we attribute to the ESR and PSR, respectively. A further implication is that the source of the scattered 2 μm emission in the unresolved nucleus is the accretion disk, rather than torus hot dust emission.

  12. Sex reversal in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This special topic issue of Sexual Development gives an overview of sex reversal in vertebrates, from fishes naturally changing their sex, to rodents escaping the mammalian SRY-determining system. It offers eight up-to-date reviews on specific subjects in sex reversal, considering fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, including humans. The broad scope of represented animals makes this ideal for students and researchers, especially those interested in the...

  13. Experimental study of time-reversal invariance in neutron-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaparov, E.I.; Shimizu, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental approaches for the test of time-reversal invariance in neutron-nucleus interactions are reviewed. Possible transmission experiments with polarized neutron beams and polarized or aligned targets are discussed as well as neutron capture experiments with unpolarized resonance neutrons. 102 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Polarization of Λ hyperons produced inclusively in v p andbar v p charged current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Kennedy, B. W.; O'Neale, S. W.; Böckmann, K.; Gebel, W.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Nellen, B.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Grant, A.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Barnham, K. W. J.; Clayton, E. F.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Settles, R.; Wernhard, K. L.; Wittek, W.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Saitta, B.; Wells, J.

    1985-03-01

    Lambda hyperons from v p andbar v p charged current interactions have been analysed for polarization. A significant polarization is observed for Λ particles in the quasi-elastic region for both types of interactions. Part of this polarization is due to the decay of highly polarized Σ(1385) resonances. The results are compared with simple predictions of the quark parton model.

  15. Microscopic theory of ultrafast spin linear reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, G P, E-mail: gpzhang@indstate.edu [Department of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 (United States)

    2011-05-25

    A recent experiment (Vahaplar et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 117201) showed that a single femtosecond laser can reverse the spin direction without spin precession, or spin linear reversal (SLR), but its microscopic theory has been missing. Here we show that SLR does not occur naturally. Two generic spin models, the Heisenberg and Hubbard models, are employed to describe magnetic insulators and metals, respectively. We find analytically that the spin change is always accompanied by a simultaneous excitation of at least two spin components. The only model that has prospects for SLR is the Stoner single-electron band model. However, under the influence of the laser field, the orbital angular momenta are excited and are coupled to each other. If a circularly polarized light is used, then all three components of the orbital angular momenta are excited, and so are their spins. The generic spin commutation relation further reveals that if SLR exists, it must involve a complicated multiple state excitation.

  16. On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, Gavin E

    2011-01-01

    The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa

  17. Multiphoton polarization Bremsstrahlung effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovinskij, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    A general approach to induced polarization effects was formulated on the basis of theory of many particles in a strong periodic field. Correlation with the perturbation theory is shown and the types of effective polarization potentials both for isolated atoms and ions, and for ions in plasma, are provided. State of art in the theory of forced polarization Bremsstrahlung effect is analyzed and some outlooks for further experimental and theoretical studies are outlined [ru

  18. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalshoven, James, Jr.; Dabney, Philip

    1991-01-01

    Instrument measures polarization characteristics of Earth at three wavelengths. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor (ALPS) measures optical polarization characteristics of land surface. Designed to be flown at altitudes of approximately 300 m to minimize any polarizing or depolarizing effects of intervening atmosphere and to look along nadir to minimize any effects depending on look angle. Data from measurements used in conjunction with data from ground surveys and aircraft-mounted video recorders to refine mathematical models used in interpretation of higher-altitude polarimetric measurements of reflected sunlight.

  19. Polarization of Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, M.W.

    1975-01-01

    Linear polarization of starlight may be produced by electron scattering in the extended atmospheres of early type stars. Techniques are investigated for the measurement and interpretation of this polarization. Polarimetric observations were made of twelve visual double star systems in which at least one member was a B type star as a means of separating the intrinsic stellar polarization from the polarization produced in the interstellar medium. Four of the double stars contained a Be star. Evidence for intrinsic polarization was found in five systems including two of the Be systems, one double star with a short period eclipsing binary, and two systems containing only normal early type stars for which emission lines have not been previously reported. The interpretation of these observations in terms of individual stellar polarizations and their wavelength dependence is discussed. The theoretical basis for the intrinsic polarization of early type stars is explored with a model for the disk-like extended atmospheres of Be stars. Details of a polarimeter for the measurement of the linear polarization of astronomical point sources are also presented with narrow band (Δ lambda = 100A) measurements of the polarization of γ Cas from lambda 4000 to lambda 5800

  20. Polarization at SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    The SLAC Linear Collid