Sample records for regions north korean

  1. Characteristics of regional seismic waves from the 2006 and 2009 North Korean nuclear explosion tests

    Rhee, S.; Hong, T.


    Two North Korean nuclear explosion (UNE) tests were conducted in 2006 and 2009. The events are the first UNEs in the 21st century. The UNEs were well recorded by dense regional seismic networks in Korea, Japan and China. The UNEs provide unique regional seismic waveforms with high signal-to-noise ratios. However, the continental crust in the Korean Peninsula changes abruptly into a transitional structure between continental and oceanic crusts across the eastern shore. The complex geological and tectonic structures around the Korean Peninsula cause significant variations in regional waveforms. One outstanding question is whether typical seismic features are still observed in the North Korean UNE records. Another question is whether conventional discrimination techniques can be applicable for the North Korean UNEs. P/S amplitude ratios are widely applied for seismic discrimination. In this study, we describe the features of regional waveforms of the North Korean UNEs. We investigate the composition of regional shear energy by analyzing three-component seismograms for various frequency bands. The shear-energy contents are compared with those of comparable natural earthquakes. We find that Pn/Lg amplitude ratios are 3-4 times larger than those of earthquakes. The UNEs records show that the Pn/Lg amplitude ratios on the vertical components are lower than those on the horizontal components in the frequencies around 1 Hz.

  2. Politics of North Korean Refugees and Regional Security Implications


    Chang Approved by: Christopher Twomey Thesis Advisor Edward Olsen Second Reader Harold A. Trinkunas, PhD Chairman, Department...nk00100&num=4104, accessed 30 October 2008. 29 “Ros-Lehtinen Introduces North Korea Human Rights Act Legislation co-authored with Chairman Berman may

  3. North Korean Paradoxes. Circumstances, Costs, and Consequences of Korean Unification


    paper) 1. Korean reunification question (1945- ) 2. Korea (North)-Economic policy. 3. Korea (North)--Politics and government. 4. Security, Preface This monograph, focusing on North Korea , analyzes some of the economic, political, and security issues associated with Korean ...Northeast Asia. iii iv North Korean Paradoxes This research was performed within the International Security and Defense Policy Center of the RAND National

  4. North Korean Relationships


    North Korea’s economy and trade, North Korea’s possible response to sanctions and outside pressures of denuclearization , The extent of North...of denuclearization . The actions of North Korea are highly monitored and any predictions would take a much more in depth look at what North Korea

  5. Aestheticized politics : the workings of North Korean art

    Yoon, Min-Kyung


    My dissertation is a study of North Korean art as a site where politics, history, and culture meet. Art in North Korea fulfills a clear purpose. This is most apparent in the depiction of historical themes in North Korean art. History serves the political legitimization of the North Korean state and

  6. Aestheticized politics : the workings of North Korean art

    Yoon, Min-Kyung


    My dissertation is a study of North Korean art as a site where politics, history, and culture meet. Art in North Korea fulfills a clear purpose. This is most apparent in the depiction of historical themes in North Korean art. History serves the political legitimization of the North Korean state and

  7. The North Korean Ballistic Missile Program


    Future Preemptive Strikes against North Korea ,” The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, Vol. 18, No. 4, Winter 2006, pp. 95-121. 194. Joseph S...University of California, San Diego; and Korea University. He also served as a Korean linguist in the United States Air Force. His publications have...appeared in Asian Perspective, Astropolitics, The Journal of East Asian Studies, The Korea Journal of Defense Analysis, The KNDU Review, The

  8. Korean reunification : the implications for regional security

    Chang, Man-Chul


    Korean reunification is one of the most critical issues of the post- Cold War era, not only for the Korean peninsula, but also for regional security. This study analyzes Korean reunification in the context of Northeast Asian and Northern Pacific regional security. A systemic framework is utilized as an analytical tool to examine the motivations of states with interests in the region. The study concludes that an incremental functional approach would be the most efficient and effective way to a...

  9. North Korean Counterfeiting of U.S. Currency


    Korean diplomats.15 Counterfeiting of foreign currency is apparently a phenomenon that is not new to the government of North Korea . Seoul’s War...Adventurism: North Korea’s Military-Diplomatic Campaigns,” Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, Vol. XVI, No.2, Fall 2004. Note that the term “Soprano State... Korean National Intelligence Service (NIS) Report to the effect that North Korea forges and circulates U.S. $100 banknotes worth $15 million a year

  10. Preparing for Upheaval in North Korea: Assuming North Korean Regime Collapse


    defense agreement between North Korea and China but also pro-Chinese North Korean elites’ requests for Chinese help are likely to justify Chinese...PREPARING FOR UPHEAVAL IN NORTH KOREA : ASSUMING NORTH KOREAN REGIME COLLAPSE by Kwonwoo Kim December 2013 Thesis Advisor: Wade Huntley Second...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PREPARING FOR UPHEAVAL IN NORTH KOREA : ASSUMING NORTH KOREAN REGIME COLLAPSE 5

  11. The North Korean Missile Program

    Wright, David


    In recent years, the development of ballistic missiles by North Korea has been a key motivation for US efforts to stem missile proliferation and to develop defenses against intermediate and long-range missiles. In the 1980s, North Korea reverse-engineered short-range Soviet Scud missiles and began to produce and sell them. In 1993, it flight-tested a missile reported to have a range of up to 1,300 kilometers, which would allow it to target most of Japan. In 1998, it launched a multi-stage missile over Japan; it later announced that the launch had been an attempt to place a satellite in orbit. An important question is what these tests imply for its current capability and its possible future missile development. Since North Korea has sold missiles to countries in the Middle East and South Asia and is reported to be assisting Iran's missile development program, understanding its capabilities is relevant to security concerns in several parts of the world. In this talk I will discuss my analysis of the publicly available information about North Korea's missile tests, and my conclusions about possible future developments. This includes estimates of ranges and payloads of its next potential generation of missiles, and comments about their potential military utility.

  12. Effects of Psychiatric Symptoms on Attention in North Korean Refugees

    Lee, Yu Jin; Jun, Jin Yong; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Gwak, Ah Reum; Lee, So Hee; Yoo, So Young


    Objective We investigated the performance of North Korean refugees on attention tasks, and the relationship between that performance and psychiatric symptoms. Methods Sustained and divided attention was assessed using the computerized Comprehensive Attention Test in North Korean refugees and in South Koreans. All participants also completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II). Results The North Korean refugees showed slower reaction times (RTs) on the visual sustained attention task compared to the South Koreans after controlling for age and sex. North Korean refugees had a greater number of omission errors (OEs) on the divided attention task and a higher standard deviation (SD) of RT. Total DES-II scores of the North Korean refugees were associated with the number of OEs and the SD of RT on the sustained attention task, and with the number of OEs on the divided attention task. Conclusion North Korean refugees showed poorer performance on computerized attention tasks. In addition, attention deficit among North Korean refugees was associated with their dissociative experiences. Our results suggest that refugees may have attention deficits, which may be related to their psychiatric symptoms, particularly dissociation. PMID:27757125

  13. Writing under wartime conditions : North and South Korean writers during the Korean war (1950-1953)

    Wit, Jerôme Willem Andries de


    Writing under Wartime Conditions is a study into North and South Korean literature written during the Korean War. It depicts the views and activities of the authors on war and traces the historical and social circumstances under which the writers had to write their literature. The North and South Ko

  14. North Korean refugee doctors' preliminary examination scores

    Sung Uk Chae


    Full Text Available Purpose Although there have been studies emphasizing the re-education of North Korean (NK doctors for post-unification of the Korean Peninsula, study on the content and scope of such re-education has yet to be conducted. Researchers intended to set the content and scope of re-education by a comparative analysis for the scores of the preliminary examination, which is comparable to the Korean Medical Licensing Examination (KMLE. Methods The scores of the first and second preliminary exams were analyzed by subject using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The passing status of the group of NK doctors for KMLE in recent 3 years were investigated. The multiple-choice-question (MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of South Korean (SK medical students by two times of the standard deviation of the scores of SK medical students were selected to investigate the relevant reasons. Results The average scores of nearly all subjects were improved in the second exam compared with the first exam. The passing rate of the group of NK doctors was 75%. The number of MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of SK medical students was 51 (6.38%. NK doctors’ lack of understandings for Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, Therapeutics, Prenatal Care, and Managed Care Programs was suggested as the possible reason. Conclusion The education of integrated courses focusing on Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures and Therapeutics, and apprenticeship-style training for clinical practice of core subjects are needed. Special lectures on the Preventive Medicine are likely to be required also.

  15. North Koreans in China in need of international protection

    Roberta Cohen


    Full Text Available In the face of continuing persecution of North Koreans who are forcibly returned to their country of origin by China, the international community needs to reconsider how it might better work towards securing protection for North Koreans. Some may be political refugees, others ‘refugees sur place’: they may not have been refugees when they left their country but become refugees because they have a valid fear of persecution upon return.

  16. Food security experiences of displaced North Korean households.

    Lee, Soo-Kyung; Nam, So-Young


    Food shortage situation in North Korea has gained much interest, however food insecurity caused by the food shortage in North Korean households has not been much investigated. This study examined food security experiences and food consumption pattern of displaced North Korean households currently living in South Korea. Food security experience among 51 North Korean households living in South Korea was examined using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) in three time points: immediately before childbirth, immediately before leaving North Korea, and immediately before entering South Korea. Meal/snack consumption frequencies and food diversity were also examined. Food security situation was the worst at the time of immediately before leaving North Korea with the average HFIAS score of 10.05. The households that were food insecure, they tended to be "severely" insecure. Although majority of the subjects reported having three or more meals a day, food diversity in their diet was very low with the average food diversity score of 2.17 immediately before childbirth and 1.74 immediately before leaving North Korea. Their diet appeared to heavily rely on grain and vegetable. This study is one of few that specifically examined food security of North Korean households with a pre-developed scale, and that demonstrated food security situation at different time points in quantified terms. Replicating this study with different groups of North Korean households for different time points would allow more complete understanding of impacts of food shortage. Food diversity score could provide a good way to examine changes of food consumption occurring to North Koreans in the process of adaptation. More attention to the changes occurring during adaption to South Korea should be given to understand the process and impact and to prepare public nutrition policy for the re-unified Korea.

  17. 31 CFR 500.586 - Authorization of new transactions concerning certain North Korean property.


    ... concerning certain North Korean property. 500.586 Section 500.586 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Authorization of new transactions concerning certain North Korean property. (a) Subject to the limitations in... interest in the property of North Korea or a North Korean national arises on or after June 19, 2000....

  18. A phenomenological study on the experience of North Korean refugees.

    Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Lee, Ok Ja


    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the experience of North Korean refugees living in South Korea. From the analysis of the participants' comments, six essences were identified: entrance to a new world after struggling for survival, unexpected shock and chaos, reconsidering the reasons for leaving North Korea, recovery from trauma, rebuilding meaning, and posttraumatic growth.

  19. The Future of Soviet-North Korean Relations.


    Unclassified - sea winempo .m Approved for Public Release; Distribucion Unlimited EDTIC I. 011ay"OTOS~ ?,was aww" as* M= = DE V. 2 18 USSR NORTH judged to be minimal. The area with the most practical potential for change from North Korea’s perspective concerns the objective of reunification...effectively halted the process of modernizing North Korean weapon systems in certain key areas where Pyongyang can neither produce advanced tech

  20. Mental health and PTSD in female North Korean refugees.

    Shin, Gisoo; Lee, Suk Jeong


    This study was conducted to identify mental health status, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and psychophysiological change in female North Korean refugees. Data were collected using questionnaires and symptom checklists that measured PTSD and the psychosomatic state of the subjects. As many as 97 subjects, who had settled in and around Seoul, South Korea, were selected by snowball sampling. Mental health and PTSD levels of the participants were above a moderate level. We conclude that health care professionals need to provide female North Korean defectors with services to improve mental health and make the sociocultural transition successfully.

  1. The Effectiveness of the U.S. Missile Defense Capabilities as a Deterrent to the North Korean Missile Threat


    THE U.S. MISSILE DEFENSE CAPABILITIES AS A DETERRENT TO THE NORTH KOREAN MISSILE THREAT by Issac G. Gipson December 2007 Thesis Advisor...SUBJECT TERMS Missile Deterrence, Missile Defense , North Korean Missile Threat, North Korean Missile Systems, U.S. Missile Defense Capabilities, 16...19 III. CURRENT MISSILE DEFENSE ANALYSIS AGAINST NORTH KOREAN MISSILE THREAT

  2. Sino-U.S. Cooperation in North Korean Nuclear Issue


    China and the United States have cooperated closely in resolving the second North Korean nuclear crisis.China and the United States have worked together with South Korea, Russia and Japan to prevent the North Korean nuclear issue from spiraling out of control, and they have also tried to make progress in the six-party talks. Despite differences over the issue, both sides are maintaining the momentum of cooperation with increasing mutual understanding and trust. The current U.S.-North Korea rapprochement has progressed quickly, adding a new factor in Sino-U.S. cooperation. Apart from bilateral contact with North Korea, the United States is insisting on a multilateral approach, continuing to persuade China to share responsibility for a nuclear-free Peninsula, and jointly advancing the process in the second phase set forth in the February 13 Agreement on Initial Actions. China's role,therefore, remains indispensable.

  3. On the Politics of Exhibiting North Korean Art

    Shim, David


    This essay was written in reaction to the international symposium "Exploring North Korean Arts," which was held on the occasion of the art exhibition "Flowers for Kim Il Sung—Art and Architecture from the DPR Korea," in Vienna on September 3 and 4, 2010. The essay argues that scholars must recognize

  4. On the Politics of Exhibiting North Korean Art

    Shim, David


    This essay was written in reaction to the international symposium "Exploring North Korean Arts," which was held on the occasion of the art exhibition "Flowers for Kim Il Sung—Art and Architecture from the DPR Korea," in Vienna on September 3 and 4, 2010. The essay argues that scholars must recognize

  5. 31 CFR 500.559 - Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships.


    ... Licensing Policy § 500.559 Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounts of North Korean, North...: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL,...

  6. Post-Unified Korean Foreign Policy Options: Regional Implications


    Korean War, the U.S. security policy toward Korea has been instrumental in promoting peace and stability on the peninsula. The strong defense alliance...request the removal of United States troops from the Korean peninsula and the nullification of the United States-South Korea Mutual Defense alliance. However, after the elimination of the North Korean threat, a unified Korea will be able to redefine its foreign policy options

  7. Seismological analysis of the fourth North Korean nuclear test

    Hartmann, Gernot; Gestermann, Nicolai; Ceranna, Lars


    The Democratic People's Republic of Korea has conducted its fourth underground nuclear explosions on 06.01.2016 at 01:30 (UTC). The explosion was clearly detected and located by the seismic network of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Additional seismic stations of international earthquake monitoring networks at regional distances, which are not part of the IMS, are used to precisely estimate the epicenter of the event in the North Hamgyong province (41.38°N / 129.05°E). It is located in the area of the North Korean Punggye-ri nuclear test site, where the verified nuclear tests from 2006, 2009, and 2013 were conducted as well. The analysis of the recorded seismic signals provides the evidence, that the event was originated by an explosive source. The amplitudes as well as the spectral characteristics of the signals were examined. Furthermore, the similarity of the signals with those from the three former nuclear tests suggests very similar source type. The seismograms at the 8,200 km distant IMS station GERES in Germany, for example, show the same P phase signal for all four explosions, differing in the amplitude only. The comparison of the measured amplitudes results in the increasing magnitude with the chronology of the explosions from 2006 (mb 4.2), 2009 (mb 4.8) until 2013 (mb 5.1), whereas the explosion in 2016 had approximately the same magnitude as that one three years before. Derived from the magnitude, a yield of 14 kt TNT equivalents was estimated for both explosions in 2013 and 2016; in 2006 and 2009 yields were 0.7 kt and 5.4 kt, respectively. However, a large inherent uncertainty for these values has to be taken into account. The estimation of the absolute yield of the explosions depends very much on the local geological situation and the degree of decoupling of the explosive from the surrounding rock. Due to the missing corresponding information, reliable magnitude-yield estimation for the

  8. State and church in the making of post-division subjectivity : North Korean migrants in South Korea

    Jung, J.


    This paper provides a historical overview of the shifting identity politics of the South Korean state with respect to North Korean migrants, and an ethnographic study of intra-ethnic contact zones in which North Korean migrants and their southern counterparts interact and negotiate a new citizenship in envisioning a reunified nation. The presence of North Korean migrants and their daily struggles in adjusting to South Korean society gives rise to questions about the narrow-minded South Korean...

  9. Possible relationship between North Korean total rainfall and Arctic Oscillation in May

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Kang, Sung-Dae; Kim, Hae-Dong


    In this study, a negative correlation between the rainfall over North Korea in May and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) in the same month is analyzed. The reasons for rainfall declines in the positive AO phase are as follows: (a) the strengthening of anomalous anticyclone in the Maritime Province of Siberia, (b) the weakening of the subtropical western North Pacific high, and (c) the stabilization across all the atmospheric layers in North Korea. Anomalous anticyclone strengthened in the Maritime Province of Siberia plays a critical role in placing the North Korean region under the influence of anomalous northeasterlies. In addition, the development of the anomalous northeasterlies results in the supply of a large amount of cold and dry air into North Korea. This consequently stabilizes the atmosphere in North Korea. Moreover, the reinforcement of anomalous cold sea surface temperature in the mid-latitude region of East Asia is found to be another reason for the atmospheric stabilization.

  10. Psychiatry in former socialist countries: implications for north korean psychiatry.

    Park, Young Su; Park, Sang Min; Jun, Jin Yong; Kim, Seog Ju


    Very little information is available regarding psychiatry in North Korea, which is based on the legacy of Soviet psychiatry. This paper reviews the characteristics of psychiatry in former socialist countries and discusses its implications for North Korean psychiatry. Under socialism, psychiatric disorders were attributed primarily to neurophysiologic or neurobiological origins. Psychosocial or psychodynamic etiology was denied or distorted in line with the political ideology of the Communist Party. Psychiatry was primarily concerned with psychotic disorders, and this diagnostic category was sometimes applied based on political considerations. Neurotic disorders were ignored by psychiatry or were regarded as the remnants of capitalism. Several neurotic disorders characterized by high levels of somatization were considered to be neurological or physical in nature. The majority of "mental patients" were institutionalized for a long periods in large-scale psychiatric hospitals. Treatment of psychiatric disorders depended largely on a few outdated biological therapies. In former socialist countries, psychodynamic psychotherapy was not common, and psychiatric patients were likely to experience social stigma. According to North Korean doctors living in South Korea, North Korean psychiatry is heavily influenced by the aforementioned traditions of psychiatry. During the post-socialist transition, the suicide rate in many of these countries dramatically increased. Given such mental health crises in post-socialist transitional societies, the field of psychiatry may face major challenges in a future unified Korea.

  11. Psychiatry in Former Socialist Countries: Implications for North Korean Psychiatry

    Park, Young Su; Park, Sang Min; Jun, Jin Yong


    Very little information is available regarding psychiatry in North Korea, which is based on the legacy of Soviet psychiatry. This paper reviews the characteristics of psychiatry in former socialist countries and discusses its implications for North Korean psychiatry. Under socialism, psychiatric disorders were attributed primarily to neurophysiologic or neurobiological origins. Psychosocial or psychodynamic etiology was denied or distorted in line with the political ideology of the Communist Party. Psychiatry was primarily concerned with psychotic disorders, and this diagnostic category was sometimes applied based on political considerations. Neurotic disorders were ignored by psychiatry or were regarded as the remnants of capitalism. Several neurotic disorders characterized by high levels of somatization were considered to be neurological or physical in nature. The majority of "mental patients" were institutionalized for a long periods in large-scale psychiatric hospitals. Treatment of psychiatric disorders depended largely on a few outdated biological therapies. In former socialist countries, psychodynamic psychotherapy was not common, and psychiatric patients were likely to experience social stigma. According to North Korean doctors living in South Korea, North Korean psychiatry is heavily influenced by the aforementioned traditions of psychiatry. During the post-socialist transition, the suicide rate in many of these countries dramatically increased. Given such mental health crises in post-socialist transitional societies, the field of psychiatry may face major challenges in a future unified Korea. PMID:25395966

  12. The North Korean Economy: Leverage and Policy Analysis


    rapid growth and trade liberalization to China, Thailand, Malaysia and other Asian nations. The “Stalinist” North Korean economy can be...authorities banned women under the age of 49 from running businesses in Pyongyang. (Since males are officially required to be at their assigned workplaces ...variety of businesses and occupations, but they face discrimination in Japanese society and are known for operating pachinko (pinball) parlors and other

  13. North American Regional Report



    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  14. Characteristics of Body Composition and Muscle Strength of North Korean Refugees during South Korean Stay

    Sun Wook Cho


    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study was to investigate the changes of body composition and muscle strength of North Korean refugees (NKRs according to their duration of stay in South Korea.MethodsNKRs who volunteered and were living in South Korea, aged 20 to 75 years were recruited. Body compositions were analyzed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Muscle strength was measured with the hand grip test. Demographic and migration information was obtained with a questionnaire.ResultsA total of 158 volunteers were recruited at a mean age of 48.3±11.4 years. The mean time from when they escaped from North Korea and arrived in South Korea was 5.8±4.3 years. Height, weight, and body surface area were significantly smaller in all NKRs compared to South Korean controls, except for women aged over 50 years. In females of younger ages (<50 years, NKRs with more than a 4-year stay in South Korea had a higher weight and fat mass than that of those who had a shorter stay (less than 4 years in South Korea. All NKRs had a weaker grip strength than that of the age-matched controls from South Korea.ConclusionThe NKRs showed relatively smaller physiques and weaker muscle strength than that of the South Korean controls. In younger female NKRs, shorter South Korean stay group showed small body weight and fat mass than that of longer South Korean stay group. Specific health support programs might be needed.

  15. Multilingual Practices and Ideologies of Refugees in the Neoliberal Era: The Case of North Korean Refugee Students in South Korea

    Lee, Mun Woo; Han, Moon-sub; Hyun, Eun Ryung


    This study investigates the multilingual practices and ideologies of North Korean refugee students in neoliberal South Korean society. Language tracking forms were completed over a seven-day period and individual interviews about participants' perceptions of English, Chinese, South Korean, and North Korean were conducted. The findings show that…

  16. Economic Performance and North Korean Regime Legitimacy


    As Cha and Anderson note, free markets have become the reliable means of survival in North Korea and these “markets create entrepreneurship , and... entrepreneurship creates an individualist way of thinking alien to the government.”9 If this case is true, the regime’s demise could very well be at...arguments on how the regime works, what has driven its survival, and the social and economic situations that have developed as a result. D. THESIS

  17. 31 CFR 500.554 - Gifts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin.


    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gifts of North Korean,...

  18. "Thank You, Sorry, Love" (TSL) Therapy with North Korean Refugee Women: A Pilot Study

    Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Jae Yop; Kim, Dong Goo


    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of The "Thank You, Sorry, Love" (TSL) family therapy program in potentially improving the marital relationships and health of North Korean refugee women. Methods: The participants included 12 married North Korean female refugees in their 20s to 40s. Using a blinded…

  19. Designing a Community-Based Dance Programme for North Korean Female Refugees in South Korea

    Na, Kyung-Ah; Park, Hyun-Jung; Han, Seok Jin


    In this paper, we propose a community-based dance programme designed for North Korean female defectors in South Korea, with the aim of promoting their physical, psychological, and interpersonal aspects. We set up four research objectives: to look into social contexts of North Korean female refugees in South Korea, to identify the women's desire…

  20. Differences in the relationship between traumatic experiences, self-esteem, negative cognition, and Internet addiction symptoms among North Korean adolescent defectors and South Korean adolescents: A preliminary study.

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Jun, Jin Yong


    North Korean adolescent defectors experience adaptation difficulties along with a wide range of psychosocial problems, but no study has yet examined their Internet addiction symptoms. We compared early traumatic experiences, self-esteem, negative cognition, and Internet addiction symptoms, as well as the relationships between these variables, between North Korean adolescent defectors and South Korean adolescents. Fifty-six North Korean adolescent defectors and 112 age- and sex- matched South Korean adolescents participated. The analyses examined the relationship between traumatic experiences and Internet addiction symptoms, with negative automatic thoughts or low self-esteem as mediators of these relations. North Korean adolescent defectors tended to have higher levels of negative automatic thoughts and more severe Internet addiction symptoms, as well as better self-esteem, than did South Korean adolescents. Furthermore, only among North Korean adolescent defectors, traumatic experiences were positively associated with Internet addition symptoms via increasing negative automatic thoughts. North Korean adolescent defectors are more susceptible to Internet addiction, negative cognitions, and early traumatic experiences compared to South Korean adolescents. However, the cross-sectional design of this study precludes consideration of the causality of these relationships. Interventions aiming to correct negative cognitions and increase self-esteem may be helpful for North Korean adolescent defectors with problematic Internet use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Security Conditions and Regional Competition in East Asia after the New Millennium: A South Korean Perspective

    Chong Jin Oh


    ... economically, it has been struggling to contend with security issues such as the North Korean nuclear problem, revision of the South Korean-US alliance, Japanese militarisation, the rise of China, and so...

  2. The Ongoing Korean War at the Sinch’ŏn Museum in North Korea

    Sunghoon Han


    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the Sinch’ŏn Massacre and its memorialization at the Sinch’ŏn Museum of American War Atrocities in North Korea by placing the massacre within the context of North Korea’s political history. The museum illustrates Pyongyang’s perspective on the Korean War as a “war of liberation” and the museum’s role in the political education of the North Korean people, not simply as victims of American war atrocities but as “martyrs” and model citizens. Within the geopolitics of confrontation between North Korea and the United States since the Korean War, the Sinch’ŏn Museum has served to foster anti-American nationalism in North Korea. While the museum has served this specific purpose within the North Korean context, it should be compared with other examples of war memorialization that serve the function of identity formation for a sense of national unity.

  3. Transformation strategies in nations based on the socialist model: North Korean companies and their transformation strategies

    Futagami, Shiho


    This paper discusses the possibility of the transformation of North Korean socialistic companies. In this paper, three possible future scenarios concerning North Korean companies are presented. The first one is based on the traditional trend which you have seen already. In this scenario, North Korea will keep the principle of national self-reliance and realize the autarky. It will not have a big impact on Northeast Asian economies. The possibility for such a scenario is low, because of the da...

  4. When the weak challenge the strong: the North Korean nuclear crisis

    Cheon, Jaeho


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the political behavior of weak states in crises through a detailed case study of the recent North Korean nuclear crisis. In the early 1990s, North Korea initiated a politcal challenge that threatened both U.S. nonproliferaiton and South Korean defense interests. North Korea manipulated the shared risks of the ensuing crisis to achieve political objectives rather than military victory, which was unobtainable due to ...

  5. Preparing for upheaval in North Korea: assuming North Korean regime collapse

    Kim, Kwonwoo


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis will attempt to provide the optimal policy prescription for the Republic of Korea (ROK) Army on how to disarm, demobilize and reintegrate (DDR) the North Korean people in the case of their regime collapse. It is important to know how the likelihood of environment in which post-conflict reconstruction efforts will be implemented. The viability of any contingency plan should be assessed, based on an assumption about the envi...

  6. Language and Family Dispersion: North Korean Linguist Kim Su-gyŏng and the Korean War

    Ryuta Itagaki


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the unpublished memoir of Kim Su-gyŏng (1918–2000, a linguist who was active in North Korea from the mid-1940s until the late 1960s, and situates his account of his experience of the Korean War within the context of his linguistic essays and correspondence. In doing so, the article considers the role that the personal and the social play in language, utilizing Saussure’s theoretical framework, with which Kim himself was well versed. Kim wrote his memoirs in the 1990s to his family, from whom he had become separated during the Korean War and who now lived in Toronto. In this text, he writes in “personal” language that reveals his uncertainty and his feelings for his family, but then immediately negates these feelings through the use of “social” language, which resonates with his interpretation of the linguistic thesis that Josef Stalin developed during the Korean War on language and national identity. For Kim, the relationship between language and nation was not at all self-evident, but something that he idealized in response to the dispersal of his family. By offering a reflexive reading of a memoir written by a North Korean linguist, this article makes a breakthrough in the investigation of North Korean wartime academic history, which has not risen above the level of analyzing articles in the field of linguistics that were published at the time.

  7. The Korean Diaspora. Historical and Sociological Studies of Korean Immigration and Assimilation in North America.

    Kim, Hyung-chan, Ed.

    This anthology presents some results of recent research on Korean immigration to and assimilation in America. The essays address three major questions concerned with problems of immigration and assimilation: (1) What caused the immigration of Koreans to the Hawaiian Islands and the United States mainland? (2) How has the Korean experience in…

  8. Still life with less: North Korean young adult defectors in South Korea show continued poor nutrition and physique.

    Choi, Seul Ki; Park, Sang Min; Joung, Hyojee


    North Korean defectors who settle in South Korea have experienced severe food shortage and transition of food environment which could affect their health status. However, little is known about their anthropometric measurements and dietary intake after settlement in South Korea. The purpose of this study is to compare anthropometric measurements and dietary intake between North Korean young adults who defected to South Korea and those of South Koreans. We hypothesized that North Korean young adults' physiques and dietary intake would be poorer than that of South Koreans. We compared anthropometric measurements and dietary intake from 3-day food records in a cross-sectional study of 103 North Korean young adult defectors, aged 12 to 24 and 309 South Korean subjects. North Korean subjects were significantly shorter (4.9 to 10.8 cm) and lighter (6.0 to 12.5 kg) than the control group. Body mass index were significantly different between North and South Korean groups only in men. North Korean young adult defectors had lower mean daily intakes of energy and most nutrients and food groups compared to the control group, while North Korean subjects had higher nutrient density diet than that of South Koreans. The proportion of subjects who had dietary intakes of nutrients of less than the Estimated Average Requirement was higher in North Korean subjects than in controls except for in the cases of vitamin A and vitamin C. In conclusion, we recommend providing nutrition support programs for North Korean young adult defectors to secure adequate nutrient intake.

  9. A study of mental health literacy among North Korean refugees in South Korea.

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Young Dae; Yu, Sieun; Park, Hyunchun; Woo, Jong-Min


    This study aimed to investigate North Korean refugees' knowledge of mental illnesses and treatments and analyze the factors affecting this knowledge. Subjects were selected via a snowball sampling method, and the survey outcomes of 152 North Korean refugee participants were analyzed. The factors affecting knowledge of mental illnesses were analyzed via a regression analysis by constructing a multivariate model with mental illness knowledge score as the dependent variable. The North Korean refugees' mental illness scores ranged from 3 to 24 points, with an average score of 13.0. Regarding the factors that influence mental illness knowledge, the subjects with South Korean spouses and those who had spent more time in South Korea had higher knowledge scores. Furthermore, the subjects who considered the mental health of North Korean refugees to be a serious issue revealed lower knowledge scores than those who did not believe it was a serious issue. The subjects who visit psychiatric clinics showed higher knowledge scores than those who do not. The South Korean subjects who had at least a college education exhibited higher scores than did those without advanced education. The subjects who are satisfied with life in South Korea manifested a higher mental illness knowledge score than those who are not. This study is significant as being the first study to ever measure and evaluate the level of North Korean refugees' knowledge of mental illnesses. In addition, the evaluations of North Korean refugees' mental illness knowledge and influencing factors while residing in South Korea created basic data that formed the foundation of an effort to enhance mental health literacy and provide proper mental health services. The results of this study can be utilized to solve mental health problems that might frequently occur during the unification process of North and South Korea in the future.

  10. Phylogeny of Korean Opuntia spp. based on multiple DNA regions



    Although Opuntia species are of high agronomic value in Korea, the taxonomic position of Korean Opuntia species has never been investigated. The taxonomic position of Korean Opuntia spp. Within the tribe Opuntieae was examined based on DNA sequence analysis of matK, trnL-F, atpB-rbcl, and ITS regions. The total amplified sequence length was 2977 bp; only 18 parsimonious informative sites were present, even though they belonged to different species. A phylogenetic tree using both the maximum l...

  11. Life after the pan and the fire: Depression, order, attachment, and the legacy of abuse among North Korean refugee youth and adolescent children of North Korean refugees.

    Emery, Clifton R; Lee, Jung Yun; Kang, Chulhee


    Given previous research on depression, history of physical abuse, family order, attachment, and parenting, we hypothesized that the physical abuse-depression relationship would be moderated by (a) family order and (b) attachment, and that (c) attachment and family order would interact significantly in predicting depression. Hypotheses were tested in South Korea in a random cluster sample of 82 youth aged 15-25 who were either themselves North Korean refugees (n=39) or who were born to North Korean refugee mothers in China (n=43). A qualitative interview was used to shed further light on the findings. Family order appears to be a protective factor against depression in that more order is associated with a weakened past abuse-depression relationship.

  12. North Korean refugee health in South Korea (NORNS study: study design and methods

    Lee Yo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the health status of North Korean refugees (NKRs, and changes in health during the resettlement process, is important from both the humanitarian standpoint and the scientific perspective. The NOrth Korean Refugee health iN South Korea (NORNS study aims to document the health status and health determinants of North Korean refugees, to observe various health outcomes as they occur while adapting to the westernized lifestyle of South Korea, and to explain the mechanisms of how health of migrants and refugees changes in the context of new environmental risks and opportunities. Methods The NORNS study was composed of an initial survey and a follow-up survey 3.5 years apart. Participants were recruited voluntarily among those aged 30 or more living in Seoul. The survey consists of a health questionnaire and medical examination. The health questionnaire comprises the following six domains: 1 demographic and migration information 2 disease history, 3 mental health, 4 health-related lifestyle, 5 female reproductive health, and 6 sociocultural adaptation. The medical examination comprises anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and atherosclerosis, and various biochemical measurements. Prevalence of several diseases able to be diagnosed from the medical examination, the changes between the two surveys, and the association between the outcome and other measurements, such as length of stay and extent of adaptation in South Korea will be investigated. Furthermore, the outcome will be compared to a South Korean counterpart cohort to evaluate the relative health status of NKRs. Discussion The NORNS study targeting adult NKRs in South Korea is a valuable study because various scales and medical measurements are employed for the first time. The results obtained from this study are expected to be utilized for developing a health policy for NKRs and North Korean people after unification. Additionally, since NKRs are an

  13. 31 CFR 500.582 - Importation of North Korean-origin magnesite and magnesia.


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation of North Korean-origin... and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 500.582 Importation...

  14. A North Korean Defector's Journey through the Identity-Transformation Process

    Kim, Myonghee


    The current study examined how a North Korean defector attending a college in South Korea transformed her identity while learning English. This study was grounded in the notion of second language learning as a struggle of a socially constituted being in which the language learner constantly structures and restructures his or her social identity.…

  15. Psychological features of North Korean female refugees on the MMPI-2: latent profile analysis.

    Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Kim, Hee Kyung; Lee, Narae


    This study examined the heterogeneity in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2nd Edition (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) profiles of North Korean female refugee population (N = 2,163) using latent profile analysis (LPA). The North Korean female refugee sample arrived at Hanawon, South Korea's resettlement center for North Korean refugees in 2008 and 2009 and took the MMPI-2 as part of an initial psychological screen. The analysis, which included the T scores of the 6 validity scales and the 10 standard clinical scales, identified 4 classes with distinctive psychological features: Class 1 (nonclinical), Class 2 (demoralized), Class 3 (somatized), and Class 4 (detached). The 4 covariates entered into the model (age, education, affiliation with a religion, and the number of forced repatriations) impacted the likelihood of belonging to certain classes. As hypothesized, older age, fewer years of education, and more incidents of forced repatriation predicted higher proneness to psychopathology. However, contrary to our expectation, having a religious faith did not emerge as a salient protective factor. The current LPA results revealed distinct heterogeneous subgroups that previous research on the MMPI and MMPI-2 profiles of refugee populations overlooked with the assumption of a homogeneous sample. Clinical implications for the treatment of North Korean female refugees and the limitations of the study are discussed.

  16. A North Korean Defector's Journey through the Identity-Transformation Process

    Kim, Myonghee


    The current study examined how a North Korean defector attending a college in South Korea transformed her identity while learning English. This study was grounded in the notion of second language learning as a struggle of a socially constituted being in which the language learner constantly structures and restructures his or her social identity.…

  17. Correlates of depressive symptoms among North Korean refugees adapting to South Korean society: the moderating role of perceived discrimination.

    Um, Mee Young; Chi, Iris; Kim, Hee Jin; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Kim, Jae Yop


    Although the prevalence of depressive disorders among North Korean (NK) refugees living in South Korea has been reported to be twice the rate of their South Korean counterparts, little is known about the correlates of depressive symptoms among this population. Despite their escape from a politically and economically repressive setting, NK refugees continue to face multidimensional hardships during their adaptation process in South Korea, which can adversely affect their mental health. However, to our knowledge, no empirical research exists to date on depressive symptoms in the context of adaptation or perceived discrimination among NK refugees. To fill this gap, this study used a sample of 261 NK refugees in South Korea from the 2010 National Survey on Family Violence to examine associations between sociocultural adaptation, perceived discrimination, and depressive symptoms, as well as the moderation effect of discrimination on adaptation to depressive symptoms. We found that poor sociocultural adaptation and perception of discrimination were associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms. Perception of discrimination attenuated the association between better adaptation and fewer depressive symptoms, when compared to no perception of discrimination. These findings highlight the need to improve NK refugees' adaptation and integration as well as their psychological well-being in a culturally sensitive and comprehensive manner. They also underscore the importance of educating South Koreans to become accepting hosts who value diversity, yet in a homogeneous society.

  18. The New North Korean Problem: History and Responsibilities in the Age of Kim Jong Un


    goes back to the Korean War. The Soviets assisted the North with creating a research facility in 1952.19 While Soviet, 8 Chinese, and, North Korea immediately resumed the nuclear testing and operations at its facilities that it had previously suspended.31 Since the the successor, however, his loyalty to his father and the regime became suspect when he attempted to enter Tokyo to go to Tokyo Disney on a fake

  19. The growth status of North Korean refugee children and adolescents from 6 to 19 years of age

    Pak, Sunyoung


    This paper is a study of the growth status of 1406 North Korean refugee children and adolescents who were between 6 and 19 9 years of age at the time of their arrival in South Korea during the years 1995-2007 as compared with that of their South Korean peers Refugee children of 6 5 years of age were

  20. The growth status of North Korean refugee children and adolescents from 6 to 19 years of age.

    Pak, Sunyoung


    This paper is a study of the growth status of 1406 North Korean refugee children and adolescents who were between 6 and 19.9 years of age at the time of their arrival in South Korea, during the years 1995-2007, as compared with that of their South Korean peers. Refugee children of 6.5 years of age were found to be taller and heavier than North Korean children of the same age residing in North Korea. On the other hand, all of the North Korean refugee boys and girls were shorter and weighed less than their South Korean peers. This disparity in height and weight growth status was smallest during the pre-teen years and then began to increase, peaking in the mid-teen years and decreasing in the late-teen years, with the late-teen disparity being still larger than the pre-teen one. This pattern of disparity suggests that the greatest gap observed in mid-teen years was caused by differences in growth tempos during the period of pubertal growth and that the final differences in body size between the North and South Korean adults were partly pubertal in origin. The mean height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) of the North Korean refugee boys were significantly lower than those of the North Korean refugee girls, indicating that the girls' growth status was better than that of the boys. In addition, the WAZ of the North Korean refugee children and adolescents was higher than their HAZ, indicating that their growth in height is poorer than that of weight. A regression analysis revealed that the mean HAZ of North Korean refugee children and adolescents born between 1995 and 1999, a period during which North Korea suffered a famine, was not statistically significantly lower than that of those born earlier. The time that the North Korean children and adolescents spent outside of North Korea before entering South Korea was discovered to have had a positive effect on their growth status, suggesting that they experienced some degree of catch-up growth while

  1. Modernizing the North Korean System: Objectives, Method, and Application


    Eberstadt, The End of North Korea, 1999; Kongdan Oh and Ralph Hassig, North Korea Through the Looking Glass , 2000; Chol-Hwan Kang and Pierre Rigoulot...The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History, revised and updated ed., New York: Basic Books, 2002. Oh, Kongdan, and Ralph C. Hassig, North Korea Through the Looking Glass , Washington

  2. Childhood immunizations in China: disparities in health care access in children born to North Korean refugees.

    Chung, Hyun Jung; Han, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hyerang; Finkelstein, Julia L


    Childhood immunization rates are at an all-time high globally, and national data for China suggests close to universal coverage. Refugees from North Korea and their children may have more limited health care access in China due to their legal status. However, there is no data on immunization rates or barriers to coverage in this population. This study was conducted to determine the rates and correlates of immunizations in children (≥1 year) born to North Korean refugees in Yanbien, China. Child immunization data was obtained from vaccination cards and caregiver self-report for 7 vaccines and 1:3:3:3:1 series. Age-appropriate vaccination rates of refugee children were compared to Chinese and migrant children using a goodness-of-fit test. Logistic regression was used to determine correlates of immunization coverage for each vaccine and the 1:3:3:3:1 series. Age-appropriate immunization coverage rates were significantly lower in children born to North Korean refugees (12.1-97.8 %), compared to Chinese (99 %) and migrant (95 %) children. Increased father's age and having a sibling predicted significantly lower vaccination rates. Children born to North Korean refugees had significantly lower immunization rates, compared to Chinese or migrant children. Further research is needed to examine barriers of health care access in this high-risk population.

  3. Unification strategy for North and South Korea the most prudent U.S. policy option to solve the North Korean nuclear crisis


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The North Korean nuclear issue reached a dangerous impasse in the recent months as North Korea continues to resist international pressure to halt its nuclear weapons and missile programs. North Korea watchers and nuclear experts estimate that North Korea could have up to six or seven plutonium-based nuclear bombs by now. Indeed, North Korea announced to the world in October 2003 that they now have the capability of "nuclear deterrence....

  4. Divided countries, divided mind 1: psycho-social issues in adaptation problems of north korean defectors.

    Min, Sung Kil


    A review of studies on the adaptation problems of North Korean defectors in South Korean society and studies of people's adaptation to political and cultural changes in other countries suggests that similar adaptation problems may occur in the process of and after unification. Defectors have various adaptation problems and some of them have psychiatric disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The reasons for this were revealed to be the difference in the culture and personality between South and North Korea, which have developed for the last 60 years without any communication with each other, in spite of their common racial and cultural heritage. Economic factors including the lack of skills and knowledge for working at industrialized and competitive society like South Korean society, also aggravate the severity of such adaptation problems. Research on defectors' adaptation problems and on the differences in the culture and mentality between North and South Korea can provide useful information on what kinds of problems may arise during the process of and after unification and what should be done to achieve mutual adaptation and harmonious and peaceful unification.

  5. Secondary Traumatic Stress and Burnout of North Korean Refugees Service Providers


    Objective The current study investigated the burnout and secondary traumatic stress of service providers for North Korean (NK) refugees based on the conceptual framework of theJob Demands-Resources (JD-R) model of workplace burnout. Methods A cross-sectional self-administered survey was conducted with a national sample consisting of all 63 organizations in direct services to North Korean refugees. Of the estimated total number of 230 service providers comprising of social workers, psychotherapists, job counselors and paraprofessional counselors, 179 completed the survey, a 77.8% return rate. Results While job resources such as personal commitment to work and organizational support indicated inverse relations to burnout, job demands such as workload, work environment and secondary traumatic stress (STS) showed a positive relationship to worker burnout. The STS were present in more than half of the respondents (51.3%), of which 20.7% of them indicating a severe level of STS. The STS proved to be the most significant risk to worker burnout as it showed strong relations to all three dimensions of burnout. Conclusion Structural issues of chronic work overload and poor work environment need to be addressed to reduce staff burnout. STS is a serious occupational hazard in working with North Korean refugees. PMID:28326108

  6. Secondary Traumatic Stress and Burnout of North Korean Refugees Service Providers.

    Kim, Yeunhee Joyce


    The current study investigated the burnout and secondary traumatic stress of service providers for North Korean (NK) refugees based on the conceptual framework of theJob Demands-Resources (JD-R) model of workplace burnout. A cross-sectional self-administered survey was conducted with a national sample consisting of all 63 organizations in direct services to North Korean refugees. Of the estimated total number of 230 service providers comprising of social workers, psychotherapists, job counselors and paraprofessional counselors, 179 completed the survey, a 77.8% return rate. While job resources such as personal commitment to work and organizational support indicated inverse relations to burnout, job demands such as workload, work environment and secondary traumatic stress (STS) showed a positive relationship to worker burnout. The STS were present in more than half of the respondents (51.3%), of which 20.7% of them indicating a severe level of STS. The STS proved to be the most significant risk to worker burnout as it showed strong relations to all three dimensions of burnout. Structural issues of chronic work overload and poor work environment need to be addressed to reduce staff burnout. STS is a serious occupational hazard in working with North Korean refugees.

  7. The spatial patterns of Korean investments and their effects on regional development in Indonesia until 1998

    R. Rijanta


    The research reveals that Korean investments in the world are mainly directed to USA, Europe and Southeast Asia. Southeast Asian Region has been the most important destination of Korean investment in the last three decades due to the availability of cheaper labor force, abundant natural resources, and favorable climate for investment and with little exception political stability. Recent investments are also directed to more capital intensive and more advance technology, thus facilitating the transfer of technology_ The distribution of Korean investment in Indonesia as any other foreign investments tends to be clustering in the surrounding areas of Jakarta, known as the Bogor, Tangerang; Bekasi (BOTABEK Region where some 65 percent of foreign investment is located.. The effects of Korean investment on regional development at national level in Indonesia are very limited, but there is a substantial effect on the regional production structure, economic growth and employment generation at local-regional level, more especially in the main industrial agglomeration of the BOTABEK Region.

  8. North Korean Aesthetic Theory: Aesthetics, Beauty, and "Man"

    David-West, Alzo


    Aesthetics is not a subject usually associated with North Korea in Western scholarship, the usual tropes being autocracy, counterfeiting, drugs, human-rights abuse, famine, nuclear weapons, party-military dictatorship, Stalinism, and totalitarianism. Where the arts are concerned, they are typically seen as crude political propaganda. One British…

  9. Implications of a North Korean Nuclear Weapons Program

    Lehman, R.F. II


    The Democratic People`s Republic of Korea (DPRK) is one of the Cold War`s last remaining totalitarian regimes. Rarely has any society been as closed to outside influences and so distant from political, economic, and military developments around the globe. In 1991 and in 1992, however, this dictatorship took a number of political steps which increased Pyongyang`s interaction with the outside world. Although North Korea`s style of engagement with the broader international community involved frequent pauses and numerous steps backward, many observers believed that North Korea was finally moving to end its isolated, outlaw status. As the end of 1992 approached, however, delay and obstruction by Pyongyang became intense as accumulating evidence suggested that the DPRK, in violation of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), was seeking to develop nuclear weapons. On March 12, 1993, North Korea announced that it would not accept additional inspections proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to resolve concerns about possible violations and instead would withdraw from the Treaty. Pyongyang`s action raised the specter that, instead of a last act of the Cold War, North Korea`s diplomatic maneuvering would unravel the international norms that were to be the basis of stability and peace in the post-Cold War era. Indeed, the discovery that North Korea was approaching the capability to produce nuclear weapons suggested that the nuclear threat, which had been successfully managed throughout the Cold War era, could increase in the post-Cold War era.

  10. Accurate relative location estimates for the North Korean nuclear tests using empirical slowness corrections

    Gibbons, S. J.; Pabian, F.; Näsholm, S. P.; Kværna, T.; Mykkeltveit, S.


    Declared North Korean nuclear tests in 2006, 2009, 2013 and 2016 were observed seismically at regional and teleseismic distances. Waveform similarity allows the events to be located relatively with far greater accuracy than the absolute locations can be determined from seismic data alone. There is now significant redundancy in the data given the large number of regional and teleseismic stations that have recorded multiple events, and relative location estimates can be confirmed independently by performing calculations on many mutually exclusive sets of measurements. Using a 1-D global velocity model, the distances between the events estimated using teleseismic P phases are found to be approximately 25 per cent shorter than the distances between events estimated using regional Pn phases. The 2009, 2013 and 2016 events all take place within 1 km of each other and the discrepancy between the regional and teleseismic relative location estimates is no more than about 150 m. The discrepancy is much more significant when estimating the location of the more distant 2006 event relative to the later explosions with regional and teleseismic estimates varying by many hundreds of metres. The relative location of the 2006 event is challenging given the smaller number of observing stations, the lower signal-to-noise ratio and significant waveform dissimilarity at some regional stations. The 2006 event is however highly significant in constraining the absolute locations in the terrain at the Punggye-ri test-site in relation to observed surface infrastructure. For each seismic arrival used to estimate the relative locations, we define a slowness scaling factor which multiplies the gradient of seismic traveltime versus distance, evaluated at the source, relative to the applied 1-D velocity model. A procedure for estimating correction terms which reduce the double-difference time residual vector norms is presented together with a discussion of the associated uncertainty. The modified

  11. The Future of North Korean Nuclear Delivery Systems


    Diversification of different basing modes—the underlying principle of the US strategic triad of air, land and sea-based weapons—would complicate any...effort to launch a preemptive strike, since destroying systems in a short time frame would prove extremely difficult. Second, diversification of...could have applications in military systems. Scenario 3: Maximum Modernization North Korea accelerates the deployment of theater and intercontinental

  12. North Korean Leadership Dynamics and Decision-making under Kim Jong-un: A First Year Assessment


    nuclear deterrent” up for discussion unless it is in the context of Korean Peninsula-wide denuclearization —code for securing a peace treaty with the...achieve denuclearization on the Korean Peninsula. This latter point of describ- ing its nuclear capability as necessary to achieve denuclearization is gument that Pyongyang never made under Kim Jong-il. Instead, North Korea claimed it would need a nuclear deterrent until denuclearization had

  13. 朝鲜“脱北者”的难民身份认定浅析%Analysis of the North Korean Defectors’ Refugee Status



    朝鲜“脱北者”是国际社会上一个极为特殊的群体,其成因是多方面的,但根本原因是朝鲜国内极为特殊的政治经济环境。被逐渐国际化的“脱北者”问题不但持续激化了朝韩矛盾,而且其所引发的外交纠纷也影响着东北亚乃至亚太地区大国关系的发展与中国周边安全环境的构建。因此,“脱北者”问题的产生、现状和国际化过程,以及“脱北者”难民地位是否确立这一问题涉及到包括中国在内的东北亚各国切身利益。%North Korean defectors form a very special group in the international community .Its causes are vari-ous .The fundamental one is the very special political and economic environment in North Korea .The gradual inter-nationalization of the North Korean defectors will continue to intensify the inter-Korean conflict and the diplomatic disputes triggered by it also affects the development of the relations among major powers of Northeast Asia and the Asia-Pacific region;it also effects the construction of China ’ s peripheral security environment .Therefore , the gen-eration of the North Korean defectors , the status and the process of internationalization , as well as the defectors ’ status of refugees are of the vital interests of the Northeast Asian countries , including China .

  14. NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NARR dataset is an extension of the NCEP Global Reanalysis which is run over the North American Region. The NARR model uses the very high resolution NCEP Eta...

  15. Fine-scale map of encyclopedia of DNA elements regions in the Korean population.

    Yoo, Yeon-Kyeong; Ke, Xiayi; Hong, Sungwoo; Jang, Hye-Yoon; Park, Kyunghee; Kim, Sook; Ahn, TaeJin; Lee, Yeun-Du; Song, Okryeol; Rho, Na-Young; Lee, Moon Sue; Lee, Yeon-Su; Kim, Jaeheup; Kim, Young J; Yang, Jun-Mo; Song, Kyuyoung; Kimm, Kyuchan; Weir, Bruce; Cardon, Lon R; Lee, Jong-Eun; Hwang, Jung-Joo


    The International HapMap Project aims to generate detailed human genome variation maps by densely genotyping single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CEPH, Chinese, Japanese, and Yoruba samples. This will undoubtedly become an important facility for genetic studies of diseases and complex traits in the four populations. To address how the genetic information contained in such variation maps is transferable to other populations, the Korean government, industries, and academics have launched the Korean HapMap project to genotype high-density Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) regions in 90 Korean individuals. Here we show that the LD pattern, block structure, haplotype diversity, and recombination rate are highly concordant between Korean and the two HapMap Asian samples, particularly Japanese. The availability of information from both Chinese and Japanese samples helps to predict more accurately the possible performance of HapMap markers in Korean disease-gene studies. Tagging SNPs selected from the two HapMap Asian maps, especially the Japanese map, were shown to be very effective for Korean samples. These results demonstrate that the HapMap variation maps are robust in related populations and will serve as an important resource for the studies of the Korean population in particular.

  16. [An analysis of a North Korean Medical Journal: In-Min-Bo-Gun (People's Health) in 1950s].

    Kim, Ock-Joo


    Studies on medicine in North Korea have suffered from the lack of material and from the lack of reliability of information. So far, studies on North Korean medicine have centered on the health care system, and medical education system based upon the official data and interviews on refugees from North Korea. The author had a travel grant for archive research to National Archive Center II and Library of Congress from Association of Asian Studies in U.S.A. and photocopied volumes of a North Korean medical journal called In-Min-Bo-Gun(People's Health) published in 1949-1950, and 1957-1960. Captured by the U.S. Army during the Korean War and declassified in 1977, the journal volumes are rare and valuable resources for historical study. This study aims to analyze the form and contents of the available volumes of the journal. As an official journal of the Ministry of Health, North Korea, the primary purpose of the journal was to mobilize all the people who worked in medicine and public health, and to make them implement the public health policies of North Korean government. Accordingly, various categories of people wrote and read the journal from high officials to local public health workers. The genre of the articles published in the journal was also various including papers, declarations, speeches, reports, scientific papers, case reports, news, criticism, conte, poem, essays, and many more. This study showed that In-Min-Bo-Gun(People's Health) was at the center of the Hygiene Reform Movement during the Cultural Revolution from 1958-1959 as an important media that connected health workers and the North Korean government.

  17. North Korean Leadership Dynamics and Decision-making under Kim Jong-un: A Second Year Assessment


    Suryong is an impeccable brain of the living body, the masses can be endowed with their life in exchange for their loyalty to him, and the Party is the...rarely used in North Korean mass media. It later became personified as Nodong Sinmun increasingly cited the “Party Center” (tang chungang) as the brains ... teens , were

  18. Ionospheric Signatures of North Korean Nuclear Test on 12 February 2013

    Yoon, M.; Kim, D.; Yang, Y. M.; Lee, J.; Komjathy, A.


    Previous studies on interactions between the atmospheric waves and ionospheric perturbations concluded that the acoustic-gravity waves triggered by solid earth events such as earthquakes, tsunamis and underground nuclear tests may be used in detecting the ionospheric perturbations. Ionospheric perturbations have been observed using sounding radars and GPS remote sensing techniques since 1970s. As primary examples, ionospheric disturbances associated with 2006 and 2009 North Korean underground nuclear tests were observed using GPS measurements. In this work, we processed GNSS stations in South Korea and Japan and analyzed traveling ionospheric disturbances that were coincident with the 2013 North Korean underground test. North Korea conducted the third underground nuclear test at 2:57 UTC on February 12, 2013. The magnitude of earthquake generated by this event was registered to be an Mw 5.1 event. After analyzing GPS measurements from nearby stations, strong ionospheric perturbations were observed 15-30 minutes after the reported event, and the disturbances were shown to have primarily two different wave trains. The maximum VTEC perturbations turned out to be between 0.4 to 0.7 TECU. Five stations located in the northwest-to-southeast direction were also scrutinized for the propagation direction and amplitude variation related to ionospheric wave structures. The results clearly showed that the maximum amplitude of the waves may be higher as the stations are closer to the epicenter indicating that the waveforms may propagate away from the epicenter. In this research, we will analyze the characteristics of the detected ionospheric perturbations associated with the underground nuclear test. These findings are expected to verify our modeling results. We hope to get a better understanding of the influence of man-made hazards on the temporal and spatial variability of the global ionosphere.

  19. Changes in body weight and food security of adult North Korean refugees living in South Korea.

    Jeong, HaYoung; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Sin-Gon


    Relocation to new environments can have a negative impact on health by altering body weight and dietary patterns. This study attempted to elucidate changes in body weight, food security, and their current food and nutrient consumption in adult North Korean refugees (NKR) living in South Korea (SK). This study analyzed data on 149 adult NKR from a North Korean refugee health in SK cohort at four time points (leaving North Korea, entering SK, first examination, and second examination). Body weight was self-reported at the two earlier time points and directly measured at the two later time points. Food security, diet-related behaviors (dietary habits and food consumption), and sociodemographic information were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Nutrient intake information was obtained by one-day 24-hour recall. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS ver 23.0. Body weight increased during relocation by an average of 4 kg, although diversified patterns were observed during the settlement period in SK. Approximately 39.6% of subjects maintained their body weight between the first and second examinations, whereas 38.6% gained and 22.1% lost at least 3% of their body weight at the first examination by the second examination. Food security status improved from 12.1% food secure proportion to 61.7%. NKR showed generally good food and nutrient consumption (index of nutrient quality: 0.77-1.93). The body weight loss group showed the most irregular meal consumption pattern (P food groups did not differ by group, except in the fish group (P = 0.036). This study observed considerable body weight adjustment during the settlement period in SK after initial weight gain, whereas food security consistently improved. More detailed understanding of this process is needed to assist healthy settlement for NKR in SK.

  20. The healthcare experiences of Koreans living in North Carolina: a mixed methods study.

    De Gagne, Jennie C; Oh, Jina; So, Aeyoung; Kim, Suk-Sun


    This study examined the healthcare experiences of Korean immigrants aged 40-64 living in the North Carolina Triangle area of the Southeastern United States. Using a mixed methods design, we collected quantitative data via a questionnaire from 125 participants and conducted a focus group with 10 interviewees from December 2010 to February 2011. The quantitative data were analysed using t-tests and chi-square tests, and a thematic analysis was used for the focus group study. Questionnaire findings showed that only 27.2% had sufficient English skills to communicate adequately. Participants with insurance were significantly more likely to be employed (P ii) facilitators of utilisation of healthcare services; and (iii) social support seeking for health management. Our mixed methods study findings indicate that healthcare disparities exist among Korean immigrants and that a number of factors, including health literacy, may contribute to their poor health outcomes. Continued collaboration among community members, healthcare professionals and academicians is needed to discuss the community's health concerns and to develop sustainable programmes that will ensure meaningful access to care for those with limited English proficiency and medically underserved populations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Korean Screen Cultures

    The «Korean Wave», or Hallyu phenomenon, has brought South Korean popular culture to the global population. Studies on Korean visual culture have therefore often focused on this aspect, leaving North Korea sidelined and often considered in a negative light because of its political regime. Korean...... – including online gaming and television drama – and concentrates on the margins, in which the very nature of «The South» is contested. «The South and the North» examines North Korea as an ideological other in South Korean popular culture as well as discussing North Korean cinema itself. «The Global» offers...... new approaches to Korean popular culture beyond national borders and includes work on K-pop and Korean television drama. This book is a vital addition to existing scholarship on Korean popular culture, offering a unique view by providing an imaginary unification of the two Koreas negotiated through...

  2. Jurassic domes in the North Sea - northern North Atlantic region

    Surlyk, F. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Geological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)


    subsequent deflation played a major role in the formation of completely separate Boreal and Tethyan faunal provinces in Bajocian-Bathonian time followed by gradual re-establishment of faunal connection in the Early Callovian. The Middle Jurassic unconformities of the northwest European North Atlantic region reflect a tectonic phase in the break-up of Pangaea with development of volcanic rift domes of major importance for drainage patterns, palaeoceanography, palaeobiogeography and implicatly biostratigraphic correlation. (au) Appendix no. 11. 63 refs.

  3. Earthquake Activity in the North Greenland Region

    Larsen, Tine B.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; Voss, Peter H.


    Many local and regional earthquakes are recorded on a daily basis in northern Greenland. The majority of the earthquakes originate at the Arctic plate boundary between the Eurasian and the North American plates. Particularly active regions away from the plate boundary are found in NE Greenland and in northern Baffin Bay. The seismograph coverage in the region is sparse with the main seismograph stations located at the military outpost, Stations Nord (NOR), the weather station outpost Danmarkshavn (DAG), Thule Airbase (TULEG), and the former ice core drilling camp (NEEM) in the middle of the Greenland ice sheet. Furthermore, data is available from Alert (ALE), Resolute (RES), and other seismographs in northern Canada as well as from a temporary deployment of BroadBand seismographs along the north coast of Greenland from 2004 to 2007. The recorded earthquakes range in magnitude from less than 2 to a 4.8 event, the largest in NE Greenland, and a 5.7 event, the largest recorded in northern Baffin Bay. The larger events are recorded widely in the region allowing for focal mechanisms to be calculated. Only a few existing focal mechanisms for the region can be found in the ISC bulletin. Two in NE Greenland representing primarily normal faulting and one in Baffin Bay resulting from reverse faulting. New calculations of focal mechanisms for the region will be presented as well as improved hypocenters resulting from analysis involving temporary stations and regional stations that are not included in routine processing.

  4. War Remembered, Revolution Forgotten: Recasting the Sino-North Korean Alliance in China’s Post-Socialist Media State

    Zhao Ma


    Full Text Available From October 1950 to July 1953, the nascent Chinese state entered into a strategic alliance with North Korea; hundreds of thousands of Chinese soldiers shed blood on the Korean peninsula in defense of the socialist homeland and advancing Communist internationalism. But since the end of the Korean War, China has moved from revolutionary idealism and political radicalism in Mao’s era to the current post-socialist pragmatism and materialism. As the ideological winds shift, China’s contemporary propaganda apparatus must redefine the Korean War in order to reconcile the complexity of the war and wartime alliance with contemporary political concerns and popular views. By focusing on a documentary film, The Unforgettable Victory, produced by China’s leading state-run film studio in 2013, this article explores the ways in which the official media of the post-socialist era presents the past revolutionary war. The new film celebrates the splendid valor of Chinese soldiers, civilians’ heroic sacrifices, and the war’s nationalist legacy; however, it purposefully forgets the revolutionary fervor and internationalist sentiments that once forged the Sino–North Korean alliance and empowered wartime mobilization. This article examines the process of remembering and forgetting, and reveals government propaganda’s latest efforts to demobilize contemporary viewers while infusing the past revolutionary war with ideological clarity and political certainty in post-socialist China.

  5. Discovery and Evaluation of Polymorphisms in the and Promoter Regions for Risk of Korean Lung Cancer

    Jae Sook Sung


    Full Text Available AKT is a signal transduction protein that plays a central role in the tumorigenesis. There are 3 mammalian isoforms of this serine/threonine protein kinase-AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3-showing a broad tissue distribution. We first discovered 2 novel polymorphisms (AKT2 -9826 C/G and AKT3 -811 A/G, and we confirmed 6 known polymorphisms (AKT2 -9473 C/T, AKT2 -9151 C/T, AKT2 -9025 C/T, AKT2 -8618G/A, AKT3 -675 A/-, and AKT3 -244 C/T of the AKT2 and AKT3 promoter region in 24 blood samples of Korean lung cancer patients using direct sequencing. To evaluate the role of AKT2 and AKT3 polymorphisms in the risk of Korean lung cancer, genotypes of the AKT2 and AKT3 polymorphisms (AKT2 -9826 C/G, AKT2 -9473 C/T, AKT2 -9151 C/T, AKT2 -9025 C/T, AKT2 -8618G/A, and AKT3 -675 A/- were determined in 360 lung cancer patients and 360 normal controls. Statistical analyses revealed that the genotypes and haplotypes in the AKT2 and AKT3 promoter regions were not significantly associated with the risk of lung cancer in the Korean population. These results suggest that polymorphisms of the AKT2 and AKT3 promoter regions do not contribute to the genetic susceptibility to lung cancer in the Korean population.

  6. Postcolonial Reflection on the Christian Mission: The Case of North Korean Refugees in China and South Korea

    Shin Ji Kang


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to challenge the dominant narrative of Christian service providers working for North Korean refugees’ welfare, and to articulate the perspectives of non-Christian aid recipients, especially North Korean refugees in China and South Korea. Drawing upon postcolonialism, I will unpack dysfunctions of Christian missions and ministries while relating them to anthropological insights and ethnographic research data. As a Christian scholar, I attempt to invite Christian leaders and field workers to engage in critical reflections on their goals, dispositions, and strategies in relating to the culturally, politically, and economically marginalized. This paper is aimed to offer opportunities for Christian missionaries to critique their colonial models and to reclaim their missions that decolonize both missionaries and the missionized.

  7. A United States Civil Affairs Response to the Pending Humanitarian Crisis Following the Collapse of the North Korean Regime


    used mathematical formulas based on food distribution and the current economic divide to try to make a determination on how many North Koreans would...regime. The weakness of the mathematical model is that it produces a steady rate of migration over 10 years. The result of his modeling was a two...arbitration of problems arising from implementation of DC control measures.23 The specific tasks directing civil affairs towards a discreet set of actions in

  8. A Review Of The United States Government’s Status Quo North Korean Foreign Policy Approach And Reasons For Change


    Korea’s "Year of Friendship." Harvard International Review , 2015. 28 Nielsen, Suzanne C. "American Civil-Military Relations The Soldier and the State...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY A REVIEW OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT’S STATUS QUO NORTH KOREAN FOREIGN POLICY APPROACH AND REASONS FOR...Colonel Spencer holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Mathematics, Masters of Education, and a Doctorate degree in Business Administration. She

  9. History and Reality:the background and origin of the North Korean nuclear crisis%历史与现实:朝鲜核危机的背景和缘起



    After the cold war, the North Korea nuclear problem become the dominant problem between U.S. - North Korean relationship, and became the profoundest factor to the regional security in the Korean Peninsula and Northeast A-sia. North Korea nuclear crisis is caused by complex and profound historical and realistic background. After World War I-I, the Korean Peninsula was split into two parts, the North and the South. Korean War in the 1950s’ and “cold peace”between the South and the North in the past forty years are the main causes of nuclear crisis in North Korea. Superfi-cially, North Korean nuclear crisis is the result of “nuclear proliferation”. However, if we probe into this problem further, we may find that the core reason of the North Korean nuclear crisis is the Korea Peninsula security pattern changes in the relations between DPRK rigid contradictions after the cold war.%  朝鲜核危机是冷战后主导美朝关系,并深刻影响朝鲜半岛安全和东北亚地区稳定局势的最大因素。朝鲜核危机有着复杂而深刻的历史与现实背景,朝鲜半岛在二战后的南北分裂,上世纪50年代的朝鲜战争以及战后南北双方持续四十几年的“冷和平”状态,是朝核危机的深层次背景因素。表面上看,朝鲜核危机是由于“核扩散”而引发的,但是,透过朝核危机的表象,朝鲜核危机爆发的根本原因是冷战后朝鲜半岛安全格局发生的变化与朝美关系僵化不变的矛盾对立,是“此变”与“彼不变”对立冲突的结果。

  10. Complex molecules in W51 North region

    Rong, Jialei; Zapata, Luis A; Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Tie; Zhang, Chengpeng; Peng, Yaping; Zhang, Li; Liu, Ying


    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) molecular line observations in two 2 GHz-wide bands centered at 217.5 and 227.5 GHz, toward the massive star forming region W51 North. We identified 84 molecular line transitions from 17 species and their isotopologues. The molecular gas distribution of these lines mainly peaks in the continuum position of W51 North, and has a small tail extending to the west, probably associated with W51 d2. In addition to the commonly detected nitrogen and oxygen-bearing species, we detected a large amount of transitions of the Acetone (CH$_3$COCH$_3$) and Methyl Formate (CH$_3$OCHO), which may suggest that these molecules are present in an early evolutionary stage of the massive stars. We also found that W51 North is an ethanol-rich source. There is no obvious difference in the molecular gas distributions between the oxygen-bearing and nitrogen-bearing molecules. Under the assumption of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE), with the XCLASS tool, the molecular column densities, and rota...

  11. Traveling ionospheric disturbances triggered by the 2009 North Korean underground nuclear explosion

    Zhang, X.; Tang, L. [Wuhan Univ. (China). School of Geodesy and Geomatics


    Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) can induce acoustic-gravity waves, which disturb the ionosphere and initiate traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). In this paper, we employ a multi-step and multi-order numerical difference method with dual-frequency GPS data to detect ionospheric disturbances triggered by the North Korean UNE on 25 May 2009. Several International GNSS Service (IGS) stations with different distances (400 to 1200 km) from the epicenter were chosen for the experiment. The results show that there are two types of disturbances in the ionospheric disturbance series: high-frequency TIDs with periods of approximately 1 to 2 min and low-frequency waves with period spectrums of 2 to 5 min. The observed TIDs are situated around the epicenter of the UNE, and show similar features, indicating the origin of the observed disturbances is the UNE event. According to the amplitudes, periods and average propagation velocities, the high-frequency and low-frequency TIDs can be attributed to the acoustic waves in the lower ionosphere and higher ionosphere, respectively. (orig.)

  12. Correlates of Domestic Violence Victimization Among North Korean Refugee Women in South Korea.

    Um, Mee Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Palinkas, Lawrence A


    Although many North Korean (NK) refugee women are victims of domestic violence (DV) in North Korea, face sexual exploitation during migration, and remain at risk of DV while adapting to life in South Korea, there is no empirical evidence about risk factors for DV in this population. To fill this gap, this study examined whether gender role beliefs, child abuse history, and sociocultural adaptation were associated with past-year physical, emotional, sexual, and economic abuse, and whether they were associated with multiple forms of abuse. We also explored whether these associations were similar or different across different types of DV among NK refugee women. A sample of 180 ever-married NK refugee women in South Korea from the 2010 National Survey on Family Violence was used for analysis. Physical abuse was associated with more traditional gender role beliefs; emotional abuse and multiple forms of abuse were associated with lower levels of sociocultural adaptation; and sexual and economic abuse were associated with an increased likelihood of childhood abuse and poor sociocultural adaptation. Our study findings underscore the importance of assisting NK refugee women to be better adapted to the new culture in a practical way, because better sociocultural adaptation might protect them from experiencing various types of abuse. At the same time, findings of this study highlight the need for empowering NK refugee women who report physical abuse by educating their rights and altering their traditional beliefs of gender roles, and screening of childhood abuse and providing culturally sensitive psychotherapy to those who report sexual or economic abuse. Moreover, we suggest future studies to examine correlates of different forms of abuse separately because they can inform culturally tailored interventions for abused NK refugee women. To prevent further victimization, educational programs should be provided to NK refugee women at an early stage of resettlement in South Korea

  13. An Analysis of Written Discourse of North Korean Second Language Speakers of English: Its Linguistic Features and Their Discursive Functions with Pragmatic Implications

    Kim, Seung Hwa


    This dissertation examined linguistic and pragmatic characteristics of written discourse of North Korean second language speakers of English comparing it with that of North American native speakers of English by analyzing linguistic features used in the two sets of texts and their discursive functions based on Biber's (1995) and Hinkel's (2002)…

  14. Korean Language Teachers in Higher Education in North America: Profile, Status, and More

    Hye-Sook Wang


    Full Text Available This study attempts to report the results of the current state of Korean language teachers in U.S. higher education from a governance perspective, and discusses the findings in the broad context of Korean language teaching. Two sets of data collected from the members of the American Association of Teachers of Korean in 2006 and 2012 through detailed survey questionnaires are compared with respect to the teachers’ personal profile and status (e.g., gender, age, current position, frequency of renewal, year of Korean language teaching, highest degree earned, field of specialization, current salary range and their perceived job satisfaction (e.g., satisfaction for instructional duties, other non-instructional aspects, workload, working environment, job security, salary, and status of the Korean program. The findings suggest that Korean language teachers appear to be generally satisfied with their job overall, more so in the category of instructional duties but less satisfied with their workload, salary, and the status of the Korean program in their respective schools.

  15. Unification Strategy for North and South Korea: The Most Prudent U.S. Policy Option to Solve the North Korean Nuclear Crisis


    wonderful wife, Judy; my two precious daughters, Hana and Kara; and my parents , Kwang-hi and Kun-ye for their enduring love and support. x...North or South Koreans, have a deep sense of pride that comes from thousands of years of Confucian heritage. As the Shufeldt mission of 1882 is difficult, if not impossible, to see these policies as ethically or morally principled. Korea was used by the U.S. as a means to an end

  16. The association between alexithymia and posttraumatic stress symptoms following multiple exposures to traumatic events in North Korean refugees.

    Park, Juhyun; Jun, Jin Yong; Lee, Yu Jin; Kim, Soohyun; Lee, So-Hee; Yoo, So Young; Kim, Seog Ju


    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of the interaction between the number of traumas experienced and alexithymia, on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The sample comprised 199 North Korean refugees. Participants completed the Trauma Exposure Check List for North Korean Refugees, Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20), and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). TAS-20 scores were positively correlated with IES-R scores (r=0.21, prefugees with higher TAS-20 scores, those who had experienced more traumas had higher IES-R scores. However, within refugees with lower TAS-20 scores, IES-R scores were not significantly different for those who had experienced a higher number of traumas compared with those who had experienced a lower, or average, number of traumas. The results of the current study suggest that, as individuals experience more traumatic events, clearly identifying and expressing emotions become more crucial for reducing PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of regional economic integration in Europe of the pattern north-north and north-south

    Antevski Miroslav


    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of regional economic integration in Europe, especially the North-North and North-South integration patterns, and how the benefits and costs of integration are divided between countries. Outcomes depend on: comparative advantages, factor endowments, factor intensities, competitive advantages, FDI flows, transfers of technology, knowledge spillovers, economies of scale, transport costs, industry/GDP ratios, and agglomeration forces. The North-North integration between high income countries tends to lead to convergence of country incomes. Contrary, the South-South integration between low income countries causes divergence. Low income countries are likely to be better served by the North-South integration.

  18. Regional air quality modeling: North American and European perspectives

    Steyn, D.; Builtjes, P.; Schaap, M.; Yarwood, G.


    An overview of regional-scale quality modeling practices and perspectives in North America and Europe, highlighting the differences and commonalities in how regional-scale air quality modeling systems are being used and evaluated across both continents

  19. The Securitisation of Refugee Flows and the Schooling of Refugees: Examining the Cases of North Koreans in South Korea and Iraqis in Jordan

    Collet, Bruce A.; Bang, Hyeyoung


    Drawing on data collected in South Korea, Jordan and the USA, this paper examines the degree to which security concerns impact the schooling of North Korean refugees in South Korea and Iraqi refugees in Jordan. Operating from a framework examining the intersection of migration and securitisation, the authors find that accounts of negative images…

  20. Regional Military Security Cooperation in North America


    Forward for North American Integration by Dr. Stephen Blank, Dr. Stephanie Golob, and Dr. Guy Stanley is a Pace University, Lubin School of Business...States are “the countries that ring the Gap – Mexico, Brazil, South Africa, Morocco, Algeria, Greece, Turkey, Pakistan, Thailand, Malaysia , the... vernacular regarding globalization, I will examine the impact of globalization on the world in terms of population, natural resources, and connectivity

  1. NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), for 1979 to Present

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) Project is a reanalysis of historical observations using a 32-km version of the National Centers for Environmental...

  2. Asian Values and Democratic Citizenship: Exploring Attitudes among South Korean Eighth Graders Using Data from the ICCS Asian Regional Module

    Knowles, Ryan Thomas


    Utilizing data from the 2009 IEA International Civic and Citizenship Study Asian Regional Module, this secondary analysis explores the relationship between traditional Asian values and democratic citizenship. Findings identify two dimensions of Asian values: Asian civic values and obedience to authority. Among South Korean students, Asian civic…

  3. The Digital North Denmark Programme -Promoting Regional Change?

    Østergaard, Christian Richter


    The Digital North Denmark (DDN) was an IT programme running from 2000 to 2003 in the North Jutland County in Denmark with national government support of € 23 million. The Danish government initiated the programme with the aim of further strengthening regions with an already proven ICT capability...... (Dybkjær and Lindegaard, 1999, p.96-100). The declared approach was to build on the existing competencies in industry as well as at universities. The national government chose two regions – Ørestaden, a new concentration of knowledge-based institutions near Copenhagen Airport, and North Jutland...

  4. Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug events by Korean regional pharmacovigilance centers.

    Shin, Yoo Seob; Lee, Yong-Won; Choi, Young Hwa; Park, Byungjoo; Jee, Young Koo; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Eung-Gyu; Park, Jung-Won; Hong, Chein-Soo


    Patterns of prescriptions are markedly influenced by regional disease entities, medical education, culture, economic status, and available pharmaceutical companies. Features of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) may vary in different countries. In this study, we analyzed the causative drugs and clinical manifestations of spontaneously reported ADRs in Korea. Six Korean Regional Pharmacovigilance Centers collected 1418 cases of spontaneously reported adverse drug events (ADEs) by doctors, pharmacists, and nurses, and the clinical features and causative drugs were evaluated. The data were collected from general hospitals (76.5%), primary clinics, and pharmacies (23.5%). Based upon the World Health Organization (WHO)-Uppsala Monitoring Center criteria (certain-13.7%, probable-46.1%, possible-32.1%), 91.9% of the collected events were suspected to be ADRs and 15.8% of patients experienced serious ADRs. The most prevalent causative drugs were antibiotics (31.6%), followed by contrast dyes (14.0%), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (11.1%), anti-psychotics (5.4%), anti-convulsants (5.2%), cardiovascular agents (4.8%), anti-neoplastics (4.6%), and opiates and non-opiate pain killers (3.5%). Among the antibiotics, cephalosporins (8.1%) were the most common, followed by anti-tuberculosis agents (5.7%), quinolones (4.0%), vancomycin (3.1%), and penicillin (2.8%). The most common side effect was skin manifestations, which were seen in 42% of the patients, followed by neurologic manifestations (14%), gastrointestinal involvements (12.9%), generalized reactions (9.4%), and respiratory involvements (4.5%). Antibiotics, contrast dyes, and NSAIDs were the most common causative drugs for ADRs, which reflects the prescription pattern and the prevalence of diseases in Korea. These data may be useful in establishing a Korean pharmacovigilance system. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Cenozoic uplift and subsidence in the North Atlantic region

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina


    , time and amplitude (where possible) of topographic changes in the North Atlantic region during the Cenozoic (65-0 Ma). Our compilation is based on published results from reflection seismic studies, AFT (apatite fission track) studies, VR (vitrinite reflectance) trends, maximum burial, sediment supply...... studies, mass balance calculations and extrapolation of seismic profiles to onshore geomorphological features. The integration of about 200 published results reveal a clear pattern of topographic changes in the North Atlantic region during the Cenozoic: (1) The first major phase of Cenozoic regional...... and the surrounding areas. (2) A regional increase in subsidence in the offshore marginal areas of Norway, the northern North Sea, the northern British Isles and west Greenland took place in the Eocene (ca 57-35 Ma). (3) The Oligocene and Miocene (35-5 Ma) were characterized by regional tectonic quiescence, with only...

  6. North-West Iowa Groundwater Vulnerability Regions

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The regions on this map represent areas with similar hydro-geologic characteristics thought to represent similar potentials for contamination of groundwater and/or...

  7. North-East Iowa Groundwater Vulnerability Regions

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The regions on this map represent areas with similar hydro-geologic characteristics thought to represent similar potentials for contamination of groundwater and/or...

  8. Regional groundwater characteristics and hydraulic conductivity based on geological units in Korean peninsula

    Kim, Y.; Suk, H.


    in such a way that areas of same or similar hydrogeological characteristics should be grouped into zones. Keywords: regional groundwater, database, hydraulic conductivity, PEST, Korean peninsular Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Radioactive Waste Management of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (2011T100200152)

  9. Location and Source Characteristics of the January 6, 2016 North Korean Nuclear Test Constrained by InSAR

    Wei, Meng


    The interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data from the JAXA ALOS-2 satellite show possible deformation associated with the January 6, 2016 North Korean nuclear test whereas the ESA Sentinel-1A data are decorrelated. This is the first time that deformation related to a nuclear test has been measured since 1992. Here, I present two interpretations of the observed deformation: First, the deformation can be explained by a triggered landslide on the western slope of Mt. Mantap, with a displacement of up to 10 cm across a patch of 1 km2. Second, the observation may be from uplift created by the nuclear explosion. In the second interpretation, the location, depth, and cavity size can be estimated from a topography-corrected homogenous half-space model (Mogi). The preferred location of the January 6, 2016 event is 41.2993°N 129.0715°E, with an uncertainty of 100 m. The estimated depth is 420-700 m, and the cavity radius is 23-27 m. Based on empirical data and the assumption of granite as the host rock, the yield is estimated to be 11.6-24.4 kilotons of TNT, which is consistent with previous results based on seismic data. With these two interpretations, I demonstrate that InSAR data provide an independent tool to locate and estimate source characteristics of nuclear tests in North Korea. The ambiguity of interpretation is mainly due to the limited InSAR data acquisition. Future frequent data collection by current and upcoming InSAR satellites will allow full use of InSAR for nuclear monitoring and characterization in North Korea and around the world.

  10. The Cross-Cultural Validity of the MMPI-2-RF Higher-Order Scales in a Sample of North Korean Female Refugees.

    Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Goodman, Grace M; Toruno, Joseph A; Sherry, Alissa R; Kim, Hee Kyung


    We investigated the cross-cultural factorial validity of the three Higher-Order (H-O) scales in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) among a sample of North Korean female refugees (N = 2,732). Given the importance of the H-O scales in the overall structure of the MMPI-2-RF scales and in interpretation, we were interested in exploring their cross-cultural validity. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on the nine Restructured Clinical (RC) scale raw scores and fitted and compared one- to three-factor models. The three-factor model, akin to the model in Tellegen and Ben-Porath, demonstrated the best fit to the data. Furthermore, the pattern matrices of loadings across the current sample and the U.S. samples were comparable despite some differences, such as the RC2 scale's salient, negative loading on a factor analogous to the Behavioral/Externalizing Dysfunction scale. We also investigated the unique psychological characteristics of the refugees, possibly resulting from the arduous, perilous journeys out of North Korea taken by this group of female refugees and discussed the results of EFA in light of those singular psychological traits and experiences. Overall, the three H-O scales of the Korean MMPI-2-RF evidenced reasonable cross-cultural factorial validity among the sample of North Korean female refugees.

  11. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 2. The North Central Region

    Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.


    The North Central atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the North Central region (Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and that data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and international wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  12. Real-Time Orbit Determination for Future Korean Regional Navigation Satellite System

    Shin, Kihae; Oh, Hyungjik; Park, Sang-Young; Park, Chandeok


    This paper presents an algorithm for Real-Time Orbit Determination (RTOD) of navigation satellites for the Korean Regional Navigation Satellite System (KRNSS), when the navigation satellites generate ephemeris by themselves in abnormal situations. The KRNSS is an independent Regional Navigation Satellite System (RNSS) that is currently within the basic/preliminary research phase, which is intended to provide a satellite navigation service for South Korea and neighboring countries. Its candidate constellation comprises three geostationary and four elliptical inclined geosynchronous orbit satellites. Relative distance ranging between the KRNSS satellites based on Inter-Satellite Ranging (ISR) is adopted as the observation model. The extended Kalman filter is used for real-time estimation, which includes fine-tuning the covariance, measurement noise, and process noise matrices. Simulation results show that ISR precision of 0.3-0.7 m, ranging capability of 65,000 km, and observation intervals of less than 20 min are required to accomplish RTOD accuracy to within 1 m. Furthermore, close correlation is confirmed between the dilution of precision and RTOD accuracy.

  13. Analysis on a Regional Heavy Rainstorm Process in North Henan


    [Objective] The research aimed to analyze a regional heavy rainstorm process in North Henan.[Method] Based on routine weather chart,rainfall station in county and town,satellite cloud chart,etc.,by using synoptic diagnostic method,formation reason of the regional heavy rainstorm weather in North Henan during 18-19 August,2010 was analyzed initially from large-scale circulation background,influence system,physical quantity field and terrain influence.[Result] The strong precipitation had obvious meso-scale c...

  14. The 13 february action plan and the prospects for the North Korean nuclear issue

    Narushige, Muchishita


    On 13 February, the Third Session of the Fifth Round of the Six-Party Talks ended with the adoption of the 'Action Plan' for the implementation of the September 2005 Joint Statement.2 The Action Plan has two phases - the initial phase and the 'next' phase - but the core of the deal lies in the initial stage in which the parties agreed to exchange the nuclear freeze and the provision of energy. In the initial phase, North Korea will 'shut down and seal' the Yongbyon nuclear facility, including the reprocessing facility, and invite back International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) personnel to conduct monitoring and verifications within 60 days. In return, the other parties of the talks will provide emergency energy assistance equivalent to 50,000 tons of heavy fuel oil (HFO) to North Korea. There are other items in the initial stage such as North Korea discussing a list of all its nuclear programs with other parties, and the United States and North Korea starting bilateral talks toward full diplomatic relations. However, these items are rather nominal and symbolic in nature and will not likely produce meaningful results in a short period of time. The second phase is even more open-ended. In the second phase, North Korea will provide a complete declaration of all nuclear programs and disable all existing nuclear facilities. In return, the other parties will provide economic, energy and humanitarian assistance up to the equivalent of 950,000 tons of HFO. However, the timing and the details of the nuclear 'disablement' and the provision of assistance are not specified, making it likely that the parties will disagree over how to interpret the words in the Action Plan. The Action Plan provides that five Working Groups (WG) on different topics will be established in order to discuss the details, but the effectiveness of the WG remains to be seen. The Action Plan, therefore, represents the lowest common denominator for the parties

  15. North American regional climate reconstruction from ground surface temperature histories

    Jaume-Santero, Fernando; Pickler, Carolyne; Beltrami, Hugo; Mareschal, Jean-Claude


    Within the framework of the PAGES NAm2k project, 510 North American borehole temperature-depth profiles were analyzed to infer recent climate changes. To facilitate comparisons and to study the same time period, the profiles were truncated at 300 m. Ground surface temperature histories for the last 500 years were obtained for a model describing temperature changes at the surface for several climate-differentiated regions in North America. The evaluation of the model is done by inversion of temperature perturbations using singular value decomposition and its solutions are assessed using a Monte Carlo approach. The results within 95 % confidence interval suggest a warming between 1.0 and 2.5 K during the last two centuries. A regional analysis, composed of mean temperature changes over the last 500 years and geographical maps of ground surface temperatures, show that all regions experienced warming, but this warming is not spatially uniform and is more marked in northern regions.

  16. Constructing a regional order Northeast Asia and the systemic constraints on Korean unification

    Vance, Terence J.


    Nowhere has the mid-20th century polarization of Northeast Asia been more evident than on the Korean Peninsula. Over the past six decades, efforts toward Korean unification have spanned the range of total warfare, covert attacks, propagandist affronts, and formal diplomacy to no avail. Amidst the talk of unification however, it seens a better understanding about the evolving nature of Korea's division is needed. Using a truly unique International Relations approach, this thesis explores th...

  17. Cenozoic uplift and subsidence in the North Atlantic region

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina


    , time and amplitude (where possible) of topographic changes in the North Atlantic region during the Cenozoic (65-0 Ma). Our compilation is based on published results from reflection seismic studies, AFT (apatite fission track) studies, VR (vitrinite reflectance) trends, maximum burial, sediment supply...

  18. Forestry serving urban societies in the north atlantic region


    In the North Atlantic Region, the social services provided by forests play a major role. With the high level of urbanisation in many of these countries, forests and other green areas are of great importance as recreational settings for urban dwellers. In order to ensure that forests cater for the...

  19. North Alaska petroleum analysis: the regional map compilation

    Saltus, Richard W.; Bird, Kenneth J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an effort to model north Alaskan petroleum systems. The geographic and geologic basis for modeling systems is provided by a set of regional digital maps that allow evaluation of the widest possible extent of each system. Accordingly, we laid out a rectangular map grid 1300 km (800 miles) east-west and 600 km (375 miles) north-south. The resulting map area extends from the Yukon Territory of Canada on the east to the Russian-U.S. Chukchi Sea on the west and from the Brooks Range on the south to the Canada basin-Chukchi borderland on the north. Within this map region, we combined disparate types of publicly available data to produce structure contour maps. Data types range from seismic-based mapping as in the National Petroleum Reserve to well penetrations in areas of little or no seismic data where extrapolation was required. With these types of data, we produced structure contour maps on three horizons: top of pre-Mississippian (basement), top of Triassic (Ellesmerian sequence), and top of Neocomian (Beaufortian sequence). These horizons, when combined with present-day topography and bathymetry, provide the bounding structural/stratigraphic surfaces of the north Alaskan petroleum province that mark major defining moments of the region's geologic history and allow regional portrayal of preserved sediment accumulations.

  20. Albatross species demonstrate regional differences in North Pacific marine contamination.

    Finkelstein, Myra; Keitt, Bradford S; Croll, Donald A; Tershy, Bernie; Jarman, Walter M; Rodriguez-Pastor, Sue; Anderson, David J; Sievert, Paul R; Smith, Donald R


    Recent concern about negative effects on human health from elevated organochlorine and mercury concentrations in marine foods has highlighted the need to understand temporal and spatial patterns of marine pollution. Seabirds, long-lived pelagic predators with wide foraging ranges, can be used as indicators of regional contaminant patterns across large temporal and spatial scales. Here we evaluate contaminant levels, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios, and satellite telemetry data from two sympatrically breeding North Pacific albatross species to demonstrate that (1) organochlorine and mercury contaminant levels are significantly higher in the California Current compared to levels in the high-latitude North Pacific and (2) levels of organochlorine contaminants in the North Pacific are increasing over time. Black-footed Albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes) had 370-460% higher organochlorine (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes [DDTs]) and mercury body burdens than a closely related species, the Laysan Albatross (P. immutabilis), primarily due to regional segregation of their North Pacific foraging areas. PCBs (the sum of the individual PCB congeners analyzed) and DDE concentrations in both albatross species were 130-360% higher than concentrations measured a decade ago. Our results demonstrate dramatically high and increasing contaminant concentrations in the eastern North Pacific Ocean, a finding relevant to other marine predators, including humans.

  1. North Korean nuclear issues and the LWR project; analysis of the key technologies

    Kim, Byung Koo; Kwack, E. H.; Shin, J. S.; An, J. S.; Lee, J. U.; Kim, H. T.; Kim, J. S.; Yoon, Y. C


    Year 2000 will be remembered as an epoch making period between two Koreas. Korean nuclear industries became activated with the KEDO LWR main contracts entering into force in February, 2000. Respective design, manufacturing and construction activities are mobilized in accordance with the total project schedule of about 100 months. What started out as the nuclear power plant design standardization project in the early '80s, is now being implemented as repeat construction of KSNPs at Yonggwang and Ulchin sites as well as at Kumho site in the DPRK. However, the KEDO construction schedule and the past nuclear inconsistency issues are closely linked due to the nonproliferation concerns. In practice, the IAEA must come to the conclusion that the correctness and completeness must be fulfilled before delivery of the first key component for the KEDO LWR unit 1. While the IAEA verification process tends to focus on the nuclear materials accountancy control, longer term objective between two Koreas is bound to take the form of confidence building. It is necessary to analyse the nuclear research and production facilities in order to make proper evaluation of a nation's nuclear capabilities. Close assessment on development status of graphite moderated reactors and their operation history, spent fuel reprocessing facilities, and HEU production capabilities would be essential. In addition, illicit trafficking possibilities should be addressed. Chapter 1 describes the graphite moderated reactors in general; Chapter 2 describes various reprocessing processes and their detection capabilities; Chapter 3 contains possible uranium enrichment processes with their detection capabilities, and Chapter 4 summarizes the international treaties in illicit trafficking control with the IAEA database.

  2. The JIIM Domain: Examination of U.S. Military Sustainment Assistance Following North Korean Regime Collapse


    25 May 2009, North Korea conducted a nuclear test detected by at least 61 seismic stations.51 United States containment of nuclear 690,000, “by providing them shelter, a plate of food, and effective support.”126 Phase I: Initial Response After 15 years of UN missions from...Horn’s Strategic Hub: Chatham House Briefing Papers (London: Chatham House, April 2013): 4. 122Mark Schuller and Pablo Morales, Tectonic Shifts: Haiti

  3. North Korean Calculus in the Maritime Environment: Covert Versus Overt Provocations


    can threaten targets at sea, including new surface-to-sea missile systems. On the east and west coasts, North Korea deploys Samlet and Silkworm ...missiles that have a range of 80-90 kilometers (49-56 miles). Silkworm mis- siles are estimated to be capable of striking vessels as far away as Deokjeok...reports, these tests were part of a program to extend the range of the Sam- let/ Silkworm missiles, thus enhancing the capabilities of the North’s

  4. Relationship between Precambrian North Korean Peninsula and the North China Craton: Evidence from LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from Neoproterozoic tillites of North Korea and Southern North China Craton

    Hu, B.; Zhai, M.; Peng, P.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, J.; Jia, X.; Zhang, H.; Lei, W.; Zhuang, G.


    Relationship between Precambrian Korean Peninsula and the North China Craton (NCC) is focus of attention. There are Neoproterozoic tillites in Phyongnam Basin, Nangrim massif, North Korea (NK) and Southern NCC. Nangrim massif was regarded as a part of the NCC according to similar Precambrian basements between Nangrim massif and Longgang massif in the Northeast NCC. But the comparation of Neoproterozoic rocks is lacked between NK and NCC. Detrital zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of 2 pebbly phyllite samples of Pirangdong Series in Phyongnam Basin and 2 argillaceous cemented mix-conglomeate samples of Luoquan Series in Southern NCC was analyzed in this research. Detrital zircon ages of pebbly phyllites of Pirangdong Series distribute mainly at 1.85 Ga, 1.8 Ga, 1.6 Ga, 1.4 Ga and 1.2 Ga. A small number of them are at 3.2 Ga, 2.6 - 2.5 Ga, 2.3 Ga, 2.1 Ga and 900 - 860 Ma. Detrital zircon ages of mix-conglomeates of Luoquan Series mainly focus on 2.5 Ga, 2.2 Ga, 2.0 Ga, 1.8 Ga and 1.6 Ga. Minor of them distribute at 1.12 Ga. The similar age distribution of Pirangdong and Luoquan Series of 2.6 - 2.5 Ga, 2.1 - 2.0 Ga, 1.85 - 1.8 Ga and 1.6 Ga corresponds to Precambrian significant tectonic- magmatic- thermal events of the NCC, which indicates that the Precambrian basement rocks of the NCC are main provenances of both Pirangdong and Luoquan Series. This also confirm that the Phyongnam Basin is a part of Neoproterozoic sedimentary covers of the NCC. It is worth to mention that 1.2 - 1.0 Ga and 900 - 850 Ma magmatic rocks in the NCC are seldom reported which relate to the assemblage and breakup of Rodinia Supercontinent. whereas they crop out widely in the South China Craton (SCC) and was always regarded as a mark distingusing the two craton. 1.2 - 1.0 Ga and 900 - 850 Ma zircon ages preserved in sedimentary rocks not only in North Korea and Southern NCC but also in Northeast NCC and East NCC provide data to compare Neoproterozoic strata between NCC and SCC and important clues to

  5. Nuclear Weapons and Coercive Escalation in Regional Conflicts: Lessons from North Korea and Pakistan


    coercion at the lower levels of the warfare spectrum remains an understudied problem. Traditional U.S. deterrence concepts and postures – mostly...the international community and as a source of prestige. Analysis of North Korean media statements suggests that leaders in Pyongyang believe that...attack in October the regime unleashed a barrage of statements once again highlighting its nuclear prowess. Media coverage of the 65th anniversary of

  6. Geoacoustic models of the Donghae-to-Gangneung region in the Korean continental margin of the East Sea

    Ryang, Woo Hun; Kim, Seong Pil; Hahn, Jooyoung


    Geoacoustic model is to provide a model of the real seafloor with measured, extrapolated, and predicted values of geoacoustic environmental parameters. It controls acoustic propagation in underwater acoustics. In the Korean continental margin of the East Sea, this study reconstructed geoacoustic models using geoacoustic and marine geologic data of the Donghae-to-Gangneung region (37.4° to 37.8° in latitude). The models were based on the data of the high-resolution subbottom and air-gun seismic profiles with sediment cores. The Donghae region comprised measured P-wave velocities and attenuations of the cores, whereas the Gangneung region comprised regression values using measured values of the adjacent areas. Geoacoustic data of the cores were extrapolated down to a depth of the geoacoustic models. For actual modeling, the P-wave speed of the models was compensated to in situ depth below the sea floor using the Hamilton method. These geoacoustic models of this region probably contribute for geoacoustic and underwater acoustic modelling reflecting vertical and lateral variability of acoustic properties in the Korean continental margin of the western East Sea. Keywords: geoacoustic model, environmental parameter, East Sea, continental margin Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the research grants from the Agency of Defense Development (UD140003DD and UE140033DD).

  7. Spatial and temporal variability of the North Korean Cold Water leading to the near-bottom cold water intrusion in Korea Strait [review article

    Yun, Jae-Yul; Magaard, Lorenz; Kim, Kuh; Shin, Chang-Woong; Kim, Cheolsoo; Byun, Sang-Kyung


    In the deepest region of Korea Strait, the surface temperature is highest in August (lowest in March), while the near-bottom temperature is lowest in September (highest in May). Cross-spectral analysis of the monthly temperature data between the two layers shows high coherence at the annual frequency with phase of 154°. Why and how does such a nearly opposite phasing occur between the surface and the near-bottom temperatures there? This study aims at answering these questions using historical and recently observed data. Cold and relatively fresh subsurface water flowing southward along the east coast of Korea and, known as the North Korean Cold Water (NKCW), becomes noticeable in April near the Sokcho coast. The zonal temperature gradient there is largest around June. The width of the NKCW becomes larger from April to August. After October, the NKCW retreats back toward the coast. The southward movement of the NKCW is thus strong over a period of six to seven months and weak in winter, especially in February. The NKCW flows southward relatively quickly along the coast in April to October and arrives at the Ulleung Basin within one to two months. Because of the sill between the Ulleung Basin and Korea Strait, this water cannot continue to flow to south, but piles up for about two to three months before it moves over the sill. The convergence of the subsurface cold water in the Ulleung Basin displaces the isopycnals upward and this water then intrudes over the sill along the isopycnals. This explains why in April or May, when this water appears noticeably at the Sokcho coast, the near-bottom water in Korea Strait is warmest and in August or September when the NKCW, which is piled up enough at the southern end of the Ulleung Basin, intrudes to Korea Strait, the near-bottom temperatures there are at their lowest. The origin of the NKCW seems to be the water of salinity less han 34.1 psu and surface density of 27 σθ or higher, which sinks in the northwestern East Sea

  8. The Tense Situation on the Korean Peninsula in 2008


    February 25:Lee Myung Bak took office as South Korean president.He promised to end unconditional aid to North Korea,saying Pyongyang must improve its human rights record and return South Koreans captured or held since the Korean War. March 19:South Korean Unification Minister Kim Ha Joong said that the Kaesong Industrial Park would not be expanded until progress on the North Korean nuclear issue was made.

  9. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.


    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air...

  10. Naturally occurring mutations in the nonstructural region 5B of hepatitis C virus (HCV from treatment-naive Korean patients chronically infected with HCV genotype 1b.

    Dong-Won Kim

    Full Text Available The nonstructural 5B (NS5B protein of the hepatitis C virus (HCV with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp activity plays a pivotal role in viral replication. Therefore, monitoring of its naturally occurring mutations is very important for the development of antiviral therapies and vaccines. In the present study, mutations in the partial NS5B gene (492 bp from 166 quasispecies of 15 genotype-1b (GT treatment-naïve Korean chronic patients were determined and mutation patterns and frequencies mainly focusing on the T cell epitope regions were evaluated. The mutation frequency within the CD8+ T cell epitopes was significantly higher than those outside the CD8+ T cell epitopes. Of note, the mutation frequency within predicted CD4+ T cell epitopes, a particular mutational hotspot in Korean patients was significantly higher than it was in patients from other areas, suggesting distinctive CD4+ T cell-mediated immune pressure against HCV infection in the Korean population. The mutation frequency in the NS5B region was positively correlated with patients with carrier-stage rather than progressive liver disease (chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, the mutation frequency in four codons (Q309, A333, V338 and Q355 known to be related to the sustained virological response (SVR and end-of treatment response (ETR was also significantly higher in Korean patients than in patients from other areas. In conclusion, a high degree of mutation frequency in the HCV GT-1b NS5B region, particularly in the predicted CD4+ T cell epitopes, was found in Korean patients, suggesting the presence of distinctive CD4+ T cell pressure in the Korean population. This provides a likely explanation of why relatively high levels of SVR after a combined therapy of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN and ribavirin (RBV in Korean chronic patients with GT-1b infections are observed.


    Florea Adrian


    Full Text Available Even though over the years has enjoyed wide media coverage, with highlighted aspects, discrepancies and inequalities of economic potential between different regions of the world, or even parts of the same countries always remained topical. Difficulties arising from these differences were always felt, extremely painful by humans. Analyzing distinctly, participation of each county to the GDP of the Northwest Region and the composition of all indicators, we can identify significant discrepancies between counties, regions and municipalities. This is one of the reasons that led us trying to identify the causes that generated the current situation. From the perspective of the contribution of each county in the Northwest Region to Region's domestic product composition, the first place is taken by Cluj county 32.3%, followed by Bihor with 24.3%, Maramures, with 14.9% Satu-Mare, 12.1%, Bistrita-Nasaud, 9.1% and 7.2% Salaj. Consulting of the Regional Operational Programme 2007-2013 indicates that the poorest areas in the Northwest Region are in Maramures and Bistrita-Nasaud. An important part of the active population of North-West Region was employed in public enterprises and an increase of unemployment in the counties of Salaj, Satu Mare and Maramures became predictable, imminent amid restructuring of public enterprises with losses. Studies of employed population by sectors of the economy, shows a high rate of population employed in services in the counties of Cluj and Bihor and high employment in agriculture on other four counties. In a modern market economy, services are most concentrated labors, and how the workforce is distributed in the Northwest region also shows an imbalance. How Northwest Region is participating in international economic cycle has major effects on the population's living standards. Relevant for the inter-district disparities analysis is the human and agents behavior analysis and the savings and loan relationships. How people

  12. Lessons learned from North Carolina public health regional surveillance teams' regional exercises.

    Hegle, Jennifer; Markiewicz, Milissa; Benson, Philip; Horney, Jennifer; Rosselli, Richard; MacDonald, Pia


    All-hazards exercises bring together emergency response partners at the local, regional, state, and federal levels for the primary purposes of testing response plans, defining roles and responsibilities, assessing capabilities, and making necessary improvements prior to an actual incident. To better understand the benefits and challenges of conducting regional (ie, multicounty) exercises, a study was carried out by the North Carolina Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center at the University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health. This article describes 5 all-hazards regional exercises conducted by Public Health Regional Surveillance Teams (PHRSTs) in North Carolina in 2009 and highlights 4 unique benefits that resulted from the exercises beyond meeting explicit objectives to test plans and identify areas for improvement: (1) building relationships among response partners, (2) promoting public health assets, (3) testing multiple communications systems, and (4) training exercise evaluators. Challenges of planning and conducting regional exercises also are addressed, followed by recommendations for maximizing the effectiveness of regional public health exercises.

  13. Probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the North Balkan region

    R. M. W. Musson


    Full Text Available A set of seismic hazard maps, expressed as horizontal peak ground acceleration, have been computed for a large area of Central and Eastern Europe covering the North Balkan area (Former Yugoslavia, Hungary, Romania. These are based on: a a compound earthquake catalogue for the region; b a seismic source model of 50 zones compiled on the basis of tectonic divisions and seismicity, and c a probabilistic methodology using stochastic (Monte Carlo modelling. It is found that the highest hazard in the region comes from intermediate focus earthquakes occurring in the Vrancea seismic zone; here the hazard exceeds 0.4 g at return periods of 475 years. Special account has been taken of the directional nature of attenuation from this source.

  14. The current state of korean paleoanthropology.

    Norton, C J


    The hominid fossil and Paleolithic archaeology records from the Korean Peninsula are extensive, but relatively little is known about the Korean human evolutionary record outside this region. The Korean paleoanthropological record is reviewed here in light of major research issues, including the hominid fossil record, relative and chronometric dating, lithic analysis, hominid subsistence, and the presence of bone tools, art and symbolism. Some of the major conclusions drawn from this review include: (1) hominid fossils have been found in nine separate sites on the Korean Peninsula; (2) possible Homo erectus fossils are present in North Korea; (3) Ryonggok Cave, in North Korea, has exposed the remains of at least five archaic Homo sapiens individuals; (4) a possible burial of an anatomically modern Homo sapiens child, discovered in Hungsu Cave in South Korea, has been tentatively dated to roughly 40,000 years ago; (5) handaxes and cleavers have been found at a number of sites near Chongokni and they appear to date to at least 100,000 years ago; and (6) taphonomic studies are necessary for addressing issues related to determining the nature of hominid-carnivore interaction over similar resources (e.g. carcasses and shelter); and the presence/absence of Early Paleolithic bone tools, art, and symbolism in Korea.

  15. Occult Dirofilariosis in Dogs of North Eastern Region in India

    Sonjoy Kumar-Borthakur


    Full Text Available Background: The North Eastern Region in India is endemic for canine heartworm disease but in clinics accurate diagnosis is some times difficult. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of occult infections for heartworm disease in canine in two geographical regions of North Eastern India.Methods: A total of 782 numbers of three categories of dogs namely, working dogs of military and paramilitary forces, pet dogs and stray dogs were screened for the presence of heartworm infection from August 2011 to July, 2012 in Guwahati (Assam and Aizawl (Mizoram. Conventional, immunological and molecular techniques were followed for this epidemiological study. The criteria to determine the occult heartworm cases were based on the dif­ferences between heartworm positive cases in PCR test and antigen ELISA test.Results: The findings revealed an overall 22.69 percent occult case. The working dogs had highest prevalence (60% followed by pet (29.16% and stray dogs (17.75%.Conclusion: The highest percentage of occult heartworm infection was present in working dogs maintained under military or paramilitary forces. 

  16. North Korean Policy Elites


    credibility, and mass appeal, and become fluid, porous, malleable, and transient. Incumbent gods and demi-gods enter the twilight zone as the rising...Fairclough, Gordon, “Pyongyang Place: The Family Saga of Kim Jong Il,” The Wall Street Journal, p. A1, October 10, 2003; “Japanese Weekly Examines

  17. Spectral Modulation Effect in Teleseismic P-waves from North Korean Nuclear Tests Recorded in Broad Azimuthal Range and Possible Source Depth Estimation

    Gitterman, Y.; Kim, S. G.; Hofstetter, R.


    Three underground nuclear explosions, conducted by North Korea in 2006, 2009 and 2013, are analyzed. The last two tests were recorded by the Israel Seismic Network. Pronounced coherent minima (spectral nulls) at 1.2-1.3 Hz were revealed in the spectra of teleseismic P -waves. For a ground-truth explosion with a shallow source depth, this phenomenon can be interpreted in terms of the interference between the down-going P-wave and the pP phase reflected from the Earth's surface. This effect was also observed at ISN stations for a Pakistan nuclear explosion at a different frequency 1.7 Hz and the PNE Rubin-2 in West Siberia at 1 Hz, indicating a source-effect and not a site-effect. Similar spectral minima having essentially the same frequency, as at ISN, were observed in teleseismic P-waves for all the three North Korean explosions recorded at networks and arrays in Kazakhstan (KURK), Norway (NNSN), Australia (ASAR, WRA) and Canada (YKA), covering a broad azimuthal range. Data of 2009 and 2013 tests at WRA and KURK arrays showed harmonic spectral modulation with three multiple minima frequencies, evidencing the clear interference effect. These observations support the above-mentioned interpretation. Based on the null frequency dependency on the near-surface acoustic velocity and the source depth, the depth of the North Korean tests was estimated about 2.0-2.1 km. It was shown that the observed null frequencies and the obtained source depth estimates correspond to P- pP interference phenomena in both cases of a vertical shaft or a horizontal drift in a mountain. This unusual depth estimation needs additional validation based on more stations and verification by other methods.

  18. North American regional climate reconstruction from underground temperatures.

    Jaume-Santero, Fernando; Beltrami, Hugo; Mareschal, Jean-Claude


    Within the framework of the PAGES NorthAmerica2k project, 514 North American temperature-depth profiles were analyzed to infer recent climate changes. The ground surface temperature (GST) histories for the last 500 years were reconstructed from the subsurface temperature anomalies using a singular value decomposition (SVD) inversion that retains four principal components and takes into account time logging differences. Steady-state surface temperature and thermal gradient were estimated by linear regression for the lower 100 meters of the temperature profile, and climate induced subsurface temperature anomalies were estimated as departures from the steady-state conditions. Additionally, a Monte-Carlo method was used to find the range of solutions within a maximum subsurface anomaly error determined by the minimum distance between the model and the data. A regional analysis was performed for the last 5 centuries yielding mean temperature change every 50 years. The GST history results, presented as the mean and 95% confidence interval, show a warming by 1.0°C to 2.5°C during the post industrial era.

  19. Regional geothermal exploration in north central New Mexico. Final report

    Icerman, L. (ed.)


    A broad-based geothermal resource reconnaissance study covering Bernalillo, Los Alamos, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Sandoval, Santa Fe, Taos, Torrance, and Valencia counties in north central New Mexico was conducted from June 15, 1981, through September 30, 1983. Specific activities included the compilation of actual temperature, bottom-hole temperature gradient, and geotemperature data; tabulation of water chemistry data; field collection of temperature-depth data from existing wells; and drilling of temperature gradient holes in the Ojo Caliente, San Ysidro, Rio Puerco, and Polvadera areas. The data collected were used to perform: (1) a regional analysis of the geothermal energy potential of north central New Mexico; (2) two site-specific studies of the potential relationship between groundwater constrictions and geothermal resources; (3) an evaluation of the geothermal energy potential at Santa Ana Pueblo; (4) a general analysis of the geothermal energy resources of the Rio Grande Rift, including specific data on the Valles Caldera; and (5) an evaluation of the use of geothermometers on New Mexico groundwaters. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual chapters.

  20. Korean Unification: The Way Forward


    Guangdong SEZ gave birth to the idea of job specific wage rates.162 Likewise, the Shenzhen SEZ created a policy to allow different companies to...member of the North Korean elite, Yon Hyung Muk, visited the Chinese SEZ of Shenzhen and witnessed its success. 171 He brought the idea back their relationship. As the complex expands and the investment climate of North Korea stabilizes, we will see additional South Korean companies

  1. Mars at Ls 53o: North Polar Region


    30 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurred in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the north polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn. Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  2. The comparative anatomical study of the parietal region of the skull of the Korean native goat (Capra hircus).

    Yi, S J; Lee, H S; Kim, K S; Kang, T C


    In the skull of the Korean native goat, the parietal region was classified into four types by the degree of the fusion of the bones, the os interparietale, the os parietale and the squama occipitalis of the os occipitale, and the structural variations of these fusions. The fusion appeared first in the sutura interparietoparietalis and that of the sutura sagittalis of both ossa parietalia was followed. There was no fusion between the os parietale and the squama occipitalis of the os occipitale. These results suggest that the os interparietale developed independently but fused to the os parietale after birth, and the os parietale were developed as paired bones in prenatal life and then fused together according to age.

  3. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder as a Mediator Between Trauma Exposure and Comorbid Mental Health Conditions in North Korean Refugee Youth Resettled in South Korea.

    Kim, Yeunhee J


    A structural equation model was used to investigate the relationship between trauma exposure and comorbid mental health problems and the mediation effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) between trauma and mental health variables. The research model is based on the stress-vulnerability conceptual framework in which PTSD as a comorbid disorder mediates the relationship between trauma exposure and mental health problems. A self-administered survey was administered to 144 North Korean refugee youth residing in South Korea. Trauma exposure, both interpersonal and noninterpersonal, had no direct relationship with comorbid mental health problems. However, interpersonal trauma contributed to comorbid mental health problems through PTSD, demonstrating the mediation effect of PTSD and supporting the stress-vulnerability hypothesis of the current research model. Clinical implications of the study and future direction for research are discussed.

  4. A Development of Nonstationary Regional Frequency Analysis Model with Large-scale Climate Information: Its Application to Korean Watershed

    Kim, Jin-Young; Kwon, Hyun-Han; Kim, Hung-Soo


    The existing regional frequency analysis has disadvantages in that it is difficult to consider geographical characteristics in estimating areal rainfall. In this regard, this study aims to develop a hierarchical Bayesian model based nonstationary regional frequency analysis in that spatial patterns of the design rainfall with geographical information (e.g. latitude, longitude and altitude) are explicitly incorporated. This study assumes that the parameters of Gumbel (or GEV distribution) are a function of geographical characteristics within a general linear regression framework. Posterior distribution of the regression parameters are estimated by Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, and the identified functional relationship is used to spatially interpolate the parameters of the distributions by using digital elevation models (DEM) as inputs. The proposed model is applied to derive design rainfalls over the entire Han-river watershed. It was found that the proposed Bayesian regional frequency analysis model showed similar results compared to L-moment based regional frequency analysis. In addition, the model showed an advantage in terms of quantifying uncertainty of the design rainfall and estimating the area rainfall considering geographical information. Finally, comprehensive discussion on design rainfall in the context of nonstationary will be presented. KEYWORDS: Regional frequency analysis, Nonstationary, Spatial information, Bayesian Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (14AWMP-B082564-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  5. Regional Analysis of Soft Tissue Thickness on Korean Buttocks and Application to Fasciocutaneous Flap Design

    Do Yup Kim


    Full Text Available Background Various shapes and designs of the gluteal artery perforator flap have been used for treating sacral pressure sores and reconstructing breasts. To establish the ideal fasciocutaneous flap design for use in the gluteal area, the soft tissue thickness distribution was measured. Methods Twenty-one buttocks of adult Korean cadavers were analyzed through rectangular subfascial dissection. Each buttock was divided horizontally into 10 sections and vertically into 10 sections, and then, the thickness at the corners of the sections was measured. For the sake of comparison and statistical verification with living bodies, computed tomography (CT images of 120 buttocks of patients were randomly selected. Five horizontal sections and 4 vertical sections were made, and the thickness at each corner was recorded. Results According to the dissection and the CT images, the area with the thinnest soft tissues in the buttock was around the posterior superior iliac spine, close to the sacral area. The thickest area was the superolateral area of the buttock, which was 3.24 times and 2.15 times thicker than the thinnest area in the studies on cadaver anatomy and the CT images, respectively. Conclusions The thickness of the soft tissues in the buttocks differed by area. The superolateral area had the thickest soft tissues, and the superomedial area had the thinnest. This study includes information on the distribution of the thickness of the gluteal soft tissues of Koreans. The outcome of this study may contribute to the design of effective local flaps for pressure sore reconstruction and free flaps for breast reconstruction.

  6. Saltwater intrusion in coastal regions of North America

    Barlow, Paul M.; Reichard, Eric G.


    Saltwater has intruded into many of the coastal aquifers of the United States, Mexico, and Canada, but the extent of saltwater intrusion varies widely among localities and hydrogeologic settings. In many instances, the area contaminated by saltwater is limited to small parts of an aquifer and to specific wells and has had little or no effect on overall groundwater supplies; in other instances, saltwater contamination is of regional extent and has resulted in the closure of many groundwater supply wells. The variability of hydrogeologic settings, three-dimensional distribution of saline water, and history of groundwater withdrawals and freshwater drainage has resulted in a variety of modes of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. These include lateral intrusion from the ocean; upward intrusion from deeper, more saline zones of a groundwater system; and downward intrusion from coastal waters. Saltwater contamination also has occurred along open boreholes and within abandoned, improperly constructed, or corroded wells that provide pathways for vertical migration across interconnected aquifers. Communities within the coastal regions of North America are taking actions to manage and prevent saltwater intrusion to ensure a sustainable source of groundwater for the future. These actions can be grouped broadly into scientific monitoring and assessment, engineering techniques, and regulatory approaches.


    Sarita Sylvia


    Full Text Available Introduction: In orthopaedic surgery, trochanteric region is an important as it’s an entry point, usually lateral side of the great trochanter, although anterior and posterior approaches have variable interest. For implants such as plates and DHS (dynamic hip screw, lateral approach is standard. After skin, fat tissue and fascia lata, vastuslateralis muscle is reached and elevated to approach lateral surface of subtrochanteric area. For implants as intra-medullar nail, minimally invasive approach is in routine use. Despite abundant research of general femoral morphology, especially its specific morphological parts (femoral head, neck, shaft, and its distal part involved in knee joint. Materials and methods: Study on 158 dry adult human femur of unknown age & sex collected from the department of anatomy and phase I students of KBNIMS, Kalaburagi, Karnataka. The broken or non-dried specimens were excluded from the study. Results: The third trochanter was present in 4.43% of the femora. Although the incidence was higher on the right side it was not statistically significant. Discussion: Another study which reported the side variations in Whites and Negroes, documented higher incidence on right side in White and on left side in Negro population; it also reported the trait to be more common in females in both Whites and Negroes. Conclusion: The presence of third trochanter at the proximal part of the femur has been found to alter the break lines in the pertrochanteric fracture patients. This study dealt with the incidence of third trochanter in north Karnataka region.

  8. The proactive grand strategy for consensual and peaceful Korean unification

    Kim, Jungsoo


    This thesis assesses the reasons for the continuous division of the two Koreas and proposes necessary policies for Korean unification. In modern times, Koreans have been unable to determine their own destiny. Many examples show that Koreaαs circumstances have been influenced by other countries. Koreaαs division and the North Korean nuclear standoff are not only Korean problems but also international issues. In these contexts, Korean unification requires not only domestic efforts but also in...

  9. Community Response to Terrorism: The South Korean Model


    KOREA Ever since the division of the Korean peninsula at the conclusion of the Second World War, South Koreans have lived with real and imagined...threats from communist North Korea (the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea , or DPRK). The authorities have been unable to prevent all North Korean ...on three lines of defense . First, an authoritarian government kept firm control over Korean society. Second, the police and the ROK army were visibly

  10. Combined Operations in the Korean War


    Research Cfice, 1952. Ministry of National Defense , Republic of Korea . The History of United Nations Forces in the Korean War. Volume VI, Seou 1: 1977. ,-,h...committed to repelling the North Korean and Chinese armies from the Republic of Korea (ROK). The Korean War was not anticipated and neither was the extent...Coaal: tior War Early on 25 June Iz)50 the North Korean People- Army =_NKPA launched an overwhelming invasion into the Repu’Tli,: cf Korea . Pres-.i,ent

  11. The representation of Asian others in Korean cinema since 2003: multiculturalism, nationalism and sub-imperialism

    Bae, Juyeon


    This thesis elucidates current industrial and representational tendencies in South Korean films that depict Asian others. Asian others such as migrant workers, marriage migrants, overseas ethnic Koreans and North Korean defectors have become increasingly important in South Korean filmic discourse and practice since 2003. This thesis examines how contemporary Korean cinema has responded to the multicultural society and how it seeks to articulate Korean nationalism in the globalised era through...

  12. Interdecadal variation of precipitation days in August in the Korean Peninsula

    Choi, Jae-Won; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Hae-Dong


    The present study examines a climate regime shift in the time series of the number of rainy days during August in the Korean Peninsula. The statistical change-point analysis indicates that a significant shift occurred in the time series around 1998, providing a rationale to divide it into two parts: 1975-1997 for the shorter rainy-day period and 1998-2012 for the longer rainy-day period. To examine the cause of recent rapid increases in the number of days with precipitation in August in the Korean Peninsula, differences in the averages of large-scale environments between the 1998-2012 period and the 1975-1997 period were analyzed. The differences in stream flows showed that anomalous cyclones were reinforced in the East Asian continent while anomalous anticyclones were reinforced in the western North Pacific at all layers of the troposphere. The anomalous anticyclones reinforced in the western North Pacific were associated with the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) developed a little more toward the Korean Peninsula recently. Consequently, the Korean Peninsula has been affected by anomalous south westerlies that supplied warm and humid airs from low tropical regions to the Korean Peninsula. The vertical thermal instability (warm anomaly at lower-level and cold anomaly at middle and upper-level) developed near the Korean Peninsula. In addition, upper tropospheric jets were reinforced further recently near the Korean Peninsula to provide good environments for development of upward flows. The frequency of TCs that affect the Korean Peninsula in August also increased rapidly since 1998.

  13. Relationship between Regional Body Fat Distribution and Diabetes Mellitus: 2008 to 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Choi, Soo In; Chung, Dawn; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Shin, Jang Yel; Chung, Choon Hee


    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the association between regional body fat distribution, especially leg fat mass, and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in adult populations. Methods A total of 3,181 men and 3,827 postmenopausal women aged 50 years or older were analyzed based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008 to 2010). Body compositions including muscle mass and regional fat mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results The odds ratios (ORs) for DM was higher with increasing truncal fat mass and arm fat mass, while it was lower with increasing leg fat mass. In a partial correlation analysis adjusted for age, leg fat mass was negatively associated with glycosylated hemoglobin in both sexes and fasting glucose in women. Leg fat mass was positively correlated with appendicular skeletal muscle mass and homeostasis model assessment of β cell. In addition, after adjusting for confounding factors, the OR for DM decreased gradually with increasing leg fat mass quartiles in both genders. When we subdivided the participants into four groups based on the median values of leg fat mass and leg muscle mass, higher leg fat mass significantly lowered the risk of DM even though they have smaller leg muscle mass in both genders (P<0.001). Conclusion The relationship between fat mass and the prevalence of DM is different according to regional body fat distribution. Higher leg fat mass was associated with a lower risk of DM in Korean populations. Maintaining leg fat mass may be important in preventing impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:28029016

  14. Growth and convergence in a two-region model

    Funke, Michael; Strulik, Holger


    The paper discusses the impact and implications of Korean unification by setting up a two-region endogenous growth model. The numerical solutions are based on the formal analytical model, and have been calibrated so that they reflect the observed features of the North and South Korean economies....... The numerical solutions provide evidence about the speed of convergence and the large amount of interregional transfers that are required to make the North Korean economy economically viable. We also model the impact of foreign aid, migration and borrowing abroad for the transition process...

  15. Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula.


    defense expenditures of both sides are assessed as follows:4 The South Korean population outnumbers North Korea two to one. This presents difficulties for...99. Kim, Chum-Kon, The Korean War, Seoul, Kwang-Myong Publishing Company Ltd., 1980. The Text of Mutual Defense Treaty between Korea and the USA...AIR WAR COLLEGE RESEARCH REPORT ABSTRACT TITLE: Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula AUTHOR: Kim, Hyon, Colonel, Republic of Korea Air Force - 1

  16. North Korean Football in View of Culture Science%文化学视野下的朝鲜足球初探——兼谈对中国足球的启示

    高泳; 朱国政; 孙源宏; 晁浩溢; 牛伟忠


    在1966年的英格兰世界杯赛上,朝鲜作为最大的黑马杀入8强,时隔44年,他们又闯入南非世界杯决赛圈。神秘的朝鲜足球,在物质匮乏的环境下,有了爱国精神的感召,具备强大的集体团结意识;在封闭和垄断的环境下,依然有正确的青少年后备人才培养和球员交流措施,有较高的普及率。中国足球应在建构精神文化、制度文化方面借鉴朝鲜足球。%In the England World Cup in 1966, North Korea unexpectedly became one of the top 8 world football teams and entered the South Africa World Cup finals after 44 years. Despite the inadequate material supply, the North Korean team is strong because of the patriotism and teamwork awareness. The North Korea has the sound development system of teenage backup players and the appropriate exchanges among the football players. Many North Korean people play foot- ball. The Chinese football should learn from the North Korea in the aspects of spiritual culture and system establishment.

  17. Diagnostic Analysis on a Regional Rainstorm Weather in North-central Henan Province


    [Objective] The research aimed to analyze a regional rainstorm weather process in north-central Henan Province. [Method] Based on the conventional meteorological observation data and the rainfall data of Henan Meteorological Station, the diagnostic analysis of atmospheric thermodynamics and dynamics on a rainstorm weather process in north-central Henan Province on July 19, 2010 was carried out. The characteristics of physical quantity field and the evolution of weather situation in north-central Henan Provi...

  18. Regional year-round sypply of vegetables in North Vietnam

    Everaarts, A.P.; Wijk, van M.S.; Pham Van Hoi,


    A discussion is presented about the patterns in the present year-round supply of vegetables to large cities in the Red River Delta in North Vietnam. Especially during the hot summer season, vegetables are supplied from Dalat in South Vietnam or from Kunming Province in China. Generally speaking, imp

  19. The Korean Military Advisory Group -- Developmental Challenges during Ongoing Conflict


    to indigenous Korean military forces has direct applicability to current military operations in Afghanistan. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Korean...Korean military forces has direct applicability to current military operations in Afghanistan. iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to firstly...and equipping under “Operation BAMBOO ” prior to the initiation of hostilities with North Korea. Developed in December of 1945, this program

  20. On the variation of regional CO2 exchange over temperate and boreal North America

    Zhang, X.; Gurney, K.R.; Peylin, P.; Chevallier, F.; Law, R.M.; Patra, P.K.; Rayner, P.J.; Roedenbeck, C.; Krol, M.C.


    Inverse-estimated net carbon exchange time series spanning two decades for six North American regions are analyzed to examine long-term trends and relationships to temperature and precipitation variations. Results reveal intensification of carbon uptake in eastern boreal North America (0.1 PgC/decad

  1. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America

    Darold P. Batzer; Susan E. Dietz-Brantley; Barbara E. Taylor; Adrienne E. DeBiase


    Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5...

  2. President Park and the Korean Economy



    President Park 1917 Sept 30 Born in the village of Sonsangun,Korea 1961 Overthrew the civilian government 1963 Elected president 1972 Declared martial law 1974 Park’s wife was killed by North Korean agents 1979 Shot to death by the head of the Korean Central Intelligence Agency

  3. 76 FR 66057 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Order Approving Regional Reliability Standard


    ... Reliability Standard PRC-002-NPCC- 01, and NPCC's guidance establishes maintenance and testing expectations... Energy Regulatory Commission 61,043] North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Order Approving Regional Reliability Standard Issued October 20, 2011. Before Commissioners: Jon Wellinghoff, Chairman...




    Full Text Available From the perspective of human development indicators during the past 15 years, Region North-West has undergone a series of negative processes, which are the most significant demographic decline due to negative natural growth and increased migration of people, especially those assets. Region North-West faces a negative demographic trend, with life expectancy of 71.38 years, the national average (72.22 years with high external migration, especially of highly qualified workforce. Analysis of employment trends of population in Region North-West shows a downward trend and projections for the development for years emphasized the decrease in employment. Estimates on the evolution of the population in Region North-West during 2005-2013 reveals a total population decreased by 4.2%.

  5. Maps of mesoscale wind variability over the North Sea region

    Vincent, Claire Louise; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Badger, Jake

    Mesoscale wind fluctuations affect the operation of wind farms, particularly as the number of geographically concentrated wind farms in the North Sea increases (Akhmatov et al. 2007). The frequency and intensity of wind fluctuations could be considered as a new siting criterion, together with exi......Mesoscale wind fluctuations affect the operation of wind farms, particularly as the number of geographically concentrated wind farms in the North Sea increases (Akhmatov et al. 2007). The frequency and intensity of wind fluctuations could be considered as a new siting criterion, together...... with existing criteria such as the wind resource and proximity to grid connection points. We used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to calculate the average wind variability over the North Sea for wind fluctuations with periods of 30 minutes to 8 hours. Modelled winds are saved every 10 minutes...... for a 1 year period. The model was run with a horizontal grid spacing of 2 km. The variability maps are created by integrating the average 24 hour spectra at every grid point over different time-scales....

  6. U.S.-China Partnership: Building Regional Synergy for Stability and Security of the Korean Peninsula


    success. Based on geographic, historic, socio-economic and cultural affinity , regional organizations, in some cases, may serve as a better forum to...Anniversary Summit in 2007, the 10 full ASEAN Members (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia , Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam...Charter,” (2011), Public Affairs Office, Indonesia ,, (accessed November 18, 2012). 72 plus three

  7. Regional trends in aquatic recovery from acidification in North America and Europe

    Stoddard, J.L.; Jeffries, D.S.; Lukewille, A.; Clair, T.A.; Dillon, P.J.; Driscoll, C.T.; Forsius, M.; Johannessen, M.; Kahl, J.S.; Kellogg, J.H.; Kemp, A.; Mannlo, J.; Monteith, D.T.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Patrick, S.; Rebsdorl, A.; Skjelkvale, B.L.; Stainton, M.P.; Traaen, T.; Van Dam, H.; Webster, K.E.; Wleting, J.; Wllander, A.


    Rates of acidic deposition from the atmosphere ('acid rain') have decreased throughout the 1980s and 1990s across large portions of North America and Europe. Many recent studies have attributed observed reversals in surface-water acidification at national and regional scales to the declining deposition. To test whether emissions regulations have led to widespread recovery in surface-water chemistry, we analysed regional trends between 1980 and 1995 in indicators of acidification (sulphate, nitrate and base-cation concentrations, and measured (Gran) alkalinity) for 205 lakes and streams in eight regions of North America and Europe. Dramatic differences in trend direction and strength for the two decades are apparent. In concordance with general temporal trends in acidic deposition, lake and stream sulphate concentrations decreased in all regions with the exception of Great Britain all but one of these regions exhibited stronger downward trends in the 1990s than in the 1980s. In contrast, regional declines in lake and stream nitrate concentrations were rare and, when detected, were very small. Recovery in alkalinity, expected wherever strong regional declines in sulphate concentrations have occurred, was observed in all regions of Europe, especially in the 1990s, but in only one region (of five) in North America. We attribute the lack of recovery in three regions (south/central Ontario, the Adirondack/Catskill mountains and midwestern North America) to strong regional declines in base-cation concentrations that exceed the decreases in sulphate concentrations.

  8. North Korea, Quo Vadis?

    Karl H. Stingeder


    Full Text Available North Korean politics appears neither irrational nor unpredictable: the logic of its actions may at first seem opaque, but it nonetheless displays its own rationale and patterns. – North Korea: a ruthless political actor, now under the leadership of Kim Jong-Un who inherited the regime’s leadership from his father and "Supreme Leader", Kim Jong-Il, in 2011. The country’s policy is based on its ongoing political agenda of (nuclear brinkmanship, a true threat to the world – or at least that's how the Western hemisphere sees it. Yet our factual knowledge of this post-Leninist and totalitarian regime is extremely limited and relatively distorted; it is largely circumstantial evidence and judgmental speculation that accounts for our perception of this East Asian state. Northeast Asia (China, Japan, South and North Korea, Taiwan is a region dominated by the legacy of the Cold War. The North Korean leadership has indeed established its priorities, primarily its isolationist orientation, but in the long term the regime cannot survive without external stimulus. Most importantly, even in a long-term, non-violent and gradual transformation of North Korea considerable danger can ultimately result in the demise of the regime. Apart from few signs of a North Korean "civil society", currently only the army might have the resources to see through a regime change. In the meantime, the strategies of isolationism as well as tight control of the media remain as fundamental cornerstones of the regime. A close-knit network of social control has been established and access to the internet for the most part is limited to the regime’s entrusted cadre.

  9. Regionalization of climate model results for the North Sea

    Kauker, F. [Alfred-Wegener-Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven (Germany); Storch, H. von [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik


    A dynamical downscaling for the North Sea is presented. The numerical model used for the study is the coupled ice-ocean model OPYC. In a hindcast of the years 1979 to 1993 it was forced with atmospheric forcing of the ECMWF reanalysis. The models capability in simulating the observed mean state and variability in the North Sea is demonstrated by the hindcast. Two time scale ranges, from weekly to seasonal and the longer-than-seasonal time scales are investigated. Shorter time scales, for storm surges, are not captured by the model formulation. The main modes of variability of sea level, sea-surface circulation, sea-surface temperature, and sea-surface salinity are described and connections to atmospheric phenomena, like the NAO, are discussed. T106 ''time-slice'' simulations with a ''2 x CO{sub 2}'' horizon are used to estimate the effects of a changing climate on the shelf sea ''North Sea''. The ''2 x CO{sub 2}'' changes in the surface forcing are accompanied by changes in the lateral oceanic boundary conditions taken from a global coupled climate model. For ''2 x CO{sub 2}'' the time mean sea level increases up to 25 cm in the German Bight in the winter, where 15 cm are due to the surface forcing and 10 cm due to thermal expansion. This change is compared to the ''natural'' variability as simulated in the ECMWF integration and found to be not outside the range spanned by it. The variability of sea level on the weekly-to-seasonal time-scales is significantly reduced in the scenario integration. The variability on the longer-than-seasonal time-scales in the control and scenario runs is much smaller then in the ECMWF integration. This is traced back to the use of ''time-slice'' experiments. Discriminating between locally forced changes and changes induced at the lateral oceanic boundaries of the model in the circulation and

  10. Operational Draft Regional Guidebook for the Rapid Assessment of Wetlands in the North Slope Region of Alaska


    ER D C/ EL T R- 17 -1 4 Wetlands Regulatory Assistance Program Operational Draft Regional Guidebook for the Rapid Assessment of the North Slope Region of Alaska En vi ro nm en ta l L ab or at or y Jacob F. Berkowitz, Nathan R. Beane, Kevin D. Philley, and Wetlands Regulatory Assistance Program ERDC/EL TR-17-14 August 2017 Operational Draft Regional Guidebook for the Rapid

  11. Indoor Thermal Environment of Korean Rural Housing Yanbian Region of China in Winter

    WANG Xiu-ping; JIN Hong; WANG Yi-han


    For the rural housing in Yanbian region in winter,the indoor thermal environment is bad but the energy consumption is high.And in order to solve the problem,the life particularities of the local residents,such as the inhabitation custom and the different living ways,were analyzed.The comfortable temperature felt by the local residents was surveyed and summarized according to different age's stage.The subjective comfortable tem-perature was calculated by using the thermal comfort formula set up by D.A.Mcintyre.The result shows that the comfortable temperature between the survey and the calculation is different.After analyzing the survey and the resdt ealculatiom,the range of local indoor comfortable temperature was given,which provides a reference basis for calculating the thermal comfort and energy efficiency as well as designing green rural houses.

  12. Response of interior North America to abrupt climate oscillations in the North Atlantic region during the last deglaciation

    Yu, Zicheng; Wright, H. E.


    Several broad-scale climatic oscillations during the last deglaciation are well documented in regions around the North Atlantic Ocean. This paper reviews empirical evidence for these deglacial climatic oscillations from non-coastal North America and discusses implications for testing climatic simulations and for understanding the cause and transmittal mechanisms. Paleoclimatic interpretation of oxygen-isotope records from several small sites in the eastern Great Lakes region indicates a classic deglacial climatic sequence that is comparable with records from Europe and Greenland. The climatic events as interpreted from Crawford Lake oxygen isotopes include the Bølling-Allerød (BOA) warming at ˜12,700 14C BP, a warm BOA at ˜12,500-10,920 14C BP, an intra-Allerød cold period shortly before 11,000 14C BP, a cold Younger Dryas (YD) climate reversal at 10,920-10,000 14C BP, the Holocene warming at 10,000 14C BP, a brief Preboreal Oscillation (PB) at 9650 14C BP, and an early-Holocene cold event at 7500 14C BP (8200 cal BP). Some of these events were also evident from changes in upland and aquatic vegetation and sediment lithology. The pronounced YD climatic reversal has been documented from pollen records along the ecotones at this time and from glacier readvances in the Great Lakes region. Along the Rocky Mountains from Alberta to Colorado, the YD event is indicated by alpine glacier advance and/or shift in timberline vegetation. In Minnesota and upper New York, early-Holocene climatic instability is also suggested by oxygen-isotope records and/or varve thickness. The regional variations in evidence for the YD and other events in North America suggest that climatic oscillations may have different expressions in paleo-records, depending on geographic location and characteristics of a particular site. The extent and magnitude of these climatic oscillations across North America suggest that these oscillations are an expression of climatic change that was probably

  13. Statistical Confrontation of the Evolution of Tourism in the North East Region in Comparison with the other Regions of Romania

    Gabriela Arionesei


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is the analysis of the tourist activity in the North East region, compared to the other development regions of Romania, throughout the period 1990-2014.. The research was performed through a system of tourism indicators applied in the Romanian regions, obtained from the National Institute of Statistics. This comparative analysis was carried out using the statistical method called ANOVA and the Post Hoc – Games-Howell test. In order to achieve the objective, our study implied the analysis of several relevant indicators for tourism: the accommodation capacity, the number of arrivals, the number of overnight stays, the length of stay and the net use of accommodation capacity index. Processing the data related to a period of twenty-five years, the analysis allowed to draw conclusions about the existence of differences between the values of indicators across regions. The comparative analysis of the available data reflected a number of differences between the North East region and the other regions of Romania, the North East region recording lower values for the analyzed indicators, while South East and Central regions hold significantly higher values than the other regions, for the majority of indicators.

  14. Developments in conservation tillage in rainfed regions of North China

    Wang, X.B.; Cai, D.X.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Oenema, O.; Perdok, U.D.


    Dryland regions in northern China account for over 50% of the nation's total area, where farming development is constrained by adverse weather, topography and water resource conditions, low fertility soils, and poor soil management. Conservation tillage research and application in dryland regions of

  15. Conceptual Regional Sediment Budget for USACE North Atlantic Division


    Environmental exposure provides greater weighting to endangered habitat and wetlands . Figure 6 shows the Region 1 sediment budget (left) and...moraine islands, drowned glacial valleys, sand spits, salt marshes , and bedrock outcrops. Paraglacial coasts are located in regions formerly covered by...Narragansett Bay, a drowned glacial valley with a combination of bedrock outcrops, till bluffs, limited sand and gravel beaches, and limited salt marshes




    Full Text Available To identify extreme precipitation, we use the “Standardized Precipitation Index” (SPI method designed to determine periods of climatic drought. This research attempts to assess the synchronization of cycles of precipitation and trends in two regions of the Mediterranean basin, the Soummam Valley (north - east of Algeria and the Cap Bon which forming a peninsula in north-east Tunisia. The results show a severe climate drought observed in these regions from the late eighties and a rainfall return observed at end of the series ( but more confirmed in the Cap Bon region.

  17. Regional warming chnages fish species richness in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean

    Hofstede, ter R.; Hiddink, J.G.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.


    Regional warming causes changes in local communities due to species extinctions and latitudinal range shifts. We show that the species richness of fish in 3 regional seas in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean has changed over time (1997 to 2008), and we relate this to higher water temperatures and the

  18. A Year of Transition: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development Annual Report 2009

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2009


    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four centers in the United States that work to improve opportunities and quality of life in rural communities. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in its 12-state region, the NCRCRD engages Extension…

  19. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive trees in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia

    A preliminary survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive was performed in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia. Olive is a newly introduced crop in this region, and is cultivated in the agricultural enterprises of some of the biggest Saudi agricultural companies. Seedlings are mostly im...

  20. The determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in the Middle East North Africa region

    Rogmans, T.J.; Ebbers, H.A.


    Although, there has been increasing interest in the determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in emerging markets, FDI into the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region has so far received little attention among academics. The MENA region provides a useful ground for the testing of traditional

  1. Alaska North Slope regional gas hydrate production modeling forecasts

    Wilson, S.J.; Hunter, R.B.; Collett, T.S.; Hancock, S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B.J.


    A series of gas hydrate development scenarios were created to assess the range of outcomes predicted for the possible development of the "Eileen" gas hydrate accumulation, North Slope, Alaska. Production forecasts for the "reference case" were built using the 2002 Mallik production tests, mechanistic simulation, and geologic studies conducted by the US Geological Survey. Three additional scenarios were considered: A "downside-scenario" which fails to identify viable production, an "upside-scenario" describes results that are better than expected. To capture the full range of possible outcomes and balance the downside case, an "extreme upside scenario" assumes each well is exceptionally productive.Starting with a representative type-well simulation forecasts, field development timing is applied and the sum of individual well forecasts creating the field-wide production forecast. This technique is commonly used to schedule large-scale resource plays where drilling schedules are complex and production forecasts must account for many changing parameters. The complementary forecasts of rig count, capital investment, and cash flow can be used in a pre-appraisal assessment of potential commercial viability.Since no significant gas sales are currently possible on the North Slope of Alaska, typical parameters were used to create downside, reference, and upside case forecasts that predict from 0 to 71??BM3 (2.5??tcf) of gas may be produced in 20 years and nearly 283??BM3 (10??tcf) ultimate recovery after 100 years.Outlining a range of possible outcomes enables decision makers to visualize the pace and milestones that will be required to evaluate gas hydrate resource development in the Eileen accumulation. Critical values of peak production rate, time to meaningful production volumes, and investments required to rule out a downside case are provided. Upside cases identify potential if both depressurization and thermal stimulation yield positive results. An "extreme upside

  2. Thermal and albedo mapping of the north and south polar regions of Mars

    Paige, D. A.; Keegan, K. D.


    The first maps of the thermal properties of the north and south polar region of Mars are presented. The maps complete the mapping of the entire planet. The maps for the north polar region were derived from Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) observations obtained from 10 Jun. to 30 Sep. 1978. This period corresponds to the early summer season in the north, when the north residual water ice cap was exposed, and the polar surface temperatures were near their maximum. The maps in the south were derived from observations obtained between 24 Aug. to 23 Sep. 1977. This period corresponds to the late summer season in the south, when the seasonal polar cap had retreated to close to its residual configuration, and the second global dust storm of 1977 had largely subsided. The major results concerning the following topics are summarized: (1) surface water ice; (2) polar dune material; and (3) dust deposits.

  3. Two centuries of observed atmospheric variability and change over the North Sea region

    Stendel, Martin; van den Besselaar, Else; Hannachi, Abdel; Kent, Elizabeth; Lefebvre, Christiana; Rosenhagen, Gudrun; Schenk, Frederik; van der Schrier, Gerard; Woollings, Tim


    In the upcoming North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment (NOSCCA), we present a synthesis of current knowledge about past, present and possible future climate change in the North Sea region. A climate change assessment from published scientific work has been conducted as a kind of regional IPCC report, and a book has been produced that will be published by Springer in 2016. In the framework of the NOSCCA project, we examine past and present studies of variability and changes in atmospheric variables within the North Sea region over the instrumental period, roughly the past 200 years, based on observations and reanalyses. The variables addressed in this presentation are large-scale circulation, pressure and wind, surface air temperature, precipitation and radiative properties (clouds, solar radiation, and sunshine duration). While air temperature over land, not unexpectedly, has increased everywhere in the North Sea region, with strongest trends in spring and in the north of the region, a precipitation increase has been observed in the north and a decrease in the south of the region. This pattern goes along with a north-eastward shift of storm tracks and is in agreement with climate model projections under enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations. For other variables, it is not obvious which part of the observed changes may be due to anthropogenic activities and which is internally forced. It remains also unclear to what extent atmospheric circulation over the North Sea region is influenced by distant factors, in particular Arctic sea-ice decline in recent decades. There are indications of an increase in the number of deep cyclones (but not in the total number of cyclones), while storminess since the late 19th century shows no robust trends. The persistence of circulation types appears to have increased over the last century, and consequently, there is an indication for 'more extreme' extreme events. However, changes in extreme weather events are difficult to assess

  4. Regional projections of North Indian climate for adaptation studies.

    Mathison, Camilla; Wiltshire, Andrew; Dimri, A P; Falloon, Pete; Jacob, Daniela; Kumar, Pankaj; Moors, Eddy; Ridley, Jeff; Siderius, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Yasunari, T


    Adaptation is increasingly important for regions around the world where large changes in climate could have an impact on populations and industry. The Brahmaputra-Ganges catchments have a large population, a main industry of agriculture and a growing hydro-power industry, making the region susceptible to changes in the Indian Summer Monsoon, annually the main water source. The HighNoon project has completed four regional climate model simulations for India and the Himalaya at high resolution (25km) from 1960 to 2100 to provide an ensemble of simulations for the region. In this paper we have assessed the ensemble for these catchments, comparing the simulations with observations, to give credence that the simulations provide a realistic representation of atmospheric processes and therefore future climate. We have illustrated how these simulations could be used to provide information on potential future climate impacts and therefore aid decision-making using climatology and threshold analysis. The ensemble analysis shows an increase in temperature between the baseline (1970-2000) and the 2050s (2040-2070) of between 2 and 4°C and an increase in the number of days with maximum temperatures above 28°C and 35°C. There is less certainty for precipitation and runoff which show considerable variability, even in this relatively small ensemble, spanning zero. The HighNoon ensemble is the most complete data for the region providing useful information on a wide range of variables for the regional climate of the Brahmaputra-Ganges region, however there are processes not yet included in the models that could have an impact on the simulations of future climate. We have discussed these processes and show that the range from the HighNoon ensemble is similar in magnitude to potential changes in projections where these processes are included. Therefore strategies for adaptation must be robust and flexible allowing for advances in the science and natural environmental changes

  5. Seismicity Surveying in Central and North Mexico Regions

    Nieto-Samaniego, A.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J. M.; Guzman-Speziale, M.; Zuniga, R.; Alaniz-Alvarez, S.; Barboza, R.; Davalos, O.


    The seismic nature of Central Mexico is poorly understood due to insufficient sampling. We carried out a seismic survey in part of the TransMexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and the Central Altiplano. These regions are characterized by a very low deformation rates. Seismic activity is variable and ranges from microseismicity to large earthquakes, but no large historic earthquake has been instrumentally recorded. Only few direct observations such as intensity reconstructions and recent paleoseismic studies (e.g. the Acambay-Tixmadej earthquake of 1912) are available. Large earthquakes have occurred but their recurrence period is unknown; structural studies show this recurrence could range from hundreds to thousands of years. In order to understand the regional seismic behavior, we installed a temporal network. This network consists of 3-5 short period instruments, consisting of 16-bits triaxial digital velocity recorders (0.01-4.5 Hz). We registered several seismic sequences over a period of several months. One of them took place in Guanajuato within a graben structure in the TMVB and lasted for 2 weeks. Another sequence occurred at the northern limit of the TMVB in the Sierra Gorda. Over five weeks, several micro-earthquakes M Sierra Gorda, the event distribution is aligned along a small valley, but perpendicular to the main structural grain imposed by the Sierra Madre Oriental range. In no instances have surface ruptures been observed; those seismogenic structures could be blind ones. A challenge is to locate this structures which are may be too old to be still active. Increased seismotectonic knowledge of this region will yield further insight into the details of the interaction between surface structures driven by the regional stress field. Our results provide evidence that the region requires more intensive seismic surveying, and in some cases that some structures have been reactivated recently.

  6. Regional cenozoic uplift and subsidence events in the southeastern North Sea

    Jordt, H.


    The Paleocene topography of the Fennoscandian Shield is indicated by outbuilding towards the Central Trough and the Ringkoebing-Fyn High. From Eocene until Pliocene time three events of relative vertical movements are indicated by changes in outbuilding directions and reflection termination patterns in the central North Sea. The firs event of uplift was in the Eocene and resulted in relative uplift of the Mid North Sea High and contemporary subsidence east of it, indicated by a change in outbuilding from north to west. A second event of uplift is indicated to the north of the study area at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary by renewed southward outbuilding in the Norwegian-Danish Basin. In Miocene until Early Pliocene time a relatively stationary, almost east-west striking, basin margin was probably located to the north along the Tornquist Zone as indicated by the continued outbuilding towards the Ringkoebing-Fyn High. A third event of relative uplift is indicated east of the study area by changes in the Pliocene outbuilding pattern. After the first event of uplift it appears that the deepest parts of the Eocene North Sea Basin was located more easterly than the deepest part are today. Apparently the two latest uplift events north and east of the study area were related to movements of, or along the Tornquist Zone or to regional uplift of the Fennoscandian Shield finally resulting in the present-day configuration of the North Sea. (au) 11 refs.

  7. Seismicity surveying in central and north mexico region

    Gómez, J. M.; Guzmán, M.; Nieto, A.; Zúñiga, R.; Alaniz, S.; Barboza, R.


    The seismic nature of Central Mexico is poorly understood due to insufficient sampling. This region is characterized by a very low deformation rate. The seismic activity is variable and ranges from microseismicity to large earthquakes. Some large earthquakes have occurred with an unknown returning period; structural studies show this recurrence could range from hundreds to thousands of years. Some authors argue that there is not connection between ancient and recent activity. We carried out several seismic surveys in part of the TransMexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and the Altiplano Central. We installed a temporal network, in order to record spatial seismic distribution. This network consists of 3-5 short period instruments, consisting of triaxial digital velocity recorders (0.01-4.5 Hz). We registered several swarms; one took place in Guanajuato and lasted for 2 weeks. Another crisis occurred at the northern limit of the TMVB at Sierra Gorda. Over five weeks several micro-earthquakes M < 2 were felt with anomaously high intensity. Relocated seismicity shows very shallow (< 10km) activity. The regional crust conditions appear to be roughly uniform even though the seismicity varies significantly. In some cases like seismic swarms, several microearthquakes are aligned, and seem to be quasi-parallel to the direction of the fault strike, some other times they are perpendicular. However, surface ruptures associated to earthquakes are not observed to confirm this. Then, a challenge is to locate the seismogenic structures, basically because of the surface structures are too old to be still active. Increased seismotectonic knowledge of this region may give further insight into the details of the interaction between surface structures driven by the regional stress field.

  8. Comparative Resilience in Five North Pacific Regional Salmon Fisheries

    Xanthippe Augerot


    Full Text Available Over the past century, regional fisheries for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. have been managed primarily for their provisioning function, not for ecological support and cultural significance. We examine the resilience of the regional salmon fisheries of Japan, the Russian Far East, Alaska, British Columbia, and Washington-Oregon-California (WOC in terms of their provisioning function. Using the three dimensions of the adaptive cycle - capital, connectedness, and resilience - we infer the resilience of the five fisheries based on a qualitative assessment of capital accumulation and connectedness at the regional scale. In our assessment, we evaluate natural capital and connectedness and constructed capital and connectedness. The Russian Far East fishery is the most resilient, followed by Alaska, British Columbia, Japan, and WOC. Adaptive capacity in the fisheries is contingent upon high levels of natural capital and connectedness and moderate levels of constructed capital and connectedness. Cross-scale interactions and global market demand are significant factors in reduced resilience. Greater attention to ecological functioning and cultural signification has the potential to increase resilience in Pacific salmon ecosystems.

  9. Anaesthetic agents for advanced regional anaesthesia: a North American perspective.

    Buckenmaier, Chester C; Bleckner, Lisa L


    Interest in the use of regional anaesthesia, particularly peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs) and continuous PNBs, has increased in recent years. Accompanying this resurgence in interest has been the development of new local anaesthetics and additives designed to enhance block duration and quality. This manuscript provides a literature-based review on accepted uses of local anaesthetics and adjuncts for a variety of regional anaesthesia techniques. A brief review of local anaesthetic pharmacodynamics describes the action of these drugs in preventing nerve depolarisation, thus blocking nerve impulses. Toxic adverse effects of local anaesthetics, specifically CNS and cardiac manifestations of excessive local anaesthetic blood concentrations and the direct neurotoxic properties of local anaesthetics, are discussed generally and specifically for many commonly used local anaesthetics. Clinically useful ester and amide local anaesthetics are evaluated individually in terms of their physical properties and toxic potential. How these properties impact on the clinical uses of each local anaesthetic is explored. Particular emphasis is placed on the long-acting local anaesthetic toxic potential of racemic bupivacaine compared with levobupivacaine and ropivacaine, which are both levorotatory stereoisomers. Guidelines for using ropivacaine and mepivacaine, based on the authors' experience using advanced regional anaesthesia in a busy practice, is provided. Finally, epinephrine (adrenaline), clonidine and other local anaesthetic additives and their rationale for use is covered along with other future possibilities.

  10. Globalisation and Education: The Case of North Korea.

    Reed, Gay Garland


    Looks at North Korean education in terms of the tension that exists between globalization and educational sovereignty. Offers a brief historical background to North Korean education and provides a baseline for developing three possible scenarios for its future. Illustrates the impact of domestic and international forces on North Korean education.…

  11. Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.


    The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

  12. Mithun : The pride animal of north-eastern hilly region of India

    M. G. Shisode

    Full Text Available Mithun, the pride animal called as ‘Cattle of Hilly Region’ of north-eastern hilly region of India and tropical rain forest of China. The animal plays an important role in the day to day socio-economic life of the local tribal population. Mithun (Bos frontalis is a rear species of livestock and is found in the north-eastern region of our country like Arunachal Pradesh (75 per cent of the total population, Nagaland (60 per cent, Manipur (0.8 per cent andMizoram (0.1 per cent having total population 0.25 million according to census 2003 and also very meager in Myanmar, Bhutan, and Bangladesh. The animal has got good potential for production of quality meat, milk and leather. Mithun is the ‘Cattle of Hilly Region’ and is one of the domesticated animals from the North-eastern hilly region and mainly found in tropical rain forest of North-eastern hilly region. Very meager population is found inMyanmar, Bhutan and China. There are four defined mithun strains depending up on the geographical areas namely Arunachal, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram strains, respectively. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 480-481

  13. Exploitation of the IMS and Other Data for a Comprehensive Advanced Analysis of the North Korean Nuclear Tests


    98, No. 5, pp. 2498–2506, October 2008, doi: 10.1785/0120080929. Che, Il-Young, Tae Sung Kim, Jeong-Soo Jeon and Hee-Il Lee (2009) Infrasound...Workshop on Seismic Location and Discrimination in Korea, Phillips Lab Report PL-TR-96-2086, 313-322. Herrmann, R., Y. Jeon , H. Yoo, K. Cho, W. Walter, M...mb(Pn), mb(Lg) scales and transportability of the M0:mb discriminant to new tectonic regions,” Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 87, 1083-1099. Richards, Paul

  14. The Major Asian Powers and the Korean Reunification Process: Catalysts or Deterrents?


    RD-Ai65 128 THE MAJOR ASIAN POWERS AND THE KOREAN REUNIFICATION 1/2 PROCESS- CATALYSTS OR DETERRENTS?(U) DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE COLL WASHINGTON DC J J...the Korean cultural heritage. This was followed by a review of current economic, political, social, and military systems in North and South Korea ... Korean question. This material supplemented details from current news media on North-South Korean rapprochement and major power actions vis-a-vis Korea

  15. Ionospheric hole made by a North Korean rocket launched in 2012 December: Observation with the Russian GNSS

    Nakashima, Y.; Heki, K.


    The Unha-3 rocket was launched due southward at 00:49:46UT on Dec. 12, 2012, from the Tongchang-ri.launch pad on the Yellow Sea side of North Korea. We converted the RINEX format GPS data of the launch day to TEC, and looked for the ionospheric hole signatures. We could not find clear electron depletion signals simply because no GPS satellites were available in the northwestern skies. GPS is the American GNSS system, and other systems are becoming operational. GEONET receivers have been replaced with the new models capable of receiving multiple GNSS, and about 10 percent of them could observe GLONASS and QZSS, the Russian and the Japanese GNSS, respectively, at the time of the Unha-3 launch. More than 20 GLONASS satellites are already in operation, and we used the number 13 satellite to detect the ionospheric hole formation above the Yellow Sea (see Figure). We modified the software to convert RINEX file into TEC time series [Heki et al., JGSJ 2010] in order to handle RINEX v.2.12 files including GLONASS/QZSS data. The broadcast orbits of the GLONASS satellites are given in the geocentric Cartesian coordinates instead of the Keplerian elements like GPS and QZSS. GLONASS uses different microwave frequencies for different satellites, which also required the modification for the original software to calculate TEC. Ozeki & Heki [2010] compared the thrust of the 1998 and 2009 Taepodong missiles by comparing the sizes/depths of the ionospheric holes, and here we compare the hole made by the 2012 December Unha-3 launch with the past cases. The onset times of the depletion are the same, suggesting similar ascending speeds of the three rockets (missiles). Depth of the hole depends both on the amount of water vapor in the exhaust and the background TEC. The hole of the Unha-3 is similar to the 2009 case (or somewhat deeper/larger), which would reflect the vertical TEC in the 2012 case about 1/3 larger than that in 2009. The hole seems to last longer in the 2012 case possibly


    Silviu BECIU


    Full Text Available The European Union Regions of Development are characterized by substantial social, economic, and territorial disparities. There also recorded large economic disparities between rural and urban areas. The Romanian rural areas includes: 2860 communes, 12,956 villages, representing around 90% of the Romanian territory and 45 % of its population. It has the main agricultural and forestry resources and over 9.6 million inhabitants. Of these, 506 communes and 2414 villages are located in the 6 counties of The North East Region of Development, one of the poorest regions of development within European Union. This paper is focused on the regional development issues in the rural areas of this region and is aimed to evaluate the resources that haven’t been enough capitalized in this region and to indentify solutions to improve the socio- economic situation in the next years, through a balanced development strategy.

  17. On the variation of regional CO2 exchange over temperate and boreal North America

    Zhang, Xia; Gurney, Kevin R.; Peylin, Philippe; Chevallier, Frédéric; Law, Rachel M.; Patra, Prabir K.; Rayner, Peter J.; Röedenbeck, Christian; Krol, Maarten


    net carbon exchange time series spanning two decades for six North American regions are analyzed to examine long-term trends and relationships to temperature and precipitation variations. Results reveal intensification of carbon uptake in eastern boreal North America (0.1 PgC/decade) and the Midwest United States (0.08 PgC/decade). Seasonal cross-correlation analysis shows a significant relationship between net carbon exchange and temperature/precipitation anomalies during the western United States growing season with warmer, dryer conditions leading reduced carbon uptake. This relationship is consistent with "global change-type drought" dynamics which drive increased vegetation mortality, increases in dry woody material, and increased wildfire occurrence. This finding supports the contention that future climate change may increase carbon loss in this region. Similarly, higher temperatures and reduced precipitation are accompanied by decreased net carbon uptake in the Midwestern United States toward the end of the growing season. Additionally, intensified net carbon uptake during the eastern boreal North America growing season is led by increased precipitation anomalies in the previous year, suggesting the influence of "climate memory" carried by regional snowmelt water. The two regions of boreal North America exhibit opposing seasonal carbon-temperature relationships with the eastern half experiencing a net carbon loss with near coincident increases in temperature and the western half showing increased net carbon uptake. The carbon response in the boreal west region lags the temperature anomalies by roughly 6 months. This opposing carbon-temperature relationship in boreal North America may be a combination of different dominant vegetation types, the amount and timing of snowfall, and temperature anomaly differences across boreal North America.

  18. Quantifying regional vegetation cover variability in North China during the Holocene: implications for climate feedback.

    Guo Liu

    Full Text Available Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. We used the surface soil pollen percentage to build three pollen-vegetation cover transfer models, and used lake surface sediment pollen data to validate their accuracy. Our results showed that vegetation cover in North China increased slightly before its maximum at 6.5 cal ka BP and has since declined significantly. The vegetation decline since 6.5 cal ka BP has likely induced a regional albedo change and aerosol increase. Further comparison with paleoclimate and paleovegetation dynamics in South China reproduced the regional cooling effect of vegetation cover decline in North China modelled in previous work. Our discussion demonstrates that, instead of reconstructing vegetation type from a single site, reconstructing quantitative regional vegetation cover could offer a broader understanding of regional vegetation-climate feedback.

  19. Quantifying regional vegetation cover variability in North China during the Holocene: implications for climate feedback.

    Liu, Guo; Yin, Yi; Liu, Hongyan; Hao, Qian


    Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. We used the surface soil pollen percentage to build three pollen-vegetation cover transfer models, and used lake surface sediment pollen data to validate their accuracy. Our results showed that vegetation cover in North China increased slightly before its maximum at 6.5 cal ka BP and has since declined significantly. The vegetation decline since 6.5 cal ka BP has likely induced a regional albedo change and aerosol increase. Further comparison with paleoclimate and paleovegetation dynamics in South China reproduced the regional cooling effect of vegetation cover decline in North China modelled in previous work. Our discussion demonstrates that, instead of reconstructing vegetation type from a single site, reconstructing quantitative regional vegetation cover could offer a broader understanding of regional vegetation-climate feedback.

  20. Tracking regional and global teleconnections recorded by western North American speleothem records

    Oster, Jessica L.; Kelley, Neil P.


    Speleothem proxy records are useful for interrogating past climates in the low and mid-latitudes given their ability to provide continuous, high-resolution, and long-lived records that can be dated with high precision. Several speleothem oxygen isotope records from western North America have recently been developed that highlight the importance of this archive in documenting past changes in atmospheric circulation. Taken individually, these records hint at teleconnections between western North American hydroclimate and climate changes in the high northern latitudes and tropics. However, there has been no systematic investigation of global climate teleconnections to this region that draws upon the body of North American speleothem records as a whole. Here we review the dominant controls on precipitation oxygen isotopes across the region, and conduct statistical comparisons and network visualizations of high-resolution speleothem oxygen isotope records from western North America to investigate the regional response to pronounced climate changes of the last deglaciation and to determine the pattern of global teleconnections to this region. We find that most western North American speleothem oxygen isotope records demonstrate a robust and consistent response to the events of the last deglaciation, despite differing controls on the oxygen isotope ratio of precipitation across the region. One record that receives a strong influence from the Gulf of Mexico exhibits a contrasting pattern in oxygen isotopes relative to most of the other records, which are dominated by westerly storms generated in the Pacific. During the studied interval, major shifts in Western North American speleothem records appear broadly synchronous at least within the uncertainty of age models. We also find strong statistical linkages between western North American speleothem records and speleothem records of Asian monsoon variability and other records from regions directly influenced by movement of

  1. North Karelia regional chain of care: Finnish experiences.

    Itkonen, Pentti


    Information--and communication technology is one of the most important cornerstones in more and more data and knowledge intensive health care sector. However these factors don't create financial gains and productivity benefits spontaneously. They need organisational and social innovations and new business models. The growth of productivity is connected to the process and organisational innovations and not to the number of computers and the growth of using ICT. One of the problems prohibiting health care profession to move to real e-work environment is the lack of the reliable measures and on these measures based performance measurement and strategic management. Health care can be improved by utilizing ICT and tools like performance measuring are key weapons in the arsenal of new e-work environment and measuring based new strategic management. Neither public sector nor not-for-profit hospitals look for financial rewards as their ultimate proof of success. Instead, they seek to achieve ambitious missions aimed at improving the health standards and wellbeing of the citizens. ICT- based new way of managing in the public sector is just beginning to gain a critical level of digitalization and will most likely come to its own in the coming years. Therefore, it is essential to research on how the health care sector can be moved towards new regional models and clinical workflow using intelligent standard based strategic management and performance measurement. If the breakthrough of the eight-hour working day and shortening of working time are evaluated afterwards, it can be stated that they have made the society more anthropocentric and humane. During one century the annual working time has shortened from 3000 hours to 1700 hours in the European Union countries. These foundations of a more humane society--eight-hour working day and shortening of regular working time--are however disappearing in the post-industrialized information society. There are various grounds for the

  2. Operational Art Requirements in the Korean War


    Rhee, enough for defense but not enough to precipitate South Korean offensive actions to unify Korea .27 Adding to the tension in the region, the...percent of the Korean Peninsula. The United States decided to intervene in the defense of the South and proceeded to press the United Nations (U.N...the Korean War, these works primarily fall into three broad areas of scholarship: the American strategy concerning Korea and the Cold War

  3. The contribution of ship emissions to air pollution in the North Sea regions

    Matthias, Volker, E-mail: volker.matthias@gkss.d [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Bewersdorff, Ines [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Aulinger, Armin, E-mail: armin.aulinger@gkss.d [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Quante, Markus, E-mail: markus.quante@gkss.d [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)


    As a consequence of the global distribution of manufacturing sites and the increasing international division of labour, ship traffic is steadily increasing and is becoming more and more important as an origin of air pollution. This study investigates the impact of ship emissions in coastal areas of the North Sea under conditions of the year 2000 by means of a regional chemistry transport model which runs on a sufficiently high resolution to study air pollution in coastal regions. It was found that northern Germany and Denmark in summer suffer from more than 50% higher sulphate, nitrate and ammonium aerosol concentrations due to contributions from ships. The implementation of a sulphur emission control area (SECA) in the North Sea, as it was implemented at the end of 2007, directly results in reduced sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosol concentrations while nitrate aerosol concentrations are slightly increased. - Ship emissions lead to significantly enhanced air pollution by secondary inorganic aerosols in North Sea coastal areas.

  4. The metamorphic evolution from ultrahigh-temperature to amphibolite facies metamorphism in the Odaesan area after the collision between the North and South China Cratons in the Korean Peninsula

    Lee, Byung Choon; Oh, Chang Whan; Kim, Tae Sung; Yi, Keewook


    The Odaesan Gneiss Complex (Odesan Gneiss Complex) is the eastern end of the Hongseong-Odaesan collision belt in the Korean Peninsula, which is an extension of the Dabie-Sulu collision belt between the North and South China cratons. The Odaesan Gneiss Complex mainly consists of banded and migmatitic gneisses with porphyritic granitoids and amphibolites. The garnet-bearing banded gneisses can be subdivided into garnet-biotite and garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneisses. At the beginning of the post-collision stage, the banded gneisses underwent regional ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism (902-950 °C/8.8-9.4 kbar) at ca. 247-245 Ma due to the heat supplied from underplated basic magma, which was generated by the partial melting of the lithospheric mantle caused by the heat supplied from the asthenospheric mantle. As a result of the continuous extensional force, the study area (lower crust) uplifted onto the middle crust depths, and then the study area underwent prograde granulite facies metamorphism from 660 °C and 8.7 kbar to 750-760 °C and 6.3-6.5 kbar at ca. 227 Ma, causing migmatization, which erased the ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism in most of the study area. The ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism was preserved only in the garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneisses due to their very low water contents. During migmatization, the garnet-biotite banded gneisses were retrograded into upper granulite facies due to the relatively abundant water compared with the garnet-orthopyroxene gneisses. Finally, the study area was uplifted to a shallow depth and locally underwent amphibolite facies retrograde metamorphism (575-680 °C and 3.1-4.5 kbar). In addition, Paleoproterozoic metamorphic (ca. 1930-1886 Ma) and post-collisional magmatic events (ca. 1847 Ma) are identified based on SHRIMP age dating. These ages agree well with the regional Paleoproterozoic metamorphic and post-collisional magmatic activities reported from other areas of the Gyeonggi Massif.


    T. T. Smolskaya


    Full Text Available Abstract. In the current review the results of HIV surveillance in 11 administrative territories of the North-western federal region of the Russian Federation (NWFR in 2009 are summarized. The analysis of epidemic process is based on the data of HIV cases detected in the administrative territories of the NWFR by serological screening and registered in the state reporting forms.

  6. Lawn Weeds and Their Control. North Central Regional Extension Publication No. 26.

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication discusses lawn weed control for the twelve state north central region of the country. Written for use by homeowners, the publication focuses on weed identification and proper herbicide selection and application. Identification of weeds and safe and appropriate herbicide use are emphasized. Forty-six weed and turf plants are…

  7. Adult Education and the Challenges of Regional Development: Policy and Sustainability in North Denmark

    Rasmussen, Palle; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen


    Adult education is governed at many levels--internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark (Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the…

  8. North Central Region 4-H Volunteers: Documenting Their Contributions and Volunteer Development

    Nippolt, Pamela Larson; Pleskac, Sue; Schwartz, Vicki; Swanson, Doug


    Documenting volunteer contributions strengthens Extension partnerships with volunteers. A team of North Central Region 4-H volunteer specialists collaborated to conduct a study of 4-H volunteer contributions and impacts related to working with youth within the 4-H program. Over three thousand (3,332) 4-H volunteers from throughout the 12-state…

  9. Lawn Weeds and Their Control. North Central Regional Extension Publication No. 26.

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication discusses lawn weed control for the twelve state north central region of the country. Written for use by homeowners, the publication focuses on weed identification and proper herbicide selection and application. Identification of weeds and safe and appropriate herbicide use are emphasized. Forty-six weed and turf plants are…

  10. "Racing to the Top" to Prepare Turnaround Principals in North Carolina: Homegrown Regional Leadership Academies

    Brown, Kathleen M.


    North Carolina's Race to the Top (RttT) grant earmarked approximately $17.5 million to "increase the number of principals qualified to lead transformational change in low-performing schools in both rural and urban areas" (NCDPI, 2010, p.10). To accomplish this, the state established three Regional Leadership Academies (RLAs)…

  11. Regional initiatives to promote economic development in North-east Asia.

    Nijkamp, P.; Wiegmans, B.W.


    This paper addresses the economic development potential of the Asian Pacific Rim, with a particular view on north East Asia. It is argued that growth triangles are likely to be a proper way of organizing regional development forces. Next, the attention is focused on the Tumen River Area Development Programme as a potentially interesting region for joint transnational development initiatives. The opportunities and threats of this area are explored by means of scenario analysis. It is conc1uded...

  12. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    Sasamoto, Yukuo


    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

  13. The empirical formula determination of local magnitude for North Moluccas region

    Kamaruddin, Basri; Suardi, Iman; Heryandoko, Nova; Bunaga, I. Gusti Ketut Satria


    The energy of local and regional earthquake is usually expressed by local magnitude. In addition, local magnitude is also useful for seismic hazard assessment. The aims of this study are to determine the empirical formula of local magnitude and the correction distance function, -log A 0, applied for North Moluccas region. This study used waveform data from the MCGA seismic network located around North Moluccas region. We collected 148 maximum amplitude data of 40 earthquake events which are recorded by 6 seismometers with range of time from December 1, 2013 till January 31, 2014, hypocentral distance from 25km till 550 km, and depth below 70 km. The results of this study are the empirical formula of local magnitude, ML = log A + 0.651logR + 0.0037R 1.3568, and the correction distance function, logA0 = 0.651logR + 0.0037R 1.3568, respectively. Also we found that the station correction values of the GLMI, LBMI, MNI, SANI, TMSI, and TNTI seismic stations were -0.057, -0.216, -0.322, 0.088, -0.494, and 0.180, respectively. Low amplification is indicated by the positive value of station correction; meanwhile high amplification is by the negative. The correction distance function of North Moluccas region is similar to the Central California region. It means that the attenuation characteristics of the two regions have similarities.

  14. North hardship conditions rating in research works and regional policy (on examples of the regions related to resources

    Vitaliy Nikolaevich Lazhentsev


    Full Text Available The influence of peculiar features of the North and the Arctic on formation of scope of research works and the directions of regional policy is shown. The assessment of cold (climatic discomfort, permafrost, etc., periferieness, high natural and resource potential, ethnicity is directed on the studying of traditional problems of demography, the organization of the relations between corporations and territories, the tax and budgetary providing. The problem of choice of measurement techniques of level of economic and social condition is especially allocated. The attempt to coordinate raw specialization of the northern and the arctic regions with the solution of strategic problems of their sustainable development is made.

  15. Korean War Logistics Eighth United States Army


    from defensive to offensive, as CINCUNC directed it to attack north to Pyongyang, capital city of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (OPRK), North...weapons to kill the tanks. General Eberle, G-4, FEC, described the urgent need for Bazookas in Korea . ... the Russians provided the North Koreans with T...8217,- ’S~ I6 0 iI. RONIOJ3A2DS PO.;S KOREA APR t gN -I S * ~z T- -:*J *1* Porto3~, r -. r 4< ,Ž . BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Appleman, Roy E. US Army in the Korean War

  16. Study on the Method of Short-Term Synthetic Earthquake Prediction in the North China Region

    Ping Jianjun; Zhang Yongxian; Zhang Qingrong; Liu Suying; Chen Jianguo; Huang Wanfa; Mi Xuemei


    Based on the extraction and calculation of the short-term seismic precursory information magnitude from the 114 major precursory observations in the North China region, and together with consideration of factors such as geological structure, seismicity, crustal thickness, and in particular, the current geodynamics of the region, the authors studied the time-space evolution characteristics of the short-term earthquake precursory information magnitude and its relationship with earthquakes and proposed the index and method for the short-term synthetic prediction of earthquakes with Ms ≥ 5.0 in the North China region. The inspection through Rvalue shows that the method is effective to a certain extent for earthquake prediction.

  17. Two centuries of extreme events over the Baltic Sea and North Sea regions

    Stendel, Martin; den Besselaar Else, van; Abdel, Hannachi; Jaak, Jaagus; Elizabeth, Kent; Christiana, Lefebvre; Gudrun, Rosenhagen; Anna, Rutgersson; Frederik, Schenk; der Schrier Gerard, van; Tim, Woolings


    Two centuries of extreme events over the Baltic Sea and North Sea regions In the framework of the BACC 2 (for the Baltic Sea) and NOSCCA projects (for the North Sea region), studies of past and present variability and changes in atmospheric variables within the North Sea region over the instrumental period (roughly the past 200 years) have been investigated. Findings on trends in temperature and precipitation have already been presented. Here we focus on data homogeneity issues and examine how reliable reanalyses are in this context. Unlike most other regions in the world, there is a wealth of old observations available for the Baltic and North Sea regions, most of it in handwritten form in meteorological journals and other publications. These datasets need to be carefully digitised and homogenized. For this, a thorough quality control must be applied; otherwise the digitised datasets may prove useless or even counterproductive. We present evidence that this step cannot be conducted without human interference and thus cannot be fully automated. Furthermore, inhomogeneities due to e.g. instrumentation and station relocations need to be addressed. A wealth of reanalysis products is available, which can help detect such inhomogeneities in observed time series, but at the same time are prone to biases and/or spurious trends themselves e.g. introduced by changes in the availability and quality of the underlying assimilated data. It therefore in general remains unclear in how far we can simulate the pre-satellite era with respect to homogeneity with reanalyses based only on parts of the observing system. Extreme events and changes in extreme situations are more important and of greater (societal) significance than changes in mean climate. However, changes in extreme weather events are difficult to assess not only because they are, per definition, rare events, but also due to the homogeneity issues outlined above. Taking these into account, we present evidence for changes

  18. Problems of Development of Human Capital in the Regions of North Caucasian Federal District

    Aminat Ruslanovna Kappusheva


    Full Text Available The article specifies types of investments in human capital: spending on education, health and mobility. The author highlights the key actors invest in human capital development: the state, the corporate sector, households; emphasizes the low activity of the corporate sector and households in the process of investing in human capital. During the analysis of the problems of development of the human capital of the North Caucasian Federal District the author highlighted the interdependence of development of the productive sector of the economy and human capital: the low level of industrialization determines the gap in terms of gross regional product, high unemployment and low incomes, lack of investment in human capital of households. The article also deals with the problems of health and education in the North Caucasian Federal District: the shortage of qualified personnel, insufficient capacity of institutions. The analysis of the structure of regional budget expenditures on human capital development are pointed out. They include the spheres of health, education and culture. There is a direct and close relationship between the amount of budget spending on health, education, culture and the level of development of human capital in the country and the region. In the regions of the North Caucasian Federal District the lower level of educated population engaged in the sphere of economics was revealed. Particular attention is paid to analysis of the quality of human capital state and municipal employees of the North Caucasian Federal District, whose activities in the conditions of underdevelopment of large business, significantly affects the prospects for regional economic growth. The necessity of developing and implementing regional policies to promote health, education and culture, determines the quality of human capital in the economy.

  19. The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program: Overview of Phase I Results

    Mearns, L. O.; Arritt, R.; Biner, S.; Bukovsky, Melissa; McGinnis, Seth; Sain, Steve; Caya, Daniel; Correia Jr., James; Flory, Dave; Gutowski, William; Takle, Gene; Jones, Richard; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Moufouma-Okia, Wilfran; McDaniel, Larry; Nunes, A.; Qian, Yun; Roads, J.; Sloan, Lisa; Snyder, Mark A.


    The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program is an international effort designed to systematically investigate the uncertainties in regional scale projections of future climate and produce high resolution climate change scenarios using multiple regional climate models (RCMs) nested within atmosphere ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) forced with the A2 SRES scenario, with a common domain covering the conterminous US, northern Mexico, and most of Canada. The program also includes an evaluation component (Phase I) wherein the participating RCMs are nested within 25 years of NCEP/DOE global reanalysis II. The grid spacing of the RCM simulations is 50 km.

  20. An Air Campaign for a Second Korean War: A Strategy for Attacking the Centers of Gravity


    for a Second Korean War. The author argues that North Korea has three concentric centers of gravity--one each at the strategic, operational, and...tactical level. The strategic center is the national and military leadership; the operational center is the North Korean Integrated Air Defense System; the...Second Korean War. The author argues that North Korea has three concentric centers of gravity--one each at the strategic, operational, and tactical

  1. Korean War Logistics, The First One Hundred Days, 25 June 1950 to 2 October 1950


    delay along the 38th Parallel with subsequent defensive lines along the Ban, Taejon and Andong Rivers. Once the North Koreans attacked, ROK Army...officers soon realized that they had insufficient time to implement their defensive plan due to the swift, tank led, North Korean thrust. The ROK Army was...North Korean attack and asked the United States to appoint the commander for United Nations forces and form a unified command to repel aggression in Korea

  2. Tuberculosis in North Korea

    Perry, Sharon; Linton, Heidi; Schoolnik, Gary


    Tensions on the Korean Peninsula are high. How South Korea, the United States, and other countries, including China, engage North Korea remains a sensitive issue, as policies tying aid to denuclearization are debated...

  3. Delayed ENSO impact on spring precipitation over North/Atlantic European region

    Herceg Bulic, Ivana [Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Andrija Mohorovicic Geophysical Institute, Department of Geophysics, Zagreb (Croatia); Kucharski, Fred [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Earth System Physics Section, Trieste (Italy)


    The delayed impact of winter sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies in tropical Pacific on spring precipitation over the North Atlantic/European (NAE) region is examined using both measured and modeled data for the period 1901-2002. In an AMIP-type Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) ensemble, the observed delayed spring precipitation response in Europe to winter ENSO-related SST anomalies is well reproduced. A series of targeted AGCM/coupled GCM experiments are performed to further investigate the mechanisms for this delayed influence. It is found that late winter ENSO SST anomalies lead to the well-documented Rossby wave train arching from the Pacific into the Atlantic region. A positive (negative) ENSO event leads to a quasi-barotropic trough (ridge) in the North Atlantic region. The resulting wind and cloud changes cause anomalies in the surface heat fluxes that result in negative (positive) SST anomalies in the central North Atlantic and anomalies of the opposite sign further to the south. The SST anomalies persist into spring and the atmospheric response to these anomalies is an extension of the ENSO-induced trough (ridge) into the European region, leading to enhanced (reduced) moisture flux and low-level convergence (divergence) and thus positive (negative) precipitation anomalies. Although the signal is overall relatively weak (correlation coefficients of European spring rainfall with winter ENSO SSTs of about 0.3), a proper representation of the outlined mechanism in seasonal forecasting systems may lead to improved seasonal predictions. (orig.)

  4. Study of Distinctive Regional Features of Surface Solar Radiation in North and East China

    关福来; 郑有飞; 蔡子颖; 于长文; 张楠


    Solar radiation is an important energy source for plants on the earth and also a major component of the global energy balance.Variations in solar radiation incident at the earth's surface profoundly affect the human and terrestrial environment,including the climate change.To provide useful information for predicting the future climate change in China,distinctive regional features in spatial and temporal variations of the surface solar radiation (SSR) and corresponding attributions (such as cloud and aerosol) are analyzed based on SSR observations and other meteorological measurements in North and East China from 1961 to 2007.Multiple models,such as the plane-parallel radiative transfer model,empirical and statistical models,and corrclation and regrcssion analysis methods are used in the study.The results are given as follows.(1) During 1961-2007,the total SSR in North China went through a process from quickly “dimming” to slowly “dimming”,while in East China,a significant transition from “dimming” to “brightening” occurred.Although there are some differences between thc two regional variation trends,long-term variations in SSR in the two regions are basically consistent with the observation worldwide.(2) Between the 1960s and 1980s,in both North and East China,aerosols played a critical rolc in the radiation dimming.However,after 1989,different variation trends of SSR occurred in North and East China,indicating that aerosols were not the dominant factor.(3) Cloud cover contributed less to the variation of SSR in North China,but was thc major attribution in East China and played a promoting role in the reversal of SSR from dimming to brightening,especially in the “remarkable brightening” period,with its contribution as high as 70%.

  5. Environmental characteristics of regional groundwater in relation to fluoride poisoning in North China

    Liu, Yong; Zhu, Wan Hua


    More and more data indicated that high- or low-fluoride-bearing drinking water led to endemic diseases in which fluoride poisoning was caused by high levels of fluoride (fluoride ion content >1.0 mg/I) in drinking water. Fluoride poisoning in North China is characterized by pathological changes of bones and teeth. Much attention has been devoted to the study of fluoride-bearing groundwater in North China because regionally groundwater has been the main source of water supply, and fluoride poisoning has developed to the extent that it affects human health seriously. Results from the studies in North China summarized in this article indicate that regional high-fluoride-bearing groundwater has a regular distribution corresponding with the development of endemic fluoride poisoning and has something to do with paleogeographic and paleoclimatic conditions, geology, and hydrogeology, especially with types of hydrogeochemistry, pH value of groundwater, degree of mineralization, and so forth. High-fluoride-bearing groundwater in relation to fluorosis occurs mainly in North China, and many effective measures have been taken to reduce the fluoride content in drinking water and to cure the disease after analyzing the distribution and environmental characteristics of high-fluoride-bearing groundwater.

  6. Crustal growth history of the Korean Peninsula:Constraints from detrital zircon ages in modern river sediments

    Taejin Choi; Yong Il Lee; Yuji Orihashi


    U-Pb analyses were carried out on detrital zircon grains from major river-mouth sediments draining South Korea to infer provenance characteristics and the crustal growth history of the southern Korean Peninsula, using a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS). The Korean Peninsula is located in the East Asian continental margin and mainly comprises three Precambrian massifs and two metamorphic belts in between them. We obtained 515 concordant to slightly discordant zircon ages ranging from ca. 3566 to ca. 48 Ma. Regardless of river-mouth location, predominance of Mesozoic (249e79 Ma) and Paleoproterozoic (2491e1691 Ma) ages with subordinate Archean ages in-dicates that the zircon ages reflect present exposures of plutonic/metamorphic rocks in the drainage basins of the South Korean rivers and the crustal growth of the southern Korean Peninsula was focused in these two periods. Comparison of detrital zircon-age data between the North and South Korean river sediments reveals that the Paleoproterozoic zircon age distributions of both regions are nearly identical, while the NeoproterozoicePaleozoic ages exist and the Mesozoic ages are dominant in southern Korean Peninsula. This result suggests that Precambrian terrains in Korea record the similar pre-Mesozoic magmatic history and that the influence of Mesozoic magmatism was mainly focused in South Korea.

  7. Specific mutations in the enhancer II/core promoter/precore regions of hepatitis B virus subgenotype C2 in Korean patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Kim, Ja Kyung; Chang, Hye Young; Lee, Jung Min; Baatarkhuu, Oidov; Yoon, Young Joon; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Do Young; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Chon, Chae Yoon; Ahn, Sang Hoon


    Recently, hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes and mutations have been reported to be related to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This cross-sectional case-control study examined the relationship between HCC and mutations in the enhancer II/core promoter and precore regions of HBV by comparing 135 Korean HCC patients infected with HBV genotype C2 (HBV/C2; HCC group) with 135 age-, sex-, and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) status-matched patients without HCC (non- HCC group). Age and sex were also matched between HBeAg-positive and -negative patients. The prevalence of T1653, A1689, V1753, T1762/A1764, T1846, A1850, C1858, and A1896 mutations was evaluated in this population. The prevalence of the T1653 mutation in the box alpha region, the T1689 [corrected] mutation in between the box alpha and beta regions, and the T1762/A1764 mutations in the basal core promoter region was significantly higher in the HCC group compared to the non-HCC group (8.9% vs. 2.2%, P = 0.017; 19.3% vs. 4.4%, P HBV/C2.

  8. Pacific Region: Initial Survey Instructions for the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat), Region 1- 2016

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides background information on NABat’s acoustic protocol and how it is applied on the Pacific Northwest Region of the US Fish and Wildlife Service....

  9. Modeling concentrations and fluxes of atmospheric CO2 in the North East Atlantic region

    Geels, C.; Christensen, J.H.; Hansen, A.W.


    As part of the Danish NEAREX project a three-dimensional Eulerian hemispheric air pollution model is used to study the transport and concentrations of atmospheric CO2 in the North East Atlantic region. The model domain covers the major part of the Northern Hemisphere and currently the model...... source types. Here the model setup and the used parameterizations will be described. The model is validated by comparing the results with atmospheric measurements from four monitoring stations in or close to the northern part of the North Atlantic. Some preliminary model results will be shown and shortly...... includes simple parameterizations of the main sinks and sources for atmospheric CO2. One of the objectives of the project is to study and maybe quantify the relative importance of the various sinks and source types and areas for this region. In order to do so the model has been run with differentiated...


    Celso José da Costa


    Full Text Available This text aims to present, in general, the north region and policies for teacher training implemented in the last 5 years, locating in this context the importance of the Brazil Open University system and its supporting poles face as methodology research linked to the project "Institutionalization of Distance Education in Brazil." Greater emphasis will be given to data from the states of Pará and Acre, given that two authors of this text act as coordinators of the poles supporting attendance System Open University of Brazil in these states. We design the text, based on testimony of poles coordinators who participated in participatory research, conducted by the Research Group "Teacher education and information and communication technologies", LANTE / UFF. We aim also to identify the structure and functioning of the Poles face Supporting UAB in the North as well as the assessment tool applied in this region.

  11. Body wave attenuation characteristics in the crust of Alborz region and North Central Iran

    Farrokhi, M.; Hamzehloo, H.


    Attenuation of P and S waves has been investigated in Alborz and north central part of Iran using the data recorded by two permanent and one temporary networks during October 20, 2009, to December 22, 2010. The dataset consists of 14,000 waveforms from 380 local earthquakes (2 Iran, respectively. These relations for Q S for Alborz region and North Central Iran have estimated as (83 ± 8)f (0.99 ± 0.07) and (68 ± 5)f (0.96 ± 0.05), respectively. The observed low Q values could be the results of thermoelastic effects and/or existing fracture. The estimated frequency-dependent relationships are comparable with tectonically active regions.

  12. The contribution of ship emissions to air pollution in the North Sea regions.

    Matthias, Volker; Bewersdorff, Ines; Aulinger, Armin; Quante, Markus


    As a consequence of the global distribution of manufacturing sites and the increasing international division of labour, ship traffic is steadily increasing and is becoming more and more important as an origin of air pollution. This study investigates the impact of ship emissions in coastal areas of the North Sea under conditions of the year 2000 by means of a regional chemistry transport model which runs on a sufficiently high resolution to study air pollution in coastal regions. It was found that northern Germany and Denmark in summer suffer from more than 50% higher sulphate, nitrate and ammonium aerosol concentrations due to contributions from ships. The implementation of a sulphur emission control area (SECA) in the North Sea, as it was implemented at the end of 2007, directly results in reduced sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosol concentrations while nitrate aerosol concentrations are slightly increased.

  13. Crustal model for the Middle East and North Africa region: implications for the isostatic compensation mechanism

    Seber, Dogan; Sandvol, Eric; Sandvol, Christine; Brindisi, Carrie; Barazangi, Muawia


    We present a new 3-D crustal model for the Middle East and North Africa region that includes detailed topography, sediment thickness, and Moho depth values. The model is obtained by collecting, integrating, and interpolating reliable, published sedimentary rock thickness and Moho depth measurements in the Middle East and North Africa region. To evaluate the accuracy of the model, the 3-D gravity response of the model is calculated and compared with available observed Bouguer gravity anomalies in the region. The gravity modelling shows that the new crustal model predicts large portions of the observed Bouguer anomalies. However, in some regions, such as the Red Sea and Caspian Sea regions, where crustal structure is relatively well-determined, the residual anomalies are of the order of a few hundred milligals. Since the new crustal model results in large residual anomalies in regions where reasonably good constraints exist for the model, these large residuals cannot simply be explained by inaccuracies in the model. To analyse the cause of these residuals further we developed an isostatically compensated (Airy-type) Moho-depth model and calculated its gravity response. Isostatic gravity anomalies are in nearly perfect agreement with the observed gravity values. However, the isostatic model differs significantly from the new (3-D) crustal model. If isostasy is to be maintained, crustal and/or upper mantle lateral density variations are needed to explain the large observed gravity residuals.

  14. 朝鲜不对称作战的利器——全垫升气垫船%North Korean Smart Weapons of Asymmetry Operation- the Air Cushion Craft

    李中良; 徐清华; 漆巍; 英戈


    As the South Korea procured a lot new surface warships,increasing the surface combat strength,forming the maritime advantages against the North Korea,the North Korea has to take the asymmetry measures to respond the great pressure with building a lot air cushion crafts. The thesis describes the types,capabilities,characteristics and deployment of the North Korean air cushion crafts, analyzes why the North Korea develops this kind of surface ship. Its specific operation methods of landing forces delivery,special assault, maritime assault,setting mines and obstacles with the air cushion crafts,studies on the South Korea's fighting measures against the North Korean air cushion crafts,which include destroying bases, air-to-surface attack,area control, distance limitation,and dealing with the wild with accuracy.%随着韩国大力发展水面舰艇增强其海上作战能力,形成对朝鲜的海上优势,朝鲜则不得不采用不对称作战方式应对来自韩国的海上重重压力,大量建造全垫升气垫船.阐述了朝鲜装备全垫升气垫船类型、性能特点及基本部署情况,分析了朝鲜发展气垫船的缘由;剖析了朝鲜采用气垫船实施登陆输送、特种攻击、海上突击和布设水雷障碍的具体使用方法;研究了韩国在反击朝鲜气垫船采取击毁基地、以空制海、以面制点、以远制近、以精确应对粗放的5种战法应对举措.

  15. SPURS: Salinity Processes in the Upper-Ocean Regional Study: THE NORTH ATLANTIC EXPERIMENT

    Lindstrom, Eric; Bryan, Frank; Schmitt, Ray


    In this special issue of Oceanography, we explore the results of SPURS-1, the first part of the ocean process study Salinity Processes in the Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS). The experiment was conducted between August 2012 and October 2013 in the subtropical North Atlantic and was the first of two experiments (SPURS come in pairs!). SPURS-2 is planned for 20162017 in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean.

  16. Towards harmonised assessment and classification of "biodiversity status" in the North Sea eco-region

    Skov, H.; Andersen, Jesper; Vinther, M.

    As one of the milestones in the HARMONY-project a demonstration of the application of the integrative indicator based biodiversity assessment tool (BEAT) was undertaken for the Greater North Sea sub-region across a range of coastal and offshore areas. The first version of the BEAT tool was applie......, the lack of a rigorous statistical approach and a balanced representation of different ecosystem components/food web categories....

  17. Climate change in the circum-North Atlantic region during the last deglaciation

    Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Peterson, Larry C.; Kipp, Nilva; Imbrie, John; Rind, David


    A survey of new and published palaeoclimate data indicates that both the high- and low-latitude North Atlantic regions were characterized by at least three synchronous periods of abrupt climate change during the last glacial-to-interglacial transition. Climate model results suggest that changes in the melting history of the Laurentide Ice Sheet may explain much of this nonlinear response of the climate system to astronomical (Milankovitch) forcing.

  18. Diet, Genetics, and Disease: A Focus on the Middle East and North Africa Region

    Fahed, Akl C.; El-Hage-Sleiman, Abdul-Karim M.; Farhat, Theresa I.; Georges M. Nemer


    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffers a drastic change from a traditional diet to an industrialized diet. This has led to an unparalleled increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases. This review discusses the role of nutritional genomics, or the dietary signature, in these dietary and disease changes in the MENA. The diet-genetics-disease relation is discussed in detail. Selected disease categories in the MENA are discussed starting with a review of their epidemiology in t...

  19. A quantitative assessment of groundwater resources in the Middle East and North Africa region

    Lezzaik, Khalil; Milewski, Adam


    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is the world's most water-stressed region, with its countries constituting 12 of the 15 most water-stressed countries globally. Because of data paucity, comprehensive regional-scale assessments of groundwater resources in the MENA region have been lacking. The presented study addresses this issue by using a distributed ArcGIS model, parametrized with gridded data sets, to estimate groundwater storage reserves in the region based on generated aquifer saturated thickness and effective porosity estimates. Furthermore, monthly gravimetric datasets (GRACE) and land surface parameters (GLDAS) were used to quantify changes in groundwater storage between 2003 and 2014. Total groundwater reserves in the region were estimated at 1.28 × 106 cubic kilometers (km3) with an uncertainty range between 816,000 and 1.93 × 106 km3. Most of the reserves are located within large sedimentary basins in North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, with Algeria, Libya, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia accounting for approximately 75% of the region's total freshwater reserves. Alternatively, small groundwater reserves were found in fractured Precambrian basement exposures. As for groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014, all MENA countries except for Morocco exhibited declines in groundwater storage. However, given the region's large groundwater reserves, groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014 are minimal and represent no immediate short-term threat to the MENA region, with some exceptions. Notwithstanding this, the study recommends the development of sustainable and efficient groundwater management policies to optimally utilize the region's groundwater resources, especially in the face of climate change, demographic expansion, and socio-economic development.

  20. Body wave attenuation characteristics in the crust of Alborz region and North Central Iran

    Farrokhi, M.; Hamzehloo, H.


    Attenuation of P and S waves has been investigated in Alborz and north central part of Iran using the data recorded by two permanent and one temporary networks during October 20, 2009, to December 22, 2010. The dataset consists of 14,000 waveforms from 380 local earthquakes (2 mean values of Q P and Q S at different lapse times have been considered. The frequency dependence of quality factor was determined by using a power-law relationship. The frequency-dependent relationship for Q P was estimated in the form of (62 ± 7) f (1.03 ± 0.07) and (48 ± 5) f (0.95 ± 0.07) in Alborz region and North Central Iran, respectively. These relations for Q S for Alborz region and North Central Iran have estimated as (83 ± 8) f (0.99 ± 0.07) and (68 ± 5) f (0.96 ± 0.05), respectively. The observed low Q values could be the results of thermoelastic effects and/or existing fracture. The estimated frequency-dependent relationships are comparable with tectonically active regions.


    Borma Afrodita

    2013-07-01 in order to gather representative data on the evolution of national tourism for the 2009 – 2011, in each districts of North-West. The first part of the paper presents the foreign visitors who come to Romania, hence the largest number of foreign visitors and how it evolved from 2009 to 2011 the number of foreign tourists in Romania.The second part deals with the existing tourism potential in the North-West region and the opportunities offered by the region. The three part deals with the main touristic indicators in the six counties of North-West and the differences between them. The analysis is based on the comparison of main tourism indicators showing the tourist activity in the development regions of Romania, namely: the number of arrivals, number of nights and existing tourist capacity. The last part presents the steps that should be followed to overcome the losses caused by the crisis of 2008-2009 and to ensure a positive growth of the indicators analyzed.

  2. Prevalence Survey of Selected Bovine Pathogens in Water Buffaloes in the North Region of Brazil

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva


    Full Text Available Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease.

  3. Environmental Politics Applied on Contaminated Sites within 6 North-West Region



    Full Text Available Soil is a vital factor for human activities and also for all ecosystems development. Soil is in a continue evolution influencedby pedogenetic factors and human activities. Following the last decades intense industrialization, soil pollution intensified. In 6North-West Region, areas with different soil pollution levels have been identified. According to the partial inventory, thisphenomenon was generated especially by the industrial activities, most of all by mining and chemical industry. Among these, a goodexample is the hexachlorocyclohexane soil pollution from Turda Area. The soil quality from this region is also affected by otheractivities like: waste disposal, oil and natural gases extraction.

  4. Quantitative Development and Distribution of Zooplankton in Medium Lakes of the Kostanay Region (North Kazakhstan Region)

    Aubakirova, Gulzhan A.; Syzdykov, Kuanysh N.; Kurzhykayev, Zhumagazy; Uskenov, Rashit B.; Narbayev, Serik; Begenova, Ainagul B.; Zhumakayeva, Aikumys N.; Sabdinova, Dinara K.; Akhmedinov, Serikbay N.


    The assessment of water resources plays an important environmental and economic role, since it allows developing an effective program of regional development with regard to the environmental load. The hydro-chemical regime of lakes includes water temperature, content of biogenic elements, total mineralization, oxygen regime, and other parameters…

  5. Size Scaling in Western North Atlantic Loggerhead Turtles Permits Extrapolation between Regions, but Not Life Stages.

    Nina Marn

    Full Text Available Sea turtles face threats globally and are protected by national and international laws. Allometry and scaling models greatly aid sea turtle conservation and research, and help to better understand the biology of sea turtles. Scaling, however, may differ between regions and/or life stages. We analyze differences between (i two different regional subsets and (ii three different life stage subsets of the western North Atlantic loggerhead turtles by comparing the relative growth of body width and depth in relation to body length, and discuss the implications.Results suggest that the differences between scaling relationships of different regional subsets are negligible, and models fitted on data from one region of the western North Atlantic can safely be used on data for the same life stage from another North Atlantic region. On the other hand, using models fitted on data for one life stage to describe other life stages is not recommended if accuracy is of paramount importance. In particular, young loggerhead turtles that have not recruited to neritic habitats should be studied and modeled separately whenever practical, while neritic juveniles and adults can be modeled together as one group. Even though morphometric scaling varies among life stages, a common model for all life stages can be used as a general description of scaling, and assuming isometric growth as a simplification is justified. In addition to linear models traditionally used for scaling on log-log axes, we test the performance of a saturating (curvilinear model. The saturating model is statistically preferred in some cases, but the accuracy gained by the saturating model is marginal.

  6. Thermal and albedo mapping of the polar regions of Mars using Viking thermal mapper observations: 1. North polar region

    Paige, David A.; Bachman, Jennifer E.; Keegan, Kenneth D.


    We present the first maps of the apparent thermal inertia and albedo of the north polar region of Mars. The observations used to create these maps were acquired by the infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) instruments on the two Viking orbiters over a 50-day period in 1978 during the Martian early northern summer season. The maps cover the region from 60 deg N to the north pole at a spatial resolution of 1/2 deg of latitude. The analysis and interpretation of these maps is aided by the results of a one-dimensional radiative convective model, which is used to calculate diurnal variations in surface and atmospheric temperatures, and brightness temperatures at the top of the atmospphere for a wide range of assumptions concerning aerosol optical properties and aerosol optical depths. The results of these calculations show that the effects of the Martian atmosphere on remote determinations of surface thermal inertia are more significant than have been indicated in previous studies. The maps of apparent thermal inertia and albedo show a great deal of spatial structure that is well correlated with surface features.

  7. Korean Literature in a Situation of Division : with an emphasis on Hwang Soon-Won's Novels

    Pak, Jae-sup


    Korean war in 1950's has great influence on Korean literature. Hwang Soon-Won's novels portray the flow of history that contains Korean war and division (South and North Korea). Disintegration of personality, psychological frigidity, and pressure from poverty, pain of family separation caused by the war are well depicted in his works. But his literary accomplishment as the novelist, is showing how the traumatic experiences caused by the Korean War can be healed through humanity, with artistic...

  8. Genotyping of Korean isolates of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) based on the glycoprotein gene

    Kim, W. -S.; Oh, M. -J.; Nishizawa, T; Park, J. -W.; Kurath, G; Yoshimizu, M


    Glycoprotein (G) gene nucleotide sequences of four Korean isolates of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) were analyzed to evaluate their genetic relatedness to worldwide isolates. All Korean isolates were closely related to Japanese isolates of genogroup JRt rather than to those of North American and European genogroups. It is believed that Korean IHNV has been most likely introduced from Japan to Korea by the movement of contaminated fish eggs. Among the Korean isolates, phylogen...

  9. Korean Dermatological Association.

    Ro, B I


    The Korean Dermatological Association (KDA) was founded on October 27, 1945. The first annual meeting was held on November 15, 1947, and meetings have been held twice a year since 1975. The KDA 50th Annual Spring Meeting was on April 15-16, 1998. Korean Journal of Dermatology, the official journal of the KDA, was first published in 1960 and has been published bimonthly since 1978. Annals of Dermatology (Seoul), the English journal, was first published in 1989 and has been published quarterly since 1995. The American residency and specialty board system was introduced in 1954. Board specialty examination of dermatology candidates by the KDA requires four years of residency. Three hundred and twenty residents are now in the training course in the fifty-nine resident training approved hospitals this year. KDA has seven regional dermatological societies; Seoul, Pusan, Taegu, Honam, Chungchong, Jeonbuk, and Kangwon. KDA has had eleven research subcommittees since 1981. There are two associated societies of the KDA; the Korean Society for Investigative Dermatology was founded in 1991, and the Korean Society for Medical Mycology was founded in 1994. The Korea-Japan Joint Meeting of Dermatology has been held every two years since 1979 and the Korea-China Joint Meeting of Dermatology and Mycology has been held since 1996. About three hundred papers were presented at the 49th Annual Autumn Meeting on October 21-23, 1997. These included special lectures, invited lectures, educational lectures, oral presentations, and posters. About five hundred dermatologists participated in that meeting. KDA joined the International League of Dermatological Societies in 1973 with forty-seven members. There are around 1200 members of the KDA including 320 residents in 1998.

  10. The Tourism Development Strategy of the North-East Region of Romania. Myth or Reality?



    Full Text Available Tourism development strategies play an increasingly important role, representing parts of those documents that aim to socio-economic development, undertaken at local, zonal, county, regional or national level. Frequently, tourism is viewed as one the best solutions for economic recovery, but without a detalied and realistic analysis of what territory offers from this point of view, this new trend for resolving the economic dysfunctions remains at a mirage level. The North-East Region of Romania, the fifth less developed region of the European Union, with a GDP per capita (in purchasing power standard that amounted to only 34% of the EU-28 average in 2013, rushes to come with a development strategy for tourism, relying on “relief and environmental factors, diversity and beauty of landscape, cultural heritage”, strengthening the specific offers relying especially on mountain, cultural, and religious tourism. The present study uses multiple research methods (quantitative and qualitative analysis, graphical and cartographical representation of data, comparison in order to establish the reliability of the concerned document and to provide solid arguments for the type of tourism that has the largest premises of affirmation in each county of the North-East Region of Romania.

  11. An Observing System Simulation Experiment for the Western North Pacific Region

    Shuhei Masuda


    Full Text Available This study investigated the effectiveness of concentrated observations for ocean state estimation in a region remote from the observation site. I executed a twin observing system simulation experiment (OSSE for the North Pacific region, using an ocean data synthesis system, to examine how the potential effectiveness is for a well-defined criterion, the representativeness of the subsurface salinity minimum corresponding to North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW. The results of the OSSE show that data synthesis confined to the region corresponding to the recent origin of the NPIW (35°N–53°N, 130°E–170°E can affect the modeled extent of the NPIW in the central Pacific at 35°N, 180°. The interannual variability of the NPIW is not well reproduced in terms of the standard deviation value (std, only by the data input in the origin region. The root mean square difference between the “true” and the synthesized field is twice larger than the std although there the representativeness of the scale of salinity minimum is improved by about one-third of the difference between the “true” and “first-guess” fields in a snapshot. These results imply that combinations of concentrated and other in situ observations should be required for the dynamic state estimation of the NPIW.

  12. Galileo multispectral imaging of the north polar and eastern limb regions of the moon

    Belton, M.J.S.; Greeley, R.; Greenberg, R.; McEwen, A.; Klaasen, K.P.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C.; Neukum, G.; Chapman, C.R.; Geissler, P.; Heffernan, C.; Breneman, H.; Anger, C.; Carr, M.H.; Davies, M.E.; Fanale, F.P.; Gierasch, P.J.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Johnson, T.V.; Pilcher, C.B.; Thompson, W.R.; Veverka, J.; Sagan, C.


    Multispectral images obtained during the Galileo probe's second encounter with the moon reveal the compositional nature of the north polar regions and the northeastern limb. Mare deposits in these regions are found to be primarily low to medium titanium lavas and, as on the western limb, show only slight spectral heterogeneity. The northern light plains are found to have the spectral characteristics of highlands materials, show little evidence for the presence of cryptomaria, and were most likely emplaced by impact processes regardless of their age.Multispectral images obtained during the Galileo probe's second encounter with the moon reveal the compositional nature of the north polar regions and the northeastern limb. Mare deposits in these regions are found to be primarily low to medium titanium lavas and, as on the western limb, show only slight spectral heterogeneity. The northern light plains are found to have the spectral characteristics of highlands materials, show little evidence for the presence of cryptomaria, and were most likely emplaced by impact processes regardless of their age.

  13. MENA 1.1 - An Updated Geophysical Regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa

    Walters, B.; Pasyanos, M.E.; Bhattacharyya, J.; O' Boyle, J.


    This short report provides an update to the earlier LLNL paper entitled ''Preliminary Definition of Geophysical Regions for the Middle East and North Africa'' (Sweeney and Walter, 1998). This report is designed to be used in combination with that earlier paper. The reader is referred to Sweeney and Walter (1998) for all details, including definitions, references, uses, shortcomings, etc., of the regionalization process. In this report we will discuss only those regions in which we have changed the boundaries or velocity structure from that given by the original paper. The paper by Sweeney and Walter (1998) drew on a variety of sources to estimate a preliminary, first-order regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), providing regional boundaries and velocity models within each region. The model attempts to properly account for major structural discontinuities and significant crustal thickness and velocity variations on a gross scale. The model can be used to extrapolate sparse calibration data within a distinct geophysical region. This model can also serve as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps using intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging, extending the calibration into aseismic areas. Such station maps can greatly improve the ability to locate and identify seismic events, which in turn improves the ability to seismically monitor for underground nuclear testing. The original model from Sweeney and Walter (1998) was digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution, for simplicity we will hereafter refer to this model as MENA 1.0. The new model described here has also been digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution and will be referred to as MENA1.1 throughout this report.

  14. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.

    Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.


    Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region

  15. A regional model for sustainable biogas production. Case study: North Savo, Finland

    Huopana, T.; Niska, H.; Jaeskelaeinen, A.; Loonik, J.; Den Boer, E.; Song, H.; Thorin, E.


    This report is one of the outputs from the REMOWE (Regional Mobilizing of Sustainable Waste-to-Energy Production) project. REMOWE is one of the projects within the Baltic Sea Region Programme. The overall objective of the REMOWE project is, on regional levels, to contribute to a decreased negative effect on the environment by reduction of carbon dioxide emission by creating a balance between energy consumption and sustainable use of renewable energy sources. Reduction of carbon dioxide emissions and use of renewable energy sources are broad areas and this project will focus on energy resources from waste and actions to facilitate implementation of energy efficient technology in the Baltic Sea region within the waste-to-energy area. The focus is to utilize waste from cities, farming and industry for energy purposes in an efficient way. The problem addressed by the project concerns how to facilitate the implementation of sustainable systems for waste-to-energy in the Baltic Sea region and specifically, in a first step, in the project partner regions. The project partnership consists of the Maelardalen University, with the School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology coordinating the project, and The County Administrative Board of Vaestmanland in Sweden, Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment for North Savo, and University of Eastern Finland (UEF) in Finland, Marshal Office of Lower Silesia in Poland, Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences in Wolfenbuettel in Germany, Klaipeda University in Lithuania, and Estonian Regional and Local Development Agency (ERKAS) in Estonia. This report is based on the modelling work performed in the work package 5 ('Model of sustainable regional waste-to-energy production') of the REMOWE project. The key objective has been on developing a regional model based on available geographic information for

  16. A regional high-resolution carbon flux inversion of North America for 2004

    A. E. Schuh


    Full Text Available Resolving the discrepancies between NEE estimates based upon (1 ground studies and (2 atmospheric inversion results, demands increasingly sophisticated techniques. In this paper we present a high-resolution inversion based upon a regional meteorology model (RAMS and an underlying biosphere (SiB3 model, both running on an identical 40 km grid over most of North America. Current operational systems like CarbonTracker as well as many previous global inversions including the Transcom suite of inversions have utilized inversion regions formed by collapsing biome-similar grid cells into larger aggregated regions. An extreme example of this might be where corrections to NEE imposed on forested regions on the east coast of the United States might be the same as that imposed on forests on the west coast of the United States while, in reality, there likely exist subtle differences in the two areas, both natural and anthropogenic. Our current inversion framework utilizes a combination of previously employed inversion techniques while allowing carbon flux corrections to be biome independent. Temporally and spatially high-resolution results utilizing biome-independent corrections provide insight into carbon dynamics in North America. In particular, we analyze hourly CO2 mixing ratio data from a sparse network of eight towers in North America for 2004. A prior estimate of carbon fluxes due to Gross Primary Productivity (GPP and Ecosystem Respiration (ER is constructed from the SiB3 biosphere model on a 40 km grid. A combination of transport from the RAMS and the Parameterized Chemical Transport Model (PCTM models is used to forge a connection between upwind biosphere fluxes and downwind observed CO2 mixing ratio data. A Kalman filter procedure is used to estimate weekly corrections to biosphere fluxes based upon observed CO2. RMSE-weighted annual NEE estimates, over an ensemble of potential inversion parameter sets, show a

  17. Female employment in regions of the North of Russia: problems and decision ways

    Vera Eduardovna Toskunina


    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the analysis of condition of female employment in regions of North of Russia. The research hypothesis is an assumption that the possibilities of female employment in northern regions of Russia are considerably reduced because of branch structure of economy with its raw trend. It increase a problem of female unemployment and causes necessity to take the additional measures for its adjustment by the executive authority The authors allocated the major factors influencing on the possibilities of women’s employment in a region. The tools are proved, and recommendations about decreasing the existing problems in the field of female employment in subjects of the Northern part of the Russian Federation are given on the basis of the analysis of statistical data, standard regulation, and policy documents.

  18. Development of an antibody-ELISA for seroprevalence of Trypanosoma evansi in equids of North and North-western regions of India.

    Kumar, Rajender; Kumar, Sanjay; Khurana, S K; Yadav, S C


    The importance of Trypanosoma evansi as the etiological agent for surra is often overlooked due to difficulty in accurate diagnosis of the disease. In the present study, an antibody-ELISA was developed using whole cell lysate antigen prepared from purified trypanosomes and used for seroprevalence study of T. evansi in equids. A total of 3695 equids were surveyed and blood samples were collected from each animal during September 2009 to August 2011. Out of these, 420 serum samples were found positive for presence of antibodies against T. evansi collected from equids of six agro-climatic zones of North and North-western regions of India comprising eight states viz., Gujarat (36/479), Haryana (11/275), Himachal Pradesh (14/83), Jammu and Kashmir (32/221), Punjab (1/38), Rajasthan (90/1148), Uttarakhand (141/753), and Uttar Pradesh (65/330). The maximum seroprevalence (19.69%) for T. evansi infection was observed in equids of Uttar Pradesh state with an overall seroprevalence of 11.36% in North and North-western regions of India. The results indicated that surra is endemic in equids of North and North-western parts of India.

  19. Coral Research Data from NOAA's Undersea Research Center, North Atlantic and Great Lakes Region, NOAA's Undersea Research Program (NURP)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Undersea Research Center for the NOAA's Undersea Research Center for the North Atlantic and Great Lakes region (NAGL) explores and studies the waters off the...

  20. Hybridization Dynamics of Invasive Cattail (Typhaceae) Stands in the Western Great Lakes Region of North America: A Molecular Analysis

    Steven E. Travis; Joy E. Marburger; Steve Windels; Barbora Kubátová


    ... angustifolia occur together in the Western Great Lakes Region of North America. 4. Based on microsatellite markers, we documented F1 hybrids as the most common class at five intensively sampled sites, constituting up to 90...

  1. Crustal structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula from local earthquakes

    Kim, Kwang-Hee; Park, Jung-Ho; Park, Yongcheol; Hao, Tian-Yao; Kim, Han-Joon


    The three-dimensional subsurface structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula is poorly known, even though such information could be key in verifying or rejecting several competing models of the tectonic evolution of East Asia. We constructed a three-dimensional velocity model of the upper crust beneath the southern Korean Peninsula using 19,935 P-wave arrivals from 747 earthquakes recorded by high-density local seismic networks. Results show significant lateral and vertical variations: velocity increases from northwest to southeast at shallow depths, and significant velocity variations are observed across the South Korea Tectonic Line between the Okcheon Fold Belt and the Youngnam Massif. Collision between the North China and South China blocks during the Early Cretaceous might have caused extensive deformation and the observed negative velocity anomalies in the region. The results of the tomographic inversion, combined with the findings of previous studies of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies, indicate the presence of high-density material in the upper and middle crust beneath the Gyeongsang Basin in the southeastern Korean Peninsula. Although our results partially support the indentation tectonic model, it is still premature to discard other tectonic evolution models because our study only covers the southern half of the peninsula.

  2. Working Together to Make a Difference in Rural America: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2010 Annual Report

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2011


    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four regional centers in the United States that have worked to improve the quality of life in rural communities for nearly 40 years. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in our 12-state region, the NCRCRD…


    Sabou Simona


    Full Text Available This paper presents aspects regarding population and workforce in Maramureş County, compared with the situation recorded in the region to which it belongs, i.e. North - West, at the end of 2010. The paper is aimed at all those interested in these issues. Besides Maramureş County, the North - West Region also includes the counties of Bihor (BH, Bistriţa-Năsăud (BN, Cluj (CJ, Satu Mare (SM and Sălaj (SJ. Maramureş is known for its wooden churches, its rural architecture, its old traditions - preserved until today - its craftsmen and its impressive landscapes. This paper is based on statistical information provided by the National Institute of Statistics, Department of Statistics in Cluj. In March 2013, the latest data available are those relating to the end of 2010. Thus, based on this information, it pinpoints the fields in which the people in Maramureş are employed at this date, compared to other counties in the region, the wages they get, and the contribution to the county and regional GDP. It also compares labor resource, active civil population and employed civil population, unemployed. After 1989, Maramureş County, as well as the entire North - West Region, underwent major changes. Population decreased from year to year, however the lack of jobs has become a constant reality. The mining of ore, the processing of metals other than iron and the auto industry, which used to cover most of the jobs in Maramureş, entered into a continuous decline, which culminated in the closure of all mines in the county. In this situation, adapting to the new conditions, the current economic reality, is a daily problem for the people of this county. We will try to determine in which fields the people of Maramureş are currently working in, compared to the residents of the other counties in the region, which are their wages and what the contribution to the regional and county GDP is. We will also see the state of the labor resource, the active civil

  4. The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program: Overview of Climate Change Results

    Mearns, L. O.


    The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) is an international program that is serving the climate scenario needs of the United States, Canada, and northern Mexico. We are systematically investigating the uncertainties in regional scale projections of future climate and producing high resolution climate change scenarios using multiple regional climate models (RCMs) and multiple global model responses by nesting the RCMs within atmosphere ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) forced with a medium-high emissions scenario, over a domain covering the conterminous US, northern Mexico, and most of Canada. The project also includes a validation component through nesting the participating RCMs within the NCEP reanalysis R2. The basic spatial resolution of the RCM simulations is 50 km. This program includes six different RCMs that have been used in various intercomparison programs in Europe and the United States. Four different AOGCMs provide boundary conditions to drive the RCMS for 30 years in the current climate and 30 years for the mid 21st century. The resulting climate model simulations form the basis for multiple high resolution climate scenarios that can be used in climate change impacts and adaptation assessments over North America. All 12 sets of current and future simulations have been completed. Measures of uncertainty across the multiple simulations are being developed by geophysical statisticians. In this overview talk, results from the various climate change experiments for various subregions, along with measures of uncertainty, will be presented

  5. Climate Change Projections of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP)

    Mearns, L. O.; Sain, Steve; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Bukovsky, M. S.; McGinnis, Seth; Biner, S.; Caya, Daniel; Arritt, R.; Gutowski, William; Takle, Eugene S.; Snyder, Mark A.; Jones, Richard; Nunes, A M B.; Tucker, S.; Herzmann, D.; McDaniel, Larry; Sloan, Lisa


    We investigate major results of the NARCCAP multiple regional climate model (RCM) experiments driven by multiple global climate models (GCMs) regarding climate change for seasonal temperature and precipitation over North America. We focus on two major questions: How do the RCM simulated climate changes differ from those of the parent GCMs and thus affect our perception of climate change over North America, and how important are the relative contributions of RCMs and GCMs to the uncertainty (variance explained) for different seasons and variables? The RCMs tend to produce stronger climate changes for precipitation: larger increases in the northern part of the domain in winter and greater decreases across a swath of the central part in summer, compared to the four GCMs driving the regional models as well as to the full set of CMIP3 GCM results. We pose some possible process-level mechanisms for the difference in intensity of change, particularly for summer. Detailed process-level studies will be necessary to establish mechanisms and credibility of these results. The GCMs explain more variance for winter temperature and the RCMs for summer temperature. The same is true for precipitation patterns. Thus, we recommend that future RCM-GCM experiments over this region include a balanced number of GCMs and RCMs.

  6. Sensitivity of the regional climate in the Middle East and North Africa to volcanic perturbations

    Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Osipov, Sergey; Wyman, Bruce; Zhao, Ming


    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regional climate appears to be extremely sensitive to volcanic eruptions. Winter cooling after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption far exceeded the mean hemispheric temperature anomaly, even causing snowfall in Israel. To better understand MENA climate variability, the climate responses to the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruptions are analyzed using observations, NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, and output from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's High-Resolution Atmospheric Model. A multiple regression analysis both for the observations and the model output is performed on seasonal summer and winter composites to separate out the contributions from climate trends, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Indian summer monsoon, and volcanic aerosols. Strong regional temperature and precipitation responses over the MENA region are found in both winter and summer. The model and the observations both show that a positive NAO amplifies the MENA volcanic winter cooling. In boreal summer, the patterns of changing temperature and precipitation suggest a weakening and southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, caused by volcanic surface cooling and weakening of the Indian and West African monsoons. The model captures the main features of the climate response; however, it underestimates the total cooling, especially in winter, and exhibits a different spatial pattern of the NAO climate response in MENA compared to the observations. The conducted analysis sheds light on the internal mechanisms of MENA climate variability and helps to selectively diagnose the model deficiencies.

  7. Report of the Regional Co-ordination Meeting for the North Sea and Eastern Arctic (RCM NS&EA) 2014

    Armstrong, M.; van Beek, F; DALSKOV J.; Elliott, M; Elson, J.; Griuniene, V. (Vilda); M. Hansson; Janakakis, M. (Marta); Kjems-Nilsen, H. (Henrik); Knapp, A. (Amelie); Kunzlik, P. (Phil); Lorenzo-González, J. (José); Mahe, K (Kelig); Morgado, C.; Nimmegeers, S.


    Report of the Regional Co-ordination Meeting for the North Sea and Eastern Arctic (RCM NS&EA) 2014 Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences (SLU Aqua) Lysekil, Sweden 08-12 September 2014 The RCM NS&EA met in Lysekil (Sweden) between 8-12 September 2014. The main purpose of the RCM is coordinate the National Programmes (NP) of the Member States (MS) in the North Sea region for 2015.

  8. A research on consumer satisfaction and shopping patterns of households in the North Eastern Savo region

    Taavitsainen, Ossi


    This Bachelor’s thesis deals with shopping patterns of consumers and their satisfaction with local supply of goods in the North Eastern Savo region in Finland. The thesis was conducted as a follow-up research to the original research made by a student of the University of Eastern Finland in 2009-2010. The theoretical part of the thesis consists of two main topics: purchase behavior of consumers and development of online shopping. The empirical part is based on a survey, conducted among consum...

  9. The Genesis of the Study of the North Caucasian Region by the Russian science

    Ruslan A. Khachidogov


    Full Text Available The article describes little-known materials for the study of the North Caucasian region by the Russian science. It is proved that the merit of Russian scientists was organized and thorough study of indigenous peoples under the direct influence of science. Their activities largely contributed to the establishment in the Russian society objective view of mountain ethnic groups, their history and culture. The author comes to the conclusion that due to the activity of Russian scientists began the study of their homeland by local educators, which was crucial for the development of the culture of the mountain people.

  10. Determinants of outcome of children with type 1 diabetes in the North West Region of Cameroon

    Niba, Loveline Lum


    Background: In sub-Saharan Africa the prognosis of children with type 1 diabetes is poor. Many are not diagnosed and those that are diagnosed have a reduced life expectancy (less than one year). This study set out to identify the factors that predict glucose control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in the North West Region of Cameroon. Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study involving 76 children/adolescents (41 girls and 35 boys, mean age of 15.1 ± 3.1 years) suf...

  11. Correlations between the North China Craton and the Indian Shield: Constraints from regional metallogeny

    Caifeng Li


    Full Text Available The correlation between the North China Craton (NCC and the Indian Shield (IND has been a hot topic in recent years. On the basis of ore deposit databases, the NCC and IND have shown broad similarity in metallogenesis from the middle Archaean to the Mesoproterozoic. The two blocks both have three major metallogenic systems: (1 the Archaean BIF metallogenic system; (2 the Paleoproterozoic Cu-Pb-Zn metallogenic system; and (3 the Mesoproterozoic Fe-Pb-Zn system. In the north margin of the NCC and the west margin of the IND, the Archaean BIF-Au-Cu-Pb-Zn deposits had the same petrogenesis and host rocks, the Paleoproterozoic Cu-Pb-Zn deposits were controlled by active belts, and the Mesoproterozoic Fe-Pb-Zn deposits were mainly related to multi-stage rifting. Matching regional mineralization patterns and geological features has established the continental assembly referred to as “NCWI”, an acronym for the north margin of the NCC (NC and the west margin of the IND (WI during the middle Archaean to the Mesoproterozoic. In this assembly, the available geological and metallogenic data from the Eastern Block and active belts of NC fit those from the Dharwar craton and the Aravalli–Delhi–Vindhyan belt of WI, respectively. Moreover, the depositional model and environment of Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary manganese deposits in NCWI implied that the assembly may be located at low latitudes, where the conditions were favorable for dissolving ice and precipitating manganese deposits.

  12. North African petroleum geology: regional structure and stratigraphic overview of a hydrocarbon-rich cratonic area

    O' Connor, T.E.; Kanes, W.H.


    North Africa, including Sinai, contains some of the most important hydrocarbon-producing basins in the world. The North African Symposium is devoted to examining the exploration potential of the North African margin in light of the most recent and promising exploration discoveries. The geologic variety of the region is extraordinary and can challenge any exploration philosophy. Of primary interest are the Sirte basin of Libya, which has produced several billion barrels of oil, and the Gulf of Suez, a narrow, evaporite-capped trough with five fields that will produce more than 5 billion bbl. Both are extensional basins with minimal lateral movement and with good source rocks in direct proximity to reservoirs. Structural models of these basins give firm leads for future exploration. More difficult to evaluate are the Tethyan realm basins of the northern Sinai, and the Western Desert of Egypt, the Cyrenaican Platform of Libya, and the Tunisia-Sicily shelf area, where there are only limited subsurface data. These basins are extensional in origin also, but have been influenced by lateral tectonics. Favorable reservoirs exist, but source rocks have been a problem locally. Structural models with strong stratigraphic response offer several favorable play concepts. The Paleozoic Ghadames basin in Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria has the least complex structural history, and production appears to be limited to small structures. A series of stratigraphic models indicates additional areas with exploration potential. The Paleozoic megabasin of Morocco, with its downfaulted Triassic grabens, remains an untested but attractive area.

  13. Erosion of the Laurentide region of North America by glacial and glaciofluvial processes

    Bell, M.; Laine, E.P.


    Collection of seismic reflection data from continental margins and ocean basins surrounding North America makes it possible to estimate the amount of material eroded from the area formerly covered by Laurentide ice sheets since major glaciation began in North America. A minimum estimate is made of 1.62 ?? 106 km3, or an average 120 m of rock physically eroded from the Laurentide region. This figure is an order of magnitude higher than earlier estimates based on the volume of glacial drift, Cenozoic marine sediments, and modern sediment loads of rivers. Most of the sediment produced during Laurentide glaciation has already been transported to the oceans. The importance of continental glaciation as a geomorphic agency in North America may have to be reevaluated. Evidence from sedimentation rates in ocean basins surrounding Greenland and Antarctica suggests that sediment production, sediment transport, and possibly denudation by permanent ice caps may be substantially lower than by periodic ice caps, such as the Laurentide. Low rates of sediment survival from the time of the Permo-Carboniferous and Precambrian glaciations suggest that predominance of marine deposition during some glacial epochs results in shorter lived sediment because of preferential tectonism and cycling of oceanic crust versus continental crust. ?? 1985.

  14. Temporal Structures of the North Atlantic Oscillation and Its Impact on the Regional Climate Variability


    In this study, the temporal structure of the variation of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and its impact on regional climate variability are analyzed using various datasets. The results show that blocking formations in the Atlantic region are sensitive to the phase of the NAO. Sixty-seven percent more winter blocking days are observed during the negative phase compared to the positive phase of the NAO. The average length of blocking during the negative phase is about 11 days, which is nearly twice as long as the 6-day length observed during the positive phase of the NAO. The NAO-related differences in blocking frequency and persistence are associated with changes in the distribution of the surface air temperature anomaly, which, to a large extent, is determined by the phase of the NAO. The distribution of regional cloud amount is also sensitive to the phase of the NAO. For the negative phase, the cloud amounts are significant, positive anomalies in the convective zone in the Tropics and much less cloudiness in the mid latitudes. But for the positive phase of the NAO, the cloud amount is much higher in the mid-latitude storm track region. In the whole Atlantic region, the cloud amount shows a decrease with the increase of surface air temperature. These results suggest that there may be a negative feedback between the cloud amount and the surface air temperature in the Atlantic region.

  15. Process-based characterization of evapotranspiration sources over the North American monsoon region

    Bohn, Theodore J.; Vivoni, Enrique R.


    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a poorly constrained flux in the North American monsoon (NAM) region, leading to potential errors in land-atmosphere feedbacks. We quantified the spatiotemporal variations of ET using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, modified to account for soil evaporation (Esoil), irrigated agriculture, and the variability of land surface properties derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer during 2000-2012. Simulated ET patterns were compared to field observations at 59 eddy covariance towers, water balance estimates in nine basins, and six available gridded ET products. The modified VIC model performed well at eddy covariance towers representing the natural and agricultural land covers in the region. Simulations revealed that major sources of ET were forested mountain areas during the summer season and irrigated croplands at peak times of growth in the winter and summer, accounting for 22% and 9% of the annual ET, respectively. Over the NAM region, Esoil was the largest component (60%) of annual ET, followed by plant transpiration (T, 32%) and evaporation of canopy interception (8%). Esoil and T displayed different relationships with P in natural land covers, with Esoil tending to peak earlier than T by up to 1 month, while only a weak correlation between ET and P was found in irrigated croplands. Based on the model performance, the VIC-based estimates are the most realistic to date for this region. Furthermore, spatiotemporal patterns reveal new information on the magnitudes, locations, and timing of ET in the North American monsoon region with implications on land-atmosphere feedbacks.

  16. Estimation of the Virtual Water Content of Main Crops on the Korean Peninsula Using Multiple Regional Climate Models and Evapotranspiration Methods

    Chul-Hee Lim


    Full Text Available Sustainable agriculture in the era of climate change needs to find solutions for the retention and proper utilization of water. This study proposes an ensemble approach for identifying the virtual water content (VWC of main crops on the Korean Peninsula in past and future climates. Ensemble results with low uncertainty were obtained using three regional climate models, five potential evapotranspiration methods, and the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC crop model. The productivity results of major crops (rice and maize under climate change are likely to increase more than in the past based on the ensemble results. The ensemble VWC is calculated using three types of crop yields and fifteen consumptive amounts of water use in the past and the future. While the ensemble VWC of rice and maize was 1.18 m3 kg−1 and 0.58 m3 kg−1, respectively, in the past, the future amounts were estimated at 0.76 m3 kg−1 and 0.48 m3 kg−1, respectively. The yields of both crops showed a decline in future projections, indicating that this change could have a positive impact on future water demand. The positive changes in crop productivity and water consumption due to climate change suggest that adaptation to climate change can be an opportunity for enhancing sustainability as well as for minimizing agricultural damage.

  17. Regional carbon and CO2 budgets of North Sea tidal estuaries

    Volta, C.; Laruelle, G. G.; Regnier, P.


    This study presents the first regional application of the generic estuarine reactive-transport model C-GEM (Carbon-Generic Estuary Model) that is here combined with high-resolution databases to produce a carbon and CO2 budget for all tidal estuaries discharging into the North Sea. Steady-state simulations are performed for yearly-averaged conditions to quantify the carbon processing in the six main tidal estuaries Elbe, Ems, Humber, Scheldt, Thames, and Weser, which show contrasted physical and biogeochemical dynamics and contribute the most to the regional filter. The processing rates derived from these simulations are then extrapolated to the riverine carbon loads of all the other North Sea catchments intercepted by smaller tidal estuarine systems. The Rhine-Meuse estuarine system is also included in the carbon budget and overall, we calculate that the export of organic and inorganic carbon from tidal estuaries to the North sea amounts to 44 and 409 Gmol C yr-1, respectively, while 41 Gmol C are lost annually through CO2 outgassing. The carbon is mostly exported from the estuaries in its inorganic form (>90%), a result that reflects the low organic/inorganic carbon ratio of the riverine waters, as well as the very intense decomposition of organic carbon within the estuarine systems. Our calculations also reveal that with a filtering capacity of 15% for total carbon, the contribution of estuaries to the CO2 outgassing is relatively small. Organic carbon dynamics is dominated by heterotrophic degradation, which also represents the most important contribution to the estuarine CO2 evasion. Nitrification only plays a marginal role in the CO2 dynamics, while the contribution of riverine oversaturated waters to the CO2 outgassing is generally significant and strongly varies across systems.

  18. Comparative SWOT analysis of strategic environmental assessment systems in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    Rachid, G; El Fadel, M


    This paper presents a SWOT analysis of SEA systems in the Middle East North Africa region through a comparative examination of the status, application and structure of existing systems based on country-specific legal, institutional and procedural frameworks. The analysis is coupled with the multi-attribute decision making method (MADM) within an analytical framework that involves both performance analysis based on predefined evaluation criteria and countries' self-assessment of their SEA system through open-ended surveys. The results show heterogenous status with a general delayed progress characterized by varied levels of weaknesses embedded in the legal and administrative frameworks and poor integration with the decision making process. Capitalizing on available opportunities, the paper highlights measures to enhance the development and enactment of SEA in the region.

  19. Density heterogeneity of the North American upper mantle from satellite gravity and a regional crustal model

    Herceg, Matija; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans


    and by introducing variations into the crustal structure which corresponds to the uncertainty of its resolution by highquality and low-quality seismic models. We examine the propagation of these uncertainties into determinations of lithospheric mantle density. Given a relatively small range of expected density......We present a regional model for the density structure of the North American upper mantle. The residual mantle gravity anomalies are based on gravity data derived from the GOCE geopotential models with crustal correction to the gravity field being calculated from a regional crustal model. We analyze...... how uncertainties and errors in the crustal model propagate from crustal densities to mantle residual gravity anomalies and the density model of the upper mantle. Uncertainties in the residual upper (lithospheric) mantle gravity anomalies result from several sources: (i) uncertainties in the velocity-density...

  20. Sheep grazing in the North Atlantic region: A long-term perspective on environmental sustainability.

    Ross, Louise C; Austrheim, Gunnar; Asheim, Leif-Jarle; Bjarnason, Gunnar; Feilberg, Jon; Fosaa, Anna Maria; Hester, Alison J; Holand, Øystein; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Mortensen, Lis E; Mysterud, Atle; Olsen, Erla; Skonhoft, Anders; Speed, James D M; Steinheim, Geir; Thompson, Des B A; Thórhallsdóttir, Anna Gudrún


    Sheep grazing is an important part of agriculture in the North Atlantic region, defined here as the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Norway and Scotland. This process has played a key role in shaping the landscape and biodiversity of the region, sometimes with major environmental consequences, and has also been instrumental in the development of its rural economy and culture. In this review, we present results of the first interdisciplinary study taking a long-term perspective on sheep management, resource economy and the ecological impacts of sheep grazing, showing that sustainability boundaries are most likely to be exceeded in fragile environments where financial support is linked to the number of sheep produced. The sustainability of sheep grazing can be enhanced by a management regime that promotes grazing densities appropriate to the site and supported by area-based subsidy systems, thus minimizing environmental degradation, encouraging biodiversity and preserving the integrity of ecosystem processes.

  1. Characterization of biomasses from the north and northeast regions of Brazil for processes in biorefineries

    Magale Karine Diel RAMBO


    Full Text Available AbstractIn search for renewable energy sources, the Brazilian residual biomasses stand out due to their favorable physical and chemical properties, low cost, and their being less pollutant. Therefore, they are likely to be used in biorefineries in the production of chemical inputs to substitute fossil fuels. This substitution is possible due to the high contents of carbohydrates (>40%, low contents of extractives (<20%, ashes (<8% and moisture (<8% found in these residual biomasses. High calorific values of all residues also offer them the chance to be used in combustion. A principal components analysis (PCA was performed for better understanding of the samples and their hysic-chemical properties. Thus, this study aimed to characterize biomasses from the north (babassu residues, such as mesocarp and endocarp; pequi and Brazil nut and northeast (agave and coconut regions of Brazil, in order to contribute to the preservation of the environment and strengthen the economy of the region.

  2. Source characterization of selected North Caspian events from the relative excitation of regional phases. Final report

    Niazi, M.


    Seismograms of seven recent events (presumed underground nuclear explosions) which occurred during 1976-1979 in the North Caspian Sea region of the western Soviet Kazakh are compared at regional distances for their relative source excitation characteristics. The body wave magnitude estimates of these events range from 5.1 to 6.0. The data consist of analog and digital records collected at stations ranging in instrumental sophistication from temporary sites with single component smoke drum capability to those of SRO, ASRO and array (ILPA) configurations with digitally recorded down-hole observations. The amplitude and frequency measurements of the analog seismograms for the first arrival and the peak amplitude of P coda as well as for the clear S wave signals recorded for different events at the same station are compared.

  3. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and spring discharges in the Campania region (Southern Italy

    P. De Vita


    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the issues most debated by the scientific community with a special focus to the combined effects of anthropogenic modifications of the atmosphere and the natural climatic cycles. Various scenarios have been formulated in order to forecast the global atmospheric circulation and consequently the variability of the global distribution of air temperature and rainfall. The effects of climate change have been analysed with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods, remaining mainly limited to the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle. Consequently the impact of the climate change on the recharge of regional aquifers and on the groundwater circulation is still a challenging topic especially in those areas whose aqueduct systems depend basically on springs or wells, such as the Campania region (Southern Italy.

    In order to analyse the long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater circulation, we analysed decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (Southern Italy, coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO.

    The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, in the period from 1921 to 2010, choosing 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations among those with the most continuous functioning as well as arranged in a homogeneous spatial distribution. Moreover, for the same period, we gathered the time series of the winter NAO index (December to March mean and of the discharges of the Sanità spring, belonging to an extended carbonate aquifer (Cervialto Mount located in the central-eastern area of the Campania region, as well as of two other shorter time series of spring discharges. The hydrogeological features of this aquifer, its relevance due to the feeding of an important regional aqueduct system, as well as the unique availability of a long-lasting time series of

  4. Integration of groundwater information into decision making for regional planning: a portrait for North America.

    Lavoie, Roxane; Lebel, Alexandre; Joerin, Florent; Rodriguez, Manuel J


    Groundwater is widely used as a source of drinking water in North America. However, it can be contaminated by microbial or chemical agents potentially hazardous to human health. In recent decades, governments have developed better knowledge of groundwater and established measures to protect and preserve the resource. Several studies have shown that relevant information on groundwater might prove very useful for regional planning purposes. However, there is little information on how groundwater information contributes to decision making in urban and regional planning in Canada and the United States. The objective of this study is to explore the level of use of groundwater information for land use planning purposes in Canada and the United States and to identify the factors that may explain why some provinces or states are more proactive than others when it comes to using such data for groundwater protection purposes. This paper presents the results of a survey sent across North America to groundwater information producers. The resulting data from the survey were examined using descriptive analyses and multiple correspondence analysis, and illustrate how groundwater data can be integrated into land planning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An evaluation of the North Sea circulation in global and regional models relevant for ecosystem simulations

    Pätsch, Johannes; Burchard, Hans; Dieterich, Christian; Gräwe, Ulf; Gröger, Matthias; Mathis, Moritz; Kapitza, Hartmut; Bersch, Manfred; Moll, Andreas; Pohlmann, Thomas; Su, Jian; Ho-Hagemann, Ha T. M.; Schulz, Achim; Elizalde, Alberto; Eden, Carsten


    Simulations of the North Sea circulation by the global ocean model MPI-OM and the regional ocean models GETM, HAMSOM, NEMO, TRIM are compared against each other and with observational data for the period 1998-2009. The aim of the study is to evaluate the quality of the simulations in particular with respect to their suitability to drive biogeochemical shelf sea models. Our results demonstrate the benefit of the global model to avoid the specification of lateral open boundary conditions. Due to its stretched grid configuration, which provides a higher grid resolution at the Northwest European Shelf, the global model is able to reproduce the large-scale features, such as the water mass distribution and the thermal stratification in the central and northern North Sea, qualitatively similar to the regional models. The simulation of temperature and salinity near the coast however, shows large biases in almost all models because of the coarse meteorological forcing and too coarse vertical resolutions. The simulation of the Baltic Sea exchange and the spread of freshwater along the Norwegian coast proved difficult for all models except GETM, which reproduces impacts of the Baltic Sea outflow reasonably well.


    Balreet kaur


    Full Text Available Background: Aggression has been hypothesised with biological instinctual theory, frustration theory and social learning theory. The biological instinctual theory was based on hereditary factors and is associated with XYY syndrome. Objectives: To find out the presence of extra Y chromosome in aggressive taller males of north Indian region. Materials and Methods: Buss and Perry questionnaire was used to find out the aggression of the subjects. The height was measured with the help of metallic tape. Quinacrine dihydrochloride and Macllvaines Buffer was used to stain the buccal smear slide for the general screening of the number of Y chromosomes. The conventional metaphase was prepared for the confirmation of number of Y chromosomes and the slides were stained with giemsa. Observations: The aggression was found more in taller males and they had no extra Y chromosome. Conclusions: Extra Y chromosome may be the cause of aggression and more height in males. But in the present study of males of north Indian region no extra Y chromosome was found in aggressive and taller males.

  7. Forecast Verification for North American Mesoscale (NAM) Operational Model over Karst/Non-Karst regions

    Sullivan, Z.; Fan, X.


    Karst is defined as a landscape that contains especially soluble rocks such as limestone, gypsum, and marble in which caves, underground water systems, over-time sinkholes, vertical shafts, and subterranean river systems form. The cavities and voids within a karst system affect the hydrology of the region and, consequently, can affect the moisture and energy budget at surface, the planetary boundary layer development, convection, and precipitation. Carbonate karst landscapes comprise about 40% of land areas over the continental U.S east of Tulsa, Oklahoma. Currently, due to the lack of knowledge of the effects karst has on the atmosphere, no existing weather model has the capability to represent karst landscapes and to simulate its impact. One way to check the impact of a karst region on the atmosphere is to check the performance of existing weather models over karst and non-karst regions. The North American Mesoscale (NAM) operational forecast is the best example, of which historical forecasts were archived. Variables such as precipitation, maximum/minimum temperature, dew point, evapotranspiration, and surface winds were taken into account when checking the model performance over karst versus non-karst regions. The forecast verification focused on a five-year period from 2007-2011. Surface station observations, gridded observational dataset, and North American Regional Reanalysis (for certain variables with insufficient observations) were used. Thirteen regions of differing climate, size, and landscape compositions were chosen across the Contiguous United States (CONUS) for the investigation. Equitable threat score (ETS), frequency bias (fBias), and root-mean-square error (RMSE) scores were calculated and analyzed for precipitation. RMSE and mean bias (Bias) were analyzed for other variables. ETS, fBias, and RMSE scores show generally a pattern of lower forecast skills, a greater magnitude of error, and a greater under prediction of precipitation over karst than

  8. A full holocene tephrochronology for the Kamchatsky Peninsula region: Applications from Kamchatka to North America

    Ponomareva, Vera; Portnyagin, Maxim; Pendea, I. Florin; Zelenin, Egor; Bourgeois, Joanne; Pinegina, Tatiana; Kozhurin, Andrey


    Geochemically fingerprinted widespread tephra layers serve as excellent marker horizons which can directly link and synchronize disparate sedimentary archives and be used for dating various deposits related to climate shifts, faulting events, tsunami, and human occupation. In addition, tephras represent records of explosive volcanic activity and permit assessment of regional ashfall hazard. In this paper we report a detailed Holocene tephrochronological model developed for the Kamchatsky Peninsula region of eastern Kamchatka (NW Pacific) based on ∼2800 new electron microprobe analyses of single glass shards from tephra samples collected in the area as well as on previously published data. Tephra ages are modeled based on a compilation of 223 14C dates, including published dates for Shiveluch proximal tephra sequence and regional marker tephras; new AMS 14C dates; and modeled calibrated ages from the Krutoberegovo key site. The main source volcanoes for tephra in the region are Shiveluch and Kliuchevskoi located 60-100 km to the west. In addition, local tephra sequences contain two tephras from the Plosky volcanic massif and three regional marker tephras from Ksudach and Avachinsky volcanoes located in the Eastern volcanic front of Kamchatka. This tephrochronological framework contributes to the combined history of environmental change, tectonic events, and volcanic impact in the study area and farther afield. This study is another step in the construction of the Kamchatka-wide Holocene tephrochronological framework under the same methodological umbrella. Our dataset provides a research reference for tephra and cryptotephra studies in the northwest Pacific, the Bering Sea, and North America.

  9. Summer temperatures across northern North America: Regional reconstructions from 1760 using tree-ring densities

    Briffa, K. R.; Jones, P. D.; Schweingruber, F. H.


    Using maximum latewood density data from a network of coniferous trees, annually resolved series of average summer half-year (April-September) temperatures have been reconstructed for three regions of North America: Alaska and the Yukon (ALAYUK), the Mackenzie valley (MACKVA), and Quebec and Labrador (QUEBLA). The reconstructions primarily express temperature variability on interannual-to-decadal timescales and extend over the period from AD 1760. These reconstructions represent an extension of the mean climate history for these regions of over 100 years. The ALAYUK series shows relatively wann summers dominating the 1770s and 1820s. The 1760s, 1810s, 1860s, and 1890s were cold; 1810 was the coldest summer over the whole region, though it was very cold in 1783 in the extreme northwest. In MACKVA the 1780s and 1790s were warm, while the 1810s, 1830s, and late 1880s were cool. The summer of 1862 was exceptionally warm and 1836 was notably cold. In QUEBLA the 1800s, 1820s, and late 1890s were relatively warm, while the 1760s and 1810s were particularly cool. The summers of 1816 and 1817 were extremely cold. The dates of the extreme cold summers in each series emphasize the strong volcanic influence on extreme high-latitude temperatures. However, the reconstructions also highlight the large regional differences in the magnitude of this influence. The severity and spatial extent of severe conditions across western North America in the summer of 1810 supports earlier hypotheses of a major volcanic eruption in 1809 for which there is no historical evidence.

  10. Land desertification and restoration in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region

    Hassan M.El Shaer


    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is characterized by high population growth, degraded and fragile nat-ural ecosystems, and a limited amount of arable lands. It is one of the most water-scarce regions in the world. The region is heterogeneous in terms of the countries' economies, but because it includes some of the richest and some of the poorest countries in the world, regional average economic performance statistics are misleading. The region is mostly semi-arid and arid, with significant areas of extreme aridity. These areas are further challenged by extreme temperatures, frequent drought, land degradation, and desertification. Recent changes in climate patterns, such as prolonged droughts, record temperatures, and increased rainfall irregularity, intensity and distribution, have all further negatively impacted the natural and agro-ecosystems in the region. Such changes have led to increased vulnerability of the people dependent on such re-sources for their livelihood. This article focuses on the impact of land desertification due to climate changes on the pre-vailing natural resources, and discusses several approaches for mitigating or alleviating desertification. It is clear that water shortage is a problem in many countries of this predominantly arid region, and is unlikely to be reduced and may be exacerbated by climate change. Proposed adaptation strategies might include more efficient organization of water supplies, treatment, and delivery systems, and increased use of groundwater. It is necessary to develop alternative production and management systems appropriate to the socioeconomic and environmental conditions in order to prevent further degradation of the prevailing agro-ecosystems and sustain the livelihoods of farmers living in marginal conditions. Grasslands, livestock, and water resources are likely to be most vulnerable to climate change in the region because they are located mostly in marginal areas. Changes in cropping practices

  11. The north-Korean nuclear program. Round table. What do we know? What do we think we know? And what are the resulting actions?; Le programme nucleaire nord-coreen. Table ronde. Que savons-nous? Que croyons-nous savoir? Et quelles actions en resultent?

    Pollack, J. [US Naval War College, Dept. des Recherches Strategiques, Newport (United States)


    The North-Korean nuclear program is problematic because of the specific government policy from which information are coming with difficulty. From open sources, the author takes stock on our knowledge concerning the military nuclear program of Pyongyang by looking on the two possible channels of nuclear matter production for nuclear weapons and on the weapons construction. He concludes on the actions to realize facing the uncertainties. (A.L.B.)

  12. Support and services provided by public health regional surveillance teams to Local Health Departments in North Carolina.

    Horney, Jennifer A; Markiewicz, Milissa; Meyer, Anne Marie; Macdonald, Pia D M


    Since 2001, many states have created regional structures in an effort to better coordinate/public health preparedness and response efforts, consolidate services, and supplement local government capacity. While several studies have identified specific benefits to regionalization, including enhanced networking, coordination, and communication, little research has examined the effect of regionalization on specific preparedness and response activities. To better understand the impact of regionalizing public health workforce assets in North Carolina, a survey aimed at documenting specific support and services that Public Health Regional Surveillance Teams(PHRSTs) provide to local health departments (LHDs) was developed and administered by the North Carolina Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center, located at the North Carolina Institute for Public Health. Of80 potential types of assistance, 26 (33%) were received by 75% or more LHDs, including 9 related to communication and 7 related to exercises. There was significant variation by PHRST region in both the quantity and quality of support and services reported by LHDs. This variation could not be explained by county- or LHD-level variables. PHRST assistance to LHDs is largely focused on communication and liaison activities, regional exercises, and planning. On the basis of these findings, regionalization may provide North Carolina with benefits consistent with those found in other studies such as improved networking and coordination. However, further research is needed to identify whether regional variation is the result of varying capacity or priorities of the PHRSTs or LHDs and to determine how much variation is acceptable.

  13. Prevalence and diversity of allergic rhinitis in regions of the world beyond Europe and North America.

    Katelaris, C H; Lee, B W; Potter, P C; Maspero, J F; Cingi, C; Lopatin, A; Saffer, M; Xu, G; Walters, R D


    There is comparatively little information in the public domain on the diversity in prevalence and triggers/factors associated with allergic rhinitis (AR) or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C) in countries beyond western-Europe and North America. To review the prevalence and the sensitizing agents/triggers and factors associated with AR/C in several countries in Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Australia, Eastern Europe, Latin America, Middle East and Turkey. Articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals were assessed and selected for further review, following an extensive literature search using the Medline database. This review demonstrated that prevalence of AR and AR/C in these regions has predominantly been investigated in children; with studies indicating wide inter- and intra-regional variations ranging from 2.9% AR and 3.8% AR/C in 10-18-years-old children from one region in Turkey to 54.1% AR and 39.2% AR/C in 13-14-years-old children in one region in Nigeria. Moreover, the prevalence of AR and AR/C has increased markedly over the last decade particularly in some of the more affluent African countries, China-Taiwan and several Middle East countries, likely as a consequence of improved living standards leading to increased exposure to multiple traditional and non-traditional sensitizing agents and risk factors similar to those noted in western-Europe and North America. Our findings suggest that the greater diversity in prevalence of AR or AR/C in populations in these regions is in contrast to the lower diversity of AR or AR/C in the 'western populations (USA and Europe), which tend to be more uniform. This review provides a comprehensive database of the important allergens and triggers which are likely to influence the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in these diverse regions, where the prevalence of allergic rhinitis is increasing and its adverse impact on the quality of life of affected individuals is increasingly recognised. © 2011 Blackwell

  14. History of Korean Neurosurgery.

    Hwang, Sung-nam


    The year 2012 was the 50th anniversary of the Korean Neurosurgical Society, and in 2013, the 15th World Congress of Neurosurgery took place in Seoul, Korea. Thus, it is an appropriate occasion to introduce the world to the history of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and the foundation, development, and growth of Korean neurosurgery. Historical materials and pictures were collected and reviewed from the history book and photo albums of the Korean Neurosurgical Society. During the last 50 years, the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery have developed and grown enormously not only in quantity but also in quality. In every aspect, the turning point from the old to the new era of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery was the year 1980. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Investigating a solar influence on cloud cover using the North American Regional Reanalysis data

    Krahenbuhl Daniel Scott


    Full Text Available The controversial connection between cosmic rays, solar activity, and cloud cover is investigated using a climatological reconstructed reanalysis product: the North American Regional Reanalysis which provides high-resolution, low, mid-level, high, and total cloud cover data over a Lambert conformal conic projection permitting land/ocean discrimination. Pearson’s product-moment regional correlations were obtained between monthly cloud cover data and solar variability indicators, cosmic ray neutron monitors, several climatological indices, including the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO, and between cloud layers. Regions of the mid-latitude oceans exhibited a positive correlation with cosmic ray flux. Additionally, this maritime low cloud cover exhibits the only failed correlation significance with other altitudes. The cross correlation reveals that cloud cover is positively correlated everywhere but for ocean low cloud cover, supporting the unique response of the marine layer. The results of this investigation suggest that with the assumption that solar forcing does impact cloud cover, measurements of solar activity exhibits a slightly higher correlation than GCRs. The only instance where GCRs exhibit a positive regional correlation with cloud cover is for maritime low clouds. The AMO exerts the greatest control of cloud cover in the NARR domain.

  16. Adult education and the challenges of regional development: Policy and sustainability in North Denmark

    Rasmussen, Palle; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen


    Adult education is governed at many levels - internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark (Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the current educational challenges in this remote region of Europe are similar to what can be observed worldwide and especially in countries which are generally considered welfare states. The authors see the growing social and educational divide between the region's peripheral areas and its largest city centre as a major challenge - for society as a whole and for adult education in particular. It is from this perspective that the authors describe the present structures of adult education in the region and the strategies employed by local authorities and educational institutions. This is followed by an evaluation of both structures and efforts in terms of their ability to cope with the challenges.

  17. Adult education and the challenges of regional development: Policy and sustainability in North Denmark

    Rasmussen, Palle; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen


    Adult education is governed at many levels - internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark (Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the current educational challenges in this remote region of Europe are similar to what can be observed worldwide and especially in countries which are generally considered welfare states. The authors see the growing social and educational divide between the region's peripheral areas and its largest city centre as a major challenge - for society as a whole and for adult education in particular. It is from this perspective that the authors describe the present structures of adult education in the region and the strategies employed by local authorities and educational institutions. This is followed by an evaluation of both structures and efforts in terms of their ability to cope with the challenges.

  18. Preliminary definition of geophysical regions for the Middle East and North Africa

    Sweeney, J J; Walter, B


    The ability to calibrate seismic stations to improve the monitoring of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty is partially limited by the availability of seismic events with known locations and source properties. To confidently extrapolate from these events to aseismic regions, and to properly account for discontinuities in seismic properties requires accurate geophysical models. This paper lays out a preliminary, first-order, regionalization of the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. The model specifies boundaries and velocity structures based on the geology and tectonics of the region, previously published studies, and empirical data observations by the LLNL group. This model is a starting point and is expected to be improved and refined by comparisons with ongoing tomography efforts and the collection of new data. We anticipate that this model and its successors will prove useful as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps based on intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging. We also hope the model, as it improves and demonstrates some predictive power, will provide a reference model for broader CTBT research efforts in detection, location and discrimination as well as other aspects of earth science.

  19. Sensitivity of the Regional Climate in the Middle East and North Africa to Volcanic Perturbations

    Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar


    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regional climate appears to be extremely sensitive to volcanic eruptions. Winter cooling after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption far exceeded the mean hemispheric temperature anomaly, even causing snowfall in Israel. To better understand MENA climate variability, the climate responses to the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruptions are analyzed using observations, NOAA/NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, and output from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory\\'s High-Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). A multiple regression analysis both for the observations and the model output is performed on seasonal summer and winter composites to separate out the contributions from climate trends, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Indian summer monsoon and volcanic aerosols. Strong regional temperature and precipitation responses over the MENA region are found in both winter and summer. The model and the observations both show that a positive NAO amplifies the MENA volcanic winter cooling. In boreal summer, the patterns of changing temperature and precipitation suggest a weakening and southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, caused by volcanic surface cooling and weakening of the Indian and West African monsoons. The model captures the main features of the climate response; however, it underestimates the total cooling, especially in winter, and exhibits a different spatial pattern of the NAO climate response in MENA compared to the observations. The conducted analysis sheds light on the internal mechanisms of MENA climate variability and helps to selectively diagnose the model deficiencies.

  20. The geosystem approach to the problems of social and economic development of regions of the North of Russia

    Vitalii Nikolaevich Lazhentsev


    Full Text Available The position of the North of Russia in various geographical dimensions: circumpolar, zonal (latitudinal, meridional, structural and territorial, is consid-ered. On the basis of the primary data of district and regional municipalities the author has carried out estimation of number and dynamics of the population in three zones of the North of Russia and executed typological groupings with reference to the systems of resettlement of the population and economic specialization of territories. The analysis of "anatomy" of the North has shown that the basic part of problems of social and economic policy should be considered at regional and local levels with reference to those territorial and economic systems which have already been formed, but require modernization on the basis of the technologies adapted for extreme and difficult climatic conditions. The applied part of studying the problems of the North is co-ordinated to the theory of the territorial (geosystem organization of economy

  1. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and karst spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy

    P. De Vita


    Full Text Available Thus far, studies on climate change have focused mainly on the variability of the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle, investigating the impact of this variability on the environment, especially with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods. Conversely, the impacts of climate change on the recharge of aquifers and on the variability of groundwater flow have been less investigated, especially in Mediterranean karst areas whose water supply systems depend heavily upon groundwater exploitation.

    In this paper, long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater recharge were analysed by examining decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy, coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO.

    The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, from 1921 to 2010, using 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations with the most continuous functioning. The time series of the winter NAO index and of the discharges of 3 karst springs, selected from those feeding the major aqueducts systems, were collected for the same period.

    Regional normalised indexes of the precipitation, air temperature and karst spring discharges were calculated, and different methods were applied to analyse the related time series, including long-term trend analysis using smoothing numerical techniques, cross-correlation and Fourier analysis.

    The investigation of the normalised indexes highlighted the existence of long-term complex periodicities, from 2 to more than 30 yr, with differences in average values of up to approximately ±30% for precipitation and karst spring discharges, which were both strongly correlated with the winter NAO index.

    Although the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO had already been demonstrated in the long-term precipitation and streamflow patterns of

  2. The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP): Overview of Climate Change Results

    Bukovsky, M. S.; Mearns, L. O.


    NARCCAP is an international program that is serving the climate scenario needs of the United States, Canada, and northern Mexico. We are systematically investigating the uncertainties in regional scale projections of future climate and producing high resolution climate change scenarios using six different regional climate models (RCMs ) and multiple global model responses to a future emission scenario, by nesting the RCMs within four atmosphere ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) forced with the A2 SRES scenario, over a domain covering the conterminous US, northern Mexico, and most of Canada. The project also includes a validation component through nesting the participating RCMs within NCEP reanalyses. The spatial resolution of the RCM simulations is 50 km. This program includes RCMs that participated in the European PRUDENCE program (HadRM3 and RegCM), the Canadian regional climate model (CRCM) as well as the NCEP regional spectral model (RSM), the NCAR/PSU MM5, and NCAR WRF. AOGCMs include the Hadley Centre HadCM3, NCAR CCSM, the Canadian CGCM3 and the GFDL model. Insufficient funding was available to simulate all 24 combinations of RCMs and AOGCMs. Thus, we used a balanced fractional factorial statistical design to reduce the number of combinations of RCM-AOGCM pairs to twelve. High resolution (50 km) global time-slice experiments based on the GFDL atmospheric model and the NCAR atmospheric model (CAM3) have also been produced and will be compared with the simulations of the regional models. The geographic domain was regionalized into 29 subregions based on common climatological features, and summary climate change statistics for each of the subregions have been produced. In this overview talk, results from the RCM climate change simulations for select subregions of North America will be presented.

  3. Regionality and seasonality of submesoscale and mesoscale turbulence in the North Pacific Ocean

    Sasaki, Hideharu; Klein, Patrice; Sasai, Yoshikazu; Qiu, Bo


    The kinetic energy (KE) seasonality has been revealed by satellite altimeters in many oceanic regions. Question about the mechanisms that trigger this seasonality is still challenging. We address this question through the comparison of two numerical simulations. The first one, with a 1/10° horizontal grid spacing, 54 vertical levels, represents dynamics of physical scales larger than 50 km. The second one, with a 1/30° grid spacing, 100 vertical levels, takes into account the dynamics of physical scales down to 16 km. Comparison clearly emphasizes in the whole North Pacific Ocean, not only a significant KE increase by a factor up to three, but also the emergence of seasonal variability when the scale range 16-50 km (called submesoscales in this study) is taken into account. But the mechanisms explaining these KE changes display strong regional contrasts. In high KE regions, such the Kuroshio Extension and the western and eastern subtropics, frontal mixed-layer instabilities appear to be the main mechanism for the emergence of submesoscales in winter. Subsequent inverse kinetic energy cascade leads to the KE seasonality of larger scales. In other regions, in particular in subarctic regions, results suggest that the KE seasonality is principally produced by larger-scale instabilities with typical scales of 100 km and not so much by smaller-scale mixed-layer instabilities. Using arguments from geostrophic turbulence, the submesoscale impact in these regions is assumed to strengthen mesoscale eddies that become more coherent and not quickly dissipated, leading to a KE increase.

  4. Extra-regional residence time as a correlate of plant invasiveness: European archaeophytes in North America.

    La Sorte, Frank A; Pysek, Petr


    Human activities have degraded biogeographical barriers to dispersal resulting in the spread and naturalization of increasing numbers of nonnative invasive species. One correlate of invasiveness within a region is residence time or time since introduction. Plant species that were introduced into Europe prior to AD 1500 (European archaeophytes) that were subsequently introduced into North America provide a unique opportunity to examine the effect of extra-regional residence time (i.e., residence time that occurred in a nonnative region before a species was introduced into a new region). Here, we examine how nonnative species with extensive extra-regional residence times have affected beta diversity among states in the contiguous United States of America based on an analysis of occupancy and distance decay of similarity. State floras contained an average of 3106 +/- 922 species (mean +/- SD) with 2318 +/- 757 species classified as native, 180 +/- 43 species as European archaeophyte, and 608 -236 species as other exotic with no European archaeophyte association. For European archaeophytes, 42% were identified as noxious weeds in the United States with 8% identified as agricultural and 14% as natural-area weeds (20%, 2%, and 13% for other exotics, respectively). In strong contrast to natives and other exotics, European archaeophytes were more widespread and presented weaker distance-decay patterns. Thus, European archaeophytes were more likely to become noxious weeds, particularly within agricultural areas, and were associated with significant losses in beta diversity. We suggest that this outcome is a consequence of extra-regional residence time, which allowed for the selection of species or the evolution of traits that favored the colonization of arable habitats associated with early agricultural activities in Europe, habitats that are widespread, resource rich, and uniformly distributed in the United States. Our findings suggest that a long-term trajectory can be

  5. Estimation of the regional heat flow in the North Numidic mercury zone (Azzaba, Wilaya of Skikda, Algeria)

    Royer, J.J.; Saupe, F.; Mezghache, H.


    Tepid waters flowed from exploration boreholes drilled North of the mercury deposit of Ismail, located in the North Numidic mercury zone. The regional heat flow estimated by a simplified method is of 80 mW.m/sup -2/, a value close to those measured around the Mediterranean Basin. It also shows that the original geothermal system which produced the mercury ore deposit of Ismail is no longer active.


    L. V. Lyalina


    Full Text Available Abstract. The influence of double immunization on measles, mumps and rubella incidence in the North-West Federal District (North-West Russia has been analyzed. Due to the vaccination of the population morbidity of these infections in the region has decreased significantly. The necessity to improve the surveillance system due to changes in the manifestations of the epidemic process particularly connected with increasing of proportion of adults among patients has been proposed.

  7. Dunes in the north polar region of Mars - Their possible formation from low-density sedimentary aggregates

    Saunders, R. S.; Blewett, D. T.


    Low-density aggregates, composed of submicron clay aerosols, have been formed experimentally as the sublimation residues of masses of dust-nucleated ice. These ice-dust mixtures are possible analogues of materials of Martian north polar deposits. Low density (0,002 g/cm3) spheroidal pellets formed from these materials in wind tunnel experiments have been examined as possible candidates for forming north polar dunes on Mars. It is shown that these particles move like sand grains under conditions of saltation and, given a sufficient supply, would be capable of forming the dunes observed in the north circumpolar region of Mars.

  8. Wet phases in the Sahara/Sahel region and human migration patterns in North Africa.

    Castañeda, Isla S; Mulitza, Stefan; Schefuss, Enno; Lopes dos Santos, Raquel A; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Schouten, Stefan


    The carbon isotopic composition of individual plant leaf waxes (a proxy for C(3) vs. C(4) vegetation) in a marine sediment core collected from beneath the plume of Sahara-derived dust in northwest Africa reveals three periods during the past 192,000 years when the central Sahara/Sahel contained C(3) plants (likely trees), indicating substantially wetter conditions than at present. Our data suggest that variability in the strength of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is a main control on vegetation distribution in central North Africa, and we note expansions of C(3) vegetation during the African Humid Period (early Holocene) and within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 ( approximately 50-45 ka) and MIS 5 ( approximately 120-110 ka). The wet periods within MIS 3 and 5 coincide with major human migration events out of sub-Saharan Africa. Our results thus suggest that changes in AMOC influenced North African climate and, at times, contributed to amenable conditions in the central Sahara/Sahel, allowing humans to cross this otherwise inhospitable region.

  9. A regional appraisal of source rocks north and west of Britain and Ireland

    Scotchman, I.C.; Dore, A.G. [Statoil UK Ltd., London (United Kingdom)


    Potential source rocks in the string of basins on the Atlantic Margin north and west of Britain and Ireland range in age from Devonian to Tertiary, although the Jurassic appears to have been effective. In the Palaeozoic, thick developments of lacustrine Type I kerogen rich shales occur in the Lower and Middle Devonian of the Orcadian Basin in northeast Scotland while Carboniferous coals and coaly shales are known from well and outcrop in basins flanking the Rockall Trough. The Jurassic contains major source rock developments, the Lias Portree and Pabba and the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation shales which have been correlated to oil shows in the Slyne Trough, and oil discoveries in the West of Shetlands respectively. Anoxic black shales are also tentatively developed in the early Cretaceous. In the younger section, developments of gas-prone, organic poor basinal shales are known in the Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene while coals provide a minor gas source in the topmost Palaeocene and Eocene. Regionally, effective source rocks appear to be concentrated in the Jurassic rift basins extending known trends from the Jeanne D`Arc basin through East Greenland to the North Sea/Mid-Norway through the largely unexplored Atlantic Margin area NW of Britain and Ireland.

  10. Mutations in the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of hepatitis B virus genotype C in North China.

    Shi, Ying; Wei, Feili; Hu, Dongmei; Li, Qing; Smith, Davey; Li, Ning; Chen, Dexi


    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can evolve by mutations in the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) to permit its escape from neutralization by antibodies such as HBV surface antibody (anti-HBs) and from host immune responses. This study investigated the prevalence and pattern of MHR mutations in North China and the clinical correlations of these mutations. The MHRs of 161 HBsAg-positive patients were amplified using nested PCR, and directly sequenced to identify MHR mutations. It was showed that among the 161 patients infected with HBV genotype C in North China, the overall frequency of MHR mutation was 46.6%. Furthermore, MHR mutations were associated with high white blood cell counts (P = 0.025), high bilirubin levels (P = 0.048), and cirrhosis (P = 0.010). The most frequent mutations in patients with both HBsAg-positive and anti-HBs-positive were located in subregion 1 and 3 of MHR, specifically, residue Q101 (29.9%) and I126 (70.6%), which was different from the mutation pattern found in Western Europe and the United States. Taken together, these data indicated important virological and clinical aspects of HBV evolution in terms of the surface gene of genotype C, which might be important for its response to the currently available HBV vaccine. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Highly regarded medicine——Korean ginseng


    Korean ginseng,a medicinal herb,natu- rally exists in only three regions:“Korea”(33. 7-43.1),“Manchuria”(43-47),and the Littoral province of Siberia. The Korean peninsula is the best place to grow ginseng,because ginseng has strin- gent requirements for the plant's growth,and Korea has the ideal temperature zone,plenty of rain in the summer,proper coldness in the winter,etc.

  12. Diet, Genetics, and Disease: A Focus on the Middle East and North Africa Region

    Akl C. Fahed


    Full Text Available The Middle East and North Africa (MENA region suffers a drastic change from a traditional diet to an industrialized diet. This has led to an unparalleled increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases. This review discusses the role of nutritional genomics, or the dietary signature, in these dietary and disease changes in the MENA. The diet-genetics-disease relation is discussed in detail. Selected disease categories in the MENA are discussed starting with a review of their epidemiology in the different MENA countries, followed by an examination of the known genetic factors that have been reported in the disease discussed, whether inside or outside the MENA. Several diet-genetics-disease relationships in the MENA may be contributing to the increased prevalence of civilization disorders of metabolism and micronutrient deficiencies. Future research in the field of nutritional genomics in the MENA is needed to better define these relationships.

  13. Mastitis in lactating camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Afar Region, north-eastern Ethiopia.

    Bekele, T; Molla, B


    Quarter milk samples (n = 543) from 152 traditionally managed lactating camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Afar Region, north-eastern Ethiopia were examined to determine the prevalence of camel mastitis and identify its bacterial causes. Out of 152 camels examined, 19 (12.5%) were diagnosed as clinical mastitis cases based on clinical signs and bacteriological examinations. Of the 257 California Mastitis Test (CMT) positive quarter milk samples 162 (63.0%) yielded pathogenic bacteria. A positive correlation was observed between CMT positive results and presence of major pathogens in camel milk samples. The main mastitis pathogens isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae, and other species of streptococci, Pasteurella haemolytica and E. coli. Results of the present study suggest that mastitis in Afar camels is prevalent, Gram-positive cocci are the major isolates from camel milk samples and the CMT can be used as a screening test for the detection of mastitis in camels.

  14. Constraints Encountered by the Beneficiaries of Krishi Vigyan Kendra in North Eastern Region of India

    Dipak Nath


    Full Text Available The study was conducted among 200 farmers of ten purposively selected Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs in North Eastern region of India. The respondents were interviewed using a questionnaire for identifying the constraints and their suggestions for future improvement of KVK activities. The study revealed that unavailability of labour, unavailability of good quality seed and other inputs, unavailability of information about pest and disease management at right time,(inability to purchase modern agricultural implements and lack of capital were the major constraints. The respondents suggested that timely availability of seed and other inputs, regular and continuous monitoring, linking farmers to financial institutuions for financial support, and more long term practical oriented training programme are important for strengthening KVK activities.

  15. Biomass gasification technology nationalization and human resources formation in North region: GASEIBRAS Project

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Santos, Sandra Maria Apolinario dos; Lora, Beatriz Acquaro [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail:, e-mail:, e-mail:, e-mail:


    Gasification systems already developed in Brazil are not adjusted to the electricity production at isolated communities, because this models that supply a gas with satisfactory properties to this end, are projected to operate with coal and not with biomass in natura, what implies in the biomass transformation in coal with all the environmental impacts and loss of thermodynamic income associates to this practical. These problems had been surpassed with the GASEIFAMAZ Project development realized by CENBIO in the last two years. The project, that it aimed to make possible the electricity supply expansion in communities without energy access in the country north region, consisted of two gasification systems importation from the Indian Institute of Science, tests accomplishment and its transference to an isolated community. (author)


    Droj Laurentiu


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Romanian absorption capacity of the funds allocated through the REGIO programme, which is part of ERDF programme. Within the paper are presented the concept of absorption capacity and several opinions regarding its main composing elements. Also the Regio programme, its main axis and its budget is briefly presented. In the last chapter of the analysis a thorough analysis of the implementation of REGIO in the Romanian North-West Region was carried out and several causes for the low absorption of European Founds have been identified.. The process of improving the absorption capacity of European Funds is still at the beginning in Romania and will certainly become an important issue over the following years at all levels of the Romanian society and at the level of the European Funding Authorities as well.

  17. Detecting fossil fuel emissions patterns from subcontinental regions using North American in situ CO2 measurements.

    Shiga, Yoichi P; Michalak, Anna M; Gourdji, Sharon M; Mueller, Kim L; Yadav, Vineet


    The ability to monitor fossil fuel carbon dioxide (FFCO2) emissions from subcontinental regions using atmospheric CO2 observations remains an important but unrealized goal. Here we explore a necessary but not sufficient component of this goal, namely, the basic question of the detectability of FFCO2 emissions from subcontinental regions. Detectability is evaluated by examining the degree to which FFCO2 emissions patterns from specific regions are needed to explain the variability observed in high-frequency atmospheric CO2 observations. Analyses using a CO2 monitoring network of 35 continuous measurement towers over North America show that FFCO2 emissions are difficult to detect during nonwinter months. We find that the compounding effects of the seasonality of atmospheric transport patterns and the biospheric CO2 flux signal dramatically hamper the detectability of FFCO2 emissions. Results from several synthetic data case studies highlight the need for advancements in data coverage and transport model accuracy if the goal of atmospheric measurement-based FFCO2 emissions detection and estimation is to be achieved beyond urban scales.

  18. Mapping landslide processes in the North Tanganyika - Lake Kivu rift zones: towards a regional hazard assessment

    Dewitte, Olivier; Monsieurs, Elise; Jacobs, Liesbet; Basimike, Joseph; Delvaux, Damien; Draida, Salah; Hamenyimana, Jean-Baptiste; Havenith, Hans-Balder; Kubwimana, Désiré; Maki Mateso, Jean-Claude; Michellier, Caroline; Nahimana, Louis; Ndayisenga, Aloys; Ngenzebuhoro, Pierre-Claver; Nkurunziza, Pascal; Nshokano, Jean-Robert; Sindayihebura, Bernard; Philippe, Trefois; Turimumahoro, Denis; Kervyn, François


    The mountainous environments of the North Tanganyika - Lake Kivu rift zones are part of the West branch of the East African Rift. In this area, natural triggering and environmental factors such as heavy rainfalls, earthquake occurrences and steep topographies favour the concentration of mass movement processes. In addition anthropogenic factors such as rapid land use changes and urban expansion increase the sensibility to slope instability. Until very recently few landslide data was available for the area. Now, through the initiation of several research projects and the setting-up of a methodology for data collection adapted to this data-poor environment, it becomes possible to draw a first regional picture of the landslide hazard. Landslides include a wide range of ground movements such as rock falls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows. Landslides are possibly the most important geohazard in the region in terms of recurring impact on the populations, causing fatalities every year. Many landslides are observed each year in the whole region, and their occurrence is clearly linked to complex topographic, lithological and vegetation signatures coupled with heavy rainfall events, which is the main triggering factor. Here we present the current knowledge of the various slope processes present in these equatorial environments. A particular attention is given to urban areas such as Bukavu and Bujumbura where landslide threat is particularly acute. Results and research perspectives on landslide inventorying, monitoring, and susceptibility and hazard assessment are presented.

  19. A Variable-resolution Surface Wave Dispersion Study of Eurasia, North Africa, and Surrounding Regions

    Pasyanos, M E


    This paper presents the results of a large-scale study of surface wave dispersion performed across Eurasia and North Africa. Improvements were made to previous surface wave work by enlarging the study region, increasing path density, improving spatial resolution, and expanding the period range. This study expands the coverage area northwards and eastwards relative to a previous dispersion analysis, which covered only North Africa and the Middle East. We have significantly increased the number of seismograms examined and group velocity measurements made. We have now made good quality dispersion measurements for about 30,000 Rayleigh wave and 20,000 Love wave paths, and have incorporated measurements from several other researchers into the study. A conjugate gradient method was employed for the group velocity tomography, which improved the inversion from the previous study by adopting a variable smoothness. This technique allows us to go to higher resolution where the data allow without producing artifacts. The current results include both Love and Rayleigh wave inversions across the region for periods from 7 to 100 seconds at 1{sup o} resolution. Short period group velocities are sensitive to slow velocities associated with large sedimentary features such as the Caspian Sea, West Siberian Platform, Mediterranean Sea, Bay of Bengal, Tarim Basin, and Persian Gulf. Intermediate periods are sensitive to differences in crustal thickness, such as those between oceanic and continental crust or along orogenic zones and continental plateaus. At longer periods, fast velocities are consistently found beneath cratons while slow upper mantle velocities occur along rift systems, subduction zones, and collision zones such as the Tethys Belt. We have compared the group velocities at various periods with features such as sediment thickness, topographic height, crustal thickness, proximity to plate boundaries, lithospheric age and lithospheric thickness, and find significant

  20. Regional variability of farmer decision making and irrigation water use: insights from a data-scarce region of North India

    O'Keeffe, Jimmy; Buytaert, Wouter; Brozović, Nick; Mijic, Ana


    Over the last fifty years, changes in agriculture brought about by the Green Revolution have transformed India from a famine-prone, drought-susceptible country into the worlds' third largest grain producer and one of the most intensively irrigated parts of the globe. Regionally, cheap energy, subsidised seeds and fertilisers, and in some areas Government purchase guarantees for grain promote the intensification of farming. While this allows farmers to survive, it also aggravates the drain agriculture is having on resources, particularly energy and water. Analysis at a regional scale, however, masks the considerable spatial variability that exists on a more localised level and must be taken into consideration to understand correctly aggregate system response to policy, hydrologic, and climatic change. In this study we present and analyse the results from over 100 farmer interviews conducted in the data-scarce districts of Jalaun and Sitapur on the Gangetic Plains of Uttar Pradesh during the post monsoon period of 2013. Variables such as the volumes and timing of irrigation water applied, sources of water, methods of abstraction and irrigation, and costs incurred are mapped, using qualitative data analysis and GIS. Large differences between the districts emerge, for instance in the region of Jalaun where cheaper canal water is available in addition to groundwater. This has enabled farmers to afford more water efficient technologies such as sprinklers, a practice not found in Sitapur which depends almost exclusively on more expensive diesel pumps. Results are used to delineate the spatial variability in water use practices, along with farmer behaviour and decision making. The primary data are compared with socio-economic information taken from regionally produced statistical abstracts. The combined data are used to identify the main drivers that influence farmer decision-making, which is in turn leading to groundwater overdraught in many parts of North India. Finally

  1. Local vs. Regional Groundwater Flow Delineation from Stable Isotopes at Western North America Springs.

    Springer, Abraham E; Boldt, Elizabeth M; Junghans, Katie M


    The recharge location for many springs is unknown because they can be sourced from proximal, shallow, atmospheric sources or long-traveled, deep, regional aquifers. The stable isotope ((18) O and (2) H) geochemistry of springs water can provide cost-effective indications of relative flow path distance without the expense of drilling boreholes, conducting geophysical studies, or building groundwater flow models. Locally sourced springs generally have an isotopic signature similar to local precipitation for that region and elevation. Springs with a very different isotopic composition than local meteoric inputs likely have non-local recharge, representing a regional source. We tested this local vs. regional flow derived hypothesis with data from a new, large springs isotopic database from studies across Western North America in Arizona, Nevada, and Alberta. The combination of location-specific precipitation data with stable isotopic groundwater data provides an effective method for flow path determination at springs. We found springs in Arizona issue from a mix of regional and local recharge sources. These springs have a weak elevation trend across 1588 m of elevation where higher elevation springs are only slightly more depleted than low elevation springs with a δ(18) O variation of 5.9‰. Springs sampled in Nevada showed a strong elevation-isotope relationship with high-elevation sites discharging depleted waters and lower elevation springs issuing enriched waters; only a 2.6‰ difference exists in (18) O values over an elevation range of more than 1500 m. Alberta's springs are mostly sourced from local flow systems and show a moderate elevation trend of 1200 m, but the largest range in δ(18) O, 7.1‰.

  2. Impact of Land Use Change over North America as simulated by the Canadian Regional Climate Model

    Chacon, A.; Sushama, L.; Beltrami, H.


    This study investigates the biogeophysical impacts of human-induced land cover change, particularly crops, on the regional climate of North America, using the fifth generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5). To this effect, two simulations are performed with CRCM5 with different land cover datasets - one corresponding to the potential vegetation (i.e. without land use change) and the other corresponding to current land use. Most of the land use changes are concentrated over the US mid-west and south-central Canada, where forests and grasses have been replaced by crops. This transformation changes the surface parameters, particularly vegetation fractional area, leaf area index, albedo, roughness length and rooting depth among other variables, in the regions where land cover change takes place in these simulations. Both simulations span the 1988-2012 period and are driven by ERA-Interim at the lateral boundaries. The sea surface temperature and sea ice cover that vary inter-annually are also taken from ERA-Interim. Results suggest that regions where forests/grasses were replaced by crops generally show increases in albedo, particularly during the spring, fall and winter seasons, with the increase in albedo being largest for winter. This higher increase in albedo during winter is due to a snow-mediated positive feedback. The increased albedo values during winter, spring and fall are reflected in the cooler 2 meter temperature obtained in the simulation with land use change, compared to that with potential vegetation. Some cooling is observed in the summer for the simulation with land use change, mostly due to the increased latent heat fluxes. Increases in precipitation are noted for these regions, but are not statistically significant.

  3. Radiocarbon-based impact assessment of open biomass burning on regional carbonaceous aerosols in North China

    Zong, Zheng [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen, Yingjun, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Tian, Chongguo, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Fang, Yin [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Wang, Xiaoping [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Huang, Guopei; Zhang, Fan [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)


    Samples of total suspended particulates (TSPs) and fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) were collected from 29th May to 1st July, 2013 at a regional background site in Bohai Rim, North China. Mass concentrations of particulate matter and carbonaceous species showed a total of 50% and 97% of the measured TSP and PM{sub 2.5} levels exceeded the first grade national standard of China, respectively. Daily concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were detected 7.3 and 2.5 μg m{sup −3} in TSP and 5.2 and 2.0 μg m{sup −3} in PM{sub 2.5}, which accounted 5.8% and 2.0% of TSP while 5.6% and 2.2% for PM{sub 2.5}, respectively. The concentrations of OC, EC, TSP and PM{sub 2.5} were observed higher in the day time than those in the night time. The observations were associated with the emission variations from anthropogenic activities. Two merged samples representing from south and north source areas were selected for radiocarbon analysis. The radiocarbon measurements showed 74% of water-insoluble OC (WINSOC) and 59% of EC in PM{sub 2.5} derived from biomass burning and biogenic sources when the air masses were from south region, and 63% and 48% for the air masses from north, respectively. Combined with backward trajectories and daily burned area, open burning of agricultural wastes was found to be predominating, which was confirmed by the potential source contribution function (PSCF). - Highlights: • PM{sub 2.5} and TSP samples collected at Yellow River Delta were analyzed for OC and EC. • OC, EC, TSP and PM{sub 2.5} concentrations were higher in daytime than in nighttime. • Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) tracer, backward trajectories, and fire counts were used for the analysis. • Agricultural waste open burning was a main contributor to summer PM{sub 2.5}, OC and EC.

  4. Genotyping of Korean isolates of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) based on the glycoprotein gene.

    Kim, W-S; Oh, M-J; Nishizawa, T; Park, J-W; Kurath, G; Yoshimizu, M


    Glycoprotein (G) gene nucleotide sequences of four Korean isolates of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) were analyzed to evaluate their genetic relatedness to worldwide isolates. All Korean isolates were closely related to Japanese isolates of genogroup JRt rather than to those of North American and European genogroups. It is believed that Korean IHNV has been most likely introduced from Japan to Korea by the movement of contaminated fish eggs. Among the Korean isolates, phylogenetically distinct virus types were obtained from sites north and south of a large mountain range, suggesting the possibility of more than one introduction of virus from Japan.

  5. Regional economic impacts of water management alternatives: the case of Devils Lake, North Dakota, USA.

    Leistritz, F Larry; Leitch, Jay A; Bangsund, Dean A


    Devils Lake, located in a closed basin in northeastern North Dakota has over a century-long history of highly fluctuating water levels. The lake has risen nearly 25 feet (7.7 m) since 1993, more than doubling its surface area. Rising water levels have affected rural lands, transportation routes, and communities near the lake. In response to rising lake levels, Federal, state and local agencies have adopted a three-part approach to flood damage reduction, consisting of (1) upper basin water management to reduce the amount of water reaching the lake, (2) protection for structures and infrastructure if the lake continues to rise, and (3) developing an emergency outlet to release some lake water. The purpose of this study was to provide information about the net regional economic effects of a proposed emergency outlet for Devils Lake. An input-output model was used to estimate the regional economic effects of the outlet, under two scenarios: (1) the most likely future situation (MLS) and (2) a best case situation (BCS) (i.e., where the benefits from the outlet would be greatest), albeit an unlikely one. Regional economic effects of the outlet include effects on transportation (road and railroad construction), agriculture (land kept in production, returned to production sooner, or kept in production longer), residential relocations, and outlet construction expenditures. Effects are measured as changes in gross business volume (gross receipts) for various sectors, secondary employment, and local tax collections. The net regional economic effects of the proposed outlet would be relatively small, and consideration of these economic impacts would not strengthen the case for an outlet.

  6. Influence of terrain and highway construction on thermokarst distribution, North Slave region, NWT, Canada

    Morse, Peter; Wolfe, Stephen; McWade, Taylor


    Permafrost degradation has been observed throughout the north and is expected to have broad reaching effects on the land and its people. Nevertheless, for much of Northern Canada little quantified information about thermokarst exists. For example, in the southern North Slave region, NWT, thermokarst distribution has never been assessed though permafrost is in thermal disequilibrium and modelling suggests permafrost extent will decline. Additionally, differential subsidence has been observed in the subarctic city of Yellowknife and along highway infrastructure connecting it to the south. To better understand present and future permafrost conditions, we mapped the location and size of thermokarst ponding (a change from forest cover to water) in the study area by comparing historic and modern remotely sensed data sets available from 1945, 1961, and 2005. These data were used to evaluate the dominant terrain controls on the distribution of thermokarst in the region, and the potential influence that highway construction may have had on thermokarst development. Historically, discontinuous permafrost developed in a time-transgressive manner during the Holocene as lake-level receded from glacial Lake McConnell to present-day Great Slave Lake (5 mmṡa-1 over the last 8000 years). As a consequence of inundation the upland areas are characterized by extensive wave-washed bedrock outcrops with glaciolacustrine (GL) sediments and glaciofluvial materials occurring between them, whereas the lowland areas feature prominent GL deposits that cover nearly 70 % of the exposed surface. Throughout much of the region ground ice accumulation likely accompanied permafrost aggradation into fine-grained sediments, as is evident by lithalsa growth in particular. Highway 3, constructed during the mid-1960s, was preferentially aligned to crossed terrain underlain by fine-grained sediments to avoid bedrock and waterbodies. Local silt and clay used for highway embankment construction was sourced

  7. Preliminary result of P-wave speed tomography beneath North Sumatera region

    Jatnika, Jajat; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Wandono


    The structure of P-wave speed beneath the North Sumatra region was determined using P-wave arrival times compiled by MCGA from time periods of January 2009 to December 2012 combining with PASSCAL data for February to May 1995. In total, there are 2,246 local earthquake events with 10,666 P-wave phases from 63 stations seismic around the study area. Ray tracing to estimate travel time from source to receiver in this study by applying pseudo-bending method while the damped LSQR method was used for the tomographic inversion. Based on assessment of ray coverage, earthquakes and stations distribution, horizontal grid nodes was set up of 30×30 km2 for inside the study area and 80×80 km2 for outside the study area. The tomographic inversion results show low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex region and around the Sumatra Fault Zones (SFZ). These features are consistent with previous study. The low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex are observed around Mt. Pusuk Bukit at depths of 5 km down to 100 km. The interpretation is these anomalies may be associated with ascending hot materials from subduction processes at depths of 80 km down to 100 km. The obtained Vp structure from local tomography will give valuable information to enhance understanding of tectonic and volcanic in this study area.

  8. Preliminary result of P-wave speed tomography beneath North Sumatera region

    Jatnika, Jajat [Earth Science Study Program, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Indonesian Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA), Jakarta (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: [Global Geophysical Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Insitute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Wandono [Indonesian Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA), Jakarta (Indonesia)


    The structure of P-wave speed beneath the North Sumatra region was determined using P-wave arrival times compiled by MCGA from time periods of January 2009 to December 2012 combining with PASSCAL data for February to May 1995. In total, there are 2,246 local earthquake events with 10,666 P-wave phases from 63 stations seismic around the study area. Ray tracing to estimate travel time from source to receiver in this study by applying pseudo-bending method while the damped LSQR method was used for the tomographic inversion. Based on assessment of ray coverage, earthquakes and stations distribution, horizontal grid nodes was set up of 30×30 km2 for inside the study area and 80×80 km2 for outside the study area. The tomographic inversion results show low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex region and around the Sumatra Fault Zones (SFZ). These features are consistent with previous study. The low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex are observed around Mt. Pusuk Bukit at depths of 5 km down to 100 km. The interpretation is these anomalies may be associated with ascending hot materials from subduction processes at depths of 80 km down to 100 km. The obtained Vp structure from local tomography will give valuable information to enhance understanding of tectonic and volcanic in this study area.

  9. Regional model simulation of the North Atlantic cyclone "Caroline" and comparisons with satellite data

    E. Keup-Thiel

    Full Text Available An individual regional model simulation of cyclone "Caroline" has been carried out to study water cycle components over the North Atlantic Ocean. The uncertainties associated with quantitative estimates of the water cycle components are highlighted by a comparison of the model results with SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager satellite data.

    The vertically integrated water vapor of the REgional MOdel REMO is in good agreement with the SSM/I satellite data. The simulation results for other water budget components like the vertically integrated liquid water content and precipitation compare also reasonably well within the frontal system. However, the high precipitation rate in the cold air outbreak on the backside of the cold front derived from SSM/I satellite data is generally underestimated by REMO. This results in a considerable deficit of the total precipitation amount accumulated for the cyclone "Caroline". While REMO simulates 24.3 108 m3 h-1 for 09:00 UTC, the total areal precipitation from SSM/I satellite data amounts to 54.7 08 m3 h-1.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (precipitation; mesoscale meteorology – Radio science (remote sensing

  10. Hepatitis A virus in the Middle East and North Africa region: a new challenge.

    Melhem, N M; Talhouk, R; Rachidi, H; Ramia, S


    During the past three decades, a gradual shift in the age of infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) from early childhood to adulthood has been observed. There is a general lack of updated data on HAV burden of disease, incidence and age-specific seroprevalence in countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The aim of this article is to review the published data on anti-HAV seroprevalence, an important tool to monitor infections rates, in countries of the MENA region and associated risk factors including water and socioeconomic data when available. Data on anti-HAV seroprevalence were found for 12 of 25 MENA countries. We show that MENA countries, similar to other areas in the world, have a clear shift in HAV incidence with a decline among young age groups and an increase among adults and older individuals. This would likely be associated with increased morbidity and increased risks of outbreaks among younger age groups. Consequently, the continuous surveillance of hepatitis A cases and the inclusion of hepatitis A vaccine in the expanded immunization programmes are needed in countries of the MENA.

  11. Goldschmidt crater and the Moon's north polar region: Results from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)

    Cheek, L.C.; Pieters, C.M.; Boardman, J.W.; Clark, R.N.; Combe, J.-P.; Head, J.W.; Isaacson, P.J.; McCord, T.B.; Moriarty, D.; Nettles, J.W.; Petro, N.E.; Sunshine, J.M.; Taylor, L.A.


    Soils within the impact crater Goldschmidt have been identified as spectrally distinct from the local highland material. High spatial and spectral resolution data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on the Chandrayaan-1 orbiter are used to examine the character of Goldschmidt crater in detail. Spectral parameters applied to a north polar mosaic of M3 data are used to discern large-scale compositional trends at the northern high latitudes, and spectra from three widely separated regions are compared to spectra from Goldschmidt. The results highlight the compositional diversity of the lunar nearside, in particular, where feldspathic soils with a low-Ca pyroxene component are pervasive, but exclusively feldspathic regions and small areas of basaltic composition are also observed. Additionally, we find that the relative strengths of the diagnostic OH/H2O absorption feature near 3000 nm are correlated with the mineralogy of the host material. On both global and local scales, the strongest hydrous absorptions occur on the more feldspathic surfaces. Thus, M3 data suggest that while the feldspathic soils within Goldschmidt crater are enhanced in OH/H2O compared to the relatively mafic nearside polar highlands, their hydration signatures are similar to those observed in the feldspathic highlands on the farside. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Thermal Stability of Frozen Volatiles in the North Polar Region of Mercury

    Paige, David A.; Siegler, Matthew A.; Harmon, John K.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.


    Earth-based radar observations have revealed the presence on Mercury of anomalously bright, depolarizing features that appear to be localized in the permanently shadowed regions of high-latitude impact craters [1]. Observations of similar radar signatures over a range of radar wavelengths implies that they correspond to deposits that are highly transparent at radar wavelengths and extend to depths of several meters below the surface [1]. Thermal models using idealized crater topographic profiles have predicted the thermal stability of surface and subsurface water ice at these same latitudes [2]. One of the major goals of the MESSENGER mission is to characterize the nature of radar-bright craters and presumed associated frozen volatile deposits at the poles of Mercury through complementary orbital observations by a suite of instruments [3]. Here we report on an examination of the thermal stability of water ice and other frozen volatiles in the north polar region of Mercury using topographic profiles obtained by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) instrument [4] in conjunction with a three-dimensional ray-tracing thermal model previously used to study the thermal environment of polar craters on the Moon [5].

  13. Geodiversity action plans for the enhancement of geoheritage in the Piemonte region (north-western Italy

    Elena Ferrero


    Full Text Available A geoethical approach to geodiversity allows better understanding of the value of abiotic nature and enhances its conservation and development. Our basic assumption is that even during an economical crisis, geoheritage sites can serve both public and private interests. A set of nine strategic geothematic areas were chosen to represent the geodiversity of the Piemonte region, north-western Italy, each of which is characterized by great potential for scientific studies, enhancement of public understanding of science, recreational activities, and economic support to the local communities. Specialized research teams individuated critical aspects to advance our knowledge of the geological history of the Piemonte region, through climate and environmental changes, natural hazards, soil processes, and georesources. The scientific concepts and techniques were coupled with geodiffusion actions and products: not only geosites, but also museum collections, evidence of mining and quarrying activities, science exhibitions, and nature trails. The preliminary results have allowed action plans to be developed with local partners, to assess the geoheritage management requirements. A series of investigations were carried out to improve the visual representation of the geological processes and the evolutionary scenarios. Further outcomes of the project will include didactic tools for educators, schools, and the public in general.

  14. Isolation and survey of antibiotic sensitivity in nosocomial infections in north Maharashtra region.

    Patil, Arun; Patil, Kavita; Pawar, Pankaj; Maheshwari, Vijay


    The present work was aimed to study the prevalence of the drug resistance among Gram positive and Gram negative organisms isolated from clinical samples obtained from various private nursing homes of Jalgaon city and surrounding areas in the state of Maharashtra. Different pathogenic organisms were isolated from one thousand seven hundred and ninety clinical samples obtained from various nursing homes of Jalgaon region of North Maharashtra, MS, India during the period of August, 2010 to July, 2011. Antibiotic sensitivity testing of isolated pathogenic organisms was done with fifty different antibiotics of 13 different groups by the disk diffusion technique using Mueller Hinton Agar Plates according to CLSI (formerly NCCLS) guidelines. Out of total samples analyzed 1171 samples showed the presence of infection while in 619 samples no growth of organisms was seen on culture medium. Microbial growth revealed presence of 11 different organisms (E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Acinetobater spp., Streptococccus spp., Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA)) including Candida spp. Sensitivity profile of these organisms towards different antibiotics is reported here. The study resulted in generation of representative status of the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of commonly found organisms in nosocomial infections in the region. This could be useful for the clinicians to choose correct antibiotic and ensure the judicious use of the same for their patients.

  15. Women Entrepreneurship in Romania: the Case of North East Development Region

    Sebastian Ion CEPTUREANU


    Full Text Available Women entrepreneurship benefit from a process of expansion all over the world. Business established and developed by women are an important source of wealth and improved living standards in many countries. Even though women represent 46% of Europe's working population, which means in theory that trend of this type entrepreneurship can only go upward, however entrepreneurship is still considered an activity for men. Entrepreneurship has an active role in employment, economic development and quality of life, constituting a dynamic part of any developed economy. Supporting women in their involvement in setting up new start-ups and small business and unlock their potential is an important part of government actions to foster entrepreneurial activities. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM study found out that economies of Eastern European countries are in poor condition in terms of women's participation in entrepreneurial activity. Romania is no exception. This paper analyze women entrepreneurship in the poorest region of Romania, North East region, through an empirical survey but provide also some insights on overall Romanian situation based on National Trade Register Office data.

  16. Expanding the North American Breeding Bird Survey analysis to include additional species and regions

    Sauer, John; Niven, Daniel; Pardieck, Keith L.; Ziolkowski, David; Link, William


    The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) contains data for >700 bird species, but analyses often focus on a core group of ∼420 species. We analyzed data for 122 species of North American birds for which data exist in the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) database but are not routinely analyzed on the BBS Summary and Analysis Website. Many of these species occur in the northern part of the continent, on routes that fall outside the core survey area presently analyzed in the United States and southern Canada. Other species not historically analyzed occur in the core survey area with very limited data but have large portions of their ranges in Mexico and south. A third group of species not historically analyzed included species thought to be poorly surveyed by the BBS, such as rare, coastal, or nocturnal species. For 56 species found primarily in regions north of the core survey area, we expanded the scope of the analysis, using data from 1993 to 2014 during which ≥3 survey routes had been sampled in 6 northern strata (Bird Conservation regions in Alaska, Yukon, and Newfoundland and Labrador) and fitting log-linear hierarchical models for an augmented BBS survey area that included both the new northern strata and the core survey area. We also applied this model to 168 species historically analyzed in the BBS that had data from these additional northern strata. For both groups of species we calculated survey-wide trends for the both core and augmented survey areas from 1993 to 2014; for species that did not occur in the newly defined strata, we computed trends from 1966 to 2014. We evaluated trend estimates in terms of established credibility criteria for BBS results, screening for imprecise trends, small samples, and low relative abundance. Inclusion of data from the northern strata permitted estimation of trend for 56 species not historically analyzed, but only 4 of these were reasonably monitored and an additional 13 were questionably monitored; 39

  17. Assessment of a zoomed global model for the North Sea by comparison with a conventional nested regional model

    Jian Su


    Full Text Available Assessment of marine downscaling of global model simulations to the regional scale is a prerequisite for understanding ocean feedback to the atmosphere in regional climate downscaling. Major difficulties arise from the coarse grid resolution of global models, which cannot provide sufficiently accurate boundary values for the regional model. In this study, we first setup a stretched global model (MPIOM to focus on the North Sea by shifting poles. Second, a regional model (HAMSOM was performed with higher resolution, while the open boundary values were provided by the stretched global model. In general, the sea surface temperatures (SSTs in the two experiments are similar. Major SST differences are found in coastal regions (root mean square difference of SST is reaching up to 2°C. The higher sea surface salinity in coastal regions in the global model indicates the general limitation of this global model and its configuration (surface layer thickness is 16 m. By comparison, the advantage of the absence of open lateral boundaries in the global model can be demonstrated, in particular for the transition region between the North Sea and Baltic Sea. On long timescales, the North Atlantic Current (NAC inflow through the northern boundary correlates well between both model simulations (R~0.9. After downscaling with HAMSOM, the NAC inflow through the northern boundary decreases by ~10%, but the circulation in the Skagerrak is stronger in HAMSOM. The circulation patterns of both models are similar in the northern North Sea. The comparison suggests that the stretched global model system is a suitable tool for long-term free climate model simulations, and the only limitations occur in coastal regions. Regarding the regional studies focusing on the coastal zone, nested regional model can be a helpful alternative.

  18. Future water availability in North African dams simulated by high-resolution regional climate models

    Tramblay, Yves; Jarlan, Lionel; Hanich, Lahoucine; Somot, Samuel


    In North Africa, the countries of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia are already experiencing water scarcity and a strong interannual variability of precipitation. To better manage their existing water resources, several dams and reservoirs have been built on most large river catchments. The objective of this study is to provide quantitative scenarios of future changes in water availability for the 47 major dams and reservoirs catchments located in North Africa. An ensemble of regional climate models (RCM) with a spatial resolution of 12km, driven by different general circulation models (GCM), from the EuroCORDEX experiment have been considered to analyze the projected changes on temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) for two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and two time horizons (2040-2065 and 2065-2090). PET is estimated from RCM outputs either with the FAO-Penman-Monteith (PM) equation, requiring air temperature, relative humidity, net radiation and wind, or with the Hargreave Samani (HS) equation, requiring only air temperature. The water balance is analyzed by comparing the climatic demand and supply of water, considering that for most of these catchments groundwater storage is negligible over long time periods. Results indicated a future temperature increase for all catchments between +1.8° and +4.2°, depending on the emission scenario and the time period considered. Precipitation is projected to decrease between -14% to -27%, mainly in winter and spring, with a strong East to West gradient. PET computed from PM or HS formulas provided very similar estimates and projections, ranging between +7% to +18%. Changes in PET are mostly driven by rising temperatures and are greatest during dry summer months than for the wet winter season. Therefore the increased PET has a lower impact than declining precipitation on future water availability, which is expected to decrease by -19% to -33% on average.

  19. Climate trends of the North American prairie pothole region 1906-2000

    Millett, B.; Johnson, W.C.; Guntenspergen, G.


    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is unique to North America. Its millions of wetlands and abundant ecosystem goods and services are highly sensitive to wide variations of temperature and precipitation in time and space characteristic of a strongly continental climate. Precipitation and temperature gradients across the PPR are orthogonal to each other. Precipitation nearly triples from west to east from approximately 300 mm/year to 900 mm/year, while mean annual temperature ranges from approximately 1°C in the north to nearly 10°C in the south. Twentieth-century weather records for 18 PPR weather stations representing 6 ecoregions revealed several trends. The climate generally has been getting warmer and wetter and the diurnal temperature range has decreased. Minimum daily temperatures warmed by 1.0°C, while maximum daily temperatures cooled by 0.15°C. Minimum temperature warmed more in winter than in summer, while maximum temperature cooled in summer and warmed in winter. Average annual precipitation increased by 49 mm or 9%. Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) trends reflected increasing moisture availability for most weather stations; however, several stations in the western Canadian Prairies recorded effectively drier conditions. The east-west moisture gradient steepened during the twentieth century with stations in the west becoming drier and stations in the east becoming wetter. If the moisture gradient continues to steepen, the area of productive wetland ecosystems will shrink. Consequences for wetlands would be especially severe if the future climate does not provide supplemental moisture to offset higher evaporative demand.

  20. Nonmethane hydrocarbons at Pico Mountain, Azores: 1. Oxidation chemistry in the North Atlantic region

    Helmig, D.; Tanner, D. M.; Honrath, R. E.; Owen, R. C.; Parrish, D. D.


    Measurements of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) at the Pico Mountain observatory at 2225 m asl on Pico Island, Azores, Portugal, from August 2004 to August 2005 (in part overlapping with the field campaign of the International Consortium on Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation study) were used to investigate NMHC sources and seasonal oxidation chemistry in the central North Atlantic region. Levels of anthropogenic NMHC were characteristic of the marine free troposphere. Their concentrations were low compared to continental sites at higher northern latitudes, but higher than data reported from a similarly located Pacific mountain site at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. These higher NMHC levels are indicative of a greater influence of the adjacent continents on air composition at Pico. Substantially enhanced NMHC concentrations during the summers of 2004 and 2005 were attributed to long-range transport of biomass burning plumes originating from fires in northern Canada, Alaska, and Siberia. This finding exemplifies the continuing impact of biomass burning plumes on atmospheric composition and chemistry many days downwind of these emission sources. Seasonal cycles with lower NMHC concentrations and lower ratios of more reactive to less reactive NMHC during summer reflect the higher degree of photochemical processing occurring during transport. The NMHC concentrations indicate no significant role of chlorine atom oxidation on NMHC. Ozone above 35 ppbv was measured at Pico Mountain throughout all seasons. Enhanced ozone levels were observed in air that had relatively "fresh" photochemical signatures (e.g., ln [propane]/[ethane] > -2.5). During spring-summer air that was more processed ("older" air with ln [propane]/[ethane] < -2.5) on average had lower ozone levels (down to <20 ppbv). This relationship indicates that conditions in the lower free troposphere over the mid-North Atlantic during the spring and summer lead to net photochemical ozone destruction

  1. Monitoring and Modeling Water and Energy Fluxes in North China Plain: From Field to Regional Scales

    Shen, Y.


    North China Plain is one of the mostly water deficit region in the world. Even though the total water withdrawal from surface and groundwater exceeded its renewable ability for long years, due to its importance to balance the food budget in China, large amount of groundwater is still extracted every year for intensive irrigation. With winter wheat and summer maize double-cropping system, the grain yield of NCP can reach a very high level of around 15 t/ha annually, which is largely depended on timely irrigation. As a result, the ceaseless over exploitation of groundwater caused serious environmental and ecological problems, e.g. nearly all the rivers run drying-up at plain areas, groundwater declined, land subsidence, and wetland shrank. The decrease in precipitation over past half century reinforced the water shortage in NCP. The sustainability of both the water resources and agriculture became the most important issue in this region. A key issue to the sustainable use of water resources is to improve the water use efficiency and reduce agricultural water consumptions. This study will introduce the efforts we put to clarify the water and heat balances in irrigated agricultural lands and its implications to crop yield, hydrology, and water resources evolution in NCP. We established a multi-scale observation system in NCP to study the surface water and heat processes and agricultural aspect of hydrological cycle in past years. Multi-disciplinary methods are adopted into this research such as micro-meteorologic, isotopic, soil hydrologic methods at the field scale, and remote sensing and modeling for study the water fluxes over regional scale. Detailed research activities and interesting as well as some initial results will be introduced at the workshop.

  2. Canada and the North American Free Trade Agreement: Between globalization and regional integration

    Caterina García Segura


    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to analize, from Canada’s perspective, the choice regarding the model of state as well as of economic and commercial policy which the decision to participate in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA implies. The debatewhich NAFTA provoked in Canada expresses in concrete terms that debate which, in much larger terms, takes place at the international level regarding the multilateralization and/or the regionalization of commercial exchanges. It is a reflection of the tension between theintegrating forces (process of globalization and the fragmenting ones (processes of regionalization which characterize the dynamics of the contemporary international system. The hypothesis of this work is that in spite of being a commercial agreement, the Canadian government’s decision to participate in NAFTA was a decision of a political nature which was not determined exclusively by the reality of the existing commercial exchanges between Canada and Mexico or by the perspectives of improving them inthe short term. The immediate objective of Canada was to avoid that a possible bilateral agreement between its prinicipal economic member, the United States, and Mexico would empty out the contents of the existing Free Trade Agreement (FTA between Canada and the United States. In this sense, NAFTA was the possible remedy to an unwanted situation (the negotiation of a US-Mexico bilateral agreement. The objective in the medium and long term is use the platform of regional integration as a trampoline from where the Canadian economy can be reorientated and driven in order to attain international competitiveness. In this sense, Canada’s true option had already beenrealised with the FTA.

  3. North polar region of Mars: Advances in stratigraphy, structure, and erosional modification

    Tanaka, K.L.; Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Skinner, J.A.; Bourke, M.C.; Fortezzo, C.M.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Kolb, E.J.; Okubo, C.H.


    We have remapped the geology of the north polar plateau on Mars, Planum Boreum, and the surrounding plains of Vastitas Borealis using altimetry and image data along with thematic maps resulting from observations made by the Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft. New and revised geographic and geologic terminologies assist with effectively discussing the various features of this region. We identify 7 geologic units making up Planum Boreum and at least 3 for the circumpolar plains, which collectively span the entire Amazonian Period. The Planum Boreum units resolve at least 6 distinct depositional and 5 erosional episodes. The first major stage of activity includes the Early Amazonian (???3 to 1 Ga) deposition (and subsequent erosion) of the thick (locally exceeding 1000 m) and evenly-layered Rupes Tenuis unit (Abrt), which ultimately formed approximately half of the base of Planum Boreum. As previously suggested, this unit may be sourced by materials derived from the nearby Scandia region, and we interpret that it may correlate with the deposits that regionally underlie pedestal craters in the surrounding lowland plains. The second major episode of activity during the Middle to Late Amazonian (??? features. Some present-day dune fields may be hundreds of kilometers removed from possible sources along the margins of Planum Boreum, and dark materials, comprised of sand sheets, extend even farther downwind. These deposits also attest to the lengthy period of erosion following emplacement of the Planum Boreum 1 unit. We find no evidence for extensive glacial flow, topographic relaxation, or basal melting of Planum Boreum materials. However, minor development of normal faults and wrinkle ridges may suggest differential compaction of materials across buried scarps. Timing relations are poorly-defined mostly because resurfacing and other uncertainties prohibit precise determinations of surface impact crater densities

  4. Cost analysis of ground-water supplies in the North Atlantic region, 1970

    Cederstrom, Dagfin John


    The cost of municipal and industrial ground water (or, more specifically, large supplies of ground water) at the wellhead in the North Atlantic Region in 1970 generally ranged from 1.5 to 5 cents per thousand gallons. Water from crystalline rocks and shale is relatively expensive. Water from sandstone is less so. Costs of water from sands and gravels in glaciated areas and from Coastal Plain sediments range from moderate to very low. In carbonate rocks costs range from low to fairly high. The cost of ground water at the wellhead is low in areas of productive aquifers, but owing to the cost of connecting pipe, costs increase significantly in multiple-well fields. In the North Atlantic Region, development of small to moderate supplies of ground water may offer favorable cost alternatives to planners, but large supplies of ground water for delivery to one point cannot generally be developed inexpensively. Well fields in the less productive aquifers may be limited by costs to 1 or 2 million gallons a day, but in the more favorable aquifers development of several tens of millions of gallons a day may be practicable and inexpensive. Cost evaluations presented cannot be applied to any one specific well or specific site because yields of wells in any one place will depend on the local geologic and hydrologic conditions; however, with such cost adjustments as may be necessary, the methodology presented should have wide applicability. Data given show the cost of water at the wellhead based on the average yield of several wells. The cost of water delivered by a well field includes costs of connecting pipe and of wells that have the yields and spacings specified. Cost of transport of water from the well field to point of consumption and possible cost of treatment are not evaluated. In the methodology employed, costs of drilling and testing, pumping equipment, engineering for the well field, amortization at 5% percent interest, maintenance, and cost of power are considered. The

  5. Fellow travellers: a concordance of colonization patterns between mice and men in the North Atlantic region

    Jones EP


    Full Text Available Abstract Background House mice (Mus musculus are commensals of humans and therefore their phylogeography can reflect human colonization and settlement patterns. Previous studies have linked the distribution of house mouse mitochondrial (mt DNA clades to areas formerly occupied by the Norwegian Vikings in Norway and the British Isles. Norwegian Viking activity also extended further westwards in the North Atlantic with the settlement of Iceland, short-lived colonies in Greenland and a fleeting colony in Newfoundland in 1000 AD. Here we investigate whether house mouse mtDNA sequences reflect human history in these other regions as well. Results House mice samples from Iceland, whether from archaeological Viking Age material or from modern-day specimens, had an identical mtDNA haplotype to the clade previously linked with Norwegian Vikings. From mtDNA and microsatellite data, the modern-day Icelandic mice also share the low genetic diversity shown by their human hosts on Iceland. Viking Age mice from Greenland had an mtDNA haplotype deriving from the Icelandic haplotype, but the modern-day Greenlandic mice belong to an entirely different mtDNA clade. We found no genetic association between modern Newfoundland mice and the Icelandic/ancient Greenlandic mice (no ancient Newfoundland mice were available. The modern day Icelandic and Newfoundland mice belong to the subspecies M. m. domesticus, the Greenlandic mice to M. m. musculus. Conclusions In the North Atlantic region, human settlement history over a thousand years is reflected remarkably by the mtDNA phylogeny of house mice. In Iceland, the mtDNA data show the arrival and continuity of the house mouse population to the present day, while in Greenland the data suggest the arrival, subsequent extinction and recolonization of house mice - in both places mirroring the history of the European human host populations. If house mice arrived in Newfoundland with the Viking settlers at all, then, like the

  6. 3-D modelling and analysis of Dst C-responses in the North Pacific Ocean region, revisited

    Kuvshinov, A.; Utada, H.; Avdeev, D.;


    During the last decade a number of one-dimensional (1-D) conductivity profiles have been constructed for the upper and mid-mantle of the North Pacific Ocean region. These profiles differ significantly, and from our point of view it is still unclear which profile is the best candidate for the uppe...

  7. Structure of the uppermost mantle beneath North America : Regional surface wave tomography and thermo-chemical interpretation

    Godey, Stéphanie


    Seismology is the primary tool to probe the interior of the Earth. The main requirement to obtain a high quality image of the Earth's structure is the achievement of an extensive dataset of seismograms. The North American and Caribbean regions offer a good opportunity in that matter. The large deplo

  8. A ground temperature map of the North Atlantic permafrost region based on remote sensing and reanalysis data

    Westermann, S.; Østby, T. I.; Gisnås, K.


    input parameters which for each grid cell allows scanning the range of possible results by running many realizations with different parameters. The approach is applied to the unglacierized land areas in the North Atlantic region, an area of more than 5 million km2 ranging from the Ural Mountains...

  9. Potential, spatial distribution and economic performance of regional biomass chains: The North of the Netherlands as example

    Hilst, van der F.; Dornburg, V.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Elbersen, B.S.; Graves, A.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Elbersen, H.W.; Dam, van J.M.C.; Faaij, A.


    This work assesses the viability of regional biomass chains by comparing the economic performance of potential bioenergy crops with the performance of current agricultural land uses. The biomass chains assessed are ethanol production from Miscanthus and from sugar beet in the North of the Netherland

  10. Aspects of Remote Sensing in the GEOid and Sea level Of the North Atlantic Region (GEOSONAR) Project

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Knudsen, Per


    The general objectives of the GEOid and Sea level Of the North Atlantic Region (GEOSONAR) project are presented. These include analyses of the dynamics of the ocean and its characteristics. The analyses are mainly based on remote sensing. As an example a data set obtained by the multi-channel Sea...

  11. Evolution of Cold War Rules of Engagement: The Soviet Combat Role in the Korean War, 1950-1953


    to about the same position as the Russian frontier of 1795 and added eastern Galicia . 15 The 22 June 1941 German invasion forced the Soviet Union into...Director, Lt. Col. Baksov, USSR, for the North Koreans, General Kim Ii, North Korean Army ( alias Pak Dok San, USSR) and General Tu Fing, Chinese. The

  12. Source processes of strong earthquakes in the North Tien-Shan region

    Kulikova, G.; Krueger, F.


    Tien-Shan region attracts attention of scientists worldwide due to its complexity and tectonic uniqueness. A series of very strong destructive earthquakes occurred in Tien-Shan at the turn of XIX and XX centuries. Such large intraplate earthquakes are rare in seismology, which increases the interest in the Tien-Shan region. The presented study focuses on the source processes of large earthquakes in Tien-Shan. The amount of seismic data is limited for those early times. In 1889, when a major earthquake has occurred in Tien-Shan, seismic instruments were installed in very few locations in the world and these analog records did not survive till nowadays. Although around a hundred seismic stations were operating at the beginning of XIX century worldwide, it is not always possible to get high quality analog seismograms. Digitizing seismograms is a very important step in the work with analog seismic records. While working with historical seismic records one has to take into account all the aspects and uncertainties of manual digitizing and the lack of accurate timing and instrument characteristics. In this study, we develop an easy-to-handle and fast digitization program on the basis of already existing software which allows to speed up digitizing process and to account for all the recoding system uncertainties. Owing to the lack of absolute timing for the historical earthquakes (due to the absence of a universal clock at that time), we used time differences between P and S phases to relocate the earthquakes in North Tien-Shan and the body-wave amplitudes to estimate their magnitudes. Combining our results with geological data, five earthquakes in North Tien-Shan were precisely relocated. The digitizing of records can introduce steps into the seismograms which makes restitution (removal of instrument response) undesirable. To avoid the restitution, we simulated historic seismograph recordings with given values for damping and free period of the respective instrument and

  13. Active Mass Wasting of Ices in the North Polar Region of Mars

    Russell, P. S.; Byrne, S.; Pathare, A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.


    The HiRISE camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has discovered two forms of mass-wasting in the north-polar region. One is the scarpward retreat of bright layers of the north polar basal unit (BU, immediately underlying the north polar layered deposits, NPLD) and the overlying NPLD by fracture-controlled and undercutting-assisted piecewise failure of layer edges, resulting in rockfalls and rockslides, called blockfalls here. This is important as it suggests an alternative, significant mode of erosion in addition to sublimation which is traditionally held account-able for erosion of polar surfaces. The other form, caught in-action during imaging, comprises falls and avalanches of frost and dust over a few steep NPLD scarps during early spring. Here we report the latest findings in both of these dramatic and currently active processes and assess their role in the evolution and history of polar deposits. NPLD and BU mass wasting: Typical evidence of recent blockfall activity is in the form of blocks, flows, and debris on BU slopes. In a few cases, the appearance of new blocks in subsequent images proves this process is ongo-ing. In general, [likely] active outcrops have a higher overall MOLA-derived slope than [likely] quiescent outcrops (those with a lack of debris and abundance of sand on the BU). Furthermore, none of the NPLD peripheral scarps without BU exposure have slopes above 40°. This suggests BU exposure and this type of mass wasting play a role in maintaining and possibly creating over-steepened NPLD scarps (often 45°-65°, with sections approaching vertical). The lower-sloped NPLD scarps with no BU present also do not display the severe fracturing that characterizes steep NPLD cliffs directly above BU exposures. This may be due to fracture propagation from undercutting by the BU, thermal stresses induced by rapid and intense heating on steepened slopes with high solar incidence angles, or rapid uncovering of ice that was under compressive stresses

  14. Regional Development Disparities and the Provision of Services of General Interest. A Case Study on the Health Care Services Availability in the North-East Region of Romania

    Daniela-Luminita Constantin


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an inquiry into the issue of availability of services of general interest, offering as case study the health care services in the North-East region of Romania. The interregional and intraregional (within North-East region disparities in terms of health care services provision are examined in relation to the overall regional development disparities, confirming that the concern with providing a minimum level of social SGI to all citizens has conducted to health care service disparities lower than those in terms of GDP per inhabitant. The paper also provides relevant evidence on the impact of demography, especially in terms of population density on the availability of health care services.

  15. Pollen analysis of natural honeys from the central region of Shanxi, North China.

    Xiao-Yan Song

    Full Text Available Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples, Laminaceae (10, Brassicaceae (12, Rosaceae (12, Moraceae (13, Rhamnaceae (15, Asteraceae (17, and Fabaceae (19. In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples, Robinia pseudoacacia (3, Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2, Sophora japonica (1, Ailanthus altissima (1, Asteraceae type (1, and Fabaceae type (1. The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains, 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000, and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000. The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption.




    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Due to the high incidence of thyroid disorders in the North - Eastern population of India a study was undertaken in Guwahati Medical College to see the age related changes in the morphology of the gland in the ca davers of this region. AIM : The study was done to compare the dimensions of the thyroid gland in this population with different studies around the world to see if it can throw any light why thyroid disorders are more common in this population and help clin icians to deal better. MATERIALS AND METHOD : The specimens were divided into three groups according to their ages. Twenty (21 specimens (both male and female were taken from each age group. Statistical analysis was done by paired t - test and t was taken a s significant if the value of t was greater than 2.18. SUMMARY : A study of all together of 63 specimen were taken up to see if any morphological differences in dimension exists in various age groups viz. pediatrics , adults and elderly and co relate with fi ndings of previous workers and was statistically analyzed. CONCLUSION : The study showed that there was no morphological difference of this population with that of previous studies done in other parts of the world. Perhaps a histological study in molecular level will throw more light why this stratum of population is so vulnerable to thyroid disorders.

  17. Site insolation and wind power characteristics: technical report western region (north section)



    This phase of the Site Insolation and Wind Power Characteristics Study was performed to provide statistical information on the expected future availability of solar and wind power at various sites in the Western Region (North Section) of the US Historic data (SOLMET), at 21 National Weather Service stations with hourly solar insolation and collateral meteorological information, were interrogated to provide an estimate of future trends. Solar data are global radiation incident on a horizontal surface, and wind data represent wind power normal to the air flow. Selected insolation and wind power conditions were investigated for their occurrence and persistence, for defined periods of time, on a monthly basis. Global horizontal insolation is related to inclined surfaces at each site. Ratios are provided, monthly, for multiplying global insolation to obtain insolation estimates on south-facing surfaces inclined at different angles with respect to the horizontal. Also, joint probability distribution tables are constructed showing the number of occurrences, out of a finite sample size, of daily average solar and wind power within selected intervals, by month. Information of this nature is intended as an aid to preliminary planning activities for the design and operation of solar and wind energy utilization and conversion systems.

  18. Usage of info-communication technologies at agricultural SME's in the Hungarian North-Plain region

    Adam Pentek


    Full Text Available The ICT technologies are present in every area of life its role is indisputable, that is why they have become important production resource for the enterprises. In this aspect, the situation of the SMEs (small- and medium sized enterprises is difficult, as the utilisation of these technologies does not reach the desired level neither in Hungary, nor in the European Union. In this paper we will present the result of a research. This survey measure of the e-activity of the SME’s at 2010 in the North-Plan region in Hungary. Based on survey’s data by the help of the cluster analysis we will try to answer the following question: From the side of the SME’s which is the most useful electronic method in each part of the business process. The cluster analysis based on the types of communication channels, business partners and the business processes helps the companies to define the communication developments in the agriculture. The way we see it can show the way to the decision makers to develop their companies’ e-business even thought they have scarce resources.

  19. Regional-Scale Ozone Deposition to North-East Atlantic Waters

    L. Coleman


    Full Text Available A regional climate model is used to evaluate dry deposition of ozone over the North East Atlantic. Results are presented for a deposition scheme accounting for turbulent and chemical enhancement of oceanic ozone deposition and a second non-chemical, parameterised gaseous dry deposition scheme. The first deposition scheme was constrained to account for sea-surface ozone-iodide reactions and the sensitivity of modelled ozone concentrations to oceanic iodide concentration was investigated. Simulations were also performed using nominal reaction rate derived from in-situ ozone deposition measurements and using a preliminary representation of organic chemistry. Results show insensitivity of ambient ozone concentrations modelled by the chemical-enhanced scheme to oceanic iodide concentrations, and iodide reactions alone cannot account for observed deposition velocities. Consequently, we suggest a missing chemical sink due to reactions of ozone with organic matter at the air-sea interface. Ozone loss rates are estimated to be in the range of 0.5–6 ppb per day. A potentially significant ozone-driven flux of iodine to the atmosphere is estimated to be in the range of 2.5–500 M molec cm−2  s−1, leading to a mixing-layer enhancement of organo-iodine concentrations of 0.1–22.0 ppt, with an average increase in the N.E. Atlantic of around 4 ppt per day.

  20. Influencing factors on regional differences in glyphosate use in North German arable farming

    Andert, Sabine


    Full Text Available Glyphosate is the worldwide mostly used herbicide substance. Glyphosate use in arable cropping is under strong discussion in scientific and public communities. In the present study, we investigated the use of glyphosate from 15 farms in four districts in North German arable farming from 2005 until 2014. Objective of our research is to reveal influencing factors on glyphosate use intensity. The farm structures differ between two West districts (Diepholz, Uelzen and two East districts (Fläming, Oder-Spree. We used the Standardised Treatment Index (STI to quantify pesticide use intensity. We used multiple regressions to estimate the relationship between farm characteristics and glyphosate use. Glyphosate use intensity differs substantially between the study districts and crops. Farmers in the Eastern districts (Fläming and Oder-Spree used significantly larger amounts of glyphosate. We further proved that the variability of glyphosate use was mainly influenced by the factor “Farm”. Moreover, we could show that glyphosate use is significantly influenced by the factors tillage, farm type, farm size and on-farm labour. Non-inversion tillage and glyphosate use co-incidences mainly on large farms in the East German districts. Hence, we conclude that these farms either regionally adapt their cropping systems due to climatic reasons or for economic profit.

  1. Observations of the north polar region of Mars from the Mars orbiter laser altimeter

    Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Solomon, S. C.; Abshire, J. B.; Afzal, R. S.; Aharonson, O.; Fishbaugh, K.; Ford, P. G.; Frey, H. V.; Garvin, J. B.; Head, J. W.; Ivanov, A. B.; Johnson, C. L.; Muhleman, D. O.; Neumann, G. A.; Pettengill, G. H.; Phillips, R. J.; Sun, X.; Zwally, H. J.; Banerdt, W. B.; Duxbury, T. C.


    Elevations from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) have been used to construct a precise topographic map of the martian north polar region. The northern ice cap has a maximum elevation of 3 kilometers above its surroundings but lies within a 5-kilometer-deep hemispheric depression that is contiguous with the area into which most outflow channels emptied. Polar cap topography displays evidence of modification by ablation, flow, and wind and is consistent with a primarily H2O composition. Correlation of topography with images suggests that the cap was more spatially extensive in the past. The cap volume of 1.2 x 10(6) to 1.7 x 10(6) cubic kilometers is about half that of the Greenland ice cap. Clouds observed over the polar cap are likely composed of CO2 that condensed out of the atmosphere during northern hemisphere winter. Many clouds exhibit dynamical structure likely caused by the interaction of propagating wave fronts with surface topography.

  2. Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N & P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: Natural and human influences

    Howarth, R.W.; Billen, G.; Swaney, D.; Townsend, A.; Jaworski, N.; Lajtha, K.; Downing, J.A.; Elmgren, Ragnar; Caraco, N.; Jordan, T.; Berendse, F.; Freney, J.; Kudeyarov, V.; Murdoch, P.; Zhu, Z.-L.


    We present estimates of total nitrogen and total phosphorus fluxes in rivers to the North Atlantic Ocean from 14 regions in North America, South America, Europe, and Africa which collectively comprise the drainage basins to the North Atlantic. The Amazon basin dominates the overall phosphorus flux and has the highest phosphorus flux per area. The total nitrogen flux from the Amazon is also large, contributing 3.3 Tg yr-1 out of a total for the entire North Atlantic region of 13.1 Tg yr-1. On a per area basis, however, the largest nitrogen fluxes are found in the highly disturbed watersheds around the North Sea, in northwestern Europe, and in the northeastern U.S., all of which have riverine nitrogen fluxes greater than 1,000 kg N km-2 yr-1. Non-point sources of nitrogen dominate riverine fluxes to the coast in all regions. River fluxes of total nitrogen from the temperate regions of the North Atlantic basin are correlated with population density, as has been observed previously for fluxes of nitrate in the world's major rivers. However, more striking is a strong linear correlation between river fluxes of total nitrogen and the sum of anthropogenically-derived nitrogen inputs to the temperate regions (fertilizer application, human-induced increases in atmospheric deposition of oxidized forms of nitrogen, fixation by leguminous crops, and the import/export of nitrogen in agricultural products). On average, regional nitrogen fluxes in rivers are only 25% of these anthropogenically derived nitrogen inputs. Denitrification in wetlands and aquatic ecosystems is probably the dominant sink, with storage in forests perhaps also of importance. Storage of nitrogen in groundwater, although of importance in some localities, is a very small sink for nitrogen inputs in all regions. Agricultural sources of nitrogen dominate inputs in many regions, particularly the Mississippi basin and the North Sea drainages. Deposition of oxidized nitrogen, primarily of industrial origin, is the

  3. Analysis of a winter regional haze event and its formation mechanism in the North China Plain

    X. J. Zhao


    Full Text Available A regional haze episode occurred in the Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei province (BTH area in the North China Plain (NCP from 16 to 19 January 2010. The chemical and optical properties of aerosols and the meteorological condition were investigated in this study with intensive measurement of aerosol and trace gases from 14 to 23 January 2010 at five sites. The episode was caused by the combination of anthropogenic emissions and surface air stagnation under a high pressure system followed by a low pressure system. The concentrations of PM2.5 and trace gases increased significantly on a regional scale during this episode. The increased aerosol scattering coefficient (σsp, absorption coefficient (σap, and aerosol optical depth (AOD showed the importance of aerosol extinction during this haze episode. The increase of secondary inorganic pollutants (SO42−, NO3, NH4+ was observed simultaneously at four sites, especially in the plain area of BTH, which could be identified as a common characteristic of pollution haze in east China. The organic matter (OM was different from secondary inorganic pollutants, which increased more significantly at Chengde (CD site than the other three sites in plain area. The sulfate and nitrate in PM2.5 were mainly formed through the heterogeneous reaction process in the urban area. The secondary organic aerosols in PM2.5 only existed during haze days at CD but in both haze and normal days at the other three sites. The chemical characteristics of aerosols in PM2.5 indicated that the secondary formation of aerosol was one important mechanism in the formation of haze episode. The strong temperature inversion and descending air motions in the planetary boundary layer (PBL allowed pollutants to accumulate in a shallow layer. The weak surface wind speed produced high pollutants concentration within

  4. Paleoproterozoic crustal evolution of the Hengshan–Wutai–Fuping region, North China Craton

    Chunjing Wei


    Full Text Available An arguable point regarding the Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic crustal evolution of the North China Craton (NCC is whether the tectonic setting in the central belt during the mid-Paleoproterozoic (2.35–2.0 Ga was dominated by an extensional regime or an oceanic subduction–arc regime. A review of the mid-Paleoproterozoic magmatism and sedimentation for the Hengshan–Wutai–Fuping region suggests that a back-arc extension regime was dominant in this region. This conclusion is consistent with the observation that the 2.35–2.0 Ga magmatism shows a typical bimodal distribution where the mafic rocks mostly have arc affinities and the acidic rocks mainly comprise highly-fractioned calc-alkaline to alkaline (or A-type granites, and that this magmatism was coeval with development of extensional basins characteristic of transgressive sequences with volcanic interlayers such as in the Hutuo Group. Although the final amalgamation of the NCC was believed to occur at ∼1.85 Ga, recent zircon U–Pb age dating for mica schist in the Wutai Group suggests a collisional event may have occurred at ∼1.95 Ga. The metamorphic ages of ∼1.85 Ga, obtained mostly from the high-grade rocks using the zircon U–Pb approach, most probably indicate uplifting and cooling of these high-grade terranes. This is because (i phase modeling suggests that newly-grown zircon grains in high-grade rocks with a melt phase cannot date the age of peak pressure and temperature stages, but the age of melt crystallization in cooling stages; (ii the metamorphic P–T paths with isobaric cooling under 6–7 kb for the Hengshan and Fuping granulites suggest their prolonged stay in the middle–lower crust; and (iii the obtained metamorphic age data show a continuous distribution from 1.95 to 1.80 Ga. Thus, an alternative tectonic scenario for the Hengshan–Wutai–Fuping region involves: (i formation of a proto-NCC at ∼2.5 Ga; (ii back-arc extension during 2.35–2.0

  5. North-south asymmetry of Ca II K regions determined from OAUC spectroheliograms: 1996 - 2006

    Dorotovič, I.; Rybák, J.; Garcia, A.; Journoud, P.


    The solar activity (SA) evolution levels are not identical in the northern and southern Sun's hemispheres. This fact was repeatedly confirmed in the past by the analysis of a number of long-term observations of various SA indices in individual atmospheric layers of the Sun and in different bandwidths. The north-south asymmetry (NSA) is thus a significant tool in investigation of long-term SA variations. This paper presents a software tool to determine the NSA of the area of bright chromospheric plages, as measured in the Ca II K3 spectroheliograms registered since 1926 in the Observatário Astronómico da Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal, as well as evolution of sizes of these areas in the period 1996 - 2006. The algorithm of the program is limited to determining the total area of bright features in the Ca II K3 emission line based on the definition of the threshold value for relative brightness and, therefore, it does not resolve brightness of individual chromospheric features. A comparison and cross-correlation of this NSA with the NSAs found for the sunspots and coronal green line brightness have been added. In the near future we intend to 1) determine the NSA of the area of bright chromospheric Ca II K3 regions back to the year 1926, and 2) compare the evolution of the surface area of these regions in the period 1970-2006 with the evolution of the magnetic index obtained at Mt. Wilson Observatory, which would also help in setting up a proxy reconstruction of the magnetic index back to 1926. Since 2007 new spectroheliograms have been recorded using a CCD camera and, therefore, in the future we will also address this issue for the period 2007 - present.

  6. Sustainable Management of Climate Change: The Case of the Middle East and North Africa Region

    Adel M. Al Taweel


    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the major environmental challenges facing the world. Particularly vulnerable are arid and low-laying coastal areas, conditions that prevail through most of the Middle East and North Africa [MENA]. This region is an economically diverse one, including both the oil-rich economies in the Gulf and countries that are resource-scarce in relation to their population.  However, with about 23 percent of MENA’s population living on less than $2 a day, it is imperative that the climate change management strategies adopted be cost-effective and emphasize economic, social and human development while addressing the concerns arising from anthropogenic climate change.Over the past decades several national and international mechanisms were developed in an attempt to reduce the emissions considered to be mainly responsible for climate change, and to assist in coping with the adverse effects that are beginning to occur as a result of climate change. Unfortunately, many of these approaches are presently associated with economic penalties that often adversely affect the socio-economic welfare of the populace, particularly in low-, and medium-income countries. In this regard, it is informative to note the experience recently gained by Trinidad and Tobago [T&T] in its attempt to reduce GHG emissions without affecting the competitiveness of the industrial and agricultural sectors. Using appropriate decision making tools and a policy environment based on a combination of regulations and incentives, the environmental challenges can be turned into a vehicle for sustainable development.This paper discusses the factors that need to be considered while developing a sustainable climate change management approach for the MENA region and develops some recommendations that may be essential for achieving the desired climate change mitigation/adaptation actions while minimizing social disruption.

  7. The Key to Stability on the Korean Peninsula - United States, Japan and China


    US diplomatic, defense , and economic efforts on the Korean 7 Peninsula rest. Our treaty commitment and the presence of US troops in South Korea help...the Korean people and ROK service members. —Kim Dae-jung President, Republic of Korea , 1998-2003 Mutual Defense Treaty To deter the North... Korean threat of attack, the Republic of Korea entered into a defense alliance with the United States. This was formalized when the “ROK-US Mutual


    Anton N. Glukhov


    distinguished in the history of geological development of the Prikolyma terrain. The earliest stage was characterized by the N-E compression resulting in formation of the N-W-oriented thrusts and folds and zones of greenschiest dynamo-metamorphism. During the second stage, the axis of compression gained the E–NE orientation, and the axis of extension was oriented to the N–NW, which influenced the formation of the submeridional reverse faults and thrusts. During the third stage, the axis of compression was N-W oriented, and the axis of extension gained the N-E orientation. Thereat, the sublatitudinal and submeridional structures were activated as strike-slip faults, the N-W structures as normal faults, and the N-E structures as reverse faults. The above resulted in the formation of structures of volume extension, which are favorable for localization of magmatic bodies and ore streaky-veined structures. At the final stage, compression in the meridional direction lead to the formation of thrusts and reverse faults along the sublatitudinal displacements, normal faults along the submeridional displacements, and strike-slips along the N-E and NW displacements.The first deformation stage was contemporaneous with the long-term period of compression in the Riphean and Early Paleozoic, when the dynamo-metamorphic complex of the Prikolyma terrain was developed. In the second stage, the Prikolyma terrain was detached from the margin of the North-Asian craton. In the Early Cretaceous, the third stage took place, when rearrangements of the field of tectonic stresses and transition to conditions of general extension caused emplacement of granitoids and quartz veining. The N-W orientation of the compression vector suggests that the third stage was related to the regional tangential compression due to the asymmetrical collision of the Prikolyma terrain and the Omolon microcraton. In the final stage, rotation of the vector of compression, associated with development of

  9. Regional-scale geostatistical inverse modeling of North American CO2 fluxes: a synthetic data study

    A. M. Michalak


    Full Text Available A series of synthetic data experiments is performed to investigate the ability of a regional atmospheric inversion to estimate grid-scale CO2 fluxes during the growing season over North America. The inversions are performed within a geostatistical framework without the use of any prior flux estimates or auxiliary variables, in order to focus on the atmospheric constraint provided by the nine towers collecting continuous, calibrated CO2 measurements in 2004. Using synthetic measurements and their associated concentration footprints, flux and model-data mismatch covariance parameters are first optimized, and then fluxes and their uncertainties are estimated at three different temporal resolutions. These temporal resolutions, which include a four-day average, a four-day-average diurnal cycle with 3-hourly increments, and 3-hourly fluxes, are chosen to help assess the impact of temporal aggregation errors on the estimated fluxes and covariance parameters. Estimating fluxes at a temporal resolution that can adjust the diurnal variability is found to be critical both for recovering covariance parameters directly from the atmospheric data, and for inferring accurate ecoregion-scale fluxes. Accounting for both spatial and temporal a priori covariance in the flux distribution is also found to be necessary for recovering accurate a posteriori uncertainty bounds on the estimated fluxes. Overall, the results suggest that even a fairly sparse network of 9 towers collecting continuous CO2 measurements across the continent, used with no auxiliary information or prior estimates of the flux distribution in time or space, can be used to infer relatively accurate monthly ecoregion scale CO2 surface fluxes over North America within estimated uncertainty bounds. Simulated random transport error is shown to decrease the quality of flux estimates in under-constrained areas at the ecoregion scale, although the uncertainty bounds remain realistic. While these synthetic

  10. North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis


    found a secret weapon that has been a hit with North Koreans: South Korean “ Choco Pies,” a snack consisting of two large round cookies covered with...chocolate with a filling of marshmallow in between much like an Oreo cookie. Choco Pies have been so popular in the lunches provided to Kaesong...North Korea,” Reuters, June 4, 2009. 26 “N.Koreans Love Choco Pie,” Chosen Ilbo, May 23, 2009, English Internet edition. . North Korea: Economic

  11. Demographic Evolution of the Small Towns in the North-East Development Region in the Post-Communist Period



    Full Text Available Romania's population has declined steadily from 23.2 million in 1990 to 21.5 million inhabitants in 2007. This overall decline in population is not entirely true for the towns and cities of the North-East Region, as during the same period they recorded both decreases and increases in population due to positive natural balance. The North-East Region (partially superimposed over the historic region of the western Moldova is considered the poorest region in the European Union and a disadvantaged area. The rural young population of Moldova is a reservoir which supplies urban areas and especially large cities. In these circumstances, the small towns of the North-East Region are seeking balance (demographic, economic, functional. This paper examines the demographic evolution of the small towns located in the area under analysis, in the post-communist period, illustrating the types of fluctuations in statistical methods as regards demographic changes and the risk of depopulation in the future, correlated with a lower overall population of Romania.

  12. 大国区域战略视角下的对朝政策比较分析%Comparative Analysis of Powers' s Policies toward North Korea from A Regional Strategic Perspective



    After the Cold War, four powers of. China, U. S. , Russia and Japan have gathered in North- east Asia, which formed two regional strategic postures represented by China~ development strategy and U. S. "balance of power" strategy. The clash of these two strategic postures embodied in the four countries/ poli- cies toward North Korea, China' s development strategy is committed to maintaining peace and stability in the Korean Peninsula, U. S. 's "balance of power" strategy has always tried to achieve the target of "double regu- lation". Russia's policy has been similar with China and Japan's policy has been similar with U.S.. But the four powers'spolicy objectives are serious out of step with North Korea, they also lack strategic trust with each other, U.S. and North Korea are hard to give up the competitive of power politics, which make the four powers policies toward North Korea are caught in the plight of Stag Hunt Game and it is difficult to achieve effec- tive results. In this case, China had to face the U. S. 's strategic pressure, the possibility of regional instability and the risk of North Korea's "both ways". China should be actively involved in the Korean Peninsula affairs as a great power, as early as possible to grasp the strategic initiative, to avoid potential risks.%冷战结束后,东北亚地区汇集了中美俄日四大力量,形成了以中国的发展战略和美国的均势战略为代表的两种区域战略态势。这两大战略态势的交锋集中体现在四大国的对朝政策上,中国在发展战略下致力于维持朝鲜半岛的和平与稳定,美国在均势战略下试图达到"双重规制"的目标,俄日两国的政策分别与中美两国有较高的契合度。但大国的对朝政策目标与朝鲜自身关切严重脱节,彼此间又缺乏有效信任,美朝两国更是难以放弃权力政治的竞争,使得大国对朝政策协调成为一种脆弱的"猎鹿博弈",难以取得有

  13. Changes in Typhoon Activities and Regional Precipitation Variability over the Korean Peninsula according to Different Phases of El Niño

    Jong-Suk Kim


    Full Text Available We analyzed typhoon activities such as tropical cyclone (TC genesis position, movement routes and central pressure of typhoons, and changes in local patterns of rainfall stemming from TCs passing through the Korean domain. The results showed a remarkable difference in changes in typhoons that affect the Korean Peninsula (KP during cold tongue (CT and warm pool (WP El Niño years. In particular, TCs that move through the ocean off Korea and the Kuroshio during WP El Niño years are relatively stronger than TCs formed during CT El Niño years. Furthermore, analysis of large-scale atmosphere-ocean dynamics showed better conditions for TC development and strengthening during WP El Niño years. TC-induced summer rainfall over major Korean river basins decreased from normal years during CT El Niño years (−3.94% and increased over normal years during WP El Niño years (+33.92%. The results of this diagnostic study rely on short-term observations and relatively little data, but they suggest that CT/WP El Niño cycles influence TC activities and rainfall across the KP. The findings are important for reducing TC damage and ensuring a proper response to climate change in coupled human-environmental systems.

  14. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia.

    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M; Hassan, Loutfy M; Galal, Tarek M; Badr, Abdelfattah


    In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2-5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion of

  15. Echinococcus granulosus infection in humans and livestock in the Coquimbo region, north-central Chile.

    Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Cleaveland, Sarah; Cunningham, Andrew A; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; Craig, Philip S


    Cyst echinococcosis (CE) is one of the most important zoonosis in Chile, where studies have focussed mainly in moist southern regions. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in livestock and humans in the semiarid Coquimbo region in north-central Chile. A review of all surgical cases of CE in humans reported in the Elqui, Limarí and Choapa provinces in Coquimbo region for the period comprising 1995-2006 was obtained. In addition, a retrospective study of CE covering condemnation records from slaughterhouses of these provinces from the same period was carried out. The surgical incidence of CE in humans ranged between 2.3 and 8.5 cases per 10(5) people, with more cases reported in provinces with a higher percentage of rural inhabitants (Limarí and Choapa). A total of 174,034 cattle, 22,208 goats, 35,404 sheep, 25,355 swine and 9391 equines were examined during the period. Higher prevalence of CE was detected in cattle (24%), followed by swine (14%), sheep (11%), goats (6%), and equines (9%). More cases of CE in livestock were also found in provinces with higher rural population. The overall trend of the prevalence of CE for each livestock species across years was a significant downward one, except for swine in Elqui and sheep and swine in Choapa. Cattle showed higher prevalence of CE in liver in Elqui, in kidney in Limarí and in lungs in Choapa. Swine showed similar prevalence by organs in all provinces. Sheep showed higher prevalence of CE in liver in Elqui and Limarí and lower prevalence in Choapa. Goats presented higher prevalence of CE in kidney in all provinces, and equines had higher prevalence of CE in liver in the provinces where animals were slaughtered. Further studied are needed to assess whether these differences are due to different strains affecting these species or due to ecological factors. When analyzing the CE prevalence of each species within each province, a negative correlation between

  16. GHRSST Level 3C North Atlantic Regional (NAR) subskin Sea Surface Temperature from SNPP/VIIRS (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 3 Collated (L3C) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) based on retrievals from the...

  17. Observation of regional air pollutant transport between the megacity Beijing and the North China Plain

    Li, Yingruo; Ye, Chunxiang; Liu, Jun; Zhu, Yi; Wang, Junxia; Tan, Ziqiang; Lin, Weili; Zeng, Limin; Zhu, Tong


    Megacities have strong interactions with the surrounding regions through transport of air pollutants. It has been frequently addressed that the air quality of Beijing is influenced by the influx of air pollutants from the North China Plain (NCP). Estimations of air pollutant cross-boundary transport between Beijing and the NCP are important for air quality management. However, evaluation of cross-boundary transport using long-term observations is very limited. Using the observational results of the gaseous pollutants SO2, NO, NO2, O3, and CO from August 2006 to October 2008 at the Yufa site, a cross-boundary site between the megacity Beijing and the NCP, together with meteorological parameters, we explored a method for evaluating the transport flux intensities at Yufa, as part of the "Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region 2006-2008" (CAREBeijing 2006-2008). The hourly mean ± SD (median) concentration of SO2, NO, NO2, NOx, O3, Ox, and CO was 15 ± 16 (9) ppb, 12 ± 25 (3) ppb, 24 ± 19 (20) ppb, 36 ± 39 (23) ppb, 28 ± 27 (21) ppb, 52 ± 24 (45) ppb, and 1.6 ± 1.4 (1.2) ppm during the observation period, respectively. The bivariate polar plots showed the dependence of pollutant concentrations on both wind speed and wind direction, and thus inferred their dominant transport directions. Surface flux intensity calculations further demonstrated the regional transport influence of Beijing and the NCP on Yufa. The net surface transport flux intensity (mean ± SD) of SO2, NO, NO2, NOx, O3, Ox, and CO was 6.2 ± 89.5, -4.3 ± 29.5, -0.6 ± 72.3, -4.9 ± 93.0, 14.7 ± 187.8, 14.8 ± 234.9, and 70 ± 2830 µg s-1 m-2 during the observation period, respectively. For SO2, CO, O3, and Ox the surface flux intensities from the NCP to Yufa surpassed those from Beijing to Yufa in all seasons except winter, with the strongest net fluxes largely in summer, which were about 4-8 times those of other seasons. The surface transport flux intensity of NOx

  18. A two-tier atmospheric circulation classification scheme for the European-North Atlantic region

    Guentchev, Galina S.; Winkler, Julie A.

    A two-tier classification of large-scale atmospheric circulation was developed for the European-North-Atlantic domain. The classification was constructed using a combination of principal components and k-means cluster analysis applied to reanalysis fields of mean sea-level pressure for 1951-2004. Separate classifications were developed for the winter, spring, summer, and fall seasons. For each season, the two classification tiers were identified independently, such that the definition of one tier does not depend on the other tier having already been defined. The first tier of the classification is comprised of supertype patterns. These broad-scale circulation classes are useful for generalized analyses such as investigations of the temporal trends in circulation frequency and persistence. The second, more detailed tier consists of circulation types and is useful for numerous applied research questions regarding the relationships between large-scale circulation and local and regional climate. Three to five supertypes and up to 19 circulation types were identified for each season. An intuitive nomenclature scheme based on the physical entities (i.e., anomaly centers) which dominate the specific patterns was used to label each of the supertypes and types. Two example applications illustrate the potential usefulness of a two-tier classification. In the first application, the temporal variability of the supertypes was evaluated. In general, the frequency and persistence of supertypes dominated by anticyclonic circulation increased during the study period, whereas the supertypes dominated by cyclonic features decreased in frequency and persistence. The usefulness of the derived circulation types was exemplified by an analysis of the circulation associated with heat waves and cold spells reported at several cities in Bulgaria. These extreme temperature events were found to occur with a small number of circulation types, a finding that can be helpful in understanding past

  19. Spatial Profile of Poverty.Case Study:The North-Eastern Development Region in Romania

    Andrei SCHVAB


    Full Text Available In the present study the authors try to em-phasize the interdependent relations that are established between space and poverty, as well as the modalities through which poverty policies can be optimized and implemented at the territo-rial systems level in accordance to the polycen-tric development model.The f rst goal of the study is to understand the way in which the complexity of the territory, in its structure and relations, inf uences in un-equal ways the territorial pattern of poverty and development. The concept of territorial poverty that we use in the present study transcends the usual connotation of poverty as a simple lack of different kind of resources towards the incapacity of the system to offer a wide range of impulses and solutions to the encountered problems and thus induce a state of underdevelopment.The second goal is to understand in which ways the polycentric development theory can play a role in reducing poverty. In this sense the authors created a poverty index, and based on this index a polycentric development model was created for the North-Eastern region. This poly-centric development model has direct implica-tions for policy makers, as it highlights the areas that require the most attention and the develop-ment pole that should inf uence its development. By taking into consideration the results of this study, the next logical step for policy makers is to implement the necessary measures by consider-ing the relations between the development pole and the underdeveloped area that is under its in-f uence area. In this respect tailor-f t policies and measures can be applied in the effort to reduce poverty levels.


    Anca Dodescu


    Full Text Available The paper presents cultural heritage, cultural tourism potential of North-West Region of Romania face to face with restoration and sustainable valorization of cultural heritage as a major domain of intervention of regional policy in Romania. Due to Romanian regionalization form, the Regional Operational Programme (ROP is currently the only programme of regional policy in Romania in 2007-2013. One of the major domains of intervention of ROP 2007-2013 in Romania was restoration and sustainable valorization of cultural heritage. The first paper specific objective is to explore projects contracted until 31.12.2013 in the field of restoration and sustainable valorization of cultural heritage in North-West Region of Romania and their regional development relevance in the context of existing regional development strategies. The second paper specific objective is to present a model of restoration of cultural heritage in a sustainable way throughout the case study of Revitalization of the Oradea Fortress in order to introduce it in the tourism circuit - that could become an example for other cultural sites around the region and a succes story in the field of cultural tourism based of ROP 2007-2013 experience. Exploring rich cultural heritage of the North-West Region face to face with poor condition of cultural heritage sites and investments required in order to introduce them in touristic circuit, the paper concludes that all contracted projects are relevant for sustainable valorization of regional cultural heritage and cultural tourism potential in the context of existing regional development strategies, but they contributed only partially to regional specific needs. Also, the paper concludes that number of ROP 2007-2013 projects implemented in the field of cultural heritage is surprisingly small, area of interest of these projects is rather narrow and analyzes the most important causes for these gaps. Based on the case study presented, the paper

  1. Chinese Elements in Modern Korean Fictions---Taking the Chinese obscene language in North Road as an example%朝鲜近代小说的中国因素考略--以《北间岛》中的中国辱骂语为中心



    以朝鲜近代小说的中国因素为研究内容,以安寿吉的长篇小说《北间岛》为重点研究对象,对作品中的中国大众化辱骂语进行了分析,以了解朝鲜近代小说的中国因素所反映的历史现象和其所包含的文化意义。%Since the end of Cold War in 1980 's, scholars home and abroad have begun the re-search of Korean peninsula modern literature. They keep on summing up experiences and sha-ring their research results. Focusing on the Chinese elements in Korean peninsula modern fic-tions, taking the novel North Road as research material, the paper tries to analyze and interpret the Chinese popular obscene language so that readers can understand the historical and cultural significance contained and reflected in the Chinese elements in Korean Peninsula modern fic-tions.

  2. Confidence building on the Korean Peninsula: A conceptual development for the cooperative monitoring of limited-force deployment zones

    Vannoni, M.; Duggan, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cooperative Monitoring Center; Nam, M.K.; Moon, K.K.; Kim, M.J. [Korea Inst. for Defense Analyses, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Arms Control Research Center


    Confidence building measures (CBMs), particularly military ones, that address the security needs of North and South Korea could decrease the risk of conflict on the Korean Peninsula and help create an environment in which to negotiate a peace regime. The Korea Institute for Defense Analyses (KIDA) and the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) of Sandia National Laboratories collaborated to identify potential CBMs and define associated monitoring. The project is a conceptual analysis of political and technical options for confidence building that might be feasible in Korea at some future time. KIDA first analyzed current security conditions and options for CBMs. Their conclusions are presented as a hypothetical agreement to strengthen the Armistice Agreement by establishing Limited Force Deployment Zones along the Military Demarcation Line. The goal of the hypothetical agreement is to increase mutual security and build confidence. The CMC then used KIDA`s scenario to develop a strategy for cooperative monitoring the agreement. Cooperative monitoring is the collecting, analyzing and sharing of agreed information among parties to an agreement and typically relies on the use of commercially available technology. A cooperative monitoring regime must be consistent with the agreement`s terms; the geographic, logistic, military, and political factors in the Korean setting; and the capabilities of monitoring technologies. This report describes the security situation on the Korean peninsula, relevant precedents from other regions, the hypothetical agreement for reducing military tensions, a monitoring strategy for the hypothetical Korean agreement, examples of implementation, and a description of applicable monitoring technologies and procedures.

  3. Spoken Korean: Book One.

    Lukoff, Fred

    This text is designed for students planning to learn spoken Korean. Ten lessons and two review sections based on cultural experiences commonly shared by Koreans are included in the text. Grouped in series of five lessons, the instructional materials include (1) basic sentences, (2) word study and review of basic sentences, (3) listening…

  4. Korean Basic Course.

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

  5. The impact of ENSO and the NAO on extreme winter precipitation in North America in observations and regional climate models

    Whan, Kirien; Zwiers, Francis


    The relationship between winter precipitation in North America and indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is evaluated using non-stationary generalized extreme value distributions with the indices as covariates. Both covariates have a statistically significant influence on precipitation that is well simulated by two regional climate models (RCMs), CanRCM4 and CRCM5. The observed influence of the NAO on extreme precipitation is largest in eastern North America, with the likelihood of a negative phase extreme rainfall event decreased in the north and increased in the south under the positive phase of the NAO. This pattern is generally well simulated by the RCMs although there are some differences in the extent of influence, particularly south of the Great Lakes. A La Niña-magnitude extreme event is more likely to occur under El Niño conditions in California and the southern United States, and less likely in most of Canada and a region south of the Great Lakes. This broad pattern is also simulated well by the RCMs but they do not capture the increased likelihood in California. In some places the extreme precipitation response in the RCMs to external forcing from a covariate is of the opposite sign, despite use of the same lateral boundary conditions and dynamical core. This demonstrates the importance of model physics for teleconnections to extreme precipitation.

  6. The impact of ENSO and the NAO on extreme winter precipitation in North America in observations and regional climate models

    Whan, Kirien; Zwiers, Francis


    The relationship between winter precipitation in North America and indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is evaluated using non-stationary generalized extreme value distributions with the indices as covariates. Both covariates have a statistically significant influence on precipitation that is well simulated by two regional climate models (RCMs), CanRCM4 and CRCM5. The observed influence of the NAO on extreme precipitation is largest in eastern North America, with the likelihood of a negative phase extreme rainfall event decreased in the north and increased in the south under the positive phase of the NAO. This pattern is generally well simulated by the RCMs although there are some differences in the extent of influence, particularly south of the Great Lakes. A La Niña-magnitude extreme event is more likely to occur under El Niño conditions in California and the southern United States, and less likely in most of Canada and a region south of the Great Lakes. This broad pattern is also simulated well by the RCMs but they do not capture the increased likelihood in California. In some places the extreme precipitation response in the RCMs to external forcing from a covariate is of the opposite sign, despite use of the same lateral boundary conditions and dynamical core. This demonstrates the importance of model physics for teleconnections to extreme precipitation.

  7. 77 FR 11858 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of North Carolina; Regional...


    ... areas, and international parks meeting certain size criteria) in the western United States is 100-150...: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia... Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE), Colorado State University,...

  8. Dynamics of forest populations in the mountain resort region of the North Caucasus

    Chalaya, Elena; Efimenko, Natalia; Slepykh, Olga; Slepykh, Viktor; Povolotskaya, Nina


    Prehistoric formula of forest species composition of the resort region Caucasian Mineralnye Vody (RR CMV) in the North Caucasus is 6Q3Cb1Fe [1]. According to it, undisturbed forests of the region consisted of the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and the durmast (Quercus cerris L.) by 60%, the European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) by 30% and the European ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) only by 10%. At present the formula of forest composition of the region is 5Fe3Cb2Q, according to it, the rate of oak-groves (the most valuable to resort landscape gardening) has reduced to 20%, and the ash-tree, though the rate of the hornbeam has not changed, increased up to 50%. Forest breeding populations in the RR CMV are referred to natural medical resources as they have high rehabilitation and climate-regulating properties, the change in forest breeding populations influences the conditions of the resort climate-landscape-therapy. The researches conducted in the perfect oak wood of vegetative origin in Beshtaugorsky Forestry Area (BFA) of the RR CMV have shown the reduction of the pedunculate oak in the tree-stand composition during 1984-2014 from 10 to 8 units in the composition: the European ash (1 unit) and the crataegus monogyna (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.), the checker tree (Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz), the common pear (Pyrus communis L.) have appeared [2]. The rate of the pedunculate oak decreased from 10 units to 9 in the perfect planting of the pedunculate oak of the artificial origin (Mashuk section of the forestry of BFA of the RR CMV) during 1986-2016. Among accompanying breeds there was the English field maple (Acer campestre L.), the Chinese elm in singular (Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.), the single-seed hawthorn. The reliable regrowth (4C3Fe3Ac+Q+Cm+Pc+Up) in number of 3,9 thousand pieces/hectare defines the perspective of complete replacement of the oak crop in the future on planting with dominance of the hornbeam and the involvement of the ash-tree and the English

  9. 新时期我国朝鲜族三语教育政策及教育现状研究%Language Policy and Models of Trilingual Education in Korean Ethnic Minority Regions of China in the New Era



    This research attempts to offer a holistic and descriptive account of policies and models of trilingual-ism and trilingual education of Korean ethnic minority during the last 60 years. Language policy changes have led to the introduction of Chinese and later on English language teaching and learning in Korean primary schools. These re-forms pose particular challenges to communities in Korean ethnic minority areas, where Korean, Chinese and English often compete with each other in the school curriculum, and the students are expected to be fluent speakers in all of the three languages. For stakeholders in minority language education, it is essential to be aware of the significance of developing and promoting strong models of trilingual education, and to explore the favorable environment for the good overall performance of the trilinguals in the three languages.The study involves extensive and intensive research com-prising investigations into primary and secondary school-level practices, policies and perceptions relating to trilin-gualism in Korean ethnic minority regions in China. Using first-hand data collected, the research attempts to examine language policies and curricula, as well as language allocation in the classroom, and analyze them in their specific historical, socio-political, demographical, economic, geographical and cultural contexts. The research findings will give the stakeholders of trilingual education the clear guideline on how to provide favorable environment for trilingual minorities from the macro, meso and micro levels. In addition, the research findings will shed a light in the field of tri-lingual assessment on the criteria to assess trilingual proficiency. Furthermore, the study will propose a desirable model of trilingual education for Korean ethnic minority respectively in primary and secondary schools.%本研究全面回顾过去60年来延边州朝鲜族三语教育政策的制定及教育模式的形成过程。延边州语言政策

  10. Stability in Russia’s Chechnya and Other Regions of the North Caucasus: Recent Developments


    Putin Meets with Members of the International Discussion Club Valdai,” at claimed that Islamic extremists in North Ossetia have been targeting gambling clubs (which were banned but are still operating surreptitiously...the North Caucasus. As a recent sign of such support, Vladimir Vasilyev, head of the Duma Security Committee, stated during a late March 2009 visit

  11. Thirty five years of North Bohemian brown coal region after liberation of Czechoslovakia by the Soviet army

    Bauer, M.


    Problems of the North Bohemian brown coal basin are evaluated. In 35 years coal output of the region increased from 40 Mt to nearly 70 Mt in spite of deteriorating mining and geological conditions and shortages of manpower. Output increase was possible as a result of a comprehensive program of modernization and construction of new mines. The following mines are the most productive in the region: Maxim Gorkij, Most, CSA, Jan Sverma, Chabarovice, Merkur, Brezno, Vrsany. Investments in modernizing older mines and constructing new surface mines are evaluated: the investments increased from close to 800 million crowns in 1971 to over 2 billion crowns in 1979. Machines and equipment used in the North Bohemian surface mines are characterized: K 1000, K-800-B, K-300 bucket wheel excavators, D 800, DO 800 and DO 400 bucket chain excavators as well as the high capacity KU 800 bucket wheel excavator.


    Ovidiu COPOT


    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal macromycetes are, generally, an important ecological component for forest habitats, and a valuable resource in the context of sustainable development of rural communities in the North-East Region of Romania. The woody species distribution is an extremely important factor for the ECM macromycetes presence. The purpose of this study was to elaborate maps of potential distribution for some ECM edible macromycetes from Russula and Lactarius genera, based on chorological information, ICAS Forest Types Map, vegetation tables and bibliographical sources. These information allowed the elaboration of 15 potential maps of distribution for 15 edible species of Russula and Lactarius. The study was based entirely on the plant – fungal associations. The results highlighted that in the North-East Region of Romania there is a noteworthy potential for Russulaceae species. As expected, there is a large amplitude of species presence in the field depending on the fungal specificity for tree host and tree species distribution.

  13. Feasibility assessment of a solar-powered charging station for electric vehicles in the North Central region of Bulgaria

    Ilieva Liliya Mihaylova


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the topical issue related to the prospects of widespread deployment of electric vehicles and their associated infrastructure in Bulgaria. The main problems hindering the development of electric vehicle transport are summarized and the current status of charging infrastructure in the country is discussed. An approach is proposed for analysis and evaluation of the financial feasibility of investment in a solar-powered charging station for electric vehicles in North Central region of Bulgaria.

  14. A green supply chain network design model for enhancing competitiveness and sustainability of companies in high north arctic regions

    Hao Yu, Wei Deng Solvang, Chen Chen


    Full Text Available To survive in today’s competitive and ever-changing marketplace, companies need not only to engage in their products and/or services, but also to focus on the management of the whole supply chain. Effectively managing and balancing the profitability and interconnection of each player in the supply chain will improve the overall supply chain surplus as well as individual profit. However, it is extremely difficult to simultaneously optimize several objectives in design and planning of a supply chain, i.e., cost-minimization, risk-minimization, responsiveness-maximization, etc., which are somehow conflict with one another. Furthermore, the natural and infrastructural challenges in high north arctic regions make it become much more difficult and complicated to design and develop cost-efficient, highly responsive, environmentally friendly, and sustainable supply chain network. In order to provide companies in high north arctic regions with decision support tool for the design and planning of theirs supply chain networks, a green supply chain network design (GrSCND model is formulated in this study based on multi-objective mixed integer programming (MIP. The optimal trade-off among several conflicting objectives is the focus of this GrSCND model aiming to enhance both competitive competence and sustainability of companies and supply chains operated in high north regions. In addition, a numerical experiment is also given to present a deep insight of the GrSCND model.

  15. How will external powers affect Korean reunification?

    Tovar, Suzanne M.


    The Korean peninsula has been a focus of contention since the nineteenth century. Following the division of the peninsula after World War II, the issue of when, and how, Korea will be reunified has been a subject of intense interest, one that has been encouraged by the end of the Cold War, the economic weakness of North Korea, and North Korea's decision to pursue a nuclear option. Although war failed to unify the peninsula in 1950-1953, the fear is that a desperate communist regime may again ...

  16. Korean Language Studies: Motivation and Attrition

    Julie Damron


    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to determine attrition rates of students learning Korean in university courses, their motivations to study the target language, why many drop out, and what educators can do to address and decrease high rates of attrition. A survey was administered to 129 students enrolled in lower-level (101–202 Korean language classes during the years 2005–2010 at a large, private university in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. Self-identifying heritage students comprised 45.7% of those who completed the survey. Surveys were administered to students via email and returned in the same manner; as such, they represent a response and convenience sample. Five of the 12 survey questions utilized a 5-point Likert scale. The overall attrition rate from class to class during this time period was 85%. Students identified that the most motivating factors in their decision to take Korean were “It’s an important language,” “Future career benefits,” and “I have Korean heritage.” More students desired to learn only basic words and phrases than any one other proficiency category. The most common reason for quitting Korean was that it didn’t fit students’ schedules. Likewise, students indicated that had a following course been offered at a different time or if a language lab offering tutoring were made available, they might have been influenced to continue taking Korean. Surveys also addressed language-learning anxiety. Based on the results gathered, this study makes suggestions for improving Korean language instruction in order to reduce student attrition.

  17. Strength Properties and Organic Carbon of Soils in the North Apalachian Region

    Blanco-Canqui, H; Lal, Rattan; Owen, L B.; Post, W M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.


    Soil strength influenced by management and soil properties controls plant growth, root development, and soil-moisture relations. The impact of textural and structural parameters on soil strength is moderated by soil organic C (SOC) concentration. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to assess differences in soil strength and SOC concentration in watersheds under long-term (>15 yr) management practices in the North Appalachian region on a predominantly Typic Hapludults on undulating slopes (>6% slope). Seven watersheds without field replication under moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow, disk with beef cattle manure (DiskM), no-till with beef cattle manure (NTm), no-till with no beef cattle manure (NTnm), pasture, and forest were studied. Cone index (CI), shear strength, bulk density (b), volumetric moisture content (v), and SOC concentration were determined at the summit, backslope, and footslope landscape positions at the 0- to 10-, 10- to 20-, and 20- to 30-cm depths. The SOC concentration was slightly higher at the footslope than at the summit position in the cultivated watersheds. The b was lower at the footslope than at the summit in NTm (1.22 vs. 1.42 Mg m{sup -3}) and chisel (1.34 vs. 1.47 Mg m{sup -3}) treatments. Forest had the lowest CI (0.19 MPa), shear strength (6.11 kPa), and b (0.93 Mg m{sup -3}) and the highest SOC concentration (62.7 g kg{sup -1}), whereas MP had the highest CI (0.67 MPa), shear strength (25.5 kPa), b (1.44 Mg m{sup -3}), and the lowest SOC concentration (13.6 g kg{sup -1}) in the 0- to 10-cm depth (P < 0.01). The SOC concentration in NTm was 1.7 times higher than that in NTnm, and both no-till treatments had lower b (<1.21 Mg m{sup -3}) than MP (1.44 Mg m{sup -3}) at 0- to 10-cm depth (P < 0.01). Manuring decreased both CI and shear strength, but increased SOC concentration. The b, v, and SOC concentration were potential predictors of CI; whereas b and SOC concentration were of shear strength (r2 > 0.42; P < 0.01). Results show

  18. Regional Evaluation of ERA-40 Reanalysis Data with Marine Atmospheric Observations in the North Sea Area

    Nils H. Schade


    Full Text Available An important task of the departmental research programme KLIWAS is the evaluation and assessment of climate model results by means of a comprehensive reference data set. For validation purposes, and to create a North Sea wide maritime atmospheric and oceanographic reference database, in-situ observations of the Centre for Global Marine Meteorological Observations (GZS of the National Meteorological Service DWD have been compared to the ERA-40 reanalysis. ERA-40 is used as forcing for the hindcast runs of the ENSEMBLES regional climate models, which is used within the KLIWAS model chain. The GZS hosts a regularly updated, quality controlled, world-wide data bank of weather observations from the oceans. It includes data from all sorts of observation platforms as Voluntary Observing Ships (VOS, drifting and moored buoys, light vessels, and offshore platforms, either from real-time (RT via the Global Telecommunication System (GTS or from international exchange in delayed-mode (DM. In addition to the automated set of programs applied for high quality control, erroneous data are also manually corrected to a certain extent, if possible. To assure reliable statistics for the evaluation, the corrected observations are gridded to a resolution of 2.25 degree, so each grid box includes four ERA-40 reanalysis grid points. The temporal coverage of the grid boxes depends on shipping routes and the positions of automated systems. Observed air temperatures, covering a period of 40 years (1961?2000, show noticeable differences to the reanalysis data for all land influenced boxes, specifically in the winter months. The same differences can be found if ERA-40 data alone are compared between land- and sea facing boxes. They can not be found in GZS data. It can be assumed that the differences are not resulting from measurement errors or uncertain fraction variabilities, since they are small during the winter months. A comparison of the differences basing on the 1981

  19. Biofuel production and climate mitigation potential from marginal lands in US North Central region

    Gelfand, I.; Sahajpal, R.; Zhang, X.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Robertson, G. P.


    An ever-increasing demand for liquid fuels, amidst concerns of anthropogenic impacts on the environment and fossil fuels availability, has spurred a strong interest in the development of agriculturally-based renewable energy sources. However, increasing demand for food as well as direct and indirect effects on land use, have raised concerns about reliance on grain-based ethanol and shifted research towards the direction of cellulosic feedstocks. In order to understand the future possibility for using agricultural systems for bio-fuel production, we present here a full greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of six potential sources of cellulosic feedstocks production. From 1991 to 2008, we measured GHGs sinks and sources in cropped and nearby unmanaged ecosystems in SW Michigan. The measurements included soil fluxes of GHGs (N2O and CH4), soil organic carbon concentration change, agronomic practices data, and biomass yields. We analyzed two types of intensively managed annual cropping systems under corn-soybean-wheat rotation (conventional tillage and no till), two perennial systems (alfalfa and poplar plantation), and one successional system. The use of agricultural residues for biofuel feedstock from conventionally-tilled crops had the lowest climate stabilization potential (-9 ±13 gCO2e m-2 y-1). In contrast, biomass collected from a successional system fertilized with N at123 kg ha-1y-1 showed the highest climate stabilization potential (-749 ±30 gCO2e m-2 y-1). We used our results to parameterize the EPIC model, which, together with GIS analysis was used to scale up the biomass productivity of the best environmentally performing systems to the marginal lands of the 10-state U.S. North Central region. Assuming 80 km as the maximum distance for road haulage to the biorefinery from the field, we identified 32 potential biorefinery placements each capable of supplying sufficient feedstock to produce at least 133 × 106 L y-1. In total, ethanol production from marginal

  20. Retinoblastoma: experience of a referral center in the North Region of Portugal

    Rocha-Bastos R


    Full Text Available RA da Rocha-Bastos,1 JR Araújo,1 RS Silva,2 MJ Gil-da-Costa,2 E Brandão,1 NJ Farinha,2,3 F Falcão-Reis,1,4 T Dinah-Bragança1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital São João, 2Hematology and Oncology Unit, Pediatric Hospital, Hospital São João, 3Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4Department of Sense Organs, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal Purpose: To describe the experience of the Ophthalmology Department of Hospital São João (HSJ, a tertiary health care center in North Region, Portugal, in terms of the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of retinoblastoma. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with retinoblastoma in Hospital São João, between 1978 and 2012. Results: Fifty patients with retinoblastoma were evaluated in our institution between 1978 and 2012. Four patients were excluded due to loss of follow-up. Among the 46 retinoblastoma cases, 33 (71.7% were unilateral and 13 (28.3% bilateral, with a mean age at diagnosis of 22.19 months and 6.92 months, respectively (P<0.001. Leukocoria was the most common presenting sign (36.9%, followed by strabismus (19.6%, a combination of leukocoria and strabismus (8.7%, and buphthalmia (2.2%. Between 1978 and 1992, nine retinoblastoma cases were referred to our hospital, all of them unilateral, and, in each case, enucleation was performed, with or without salvage therapy. Between 1993 and 2012, 18 eyes with retinoblastoma were successfully managed with conservative treatment. Conclusion: Demographic results were generally coincident with previous reports. It is crucial to screen leukocoria in pediatric practice, even in asymptomatic children. The outcome of retinoblastoma treatment in our hospital is similar to other series in developed countries. Keywords: retinoblastoma, leukocoria, strabismus, enucleation, pediatric cancer

  1. Climate change in the North Pacific region over the past three centuries

    Moore, G. W. K.; Holdsworth, Gerald; Alverson, Keith


    The relatively short length of most instrumental climate records restricts the study of climate variability, and it is therefore essential to extend the record into the past with the help of proxy data. Only since the late 1940s have atmospheric data been available that are sufficient in quality and spatial resolution to identify the dominant patterns of climate variability, such as the Pacific North America pattern and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Here we present a 301-year snow accumulation record from an ice core at a height of 5,340 m above sea level-from Mount Logan, in northwestern North America. This record shows features that are closely linked with the Pacific North America pattern for the period of instrumental data availability. Our record extends back in time to cover the period from the closing stages of the Little Ice Age to the warmest decade in the past millennium. We find a positive, accelerating trend in snow accumulation after the middle of the nineteenth century. This trend is paralleled by a warming over northwestern North America which has been associated with secular changes in both the Pacific North America pattern and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

  2. The perils of technology transfer : the Australian wheat/medic System in the Near East/North Africa region

    Risopoulos, S.


    Full Text Available Yields and production of rainfed areas in the Near East and North Africa are stagnating. The Australian wheat-medic system has been tried out in several countries of the region, Increases in soil fertility and yields were expected as well as better crop-livestock integration. Difficulties were more serious than foreseen. The farmer of the region differs from his Australian counterpart by the much smaller size of his farm and by his preference for keeping his land-use options open to match climatic variability.

  3. Jojoba: North American desert shrub; its ecology, possible commercialization, and potential as an introduction into other arid regions. [Simmondsia chinensis

    Brooks, W.H.


    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link.) Schneid.), a North American desert shrub, is the only plant known to produce a liquid wax in its seed. This substance is chemically similar to the oil from the Sperm whale. Industrial and agronomic uses are described as well as currently known economic factors regarding agronomic production. The plants' present distribution is linked with the winter-spring rains of a Mediterranean type of climate in the Sonoran Desert regions of the United States and Sonora and Baja California in Mexico. It is suggested that other arid regions may be quite suitable to its introduction, particularly portions of the Asir Province in western Saudi Arabia.

  4. Local and Regional Impacts of Pollution on Coral Reefs along the Thousand Islands North of the Megacity Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Gunilla Baum

    Full Text Available Worldwide, coral reefs are challenged by multiple stressors due to growing urbanization, industrialization and coastal development. Coral reefs along the Thousand Islands off Jakarta, one of the largest megacities worldwide, have degraded dramatically over recent decades. The shift and decline in coral cover and composition has been extensively studied with a focus on large-scale gradients (i.e. regional drivers, however special focus on local drivers in shaping spatial community composition is still lacking. Here, the spatial impact of anthropogenic stressors on local and regional scales on coral reefs north of Jakarta was investigated. Results indicate that the direct impact of Jakarta is mainly restricted to inshore reefs, separating reefs in Jakarta Bay from reefs along the Thousand Islands further north. A spatial patchwork of differentially degraded reefs is present along the islands as a result of localized anthropogenic effects rather than regional gradients. Pollution is the main anthropogenic stressor, with over 80% of variation in benthic community composition driven by sedimentation rate, NO2, PO4 and Chlorophyll a. Thus, the spatial structure of reefs is directly related to intense anthropogenic pressure from local as well as regional sources. Therefore, improved spatial management that accounts for both local and regional stressors is needed for effective marine conservation.


    Bence MONYÓK


    Full Text Available One of the most important elements of place marketing is the creation of an attractive urban landscape which require significant financial resources. For this reason local authorities of Central Europe use regional policy grants from European Union for this purpose. In the light of the above, the aim of this paper is to examine the role of European Union grants in the improvement of the built environment in North Great Plain Region (Hungary, one of the least developed regions of Hungary. In the course of the above, on the one hand, we intend to provide a general overview of the situation in Hajdú-Bihar County, also located in this region, and on the other hand, through the example of a specific settlement, we will also present the processes in detail.

  6. The future of the ROK-US alliance in the context of Korean unification

    Kim, Ki-Joo


    After the Korean War, the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the United States signed a Mutual Defense Treaty on October 1, 1953. There were many conflicts and challenges between the ROK and the United States in keeping the relationship strong. Nevertheless, the ROK-US alliance has successfully defended South Korea from the volatile threat of North Korea and maintained stability and peace in Northeast Asia. After the historical North-South Summit talks in June 2000, Korean unification is more likely...

  7. Understanding Korean food culture from Korean paintings

    Hae Kyung Chung


    Conclusion: Beyond the basic value of food in maximizing nutrients and energy, Korean food culture has developed distinctive cultural characteristics through more than 5,000 years of agricultural history. Although the genre paintings analyzed in this paper are limited to a certain era, this paper will serve as a milestone in providing direction for future studies.

  8. The reunified process of the korean península after the Sunshine Policy

    Víctor Edgar Sánchez Gallegos


    Full Text Available The Korean peninsula is located as a strategic point. In the North it has border with the Republic of China, and the Russian Federation. The west sea separates Korea from Japan. That is the Korean importance to the powerful countries such as the United States and the countries mentioned before. The reunification topic is crucial when we are talking about Korea, and that is the reason of this essay. I t explores the reunification through Korean history until the results of the Sunshine Policy. The Sunshine Policy goals let us know that the Korean conflict has top be solved by the Korean citizens without other countries' intervention. By the way, I focus in the role of the private sector to get contact with North Korea perhaps, that is not important, however it can be useful to open the door to rejoin families from both sides, who share the same culture, language and history.

  9. Managing Regional Collaboration in Higher Education: The Case of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

    Crespo, Manuel


    Describes accomplishments in increasing collaboration in higher education within the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Analyzes procedures for determining equivalencies of courses and degrees and for improving transnational mobility of students and professors. Also discusses the role of the private sector in research, education and…

  10. 77 FR 38185 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of North Carolina; Regional Haze State...


    ... real-world conditions; in some instances, EPA relied on a single monitor to assess visibility... natural visibility conditions in Class I areas. EPA is finalizing a limited approval of North Carolina's... reasonable progress towards the national goal of achieving natural visibility conditions than would...

  11. The North Anatolian Fault in the Region of Iznik (Turkey) : Geomorphological Evolution and Archeoseismicity

    Benjelloun, Y. N.; de Sigoyer, J.; Sahin, M.; Garambois, S.; Dessales, H.


    This work based on a pluridisciplinary approach coupling earth sciences and archaeology aims to study the recent tectonics along Iznik Lake, which follows the North Anatolian fault middle strand (NAFMS), south of the Marmara Sea in Turkey. Today this strand records a low seismicity and presents a lower slip rate (roman aqueduct of Iznik which is cut and deformed by a small fault.

  12. Data bases for forest inventory in the North-Central Region.

    Jerold T. Hahn; Mark H. Hansen


    Describes the data collected by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Research Work Unit at the North Central Forest Experiment Station. Explains how interested parties may obtain information from the databases either through direct access or by special requests to the FIA database manager.

  13. Local and regional diversity in Streptomyces species causing common scab in North America

    Common scab of potato and other tuber/root crops, caused by a complex of soil bacteria in the genus Streptomyces, is one of the most important potato diseases in North America. Knowledge of the pathogen is fundamental to understanding and alleviating plant disease. To learn what species are found in...

  14. The Practice Exploration and Revelation of the Yanbian Regional South Korean%延边州区域韩元统一挂牌交易机制实践探索与启示

    张文生; 张敬


    "Yanbian area unified won quote trading mechanism is relying on a self-developed" Yanbian area won uniifed offer platform "(hereinafter referred to as the quotation platform), composed of industry and trade of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, in construction, four won business agency co sponsored in the state four line 93 outlets, generation of 12 against abide by RMB against the South Korean won banknotes listed trading rules, for social public provide won cash transactions services industry self-regulation mechanism. Since the operation of the mechanism, Yanbian won cash transaction market stability, bank statements sale income level increased, nearly three months, the Yanbian Korean won banknotes node exchange business volume reached 200 billion won. In Yanbian Prefecture of Jilin Province in the country take the lead in achieving regional banks won cash uniifed listing transaction mechanism, achieved good social effect, to promote the border region currency listing provides a valuable reference.%“延边州区域韩元统一报价交易机制”,是指依托自主开发的“延边州区域韩元统一报价平台”(以下简称报价平台),由延边州工、中、建、交4家韩元业务经办行共同发起,在全州四家行93个营业网点,12个代兑点共同遵守人民币兑韩元现钞挂牌交易规则,为社会公众提供韩元现钞买卖交易服务的行业自律性机制。该机制运行以来,延边州韩元现钞交易市场稳定,银行结售汇收益水平增加,近三个月以来,延边州韩元现钞结售汇业务量达200亿韩元。吉林省延边州在全国率先实现区域银行间韩元现钞统一挂牌交易机制,取得较好社会效应,对推进沿边地区小币种挂牌工作提供了有价值的参考。

  15. The Spatial Recourses and Limitations of the Russian Economy Modernization: the Example of the North-West Macro Region

    Sergey Valentinovich Kuznetsov


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research dedicated to the role of space in the modernization of the economy of the North-West maсro-region of Russia conducted in 2012–2014, within the framework of the Presidium of Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS №31 "The role of space in the modernization of Russia: natural and socio-economic potential." The analysis is based on the methodology, which was developed at the Institute of Regional Economy of RAS. Possibilities of modernization of the Russian economy are due to competitive advantages, "inherited characteristics" and public policy of regions and major macro-regions development. Recourses of modernization have a spatial component, which significantly affects the positioning of the region, its companies, firms and projects in the globalized geo-economic space. It is noted that the characteristics of multi-factor situation, taking into account the “inherited characteristics” of spatial development, the nature of geopolitical and geo-economic situation, transformation of the socio-economic area, evaluation the role of internal and external factors, including the impact of globalization and the state regional policy, as well as assessment of the role of internal spatial inversion of macro-region and innovation potential of regional development mostly define the corridors for modernization of the economy of the regions. It is found that four groups of factors highlighted in this study allow to take into account the wide range of opportunities and constraints for the modernization of the economy of the North-West macro region. On the basis of interdisciplinary synthesis within the geospatial paradigms, taking into account the developments of domestic economists-regionalists, economic geographers and western views in the framework of the space science, the idea of A. I. Tatarkin about "new sources of territorial competitiveness" was confirmed, by the example of a model region of the North

  16. Capricious, or tied to history’s apron strings? Floristic regions in north-west European brambles (Rubus subgenus Rubus, Rosaceae)

    Haveman, R.; Bijlsma, R.J.; Ronde, de I.; Schaminee, J.H.J.


    Aim To classify and describe distributional patterns in apomictic Rubus subgenus
    Rubus in north-west Europe and to characterize the major regions by
    statistically derived character species.
    Location North-western Europe, in particular Ireland, the United Kingdom,
    the Netherlands, Den

  17. Sequence variability in the HC-Pro coding regions of Korean soybean mosaic virus isolates is associated with differences in RNA silencing suppression.

    Li, Mei-Jia; Kim, Jung-Kyu; Seo, Eun-Young; Hong, Seok Myeong; Hwang, Eui-Il; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Domier, Leslie L; Hammond, John; Youn, Young-Nam; Lim, Hyoun-Sub


    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), a member of the family Potyviridae, is an important viral pathogen affecting soybean production in Korea. Variations in helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) sequences and the pathogenicity of SMV samples from seven Korean provinces were compared with those of previously characterized SMV isolates from China, Korea and the United States. Phylogenetic analysis separated 16 new Korean SMV isolates into two groups. Fourteen of the new Korean SMV samples belonged to group II and were very similar to U.S. strain SMV G7 and Chinese isolate C14. One isolate in group II, A297-13, differed at three amino acid positions (L54F, N286D, D369N) in the HC-Pro coding sequence from severe isolates and SMV 413, showed very weak silencing suppressor activity, and produced only mild symptoms in soybean. To test the role of each amino acid substitution in RNA silencing and viral RNA accumulation, a series of point mutations was constructed. Substitution of N for D at position 286 in HC-Pro of SMV A297-12 significantly reduced silencing suppression activity. When the mutant HC-Pro of A297-13 was introduced into an infectious clone of SMV 413, accumulation of viral RNA was reduced to less than 3 % of the level of SMV 413 containing HC-Pro of A297-12 at 10 days post-inoculation (dpi) but increased to 40 % of SMV 413(HC-Pro A297-12) at 40 dpi. At 50 dpi RNA accumulation of SMV 413(HC-Pro A297-13) was similar to that of SMV 413(HC-Pro A297-12). However, at 50 dpi, the D at position 286 of HC-Pro in SMV 413(HC-Pro A297-13) was found to have reverted to N. The results showed that 1) a naturally occurring mutation in HC-Pro significantly reduced silencing suppression activity and accumulation of transgene and viral RNAs, and 2) that there was strong selection for revision to wild type when the mutation was introduced into an infectious clone of SMV.

  18. Ices on Mercury: Chemistry of volatiles in permanently cold areas of Mercury's north polar region

    Delitsky, M. L.; Paige, D. A.; Siegler, M. A.; Harju, E. R.; Schriver, D.; Johnson, R. E.; Travnicek, P.


    Observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft during its flyby and orbital observations of Mercury in 2008-2015 indicated the presence of cold icy materials hiding in permanently-shadowed craters in Mercury's north polar region. These icy condensed volatiles are thought to be composed of water ice and frozen organics that can persist over long geologic timescales and evolve under the influence of the Mercury space environment. Polar ices never see solar photons because at such high latitudes, sunlight cannot reach over the crater rims. The craters maintain a permanently cold environment for the ices to persist. However, the magnetosphere will supply a beam of ions and electrons that can reach the frozen volatiles and induce ice chemistry. Mercury's magnetic field contains magnetic cusps, areas of focused field lines containing trapped magnetospheric charged particles that will be funneled onto the Mercury surface at very high latitudes. This magnetic highway will act to direct energetic protons, ions and electrons directly onto the polar ices. The radiation processing of the ices could convert them into higher-order organics and dark refractory materials whose spectral characteristics are consistent with low-albedo materials observed by MESSENGER Laser Altimeter (MLA) and RADAR instruments. Galactic cosmic rays (GCR), scattered UV light and solar energetic particles (SEP) also supply energy for ice processing. Cometary impacts will deposit H2O, CH4, CO2 and NH3 raw materials onto Mercury's surface which will migrate to the poles and be converted to more complex Csbnd Hsbnd Nsbnd Osbnd S-containing molecules such as aldehydes, amines, alcohols, cyanates, ketones, hydroxides, carbon oxides and suboxides, organic acids and others. Based on lab experiments in the literature, possible specific compounds produced may be: H2CO, HCOOH, CH3OH, HCO, H2CO3, CH3C(O)CH3, C2O, CxO, C3O2, CxOy, CH3CHO, CH3OCH2CH2OCH3, C2H6, CxHy, NO2, HNO2, HNO3, NH2OH, HNO, N2H2, N3, HCN, Na2O, Na

  19. Mineralogy and geochemistry of laterites developed on chlorite schists in Tchollire region, North Cameroon

    Banakeng, L. A.; Zame, P. Zo'o.; Tchameni, R.; Mamdem, L.; Bitom, D.


    Laterites developed from the weathering of chlorite schists have been studied in Tchollire region, North Cameroon. They include two profiles: a 5.5 m depth profile in Doudja site and a 12.3 m profile in Fimbe site. The chlorite schists have a lepidoblastic to lepidogranoblastic texture and are mainly composed of chlorite, muscovite, biotite, feldspars and quartz but that of Fimbe is marked by the presence of amphibole. It is felsic with a high SiO2 content (67%) and low Fe2O3 (5.8%) and MgO (2.4%) contents in Doudja site but has a lower content of SiO2 (46%) in the Fimbe site where it is mafic with higher contents in Fe2O3 (12.4%) and MgO (6.3%). The chlorite schists of Doudja show high contents in Zr, Sr, Ta, with moderate contents in Cr, V, U and Zn. That of Fimbe is particularly rich in Cr, V, Ni, Sr and Zn with a moderate Zr content. All chlorite schists have high barium contents (270-393 ppm) with LREE-enrichment. The soils are yellowish and, from bottom to top, are composed of a coarse saprolite, fine saprolite, loose clayey horizon and an organo mineral horizon. The main minerals are chlorite, muscovite, biotite, feldspars, quartz, smectites, vermiculite, kaolinite, hematite and goethite. In Doudja, SiO2 mainly decreases from the bottom to the top of the profile while, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 generally increase; in Fimbe, SiO2 and Al2O3 increase up the profile but Fe2O3 decreases; the general high Fe and corresponding decrease in Mg contents in the soils show that the smectite formed is nontronite. Chromium, V, Cu, Ba and Sr show high contents in the two studied profiles but Zr, U and Ta is higher in Doudja than in Fimbe. Copper generally has high contents in the loose clayey and organo mineral horizons. Nickel is higher in the Fimbe profile and probably issued from the Ni-rich mafic protolith. SiO2 has positive correlations with K2O, Zr, Li and Rb. Correlations of SiO2 with CaO, TiO2 and Cr are negative. Al2O3 and Fe2O3 have a positive correlation with Pb. Doudja

  20. A new climatic classification of afforestation in Three-North regions of China with multi-source remote sensing data

    Zheng, Xiao; Zhu, Jiaojun


    Afforestation and reforestation activities achieve high attention at the policy agenda as measures for carbon sequestration in order to mitigate climate change. The Three-North Shelter Forest Program, the largest ecological afforestation program worldwide, was launched in 1978 and will last until 2050 in the Three-North regions (accounting for 42.4 % of China's territory). Shelter forests of the Three-North Shelter Forest Program have exhibited severe decline after planting in 1978 due to lack of detailed climatic classification. Besides, a comprehensive assessment of climate adaptation for the current shelter forests was lacking. In this study, the aridity index determined by precipitation and reference evapotranspiration was employed to classify climatic zones for the afforestation program. The precipitation and reference evapotranspiration with 1-km resolution were estimated based on data from the tropical rainfall measuring mission and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer, respectively. Then, the detailed climatic classification for the afforestation program was obtained based on the relationship between the different vegetation types and the aridity index. The shelter forests in 2008 were derived from Landsat TM in the Three-North regions. In addition, climatic zones and shelter forests were corrected by comparing with natural vegetation map and field surveys. By overlaying the shelter forests on the climatic zones, we found that 16.30 % coniferous forests, 8.21 % broadleaved forests, 2.03 % mixed conifer-broadleaved forests, and 10.86 % shrubs were not in strict accordance with the climate conditions. These results open new perspectives for potential use of remote sensing techniques for afforestation management.

  1. North Korea's nuclear weapons program:verification priorities and new challenges.

    Moon, Duk-ho (Korean Consulate General in New York)


    A comprehensive settlement of the North Korean nuclear issue may involve military, economic, political, and diplomatic components, many of which will require verification to ensure reciprocal implementation. This paper sets out potential verification methodologies that might address a wide range of objectives. The inspection requirements set by the International Atomic Energy Agency form the foundation, first as defined at the time of the Agreed Framework in 1994, and now as modified by the events since revelation of the North Korean uranium enrichment program in October 2002. In addition, refreezing the reprocessing facility and 5 MWe reactor, taking possession of possible weapons components and destroying weaponization capabilities add many new verification tasks. The paper also considers several measures for the short-term freezing of the North's nuclear weapon program during the process of negotiations, should that process be protracted. New inspection technologies and monitoring tools are applicable to North Korean facilities and may offer improved approaches over those envisioned just a few years ago. These are noted, and potential bilateral and regional verification regimes are examined.

  2. The Korean Punctuation Systems

    Jeon Kyung LEE


    Full Text Available Currently, the concept of punctuation marks organized by the National Institute of Korean Language involves minimum punctuation marks that help communication between a writer and a reader. There are no traditional marks and instead, all of them reflect the Western punctuation marks. The former reflects the writer’s situation and functions in a sentence unit while the latter functions in a text unit which is related to the reading activity. The Korean traditional punctuation marks indicate the result of understanding the text. This means that Korean punctuation marks were developed in connection with learning. The punctuation was developed, at first, from making the punctuation marks in order to understand Chinese when the Koreans accepted Chinese letters. Further, whenever they faced new letters, they developed several kinds of marking. This is why there is a conceptual gap between the traditional punctuation and the current punctuation marks. This research thoroughly examines Korean traditional punctuation marks and discusses how Korean traditional punctuations can be classified in the same category with the current punctuation marks.

  3. Mesoscale eddy effects on the wintertime vertical mixing in the formation region of the North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water

    PAN Aijun; LIU Qinyu


    Mesoscale eddy effects on the wintertime vertical mixing in the formation region of the North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water (NPSTMW) are studied using hydrographic data from Argo profiling floats deployed in the Kuroshio recirculation region in February and March of 2001. Anticyclonic (warm) eddy enhances the wintertime vertical mixing and results in the deep mixed layer and the deep thermocline. Consequently, a large volumetric water mass with low potential vorticity corresponding to the prototype of NPSTMW tends to be formed. By contrast, cyclonic (cold) eddy is unfavorable for the vertical mixing process and halts the deepening of the mixed layer and thus the formation of mode water. Further analysis shows that cyclonic eddies prevail in the late 1990s in the formation region of NPSTMW, which lead to significant suppression of the wintertime vertical mixing (96-98) and thus are unfavorable for the formation of NPSTMW; while the situation is completely reversed in the early 1990s (93-95).

  4. NOAA Satellite Based Real Time Forest Fire Monitoring System for Russia and North Asian Region

    Kalpoma,Kazi A. / Kawano,Koichi / Kudoh,Jun-ichi; / カワノ,コウイチ / クドウ,ジュンイチ


    Forest fires cause severe damages to natural resources and human lives all over the world. Though a lot of forest fires occur in Russia and North Asia every year, there is no system available that monitors forest fire in real time processing. However the MODIS Land Rapid Response System provides near-real time fire observations globally, currently forest fire monitoring techniques are not efficient enough to optimally monitor this disaster. For a real-time forest fire monitor system an effici...

  5. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-16 satellite (GDS version 1)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for HIgh Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  6. GHRSST Level 3P North Atlantic Regional Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on NOAA-19 (GDS version 1)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for HIgh Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  7. GHRSST Level 3C North Atlantic Regional (NAR) subskin Sea Surface Temperature from Metop/AVHRR (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer...

  8. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite (GDS version 1)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  9. GHRSST Level 3C North Atlantic Regional Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on NOAA-19 (GDS version 2)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  10. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-18 satellite (GDS version 1)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for HIgh Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  11. North American Regional Security: A Trilateral Framework. By Richard J. Kilroy, Jr., Abelardo Rodriquez Sumano, and Todd S. Hataley, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Press, 2013.

    Robert Stewart-Ingersoll


    Full Text Available North American Regional Security: A Trilateral Framework. By Richard J. Kilroy, Jr., Abelardo Rodriquez Sumano, and Todd S. Hataley, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Press, 2013. ISBN 978-1-58826-854-9.

  12. Investigating the effects of a summer storm on the North Sea stratification using a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model

    Gronholz, Alexandra; Gräwe, Ulf; Paul, André; Schulz, Michael


    The influence of a summer storm event in 2007 on the North Sea and its effects on the ocean stratification are investigated using a regional coupled ocean (Regional Ocean Modeling System, ROMS)-atmosphere (Weather Research & Forecasting model, WRF) modeling system. An analysis of potential energy anomaly (PEA, Φ) and its temporal development reveals that the loss of stratification due to the storm event is dominated by vertical mixing in almost the entire North Sea. For specific regions, however, a considerable contribution of depth-mean straining is observed. Vertical mixing is highly correlated with wind induced surface stresses. However, peak mixing values are observed in combination with incoming flood currents. Depending on the phase between winds and tides, the loss of stratification differs strongly over the North Sea. To study the effects of interactive ocean-atmosphere exchange, a fully coupled simulation is compared with two uncoupled ones for the same vertical mixing parameters to identify the impact of spatial resolution as well as of SST feedback. While the resulting new mixed layer depth after the storm event in the uncoupled simulation with lower spatial and temporal resolution of the surface forcing data can still be located in the euphotic zone, the coupled simulation is capable to mix the entire water column and the vertical mixing in the uncoupled simulation with higher resolution of the surface forcing data is strongly amplified. These differences might have notable implications for ecosystem modeling since it could determine the development of new phytoplankton blooms after the storm and for sediment modeling in terms of sediment mobilization. An investigation of restratification after the extreme event illustrates the persistent effect of this summer storm.

  13. Spatio-temporal evolution of Leucophyllum pringlei and allies (Scrophulariaceae): a group endemic to North American xeric regions.

    Gándara, Etelvina; Sosa, Victoria


    The taxa of the Leucophyllum pringlei clade were used to understand the influence of the Neogene orogenesis and the Quaternary climate cycles on the diversification of the flora of the xeric regions of North America. This clade includes the five southernmost species of the genus: L. ambiguum, L. flyrii, L. pruinosum and L. ultramonticola, which are distributed throughout the Chihuahuan Desert north of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, and L. pringlei in the region of Tehuacán-Cuicatlán south of this mountain range. Here we test whether these species diverged during the pluvial periods of the Pleistocene, and whether L. pringlei diverged earlier from the other species during the uplift of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Using three plastid regions (psbA-trnH, psbK-psbI, trnL-F) and a nuclear (ITS) marker, phylogenetic analyses were carried out, along with a reconstruction of their ancestral area. Trees retrieved the five species in a monophyletic group with the most recent common ancestor distributed in the Sinaloan dry forest during the Late Miocene (8.08Ma), from where it dispersed to the Chihuahuan Desert during the Late Miocene (6.35Ma). The secondary uplift of the Sierra Madre Occidental during the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene influenced a vicariance event. Divergence between L. pringlei and the species from north of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt occurred during the second volcanic episode in the Late Miocene (7.5-3Ma). The most recent common ancestor of L. ambiguum, L. pruinosum and L. ultramonticola was widely distributed in the southern part of the Chihuahuan Desert during the Early to Late Pliocene (3.50Ma). The diversification of these three species occurred in the Middle Pleistocene (0.9Ma) during the pluvial and inter-pluvial cycles.

  14. 2. Customary Dispute Resolution in Amhara Region: The Case of Wofa Legesse in North Shewa

    Abate, Melaku; Shiferaw, Wubishet


    Profile of the Region and the selected study area Amhara Region is located in the northern and northwestern parts of Ethiopia. It shares borders with the regional states of Oromia, Afar, Benishangul, and Tigray. It also borders Sudan. The Region has an area of 161,828 square kilometers and a population of 17,205,000. The political center of Amhara is Bahir Dar, which is 565 kilometers from Addis Ababa. The Region comprises eleven zones of which three are special zones, namely Awi, Wag Himra a...

  15. Study on Short-Term Abnormal Characteristics of Geoelectric and Geomagnetic Data before Strong Earthquakes in the North China Region

    Tian Shan; Guan Huaping; Wu Guoyou; Liu Yunxiu


    The earth resistivity and geomagnetic observation data of the Z component from many stations in near-epicentral areas of strong earthquakes are combined and calculated by using a spatial linearity method and a new characteristic value, the spatial linearity a, describing the precursory field in near-epicentral area of strong earthquake, is obtained. The analysis and calculation results of geoelectric and geomagnetic observation data prior to 8 earthquakes with M ≥ 5.5 occurring in the North China region show that a value near the epicentrai area tends to decrease significantly half a year before strong earthquakes.

  16. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR): A neglected tropical disease in Maghreb region of North Africa and its threat to Europe

    Clarke, Brian Donald; Ait-Oudhia, Khatima; Khelef, Djamel; Parida, Satya


    Background Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious disease listed by the World Organisation for Animal health (OIE) as being a specific hazard. It affects sheep, goats, and wild ungulates, and is prevalent throughout the developing world particularly Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. PPR has been targeted for eradication by 2030 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the OIE, after the successful eradication of the related disease, rinderpest in cattle. PPR was first reported in 1942 in the Ivory Coast in Western Africa and has since extended its range in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa posing an immediate threat of incursion into Europe, South East Asia and South Africa. Although robust vaccines are available, the use of these vaccines in a systematic and rational manner is not widespread, resulting in this devastating disease becoming an important neglected tropical disease in the developing world. Methodology We isolated and characterized the PPR virus from an outbreak in Cheraga, northern Algeria, during October 2015 by analyzing the partial N-gene sequence in comparison with other viruses from the Maghreb region. As well as sequencing the full length viral genome and performing real-time RT-PCR on clinical samples. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian temporal and phylogeographic analyses were performed to assess the persistence and spread of PPRV circulation from Eastern Africa in the Maghreb region of North Africa. Conclusions Recent PPR outbreaks in Cheraga, in the northern part of Algiers (October 2015) and North-West Morocco (June, 2015) highlight that PPRV has spread to the northern border of North Africa and may pose a threat of introduction to Europe. Phylogeographic analysis suggests that lineage IV PPRV has spread from Eastern Africa, most likely from the Sudan 2000 outbreak, into Northern Africa resulting in the 2008 Moroccan outbreak. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analysis shows that these North African

  17. Korean red ginseng,a best gift for you


    Korean ginseng is a medicinal herb, naturally exists in only three regions:“Korea”(33.7-43.1),“Manchuria”(43-47),and the Littoral province of Siberia. The Korean peninsula is the best place to grow ginseng,because ginseng has strin- gent requirements for the plant's growth, and Korea has the ideal temperature zone, plenty of rain in the summer,proper cold- ness in the winter,etc.The value of Korean ginseng has been known in the world since the 4th century B.C.Books written in this era documented ginseng ...

  18. Korean red ginseng, a best gift for you


    Korean ginseng is a medicinal herb, naturally exists in only three regions: "Korea"(33.7-43.1), "Man-churia"(43-47), and the Littoral province of Siberia. The Korean peninsula is the best place to grow ginseng, because ginseng has stringent requirements for the plant's growth, and Korea has the ideal temperature zone, plenty of rain in the summer, proper coldness in the winter, etc. The value of Korean ginseng has been known in the world since the 4th century B. C. Books written in this era documented gi...

  19. Genetic diversity within ITS-1 region of Eimeria species infecting chickens of north India.

    Kumar, Saroj; Garg, Rajat; Banerjee, P S; Ram, Hira; Kundu, K; Kumar, Sunil; Mandal, M


    Coccidiosis, caused by apicomplexan parasites of the genus Eimeria, inflicts severe economic losses to the poultry industry around the globe. In the present study, ITS-1 based species specific nested PCR revealed prevalence of E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. praecox, E. necatrix and E. tenella in 79.2%, 12.5%, 64.6%, 89.6%, 60.4%, 64.6% and 97.9% poultry farms of north India, respectively. The ITS-1 sequences of different Eimeria spp. from north India were generated and analyzed to establish their phylogenetic relationship. The sequence identity with available sequences ranged from 80 to 100% in E. tenella, 95 to 100% in E. acervulina, 64 to 97% in E. necatrix, 96 to 99% in E. brunetti and 97 to 98% in E. mitis. Only long ITS-1 sequences of E. maxima could be generated in the present study and it had 80-100% identity with published sequences. Two out of the four ITS-1 sequences of E. maxima had mismatches in the published nested primer sequences from Australia, while one sequence of E. necatrix had a mismatch near 3' end of both forward and reverse published nested primer sequences, warranting for the need of designing new set of degenerate primers for these two species of Eimeria. In the phylogenetic tree, all isolates of E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. mitis, E. tenella and E. necatrix clustered in separate clades with high bootstrap value. E. maxima sequences of north Indian isolates grouped in a long form of E. maxima clade. Complete ITS-1 sequences of E. necatrix and E. mitis are reported for the first time from India. Further studies are required with more number of isolates to verify whether these differences are unique to geographical locations.

  20. Pertussis immunization in the global pertussis initiative North American region: recommended strategies and implementation considerations.

    Tan, Tina; Halperin, Scott; Cherry, James D; Edwards, Kathryn; Englund, Janet A; Glezen, Paul; Greenberg, David; Rothstein, Edward; Skowronski, Danuta


    In North America, children currently receive 5 doses of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine between the ages of 2 months and 6 years. Although this schedule has reduced the incidence of childhood pertussis, it has not led to the development of herd immunity in the total population, largely because pertussis immunity wanes with time. The time course over which immunity wanes is uncertain; however, high pertussis antibody titers in adolescents and adults indicate unrecognized infection in these groups. There is evidence that this group serves as a source of infection for young infants who are not fully immunized. Therefore, of the potential strategies reviewed by the North American Global Pertussis Initiative group, universal adolescent immunization would in theory reduce the risk of pertussis in this age group and may reduce transmission to young infants. However, because immunity probably wanes at the same rate in adolescents and children, the burden of disease will likely shift to older age groups, including young adults (parents of vulnerable infants). Therefore the ideal would be immunization of adolescents and adults, particularly those who are in contact with young infants. Adolescent immunization is already recommended in Austria, France, Germany and Canada, and participants in the Global Pertussis Initiative recommend that this strategy be implemented across North America with a view to eventually extending immunization to include adults. The final decision to implement such a strategy will depend on pertussis surveillance studies and analysis of the effectiveness and tolerability of adolescent and adult pertussis immunization as well as program considerations related to feasibility and economics.

  1. Persistent organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air of the North Sea region and air-sea exchange.

    Mai, Carolin; Theobald, Norbert; Hühnerfuss, Heinrich; Lammel, Gerhard


    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied to determine occurrence, levels and spatial distribution in the marine atmosphere and surface seawater during cruises in the German Bight and the wider North Sea in spring and summer 2009-2010. In general, the concentrations found in air are similar to, or below, the levels at coastal or near-coastal sites in Europe. Hexachlorobenzene and α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) were close to phase equilibrium, whereas net atmospheric deposition was observed for γ-HCH. The results suggest that declining trends of HCH in seawater have been continuing for γ-HCH but have somewhat levelled off for α-HCH. Dieldrin displayed a close to phase equilibrium in nearly all the sampling sites, except in the central southwestern part of the North Sea. Here atmospheric deposition dominates the air-sea exchange. This region, close to the English coast, showed remarkably increased surface seawater concentrations. This observation depended neither on riverine input nor on the elevated abundances of dieldrin in the air masses of central England. A net depositional flux of p,p'-DDE into the North Sea was indicated by both its abundance in the marine atmosphere and the changes in metabolite pattern observed in the surface water from the coast towards the open sea. The long-term trends show that the atmospheric concentrations of DDT and its metabolites are not declining. Riverine input is a major source of PCBs in the German Bight and the wider North Sea. Atmospheric deposition of the lower molecular weight PCBs (PCB28 and PCB52) was indicated as a major source for surface seawater pollution.

  2. Seasonal variation of atmospheric Pb-210 and Al in the western North Pacific region

    Tsunogai, Shizuo; Kurata, Takayoshi; Suzuki, Toshitaka; Yokota, Kiichiro


    The atmospheric concentrations of Pb-210 over a period of two years were determined from aerosol samples collected at six stations in the western North Pacific. The results are compared with those for Al, showing that, although Pb-210 concentrations vary widely from week to week, the degree of variation is about half of that for Al. For Pb-210, the year-to-year variation is not pronounced and the seasonal variation is well represented by a sine curve. The results suggest that Pb-210 has a longer residence time than Al, because Pb-210 is transported through higher altitudes and is deposited more evenly onto the earth's surface and the ocean.

  3. Exploring the Health Needs of Aging LGBT Adults in the Cape Fear Region of North Carolina.

    Rowan, Noell L; Beyer, Kelsey


    This study explored issues of culturally sensitive healthcare practice and needs among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender aging adults in coastal North Carolina. Survey data results indicated the largest problem was a history of verbally harassment and need for culturally sensitive healthcare. In conclusion, culturally sensitive interventions are needed to address the health disparities and unique needs of LGBT aging adults. Cultural sensitivity training for service providers is suggested as a vital step in addressing health disparities of aging LGBT adults. Implications for research include further exploration of health related needs of these often hidden and underserved population groups.

  4. Strategic environmental assessment for sustainable expansion of palm oil biofuels in Brazilian north region

    Carvalho, Carolina


    Biofuels development in Brazil is a key factor for the environment and sustainable development of the country. Brazil has great potential of available areas and has favourable climate and geography for biofuel production, such as palm oil, soy, sugar cane, etc. This research aims to evaluate palm oil production and expansion in Para state, in the north of Brazil and also Amazonian territory. Degraded land will be evaluated through remote sensing, because palm oil crops should be placed in these lands, and secondly, expansion scenarios would be created. This PhD research will be a decision support tool for public policies.

  5. Automated multimode phase speed measurements for high-resolution regional-scale tomography: application to North America

    Yoshizawa, K.; Ekström, Göran


    A fully automated method for obtaining multimode phase speed measurements from a single seismogram has been developed and applied to a large data set of three-component long-period seismograms in North America, constructing high-resolution phase speed maps on a continental scale. The method of our phase speed estimation is based on a fully non-linear waveform inversion by Yoshizawa & Kennett working with a global search method (the Neighbourhood Algorithm). The entire process of waveform fitting and the evaluation of the estimated phase speed have been fully automated employing several empirical quantitative measures, assessing the quality of waveform fit and the relative contributions of each mode in a chosen time window. The measured phase speed data undergo automatic screening for quality control, comprising the threshold evaluation of their reliability and outlier detection and removal. This new automated method has been applied to a large data set recorded at North American stations, including the latest transportable stations of USArray. Using long-period three-component seismograms recorded during the past eight years, we have successfully retrieved large numbers of regional surface wave paths, including over 20000 paths for the fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves over a wide range of frequencies, and over 10000 paths for the higher mode Rayleigh as well as the fundamental-mode Love waves. The consistent results of the automated measurement procedure suggest that the method works well at regional distances, allowing us to perform a high-resolution mapping of multimode phase speeds in North America. The results of the automated waveform analysis also indicate some intrinsic limitations in the higher mode phase speed measurements from a single seismogram particularly in the short period range, mainly due to the overlapping of higher mode arrivals as well as coupling between mode branches. Despite such an innate difficulty in the higher mode dispersion measurements

  6. Post-Clovis survival of American Mastodon in the southern Great Lakes Region of North America

    Woodman, Neal; Beavan Athfield, Nancy


    The end of the Pleistocene in North America was marked by a wave of extinctions of large mammals, with the last known appearances of many species falling between ca. 11,000-10,000 14C yr BP. Temporally, this period overlaps with the Clovis Paleoindian cultural complex (11,190-10,530 14C yr BP) and with sudden climatic changes that define the beginning of the Younger Dryas chronozone (ca. 11,000-10,000 14C yr BP), both of which have been considered as potential proximal causes of this extinction event. Radiocarbon dating of enamel and filtered bone collagen from an extinct American Mastodon ( Mammut americanum) from northern Indiana, USA, by accelerator mass spectrometer yielded direct dates of 10,055 ± 40 14C yr BP and 10,032 ± 40 14C yr BP, indicating that the animal survived beyond the Clovis time period and into the late Younger Dryas. Although the late survival of this species in mid-continental North America does not remove either humans or climatic change as contributing causes for the late Pleistocene extinctions, neither Clovis hunters nor the climatic perturbations initiating the Younger Dryas chronozone were immediately responsible for driving mastodons to extinction.

  7. Post-Clovis survival of American Mastodon in the southern Great Lakes Region of North America

    Woodman, N.; Beavan, Athfield N.


    The end of the Pleistocene in North America was marked by a wave of extinctions of large mammals, with the last known appearances of many species falling between ca. 11,000-10,000??14C yr BP. Temporally, this period overlaps with the Clovis Paleoindian cultural complex (11,190-10,530??14C yr BP) and with sudden climatic changes that define the beginning of the Younger Dryas chronozone (ca. 11,000-10,000??14C yr BP), both of which have been considered as potential proximal causes of this extinction event. Radiocarbon dating of enamel and filtered bone collagen from an extinct American Mastodon (Mammut americanum) from northern Indiana, USA, by accelerator mass spectrometer yielded direct dates of 10,055 ?? 40??14C yr BP and 10,032 ?? 40??14C yr BP, indicating that the animal survived beyond the Clovis time period and into the late Younger Dryas. Although the late survival of this species in mid-continental North America does not remove either humans or climatic change as contributing causes for the late Pleistocene extinctions, neither Clovis hunters nor the climatic perturbations initiating the Younger Dryas chronozone were immediately responsible for driving mastodons to extinction. ?? 2009 University of Washington.

  8. Regional Modelling of Air Quality in the Canadian Arctic: Impact of marine shipping and North American wild fire emissions

    Gong, W.; Beagley, S. R.; Zhang, J.; Cousineau, S.; Sassi, M.; Munoz-Alpizar, R.; Racine, J.; Menard, S.; Chen, J.


    Arctic atmospheric composition is strongly influenced by long-range transport from mid-latitudes as well as processes occurring in the Arctic locally. Using an on-line air quality prediction model GEM-MACH, simulations were carried out for the 2010 northern shipping season (April - October) over a regional Arctic domain. North American wildfire emissions and Arctic shipping emissions were represented, along with other anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. Sensitivity studies were carried out to investigate the principal sources and processes affecting air quality in the Canadian Northern and Arctic regions. In this paper, we present an analysis of sources, transport, and removal processes on the ambient concentrations and atmospheric loading of various pollutants with air quality and climate implications, such as, O3, NOx, SO2, CO, and aerosols (sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon components). Preliminary results from a model simulation of a recent summertime Arctic field campaign will also be presented.

  9. Scale and watershed features determine lake chemistry patterns across physiographic regions in the far north of Ontario, Canada

    Josef MacLeod


    Full Text Available Changes in the far north of Ontario (>50°N latitude, like climate warming and increased industrial development, will have direct effects on watershed characteristics and lakes. To better understand the nature of remote northern lakes that span the Canadian Shield and Hudson Bay Lowlands, and to address the pressing need for limnological data for this vast, little-studied area of Ontario, lake chemistry surveys were conducted during 2011-2012. Lakes at the transition between these physiographic regions displayed highly variable water chemistry, reflecting the peatland landscape with a mix of bog and fen watersheds, and variations in the extent of permafrost. In the transition area, Shield and Lowlands lakes could not be clearly differentiated based on water chemistry; peat cover decouples, to varying degrees, the lakes from the influences of bedrock and surficial deposits. Regional chemistry differences were apparent across a much broader area of northern Ontario, due to large-scale spatial changes in geology and in the extent of peatlands and permafrost.  Shield lakes in the far northwest of Ontario had Ca, Mg, and TP concentrations markedly higher than those of many Lowlands lakes and previously studied Shield lakes south of 50°N, related to an abundance of lacustrine and glacial end-moraine deposits in the north.

  10. Impacts of climate change on land-use and wetland productivity in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America

    Rashford, Benjamin S.; Adams, Richard M.; Wu, JunJie; Voldseth, Richard A.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Werner, Brett; Johnson, W. Carter


    Wetland productivity in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is closely linked to climate. A warmer and drier climate, as predicted, will negatively affect the productivity of PPR wetlands and the services they provide. The effect of climate change on wetland productivity, however, will not only depend on natural processes (e.g., evapotranspiration), but also on human responses. Agricultural land use, the predominant use in the PPR, is unlikely to remain static as climate change affects crop yields and prices. Land use in uplands surrounding wetlands will further affect wetland water budgets and hence wetland productivity. The net impact of climate change on wetland productivity will therefore depend on both the direct effects of climate change on wetlands and the indirect effects on upland land use. We examine the effect of climate change and land-use response on semipermanent wetland productivity by combining an economic model of agricultural land-use change with an ecological model of wetland dynamics. Our results suggest that the climate change scenarios evaluated are likely to have profound effects on land use in the North and South Dakota PPR, with wheat displacing other crops and pasture. The combined pressure of land-use and climate change significantly reduces wetland productivity. In a climate scenario with a +4 °C increase in temperature, our model predicts that almost the entire region may lack the wetland productivity necessary to support wetland-dependent species.

  11. Regional regression equations to estimate peak-flow frequency at sites in North Dakota using data through 2009

    Williams-Sether, Tara


    Annual peak-flow frequency data from 231 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in North Dakota and parts of Montana, South Dakota, and Minnesota, with 10 or more years of unregulated peak-flow record, were used to develop regional regression equations for exceedance probabilities of 0.5, 0.20, 0.10, 0.04, 0.02, 0.01, and 0.002 using generalized least-squares techniques. Updated peak-flow frequency estimates for 262 streamflow-gaging stations were developed using data through 2009 and log-Pearson Type III procedures outlined by the Hydrology Subcommittee of the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data. An average generalized skew coefficient was determined for three hydrologic zones in North Dakota. A StreamStats web application was developed to estimate basin characteristics for the regional regression equation analysis. Methods for estimating a weighted peak-flow frequency for gaged sites and ungaged sites are presented.

  12. Korean red ginseng,a best gift for you


    @@ Korean ginseng is a tonic, naturally exists in only three regions: Korea"(33.7-43.1), "Manchuria"(43-47), and the Littoral province of Siberia. The Korean peninsula is the best place to grow ginseng, because ginseng has stringent requirements for the plant's growth, and Korea has the ideal temperature zone, plenty of rain in the summer, proper coldness in the winter, etc.

  13. Projected hydrological changes in the North Carolina piedmont using bias-corrected North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP data

    Yuri Kim


    New hydrological insights for the region: Evapotranspiration (ET and water yield (WY with projected CO2, precipitation, and temperature during 2044–2070 were affected by each climate factor separately and synergistically. Increasing CO2 to 600 ppm only scenario resulted in an ET decrease (5–17% which led to WY increase (17–36%. With projected temperature increases (1–5 °C only scenarios, ET was projected to increase noticeably (12–112% especially in winter and spring. The amount of projected ET increase was reduced by a CO2 increase to 600 ppm due to decreased stomatal conductance. Projected WY varied due to the high variability of future precipitation patterns (−54% to 33% but generally increased when solely precipitation projections were applied. However, WY with combined effects of CO2, precipitation, and temperature did not show significant changes compared with the historical WY. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate interactions of precipitation, temperature, and CO2 to simulate future water availability in the North Carolina Piedmont.

  14. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Development and Diplomacy


    States that have been frozen since the Korean War .29 Removal from the U.S. list of state sponsors of terrorism will end the requirement that U.S...normalization of relationships, a permanent peace regime [to replace the 1953 Korean War armistice] and significant energy and economic assistance.” Such a...Iranian nuclear facilities at Natanz and Irak . It issued a report in February 2008 that gave reputed details of North Korean-Iranian collaboration in

  15. Chemical Properties of Groundwater in Bhiloda Taluka Region, North Gujarat, India

    G. D. Acharya


    Full Text Available Groundwater is one of the most useful water sources. Contamination of such water source is a big problem creating health hazards. In this present study we have collected groundwater samples from different places of Bhiloda taluka of Sabarkantha district (North Gujarat India. These samples have been assessed on the basis of various qualitative parameters. The results of physico-chemical study of water samples from 13 bore wells in Bhiloda taluka are presented. The water quality parameters such as; pH, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved salts (TDS, calcium and magnesium, sodium, potassium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, fluoride, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, residual sodium carbonate (RSC and soluble sodium percentage ( SSP were estimated.

  16. Regional features of gastroduodenal disease, associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, in the North Ossetia

    E. A. Kornienko


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the structure of gastroduodenal disorders, virulent feathers of Helicobacter pylori (HP strains and efficacy of eradication therapy in children of the North Ossetia (Alania. 1265 children from 4 till 18 years old were examined, НР was found in 84%. 53% of HP(+ atients had erosions and ulcers of the stomach and duodenum. Strains, resistant to clarithromycin, were revealed in 13% of the patients. We have estimated efficacy of 4 regimes of eradication therapy. Regimes, that included clarithromycin and metronidazole, had the lowest efficacy the worst compliance. The best results were observed in triple therapy, including PPI, amoxicillin and bismuth, and quadrotherapy with PPI amoxicillin, bismuth and nifuratel. The duration of therapy should not be shorter than 10 days.

  17. Regional cooperation in energy efficiency standard-setting and labeling in North America

    Wiel, Stephen; Van Wie McGrory, Laura


    The North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) was established in 2001 by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The goals of NAEWG are to foster communication and cooperation on energy-related matters of common interest, and to enhance North American energy trade and interconnections consistent with the goal of sustainable development, for the benefit of all three countries. At its outset, NAEWG established teams to address different aspects of the energy sector. One, the Energy Efficiency Expert Group, undertook activity in three areas: (1) analyzing commonalities and differences in the test procedures of Canada, Mexico, and the United States, and identifying specific products for which the three countries might consider harmonization; (2) exploring possibilities for increased mutual recognition of laboratory test results; and (3) looking at possibilities for enhanced cooperation in the Energy Star voluntary endorsement labeling program. To support NAEWG's Expert Group on Energy Efficiency (NAEWG-EE), USDOE commissioned Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, representing the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), to prepare a resource document comparing current standards, labels, and test procedure regulations in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The resulting document identified 46 energy-using products for which at least one of the three countries has energy efficiency regulations. Three products--refrigerators/freezers, room air conditioners, and integral horsepower three-phase electric motors--have identical minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and test procedures in the three countries. Ten other products have different MEPS and test procedures, but have the near-term potential for harmonization. NAEWG-EE is currently working to identify mechanisms for mutual recognition of test results. With consultative support from the United States and Canada through NAEWG-EE, Mexico is exploring possibilities

  18. Overview of surface ozone variability in East Asia-North Pacific region during IGAC/APARE (1994-1996)

    K.S. Lam; T.J.Wang; T. Wangt; J. Tang; Y.Kajii; C.M. Liu; S.G. Shim


    Surface ozone(O3) was measured at Oki Island(Japan), Cheju Island(South Korea), Lanyu Island (Taiwan Province, China), Cape D' Aguilar (Hong Kong SAR) and Lin'an, Longfenshan, Waliguan (China mainland) during January 1994-December 1996 as a component of IGAC/APARE(International Global Atmospheric Chemistry/East Asia-North Pacific Regional Experiment). This paper gave a joint discussion on the observational results at these stations over the study region. Investigations showed that the average of surface O3 mixing ratios at the seven sites are 47.9 ± 15.8, 48.1 ± 17.9, 30.2 + 16.4, 31.6 + 17.5, 36.3 ± 17.5, 34.8 ± 11.5 and 48.2 ± 9.5ppbv, respectively. Significant diurnal variations of surface O3 have been observed at Oki, Cheju, D' Aguilar, Lin'an and Longfenshan. Their annual averaged diurnal differences range from 8 to 23 ppbv and differ in each season.Surface O3 at Lanyu and Waliguan do not show strong diurnal variability. Seasonal cycles of surface O3 showed difference at the temperate and the subtropical remote sites. Oki has a summer minimum-spring maximum, while Lanyu has a summer minimum-autumn maximum. The suburban sites at D'Aguilar and Lin' an report high-level O3in autumn and Iow level O3 in summer. Surface O3 remainshigh in autumn and Iow in winter at the rural site Longfenshan. For the global background station Waliguan, surface O3 exhibits a broad spring-summer maximum and autumn-winter minimum. The backward air trajectories to these sites have shown different pathways of long-range transport of air pollution from East Asia Continent to North Pacific Ocean. Surface O3 was found to be strongly and positively correlated with CO at Oki and Lanyu, especially in spring and autumn, reflecting the substantial photochemical buildup of O3 on a regional scale. It is believed that the regional sources of pollution in East Asia have enhanced the average surface O3 concentrations in the background atmosphere of North Pacific.

  19. Swiss ethnoveterinary knowledge on medicinal plants - a within-country comparison of Italian speaking regions with north-western German speaking regions.

    Mayer, Maria; Zbinden, Mirjam; Vogl, Christan R; Ivemeyer, Silvia; Meier, Beat; Amorena, Michele; Maeschli, Ariane; Hamburger, Matthias; Walkenhorst, Michael


    Ethnoveterinary knowledge in Europe may play an important role as a basis for sustainable treatment options for livestock. Aims of our study were (a) to compare the ethnoveterinary practices of two culturally and sociodemographically different regions of Switzerland, (b) to compare results with earlier ethnoveterinary studies conducted in Switzerland and in adjacent Italian regions and, (c) to evaluate possible reasons for regional differences in European ethnoveterinary medicine. 25 interviews were conducted in 2014 in all Italian speaking regions (ItR) of Switzerland, and 31 interviews were held in five north-western German speaking Cantons (GeC). Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect detailed information regarding plant species, mode of preparation, dosage, route of administration, category of use, origin of knowledge, frequency of use, and satisfaction with outcomes of the treatments. A total of 162 homemade remedies in ItR and 219 in GeC were reported, out of which 125 and 145, respectively, were reported to contain only one plant species (homemade single species herbal remedy report, HSHR). 44 ItR and 43 GeC plant species were reported to treat livestock, of which only a half were used in both regions. For each HSHR, we classified the treatment intention of all use reports (UR), leading to a total of 205 and 219 UR in ItR and GeC respectively. While cattle were the most often treated livestock species in both study regions, in ItR 40% of UR were administered to small ruminants. Main indications in both regions were gastrointestinal diseases and skin afflictions, but in ItR a high number of URs were reported as antiparasitics. URs were mainly handed down from the past generation, but in GeC the source of knowledge for 20% of URs were from courses. Regarding the used plant species, ItR showed a higher concordance with Swiss than Italian studies, but with some differences to all regions. A total of 22 (14 ItR; 8 GeC) plant species in this study

  20. Dynamic Response of Satellite-Derived Vegetation Growth to Climate Change in the Three North Shelter Forest Region in China

    Bin He


    Full Text Available Since the late 1970s, the Chinese government has initiated ecological restoration programs in the Three North Shelter Forest System Project (TNSFSP area. Whether accelerated climate change will help or hinder these efforts is still poorly understood. Using the updated and extended AVHRR NDVI3g dataset from 1982 to 2011 and corresponding climatic data, we investigated vegetation variations in response to climate change. The results showed that the overall state of vegetation in the study region has improved over the past three decades. Vegetation cover significantly decreased in 23.1% and significantly increased in 21.8% of the study area. An increase in all three main vegetation types (forest, grassland, and cropland was observed, but the trend was only statistically significant in cropland. In addition, bare and sparsely vegetated areas, mainly located in the western part of the study area, have significantly expanded since the early 2000s. A moisture condition analysis indicated that the study area experienced significant climate variations, with warm-wet conditions in the western region and warm-dry conditions in the eastern region. Correlation analysis showed that variations in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI were positively correlated with precipitation and negatively correlated with temperature. Ultimately, climate change influenced vegetation growth by controlling the availability of soil moisture. Further investigation suggested that the positive impacts of precipitation on NDVI have weakened in the study region, whereas the negative impacts from temperature have been enhanced in the eastern study area. However, over recent years, the negative temperature impacts have been converted to positive impacts in the western region. Considering the variations in the relationship between NDVI and climatic variables, the warm–dry climate in the eastern region is likely harmful to vegetation growth, whereas the warm

  1. The Challenges and Opportunities of Social Media in the Hospitality Industry. A Study of the North East Region of Romania

    Andreea Maha


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explain what are the key benefits and challenges of Social Media adoption and to underline the importance of Social Media for hotel industry. The importance of Internet in sales and promotion of tourism products is reflected in the figures of recent studies. Social Media represents a new form of communication between hotels and consumers. In tourism, one of the most popular topics for Social Media is to share your experience: writing reviews, post photos, videos and comments. This consumergenerated content is considered credible and unbiased. Hotel industry is facing a similar situation now with Social Media, as they were hesitating to create a website. One of the major errors is that hotels do not respond to social media posts. We assessed the presence and visibility of each 84 hotels on the three major Social Media channels (namely Facebook, Twitter and YouTube at the end of the year 2014. Where the official presence was not immediately found (usually the visitor is redirected from the official website, the first three pages search results were examined to try to establish the hotels official Facebook/Twitter/YouTube account. We carried out content analysis off all hotel Social Media accounts categorized between 3 to 5 stars in the North-East Region of Romania. Following our analysis, it was observed that North-East’s hotel units own in a 95% proportion an online presence. We cannot say the same thing about their presence on the Social Media platform. Surprisingly, most of the hotels we have analyzed have a functional website, 80 out of 84 hotels. We also noticed that the presence in Social Media is at the opposite pole (compared to the number of existing web pages, so that only 48 hotels have a Facebook page, 10 hotels have a Twitter account and 10 hotels have an YouTube account. Of the three networks we notice that Facebook is the most used network by hoteliers in the North-East region of Romania, Twitter

  2. The intraannual variability of land-atmosphere coupling over North America in the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5)

    Yang Kam Wing, G.; Sushama, L.; Diro, G. T.


    This study investigates the intraannual variability of soil moisture-temperature coupling over North America. To this effect, coupled and uncoupled simulations are performed with the fifth-generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5), driven by ERA-Interim. In coupled simulations, land and atmosphere interact freely; in uncoupled simulations, the interannual variability of soil moisture is suppressed by prescribing climatological values for soil liquid and frozen water contents. The study also explores projected changes to coupling by comparing coupled and uncoupled CRCM5 simulations for current (1981-2010) and future (2071-2100) periods, driven by the Canadian Earth System Model. Coupling differs for the northern and southern parts of North America. Over the southern half, it is persistent throughout the year while for the northern half, strongly coupled regions generally follow the freezing line during the cold months. Detailed analysis of the southern Canadian Prairies reveals seasonal differences in the underlying coupling mechanism. During spring and fall, as opposed to summer, the interactive soil moisture phase impacts the snow depth and surface albedo, which further impacts the surface energy budget and thus the surface air temperature; the air temperature then influences the snow depth in a feedback loop. Projected changes to coupling are also season specific: relatively drier soil conditions strengthen coupling during summer, while changes in soil moisture phase, snow depth, and cloud cover impact coupling during colder months. Furthermore, results demonstrate that soil moisture variability amplifies the frequency of temperature extremes over regions of strong coupling in current and future climates.

  3. Crust structure of the Northern Margin of North China Craton and adjacent region from Sinoprobe-02 North China seismic WAR/R experiment

    Li, W.; Gao, R.; Keller, G. R.; Li, Q.; Cox, C. M.; Hou, H.; Guan, Y.


    The Central Asian Orogen Belt (CAOB) or Altaids, situated between the Siberian craton(SC) to the north and north China craton (NCC) with tarim to the south, is one of the world's largest accretionary orogens formed by subduction and accretion of juvenile material from the Neoproterozoic through the Paleozoic. The NCC is the oldest craton in China, which suffered Yanshan intercontinental orogenic process and lithosphere thinning in Mesozoic. In the past 20 years, remarkable studies about this region have been carried out and different tectonic models were proposed, however, some crucial geologic problems remain controversial. In order to obtain better knowledge of deep structure and properties of crust on the northern margin of north China craton, a 450 km long WAR/R section was completed jointly by Institute of Geology, CAGS and University of Oklahoma. Our 450 km long NW-SE WAR/R line extends from west end of the Yanshan orogen, across the Bainaimiao arc, Ondor sum subduction accretion complex to the Solonker suture zone. The recording of seismic waves from 8 explorations was conducted in 4 deployments of 300 reftek-125A records and single-channel 4.5Hz geophones with station spacing of 1km. The shooting procedure was employ 500 or 1500kg explosives in 4-5 or 15-23 boreholes at 40-45m depth. The sampling rate was 100 HZ, and recording time window was 1200s. The P wave field on the sections got high quality data for most part of the profile, but have low signal-to-noise for the south end, where closed to Beijing with a lot of ambient noise from traffic, industry and human activity. Arrivals from of refracted and reflected waves from sediments and basement (Pg), intracrust (Pcp, Plp) and Moho (Pmp) were typically observed, but Pn phase through the upper most mantle was only observed for 2 shots. Identification and correlation of seismic phases was done manually on computer screen Zplot software. Each trace has been bandpass filtered (1-20Hz) and normalized with AGC

  4. CCS in the North Sea region: A comparison on the cost-effectiveness of storing CO2 in the Utsira formation at regional and national scales

    Strachan, N.; Hoefnagels, R.; Ramirez, A.


    The potential scale of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) under long-term decarbonisation scenarios means that analysis on the contribution of large international CO2 storage reservoirs is critical. This paper compares the potentially key role of CCS within cost-optimizing energy systems...... modelling at the national level (ensuring country-specific technical, economic and policy detail), and the regional level (ensuring transboundary electricity and CO2 trade). Analysis at alternate model scales investigates the full range of drivers on the feasibility and trade-offs in using the Utsira...... formation as a common North Sea CO2 storage resource. A robust finding is that low carbon electricity is a primary decarbonisation pathway and that CCS plays a key role (32–40%) within this portfolio. This paper confirms that the overall driver of the amount of CCS utilized is the climate policy...

  5. Similarities and dissimilarities between the last two deglaciations and interglaciations in the North Atlantic region

    Martrat, Belen; Jimenez-Amat, Patricia; Zahn, Rainer; Grimalt, Joan O.


    Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) recorded by alkenones and oxygen isotopes in the Alboran basin are used here to describe, at an unprecedented fine temporal resolution, the present interglaciation (PIG, initiated at 11.7 ka BP), the last interglaciation (LIG, onset approximately at 129 ka) and respective deglaciations. Similarities and dissimilarities in the progression of these periods are reviewed in comparison with ice cores and stalagmites. Cold spells coeval with the Heinrich events (H) described in the North Atlantic include multi-decadal scale oscillations not previously obvious (up to 4 °C in less than eight centuries within the stadials associated with H1 and H11, ca 133 ka and 17 ka respectively). These abrupt oscillations precede the accumulation of organic rich layers deposited when perihelion moves from alignment with NH spring equinox to the summer solstice, a reference for deglaciations. Events observed during the last deglaciation at 17 ka, 14.8 ka and 11.7 ka are reminiscent of events occurred during the penultimate deglaciation at ca 136 ka, 132 ka and 129 ka, respectively. The SST trend during the PIG is no more than 2 °C (from 20 °C to 18 °C; up to -0.2 °C/ka). The trend is steeper during the LIG, i.e. up to a 5 °C change from the early interglaciation to immediately before the glacial inception (from 23 °C to 18 °C; up to -0.4 °C/ka). Events are superimposed upon a long term trend towards colder SSTs, beginning with SST maxima followed by temperate periods until perihelion aligned with the NH autumn equinox (before ca 5.3 ka for the PIG and 121 ka for the LIG). A cold spell of around eight centuries at 2.8 ka during the PIG was possibly mimicked during the LIG at ca 118 ka by a SST fall of around 1 °C in a millennium. These events led interglacial SST to stabilise at around 18 °C. The glacial inception, barely evident at the beginning ca 115 ka (North Atlantic event C25, after perihelion passage in the NH winter solstice), culminated

  6. Interactive lakes in the Canadian Regional Climate Model, version 5: the role of lakes in the regional climate of North America

    Bernard Dugas


    Full Text Available Two one-dimensional (1-D column lake models have been coupled interactively with a developmental version of the Canadian Regional Climate Model. Multidecadal reanalyses-driven simulations with and without lakes revealed the systematic biases of the model and the impact of lakes on the simulated North American climate.The presence of lakes strongly influences the climate of the lake-rich region of the Canadian Shield. Due to their large thermal inertia, lakes act to dampen the diurnal and seasonal cycle of low-level air temperature. In late autumn and winter, ice-free lakes induce large sensible and latent heat fluxes, resulting in a strong enhancement of precipitation downstream of the Laurentian Great Lakes, which is referred to as the snow belt.The FLake (FL and Hostetler (HL lake models perform adequately for small subgrid-scale lakes and for large resolved lakes with shallow depth, located in temperate or warm climatic regions. Both lake models exhibit specific strengths and weaknesses. For example, HL simulates too rapid spring warming and too warm surface temperature, especially in large and deep lakes; FL tends to damp the diurnal cycle of surface temperature. An adaptation of 1-D lake models might be required for an adequate simulation of large and deep lakes.

  7. Impact of marine mercury cycling on coastal atmospheric mercury concentrations in the North- and Baltic Sea region

    Johannes Bieser


    Full Text Available Abstract The cycling of mercury between ocean and atmosphere is an important part of the global Hg cycle. Here we study the regional contribution of the air-sea exchange in the North- and Baltic Sea region. We use a newly developed coupled regional chemistry transport modeling (CTM system to determine the flux between atmosphere and ocean based on the meteorological model COSMO-CLM, the ocean-ecosystem model ECOSMO, the atmospheric CTM CMAQ and a newly developed module for mercury partitioning and speciation in the ocean (MECOSMO. The model was evaluated using atmospheric observations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, surface concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM, and air-sea flux (ASF calculations based on observations made on seven cruises in the western and central Baltic Sea and three cruises in the North Sea performed between 1991 and 2006. It was shown that the model is in good agreement with observations: DGM (Normalized Mean Bias NMB=-0.27 N=413, ASF (NMB=-0.32, N=413, GEM (NMB=0.07, N=2359. Generally, the model was able to reproduce the seasonal DGM cycle with the best agreement during winter and autumn (NMBWinter=-0.26, NMBSpring=-0.41, NMBSummer=-0.29, NMBAutumn=-0.03. The modelled mercury evasion from the Baltic Sea ranged from 3400 to 4000 kg/a for the simulation period 1994–2007 which is on the lower end of previous estimates. Modelled atmospheric deposition, river inflow and air-sea exchange lead to an annual net Hg accumulation in the Baltic Sea of 500 to 1000 kg/a. For the North Sea the model calculates an annual mercury flux into the atmosphere between 5700 and 6000 kg/a. The mercury flux from the ocean influenced coastal atmospheric mercury concentrations. Running CMAQ coupled with the ocean model lead to better agreement with GEM observations. Directly at the coast GEM concentrations could be increased by up to 10% on annual average and observed peaks could be reproduced much better. At stations 100km downwind

  8. Wei Man is a Chinese, not a Korean%论卫满是中国人而非朝鲜人



    In BC194, WeiMan,a rebel in Yan region ,escaped to Korea and came to the throne in the locality. Jin Zhenpei,a scholor of RK, considers the majority of people in Yan region belong to the Mo nation, Which is one of ancient nations evolving to Korean;then Jin concludes WeiMan belongs to "Korean system". This thesis retorts his opinion. Indeed, the Mo nation is one of nations hich had evolved to Korean,but the great majority of them in China had fused into Various nations of north China and become the ingredient of the Chinese natioin.It's erroneous to identify the Mo nation with "Korean system".No matter whether WeiMan and Yan's refugees belong to the Mo nation or not,they are Chinese. It can' t be denied that WeiMan Korea contained Chinese constituent.%本文就韩国学者金贞培在其《韩国民族的文化和起源》一书中关于因燕国境内多为貊族,从而认定卫满及燕满亡民为"朝鲜人系统"的观点展开论述。本文认为民族是一个历史的范畴,许多古代民族不断分化融合到其他民族中去,并成为这其他民族不可分割的一部份,因而将貊族完全认为"朝鲜人系统"是错误的。无论卫满和燕满是不是貊族,他们都是中国人;卫满朝鲜的成份是不容否认的。

  9. Economic Opening of the Hermit Kingdom: Current Status and Future Tasks of the New SEZs in North Korea

    Jong-Woon Lee


    Full Text Available Establishing new SEZs, along with improving foreign relationships, is treated as the most important policy measure for opening the North Korean economy. Recently, North Korea has shown its interest in promoting two new SEZs, the Gaeseong industrial park and the Shinuiju special administrative region. Thanks to their locational merits, Gaeseong and Shinuiju have the potential to develop into thriving SEZs through subregional economic cooperation with bordering areas. Although the path toward success for North Korea's new SEZs is full of hurdles, it would result in a major boost to the country's economic rehabilitation and create a spillover effect for the rest of North Korea. In this context, this article examines the issues regarding North Korea's new special economic zones. It presents the recent progress and institutional arrangements of the Shinuiju SEZ and Gaeseong industrial park, while also exploring their potential to facilitate North Korea's economic rehabilitation and inter-Korean cooperation. This article also endeavors to address major problems that North Korea needs to resolve in order to activate its new SEZs.

  10. Prevalence of trachoma in the north region of Cameroon: results of a survey in 15 health districts.

    Blaise Noa Noatina


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To estimate the prevalence of trachoma in the North Region of Cameroon in order to facilitate the planning of trachoma control activities in this region, a survey was carried out in 2011 and 2012 in 15 health districts (HDs. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional, two-stage cluster random sampling survey was carried out. The survey focused on two target populations: children aged 1 to 9 years for the prevalence of Trachomatous Inflammation-Follicular (TF and those aged 15 and over for the prevalence of Trachomatous Trichiasis (TT. The sample frame was an exhaustive list of villages and neighborhoods of HDs. The World Health Organization simplified trachoma grading system was used for the recognition and registration of cases of trachoma. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 30,562 children aged 1 to 9 years and 24,864 people aged 15 and above were examined. In children aged 1-9 years, the overall prevalence of TF was 4.2% (95% confidence intervals (CI: 4.0-4.5%. Three (3 of 15 HDs in the region showed TF prevalence of ≥ 10% (Poli, Rey Bouba, and Tcholliré. The overall TT prevalence was 0.25% (95% CI: 0.20-0.33%. There were estimated 1265 TT cases in the region. The prevalence of blindness was 0.01% (95% CI: 0.00-0.03%, low vision was 0.11% (95% CI: 0.07-0.17%, and corneal opacity was 0.22% (95% CI: 0.17-0.29%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This survey provides baseline data for the planning of activities to control trachoma in the region. The overall prevalence of TF in the region is 4.2%, and that of TT is 0.2%; three HDs have a TF prevalence ≥ 10%. These three HDs are eligible for mass drug administration with azythromycin, along with the implementation of the "F" and "E" components of the SAFE strategy.

  11. Diffuse nutrient losses and the impact factors determining their regional differences in four catchments from North to South China

    Zhang, Yongyong; Zhou, Yujian; Shao, Quanxi; Liu, Hongbin; Lei, Qiuliang; Zhai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xuelei


    Diffuse nutrient loss mechanism is complicated and shows remarkably regional differences due to spatial heterogeneities of underlying surface conditions, climate and agricultural practices. Moreover, current available observations are still hard to support the identification of impact factors due to different time or space steps. In this study, an integrated water system model (HEQM) was adopted to obtain the simulated loads of diffuse components (carriers: runoff and sediment; nutrient: total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP)) with synchronous scales. Multivariable statistical analysis approaches (Analysis of Similarity and redundancy analysis) were used to assess the regional differences, and to identify impact factors as well as their contributions. Four catchments were selected as our study areas, i.e., Xiahui and Zhangjiafen Catchments of Miyun Basin in North China, Yuliang and Tunxi Catchments of Xin'anjiang Basin in South China. Results showed that the model performances of monthly processes were very good for runoff and good for sediment, TN and TP. The annual average coefficients of all the diffuse components in Xin'anjiang Basin were much greater than those in Miyun Basin, and showed significantly regional differences. All the selected impact factors interpreted 72.87-82.16% of the regional differences of carriers, and 62.72-71.62% of those of nutrient coefficients, respectively. For individual impact factor categories, the critical category was geography, followed by land-use/cover, carriers, climate, as well as soil and agricultural practices in Miyun Basin, or agricultural practices and soil in Xin'anjiang Basin. For individual factors, the critical factors were locations for the carrier regional differences, and carriers or chemical fertilizer for the nutrient regional differences. This study is expected to promote further applications of integrated water system model and multivariable statistical analysis in the diffuse nutrient studies, and

  12. Characterization of the Morphometry of Impact Craters Hosting Polar Deposits in Mercury's North Polar Region

    Talpe Matthieu; Zuber, Maria T.; Yang, Di; Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Mazarico, Erwan; Vilas, Faith


    Earth-based radar images of Mercury show radar-bright material inside impact craters near the planet s poles. A previous study indicated that the polar-deposit-hosting craters (PDCs) at Mercury s north pole are shallower than craters that lack such deposits. We use data acquired by the Mercury Laser Altimeter on the MESSENGER spacecraft during 11 months of orbital observations to revisit the depths of craters at high northern latitudes on Mercury. We measured the depth and diameter of 537 craters located poleward of 45 N, evaluated the slopes of the northern and southern walls of 30 PDCs, and assessed the floor roughness of 94 craters, including nine PDCs. We find that the PDCs appear to have a fresher crater morphology than the non-PDCs and that the radar-bright material has no detectable influence on crater depths, wall slopes, or floor roughness. The statistical similarity of crater depth-diameter relations for the PDC and non-PDC populations places an upper limit on the thickness of the radar-bright material (< 170 m for a crater 11 km in diameter) that can be refined by future detailed analysis. Results of the current study are consistent with the view that the radar-bright material constitutes a relatively thin layer emplaced preferentially in comparatively young craters.

  13. Neonatal tetanus mortality survey, north and south Omo administrative regions, Ethiopia.

    Alemu, W


    Neonatal tetanus (NNT) is the second most frequent cause of infant mortality among the six vaccine preventable infections in developing countries. However, lack of reliable data has largely obscured the importance of the problem in these countries. A community based NNT mortality survey was conducted, using cluster sample method developed by WHO/EPI, in August 1989 in North and South Omo, Ethiopia. The study found 14 neonatal tetanus deaths among 2100 live births which occurred from 15 July 1988 to 15 July 1989, giving NNT mortality rate of 6.7/1000 LB (live births) and an estimated incidence rate of 8.4/1000 LB, accounting for 40% of all neonatal deaths. Male newborns were 2.5 times more commonly affected than females. Cutting of umbilical cord with unsterile instrument, home delivery attended by untrained TBAs, and lack of adequate tetanus TT immunization were found to be associated with increased incidence of NNT. Acceleration and promotion of TT immunization of all women of child bearing age and training of TBAs in proper obstetric care, coupled with continuous supportive supervision, is recommended in order to successfully execute the NNT elimination initiative undertaken by the Ministry of Health.

  14. Community-wide outbreak of Neisseria gonorrhoeae conjunctivitis in Konso district, North Omo administrative region.

    Mikru, F S; Molla, T; Ersumo, M; Henriksen, T H; Klungseyr, P; Hudson, P J; Kindan, T T


    We describe a large outbreak of severe pustular conjunctivitis due to Neiserria gonorrhoeae. Over 9,000 cases occurred during 8 months in 1987-1988 in one district in North Omo, Ethiopia. Both sexes and all age groups were affected, particularly children under 5 years of age; only a small minority were neonates. Despite a highly successful cure rate for individual cases, the outbreak continued for a number of months. Several epidemiologic approaches were used to monitor the outbreak and identify the mechanism of transmission. The epidemic curve suggested person-to-person transmission. Routine surveillance data showed that there was no concurrent genital gonorrhea outbreak and genital transmission could not explain a community-wide outbreak. In the setting of intense crowding and relative lack of water, peak transmission of illness coincided with two periods following the rains, suggesting that flies were important in transmission. A case-control study identified lack of face-washing as a household risk factor. Eighty seven of one-hundred and forty six (59%) control houses with children were judged to contain children with clean faces, while only 102 of 216 (47%) case households contained children with clean faces (p less than .05). Our recommendations include measures to improve personal hygiene.

  15. Modeling study of the 2010 regional haze event in the North China Plain

    M. Gao


    Full Text Available The online coupled Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem model was applied to simulate a haze event that happened in January 2010 in the North China Plain (NCP, and was validated against various types of measurements. The evaluations indicate that WRF-Chem provides reliable simulations for the 2010 haze event in the NCP. This haze event is mainly caused by high emissions of air pollutants in the NCP and stable weather conditions in winter. Secondary inorganic aerosols also played an important role and cloud chemistry had important contributions. Air pollutants outside Beijing contributed about 47.8 % to the PM2.5 levels in Beijing during this haze event, and most of them are from south Hebei, Shandong and Henan provinces. In addition, aerosol feedback has important impacts on surface temperature, Relative Humidity (RH and wind speeds, and these meteorological variables affect aerosol distribution and formation in turn. In Shijiazhuang, Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL decreased about 300 m and PM2.5 increased more than 20 μg m-3 due to aerosol feedback. Feedbacks associated to Black Carbon (BC account for about 50 % of the PM2.5 increases and 50 % of the PBL decreases in Shijiazhuang, indicating more attention should be paid to BC from both air pollution control and climate change perspectives.

  16. Modeling study of the 2010 regional haze event in the North China Plain

    Gao, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Wang, Y.; Saide, P. E.; Yu, M.; Xin, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, Z.


    The online coupled Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was applied to simulate a haze event that happened in January 2010 in the North China Plain (NCP), and was validated against various types of measurements. The evaluations indicate that WRF-Chem provides reliable simulations for the 2010 haze event in the NCP. This haze event was mainly caused by high emissions of air pollutants in the NCP and stable weather conditions in winter. Secondary inorganic aerosols also played an important role and cloud chemistry had important contributions. Air pollutants outside Beijing contributed about 64.5 % to the PM2.5 levels in Beijing during this haze event, and most of them are from south Hebei, Tianjin city, Shandong and Henan provinces. In addition, aerosol feedback has important impacts on surface temperature, relative humidity (RH) and wind speeds, and these meteorological variables affect aerosol distribution and formation in turn. In Shijiazhuang, Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) decreased about 278.2 m and PM2.5 increased more than 20 µg m-3 due to aerosol feedback. It was also shown that black carbon (BC) absorption has significant impacts on meteorology and air quality changes, indicating more attention should be paid to BC from both air pollution control and climate change perspectives.

  17. Long-term seismicity of the Reykjanes Ridge (North Atlantic) recorded by a regional hydrophone array

    Goslin, Jean; Lourenço, Nuno; Dziak, Robert P.; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Haxel, Joe; Luis, Joaquim


    The seismicity of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge was recorded by two hydrophone networks moored in the sound fixing and ranging (SOFAR) channel, on the flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, north and south of the Azores. During its period of operation (05/2002-09/2003), the northern `SIRENA' network, deployed between latitudes 40° 20'N and 50° 30'N, recorded acoustic signals generated by 809 earthquakes on the hotspot-influenced Reykjanes Ridge. This activity was distributed between five spatio-temporal event clusters, each initiated by a moderate-to-large magnitude (4.0-5.6 M) earthquake. The rate of earthquake occurrence within the initial portion of the largest sequence (which began on 2002 October 6) is described adequately by a modified Omori law aftershock model. Although this is consistent with triggering by tectonic processes, none of the Reykjanes Ridge sequences are dominated by a single large-magnitude earthquake, and they appear to be of relatively short duration (0.35-4.5 d) when compared to previously described mid-ocean ridge aftershock sequences. The occurrence of several near-equal magnitude events distributed throughout each sequence is inconsistent with the simple relaxation of mainshock-induced stresses and may reflect the involvement of magmatic or fluid processes along this deep (>2000 m) section of the Reykjanes Ridge.

  18. Bio-optical characterization in an ultra-oligotrophic region: the North central Red Sea

    Kheireddine, Malika


    Until recently, satellite-derived ocean color observations have been the only means of evaluating optical variability of the Red Sea. During a cruise in autumn 2014, we investigated the variability of Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) in the North Central Red Sea (NCRS) with a particular focus on the particulate backscattering coefficient, bbp, and colored dissolved organic matter, CDOM, absorption. To our knowledge, these are some of the measurements of these properties in the Red Sea. The IOPs are derived from the concentration and physical properties of suspended particles in the ocean. They provide a simple description of the influence of these particles on the light within the water column. Bio-optical relationships found for ultra-oligotrophic waters of the six stations sampled significantly depart from the mean standard relationships provided for the global ocean, showing the peculiar character of the Red Sea. These optical anomalies relate to the specific biological and environmental conditions occurring in the Red Sea ecosystem. Specifically, the surface specific phytoplankton absorption coefficients are lower than the values predicted from the global relationships due to a high proportion of relatively large sized phytoplankton. Conversely, bbp values are much higher than the mean standard values for a given chlorophyll-a concentration, Chl a. This presumably results from the influence of highly refractive submicrometer particles of Saharan origin in the surface layer of the water column.

  19. Regional Studies Program. Extraction of North Dakota lignite: environmental and reclamation issues

    LaFevers, J.R.; Johnson, D.O.; Dvorak, A.J.


    This study, sponsored by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, addresses the environmental implications of extraction of coal in North Dakota. These implications are supported by details of the geologic and historical background of the area of focus, the lignite resources in the Fort Union coalfield portion. The particular concentration is on the four-county area of Mercer, Dunn, McLean, and Oliver where substantial coal reserves exist and a potential gasification plant site has been identified. The purposes of this extensive study are to identify the land use and environmental problems and issues associated with extraction; to provide a base of information for assessing the impacts of various levels of extraction; to examine the economics and feasibility of reclamation; and to identify research that needs to be undertaken to evaluate and to improve reclamation practices. The study also includes a description of the physical and chemical soil characteristics and hydrological and climatic factors entailed in extraction, revegetation, and reclamation procedures.

  20. Establishing a deceased donor program in north Indian region: lessons learnt.

    Gupta, Vivek; Chandra, Abhijit; Rahul; Singh, Manmeet; Shrivastava, Peeyush Kumar; Singhai, Atin; Ojha, Bal Krishna; Chandra, Girish; Khan, Mohammed Parvez; Pandey, Sant; Kant, Ravi


    Living-related donors are the source of almost all organ transplants in India. However, these donations fall far short of current needs, and there remains a huge disparity between demand and supply of organs. In the last five yr, a consistent increase in deceased donor transplant activity has been observed in some southern Indian states. This report describes our experience of establishing a new deceased donor program in the state of Uttar Pradesh in north India. We describe our experience on counseling families of all brain-dead patients admitted to our center from October 2013 to September 2014 and data on retrieving and transplanting organs. A total of 99 brain-dead patients were identified, of which 67 were medically eligible as donors. Fourteen patients developed cardiac arrest before the counseling could begin. Only eight families agreed for multi-organ donation. Lack of consensus among the family members, mistrust of the medical system, fear of mutilation of the body, and delay in the funeral were identified as the main reasons behind negative consent. Conversely, mass media campaign, proper ICU care of brain-dead patients, rapport with the family and streamlining all medico legal processes were associated with positive consent. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    Belkacem BOUMARAF


    Full Text Available This study is a first in a Saharan region. Following a collaboration between soil scientists and geomorphologists a geomorphological mapping was realized. This work aims to understand the evolution of Saharan soils .The result we obtained demonstrated the presence of five geomorphological soil level. Each level and defined as soil with special chemical, physical and genetic characteristic.

  2. 76 FR 58569 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Dakota; Regional Haze State...


    ... to non-selective catalytic reduction. (xl) The initials ECO mean or refer to electro-catalytic... deciview is a useful measure for tracking progress in improving visibility, because each deciview change is...), defining baseline, current, and natural conditions, and tracking changes in visibility. The Regional...

  3. Regionalism in East Asia: The Role of North East Asian Nations

    Fithra F. Hastiadi


    Full Text Available Problem statement: For the past few years, regionalism has been progressing in East Asia with the likes of China, Japan and Korea (CJK as the most prominent actors. Unfortunately, with the absence of trade arrangement amongst the CJK, the present regional trade scheme is not sufficient to reach sustainability. Thus, the study aims to give the solution to the problem. This study found the inefficient trade scheme through Engle-Granger Cointegration and Error Correction Mechanism. Two Stage Least Squares in a static panel fixed effect model were also employed to proof the spill-over effect. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study underlines the importance of triangular trade agreement for accelerating the phase of growth in CJK which eventually created a spillover effect to East Asia as a whole. Moreover, the study argued that the spillover effect would function as an impetus for creating region-wide FTA. Furthermore, the study also identified a number of economic and political factors that can support the formation of East Asian Regionalism.

  4. The stage of the waste integrated management in the counties of 6 North – West Region



    Full Text Available The stage of the objectives suggested by the regional environment policy with the aim of implementation ofseveral integrated systems of waste management is analyzed in this paper. The domestic waste managementrepresents a problem for any community in the context of alignement to the European requirements.

  5. Toward a Sustainable Society in the Mena (Middle East and North Africa) Region: Roadmap and Priorities

    El-Bassiouny, Noha


    The Business and Society Research Cluster (BSRC) at the German University in Cairo, the El-Khazindar Business Research and Case Center at the American University in Cairo and Misr El-Kheir (MEK) Foundation, Egypt, hosted the region's first sustainability and corporate social responsibility (CSR) case studies conference, entitled "Toward a…

  6. AMS {sup 14}C dating of early Anasazi petroglyphs from the North American southwest desert region

    Beck, W.; Donahue, D.; Burr, G.; Jull, A.J.T. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics


    Full text: Since it was first developed in the early 1980`s, direct dating of rock surfaces by AMS radiocarbon analysis has become an integral tool in the fields of geomorphology and archaeology. Recently, the AMS Laboratory at the University of Arizona has become directly involved in a series of measurements in an attempt to determine the age of the petroglyphs found in the Petrified Forest region of NE Arizona, in the American Southwest. There are several generations of these petroglyphs, the most recent of these have been ascribed to the so-called Pueblo Indians which lived in this region between 700-1450 AD. Three earlier epochs of petroglyph makers also inhabited this region which have been grouped into the Basketmaker, Archaic, and Paleo-Indian periods. This original focus of this study was an attempt to identify the timing of development of the Paleo-Indian and Archaic Indian styles of petroglyphs from this region using AMS {sup 14}C measurements. Microscopic examination of samples from these petroglyphs, showed that the samples contained two types of black, carbon-rich materials with distinctly different visual properties. Detailed examination of these particles reveal that one type strongly resembles finely ground bituminous coal, whereas the other strongly resembles ground pyrolized wood. Subsequent measurements of the radiocarbon contents of separated fractions of the two types of materials have shown that they have widely differing radiocarbon ages. In such cases, the radiocarbon age of the entire sample would yield results which are, at best, ambiguous.

  7. Climatic Cycles and Gradients of the El Niño Core Region in North Peru

    Rütger Rollenbeck


    Full Text Available Climatic processes in northern Peru are evaluated on surface observation independent of modelling studies. The region is characterized by regular oscillations, but episodic El Niño-events introduce strong disturbances. Conceptual models based on observations, remote sensing data, and output of regional climate models are compared with data from a new station network. The results show regular oscillations of all climate variables on the annual and daily time scale. The daily cycle is probably associated with thermotidal forcings, causing gravity waves to emanate from the Andes Cordillera. Main factors are the interaction of large scale pressure systems like the Southeast Pacific High and the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ. Also, there are regional factors: an extended sea-breeze system, the barrier-effect of the Andes, additional energy input by elevated radiation absorption at the mountain slopes, local wind systems, and the variations of the sea surface temperature. At the coast, a low-level jet works as a thermodynamic energy sink, suppressing deep convection and supporting the aridity. Those patterns are found in most of the station data and the processes of this climate can generally be confirmed. The overturning of this stable system with the onset of El Niño-conditions is possibly caused by disruptions of the regional circulation.

  8. Patterns of citation when Korean scientists cite other Korean scientists

    Yeonok Chung


    Full Text Available Citation patterns of Korean scientists are investigated by analyzing the references of the papers authored by Korean chemists and published in two journals of different standing. Particular interest is given to how frequently Korean researchers quote the papers written by other Korean researchers and whether there is any difference in the citation pattern when Korean researchers publish their papers in a top international journal or in a domestic journal. Two journals in the category of multidisciplinary chemistry, the Journal of the American Chemical Society and the Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society, are chosen and a detailed analysis of the references of the papers written by Korean authors in 2015 was performed. The author self-citation rate is found to be much larger than the citation rate of other Korean authors. It is also found that the percentage of self-citations and the percentage of the references by Korean authors excluding self-citations are both significantly larger in the Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society than in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. Interpretations of the results based on social exchange theory are proposed.

  9. Human Resource Management Practice in Senior High Schools in the Akwapim North District in the Eastern Region of Ghana

    Ernest Fianko Quartey


    Full Text Available The study examined the Human Resource Management practices in the Senior High Schools in the Akwapim North District in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Areas examined include recruitment and selection, induction, training and development and supervision. The main purpose of the study was to find out the nature and impact of Human Resource Management practices in the Senior High schools in the Akwapim North District. The study population comprised all teachers, schools heads, assistant school heads and four front-line Directors of Education in the District. In all, a sample size of three hundred and twenty respondents was used for the study. A questionnaire and an interview guide were used to collect the data for the study. The study revealed among other things that a large majority of the respondents were of the view that orientation should be organized for teachers when appointed to teach in the schools. In-service training workshops should also be organized for teachers from time to time to upgrade their skills and knowledge. Based on the findings of the study it was recommended that greater emphasis should be placed on the upgrading of skills and knowledge of teachers through regular training, orientation and development programmes.

  10. Hydrogeology of the cave Vetrovna jama in karst aquifer north from Planinsko polje (Notranjska region, central Slovenia

    Franci Gabrovšek


    Full Text Available For one year we have been measuring level and temperature of underground water in Vetrovna jama, to find outthe origin of underground water and hydraulic characteristics of the cave and karst aquifer north east of Planinsko polje (karst of Notranjska region, central Slovenia. Similar parameters as in Vetrovna jama were measured also at the Unica River and at the Cerknica Lake. Cave is located only 2.7 km north from the polje and is fed by the Unica River, according to measurements. But in contrast with our expectations, we did not directly detect undergroundwater flow, which drains from the Cerknica Lake. Hydrographs measured in Vetrovna jama were compared with those measured in some other caves within the aquifer. Hydrographs from Vetrovna jama are only partly comparablewith hydrographs obtained in other monitored caves, as comparison shows no statistical significant correlation.Final conclusion would be that drainage of water between “eastern” and “western” part of karst aquifer islimited. More over, out flow from Vetrovna jama strongly depends on local hydrogeological restriction, such as supposedrockfall under Laška kukava collapse doline.

  11. Dust continuum and Polarization from Envelope to Cores in Star Formation: A Case Study in the W51 North region

    Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M; Guilloteau, Stephane; Dutrey, Anne


    We present the first high-angular resolution (up to 0.7", ~5000 AU) polarization and thermal dust continuum images toward the massive star-forming region W51 North. The observations were carried out with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) in both the subcompact (SMA-SubC) and extended (SMA-Ext) configurations at a wavelength of 870 micron. W51 North is resolved into four cores (SMA1 to SMA4) in the 870 micron continuum image. The associated dust polarization exhibits more complex structures than seen at lower angular resolution. We analyze the inferred morphologies of the plane-of-sky magnetic field (B_bot) in the SMA1 to SMA4 cores and in the envelope using the SMA-Ext and SMA-SubC data. These results are compared with the B_bot archive images obtained from the CSO and JCMT. A correlation between dust intensity gradient position angles (phi_{nabla I}) and magnetic field position angles (phi_B) is found in the CSO, JCMT and both SMA data sets. This correlation is further analyzed quantitatively. A systematically t...

  12. Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3): North polar region (MC-1) distribution, applications, and volume estimates

    Hayward, R.K.


    The Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3) now extends from 90??N to 65??S. The recently released north polar portion (MC-1) of MGD3 adds ~844 000km2 of moderate- to large-size dark dunes to the previously released equatorial portion (MC-2 to MC-29) of the database. The database, available in GIS- and tabular-format in USGS Open-File Reports, makes it possible to examine global dune distribution patterns and to compare dunes with other global data sets (e.g. atmospheric models). MGD3 can also be used by researchers to identify areas suitable for more focused studies. The utility of MGD3 is demonstrated through three example applications. First, the uneven geographic distribution of the dunes is discussed and described. Second, dune-derived wind direction and its role as ground truth for atmospheric models is reviewed. Comparisons between dune-derived winds and global and mesoscale atmospheric models suggest that local topography may have an important influence on dune-forming winds. Third, the methods used here to estimate north polar dune volume are presented and these methods and estimates (1130km3 to 3250km3) are compared with those of previous researchers (1158km3 to 15 000km3). In the near future, MGD3 will be extended to include the south polar region. ?? 2011 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  13. Prevalence of trachoma in the Far North region of Cameroon: results of a survey in 27 Health Districts.

    Blaise Noa Noatina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cameroon is known to be endemic with trachoma. To appreciate the burden of the disease and facilitate the national planning of trachoma control in the integrated control program for the neglected tropical diseases, an epidemiological mapping of trachoma was conducted in the Far North region in 2010-11. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional, cluster random sampling survey was carried out. The survey focused on two target populations: children aged 1 to 9 years for the prevalence of active trachoma and those aged 15 and over for the prevalence of trichiasis (TT. The sample frame was an exhaustive list of villages and neighborhoods of Health Districts (HDs. The World Health Organization simplified trachoma grading system was used for the recognition and registration of cases of trachoma. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 48,844 children aged 1 to 9 years and 41,533 people aged 15 and over were examined. In children aged 1-9 years, the overall prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF was 11.2% (95% confidence intervals (CI: 11.0-11.5%. More girls were affected than boys (p = 0.003. Thirteen (13 of 27 HDs in the region showed TF prevalence of ≥10%. The overall TT prevalence was 1.0% (95% CI: 0.9-1.1%. There were estimated 17193 (95% CI: 12576-25860 TT cases in the region. The prevalence of blindness was 0.04% (95% CI: 0.03-0.07% and visual impairment was 0.09% (95% CI: 0.07-0.13%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The survey confirmed that trachoma is a public health problem in the Far North region with 13 HDs qualified for district-level mass drug administration with azithromycin. It provided a foundation for the national program to plan and implement the SAFE strategy in the region. Effort must be made to find resources to provide the surgical operations to the 17193 TT cases and prevent them from becoming blind.

  14. Regional summer cooling from agricultural management practices that conserve soil carbon in the northern North American Great Plains

    Stoy, Paul; Bromley, Gabriel; Gerken, Tobias; Tang, Angela; Morgan, Mallory; Wood, David; Ahmed, Selena; Bauer, Brad; Brookshire, Jack; Haggerty, Julia; Jarchow, Meghann; Miller, Perry; Peyton, Brent; Rashford, Ben; Spangler, Lee; Swanson, David; Taylor, Suzi; Poulter, Ben


    Conserving soil carbon resources while transitioning to a C negative economy is imperative for meeting global climate targets, and can also have critical but under-investigated regional effects. Parts of the North American northern Great Plains have experienced a remarkable 6 W m-2 decrease in summertime radiative forcing since the 1970s. Extreme temperature events now occur less frequently, maximum temperatures have decreased by some 2 ˚ C, and precipitation has increased by 10 mm per decade in some areas. This regional trend toward a cooler and wetter summer climate has coincided with changes in agricultural management. Namely, the practice of keeping fields fallow during summer (hereafter 'summerfallow') has declined by some 23 Mha from the 1970s until the present in the Canadian Prairie Provinces and across the U.S., an area of similar size to the United Kingdom. In addition to potential climate impacts, replacing summerfallow with no-till cropping systems results in lesser soil carbon losses - or even gains - and usually confers economic benefits. In other words, replacing summerfallow with no-till cropping may have resulted in a 'win-win-win' scenario for regional climate, soil carbon conservation, and farm-scale economics. The interaction between carbon, climate, and the economy in this region - and the precise domain that has experienced cooling - are still unknown, which limits our ability to forecast coupled carbon, climate, and human dynamics. Here, we use eddy covariance measurements to demonstrate that summerfallow results in carbon losses during the growing season of the same magnitude as carbon uptake by winter and spring wheat, on the order of 100 - 200 g C m-2 per growing season. We use eddy covariance energy flux measurements to model atmospheric boundary layer and lifted condensation level heights to demonstrate that observed regional changes in near-surface humidity (of up to 7%) are necessary to simulate observed increases in convective

  15. Assessment of conceptual model uncertainty for the regional aquifer Pampa del Tamarugal – North Chile

    R. Rojas


    Full Text Available In this work we assess the uncertainty in modelling the groundwater flow for the Pampa del Tamarugal Aquifer (PTA – North Chile using a novel and fully integrated multi-model approach aimed at explicitly accounting for uncertainties arising from the definition of alternative conceptual models. The approach integrates the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA methods. For each member of an ensemble M of potential conceptualizations, model weights used in BMA for multi-model aggregation are obtained from GLUE-based likelihood values. These model weights are based on model performance, thus, reflecting how well a conceptualization reproduces an observed dataset D. GLUE-based cumulative predictive distributions for each member of M are then aggregated obtaining predictive distributions accounting for conceptual model uncertainties. For the PTA we propose an ensemble of eight alternative conceptualizations covering all major features of groundwater flow models independently developed in past studies and including two recharge mechanisms which have been source of debate for several years. Results showed that accounting for heterogeneities in the hydraulic conductivity field (a reduced the uncertainty in the estimations of parameters and state variables, and (b increased the corresponding model weights used for multi-model aggregation. This was more noticeable when the hydraulic conductivity field was conditioned on available hydraulic conductivity measurements. Contribution of conceptual model uncertainty to the predictive uncertainty varied between 6% and 64% for ground water head estimations and between 16% and 79% for ground water flow estimations. These results clearly illustrate the relevance of conceptual model uncertainty.

  16. Assessment of conceptual model uncertainty for the regional aquifer Pampa del Tamarugal – North Chile

    R. Rojas


    Full Text Available In this work we assess the uncertainty in modelling the groundwater flow for the Pampa del Tamarugal Aquifer (PTA – North Chile using a novel and fully integrated multi-model approach aimed at explicitly accounting for uncertainties arising from the definition of alternative conceptual models. The approach integrates the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA methods. For each member of an ensemble M of potential conceptualizations, model weights used in BMA for multi-model aggregation are obtained from GLUE-based likelihood values. These model weights are based on model performance, thus, reflecting how well a conceptualization reproduces an observed dataset D. GLUE-based cumulative predictive distributions for each member of M are then aggregated obtaining predictive distributions accounting for conceptual model uncertainties. For the PTA we propose an ensemble of eight alternative conceptualizations covering all major features of groundwater flow models independently developed in past studies and including two recharge mechanisms which have been source of debate for several years. Results showed that accounting for heterogeneities in the hydraulic conductivity field (a reduced the uncertainty in the estimations of parameters and state variables, and (b increased the corresponding model weights used for multi-model aggregation. This was more noticeable when the hydraulic conductivity field was conditioned on available hydraulic conductivity measurements. Contribution of conceptual model uncertainty to the predictive uncertainty varied between 6% and 64% for ground water head estimations and between 16% and 79% for ground water flow estimations. These results clearly illustrate the relevance of conceptual model uncertainty.

  17. Virtual industrial water usage and wastewater generation in the Middle East/North African region

    S. R. Sakhel


    Full Text Available This study deals with the quantification of volumes of water usage, wastewater generation, virtual water export, and wastewater generation from export for eight export relevant industries present in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA. It shows that about 3400 million m3 of water is used per annum while around 793 million m3 of wastewater is generated from products that are meant for domestic consumption and export. The difference between volumes of water usage and wastewater generation is due to water evaporation or injecting underground (oil wells pressure maintenance. The wastewater volume generated from production represents a population equivalent of 15.5 million in terms of wastewater quantity and 30.4 million in terms of BOD. About 409 million m3 of virtual water flows from MENA to EU27 (resulting from export of eight commodities which is equivalent to 12.1% of the water usage of those industries and Libya is the largest virtual water exporter (about 87 million m3. Crude oil and refined petroleum products represent about 89% of the total virtual water flow, fertilizers represent around 10% and 1% remaining industries. EU27 poses the greatest indirect pressure on the Kuwaiti hydrological system where the virtual water export represents about 96% of the actual renewable water resources in this country. The Kuwaiti crude oil water use in relation to domestic water withdrawal is about 89% which is highest among MENA countries. Pollution of water bodies, in terms of BOD, due to production is very relevant for crude oil, slaughterhouses, refineries, olive oil, and tanneries while pollution due to export to EU27 is most relevant for crude oil industry and olive oil mills.

  18. North-South differentiation and a region of high diversity in European wolves (Canis lupus).

    Stronen, Astrid V; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Pertoldi, Cino; Demontis, Ditte; Randi, Ettore; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Pilot, Małgorzata; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Dykyy, Ihor; Kusak, Josip; Tsingarska, Elena; Kojola, Ilpo; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A; Ornicans, Aivars; Lobkov, Vladimir A; Dumenko, Vitalii; Czarnomska, Sylwia D


    European wolves (Canis lupus) show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan) differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan) in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part.

  19. North-South differentiation and a region of high diversity in European wolves (Canis lupus.

    Astrid V Stronen

    Full Text Available European wolves (Canis lupus show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part.

  20. Identification of new cytotypes of Valeriana jatamansi Jones, 1970 (Valerianaceae) from North-Western Himalayan region of India.

    Rani, Savita; Sharma, Tilak Raj; Kapila, Rakesh; Chahota, Rakesh Kumar


    Valeriana jatamansi, a medicinally important species of the family Valerianaceae, has been cytologically studied in different geographical areas of North-Western Himalayan region of India. The tetraploid cytotype with chromosome numbers 2n=32 is in conformity with the earlier reports of the species from different parts of the world. An octoploid cytotype (2n=64) makes a new addition for the species on a worldwide basis, whereas the diploid cytotype (2n=16) is new to India have been reported for the first time in India. These cytotypes (2n=16, 32, 64) show significant variations with respect to morphology as well as geographical distribution in the Western Indian Himalayas. Further, anomalous populations have been marked with meiotic abnormalities in the form of cytomixis, chromosomal stickiness, unoriented bivalents, formation of laggards and bridges resulting in abnormal microsporogenesis, and production of heterogeneous-sized fertile pollen grains along with reduced pollen fertility.