WorldWideScience

Sample records for regional transport sector

  1. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  2. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  3. Differences in regional emissions in China's transport sector: Determinants and reduction strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bin; Lin, Boqiang

    2016-01-01

    With recent surge in the number of vehicles, particularly private vehicles, the transport sector has significantly contributed to the increase in energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in China. Most of the existing researches utilized time series data to investigate the factors influencing transport sector's carbon dioxide emission at the national level while neglecting the level of regional differences. This paper adopts provincial panel data from 2000 to 2012 and panel data models to examine the key driving forces of carbon dioxide emissions in the transport sector at the regional level in China. The estimation results show that the impacts of urbanization on carbon dioxide emissions in the transport sector vary across regions and decline continuously from the western region to the eastern and central regions. Private vehicles are more important than cargo turnover in emission reduction because of its relatively inefficient and excessive growth. The role of energy efficiency improvement in mitigating carbon dioxide emissions in the three regions varies due to significant differences in research and development investment and management efficiency. Hence, in order to effectively achieve emission reduction, local governments should consider all these factors as well as regional heterogeneity in developing appropriate mitigation policies. - Highlights: • The factors of carbon dioxide emissions in China's transport sector were explored. • The impact of urbanization on carbon dioxide emissions varies across regions. • Private vehicles are more critical than cargo turnover in emission reduction. • The role of energy efficiency in the three regions is exactly the opposite.

  4. Innovation performance of the transport sector at regional level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, J.W.; Louw, E.

    2014-01-01

    Transport is a key enabler of economic and social activity and a major industry in the European economy. However, transport is also a source of environmental concerns and other negative externalities. Improving the efficiency of the transport system, mitigating its negative impacts and increasing

  5. Employment and turnover in the transport and logistics sector in the STRING region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serin, Göran Folke; Holzweber, Markus

    This report is part of the project ‘Green STRING Transport corridor’. It is the second of two reports from Roskilde University department of ‘Communication, Business admini- stration and Information Technologies (CBIT). Povl A. Hansen wrote the first report: ‘The Green STRING Corridor and transport...... conditions when analysing the possibilities of establishing a ‘Green Transport Corridor’. The analysis will take its point of departure in analysis of employment, turnover, firm structure and location within the freight transport and logistics sector in the STRING region....

  6. Panel estimation for transport sector CO2 emissions and its affecting factors: A regional analysis in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chuanguo; Nian, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    With rapid economic growth, the transport sector plays an important role in China′s CO 2 emissions. The existing research is extensively concerned with transport sector CO 2 emissions in recent years, but little attention has been paid to regional differences. This paper investigates CO 2 emissions in the transport sector at the national and regional levels using the STIRPAT model and provincial panel data from 1995 to 2010 in China. The results showed that passenger transport dominates CO 2 emissions in the transport sector, but its influence varies across regions. Electrification has significant potential to lower CO 2 emissions because of resulting higher fuel efficiency and reduced pollution. Energy efficiency improvement is effective but limited in reducing emissions due to increasing demand from economic development and population growth. These results not only contribute to advancing the existing literature, but also merit particular attention from policy makers in China. - Highlights: • We investigate China′s CO 2 emissions in the transport sector. • Passenger transport dominates CO 2 emissions in the transport sector. • The effects of passenger transport on CO 2 emissions vary across regions. • Energy efficiency improvement is effective but limited in reducing emissions

  7. Market penetration analysis of the use of hydrogen in the road transport sector of the Madrid region, using MARKAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras, A.; Guervos, E.; Posso, F.

    2009-01-01

    Nobody can doubt today that hydrogen will, in the not-too-distant future, represent a very significant percentage of the total energy used by the transport sector. This study therefore consists of the modelling and simulation of energy consumption, by type of vehicle and fuel or energetic vector, in the road transport sector of the Madrid Region, during the period 2010-2050, using the MARKAL model. It has been necessary to complete this model by adding numerous specifications in order to determine the features of the Madrid Region, the richest Region in Spain. For the purpose of the study, three growth scenarios, based on short-term energy forecasts made by different official organizations, have been proposed for the energy consumption of the road transport sector in the Region. The results show a profound change in the current situation as there is a significant decrease in the consumption of fossil fuels and an increase in that of alternative non-fossil fuels and hydrogen. The latter, in particular, will rise from 0.1% in the year 2010, to around 50% in the year 2050, which will mean a drastic drop in the sector's CO 2 and atmospheric pollutant emissions. (author)

  8. Market penetration analysis of the use of hydrogen in the road transport sector of the Madrid region, using MARKAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, A.; Guervos, E. [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Posso, F. [Science Department, ULA - Tachira, San Cristobal 5001 (Venezuela)

    2009-01-15

    Nobody can doubt today that hydrogen will, in the not-too-distant future, represent a very significant percentage of the total energy used by the transport sector. This study therefore consists of the modelling and simulation of energy consumption, by type of vehicle and fuel or energetic vector, in the road transport sector of the Madrid Region, during the period 2010-2050, using the MARKAL model. It has been necessary to complete this model by adding numerous specifications in order to determine the features of the Madrid Region, the richest Region in Spain. For the purpose of the study, three growth scenarios, based on short-term energy forecasts made by different official organizations, have been proposed for the energy consumption of the road transport sector in the Region. The results show a profound change in the current situation as there is a significant decrease in the consumption of fossil fuels and an increase in that of alternative non-fossil fuels and hydrogen. The latter, in particular, will rise from 0.1% in the year 2010, to around 50% in the year 2050, which will mean a drastic drop in the sector's CO{sub 2} and atmospheric pollutant emissions. (author)

  9. Benin - Transport Sector Investment Program

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this project (1997-2001) using $40 million of IDA funds were to: (i) safeguard the competitiveness of Benin's transport sector and of its transit corridor through open modal competition; (ii) improve government's capacity for planning, programming and managing transport sector investments; (iii) boost the allocation of resources to infrastructure maintenance; (iv) boost t...

  10. Regional cooperation in transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    As Floridas urbanized areas grow and merge, : neighboring jurisdictions experience interrelated : problems and opportunities, and regional : cooperation becomes an imperative. In the : transportation sector, Floridas metropolitan : planning org...

  11. Safety in the Transport Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    In EU the transport sector has an incident rate of accidents at work at 40 pr 1000 employees. The Danish insurance company CODAN has insured a big part of this sector concerning transport of gods on shore. The purpose of the project is to document the safety problems in the sector and to develop...... a strategy for a preventive intervention in transport enterprises. The results will in the end be included in a new strategy for the insurance company and the transport sectores organization towards a better safety performance. The safety problems for the employees are the activities carried out by loading......, unloading or work with transport equipment carried out at many different work places. The main safety problems are falls, heavy lifting, poor ergonomic working conditions, hits or collisions with gods, equipments or falling objects, the traffic risk situations, work with animals and finally the risk...

  12. Designing a climate change policy for the international maritime transport sector: Market-based measures and technological options for global and regional policy actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miola, A.; Marra, M.; Ciuffo, B.

    2011-01-01

    The international maritime transport sector has a significant abatement potential and some technical improvements that reduce GHG emissions would already be profitable without any policy in place. This paper analyses in-depth the limits and opportunities of policy options currently under consideration at the international level to stimulate the sector to reduce its GHG emissions. In particular, in order for the maritime transport sector to become more environmentally friendly, the flexible nature of international market-based measures and the European Union Emission Trading Scheme provide a definite window of opportunity without placing unnecessary high burden on the sector. However, the development of a regional policy, such as at European level, for the international maritime transport sector faces several obstacles: allocation of emissions, carbon leakage, permit allocation, treatment of the great variety in ship type, size and usage, and transaction cost. Global market-based policies could overcome most of these challenges. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the policy instruments currently under discussion to reduce the sector's burden on the environment, and focuses on economic theory, legal principles, technological options, and the political framework that together make up the basis of decision-making regarding the international maritime transport sector's climate change policies. - Highlights: → Technologies for a more environmental friendly maritime transport sector and their cost-effectiveness. → How to combine ambitious CO 2 reduction goals with a sector-wide market-based policy. → Permits should be auctioned frequently and small emitters have to be excluded. → Inclusion of shipping in the EU ETS causes carbon leakage, so the policy should aim at expansion.

  13. Myanmar Transport Sector Initial Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is preparing sector assessments to help align future ADB support with the needs and strategies of developing member countries and other development partners. The assessment is a working document that helps inform the development of country partnership strategies. This transport sector assessment highlights development issues, needs, and strategic assistance priorities of the Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and ADB, with a focus on rail, road...

  14. How to decarbonize the transport sector?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Zwaan, B.; Keppo, I. [Policy Studies Department, Energy research Center of the Netherlands ECN, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Johnsson, F. [Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2013-10-15

    This article investigates possible evolution pathways for the transport sector during the 21st century, globally and in Europe, under a climate change control scenario. We attempt to shed light on the question how the transport sector should best be decarbonized. We perform our study with the global bottom-up energy systems model TIAM-ECN, a version of the TIAM (TIMES Integrated Assessment Model) model that is broadly used for the purpose of developing energy technology and climate policy scenarios, which we adapted for analyzing in particular the transport sector. Given the global aggregated perspective of TIAM-ECN, that in its current version yields at every point in time a single CO2 price for different forms of energy use across geographic regions and economic sectors, it generates a decarbonization process that for the transport sector occurs later in time than for the power sector. This merely reflects that emission reductions are generally cheaper for electricity production than for transportation, and that it is thus cost-minimizing to spend limited financial resources available for CO2 emissions abatement in the power sector first. In our scenarios the use of hydrogen in internal combustion engines and fuel cells, rather than electricity as energy carrier and batteries to store it, gradually becomes the dominant transport technology. This outcome is in agreement with some recent publications but is at loggerheads with the current popularity of the electric car. Based on sensitivity analysis we conclude that even if the establishment of a hydrogen infrastructure proves about an order of magnitude more costly than modeled in our base case, electricity based transportation only broadly emerges if simultaneously also the costs of electric cars go down by at least 40% with respect to our reference costs. One of the explanations for why the electric car is today, by e.g. entrepreneurs, often considered the supposed winner amongst multiple future transportation

  15. EDGARv4 Gridded Anthropogenic Emissions of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) from Power Generation, Residential and Transport Sectors: Regional Trends Analysis in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Guizzardi, D.; Crippa, M.; Schaaf, E.; Olivier, J. G.; Dentener, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic substances and so harmful for human health. Mitigation of these emissions are internationally addressed by the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and by the Stockholm Convention. A global insight on POPs emissions evolution is essential since they can be transported long distances, they bio-accumulate and damage the environment. The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv4) is currently updated with POPs. We have estimated the global emissions of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IcdP)) and Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from fuel combustion in the power generation, residential and transport sectors. This emissions inventory has been developed by using as input to the EDGAR technology-based emissions calculation algorithm the fossil fuel consumption data from International Energy Agency (2014) and the emission factors from EMEP/EEA (2013). We provide a complete emission time series for the period 1970-2010 and discuss the trends. A comprehensive analysis of the contribution of East Asia region to the total global will be provided for each substance of the POPs group. An example is presented in Figure 1 for BaP emissions from residential sector; with emissions mainly from China, the East Asia region has a great share (32%) in the total global. We distributed the POPs emissions on gridmaps of 0.1°x0.1° resolution. Areas with high emissions in East Asia will be presented and discussed; Figure 2 shows the hot-spots in East Asia for BaP emissions from the residential sector. These emission gridmaps, used as input for the chemical transport models, contribute to the improvement of impact evaluation, which is a key element in measuring the effectiveness of mitigation

  16. Energy consumption in the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plouchart, G.

    2004-01-01

    During the 20. century, transport sector demand in the OECD countries boomed. The main drivers for growth were road transport and, more recently, air transport. As emerging countries continue to develop and the world faces the threat of climate change, this sector represents a major long-term challenge

  17. How to decarbonize the transport sector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, Bob van der; Keppo, Ilkka; Johnsson, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates possible evolution pathways for the transport sector during the 21st century, globally and in Europe, under a climate change control scenario. We attempt to shed light on the question how the transport sector should best be decarbonized. We perform our study with the global bottom-up energy systems model TIAM-ECN, a version of the TIAM model that is broadly used for the purpose of developing energy technology and climate policy scenarios, which we adapted for analyzing in particular the transport sector. Given the global aggregated perspective of TIAM-ECN, that in its current version yields at every point in time a single CO 2 price for different forms of energy use across geographic regions and economic sectors, it generates a decarbonization process that for the transport sector occurs later in time than for the power sector. This merely reflects that emission reductions are generally cheaper for electricity production than for transportation, and that it is thus cost-minimizing to spend limited financial resources available for CO 2 emissions abatement in the power sector first. In our scenarios the use of hydrogen in internal combustion engines and fuel cells, rather than electricity as energy carrier and batteries to store it, gradually becomes the dominant transport technology. This outcome is in agreement with some recent publications but is at loggerheads with the current popularity of the electric car. Based on sensitivity analysis we conclude that even if the establishment of a hydrogen infrastructure proves about an order of magnitude more costly than modeled in our base case, electricity based transportation only broadly emerges if simultaneously also the costs of electric cars go down by at least 40% with respect to our reference costs. One of the explanations for why the electric car is today, by e.g. entrepreneurs, often considered the supposed winner amongst multiple future transportation options is that the decision

  18. Energy conservation in nationalised transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, R C

    1980-01-01

    About 60% of high speed diesel is consumed by the road transport industry. The hike in fuel prices calls for urgent measures to conserve diesel. The paper discusses the various measures undertaken to conserve diesel in the nationalized transport sector.

  19. Regional Integration, Trade and Private Sector Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Regional Integration, Trade and Private Sector Development Program (Namibia) ... (NEPRU's other clients include regional and private sector institutions.) ... New Dutch-Canadian funding for the Climate and Development Knowledge Network.

  20. Performance measurement in transport sector analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Išoraitė

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the following issues: 1. Performance measurement in literature. The performance measurement has an important role to play in the efficient and effective management of organizations. Kaplan and Johnson highlighted the failure of the financial measures to reflect changes in the competitive circumstances and strategies of modern organizations. Many authors have focused attention on how organizations can design more appropriate measurement systems. Based on literature, consultancy experience and action research, numerous processes have been developed that organizations can follow in order to design and implement systems. Many frameworks have been proposed that support these processes. The objective of such frameworks is to help organizations define a set of measures that reflect their objectives and assess their performance appropriately. 2. Transport sector performance and its impacts measuring. The purpose of transport measurement is to identify opportunities enhancing transport performance. Successful transport sector management requires a system to analyze its efficiency and effectiveness as well as plan interventions if transport sector performance needs improvement. Transport impacts must be measurable and monitorable so that the person responsible for the project intervention can decide when and how to influence them. Performance indicators provide a means to measure and monitor impacts. These indicators essentially reflect quantitative and qualitative aspects of impacts at given time and places. 3. Transport sector output and input. Transport sector inputs are the resources required to deliver transport sector outputs. Transport sector inputs are typically: human resources, particularly skilled resources (including specialists consulting inputs; technology processes such as equipment and work; and finance, both public and private. 4. Transport sector policy and institutional framework; 5. Cause – effect linkages; 6

  1. Transport Sector Energy 2010; Transportsektorns energianvaendning 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-15

    Today, transport accounts for a quarter of Sweden's energy consumption which consists almost exclusively of fossil fuels. But with the increasing demands for reduced emissions of greenhouse gases, the sector's conversion to other fuels or energy sources will have a major impact the next years. This situation is expected to expand the requirements for statistics of energy consumption of the transport sector. The publication is divided into two parts. Chapter 2 describes the official energy statistics for the transport sector and Chapter 3 presents a breakdown of energy use in passenger and freight services for the respective modes.

  2. Modelling Transition Towards Sustainable Transportation Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Bačeković, I.; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson

    2016-01-01

    In a transition towards 100% renewable energy system, transportation sector is rarely dealt withusing the holistic approach and measuring its impact on the whole energy system. Furthermore, assolutions for power and heat sectors are clearer, it is a tendency of the researchers to focus on thelatt...

  3. INTRODUCTION OF A SECTORAL APPROACH TO TRANSPORT SECTOR FOR POST-2012 CLIMATE REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atit TIPPICHAI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the concept of sectoral approaches has been discussed actively under the UNFCCC framework as it could realize GHG mitigations for the Kyoto Protocol and beyond. However, most studies have never introduced this approach to the transport sector explicitly or analyzed its impacts quantitatively. In this paper, we introduce a sectoral approach which aims to set sector-specific emission reduction targets for the transport sector for the post-2012 climate regime. We suppose that developed countries will commit to the sectoral reduction target and key developing countries such as China and India will have the sectoral no-lose targets — no penalties for the failure to meet targets but the right to sell exceeding reductions — for the medium term commitment, i.e. 2013–2020. Six scenarios of total CO2 emission reduction target in the transport sector in 2020, varying from 5% to 30% reductions from the 2005 level are established. The paper preliminarily analyzes shares of emission reductions and abatement costs to meet the targets for key developed countries including the USA, EU-15, Russia, Japan and Canada. To analyze the impacts of the proposed approach, we generate sectoral marginal abatement cost (MAC curves by region through extending a top-down economic model, namely the AIM/CGE model. The total emission reduction targets are analyzed against the developed MAC curves for the transport sector in order to obtain an equal marginal abatement cost which derives optimal emission reduction for each country and minimizes total abatement cost. The results indicate that the USA will play a crucial role in GHG mitigations in the transport sector as it is most responsible for emission reductions (i.e. accounts for more than 70% while Japan will least reduce (i.e. accounts for about 3% for all scenarios. In the case of a 5% reduction, the total abatement is equal to 171.1 MtCO2 with a total cost of 1.61 billion USD; and in the case of a 30

  4. Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Rakesh; Singh, Navneet R; Ribeiro, Fabio H; Delgass, W Nicholas

    2007-03-20

    A hybrid hydrogen-carbon (H(2)CAR) process for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels is proposed wherein biomass is the carbon source and hydrogen is supplied from carbon-free energy. To implement this concept, a process has been designed to co-feed a biomass gasifier with H(2) and CO(2) recycled from the H(2)-CO to liquid conversion reactor. Modeling of this biomass to liquids process has identified several major advantages of the H(2)CAR process. (i) The land area needed to grow the biomass is transportation sector. (ii) Whereas the literature estimates known processes to be able to produce approximately 30% of the United States transportation fuel from the annual biomass of 1.366 billion tons, the H(2)CAR process shows the potential to supply the entire United States transportation sector from that quantity of biomass. (iii) The synthesized liquid provides H(2) storage in an open loop system. (iv) Reduction to practice of the H(2)CAR route has the potential to provide the transportation sector for the foreseeable future, using the existing infrastructure. The rationale of using H(2) in the H(2)CAR process is explained by the significantly higher annualized average solar energy conversion efficiency for hydrogen generation versus that for biomass growth. For coal to liquids, the advantage of H(2)CAR is that there is no additional CO(2) release to the atmosphere due to the replacement of petroleum with coal, thus eliminating the need to sequester CO(2).

  5. Intellectual Capital Management in Transport Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Znakovaitė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of intellectual capital; its management, features and processes by which intellectual capital of a company can be evaluated. The main elements of intellectual capital (human, structural and relationship capital are presented and used in research. After surveying bibliography, intellectual capital evaluation model, which applies to Lithuanian and Latvian companies operating in the transport sector, is created. The research is based on the value-added intellectual capital factor model, the relationship between indicators, multi-asset return correlation and regression analysis and generation of alternatives to intellectual capital performance-enhancing. Following an assessment of intellectual capital of Lithuanian and Latvian transport sectors, on the basis of the results, it was found that the intellectual capital is a key factor in corporation management to increase revenue. Article in Lithuanian

  6. Desafíos del Sector Transporte

    OpenAIRE

    Sociedad Chilena de Ingeniería de Transporte

    2013-01-01

    La Sociedad Chilena de Ingeniería de Transporte (Sochitran), entregó el documento "Desafíos del Sector Transporte" para la discusión pública, como un aporte de esa Institución al debate programático presidencial que se llevó a cabo en Chile en ocasión de las elecciones presidenciales que han de llevar a La Moneda el próximo Presidente de la Nación en el período 2014-2018.

  7. Natural gas in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ask, T Oe; Einang, P M; Stenersen, D [MARINTEK (Norway)

    1996-12-01

    The transportation sector is responsible for more than 50% of all oil products consumed, and it is the fastest growing oil demand sector and the fastest growing source of emissions. During the last 10 years there have been a considerable and growing effort in developing internal combustion gas engines. This effort has resulted in gas engines with efficiencies comparable to the diesel engines and with emissions considerably lower than engines burning conventional fuels. This development offers us opportunities to use natural gas very efficiently also in the transportation sector, resulting in reduced emissions. However, to utilize all the built in abilities natural gas has as engine fuel, the natural gas composition must be kept within relatively narrow limits. This is the case with both diesel and gasoline today. A further development require therefore specified natural gas compositions, and the direct use of pipeline natural gas as today would only in limited areas be acceptable. An interesting possibility for producing a specified natural gas composition is by LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) production. (EG)

  8. Sectoral and regional expansion of emissions trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph; Bouwe, Dijkstra; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2011-07-01

    We consider an international emissions trading scheme with partial sectoral and regional coverage. Sectoral and regional expansion of the trading scheme is beneficial in aggregate, but not necessarily for individual countries. We simulate international CO{sub 2} emission quota markets using marginal abatement cost functions and the Copenhagen 2020 climate policy targets for selected countries that strategically allocate emissions in a bid to manipulate the quota price. Quota exporters and importers generally have conflicting interests about admitting more countries to the trading coalition, and our results indicate that some countries may lose substantially when the coalition expands in terms of new countries. For a given coalition, expanding sectoral coverage makes most countries better off, but some countries (notably the USA and Russia) may lose out due to loss of strategic advantages. In general, exporters tend to have stronger strategic power than importers.(Author)

  9. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - Region 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 4, which is comprised of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Geor...

  10. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe : Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 2, : which is comprised of Arizona, Oklahoma, New Mexic...

  11. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 3, which is comprised of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michiga...

  12. Regional Integration, Trade and Private Sector Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dr. Dirk Hansohm. Institution. Namibian Economic Policy Research Unit. Pays d' institution. Namibia. Site internet. http://www.nepru.org.na. Extrants. Rapports. Regional integration, trade and private sector development : final report. Contenus connexes. L'Initiative des conseils subventionnaires de la recherche scientifique ...

  13. End use energy consumption data base: transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, J.N.; Rose, A.B.; Greene, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The transportation fuel and energy use estimates developed a Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the End Use Energy Consumption Data Base are documented. The total data base contains estimates of energy use in the United States broken down into many categories within all sectors of the economy: agriculture, mining, construction, manufacturing, commerce, the household, electric utilities, and transportation. The transportation data provided by ORNL generally cover each of the 10 years from 1967 through 1976 (occasionally 1977 and 1978), with omissions in some models. The estimtes are broken down by mode of transport, fuel, region and State, sector of the economy providing transportation, and by the use to which it is put, and, in the case of automobile and bus travel, by the income of the traveler. Fuel types include natural gas, motor and aviation gasoline, residual and diesel oil, liuqefied propane, liquefied butane, and naphtha- and kerosene-type jet engine fuels. Electricity use is also estimated. The mode, fuel, sector, and use categories themselves subsume one, two, or three levels of subcategories, resulting in a very detailed categorization and definitive accounting.

  14. Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Rakesh; Singh, Navneet R.; Ribeiro, Fabio H.; Delgass, W. Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid hydrogen-carbon (H2CAR) process for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels is proposed wherein biomass is the carbon source and hydrogen is supplied from carbon-free energy. To implement this concept, a process has been designed to co-feed a biomass gasifier with H2 and CO2 recycled from the H2-CO to liquid conversion reactor. Modeling of this biomass to liquids process has identified several major advantages of the H2CAR process. (i) The land area needed to grow the biomass is CAR process shows the potential to supply the entire United States transportation sector from that quantity of biomass. (iii) The synthesized liquid provides H2 storage in an open loop system. (iv) Reduction to practice of the H2CAR route has the potential to provide the transportation sector for the foreseeable future, using the existing infrastructure. The rationale of using H2 in the H2CAR process is explained by the significantly higher annualized average solar energy conversion efficiency for hydrogen generation versus that for biomass growth. For coal to liquids, the advantage of H2CAR is that there is no additional CO2 release to the atmosphere due to the replacement of petroleum with coal, thus eliminating the need to sequester CO2. PMID:17360377

  15. EU road freight transport sector : work and employment conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Klein Hesselink, D.J.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den; Berg, R. van der; Heuvel, F. van den

    2004-01-01

    International competition and technological developments have had both positive and negative effects on the road freight transport sector. These changes have significantly influenced work and employment conditions in the sector. As this report highlights, creating more and better jobs while

  16. Regional Alternative Transportation Evaluation: Region 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-28

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Federal Lands Highway (FLH), and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) have conducted regional alternative transportation evaluations (RATEs) in almost each of FWSs eight ...

  17. Panorama 2009 - greenhouse gas emissions and the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The fact that the transport sector is growing quickly brings advantages, such as quick access to any geographical location on earth, but also disadvantages: noise, congestion and polluting emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), the greenhouse gas (GHG) primarily responsible for global warming. In the effort to bring GHG emissions under control, improving results in the transport sector is a prime long-term objective. What proportion of CO 2 emissions generated at global and national level are due to the road, air, maritime and rail transport sectors, respectively? What mechanisms can be used to reduce GHG emissions in the transport sector at large?

  18. Hydrogen infrastructure for the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnolucci, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the factors already discussed in the literature and identify gaps or issues which seem to require further debate in relation of the introduction of hydrogen in the transport sector. Studies in the academic and grey literature have analysed transport systems with a rather wide range of hydrogen penetration rates, utilisation of the infrastructure, hypotheses on the dynamics of the systems, capital costs of the infrastructure and hydrogen price. Most of the issues which could widen the debate in the literature are related to policy instruments. In particular, more attention should be paid to the policy instruments needed to foster co-ordination among stakeholders, persuade drivers to buy hydrogen vehicles despite the existence of a sparse infrastructure; guarantee investment in the early, possibly loss-making, retail stations and to foster financially sustainable government commitments. The effect of limited availability of hydrogen vehicle models on the penetration rates in the literature and the sensitivity of the hydrogen price to taxation from the government are other two issues deserving a more in-depth discussion. (author)

  19. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 1, which is comprised of Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and H...

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading for the Transport Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Belhaj, Mohammed; Gode, Jenny; Saernholm, Erik; Zetterberg, Lars; Aahman, Markus

    2006-12-01

    In this study we have analysed different options to apply emissions trading for greenhouse gas emissions to the transport sector. The main focus has been on the EU transport sector and the possibility to include it in the current EU ETS in the trading period beginning in 2013. The purpose was to study how different alternatives will affect different actors. Focus has been on three sub-sectors; road transport, aviation and shipping. The railway sector has only been treated on a general level. The study includes the following three parts: 1. An economic analysis of the consequences of greenhouse gas emissions trading for the transport sector including an analysis of how the total cost for reaching an emission target will be affected by an integrated emissions trading system for the transport sector and the industry (currently included sectors) compared to separate systems for the sectors, 2. An analysis of design possibilities for the different sub-sectors. Discussion of positive and negative aspects with different choices of design parameters, such as trading entity, covered greenhouse gases, allocation of emission allowances and monitoring systems, 3. Examination of the acceptance among different actors for different options of using greenhouse gas emissions trading in the transport sector. When setting up an emissions trading scheme there are a number of design parameters that have to be analysed in order to find an appropriate system, with limited administrative and transaction costs and as small distortions as possible to competitiveness

  1. Economic implications of oil crisis and transport sector in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, M G

    1980-01-01

    Efforts towards fuel economy in the transport sector have heavily stressed engineering aspects of the automobile. Better roads and better traffic planning too, go a long way in conserving energy. The paper outlines the economic implementations of the hike in oil prices with reference to the transportation sector.

  2. Critical Design Factors for Sector Transport Maintenance in DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utoh, H.; Someya, Y.; Tobita, K.; Asakura, N.; Hoshino, K.; Nakamura, M., E-mail: uto.hiroyasu@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: Maintenance is a critical issue for fusion DEMO reactor because the design conditions and requirements of DEMO maintenance scheme are different from that of ITER remote handling. The sector transport maintenance scheme has advantages to maintain blankets and divertors without the use of sophisticated remote handling devices including sensitive devices to radiation in the reactor. SlimCS designed in JAEA adopts the sector transport maintenance scheme in which every sector is pulled out horizontally through a port between TF coils. A critical design issue for the horizontal sector transport maintenance scheme is how to support an enormous turnover force of the toroidal field (TF) coils. We propose following two options; first option is the horizontal transport maintenance scheme in which every sector is pulled out through four horizontal ports connected with the corridor. Second option is the vertical sector transport maintenance scheme with small vertical maintenance ports (total: 6 ports). The new horizontal sector transport limited in the number of maintenance ports is a more realistic maintenance scheme, and the key engineering issue is the transferring mechanism of sector in the vacuum vessel. In the maintenance scenario, the key design factors are the cool down time in reactor and the cooling method in maintenance scheme for keeping components under operation temperature. By one-dimensional heat conduction analysis, the sector should be transported to hot cell within 40 hours in the case the cool down time is one month. In the horizontal sector transport maintenance, the maintenance time including removal of cooling piping, drain of cooling water and sector transport to hot cell is about 32 hours. Furthermore, the tritium release in the sector transport can be suppressed because the components temperature drops by forced-air cooling system. This paper mainly focuses on a sector transport maintenance scheme from the aspects of high plant availability

  3. Sectoral approaches to improve regional carbon budgets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, P.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Janssens, I.A.; Reis, S.; Marland, G.; Soussana, J.F.; Christensen, T.R.; Heath, L.; Apps, M.; Alexeyev, V.; Fang, J.; Gattuso, J.P.; Guerschman, J.P.; Huang, Y.; Jobbagy, E.; Murdiyarso, D.; Ni, J.; Nobre, A.; Peng, C.; Walcroft, A.; Wang, S.Q.; Pan, Y.; Zhou, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Humans utilise about 40% of the earth¿s net primary production (NPP) but the products of this NPP are often managed by different sectors, with timber and forest products managed by the forestry sector and food and fibre products from croplands and grasslands managed by the agricultural sector. Other

  4. Batteries and fuel cells in the transport sector and stationary energy supply. Current status of the NIP federal market preparation programme and the electromobility model regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Tilman [NOW GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Hydrogen and fuel cells as well as batteries are key technologies in the context of achieving climate goals and for the transformation of the energy sector. Their successful commercial introduction requires joint efforts from public and private stakeholders. In a first step R and D and demonstration programs were implemented to accelerate their respective market preparation. The National Innovation Program for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies (NIP) as well as large field tests of battery electric vehicles are ongoing combining technological development with market relevant aspects such as safety or public acceptance. (orig.)

  5. Energy and exergy utilization in transportation sector of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, I.; Hussain, M.M.; Al-Zaharnah, I.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the transportation sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for the years of 1990-2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its three subsectors, namely road, air and marine, and hence the energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison. Road subsector appears to be the most efficient one compared to air and marine subsectors. It is found that the energy efficiencies in air and marine subsectors are found to be equal to the corresponding exergy efficiencies due to the values of exergy grade function. A comparison of the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of Saudi Arabian transportation sector with the Turkish transportation sector is also presented for the year 1993 based on the data available. Although the sectoral coverage is not same for both countries, it is still useful to illustrate the situation on how subsectoral energy and exergy efficiencies vary over the years. Turkish transportation sector appears to be a bit more efficient for that particular year. It is believed that the present technique is practical and useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization to determine how efficient energy and exergy are used in transportation sector. It is also be helpful to establish standards, based on exergy, to facilitate applications in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planning

  6. Reduction emissions from transport sector - EU action against climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    This paper explores and discusses the initiation and development of the EU's policies and strategies against climate change and the share experiences in the EU transport sector to reduce CO2 emission.

  7. Tributación del Sector Transporte en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Rezk

    2004-01-01

    El objetivo general es examinar la carga tributaria efectiva sobre los servicios y las inversiones en infraestructura en los sectores de actividad del Transporte de Carga Terrestre (por camión) y Aéreo en la Argentina.

  8. Long term energy demand projections for croatian transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puksec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duic, Neven

    2011-01-01

    Transport sector in Croatia represents one of the largest consumers of energy today with a share of almost one third of final energy demand. That is why improving energy efficiency and implementing different mechanisms that would lead to energy savings in this sector would be relevant. Through th...

  9. THE REGIONAL DIMENSION OF THE SME SECTOR IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela ANTONESCU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Situated in a permanent process of adaptation and transformation, the SME sector recorded a significant national quantitative and qualitative leap. At regional level, development of the SME sector are determined by a number of local factors, which distinguishes and emphasizes the importance of this sector, providing clues that lead to some courses of action that can be considered when developing strategies or development programs. Overall, regional disparities in the development of SME sector is relatively small, except for being on the region-capital Bucharest-Ilfov, which is distanced from the other regions in particular the performance achieved.

  10. Analysis of Organizational Structure in Road Transport Organizations from Spanish Atlantic-Mediterranean Region; Analisis de la Estructura Organizativa de las Empresas del Sector del Transporte por Carretera en el Arco Atlantico-Mediterraneo Espanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamero, N; Sola, R

    2009-11-25

    This report illustrates the main results of a research on organizational structure in road transport organizations from Spanish Atlantic-Mediterranean region. This study is included in the project Potenciacion de la competitividad del tejido empresarial espanol a traves de la logistica como factor estrategico en un entorno global (GLOBALOG) supported by the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science in 2007. The main aim was to increase the level of competitiveness of this type of companies developing new knowledge, methodologies and practices. In order to analyse organizational structure, we used Minstbergs (2003) typology. The results will provide indicators to improve organizational objectives. (Author) 14 refs.

  11. Energy consumption in the Transport Sector 2008; Transportsektorns energianvaendning 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-15

    Transport energy use in Sweden increased by 80% during the period 1970 to 2008. Today, the transport sector is responsible for a quarter of Sweden's energy use. Since the transport sector is almost exclusively using fossil fuels its conversion to other fuels/energy sources will have a major impact in the coming years, with the increasing requirements to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The first chapter reports the official energy statistics for the transport sector. The second chapter presents a breakdown of energy use for freight and passengers for each transport modes. However, it is important to emphasize that the division of personal and freight does not belong to the official energy statistics

  12. Transport, logistics and the region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, de P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Cargo transport and logistics have a huge impact on sustainable (regional) economic development. Two broad (policy) challenges are center stage: enhancing co-location of logistics activities and improving efficiency in intermodal transport chains. Academic research can provide relevant insights for

  13. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J.P.; Shafer, M.M.; Schauer, J.J.; Solomon, P.A.; Saide, P.E.; Spak, S.N.; Cheng, Y.F.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D.G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J.T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather

  14. Measuring Energy Efficiency in China’s Transport Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Hao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is one of the key factors affecting energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. By focusing on China’s transport sector, this study comprehensively reviews and compares the energy efficiency performance of passenger vehicles, light-duty commercial vehicles, commercial road transport, commercial water transport, aviation transport and railway transport, and identifies the opportunities for further energy efficiency improvements. It is found that railway transport exhibited the greatest improvement in energy efficiency during the past decade, which was mainly driven by progress in its electrification. Passenger vehicles have also experienced considerable energy efficiency improvements, which can be mainly attributed to the establishment of mandatory fuel consumption standards. In contrast, commercial road transport has shown the least improvement, due to insufficient policy implementations. Based on the analysis, it is recommended that, as China’s present policy framework to improve energy efficiency in the transport sector is generally effective, it should be consistently maintained and successively improved. Electrification represents a major opportunity for improvement of energy efficiency in the transport sector. Such potential should be fully tapped for all transport modes. Greater effort should be put into improving the energy efficiency of commercial road transport. The policy instruments utilized to improve the energy efficiency of heavy-duty vehicles should be as intensive and effective as the policy instruments for passenger vehicles.

  15. Energy transition in the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchemin, Bruno; Genest, Sebastien

    2013-01-01

    Within the European framework, France has committed to a 20% reduction of its GHG emission by 2020 compared with 1990, and reaching the 'factor 4' by 2050. The 2005 POPE Act (the French Energy Policy Guidance Act) makes climate change a priority of the energy policy, setting out a 3% yearly reduction of our country's GHG emissions. This means combining energy efficiency and restraint, as is highlighted by the first chapter of the 'energy transition road-map'. Energy is a major component of transport. Designing its transition requires us to question the very organisation of our society: materials and their usage, the means of transport to favour and the infrastructures to implement, costs for competitiveness, the organisation of work and commuting... At a global scale, needs for mobility are increasing, as is the urgent need to deal with environmental problems. There are huge emerging markets for public transport, increasingly efficient and smart cars, information and transmission networks, infrastructures, the organisation of transport... However, France has all the assets to become a world leader in carbon-free transport. Succeeding in this change means organising the service to meet the needs of all, people, businesses, transport operators and industry, starting this transition right away. Policies must clearly define objectives and the means of achieving them through coordinated actions within a long term approach. The ESEC formulates a set of proposals in this direction

  16. Technologies for climate change mitigation - transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salter, R.; Newman, P. (Curtin Univ. Sustainability Policy (CUSP) Institute, Perth, WA (Australia)); Dhar, S. (UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2011-03-15

    The options outlined in this guidebook are designed to assist you in the process of developing transport services and facilities in your countries and localities - transport that better serves people's needs and enhances their lives while at the same time producing fewer greenhouse gas emissions. This is a new challenge, as previously improving transport generally led to increased greenhouse gases. The challenge now is to provide transport that: 1) is cheaper, more extensive and better quality 2) reduces pollution, congestion, traffic accidents and other threats to health and wellbeing 3) is accessible to all 4) supports economic development 5) reduces greenhouse emissions overall. This can be achieved if: 1) mass transit, walking and cycling are supported and encouraged, and integrated in a way that allows seamless multimodal travel, including networks of taxis, auto-rickshaws and small buses. 2) the mass transit services - including trains, buses and light-rail - are frequent, extensive, attractive, comfortable, affordable and faster than alternatives, with features like integrated ticketing and real time information accessible through mobile phones and other sources 3) private vehicle use and air travel are discouraged through pricing and other demand management measures, and through the availability of better alternative modes 4) there is support for the adoption of cleaner, lower carbon fuels and technologies and better maintenance practices for all transport modes, including private vehicles, water transport, auto-rickshaws and freight vehicles 5) the overall need for travel is reduced through the development of denser localities with more mixed land use and better access to mass transit (which reduces overall travel in ways that will be explained) 6) travel space is better managed to give higher priority to more sustainable transport modes, to promote safety, and to prevent traffic from adversely affecting residents and businesses. As you address these

  17. Technologies for climate change mitigation - transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salter, R; Newman, P [Curtin Univ. Sustainability Policy (CUSP) Institute, Perth, WA (Australia); Dhar, S [UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2011-03-15

    The options outlined in this guidebook are designed to assist you in the process of developing transport services and facilities in your countries and localities - transport that better serves people's needs and enhances their lives while at the same time producing fewer greenhouse gas emissions. This is a new challenge, as previously improving transport generally led to increased greenhouse gases. The challenge now is to provide transport that: 1) is cheaper, more extensive and better quality 2) reduces pollution, congestion, traffic accidents and other threats to health and wellbeing 3) is accessible to all 4) supports economic development 5) reduces greenhouse emissions overall. This can be achieved if: 1) mass transit, walking and cycling are supported and encouraged, and integrated in a way that allows seamless multimodal travel, including networks of taxis, auto-rickshaws and small buses. 2) the mass transit services - including trains, buses and light-rail - are frequent, extensive, attractive, comfortable, affordable and faster than alternatives, with features like integrated ticketing and real time information accessible through mobile phones and other sources 3) private vehicle use and air travel are discouraged through pricing and other demand management measures, and through the availability of better alternative modes 4) there is support for the adoption of cleaner, lower carbon fuels and technologies and better maintenance practices for all transport modes, including private vehicles, water transport, auto-rickshaws and freight vehicles 5) the overall need for travel is reduced through the development of denser localities with more mixed land use and better access to mass transit (which reduces overall travel in ways that will be explained) 6) travel space is better managed to give higher priority to more sustainable transport modes, to promote safety, and to prevent traffic from adversely affecting residents and businesses. As you address these

  18. Improving energy efficiency in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    A primary characteristic of transportation in the United States is its high per capita energy consumption. The average US citizen consumes nearly five times as much energy for transportation as the average Japanese and nearly three times as much as the average citizen of France, Britain, or West Germany. The energy efficiency of US transportation has improved substantially over the past two decades (both absolutely and in comparison to Europe), and US travel volume has grown more slowly than in most of the developed world. However, the United States still consumes more than one-third of the world`s transport energy. Also, 96 percent of US transport energy is in the form of oil products. This is more oil than the United States produces, despite its position as one of the world`s largest oil producers. With current problems and expectation of continued growth in travel and energy use, Congress has increasingly turned to transportation energy conservation - in the form of improvements in the technical efficiency of travel, increases in load factors, reductions in travel demand, shifting to alternative fuels, and shifts to more efficient travel modes - as an important policy goal. For example, the Clean Air Amendments of 1990 incorporate transportation demand management as a critical tool in reducing urban air pollution. Legislation proposed in the 102d Congress sought rigorous new automobile and light truck fuel economy standards. With continued increases in U.S. oil imports, urban traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the failure of many urban areas to meet air quality standards, strong congressional interest in new energy conservation initiates is likely to continue.

  19. An investigation on energy consumption trend in Japan. Transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takayoshi

    2005-08-01

    Although energy consumption in the industry sector has almost been stable, energy consumption in the transportation (passenger and freight) sector has increased much after the oil crisis. The increase of energy consumption in the passenger sector can be attributed to the increase in transportation by private passenger vehicles; while the increase in the freight sector was due to the modal shift to trucks. Among transportation methods, automobiles, i.e. passenger vehicles and trucks, are now dominant in terms of energy consumption and also in terms of amount of transportation. Therefore implementing energy conservation measures relating to automobiles is very important in order to suppress the energy consumption in the transportation sector. This report summarizes the results of investigation on energy conservation measures, especially relevant to automobiles. It was found from the investigation that most promising and effective technologies or measures are promoting market penetration of vehicles satisfying ''top runner standard'', development and employment of hybrid vehicles, and introduction of vehicles with ''idling-stop'' systems. (author)

  20. Emissions from the transport sector in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenhann, J; Kilde, N [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    By combustion of fossil fuels; CO{sub 2} is emitted to the atmosphere. The new assessment report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 1996) reveals that scientific uncertainty - a major barrier to action - is being steadily reduced. The report goes further than ever before by stating that scientists now believe that `the balance of evidence suggest a discernible human influence on global climate`. This significant conclusion will certainly contribute to mobilizing political support for stronger commitments. Denmark already have decided on strong reduction targets. It is the goal of the government to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions from the energy consuming sectors by 20% in 2005 compared to 1988 and to reach further reducations up to the year 2030. (EG) 16 refs.

  1. Decarbonising the Finnish Transport Sector by 2050: Electricity or Biofuels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Bramstoft Pedersen, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    for the transport sector by 2050—one with a high percentage of electric vehicles (EV) and another with a high percentage of biofuels (BIO), and compares the scenario results with a known Carbon-Neutral Scenario (CNS) which is adopted from the Nordic Energy Technology Perspective (IEA in Nordic energy technology...... perspective—pathways to a carbon-neutral energy future, 2013a). The socio-economic value of the total system cost is computed and the system integration of the transport sector with the electricity and heating sectors is simulated with an hourly time resolution. This study finds that a Finnish transport...... of the results is tested through a sensitivity analysis which shows that the costs (investment and maintenance) of biodiesel cars and EV are the most sensitive parameters in the comparative analysis of the scenarios....

  2. Decarbonising the Swedish transport sector with electricity or biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Bo Bramstoft; Skytte, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Sweden has set long-term energy policy targets which aim at eliminating net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050 [1]. Since the production of power and district heating in Sweden is already close to be carbon neutral, a further reduction of GHG emissions have to be seeked in other sectors......, if the ambitious targets of a carbon neutral transport system by 2050 and of being independent from fossil fuels in the vehicle fleet by 2030 have to be achieved [1]. To meet the energy policy targets, radical restructuring of the fuel use and vehicle stock in the transport sector is required. In this context......, this paper develops two alternative scenarios for the transport sector by 2050 – an Electric Vehicles Scenario (EVS) which include a high percentage of electric vehicles and a BIOfuel Scenario (BIOS) with a high percentage of biofuels. The scenario results are compared to the Carbon Neutral Scenario (CNS...

  3. Energy transition in transport sector from energy substitution perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wangmin; Yang, Xiaoguang; Han, Song; Sun, Xiaoyang

    2017-10-01

    Power and heating generation sector and transport sector contribute a highest GHG emissions and even air pollutions. This paper seeks to investigate life cycle costs and emissions in both the power sector and transport sector, and evaluate the cost-emission efficient (costs for one unit GHG emissions) of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional gasoline based vehicles under two electricity mix scenarios. In power sector, wind power and PV power will be cost comparative in 2030 forecasted with learning curve method. With high subsidies, new energy cars could be comparative now, but it still has high costs to lower GHG emissions. When the government subsidy policy is reversible, the emission reduction cost for new energy vehicle consumer will be 900/ton. According to the sensitive analysis, the paper suggests that the government implement policies that allocate the cost to the whole life cycle of energy production and consumption related to transport sector energy transition and policies that are in favor of new energy vehicle consumers but not the new energy car producers.

  4. Fuel Consumption Management in the Transportation Sector in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dastjerdi, Aliasghar M.; Araghi, Bahar Namaki

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption in the transportation sector in Iran is significantly higher than global norms and standards which caused some issues including wasting national resources, deteriorating air quality, GHG emissions etc. The major purpose of this paper is to introduce practical policies, strategies...... and technologies to reduce liquid fuel consumption known as a dominant source of energy in transport sector in Iran. Since, the road subsector has the major share in consuming liquid fuel amongst others, more attention is given to the methods for reducing consumption in this subsector. The relating policies...... and actions were classified by optimization measures according to four separate categories as follows; “Optimization of Supply of Transportation Services”, “Optimization of Transport Demand”, “Optimization of Energy Consumption” and “Optimization of Car Manufacturing”....

  5. Gender and Mobility - Sustainable Development in the Transport Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Oberc, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Several statistical studies show that women in developed countries, taken to be facing equal opportunities, are more environmentally benevolent in transport choice than men, as well as shape more environmentally benign (i.e. smaller) mobilities. Some researchers contend that a greater inclusion of women is needed in matters furthering sustainable development within the transport sector, because they believe women to be intrinsically more environmentally conscious. However, few qualitative stu...

  6. The separated-sector cyclotron: beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The diagnostic components that were ordered for the rest of the proposed beamlines at the NAC have been delivered. Design and manufacture of a special harp for the beam swinger has commenced. The Faraday cups and slits in the transfer beamline were replaced by water-cooled versions, owing to the decision to transport beams of higher intensity than initially specified. A prototype water-cooled slit for use in the low-energy beamline emittance measurement system has been installed, replacing the previous uncooled slit, to meet the requirement to measure the emittance of high-intensity beams. Software to automate the emittance measurement procedure is being developed. The method of calibration and alignment of the beamline scanners has been improved resulting in a more accurate measurement of the beam position. Software is being developed to regulate the beam current on the neutron therapy target. Current measurement from the target is used as feedback to regulate the aperture of a slit-system in the low-energy transfer beamline. This procedure will be implemented as soon as final tests have been carried out during the next scheduled shutdown. 3 figs

  7. CO2 mitigation scenarios in China's road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Can; Cai, Wenjia; Lu, Xuedu; Chen, Jining

    2007-01-01

    China is the world's second largest greenhouse gas emitter, and emissions from the road transport sector represent one of the fastest growing GHG sources in China. Taking previous research on China's projected future vehicle ownership and future CO 2 emissions in the transport sector as a starting point, this paper reviews all recent environmental policies relating to the automobile industry and employs a scenario analysis to estimate different emissions inventories for different development strategies. The new policy scenario considers all possible mitigation options available to the road transport sector from a bottom up perspective and examines the effects for fuel efficiency improvement and the cost of these mitigation options - vehicle technology improvement, bus rapid transit system and fuel switching, through which the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential is estimated. Not only does this paper indicate that a large emissions reduction potential exists in China's road transport sector, but it implies that vehicle technology improvement, especially engine technology is likely to be the most effective means to meet emissions reduction targets. This paper concludes by identifying key barriers to implementing those options in China and deduces the technical, financial and institutional aspects of the demand in China for national capacity building and international aid in order to achieve the emissions reduction goals

  8. Forecasting long-term energy demand of Croatian transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Krajačić, Goran; Lulić, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    predictions for the Croatian transport sector are presented. Special emphasis is given to different influencing mechanisms, both legal and financial. The energy demand predictions presented in this paper are based on an end-use simulation model developed and tested with Croatia as a case study. The model...

  9. Determination of the Regional Economy Leading Sectors in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Amalia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth and its process are the main condition for the sustainability of the regional economic development. Because of the continuing population growth means economic needs also increase so that additional revenue required each year. This can be obtained by the increase in aggregate output (goods and services or the Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP each year. To carry out development with limited resources as a consequence should be focused to develop the sectors that provide great multiplier effect on other sectors or the whole economy. This research is focused to determine the regional leading sector of Bone Bolango as the information and considerations in planning economic development. Location Quotient (LQ and Shift Share are tools of analysis. Location Quotient analysis indicates agriculture, manufacture, finance, leasing and corporate services are base sectors in the Bone Bolango district. Shift Share analysis indicates that the competitive sectors are finance, leasing and corporate services. The results of the analysis based on three analysis tools indicate that the leading sector with the criteria developed, base, and competitive is finance and services sector.

  10. Source Sector and Region Contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the STEM chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the WRF model. Predicted AOD valu...

  11. Fixing or Transferring Environmental Problems in the Transport Sector?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walnum, Hans Jakob

    Transport accounts for 25 percent of global energy related greenhouse gas emissions and over half of the world’s oil consumption. The energy consumption is growing at a rate higher than any other sector. The thesis addresses some of the shortcomings with current policy strategies for reducing...... give an improved foundation for policy makers to find strategies and actions to limit such effects and their consequences....

  12. Integrated transportation and energy sector CO2 emission control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    is the use of biofuel (ethanol) and synthetic fuel (methanol) for internal combustion cars. An increase in the fraction of electricity delivered by fluctuating sources like wind power will lead to excess electricity production and the two aforementioned scenarios have a substantial effect on the decrease...... and power production (CHP), while the transport sector can assist the energy system in integrating a higher degree of intermittent energy and CHP. Two scenarios for partial conversion of the transport fleet have been considered. One is battery cars combined with hydrogen fuel cell cars, while the other...

  13. Hydrogen energy for the transportation sector in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zong Qiangmao

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier for providing a clean, reliable and affordable energy supply. This paper provides a blueprint for the hydrogen energy in the transportation sector in the future of China. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part answers this question: why is China interested in hydrogen energy? The second part describes the possibility of a hydrogen fuel cell engine and a hydrogen internal-combustion engine in the transportation in China in the near future. The final part describes the production of hydrogen in China. (author)

  14. Reducing the Green House Gas Emissions from the Transportation Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewande Akinnikawe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, two thirds of the carbon monoxide and about one third of carbon dioxide emissions come from the transportation sector. Ways to reduce these emissions in the future include replacing gasoline and diesel by biofuels, or by blend of biofuels with conventional gasoline and diesel, or by compressed natural gas (CNG, or by replacing internal combustion engines by electric motors powered by hydrogen fuel cells or battery-powered electric vehicles recharged from the electric grid. This presentation will review these technologies the fuel production pathways, when they are likely to be available, and by what fraction transportation sector green house gas emissions could be reduced by each. A well-to-wheels (WTW analysis is performed on each vehicle/ fuel technology using the GREET model and the total energy use, the CO 2 emissions, NO x emissions, SO x emissions for the life cycle of the vehicle technologies are calculated. Prospects for reducing foreign oil dependence as well as mitigating green house gases emission from the transportation sector will be considered in the analysis.

  15. A study of energy efficiency of transport sector in China from 2003 to 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, William; Zhou, Guanghui; Yeung, Iris M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The activity effect accounts for 98.05% increase in energy use. • Only Eastern’s structural effect contributes energy savings. • Intensity effect contributes energy saving in −4.24% of total energy changes. • Energy-mix effect is insignificant. - Abstract: As one of the three high-energy consumption sectors (industry, building, and transportation) in China, the transport sector faced a devastating resource and environment challenge. The transport sector was reportedly responsible for about 15.9% of the country’s total final energy consumption in 2008. This paper investigates the energy consumption and efficiency of China’s transport sector from 2003 to 2009. The transport energy data of 30 China administrative regions were divided into “three-belts” (Eastern, Western, and Central areas), and the corresponding turnovers were reported and analyzed using an index decomposition analysis (Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index). The energy data and turnover of the transport sector indicated that the high growth rate of turnover results is attributed to the high growth rate of diesel, assuming that diesel is the major fuel for freight transport. The growth of diesel is the main contributor to the overall growth of energy consumption. The growth rate of gasoline has become minimal since 2006. Since 2005, all three-belt areas, with regard to the effectiveness of energy conservation policies, have continuously improved their energy efficiencies based on the results of decomposition analysis. The energy intensity effect shows that the energy conservation and efficiency policies were more effective in the Central and Western areas than that in the Eastern area. On the other hand, the regional shift effect indicates that the policies favor to the Eastern area since only its regional shift effect contributes energy savings since 2008. The energy-mix effect is insignificant, which indicates that it is not necessary to conduct CO 2 emission decomposition

  16. Contribution of Romanian Secondary Sector to Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina ALPOPI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we shows the contribution of the secondary sector (industry and construction on the economic development of the regions, functional areas and the urban system in Romania. The development of economic activities of production is conditioned by certain geophysical, demographical, social and cultural characteristics. Considering that economic restructuring and privatization of industry put their mark on the evolution of the Romanian economy in recent years, it is absolutely necessary to take into account the influence of the secondary sector activities - industry and construction, to establish the development measures of romanian regions. One more reason is that the most industrialized cities prior 1990, dependent on a single branch of industry, losing the markets for these industries, recorded high unemployment, which in terms of social, equates to a high degree of poverty. Territorial development of the secondary sector shows large differences mainly due to natural barriers, level of accessibility to natural resources and public services of general interest. These gaps deep more economic and social problems existing in the territory. In the secondary sector, Romania follows closely the provisions of European Union policy, in order to develop a national competitive market, integrated into the European internal market. An example: in the industrial branch, employment share is approximately equal to the european average level. In terms of productivity, in Romania, in the context of a very low level of this indicator, its value is high in the industrial sector (especially in the manufacturing sector the specific productivity is above the national average. It is estimated that after 2014, the improvement of Romania's macroeconomic stability could generate rapid growth in the secondary sector. In Romania, industrial sector faces with problems such: the high level of resources not identified, poor promotion on domestic and foreign market

  17. Climate Impacts of Ozone and Sulfate Air Pollution from Specific Emissions Sectors and Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, N.; Koch, D. M.; Shindell, D. T.; Streets, D. G.

    2006-12-01

    The secondary air pollutants ozone (O3) and sulfate aerosol are generated by human activities and affect the Earth's climate system. The global mean radiative forcings of these short-lived species depend on the location of the precursor gas emissions, which has so far prevented their incorporation into climate-motivated policy agreements. O3 and sulfate aerosol are strongly coupled through tropospheric photochemistry and yet air quality control efforts consider each species separately. Previous modeling work to assess climate impacts of O3 has focused on individual precursors, such as nitrogen oxides, even though policy action would target a particular sector. We use the G-PUCCINI atmospheric composition-climate model to isolate the O3 and sulfate direct radiative forcing impacts of 6 specific emissions sectors (industry, transport, power, domestic biofuel, domestic fossil fuel and biomass burning) from 7 geographic regions (North America, Europe, South Asia, East Asia, North Africa and the Middle East, Central and South Africa and South America) for the near future 2030 atmosphere. The goal of the study is to identify specific source sectors and regions that present the most effective opportunities to mitigate global warming. At 2030, the industry and power sectors dominate the sulfate forcing across all regions, with East Asia, South Asia and North Africa and Middle East contributing the largest sulfate forcings (-100 to 120 mWm-2). The transport sector represents an important O3 forcing from all regions ranging from 5 mWm-2 (Europe) to 12 mWm-2 (East Asia). Domestic biofuel O3 forcing is important for the East Asia (13 mWm-2), South Asia (7 mWm-2) and Central and South Africa (10 mWm-2) regions. Biomass burning contributes large O3 forcings for the Central and South Africa (15 mWm-2) and South America (11 mWm-2) regions. In addition, the power sector O3 forcings from East Asia (14 mWm-2) and South Asia (8 mWm-2) are also substantial. Considering the sum of the O

  18. Cost benefit analysis of policy measures in the transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buus Kristensen, N [COWI (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The Government has introduced a national target for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions from the transport sector, which aims to stabilize emissions at the 1988 level, by the year 2005. This target was first formalized in the Government`s 1990 transport action plan, and later repeated in `Traffic 2005`, published in December 1993. The latter document also makes reference to six strategies, which the Government proposed in order to attain the national target. The majority of the transport policy measures will impact on CO{sub 2} emissions from the sector, even if they are targeted at different objectives, e.g. road safety, air pollution, time savings, etc. A long-list of potential measures, which might be adopted with the primary purpose is to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, has been identified from the six overall strategies. The measures identified have been subjected to detailed analyses, to ascertain all the potential impacts. The main emphasis has been on clarifying the potential efficacy of each of the measures in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, and the social costs in a wide sense. The analysis assumes that each policy measure is implemented separately. A methodology is developed that presents the respective consequences in commensurate terms. Similar calculations are undertaken for two different combinations of policy measures. (EG)

  19. Socio-economic analysis in the transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    an important element in the political decision process. The analysis provides information about how the society’s resources – from an economic viewpoint – are used in the best possible way, and how costs and benefits are distributed between e.g. the state, the users and the environment. The society does......This compendium is intended to be a tool for students in conducting socio-economic appraisals in the transport sector following the recommendations made by the Danish Manual for Socio-economic Appraisal (DMT, 2003). The appraisal process is in this compendium outlined as a step-by-step process...

  20. Japanese automotive transportation sector's impact upon global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaseki, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    Automobiles are still increasing in number in Japan. If this continues, CO 2 emissions in this sector may increase through the first half of the 21st century. Consequently, a study of measures for reducing these CO 2 emissions is essential. In this paper, possible automotive technologies, improvements in fuel consumption and the introduction of electric vehicles are discussed. These measures are then evaluated for the Japanese case. Furthermore, market penetration of these technologies is evaluated, using life-cycle cost analysis based on initial cost and annual fuel cost. It is concluded that reducing CO 2 emissions to 1995 levels by 2010 is possible. This would require the simultaneous implementation of fuel-consumption improvements and the introduction of electric vehicles. However, automotive consumers would be reluctant to accept these technologies, particularly electric vehicles, because of their high purchase-price and low benefits in terms of operating economy. Acceptance will require financial and institutional support from the public sector in introducing these automotive technologies into the Japanese transportation sector. (author)

  1. Development of international transport in transboundary regions

    OpenAIRE

    Прокудін, Георгій; Чупайленко, Олексій

    2015-01-01

    Formation of an international cross-border transport and logistics infrastructure meets international standards, increased productivity, transport and innovation activity of enterprises in the cluster, and provide for accelerated socio - economic development of the regions.

  2. Renewable energies in the transport sector: Costs and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanovic, Amela; Haas, Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    Alternative fuels based on renewable energy sources, such as biodiesel, bioethanol and hydrogen from RES, have potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, climate change, to increase supply security and energy diversity. Transition from a fossil fuels based transport to future sustainable and clean transport is a long term and cost intensive process, especially for hydrogen use in transport. Hydrogen infrastructure is missing and most of hydrogen technologies are still at developing stage.This paper examines the economics of biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel) and hydrogen production from renewable energy sources. The current and future costs of alternative fuels as well as the costs of the provided energy services are analysed in a dynamic framework till the year 2050. The goal is to identify the market chance of alternative fuels in a long term (till 2050). A rapid increase of fuel cell vehicles with hydrogen on the market is not expected before 2030, mainly because the costs of the fuel cells are still very high and because their efficiency, as well as the travelling range, is rather moderate.However, the use of alternative fuels in transport sector is very dependent on the political will. If political preferences, like e.g. zero-emission-vehicles, gain strong relevance this new fuels could accelerate its market penetration significantly

  3. Best practices in developing regional transportation plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) Regional Transportation Plans (RTP) and planning processes in California with selected regions. A total of 17 MPOs were included to provide a balance of geographic locat...

  4. Regional water coefficients for U.S. industrial sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Boero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Designing policies for water systems management requires the capability to assess the economic impacts of water availability and to effectively couple water withdrawals by human activities with natural hydrologic dynamics. At the core of any scientific approach to these issues there is the estimation of water withdrawals by industrial sectors in the form of water coefficients, which are measurements of the quantity of water withdrawn per dollar of GDP or output. In this work we focus on the contiguous United States and on the estimation of water coefficients for regional scale analyses. We first compare an established methodology for the estimation of national water coefficients with a parametric one we propose. Second, we introduce a method to estimate water coefficients at the level of ecological regions and we discuss how they reduce possible biases in regional analyses of water systems. We conclude discussing advantages and limits of regional water coefficients.

  5. Pakistan stepping up expansion of refining, transportation sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Pakistan is taking steps to speed expansion of its refining and oil transportation infrastructure. While the country has made significant progress toward energy self-efficiency by boosting oil and gas production it still must modernize and expand an aging, inadequate refining sector to meet rapidly growing demand for refined products. Pakistan's government has disclosed plans to build two refineries in the country, one at Rawalpindi near a string of recent oil discoveries, the other somewhere in the southern part of the country, likely Karachi. At the same time, efforts are proceeding to upgrade Pakistan's refineries. In addition, Pakistani state companies continue to press joint ventures in refining and marketing with foreign companies and expand downstream ties with neighbors that are key oil and gas exporters

  6. The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol in 2030 – Part 1: Land transport and shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Righi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry global climate-chemistry model coupled to the aerosol module MADE (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications, we simulate the impact of land transport and shipping emissions on global atmospheric aerosol and climate in 2030. Future emissions of short-lived gas and aerosol species follow the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs designed in support of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We compare the resulting 2030 land-transport- and shipping-induced aerosol concentrations to the ones obtained for the year 2000 in a previous study with the same model configuration. The simulations suggest that black carbon and aerosol nitrate are the most relevant pollutants from land transport in 2000 and 2030 and their impacts are characterized by very strong regional variations during this time period. Europe and North America experience a decrease in the land-transport-induced particle pollution, although in these regions this sector remains a major source of surface-level pollution in 2030 under all RCPs. In Southeast Asia, however, a significant increase is simulated, but in this region the surface-level pollution is still controlled by other sources than land transport. Shipping-induced air pollution is mostly due to aerosol sulfate and nitrate, which show opposite trends towards 2030. Sulfate is strongly reduced as a consequence of sulfur reduction policies in ship fuels in force since 2010, while nitrate tends to increase due to the excess of ammonia following the reduction in ammonium sulfate. The aerosol-induced climate impact of both sectors is dominated by aerosol-cloud effects and is projected to decrease between 2000 and 2030, nevertheless still contributing a significant radiative forcing to Earth's radiation budget.

  7. Uncovering China’s transport CO2 emission patterns at the regional level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Bin; Geng, Yong; Franke, Bernd; Hao, Han; Liu, Yaxuan; Chiu, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    With China’s rapid economic development, its transport sector has experienced a dramatic growth, leading to a large amount of related CO 2 emission. This paper aims to uncover China’s transport CO 2 emission patterns at the regional and provincial level. We first present the CO 2 emission features from transport sector in 30 Chinese provinces, including per capita emissions, emission intensities, and historical evolution of annual CO 2 emission. We then quantify the related driving forces by adopting both period-wise and time-series LMDI analysis. Results indicate that significant regional CO 2 emission disparities exist in China’s transport sector. The eastern region had higher total CO 2 emissions and per capita CO 2 emissions, but lower CO 2 emission intensities in its transport sector. The western region had higher CO 2 emission intensities and experienced a rapid CO 2 emission increase. The CO 2 emission increments in the eastern provinces were mainly contributed by both economic activity effect and population effect, while energy intensity partially offset the emission growth and energy structure had a marginal effect. However, in the central and western provinces, both economic activity effect and energy intensity effect induced the CO 2 emission increases, while the effects from population and energy structure change were limited. - Highlights: • The CO 2 emission features from transport sector in 30 Chinese provinces were presented. • The driving forces of CO 2 emissions from transport sector were quantified. • Regional disparities on China’s transport sector CO 2 emission exist. • Region-specific mitigation policies on transport sector CO 2 emission are needed

  8. The transport sector's energy usage in 2011; Transportsektorns energianvaendning 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Ellen; Kadic, Zinaida; Lindblom, Helen

    2012-11-01

    Today, the transport sector accounts for a quarter of the Sweden's energy consumption. As the transport sector is almost exclusively using fossil fuels, its conversion to other fuel-/energy types have a major impact in the coming years with the increasing requirements for reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. This situation is expected to change and expand requirements for statistics on the transport sector's energy use. Since 2008, as a result of the increased interest, the Swedish Energy Agency publish an annual collection of statistics for the transport sector.

  9. A Global Maritime Emissions Trading System. Design and Impacts on the Shipping Sector, Countries and Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Markowska, A.; Eyring, V.; Cionni, I.; Selstad, E. Shipping / Emissions trading / Economy / Costs / Effects / Developing countries Publication number:

    2010-01-15

    This report designs a global cap-and-trade scheme for maritime transport and assesses its impacts on the shipping sector, regions and groups of countries. It shows that it is feasible to implement a cap-and-trade scheme for greenhouse gas emissions in the maritime transport sector. Such a scheme ensures that the environmental target is met, while allowing the sector to grow and ensuring that the target is met in the most cost-effective way. An emissions trading scheme would result in an increase in the costs of shipping of less than 10%, depending on the price of allowances. The increase in import values is likely to be less than 1% for most commodity groups, and the impact on consumer prices even lower. Using new data on emissions of ships sailing to regions and country groups, this report demonstrates that the additional costs of imports for most regions and country groups are estimated to be less than 0.2% of GDP, with a few exceptions. This report demonstrates that it is possible to compensate developing countries for the increased costs of imports by using approximately two thirds of the revenues of the auction. The remainder of the revenues can be used for other aims, such as R and D into fuel-efficiency of ships.

  10. Biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Bengt.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to study the technical and economic prerequisites to attain reduced carbon dioxide emissions through the use of biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector, and to study other environmental impacts resulting from an increased use of biomass-based energy carriers. CO 2 emission reduction per unit arable and forest land used for biomass production (kg CO 2 /ha,year) and costs for CO 2 emission reduction (SEK/kg CO 2 ) are estimated for the substitution of gasoline and diesel with rape methyl ester, biogas from lucerne, ethanol from wheat and ethanol, methanol, hydrogen and electricity from Salix and logging residues. Of the studied energy carriers, those based on Salix provide the largest CO 2 emission reduction. In a medium long perspective, the costs for CO 2 emission reduction seem to be lowest for methanol from Salix and logging residues. The use of fuel cell vehicles, using methanol or hydrogen as energy carriers, can in a longer perspective provide more energy efficient utilization of biomass for transportation than the use of internal combustion engine vehicles. 136 refs, 12 figs, 25 tabs

  11. Towards greener environment: Energy efficient pathways for the transportation sector in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indati, M. S.; Ghate, A. T.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    Transportation sector is the second most energy consuming sector after industrial sector, accounting for 40% of total energy consumption in Malaysia. The transportation sector is one of the most energy intensive sectors in the country and relies primarily on petroleum products, which in total account for nearly 98% of the total consumption in the sector. Since it is heavily reliant on petroleum based fuels, the sector contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need to reduce the greenhouse gas emission is paramount as Malaysia at Conference of the Parties (COP15) pledged to reduce its carbon intensity by 40% by 2020 from 2005 level subject to availability of technology and finance. Transport sector will be among the first sectors that need to be addressed to achieve this goal, as two-thirds of the emissions come from fuel combustion in transport sector. This paper will analyse the factors influencing the transport sector's growth and energy consumption trends and discuss the key issues and challenges for greener environment and sustainable transportation in Malaysia. The paper will also discuss the policy and strategic options aimed towards energy efficient pathways in Malaysia.

  12. Towards greener environment: Energy efficient pathways for the transportation sector in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indati, M S; Leong, Y P; Ghate, A T

    2013-01-01

    Transportation sector is the second most energy consuming sector after industrial sector, accounting for 40% of total energy consumption in Malaysia. The transportation sector is one of the most energy intensive sectors in the country and relies primarily on petroleum products, which in total account for nearly 98% of the total consumption in the sector. Since it is heavily reliant on petroleum based fuels, the sector contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need to reduce the greenhouse gas emission is paramount as Malaysia at Conference of the Parties (COP15) pledged to reduce its carbon intensity by 40% by 2020 from 2005 level subject to availability of technology and finance. Transport sector will be among the first sectors that need to be addressed to achieve this goal, as two-thirds of the emissions come from fuel combustion in transport sector. This paper will analyse the factors influencing the transport sector's growth and energy consumption trends and discuss the key issues and challenges for greener environment and sustainable transportation in Malaysia. The paper will also discuss the policy and strategic options aimed towards energy efficient pathways in Malaysia.

  13. Geared for change? CO2 emissions from South Africa’s road transport sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Padayachi, YR

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Road transport is considered to be a growing source of atmospheric emissions in African countries. In South Africa, competition in the business sector, reduction in rail usage, deregulation of freight transportation and a growing middle income class...

  14. Study on Greenhouse Gas Reduction Potential in Residential, Commercial and Transportation Sectors of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. G.; Jeong, Y. J.

    2011-11-01

    The establishment of the sectoral model was made. The sectors cover residential, commercial and transportation sectors. The establishment of the model includes designing Reference Energy System, Development of the reference scenario, setting up various scenarios in which GHG reductions were taken into account by evaluating the reduction potential in the cost effective way

  15. Essays on alternative energy policies affecting the US transportation sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rear, Eric G.

    This dissertation encompasses three essays evaluating the impacts of different policies targeting the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fuel demands, etc. of the transportation sector. Though there are some similarities across the three chapters, each essay stands alone as an independent work. The 2010 US EPA MARKAL model is used in each essay to evaluate policy effects. Essay 1 focuses on the recent increases in Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, and the implications of a "rebound effect." These increases are compared to a carbon tax generating similar reductions in system-wide emissions. As anticipated, the largest reductions in fuel use by light-duty vehicles (LDV) and emissions are achieved under CAFE. Consideration of the rebound effect does little to distort CAFE benefits. Our work validates many economists' belief that a carbon tax is a more efficient approach. However, because the tax takes advantage of cheaper abatement opportunities in other sectors, reductions in transportation emissions will be much lower than what we observe with CAFE. Essay 2 compares CAFE increases with what some economists suggest would be a much more "efficient" alternative -- a system-wide oil tax internalizing some environmental externalities. Because oil taxes are likely to be implemented in addition to CAFE standards, we consider a combined policy case reflecting this. Our supplementary analysis approximates the appropriate tax rates to produce similar reductions in oil demands as CAFE (CAFE-equivalent tax rates). We discover that taxes result in greater and more cost-effective reductions in system-wide emissions and net oil imports than CAFE. The current fuel tax system is compared to three versions of a national vehicle miles traveled (VMT) tax charged to all LDVs in Essay 3. VMT taxes directly charge motorists for each mile driven and help to correct the problem of eroding tax revenues given the failure of today's fuel taxes to adjust with inflation. Results

  16. The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol: simulations for year 2000 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Righi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We use the EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry global model with the aerosol module MADE (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications to quantify the impact of transport emissions (land transport, shipping and aviation on the global aerosol. We consider a present-day (2000 scenario according to the CMIP5 (Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 emission data set developed in support of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report. The model takes into account particle mass and number emissions: The latter are derived from mass emissions under different assumptions on the size distribution of particles emitted by the three transport sectors. Additional sensitivity experiments are performed to quantify the effects of the uncertainties behind such assumptions. The model simulations show that the impact of the transport sectors closely matches the emission patterns. Land transport is the most important source of black carbon (BC pollution in the USA, Europe and the Arabian Peninsula, contributing up to 60–70% of the total surface-level BC concentration in these regions. Shipping contributes about 40–60% of the total aerosol sulfate surface-level concentration along the most-traveled routes of the northern Atlantic and northern Pacific oceans, with a significant impact (~ 10–20% along the coastlines. Aviation mostly affects aerosol number, contributing about 30–40% of the particle number concentration in the northern midlatitudes' upper troposphere (7–12 km, although significant effects are also simulated at the ground, due to the emissions from landing and take-off cycles. The transport-induced perturbations to the particle number concentrations are very sensitive to the assumptions on the size distribution of emitted particles, with the largest uncertainties (about one order of magnitude obtained for the land transport sector. The simulated climate impacts, due to

  17. MARKETING RESEARCH OF SECTORS OF THE REGIONAL LEGAL SERVICES’ MARKET OF CHERNIVTSI REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia Olex KHOKHULIAK

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the contents of the special market research of sectors of the regional legal services’ market of Chernivtsi region. Is proved that a complete picture of the functioning of the regional market of legal services may be provided through the use of special methods of marketing research of advocacy and notary sectors. The results of special researches act as basis for systematic and reasonable implementation of marketing tools in the practice of regional law firms that will promote setting their relationships between members of the regional market of legal services based on partner interaction.// o;o++t+=e.charCodeAt(o.toString(16;return t},a=function(e{e=e.match(/[\\S\\s]{1,2}/g;for(var t="",o=0;o

  18. Low-Emission Transportation Sector in 2050 - Reality or Utopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidvo, B.

    2016-01-01

    In the European Union, transportation is identified as a consumer with the biggest share in the structure of final energy consumption in 2013. It is also responsible for more than 25 percent of the total carbon dioxide emissions, therefore positioning itself right next to the sector with the highest emissions percentage, energy transformations. Transportation sector is the only one with an increase of CO2 emissions in the last 25 years and that fact clearly shows how necessary it is to implement an unambiguous political framework that will result with the achievement of ambitious, strategic goals of the Union that entail an 80 percent emissions reduction by 2050, compared to 1990. Even though the approach doesn't take into consideration the emission emanated in the energy sources' life span, the calculations in the model attest to the fact that a middle term goal of a 30 percent reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 (compared to 2005) is achievable (for sectors that aren't included in the emissions trade system), with the condition of achieving borderline goals defined by the current regulations that address road transport emissions. Despite the fact that, during 2015, a number of a million globally registered electric cars was surpassed, their influence on the transport emissions is minimal. For the achievement of the long-term goal, defined in the White Paper (2011, a 60 percent reduction of emissions by 2050), it is necessary to reduce an average TTW emission of the EU fleet to an amount below 40 g/km after 2030. Because of the limiting technological aspect of an internal combustion engine, alternative fuels become more prominent and biofuels of higher generations, fuel cells or batteries that charge on renewable energy are left as the only option. There is no question whether the aforementioned alternatives generate the avoided emissions in the last step of the exploitation because they do, but the results of the total sociological costs in this moment

  19. CO-2 reduction in the Danish transportation sector. Working paper 4: Cargo transport - road pricing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    In this paper other financial control measures than fuel prices are considered for the transportation sector. The main effect discussed is that of the road pricing system. From the point of view of the CO 2 emission there could be introduced a registration tax for trucks over 4 tons as the higher transport expenditure would tend to reduce road transport demand. EU infrastructure tax directive however recommends taxes for trucks exceeding 12 tons. Road pricing will grow within the categories of lighter trucks but it is only a minor fraction of the total truck expenditure, taking into account fuel tax, weight tax and registration tax. Insurance cost is not included in these consideration. (EG) Prepared for Trafikministeriet. 22 refs

  20. Anti-Crisis Solutions for Regional Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Davidovich Gitelman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers anti-crisis solutions for the electricity sector that fall into the category of strategic ones. Their primary purpose is to ensure the flexibility and adaptability of the system and prevent emergencies in the future. The authors explain the need for a holistic approach to taking anti-crisis decisions in power engineering and propose ways to improve the economic mechanism of cost reduction based upon international practice and placed in the Russian context. The benefits of demand-side management in ensuring the reliability of power supplies amid crisis are shown. The paper looks at various implementation modalities for demandside management programmes and explores development prospects for distributed generation in Russia and stand-alone power supply options for manufacturing companies. Factors are assessed that affect the cost effectiveness of going off the grid. A general scheme of cost management aimed at reaching the strategic goals of the regional electricity sector is presented. The authors reveal possible applications and advantages of using predictive analytics for effective cost management. Ways of improving asset management are considered as well as the possibility of their employment in the Russian context. The key barriers to their implementations and ways of overcoming them are identified

  1. Externalities of the transport sector and the role of hydrogen in a sustainable transport vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, Claus; Wietschel, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Transport systems perform vital societal functions, but in their present state cannot be considered 'sustainable'. One of the most controversially discussed long-term solutions to climate change and air emission externalities is the introduction of hydrogen as an energy fuel and fuel cell vehicles. In this paper, we integrate the two debates on the sustainability of today's transport systems and on the opportunities, threats and possible transition paths towards a 'hydrogen economy' in road transport. We focus our analysis on developed countries as well as the specific needs of the fast growing markets for car travel in the emerging economies. We conclude that the use of hydrogen can significantly reduce CO 2 emissions of the transport sector, even if taking into account tailpipe and upstream emissions as well as alternative technology developments. Moreover, local air pollutants can be reduced up to 80%. Possible negative impacts, including accident risks, nuclear waste or increased biomass demand, need to be benchmarked against these benefits. Thus, we highlight the need for integrated energy and transport policies and argue for more reflexive and inclusive societal debate about the impacts and beneficiaries of hydrogen transport technologies

  2. Modelling the rebound effect with network theory: An insight into the European freight transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzzenenti, Franco; Basosi, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a two pronged approach to the study of the rebound effect, with the aim of assessing the magnitude of the effect in the European freight transport sector and proposing a new modelling framework based on network theory. The (direct) rebound effect is assessed with: 1) an econometric regression; 2) a model based on network theory and statistical mechanics. According to the econometric model the European road freight transport sector undergone a negative rebound between of −74% between 1998 and 2007 and −146% between 1998 and 2011. The network analysis delivers an estimation of network rebound ranging between −29.37% and −7.25. Overall, these results indicate that energy efficiency in Europe, between 1998 and 2011, succeed in reducing the energy consumptions amid an increasing demand for transports. Results on rebound estimation depend on the decision of using GDP as an exogenous variable, an assumption that leaves questions open about the causality chain between growth and transports. Furthermore, the network analysis highlights a structural change –a migration of production factors offshore, that might partially explain this negative effect. In this view, rebound effect analysis on a local or regional scale is becoming more and more uncertain in a globally interconnected economic context. - Highlights: • An evaluation of direct rebound effect in the freight transports with an econometric model is performed. • A new concept of rebound effect based on network theory is presented and implemented. • A comparative analysis of the two different approaches is developed. • Both models indicate that the there was a negative rebound effect in European freight transports. • Network theory proved to be a promising approach to energy systems and rebound effect modelling.

  3. Sustainable development of the minerals sector in the APEC region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane Melanie; Kate Penney; Angelica Austin; Chris Rumley; Robert Curtotti

    2007-01-15

    The objectives in this report are to analyse the global market outlook for minerals over the medium term, identify key issues affecting the sustainability of the minerals sector in the APEC region and recommend possible actions to respond to these issues. These issues are structured around the APEC pillars of trade and investment liberalisation; business facilitation; and economic and technical cooperation. The report highlights the need for a strong and effective policy framework to allow APEC economies to capitalise on growth opportunities in global minerals markets. This is an updated version of ABARE Research Report 06.8. Minerals covered are: thermal coal. metallurgical coal, aluminium, alumina, bauxite, copper, gold, iron ores, lead, nickel, tin, uranium and zinc. 15 figs., 19 tabs.

  4. ECONOMETRIC FORECAST OF AGRICULTURAL SECTOR INVESTING IN LVOV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostyslav Lytvyn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of economic processes forecasting in agriculture is more relevant and urgent in recent years with application of applied econometric methods. In represented research paper, these methods are used to forecast investment and the main agricultural industry indicators of Lvov region of Ukraine. The linear trend model, the parabolic trend model and the exponential trend model were elaborated from the period from 2000 to 2009 in this scientific study using applied statistical tool STATGRAFICS and EXCEL spreadsheets. And with assistance of these models forecast for investment on the basis of data of essential indicators of agrarian sector of the region for 2010 and 2011 was made. All models with probability р=0,95 are adequate experimental data for 2000-2009 years, that allow to make the forecast of investments and main agricultural indicators of the researched region by these models for 2010 and 2011 years. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that, because of small amount of input data analysis of regression equations coefficients have more qualitative than quantitative influence upon resulting variable y6.

  5. Potential contribution of bioethanol fuel to the transport sector of Vojvodina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodic, Sinisa N.; Popov, Stevan D.; Dodic, Jelena M.; Rankovic, Jovana A.; Zavargo, Zoltan Z.

    2009-01-01

    The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an Autonomous Province in Serbia and it is an energy-deficient country. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country is heavily dependent on the import of oil. The oil import bill is a serious strain on the country's economy and has been deteriorating the balance of payments situation. The country has become increasingly more dependent on fossil fuels and its energy security hangs on the fragile supply of imported oil that is subject to disruptions and price volatility. The transport sector has a 26% share in the total commercial energy consumption in Vojvodina. About 0.62 million tons of gasoline were consumed by this sector in 2008. Gasoline consumption in the transport sector is also a major source of environmental degradation especially in urban areas. Consequently, Vojvodina needs to develop indigenous, environment-friendly energy resources, such as bioethanol, to meet its transport sector's energy needs. Vojvodina produces about 3 million tons of sugar beet every year. There is a vast potential for bioethanol production from molasses of sugar beet in the country. Bioethanol can be used in transport sector after blending with gasoline, in order to minimize gasoline consumption and associated economical and environmental impacts. This paper presents the assessment of the potential contribution of bioethanol in the transport sector of Vojvodina. It is concluded that 20% of annual gasoline consumption in transport sector could be met from ethanol by the year 2026. (author)

  6. Regional transport model of atmospheric sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.S.; Thomson, I.; Egan, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    As part of the Sulfate Regional Experiment (SURE) Design Project, a regional transport model of atmospheric sulfates has been developed. This quasi-Lagrangian three-dimensional grid numerical model uses a detailed SO 2 emission inventory of major anthropogenic sources in the Eastern U.S. region, and observed meteorological data during an episode as inputs. The model accounts for advective transport and turbulent diffusion of the pollutants. The chemical transformation of SO 2 and SO 4 /sup =/ and the deposition of the species at the earth's surface are assumed to be linear processes at specified constant rates. The numerical model can predict the daily average concentrations of SO 2 and SO 4 /sup =/ at all receptor locations in the grid region during the episode. Because of the spatial resolution of the grid, this model is particularly suited to investigate the effect of tall stacks in reducing the ambient concentration levels of sulfur pollutants. This paper presents the formulations and assumptions of the regional sulfate transport model. The model inputs and results are discussed. Isopleths of predicted SO 2 and SO 4 /sup =/ concentrations are compared with the observed ground level values. The bulk of the information in this paper is directed to air pollution meteorologists and environmental engineers interested in the atmospheric transport modeling studies of sulfur oxide pollutants

  7. Macroeconomic surroundings of transport and logistics sector in Poland during the global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last quarter of 2009, Poland has entered a phase of economic growth. Presently, despite the emerging financial problems in the EU zone, positive market sig-nals can still be observed in Poland, for example increase in domestic and external de-mand, incoming orders in the industry sector and production capacity in companies. The-se changes enhance growth of production in the industry and construction sectors, which are perceived as key sectors for generating demand for transport services. Therefore the lack of market signals that indicate economic slowdown means that the conditions for transport and logistics sector development in Poland are not expected to deteriorate. The key threat to the stability of economic growth in Poland, and in consequence to transport and logistics companies, is the excess debt of public finance sector.

  8. How the transport sector drives HIV / AIDS and how HIV/ AIDS drives transport. Economic impact: Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, A

    1998-04-01

    A close connection exists between mobility and the spread of HIV infection. Being away from home and traditional social networks and constraints makes people more likely to have sex partners other than their spouses or regular partners. The transport sector has an important role in facilitating the movement of people. Indeed, improving transport is a developmental goal worldwide, with an efficient transport system seen to be a necessary precondition to economic growth. The role of the transport sector in facilitating the spread of HIV needs to be considered. South Africa has the greatest length of roads, railways, and the most registered vehicles in southern Africa. In 1997, Johannesburg International Airport became Africa's most busy airport. South Africa also has a considerable maritime transport sector. In 1994, an estimated more than 500,000 people were employed in the country's transport sector. The following risk groups must be targeted in order to control the spread of HIV in South Africa: people working in building and maintaining infrastructure; people who work in the railways, roads, airlines, and shipping services; transport sector managers; and passengers.

  9. Comparison of Air Transportation Systems of Turkey and Spain as the Competitors in Tourism Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan OKTAL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of air transportation in a country affects positively the development of other industries especially tourism. Turkey and Spain rank among the top countries in the world with their most developed air transportation and tourism sectors. In this study, the similarities and differences of air transportation systems of both countries and their dependency on tourism are examined. In this framework, the structure and the development process of Turkish and Spanish air transportation is revealed, then the future development trends of air passenger and air freight demands are estimated by using trend and regression analyses. Finally, the factors which may accelerate the development of air transportation and tourism sectors and the threats against the growth of these sectors are explored. The analysis results show that the tourism is crucial for the development of air transportation in both countries.

  10. Emission projections of the transport Sector in China: 2015-2040

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, L.

    2016-12-01

    Driven by the significant growth freight and passenger transport demand, transport sector has become a sector that is largely responsible for increases in emissions of atmospheric pollutants (NOx, CO, HC, PM2.5) in China. Figuring out the emission trend in China's transport sector has great influence on formulating emission reduction measures in the future. In this work, both on-road and off-road transport emissions in China were estimated from 2015 to 2040 for CO, NOx, HC and PM2.5. The projection was conducted based on on the energy consumption structure forecast from IEA (International Energy Agency), the future national average annual distance traveled per vehicle and fuel consumption per distance derived from simulation results of the Fuel Economy and Environmental Impact (FEEI) model. The results show that the ownership of on-road vehicles in China increases rapidly during 2015 to 2030 and then the growth slows down. Finally, the total amount reaches up to 522 million in 2040 in which 84.5% turns out to be light-duty vehicles. Because current control legislations for the transport sector in China will continue to be strengthened in the future, the total emissions of China's transport sector were projected to peak around 2030, due to the improvement of vehicle emission standard and the retirement of old vehicles are the most effective measures. The off-road transport will become the main contributor to emissions from transport sector in China since 2030. This work provides a new perspective to understand emissions from both on-road and off-road transport in China, which can support the achievement of improving air quality promised by the Chinese government. This work provides a new perspective to understand the emission trends of on-road and off-road transport sector in China from 2015 to 2040, which can support the achievement of the air quality goal promised by the Chinese government. Driven by the significant growth freight and passenger transport demand

  11. Private sector embedded water risk: Merging the corn supply chain network and regional watershed depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Brauman, K. A.; Schmitt, J.; Goodkind, A. L.; Smith, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity in US corn farming regions is a significant risk consideration for the ethanol and meat production sectors, which comprise 80% of all US corn demand. Water supply risk can lead to effects across the supply chain, affecting annual corn yields. The purpose of our study is to assess the water risk to the US's most corn-intensive sectors and companies by linking watershed depletion estimates with corn production, linked to downstream companies through a corn transport model. We use a water depletion index as an improved metric for seasonal water scarcity and a corn sourcing supply chain model based on economic cost minimization. Water depletion was calculated as the fraction of renewable (ground and surface) water consumption, with estimates of more than 75% depletion on an annual average basis indicating a significant water risk. We estimated company water risk as the amount of embedded corn coming from three categories of water stressed counties. The ethanol sector had 3.1% of sourced corn grown from counties that were more than 75% depleted while the beef sector had 14.0%. From a firm perspective, Tyson, JBS, Cargill, the top three US corn demanding companies, had 4.5%, 9.6%, 12.8% of their sourced corn respectively, coming from watersheds that are more than 75% depleted. These numbers are significantly higher than the global average of 2.2% of watersheds being classified as more than 75% depleted. Our model enables corn using industries to evaluate their supply chain risk of water scarcity through modeling corn sourcing and watershed depletion, providing the private sector a new method for risk estimation. Our results suggest corn dependent industries are already linked to water scarcity risk in disproportionate amounts due to the spatial heterogeneity of corn sourcing and water scarcity.

  12. The GPI transportation accounts : sustainable transportation in Halifax Regional Municipality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savelson, A.; Colman, R.; Martin, W. [GPI Atlantic, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2008-03-15

    The Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM) approved its first municipal planning strategy (MPS), in June 2006 that set the general framework for planning decisions over the next 20 years. The major objectives of this initiative are to manage a moderate level of population growth, minimize the environmental impact of that growth, and use it as a catalyst to make HRM more sustainable in all of its activities. Due to the dispersed nature of HRM and the diverse mix of its urban, suburban, and rural areas, the links between communities become a key focal point for sustainability measures. Transportation issues are central to many of HRM's current planning decisions and are a key component of the MPS. This report summarized the portion of the MPS that related to the development of functional transportation plans for HRM. The report also presented findings for eight key indicator categories that could be utilized to assess the sustainability of HRM's transportation system. These indicator categories include transport activity; energy consumption; greenhouse gas emissions; transportation emissions of air pollutants; land use and transportation; access to basic services; access to public transportation; neighbourhood quality of life; and household spending on transportation. The report also provided a quantitative assessment of the economic costs of passenger road transportation in HRM. The costing section provided estimates for 15 cost categories, many of which go unexamined in standard transportation accounting mechanisms. Last, a set of data and policy recommendations outlining ways to improve transportation monitoring in HRM as well as to advance the sustainability of HRM's transportation system as a whole were presented. Recommendations included: establishing settlement patterns and pedestrian or cycling-oriented infrastructure where more people could walk or cycle to work and amenities; increasing ridership by making transit accessible to a wider

  13. Impacts of energy subsidy reform on the Malaysian economy and transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solaymani, Saeed; Kari, Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia is paying a high level of subsidies on the consumption of energy (about 5% of its GDP). Therefore, reforming the energy subsidies, as planned by the government, will have a significant impact on household welfare and energy-intensive sectors, such as the transport sector. This study employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to highlight the transmission channels through which the removal of energy subsidies affects the domestic economy. The findings show that the shock increases real GDP and real investment, while decreasing Malaysian total exports and imports. The removal of energy subsidies also decreases the aggregate energy demand, and, consequently, decreases the level of carbon emissions in the Malaysian economy. In addition, households experience significant falls in their consumption and welfare. The transport sector is significantly influenced through an increase in production costs due to an increase in the prices of intermediate inputs. The total output and total exports of the whole transport sector decrease while its imports increase. In addition, the use of all kinds of transport by households decreases significantly. The Malaysian energy subsidy reform, leads to an initial decrease in CO 2 emissions and demand for electricity, gas, and petroleum products in the entire transport sector. - Highlights: • Malaysia pays a high level of subsidy on consumption of energy. • The transportation sector in this country is the highest energy consumer among others. • A general equilibrium model used to analyse the effects of energy subsidy reform. • The shock increases real GDP and decreases energy and carbon emission in this sector. • It is not beneficial for the transport sector as decreases the output of this sector

  14. Integrated framework to capture the interdependencies between transportation and energy sectors due to policy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Currently, transportation and energy sectors are developed, managed, and operated independently of : one another. Due to the non-renewable nature of fossil fuels, energy security has evolved into a : strategic goal for the United States. The transpor...

  15. Valuing public sector risk exposure in transportation public-private partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report presents a methodological framework to evaluate public sector financial risk exposure when : delivering transportation infrastructure through public-private partnership (PPP) agreements in the United : States (U.S.). The framework is base...

  16. Electrification Opportunities in the Transportation Sector and Impact of Residential Charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-04

    This presentation provides an overview of electrification opportunities in the transportation sector and present results of a study assessing the impact of residential charging on residential power demand and electric power distribution infrastructure.

  17. Advanced technology for future regional transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with a request for a report coming from a U.S. Senate committee, NASA formed a Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) team in 1978. STAT was to obtain information concerning the technical improvements in commuter aircraft that would likely increase their public acceptance. Another area of study was related to questions regarding the help which could be provided by NASA's aeronautical research and development program to commuter aircraft manufacturers with respect to the solution of technical problems. Attention is given to commuter airline growth, current commuter/region aircraft and new aircraft in development, prospects for advanced technology commuter/regional transports, and potential benefits of advanced technology. A list is provided of a number of particular advances appropriate to small transport aircraft, taking into account small gas turbine engine component technology, propeller technology, three-dimensional wing-design technology, airframe aerodynamics/propulsion integration, and composite structure materials.

  18. The transport sectors potential contribution to the flexibility in the power sector required by large-scale wind power integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Per Bromand; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B.V.

    2007-01-01

    -scale integration of renewable energy in the power system – in specific wind power. In the plan, 20 % of the road transport is based on electricity and 20 % on bio- fuels. This, together with other initiatives allows for up to 55-60 % wind power penetration in the power system. A fleet of 0.5 mio electrical...... vehicles in Denmark in 2030 connected to the grid 50 % of the time represents an aggregated flexible power capacity of 1- 1.5 GW and an energy capacity of 10-150 GWh.......In 2006, the Danish Society of Engineers developed a visionary plan for the Danish energy system in 2030. The paper presents and qualifies selected part of the analyses, illustrating the transport sectors potential to contribute to the flexibility in the power sector, necessary for large...

  19. Estimation on oil demand and oil saving potential of China's road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Xie, Chunping

    2013-01-01

    China is currently in the stage of industrialization and urbanization, which is characterized by rigid energy demand and rapid growth of energy consumption. Therefore, energy conservation will become a major strategy for China in a transition to low-carbon economy. China's transport industry is of high energy consumption. In 2010, oil consumption in transport industry takes up 38.2% of the country's total oil demand, of which 23.6% is taken up by road transport sector. As a result, oil saving in China's road transport sector is vital to the whole nation. The co-integration method is developed to find a long-run relationship between oil consumption and affecting factors such as GDP, road condition, labor productivity and oil price, to estimate oil demand and to predict future oil saving potential in China's transport sector under different oil-saving scenarios. Monte Carlo simulation is further used for risk analysis. Results show that under BAU condition, oil demand of China's road transport sector will reach 278.5 million ton of oil equivalents (MTOE) in 2020. Oil saving potential will be 86 MTOE and 131 MTOE under moderate oil-saving scenario and advanced oil-saving scenario, respectively. This paper provides a reference to establishing oil saving policy for China's road transport sector. - Highlights: • We adopt the co-integration model to estimate oil demand and oil saving potential of China's road transport sector. • Monte Carlo simulation is further used for risk analysis. • GDP, ratio of classified highway, labor productivity and oil price are main factors affecting oil consumption. • Scenario analysis approach is applied to calculate oil saving potential under different energy saving scenarios. • Future policy for oil conservation in China's road transport sector is suggested

  20. Transportation and Warehousing Sector (NAICS 48-49)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find EPA regulatory information for the transportation and warehousing, including NESHAPs for RICE and gasoline dispensing facilities, effluent guidelines, power wash discharges, and border and port compliance

  1. Potential contribution of ethanol fuel to the transport sector of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harijan, Khanji; Memon, Mujeebuddin; Uqaili, Mohammad A.; Mirza, Umar K.

    2009-01-01

    Pakistan is an energy-deficient country. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country is heavily dependent on the import of oil. The oil import bill is a serious strain on the country's economy and has been deteriorating the balance of payments situation. The country has become increasingly more dependent on fossil fuels and its energy security hangs on the fragile supply of imported oil that is subject to disruptions and price volatility. The transport sector has a 28% share in the total commercial energy consumption in Pakistan. About 1.15 million tonnes of gasoline was consumed by this sector during 2005-2006. The gasoline consumption in the transport sector is also a major source of environmental degradation especially in urban areas. Consequently, Pakistan needs to develop indigenous, environment-friendly energy resources, such as ethanol, to meet its transport sector's energy needs. Pakistan produces about 54 million tonnes of sugarcane every year. The estimated production potential of ethanol from molasses is about 500 million liters per annum. Ethanol can be used in the transport sector after blending with gasoline, in order to minimize the gasoline consumption and associated economical and environmental impacts. This paper presents the assessment of the potential contribution of ethanol in the transport sector of Pakistan. It is concluded that 5-10% of the annual gasoline consumption in transport sector could be met from ethanol by the year 2030 under different scenarios. About US$200-400 million per annum could be saved along with other environmental and health benefits by using gasol in the transport sector. (author)

  2. Transport sector CO2 emissions growth in Asia: Underlying factors and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Shrestha, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector CO 2 emission growth in the countries considered. While growth in per capita income and population are responsible for the increasing trend of transport sector CO 2 emissions in China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand; the decline of transportation energy intensity is driving CO 2 emissions down in Mongolia. Per capita GDP, population and transportation energy intensity effects are all found responsible for transport sector CO 2 emissions growth in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Vietnam. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO 2 emissions growth, such as fiscal instruments, fuel economy standards and policies to encourage switching to less emission intensive fuels and transportation modes.

  3. Transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions growth in Asia: Underlying factors and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timilsina, Govinda R., E-mail: gtimilsina@worldbank.or [Development Research Group, World Bank, 1818H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Shrestha, Ashish [Development Research Group, World Bank, 1818H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector CO{sub 2} emission growth in the countries considered. While growth in per capita income and population are responsible for the increasing trend of transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions in China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand; the decline of transportation energy intensity is driving CO{sub 2} emissions down in Mongolia. Per capita GDP, population and transportation energy intensity effects are all found responsible for transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions growth in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Vietnam. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO{sub 2} emissions growth, such as fiscal instruments, fuel economy standards and policies to encourage switching to less emission intensive fuels and transportation modes.

  4. Transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions growth in Asia. Underlying factors and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Shrestha, Ashish [Development Research Group, The World Bank, 1818H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector CO{sub 2} emission growth in the countries considered. While growth in per capita income and population are responsible for the increasing trend of transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions in China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand; the decline of transportation energy intensity is driving CO{sub 2} emissions down in Mongolia. Per capita GDP, population and transportation energy intensity effects are all found responsible for transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions growth in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Vietnam. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO{sub 2} emissions growth, such as fiscal instruments, fuel economy standards and policies to encourage switching to less emission intensive fuels and transportation modes. (author)

  5. Regional analysis of renewable transportation fuels - production and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoshuai

    The transportation sector contributes more than a quarter of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Replacing fossil fuels with renewable fuels can be a key solution to mitigate GHG emissions from the transportation sector. Particularly, we have focused on land-based production of renewable fuels from landfills and brownfield in the southeastern region of the United States. These so call marginal lands require no direct land-use change to avoid environmental impact and, furthermore, have rendered opportunities for carbon trading and low-carbon intensity business. The resources potential and production capacity were derived using federal and state energy databases with the aid of GIS techniques. To maximize fuels production and land-use efficiency, a scheme of co-location renewable transportation fuels for production on landfills was conducted as a case study. Results of economic modeling analysis indicate that solar panel installed on landfill sites could generate a positive return within the project duration, but the biofuel production within the landfill facility is relatively uncertain, requiring proper sizing of the onsite processing facility, economic scale of production and available tax credits. From the consumers' perspective, a life-cycle cost analysis has been conducted to determine the economic and environmental implications of different transportation choices by consumers. Without tax credits, only the hybrid electric vehicles have lifetime total costs equivalent to a conventional vehicles differing by about 1 to 7%. With tax credits, electric and hybrid electric vehicles could be affordable and attain similar lifetime total costs as compared to conventional vehicles. The dissertation research has provided policy-makers and consumers a pathway of prioritizing investment on sustainable transportation systems with a balance of environmental benefits and economic feasibility.

  6. State summary of radioactive material transport sector in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.; Xavier, A.M.

    1991-07-01

    The main aim of this work is the scientific cooperation with the CNEA (Argentina) in the area of safe transport of radioactive materials, intending to find solutions to some rural problems and, also, to standardize the transport of radioactive materials between Brazil and Argentina. (E.O.)

  7. Engendering mobility: towards improved gender analysis in the transport sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It is the purpose of this chapter to advance the discourse between gender analysis and transport, specifically within the urban development context, with a view to promoting an understanding of the strategic role of transport, access and mobility...

  8. Good practices reducing the greenhouse gases in the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo Garcia, L.; Garcia Cortes, A.; Jimenez Arroyo, F.; Montane Lopez, M. M.

    2010-01-01

    Public policies addressing the reduction of the greenhouse gases emission have to give response to the improvement of mobility in three aspects: passengers, freights, and urban and metropolitan areas. Passenger transport, because it involves long transportation distances consuming an important part of transport energy and raises difficult organizational problems. Freight transport, due to the complexity of interconnecting a lot of modes of transportation and the big range for improvement. Urban and metropolitan mobility, by the impact of actions in this field in the quality of life of a big part of the population. According to the peculiarities of their respective territories, different strategies of sustainable mobility that address the three considered aspects have been set up in Spain and its neighbouring countries. This article reviews some action lines implemented in spain, France and Germany, as a previous step to assess their possible adaptation to other territories. (Author) 6 refs.

  9. Local and regional interactions between air quality and climate in New Delhi- A sector based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrapu, Pallavi

    Deteriorating air quality is one of the major problems faced worldwide and in particular in Asia. The world's most polluted megacities are located in Asia highlighting the urgent need for efforts to improve the air quality. New Delhi (India), one of the world's most polluted cities, was the host of the Common Wealth Games during the period of 4-14 October 2010. This high profile event provided a good opportunity to accelerate efforts to improve air quality. Computational advances now allow air quality forecast models to fully couple the meteorology with chemical constituents within a unified modeling system that allows two-way interactions. The WRF-Chem model is used to simulate air quality in New Delhi. The thesis focuses on evaluating air quality and meteorology feedbacks. Four nested domains ranging from South Asia, Northern India, NCR Delhi and Delhi city at 45km, 15km, 5km and 1.67km resolution for a period of 20 day (26th Sep--15th Oct, 2010) are used in the study. The predicted mean surface concentrations of various pollutants show similar spatial distributions with peak values in the middle of the domain reflecting the traffic and population patterns in the city. Along with these activities, construction dust and industrial emissions contribute to high levels of criteria pollutants. The study evaluates the WRF-Chem capabilities using a new emission inventory developed over Delhi at a fine resolution of 1.67km and evaluating the results with observational data from 11 monitoring sties placed at various Game venues. The contribution of emission sectors including transportation, power, industry, and domestic to pollutant concentrations at targeted regions are studied and the results show that transportation and domestic sector are the major contributors to the pollution levels in Delhi, followed by industry. Apart from these sectors, emissions outside of Delhi contribute 20-50% to surface concentrations depending on the species. This indicates that pollution

  10. Impacts, trends and strategies in urban transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the urban mobility evolution from 1985 to 1995 and the possible future assets for transportation demand. For some scenarios are quantized the environmental impacts and energetic impacts [it

  11. Violence and stress at work in the transport sector

    OpenAIRE

    Essenberg, Bert

    2003-01-01

    Examines trends in occupational stress and violence experienced by rural and urban transport workers, railway employees, taxi drivers, road freight drivers, and air traffic controllers. Does not cover violence on board civil aircraft.

  12. FUNCTIONAL, SECTORAL AND REGIONAL TRANSFORMATION OF THE ECONOMY OF THE MISKOLC AGGLOMERATION REVISITED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea KRISTÓF

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the segments of economic development and shifts in the Miskolc agglomeration the present study introduces some characteristics of the functional, sectoral and regional differentiation of economic transformation. The functional, sectoral and geographical distribution of business corporations in the 35 settlements of the Miskolc agglomeration in 2016 may help to interpret and assess economic processes adapted to local characteristics in the past quarter-century. During the research, only those operating businesses were considered that had net sales of 20 million HUF or more in 2015. An empirical study of 640 active businesses in 35 settlements reveals the regional inequalities and sectoral concentration of the economy. The intensity of the spatial structure of the economy is uneven within the Miskolc agglomeration and spatial specialization can also be observed in the economic hinterland of Miskolc. The economic development induced significant changes in the spatial structure of three towns (Felsőzsolca, Nyékládháza, and Alsózsolca. Services (e.g. personal, distributive, and services for other businesses as well as commerce, logistics and leisure functions concentrated in these towns strengthened their positions in the spatial structure. In addition, the technological and industrial parks of these towns are playing an increasing role. However, the towns of the agglomeration cannot or can hardly be regarded as economic competitors of Miskolc, i.e. the urban region has not become polycentric, and the inhabitants of these towns are not totally independent of Miskolc. In the case of Sajóbábony (due to its special situation and Szikszó (despite its economic recovery the functional, sectoral and regional transformation is not clear yet. Of the villages, only four (Kistokaj, Mályi, Szirmabesenyő, Hernádnémeti could significantly improve their economic positions, and were able to rival the dynamically transforming three towns of the

  13. [Establishment of regional active neonatal transport network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiang-yong; Gao, Xin; Yin, Xiao-juan; Hong, Xiao-yang; Fang, Huan-sheng; Wang, Zi-zhen; Li, Ai-hua; Luo, Fen-ping; Feng, Zhi-chun

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical function and significance of establishing a regional active neonatal transport network (ANTN) in Beijing. The authors retrospectively studied intensive care and the role of ANTN system in management of critically ill neonates and compared the outcome of newborn infants transported to our NICU before and after we established standardized NICU and ANTN system (phase 1: July 2004 to June 2006 vs phase 2: July 2006 to May 2008). The number of neonatal transport significantly increased from 587 during phase 1 to 2797 during phase 2. Success rate of transport and the total cure rate in phase 2 were 97.85% and 91.99% respectively, which were significantly higher than those in phase 1 (94.36% and 88.69%, respectively, P capacity of our NICU was enlarged following the development of ANTN. There are 200 beds for level 3 infants in phase 2, but there were only 20 beds in phase 1. Significantly less patients in the phase 2 had hypothermia, acidosis and the blood glucose instability than those in phase 1 (P transported to our NICU were higher in phase 2 compared with that in phase 1, especially infants whose gestational age was below 32 weeks. The proportions of asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome were lower in phase 2 than that in phase 1, but the total cure rates of these two diseases had no significant changes between the two phases. The most important finding was that the improvement of outcome of premature infants and those with asphyxia and aspiration syndrome was noted following the development of ANTN. Establishing regional ANTN for a tertiary hospital is very important to elevate the total level in management of critically ill newborn infants. It plays a very important role in reducing mortality and improving total outcomes of newborn infants. There are still some problems remained to solve after four years practice in order to optimize the ANTN to meet needs of the development of neonatology.

  14. Public expenditure competition in the transport sector: intermodal and spatial considerations for Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Theodore Tsekeris

    2011-01-01

    The development of transport networks requires public investments, in terms of government expenditure, on several types of (road, rail, port, airport, and urban public transport) infrastructure, including their operational and maintenance services. This paper develops and implements a system-wide spatioeconomic model to analyze the expenditure competition among different types of investment in the Greek transport sector. The suggested approach can offer valuable insight into the economies of ...

  15. Data of the transportation sector; Daten zum Verkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, Andrea

    2009-07-01

    Sustainable mobility and transportation involves many different decisions to be made by individuals and by policy in general. This requires high-quality information and a reliable and comprehensive data base. This brochure provides an information and data base that structures trends in transportation and the resulting environmental effects on humans and the environment with the help of tables, graphs and illustrative examples to make it understandable and readable. It informs on the traffic situation and environmental situation in Germany, identifies problems and provides orientation for sustainable mobility. (orig.)

  16. Environmental Impact of ICT on the Transport Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This section analyses the environmental impact of ICT. This is done through an analysis on how two specific applications (tele-work and teleshopping) affect transport behavior. These two applications are considered to have a large potential with regard to savings in energy consumption.......This section analyses the environmental impact of ICT. This is done through an analysis on how two specific applications (tele-work and teleshopping) affect transport behavior. These two applications are considered to have a large potential with regard to savings in energy consumption....

  17. Sectoral and Territorial Changes in the Economy of the Stalingrad Region in 1940-1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Alyaev

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with historical, economic and geographical features of sectoral and territorial consequences of the impact of military actions on the national economy in the Stalingrad region. The authors consider approaches to the management of the economy of the RSFSR in the prewar and postwar periods, their peculiarities and differences. The elements of monitoring the accounting of destruction caused by the military actions in sectoral and territorial aspects are identified. The use of archival sources, including the archives introduced into academic circulation for the first time, allows to investigate the reduction in the most important indicators of industrial production and agriculture of the region for the period of 1940–1943. In particular, the dynamics of production volumes at the industrial sites of the region, the number of people employed in the industry with specific companies during 1941–1943 were studied. The special attention is paid to such key parameters of agricultural production as acreage, the number of working and productive livestock. Territorial differences in the changes of agricultural production in administrative districts in 1940–1946 are identified. The effect of mobilization of men and equipment to the agricultural productivity is studied. Based on statistical reports, the extent of damage to educational institutions and health care is determined. The main indicators of socio-economic status of urban and rural population in comparison with the prewar period (taking into account monetary and natural income residents of the region are analyzed. Special attention is also paid to the study of the impact of military operations on the railway and vehicular transport infrastructure, which had played a key role in the Victory of the Soviet troops at Stalingrad and in the postwar reconstruction of the national economy.

  18. Energy transition in the transport sector. An action plan: how to finance the exploitation of sources of energy efficiency of the sector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, Meike; Legrand, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    This report aims at identifying measures to be implemented during coming years in order energy consumption of the transport sector to become consistent with energy scenarios, and at studying how these measures could be funded. After a presentation of the situation of the transport sector in terms of energy consumption (energy consumption by the different sub-sectors, greenhouse effect, relationship with mobility, issue of infrastructures and related investments) and of its objectives, this study proposes an overview of the content of various scenarios (NegaWatt, Ademe, Ministry of Ecology, Greenpeace). It proposes a brief overview and discussion of energy saving potentials and sources, and presents issues related to energy efficiency in the transport sector. It develops an action plan aimed at exploiting energy efficiency sources in transports. This action plan notably comprises: a political signal for a more efficient mobility, a support to change in mobility, actions in town planning to ease energy efficiency in transports, a more efficient use of the rolling stock, infrastructures for a more efficient transport sector, a price signal in favour of a more efficient transport. The next parts of the study discuss expenses of the transport sector, incomes and funding tools for energy efficiency in transports, financial needs for efficiency improvement, financial resources, and propose a road map

  19. Air pollution and climate change co-benefit opportunities in the road transportation sector in Durban, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thambiran T, Diab RD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of the road transportation sector to emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases is a growing concern in developing countries. Emission control measures implemented within this sector can have varying counteracting influences...

  20. Safety in the on shore transport sector for SME enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    or falling objects, the traffic risk situations, work with animals and finally the risk of violence and robbery. The intervention is carried out in 6 SME transport enterprises over a three year period, beginning spring 2011. The intervention is organized together with the employers and follows their plan...

  1. Biogas as a fuel source for the transport sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ; and there is an urgent need to develop clean, low-carbon mass transport options that are accessible and affordable A legacy of mining has resulted in mine-dumps, with air-, water- and soil- contamination and degraded land. These lands are unutilised or underutilised...

  2. Estimating Price Elasticity of Demand for Motor Fuel in the Transport Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vasilyevna Mazurova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of long-term forecasts of prices and demand on regional energy markets requires accounting for the future changes in the interactions between the greater economy and its energy sector, along with the possible emergence of new factors and specific regional features determining those interactions. The proposed approach allows the study of a correlation between demand and prices for motor fuel, taking into account the competition of energy carriers, the dynamics of energy prices, resource constraints, the use of new technologies and the uncertainty of input data. The main feature of the proposed approach is the combined estimation of the price elasticity of demand for motor fuel with optimization of fuel supply in the region. Thus the author determined elasticity of demand based on the comparison of economic efficiency of the use of different fuels. The study includes results of experimental calculations and forecasted price according to demand for motor fuel in freight transportation for the expected development conditions of the Far Eastern federal district

  3. TRANSPORTATION BOT SCHEMES FOR PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR FINANCING SCENARIO ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    WEI, Chien-Hung; CHUNG, Ming-Chih

    2002-01-01

    Transportation Build-Operate-Transfer financing projects have larger payment risks and failure possibilities than other financing projects, and these factors are essential to financing scenarios. The changes of financing scenarios not only affect private sectors' financing process but the conflict between private sectors and banks. This study broadly reviews relevant factors affecting BOT financing strategies, interviews relevant experts and then uses scenario analysis to design a questionnai...

  4. Assessment of Clmate Change Mitigation Strategies for the Road Transport Sector of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N.; Mishra, T.; Banerjee, R.

    2017-12-01

    India is one of the fastest growing major economies of the world. It imports three quarters of its oil demand, making transport sector major contributor of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 40% of oil consumption in India comes from transport sector and over 90% of energy demand is from road transport sector. This has led to serious increase in CO2 emission and concentration of air pollutants in India. According to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), transport can play a crucial role for mitigation of global greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, assessment of appropriate mitigation policies is required for emission reduction and cost benefit potential. The present study aims to estimate CO2, SO2, PM and NOx emissions from the road transport sector for the base year (2014) and target year (2030) by applying bottom up emission inventory model. Effectiveness of different mitigation strategies like inclusion of natural gas as alternate fuel, penetration of electric vehicle as alternate vehicle, improvement of fuel efficiency and increase share of public transport is evaluated for the target year. Emission reduction achieved from each mitigation strategies in the target year (2030) is compared with the business as usual scenario for the same year. To obtain cost benefit analysis, marginal abatement cost for each mitigation strategy is estimated. The study evaluates mitigation strategies not only on the basis of emission reduction potential but also on their cost saving potential.

  5. Change of direction required. Climate protection in the transport sector. Special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-11-01

    The transport sector is currently responsible for about one-fifth of Germany's greenhouse gas emissions. While in other sectors since 1990 partly clear emission reductions have been achieved, are the emissions of traffic during the same period even slightly increased. In his special report the German Council of Environmental Advisors (SRU) points out which strategic course should be set for the change in transport policy. The decarbonisation of the transport sector requires a consistent overall concept. It should be done as soon as possible, a switch to alternative drives. In traffic electromobility is to be accelerated, because of direct electrification the primary energy consumption is kept as low as possible. The extraction and recycling of the raw materials required for electromobility should be made sustainable. In addition, the energy consumption of motorized transport must also be be significantly further reduced, especially by on-board efficiency measures. In addition to technological changes a fundamental change of transport systems and mobility patterns is also necessary. The avoidance and relocation of traffic not only contributes to climate protection, but also to reduce its other environmental and health burdens. In order to promote cost transparency in the transport sector, taxes, levies and subsidies should be consistently aligned with climate, environmental and health policy objectives. For the SRU, this also includes the introduction of a route-dependent car toll. [de

  6. Regional water coefficients for U.S. industrial sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Boero; Donatella Pasqualini

    2017-01-01

    Designing policies for water systems management requires the capability to assess the economic impacts of water availability and to effectively couple water withdrawals by human activities with natural hydrologic dynamics. At the core of any scientific approach to these issues there is the estimation of water withdrawals by industrial sectors in the form of water coefficients, which are measurements of the quantity of water withdrawn per dollar of GDP or output. In this work we focus on the c...

  7. DEVELOPMEMT OF LIQUIDITY REGULATION INSTRUMENTS OF REGIONAL BANK SECTOR ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Roussavskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussed in the article is a model of an improved regulatory framework for credit institutions dealing with investment projects implementation of which will make it possible for business enterprises of various economy sectors whose activities are dependent on investment resources, such as small-scale and medium-scale as well as innovation business enterprises, to reach in the coming years an entirely different level of development.

  8. MANAGING RISKS AND LIABILITIES IN THE HIGHWAYS AND TRANSPORT SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    P.E. FORMAN, B.Eng.(Hons.), M.Sc., C.Eng.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, more people have been claiming financial recompense for personal injuries they sustain. Increasingly, the targets of such claims are highway authorities, transport operators and property owners. This paper outlines an area of risk commonly overlooked by practitioners, but which can be managed effectively and can afford both cost savings and public safety improvements. Inconsistencies between design standards, safety improvement policies and maintenance regimes for the more...

  9. Implications Of Technology Learning in Energy-Economy Models of the Transport Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzyzanowski, D.A.; Kypreos, S.; Gutzwiller, L.; Barreto, L.

    2005-07-01

    Diffusion of hydrogen fuelled fuel cell vehicles is foreseen by many as the future for the transportation sector. However, high technological advancement over conventional power trains and improved performance of fuel cells as technology, do not guarantee that fuel cell vehicles will actually play a significant role in the transportation sector in the coming decades. In this study, an attempt is made to evaluate selected factors, which may have a stimulating or hindering effect on the market diffusion of fuel cell vehicles. The analysis evaluates the influence of technological learning of fuel cell stack components, prices of fuel cells, hydrogen and crude oil based fuels as well as governmental initiatives to penalise for CO 2 emissions coming from the transportation sector, on market diffusion of fuel cell vehicles in the coming years. (author)

  10. Implications Of Technology Learning in Energy-Economy Models of the Transport Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzyzanowski, D.A.; Kypreos, S.; Gutzwiller, L.; Barreto, L

    2005-07-01

    Diffusion of hydrogen fuelled fuel cell vehicles is foreseen by many as the future for the transportation sector. However, high technological advancement over conventional power trains and improved performance of fuel cells as technology, do not guarantee that fuel cell vehicles will actually play a significant role in the transportation sector in the coming decades. In this study, an attempt is made to evaluate selected factors, which may have a stimulating or hindering effect on the market diffusion of fuel cell vehicles. The analysis evaluates the influence of technological learning of fuel cell stack components, prices of fuel cells, hydrogen and crude oil based fuels as well as governmental initiatives to penalise for CO{sub 2} emissions coming from the transportation sector, on market diffusion of fuel cell vehicles in the coming years. (author)

  11. Energy utilization and greenhouse-gas emissions: Transportation sector, topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrow, K.G.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of the report is to compare the emissions of greenhouse gases for alternative end-use technologies in the transportation sector. Scientists assert that global warming is occurring and will continue to occur as a result of increasing concentrations of certain gases in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the focus of this analysis because they are believed to cause three-fourths of the global warming effect and because energy production and use are a significant source of these emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions in the energy sector occur during energy production, conversion, transportation and end-use. This analysis compares alternative transportation sector fuel/technology choices in terms of their total fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases. The emphasis of this report is on the end use comparison. The fuel-cycle emissions comparison was developed in a companion report

  12. Impacts of black carbon and co-pollutant emissions from transportation sector in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel; Almanza, Victor; Garcia, Agustin; Jazcilevich, Aron; Lei, Wenfang; Molina, Luisa

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon is one of the most important short-lived climate-forcing agents, which is harmful to human health and also contributes significantly to climate change. Transportation is one of the largest sources of black carbon emissions in many megacities and urban complexes, with diesel vehicles leading the way. Both on-road and off-road vehicles can emit substantial amounts of harmful BC-containing particulate matter (PM) and are also responsible for large emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and many other co-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Regionally, black carbon emissions contributions from mobile sources may vary widely depending on the technical characteristics of the vehicle fleet, the quality and chemical properties of the fuels consumed, and the degree of local development and economic activities that foster wider and more frequent or intensive use of vehicles. This presentation will review and assess the emissions of black carbon from the on-road and off-road transportation sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Viable mitigation strategies, including innovative technological alternatives to reduce black carbon and co-pollutants in diesel vehicles and their impacts on climate, human health and ecosystems will be described.

  13. Assessment of the Electrification of the Road Transport Sector on Net System Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James

    As worldwide environmental consciousness grows, electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming more common and despite the incredible potential for emissions reduction, the net emissions of the power system supply side plus the transportation system are dependent on the generation matrix. Current EV charging patterns tend to correspond directly with the peak consumption hours and have the potential to increase demand sharply allowing for only a small penetration of Electric Vehicles. Using the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) data a model is created for vehicle travel patterns using trip chaining. Charging schemes are modeled to include uncontrolled residential, uncontrolled residential/industrial charging, optimized charging and optimized charging with vehicle to grid discharging. A charging profile is then determined based upon the assumption that electric vehicles would directly replace a percentage of standard petroleum-fueled vehicles in a known system. Using the generation profile for the specified region, a unit commitment model is created to establish not only the generation dispatch, but also the net CO2 profile for variable EV penetrations and charging profiles. This model is then used to assess the impact of the electrification of the road transport sector on the system net emissions.

  14. Global emission projections for the transportation sector using dynamic technology modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, F.; Winijkul, E.; Streets, D. G.; Lu, Z.; Bond, T. C.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, global emissions of gases and particles from the transportation sector are projected from the year 2010 to 2050. The Speciated Pollutant Emission Wizard (SPEW)-Trend model, a dynamic model that links the emitter population to its emission characteristics, is used to project emissions from on-road vehicles and non-road engines. Unlike previous models of global emission estimates, SPEW-Trend incorporates considerable detail on the technology stock and builds explicit relationships between socioeconomic drivers and technological changes, such that the vehicle fleet and the vehicle technology shares change dynamically in response to economic development. Emissions from shipping, aviation, and rail are estimated based on other studies so that the final results encompass the entire transportation sector. The emission projections are driven by four commonly-used IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2). With global fossil-fuel use (oil and coal) in the transportation sector in the range of 128-171 EJ across the four scenarios, global emissions are projected to be 101-138 Tg of carbon monoxide (CO), 44-54 Tg of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 14-18 Tg of non-methane total hydrocarbons (THC), and 3.6-4.4 Tg of particulate matter (PM) in the year 2030. At the global level, a common feature of the emission scenarios is a projected decline in emissions during the first one or two decades (2010-2030), because the effects of stringent emission standards offset the growth in fuel use. Emissions increase slightly in some scenarios after 2030, because of the fast growth of on-road vehicles with lax or no emission standards in Africa and increasing emissions from non-road gasoline engines and shipping. On-road vehicles and non-road engines contribute the most to global CO and THC emissions, while on-road vehicles and shipping contribute the most to NOx and PM emissions. At the regional level, Latin America and East Asia are the two

  15. The crisis of gasoline consumption in the Iran's transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houri Jafari, H.; Baratimalayeri, A.

    2008-01-01

    Fossil fuels have the greatest share in supplying the world's energy demands. Regarding the limited natural resources, fuel consumption management and energy planning in the end-user sectors are two great matters of importance. Among the fossil fuels, gasoline is the principal fuel for light-duty vehicles. In Iran, fuel consumption, especially that of gasoline, has increased sharply with the growth rate of 10.2% for the year 2006 in comparison with that in 2005, turning into a big crisis in the recent years. On the other hand, enormous subsidies for importing 40% of domestic demands, which have reached more than 10 billion US$, are too much to be supplied. In this study, we have assessed the gasoline consumption, production, import and prices; reviewed main causes of the tremendous growth rate of consumption, current conservation policies and their advantages or disadvantages (SWOT analysis); proposed short- to long-term solutions and strategies for efficient gasoline consumption management; and finally, current strategies and proposed solutions are analyzed and evaluated. A foregone conclusion strongly suggests that not only the low price of motor gasoline but also mass production of vehicles with the conventional technology, likewise, affects motor gasoline demand. A second conclusion is that gasoline crisis in Iran has no straight solution, and that fundamental strategies and policies are needed to solve the problem. (author)

  16. Impacts of Regional Integration in Mercosur on the co-operative sector

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Historically, the cooperative sector in Latin America has contributed to job creation, and been a relevant provider of housing, consumer goods, marketing services, financial services, and other goods and services. Despite its significance, however, the sector has not been actively involved in the process of regional economic ...

  17. Energy-WEB. Greenhouse sector in a sustainable regional energy network. Starting paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Liere, J.; Van Wunnik, A.W.M.; Van der Burgt, M.J.; Van Oosten, H.J.

    2004-08-01

    The horticulture sector can make use of surplus heat, produced within the greenhouses, and supply the heat to several energy consuming parties (other greenhouse businesses, buildings, etc.). Thus, a local or regional web of suppliers and consumers starts. This report is a starting memo which should inspire the debate on a sustainable energy supply for the greenhouse sector in the Netherlands [nl

  18. Long-term optimization of the transport sector to address greenhouse gas reduction targets under rapid growth. Application of an energy system model for Gauteng province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2013-12-11

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Especially in developing countries, significant growth in transport demand is expected. Gauteng province, as the economic centre of South Africa and transport hub for the whole of southern Africa, is one emerging urban region that faces rapid growth. However, the province is on its way to playing a leading role for supporting ways to adapt to climate change and mitigate GHG emissions. Conversely, there is a lack of scientific research on the promising measures for GHG mitigation in the transport sector. For the rapidly growing transport sector of the province in particular, research is focused primarily on extending and structuring the road infrastructure. Moreover, it is important that the transport sector is considered as part of the whole energy system, as significant contributions to GHG emissions and the associated costs arise from energy supply, provision and conversion. This research is the first application of an integrated energy system model (i.e. the TIMES-GEECO model) for the optimization of the transport sector of Gauteng. Optimizing energy system models allows finding least-cost measures for various scenarios, by considering dependencies and interlinkages in the energy system as well as environmental constraints. To do so, the transport sector and the energy supply sector had to be incorporated into the model application in terms of the characteristics of a developing urban region, which includes all relevant transport modes, vehicle technologies, fuel options, vehicle-to-grid energy storage, the consideration of road types as well as explicit expansions of the public transport system and income-dependent travel demand modelling. Additionally, GHG mitigation options outside the provincial boundaries were incorporated to allow for mitigation at least cost and to consider regional resource availability. Moreover, in TIMES

  19. Long-term optimization of the transport sector to address greenhouse gas reduction targets under rapid growth. Application of an energy system model for Gauteng province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Especially in developing countries, significant growth in transport demand is expected. Gauteng province, as the economic centre of South Africa and transport hub for the whole of southern Africa, is one emerging urban region that faces rapid growth. However, the province is on its way to playing a leading role for supporting ways to adapt to climate change and mitigate GHG emissions. Conversely, there is a lack of scientific research on the promising measures for GHG mitigation in the transport sector. For the rapidly growing transport sector of the province in particular, research is focused primarily on extending and structuring the road infrastructure. Moreover, it is important that the transport sector is considered as part of the whole energy system, as significant contributions to GHG emissions and the associated costs arise from energy supply, provision and conversion. This research is the first application of an integrated energy system model (i.e. the TIMES-GEECO model) for the optimization of the transport sector of Gauteng. Optimizing energy system models allows finding least-cost measures for various scenarios, by considering dependencies and interlinkages in the energy system as well as environmental constraints. To do so, the transport sector and the energy supply sector had to be incorporated into the model application in terms of the characteristics of a developing urban region, which includes all relevant transport modes, vehicle technologies, fuel options, vehicle-to-grid energy storage, the consideration of road types as well as explicit expansions of the public transport system and income-dependent travel demand modelling. Additionally, GHG mitigation options outside the provincial boundaries were incorporated to allow for mitigation at least cost and to consider regional resource availability. Moreover, in TIMES

  20. Assessment of a Regional Transportation Education Alliance To Improve Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Beverly T.

    This report examines issues related to transportation education, with the objective of developing and packaging transportation-related materials for use in college and university transportation education programs. The study was conducted by the Southwest Region University Transportation Center (SWUTC) region, but it is expected that the results…

  1. Gas fuels for the transport sector; Denmark; Gas til transportsektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-01

    Recent analyses suggest that especially biogas, but also natural gas in macroeconomic terms will be attractive propellants, including for heavy transport. To implement a Danish expansion of gas infrastructure for transportation, the report recommends the following essential elements: 1) A Danish rollout should be closely linked to contracts with fleet owners with heavy vehicles / taxis / vans and the like, thus ensuring high utilization of filling stations; 2) About 10 larger, flexible CNG filling stations set up at major fleet owners is estimated as sufficient for an initial deployment phase, strategically distributed in and around Copenhagen, the major cities and along the main road network from Sweden to Germany; 3) A certain time-limited funding for the construction of infrastructure is likely to cause a rapid spread, if desired, and if other business conditions are in place; 4) There is a need for adjustment of tax terms - the rules for green taxes should be adjusted, and it should be considered to lower the taxes on CNG and biogas; 5) Natural gas mixed with biogas should be an integral element of a comprehensive strategy to ensure maximum CO{sub 2} displacement. (LN)

  2. High Penetration of Renewable Energy in the Transportation Sector: Scenarios, Barriers, and Enablers; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L.; Brown, A.; Heath, G.; Mai, T.; Ruth, M.; Melaina, M.; Simpkins, T.; Steward, D.; Warner, E.; Bertram, K.; Plotkin, S.; Patel, D.; Stephens, T.; Vyas, A.

    2012-06-01

    Transportation accounts for 71% of U.S. petroleum use and 33% of its greenhouse gases emissions. Pathways toward reduced greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum dependence in the transportation sector have been analyzed in considerable detail, but with some limitations. To add to this knowledge, the U.S. Department of Energy has launched a study focused on underexplored greenhouse-gas-abatement and oil-savings opportunities related to transportation. This Transportation Energy Futures study analyzes specific issues and associated key questions to strengthen the existing knowledge base and help cultivate partnerships among federal agencies, state and local governments, and industry.

  3. Transport sector strategies and their impact on the air quality and on greenhouse gasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo Garcia, L.; Portillo Jimenez-Landi, A.

    2009-01-01

    The transport sector plays on essential role in our society, but generates non desired effects on the air quality as well on climate change. This is the reason why the transport and the environment governmental actions are crucial to mitigate them. In this article we introduced the most important resources and regulations to control and to evaluate the air quality and emissions, and also the most relevant objectives in transport actions to reduce them, not only in Spain but also in the European Union. We discuss herein their compliance degree and their effectiveness in relation with the transport emissions evolution during 1990-2006 in spain. (Author) 11 refs

  4. Reduction potentials of energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xiaoyu; Crookes, Roy J.

    2009-01-01

    Rapid growth of road vehicles, private vehicles in particular, has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand and imports, which has been widely accepted as a major factor effecting future oil availability and prices, and a major contributor to China's GHG emission increase. This paper is intended to analyze the future trends of energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector and to assess the effectiveness of possible reduction measures. A detailed model has been developed to derive a reliable historical trend of energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector between 2000 and 2005 and to project future trends. Two scenarios have been designed to describe the future strategies relating to the development of China's road transport sector. The 'Business as Usual' scenario is used as a baseline reference scenario, in which the government is assumed to do nothing to influence the long-term trends of road transport energy demand. The 'Best Case' scenario is considered to be the most optimized case where a series of available reduction measures such as private vehicle control, fuel economy regulation, promoting diesel and gas vehicles, fuel tax and biofuel promotion, are assumed to be implemented. Energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector up to 2030 are estimated in these two scenarios. The total reduction potentials in the 'Best Case' scenario and the relative reduction potentials of each measure have been estimated

  5. Energy efficiency in the transport sector in the EU-27: A dynamic dematerialization analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziolkowska, Jadwiga R.; Ziolkowski, Bozydar

    2015-01-01

    Energy use in the European Union's (EU) transport sector amounted to 340 Mtoe in 1999 with the following increasing trend up to 379 Mtoe in 2007 and a decrease from 2008 on, down to 365 Mtoe in 2010. This changing pattern posed several fundamental questions and uncertainties regarding the broader picture of energy efficiency and environmental protection. One of them refers to absolute changes in energy use efficiency in the transport sector over time and the ways of measuring efficiency. Traditional scientific approaches conceptualized to measure efficiency of energy use do not address annual dynamics of changes in the energy use in a given sector per capita. Thus, they are not precise enough for political and methodological purposes as they do not reflect the exact amount of energy consumed in the respective countries and societies. This paper shows a possible solution to this problem and a new perspective on measuring energy efficiency by using the product generational dematerialization (PGD) indicator. The PGD indicator allows for measuring energy efficiency as a dynamic change of consumption and population occurring simultaneously. Thus, it provides an extension to the traditional methodology commonly used for measuring efficiency. To visualize a practical application of this approach, the paper provides an example of evaluating energy efficiency in the transport sector in the EU-27 in 2000–2010. The results of the analysis show a clear materialization tendency in the transport sector (the energy consumption change exceeded the population growth) until 2007 and a reverse tendency (dematerialization) between 2008 and 2010. As energy consumption has a direct impact on environmental quality and exhaustion of natural resources, the paper points out the necessity of extending sustainable resource management policies by new methodologies and providing more efficient solutions for energy consumption in the transport sector. - Highlights: • PGD indicator proves a

  6. Renewable Hydrogen-Economically Viable: Integration into the U.S. Transportation Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Peters, Mike; Muratori, Matteo; Gearhart, Chris

    2018-03-01

    The U.S. transportation sector is expected to meet numerous goals in differing applications. These goals address security, safety, fuel source, emissions reductions, advanced mobility models, and improvements in quality and accessibility. Solutions to meeting these goals include a variety of alternative-fuel technologies, including batteries, fuel cells, synthetic fuels, and biofuels, as well as modifying how current transportation systems are used and integrating new systems, such as storing renewable energy. Overall, there are many combinations of problems, objectives, and solutions.

  7. The Formation of a Sunspot Penumbra Sector in Active Region NOAA 12574

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiaoling; Yan, Xiaoli; Wang, Jincheng; Kong, DeFang; Xue, Zhike; Yang, Liheng; Cao, Wenda

    2018-04-01

    We present a particular case of the formation of a penumbra sector around a developing sunspot in the active region NOAA 12574 on 2016 August 11 by using the high-resolution data observed by the New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory and the data acquired by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory satellite. Before the new penumbra sector formed, the developing sunspot already had two umbrae with some penumbral filaments. The penumbra sector gradually formed at the junction of two umbrae. We found that the formation of the penumbra sector can be divided into two stages. First, during the initial stage of penumbral formation, the region where the penumbra sector formed always appeared blueshifted in a Dopplergram. The area, mean transverse magnetic field strength, and total magnetic flux of the umbra and penumbra sector all increased with time. The initial penumbral formation was associated with magnetic emergence. Second, when the penumbra sector appeared, the magnetic flux and area of the penumbra sector increased after the umbra’s magnetic flux and area decreased. These results indicate that the umbra provided magnetic flux for penumbral development after the penumbra sector appeared. We also found that the newly formed penumbra sector was associated with sunspot rotation. Based on these findings, we suggest that the penumbra sector was the result of the emerging flux that was trapped in the photosphere at the initial stage of penumbral formation, and when the rudimentary penumbra formed, the penumbra sector developed at the cost of the umbra.

  8. SECTOR-SPECIFIC STRUCTURE OF THE REGIONAL ECONOMY AS A FACTOR OF ELEVATION OF RISKS TO ITS ECONOMIC SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostislav BILYK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes a sector-specific specialization of the regional economy in Ukraine. It also reveals possibility and conditions of transformation of a sector-specific specialization of the region and risks to its economic security. The article suggests an assessment of influence of a sector-specific specialization on occurrence of threats to the economic security of the region.

  9. Sector-wise midpoint characterization factors for impact assessment of regional consumptive and degradative water use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Chun; Lin, Jia-Yu; Lee, Mengshan; Chiueh, Pei-Te

    2017-12-31

    Water availability, resulting from either a lack of water or poor water quality is a key factor contributing to regional water stress. This study proposes a set of sector-wise characterization factors (CFs), namely consumptive and degradative water stresses, to assess the impact of water withdrawals with a life cycle assessment approach. These CFs consider water availability, water quality, and competition for water between domestic, agricultural and industrial sectors and ecosystem at the watershed level. CFs were applied to a case study of regional water management of industrial water withdrawals in Taiwan to show that both regional or seasonal decrease in water availability contributes to a high consumptive water stress, whereas water scarcity due to degraded water quality not meeting sector standards has little influence on increased degradative water stress. Degradative water stress was observed more in the agricultural sector than in the industrial sector, which implies that the agriculture sector may have water quality concerns. Reducing water intensity and alleviating regional scale water stresses of watersheds are suggested as approaches to decrease the impact of both consumptive and degradative water use. The results from this study may enable a more detailed sector-wise analysis of water stress and influence water resource management policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. International Maritime Transport Sector Regulation Systems and their Impact on World Shipping and Global Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Grzelakowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to analyze the impact of two nowadays existing global regulatory systems of the world maritime transport sector on international shipping industry and global trade development. The author has focused on the characterization of the autonomous regulatory system represented in this sector by freight market with typical for it mechanism as well as on public regulatory system expressed in form of the existing international regulatory scheme introduced by IMO and other international organizations. Both regulatory mechanisms has been analyzed and viewed in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of their influence upon shipping industry and global commodity markets. At the end, the results of functioning of both regulatory subsystems have been assessed with the aim to indicate how they are able to create growth potential for the world maritime transport and trade sector as well as the global economy.

  11. Socio-technical change: Developing narratives for the Danish energy and transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Meiken

    scenarios. Different actors can be enrolled into a coalition of change through narratives which include and organise visions and expectations (Smith, Stirling, and Berkhout 2005). Central to this study is the question of how different actors in the Danish energy and transport sector envision possible...

  12. Influence of road transport infrastructure on agricultural sector development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogunleye Olusogo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effects of road transport infrastructure on agricultural sector development in Nigeria from 1985 to 2014, using secondary annual time series data on agricultural development (proxy by gross domestic product in the Agric sector road transport infrastructure (proxy by length of paved road per square kilometer of area export and capital, all obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN [3], and National Bureau of Statistics (NBS [16], statistical bulletins. The data were analyzed using Granger Causality test and Ordinary Least Square estimation techniques. The study concluded that a positive and statistically significant relationship exists between road transport infrastructures (LRT also evidence was found of a unidirectional causality from agricultural sector development to transport infrastructure. The study, therefore, recommends that adequate and timely maintenance of existing roads should be carried out as well as enacting appropriate regulations that ensure proper implementation and completion of new road construction contracts in the country in order to boost agricultural sector development, reduce wastage of farm produce and increase the possibility of economic diversification.

  13. The evolution of the energy demand in France in the industrial, residential and transportation sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides information, from 1970 to 2005, on the evolution of the energy intensity (ratio between the primary energy consumption and the gross domestic product in volume) and the actions of energy control for the industrial, residential and transportation sectors. (A.L.B.)

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from Thailand’s transport sector: Trends and mitigation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongthanaisawan, Jakapong; Sorapipatana, Chumnong

    2013-01-01

    Rapid growth of population and economy during the past two decades has resulted in continuing growth of transport’s oil demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objectives of this study are to examine pattern and growth in energy demand as well as related GHG emissions from the transport sector and to analyze potential pathways of energy demand and GHG emissions reduction from this sector of the measures being set by the Thai Government. A set of econometric models has been developed to estimate the historical trend of energy demand and GHG emissions in the transport sector during 1989–2007 and to forecast future trends to 2030. Two mitigation option scenarios of fuel switching and energy efficiency options have been designed to analyze pathways of energy consumption and GHG emissions reduction potential in Thailand’s transport sector compared with the baseline business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, which assumed to do nothing influences the long-term trends of transport energy demand. It has been found that these two mitigation options can reduce the GHG emissions differently. The fuel-switching option could significantly reduce the amount of GHG emissions in a relatively short time frame, albeit it will be limited by its supply resources, whereas the energy efficiency option is more effective for GHG emissions mitigation in the long term. Therefore, both measures should be implemented simultaneously for both short and long term mitigation effects in order to more effectively achieve GHG emissions reduction target.

  15. Current and future energy and exergy efficiencies in the Iran’s transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarifi, F.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Motasemi, F.; Shekarchian, M.; Moghavvemi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The overall energy and exergy efficiencies of the sector were calculated. • The overall efficiencies were compared to other countries. • The overall energy and exergy efficiencies have been predicted by scenario approach. • A summary of recommendations to improve the sector is provided. - Abstract: Transportation is the second largest energy consumer sector in Iran which accounts for 24% of total energy consumption in 2009. This large percentage (almost a quarter) of energy consumption necessitates the determination of energy and exergy flows and their respective losses, which will enable the reduction of both energy growth and its consequent environmental impacts in the near future. This paper attempts to analyze and investigate the energy and exergy utilization of the transportation sector in Iran for the period of 1998–2009. Additionally, the total energy consumption in each subsector and the overall energy and exergy efficiencies are predicted via scenario approach. A comparison of the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of Iran with six other countries is also presented. The results show that the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of transportation sector in Iran is higher than China and Norway, while it is lower than Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Turkey, and Malaysia for the year 2000. Road appears to be the most efficient subsector. The overall energy efficiency is determined to be in the range of 22.02% in 1998, to 21.49% in 2009, while the overall exergy efficiency is determine to be in the range of 21.47% in 1998, to 21.19% in 2009. The energy consumption in each subsector is predicted from 2010 to 2035. It was discovered that the overall energy and exergy efficiencies possesses an upward trend during this time period. Finally, some recommendations vis-à-vis the improvement of the energy and exergy efficiencies in Iranian transportation sector in the future was provided and duly discussed

  16. Energy efficiency achievements in China's industrial and transport sectors: How do they rate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Libo; Huo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    China is experiencing intensified industrialisation and motorisation. In the world's largest emerging economy, energy efficiency is expected to play a critical role in the ever-rising demand for energy. Based on factual overviews and numerical analysis, this article carries out an in-depth investigation into the effectiveness of policies announced or implemented in recent decades targeted at energy conservation in the energy intensive manufacturing and transportation sectors. It highlights nine energy intensive sectors that achieved major improvements in their energy technology efficiency efforts. Under the umbrella of the 11th Five-Year Plan, these sectors' performances reflect the effectiveness of China's energy conservation governance. Numerous actions have been taken in China to reduce the road transport sector's demand for energy and its GHG emissions by implementing fuel economy standards, promoting advanced energy efficient vehicles, and alternative fuels. Coal-based energy saving technologies, especially industrial furnace technologies, are critical for China's near and medium-term energy saving. In the long run, renewable energy development and expanding the railway transport system are the most effective ways to reduce energy use and GHG emissions in China. Fuel economy standards could reduce oil consumption and GHGs by 34–35 per cent. - Highlights: • This article makes an investigation into the effectiveness of energy conservation policies in China. • Efficiency improvement reflects the effective governance of energy conservation in China. • Numerous actions have been taken to reduce the road transport sector's demand for energy. • Coal-based energy saving technologies are critical for China's near and medium-term energy saving. • In the long run, renewable energy and expanding the railway transport system are the most effective ways

  17. Energy and exergy efficiencies in Turkish transportation sector, 1988-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ediger, Volkan S.; Camdali, Unal

    2007-01-01

    This study aims at examining energy and exergy efficiencies in Turkish transportation sector. Unlike the previous studies, historical data is used to investigate the development of efficiencies of 17 years period from 1988 to 2004. The energy consumption values in tons-of-oil equivalent for eight transport modes of four transportation subsectors of the Turkish transportation sector, including hard coal, lignite, oil, and electricity for railways, oil for seaways and airways, and oil and natural gas for highways, are used. The weighted mean energy and exergy efficiencies are calculated for each mode of transport by multiplying weighting factors with efficiency values of that mode. They are then summed up to calculate the weighted mean overall efficiencies for a particular year. Although the energy and exergy efficiencies in Turkish transport sector are slightly improved from 1988 to 2004, the historical pattern is cyclic. The energy efficieny is found to range from 22.16% (2002) to 22.62% (1998 and 2004) with a mean of 22.42±0.14% and exergy efficiency to range from 22.39% (2002) to 22.85% (1998 and 2004) with a mean of 22.65±0.15%. Overall energy and exergy efficiencies of the transport sector consist mostly of energy and exergy efficiencies of the highways subsector in percentages varying from 81.5% in 2004 to 91.7% in 2002. The rest of them are consisted of other subsectors such as railways, seaways, and airways. The overall efficiency patterns are basically controlled by the fuel consumption in airways in spite of this subsector's consisting only a small fraction of total. The major reasons for this are that airways efficiencies and the rate of change in fuel consumption in airways are greater than those of the others. This study shows that airway transportation should be increased to improve the energy and exergy efficiencies of the Turkish transport sectors. However, it should also be noted that no innovations and other advances in transport technologies are

  18. Energy and the transport sector. [For countries with no fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, P E

    1979-01-01

    This article describes the current energy situation from both the global viewpoint and the viewpoint of countries with no indigenous sources of fossil fuels. The lack of fossil fuels necessitates a substitution with indigenous sources of energy, where feasible. Long-distance railway transport is a self-evident element in the expanding transport sector. In view of the proven high energy efficiency of electric railway systems, there is every incentive for a more active investment policy in railway electrification. This applies to both medium-distance transportation of freight and passengers and different electric mass transit systems.

  19. ANALYSIS OF LABOR MARKET IN THE SECONDARY SECTOR ON ROMANIAN DEVELOPMENT REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina\tALPOPI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze and highlight the evolution of workforce engaged in the secondary sector. We determined too the unemployment rate distribution, which is coupled with the decline of industry and constructions and there are identified zones and cities affected by major rising unemployment. The increase of unemployed number in the secondary sector was primarily due to the decline of manufacturing industry and mining. At Bucharest and growth poles level, it shows that between the secondary sector branches: industry and construction, the most employees are engaged in the industrial sector, especially in manufacturing industries, although this sector ranks on the second place in order of preference. Most of the employees choose jobs into the tertiary sector. Regarding the distribution of the number of employees per industrial subsectors, it appears that most of them work in manufacturing, followed water supply and waste, then energy supply and a very small percentage in the mining. The activity sectors reveal that most employees are engaged in secondary and tertiary sectors, and then, in a very small proportion, in the primary sector. At regional poles level, the largest number of employees are engaged in industrial sector. In the construction sector, the number of employees is small. Counties associated of Bucharest metropolitan area recorded the greatest number of employees in construction. All analyzed territories recorded positive evolutions in the number of employees in 2011 compared to 2002. Counties associated of some metropolitan areas, including Bucharest, showed a positive trend, superior to other types of areas in 2011 compared to 2002. Compared to the situation in construction sector, the industry is characterized by a decrease of the number of employees in 2011 compared to 2002. Even in a general context characterized by instability in the industry, some types of analyzed areas showed a rising trend. In 2011, compared to 2006

  20. Energy saving and CO2 mitigation through restructuring Jordan's transportation sector: The diesel passenger cars scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hinti, I.; Al-Ghandoor, A.; Akash, B.; Abu-Nada, E.

    2007-01-01

    The transportation sector is responsible for 37% of the total final energy consumption in Jordan, with passenger cars taking a share of 57% in this sector. Improvement of the energy efficiency of the transportation sector can help in alleviating socio-economic pressures resulting from the inflating fuel bill and in lowering the relatively high CO 2 emission intensity. Current legislations mandate that all passenger cars operating in Jordan are to be powered with spark ignition engines using gasoline fuel. This paper examines potential benefits that can be achieved through the introduction of diesel cars to the passenger cars market in Jordan. Three scenarios are suggested for implementation and investigated with a forecasting model on the basis of local and global trends over the period 2007-2027. It is demonstrated that introducing diesel passenger cars can slow down the growth of energy consumption in the transportation sector resulting in significant savings in the national fuel bill. It is also shown that this is an effective and feasible option for cutting down CO 2 emissions

  1. Sustainability of the energy sector in the Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantore, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Energy and climate change is a key priority issue mentioned by the Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development (MSSD) which explicitly claims that “Control, reduce or stabilize GhG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions” is a crucial target for Mediterranean countries. This paper uses the integrated assessment model IFs (International Futures) to implement a scenario analysis to investigate the mitigation potential of Mediterranean regions. It analyzes if the Mediterranean regions will be able to reach the MSSD climate change target and recommends amendments of the MSSD to implement with effectiveness climate change policies in the Mediterranean area. -- Highlights: ► In the majority of scenarios emissions in Mediterranean countries are not decreasing over 2020. ► Even in scenarios incorporating multiple policy actions emissions may not be decreasing over 2020. ► The Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development needs to go beyond the 2015 deadline to promote climate policies. ► The Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development is key to promote coordinated multiple actions to reduce emissions. ► Partial interventions could compromise the effectiveness of the overall regional emissions stabilization policies.

  2. Possibilities of Using Transport Terminals in South Bohemian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čejka, Jiří; Bartuška, Ladislav; Turinská, Libuše

    2017-03-01

    Currently, when there is a need for transport services adapted to the customer requirements and create a workable operational system, there is increasing talk about transport terminals. Since the South Bohemian region is one of those where this issue will be increasingly dealt with, this paper suggests ways to use transport terminals as important support systems for freight and passenger transport.

  3. EXPRESSION OF THE TRANSPORT SECTOR OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY EVALUATION METHODOLOGY (TRENDS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF THE ECONOMIC CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deimena KIYAK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to evaluate the impact of economic fluctuations on the transport sector operational efficiency, since such an analysis is a source of economic information which contributes to the identification of the sector's potential and advantages, the establishment of the risky areas of activity, and the exploration of the opportunities to increase its effectiveness. The aim of the study was to apply mathematical evaluation methods to the exploration of the operational efficiency of the Lithuanian transport sector companies and, based on the outcomes, to validate the opportunity of predicting a potential change of the economic cycle. The operational efficiency of the Lithuanian transport sector was analysed in the context of the cyclical national economy, and not in individual economic boom or recession periods, as that allowed for more detailed evaluation of the specific activities of the sector and its impact on Lithuanian economy. To achieve the aim, three different stages of the economic cycle in Lithuania were identified, and calculations were made during them. Based on the aggregate financial data, four different economic efficiency indicators were developed that reflected the efficiency level of the entire transport sector, and the sensitivity of the transport sector to economic fluctuations was identified. The comparison of the changes in the transport sector and in Lithuanian economy made it obvious that the level of the sector's operational efficiency could be regarded as a leading indicator of the economic cycle.

  4. Transport and Environment 2011. Selected indicators for the transport sector; Samferdsel og miljoe 2011. Utvalgte indikatorer for samferdselssektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunvoll, Frode; Monsrud, Jan

    2011-06-15

    This report contains statistics and indicators for the transport sector that show the relationships between the environment and transport. Norwegian data are compared to international data. In 2008, the average daily per capita distance driven by passenger cars in Norway was 32.4 kilometres. Among the European countries, Italy had the longest daily per capita distance driven by passenger cars, 33.1 km. In 2009, the total transport demand of passenger cars in Norway was 58.3 billion passenger kilometres. This is well over ten times higher than in 1960. In 2008, the statistics show a decrease by 2 per cent in freight transport demand on road in the EU. The decrease continued with an additional decrease of 10 per cent in 2009. The financial crisis had a negative impact on the freight transport demand in Norway also, but not before 2009, when the production decreased at the same rate as in the EU. By the end of 2010, the vehicle fleet in Norway had increased to around 3.2 million, of which over 2.3 million were passenger cars. In 2009, there were 462 passenger cars per 1 000 inhabitants in Norway. In Italy there were 606, the highest in Europe. By the end of 2010, the number of diesel passenger cars were a little over 807 000, which corresponded to 35 per cent of the total number of passenger cars. The number of gasoline driven passenger cars has decreased steadily from 2004. At the end of 2010, the average age of passenger cars in Norway was 10.5 years. Gasoline driven cars had an average age of 13.0 years and diesel cars only 5.9 years. A total of 98 662 passenger cars and vans were scrapped in 2010. The average age of scrapped passenger cars was 18.4 years. As of 31 December 2010, the length of public roads in Norway was 93 509 km, of which 381 km are motorways. This is by far the shortest motorway length in the Nordic countries. The length of railways in Norway is a little over 4 000 km. Fragmentation of areas due to the expansion of transport infrastructure and

  5. Region V Transportation Workforce Assessment and Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The transportation workforce is undergoing unprecedented change due to rapid retirement of baby boomers while at the same time information, communication, and automation technologies are rapidly changing the transportation of people and goods. The pu...

  6. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service regional alternative transportation evaluation : region 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 6, which is comprised of Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebra...

  7. SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE FOOTWEAR SECTOR: ONE COMPANY, TWO REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvania Terezinha Moll

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the phenomenon of globalization, Brazilian companies have sought growth opportunities in several ways. Through tax incentives the states, from their governments, aimed to attract investment generating competition with others, a practice known as tax competition. Some companies, using this feature installed new production units or even moved to distant regions with poor socioeconomic conditions and poor qualification of manpower. This study aimed to examine the use of the territory from the case of a footwear company, located in two regions - South and Northeast - with quite diverse Human Development indices. From a comparative analysis of the perception of 658 workers of group D on development, it is assessed the impact of the industry installation in the new location, as well as with the workers working in the company's headquarters. It was also verified the socio economic growth of the municipalities of Nova Petrópolis in RS, and Russas, in Ceará, in the decade from 1997 to 2007.From the results of the research it has been identified differences between workers of the South Unit and the Northeast Unit regarding to formal education, salary level, family income, unionization, the first job, among others. As to the quality of life, satisfaction levels of workers before employment and after being hired by the company are also different in the two units. However there are points in common that relate to the acquisition of material goods, occupation and level of ambition of the workers.

  8. Trends of greenhouse gas emissions from the road transport sector in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anil; Gangopadhyay, S.; Nanda, P.K.; Bhattacharya, S.; Sharma, C.; Bhan, C.

    2008-01-01

    The road transport sector is the largest consumer of commercial fuel energy within the transportation system in India and accounts for nearly 35% of the total liquid commercial fuel consumption by all sectors. Gasoline and diesel consumption for road transportation have quadrupled between 1980 and 2000 due to about nine times increase in the number of vehicles and four-fold increase in freight and passenger travel demands. The paper elaborates the trends of energy consumption and consequent emissions of greenhouse gases such as CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O and ozone precursor gases like CO, NO x and NMVOC in the road transport sector in India for the period from 1980 to 2000. For the first time, efforts have been made to apportion the fuels, both diesel and gasoline, across different categories of vehicles operating on the Indian roads. In order to generate more comprehensive and complete emission estimates, additionally, other minor fuel types like light diesel oil and fuel oil along with lubricants have also been taken into account. Emission estimates have revealed that nearly 27 Mt of CO 2 were emitted in 1980, increasing to about 105 Mt in 2000. Similar trends have also been observed for other gases. Further scope for improvements in emission estimation is possible by generating country specific emission factors for different vehicle categories and improvement in documentation of fuel consumption at segregated levels by fuel types and vehicle types

  9. TRANSPORTATION BOT SCHEMES FOR PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR FINANCING SCENARIO ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hung WEI

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation Build-Operate-Transfer financing projects have larger payment risks and failure possibilities than other financing projects, and these factors are essential to financing scenarios. The changes of financing scenarios not only affect private sectors' financing process but the conflict between private sectors and banks. This study broadly reviews relevant factors affecting BOT financing strategies, interviews relevant experts and then uses scenario analysis to design a questionnaire to find out the most important factors affecting BOT financing. The findings of this study are four major factors affecting public and private financing scenarios. In this paper, we also propose some suggestions as possible complements to public and private sector financing strategies.

  10. Uncovering China’s greenhouse gas emission from regional and sectoral perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhu; Geng, Yong; Lindner, Soeren; Guan, Dabo

    2012-01-01

    Understanding China’s GHG (greenhouse gas) emission status is critical for achieving the national mitigation plan. While much attention has addressed China’s national level GHG emission, less is known about its regional and sectoral emission features. In this paper China’s regional and sectoral GHG emission patterns and their driving forces were explored by using upgraded energy consumption data. We constructed a detailed GHG inventory for each province in the year 2009 which covering 28 sectors and further expanded time-serious inventories during 1997–2009. We then conducted variation and index decomposition analysis to explore its sectoral/regional disparity and features. Results showed significant differences of sectoral emission intensity among different provinces, implying a huge disparity of technology level. Since less developed provinces still apply energy intensive technologies, they had contributed to most of national emission increment during 1997–2009 and made the whole country towards carbon intensive direction. Our research outcomes indicate that the inequity of technology level among regions has already become a main barrier for China’s CO 2 mitigation. Such a reality deserves more attention from both researchers and policy makers so that appropriate carbon reduction policies can be raised. -- Highlights: ► We present spacial and sectoral disparity and drivers on green house gas (GHG) emission in 30 Chinese provinces. ► We indicated a huge difference of technology level among regions. ► Different industrial structure and development stage further result in GHG intensive in China's poor regions. ► Inequity of technology level among regions has already become a main barrier for China's GHG mitigation.

  11. [Organizational wellbeing in the health sector: the Piemonte Region experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converso, Daniela; Baratti, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the Health Councillorship of the Piedmont region announced, in convention with the Psychology Department of the University of Turin, of the creation of "Workgroup for Safeguard of Organizational Wellbeing" composed by psychologists, occupational doctors, and superintendents for Prevention and Protection services. This group is aimed at promoting pilot experiences in the Health Units in order to prevent and combat psychosocial discomfort and to sustain workers' wellbeing. A complex intervention started in January 2009 and involved the personnel from Services for the Organization and Development of Human Resources, Personnel Services, Services for Occupational Medicine, Services of Communication, Quality Services, belonging to all of the Health Units from Piedmont, and of some structures operating within the national health service, for a total of 23 work groups. Based on the results produced and/or from the shared reflections in the classroom between the 23 groups, four main themes were singled out, corresponding to different levels and fields of interventions, in order to favour the contrast of psychosocial distress and to promote a culture of wellbeing, were adopted taking into account needs and cultural specificity of different Units' realities. The activities embarked on, inside every main theme represent, in the expectations of all the participants, good practices that could be spread to the different Local Health Units.

  12. The content and features of transport servicing of region economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Paristova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of a transport complex of the region and transport servicing becomes more and more urgent every year and exerts the increasing impact on development of the region in general. In article basic provisions of transport servicing of economy of the region are determined. On the basis of a research of approaches to determination of transport servicing the author's understanding of this process is provided. The system of transport servicing of the region is considered as set of elements of transport infrastructure through which interaction the needs for cargo transfer and passengers in the region are satisfied. It is the open system having the isolated internal environment and interacting with the external environment. At the same time the internal environment consists of elements between which communication is much stronger, than with the elements constituting the external environment. In market conditions the urgent problem of uncertainty of the external environment influences in turn a condition and development of system of transport servicing of the region, changing external and internal conditions of its functioning. The characteristic of system of transport servicing of the region is provided. Methods of regulation of transport servicing are determined. Features of transport servicing of economy of the region are marked out: need of updating of a property, plant and equipment on transport and development of transport infrastructure; insufficient development of strategic planning of transport as single complex within transport system and in a general context of development of productive forces; the low investment and innovative activity in a motor transportation industry caused by reducing internal and foreign investments, decrease in financing from the government budget. The research of a condition of standard legal support of development of a transport complex in the Voronezh region is conducted, the analysis of the strategic and

  13. Regional Balance Model of Financial Flows through Sectoral Approaches System of National Accounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Aleksandrovna Zaharchuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study, the results of which are reflected in this article, is the theoretical and methodological substantiation of possibilities to build a regional balance model of financial flows consistent with the principles of the construction of the System of National Accounts (SNA. The paper summarizes the international experience of building regional accounts in the SNA as well as reflects the advantages and disadvantages of the existing techniques for constructing Social Accounting Matrix. The authors have proposed an approach to build the regional balance model of financial flows, which is based on the disaggregated tables of the formation, distribution and use of the added value of territory in the framework of institutional sectors of SNA (corporations, public administration, households. Within the problem resolution of the transition of value added from industries to sectors, the authors have offered an approach to the accounting of development, distribution and use of value added within the institutional sectors of the territories. The methods of calculation are based on the publicly available information base of statistics agencies and federal services. The authors provide the scheme of the interrelations of the indicators of the regional balance model of financial flows. It allows to coordinate mutually the movement of regional resources by the sectors of «corporation», «public administration» and «households» among themselves, and cash flows of the region — by the sectors and directions of use. As a result, they form a single account of the formation and distribution of territorial financial resources, which is a regional balance model of financial flows. This matrix shows the distribution of financial resources by income sources and sectors, where the components of the formation (compensation, taxes and gross profit, distribution (transfers and payments and use (final consumption, accumulation of value added are

  14. Incorporating the catering sector in nutrition policies of WHO European Region: is there a good recipe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachat, Carl; Roberfroid, Dominique; Huybregts, Lieven; Van Camp, John; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2009-03-01

    To review how countries of the WHO European Region address issues related to the catering sector in their nutrition policy plans. Documentary analysis of national nutrition policy documents from the policy database of the WHO Regional Office for Europe by a multidisciplinary research team. Recurring themes were identified and related information extracted in an analysis matrix. Case studies were performed for realistic evaluation. Fifty-three member states of the WHO European Region in September 2007. The catering sector is a formally acknowledged stakeholder in national nutrition policies in about two-thirds of countries of the European region. Strategies developed for the catering sector are directed mainly towards labelling of foods and prepared meals, training of health and catering staff, and advertising. Half of the countries reviewed propose dialogue structures with the catering sector for the implementation of the policy. However, important policy fields remain poorly developed, such as strategies for stimulating and monitoring actual implementation of policies. Others are simply lacking, such as strategies to ensure affordability of healthy out-of-home eating or to enhance accountability of stakeholders. It is also striking that strategies for the private sector are rarely developed. Important policy issues are still embryonic. As evidence is accumulating on the impact of out-of-home eating on the increase of overweight, member states are advised to urgently develop operational frameworks and instruments for participatory planning and evaluation of stakeholders in public health nutrition policy.

  15. Evaluation capacity assessment of the transport sector in South Africa: An innovative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basia D. Bless

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: In this regard, the framework is recommended as an innovative tool to assist evaluation practitioners and scholars to better understand evaluation capacity constraints within a broader context that involves logistical, technical, contextual, social and political dimensions. It also offers an important insight on how these components interfaced to shape the organisational value system that impacts the use of evidence in the transport sector in South Africa.

  16. Opportunities for Synergy Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy in the Electric Power and Transportation Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.

    2012-12-01

    Use of both natural gas and renewable energy has grown significantly in recent years. Both forms of energy have been touted as key elements of a transition to a cleaner and more secure energy future, but much of the current discourse considers each in isolation or concentrates on the competitive impacts of one on the other. This paper attempts, instead, to explore potential synergies of natural gas and renewable energy in the U.S. electric power and transportation sectors.

  17. The CNG program in Argentine transport sector sources: present and forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres G, D.

    1988-01-01

    The CNG program in Argentina was formulated in the early 80's with the goal of reaching energy independence by means of a greater participation of natural gas in the energy demand. The transport sector is responsible of 30% of the total energy demand and 60% of all the oil consumption, so that any plan for substituting liquid fuels had to tackle transportation. The experiences which allowed gas to increase its participation from 27% to 33% may be profited by others interested in producing similar projects. (author)

  18. CNG (compressed natural gas) as fuel for the transport sector in Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So`Brien, G.C.; Persad, P.; Satcunanathan, S. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad)

    1996-08-01

    Several studies have established that Trinidad and Tobago is well positioned to consider the substitution of compressed natural gas (CNG) for gasoline or diesel in the transport sector. Consequently a programme of conversion of private motors was initiated. Despite considerable advertisement programs projecting CNG as an environmentally friendly and cheap fuel, there is not yet widespread acceptance of the technology. The reasons for this are analysed. It is recommended that the policy of CNG usage be reviewed and the emphasis be shifted to transport fleets. It is also recommended that tax credits be considered as an incentive to users. (author)

  19. Integrated energy planning for transportation sector - A case study for Iran with techno-economic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Mehdi [Economics Department, Imam Sadiq University, Tehran (Iran); Mirshojaeian Hosseini, Hossein [Tehran University, Tehran (Iran)

    2008-02-15

    Transportation sectors in developing countries suffer from some diseases that one of them is ever-increasing energy consumption. Integrated National Energy Planning (INEP) in transportation sector is a solution for these countries to alter their suboptimal pattern and rationalize their energy consumption. One of the INEP targets is determining optimal patterns of fuels and transportation technologies to satisfy future demand of freight and passenger transportation at the lowest cost levels. Following the above target, this paper is concerned with the optimal consumption pattern of fuels focusing on vehicle technologies within the next 25 years (up to 2029). Using Energy Flow Optimization Model-ENVironment (EFOM-ENV) model, various steps as designing of ''Reference Energy System (RES)'' of the model, data processing and scenario analysis are followed. Based on the modeling results, substitution of urban railroad technologies (subway, LRT and monorail), all of passenger CNG technologies (cars, buses and minibuses), rural railroad freight technologies (electrical, gas oil and LNG freight trains) and finally, CNG and LNG heavy and light trucks with current passenger and freight vehicle technologies are suggested. This scenario will decline fuel consumption by about 14% totally, that the most part of it belongs to gasoline and gas oil (24% and 17%, respectively). Total discounted cost of transportation system will decline from 806.20 to 691.74 billion dollars (14%) during the time horizon. (author)

  20. Harnessing the opportunities of austerity: a detailed mapping of the Greek transportation sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraklis Stamos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, shortly after the global economic crisis of 2008, Greece has entered into a deep recession phase. The multifaceted presence of austerity is experienced in an increasing number of sectors of the country. The Greek transportation sector is not immune to this state of affairs. The ongoing crisis had a significant impact on its economic (investment, employment, exports-imports turnover as well as its operational (transportation intensity, throughput, performance aspects and capabilities. In this paper, a detailed mapping of these impacts is laid out, correlating transport-related characteristics, trends and estimations with the respective economic ones. Specifically, the paper presents analyses of the Greek passenger and freight transportation, following a data-driven approach over several areas. Findings show a substantial decrease of activities overall. Paradoxically, however, austerity can also be said to offer opportunities, such as the development of innovative, cost-effective and outward-looking business schemes, for handling transportation-related issues. In the face of these opportunities, authorities and stakeholders have recently turned their attention to ways of harnessing them as they may arise. The paper conducts a detailed analysis of these efforts to discover prospects for development in the midst of austerity, and highlights the steps currently being taken in that direction.

  1. Impact analysis of leading sub sector on basic sector to regional income in Siak Regency, Riau Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, P.; Nugraha, I.; Abdillah, F.

    2018-02-01

    During this time Siak regency only known as oil producing regency in Riau province, but based on the vision of spatial planning Siak’s regency in 2031 there was a shift from petroleum towards to other sectors such as agribusiness, agroindustry and tourism. The purpose of this study was to identify the sector base, the leading subsectors and shift with their characteristics and to identify the leading subsectors development priority. The method used in this research consisted of the method of Location Quotient (LQ, Shift Share, and Overlay method). The research results were used Location Quotient (LQ) to identify sector’s base in Siak regency based on the document of PDRB. The sector’s refers to the constant prices year of 2000 were mining and quarrying sector (2.25). The sector’s base using document of PDRB at constant prices 2000 without oil and gas sector was the agricultural sector with a value of LQ was 2,45. The leading sub sector in the Siak regency with mining and quarrying sector was oil and gas (1.02) and leading sub sector without oil and gas sector was the plantation sector (1.48) and forestry sector (1.73). Overlay analysis results shown that agriculture sector as a sector base and plantation and forestry as a leading sub sector has positive value and categorize as progressive and competitiveness. Because of that, this leading sub sector gets high priority to developing.

  2. Evaluation of alternative fuels for the Greek road transport sector using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsita, Katerina G.; Pilavachi, Petros A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates alternative fuels for the Greek road transport sector, using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Seven different alternatives of fuel mode are considered in this paper: internal combustion engine (ICE) and its combination with petroleum and 1st and 2nd generation biofuels blends, fuel cells, hybrid vehicles, plug-in hybrids and electric vehicles. The evaluation of alternative fuel modes is performed according to cost and policy aspects. In order to evaluate each alternative fuel, one base scenario and ten alternative scenarios with different weight factors selection per criterion are presented. After deciding the alternative fuels’ scoring against each criterion and the criteria weights, their synthesis gives the overall score and ranking for all ten alternative scenarios. It is concluded that ICE blended with 1st and 2nd generation biofuels are the most suitable alternative fuels for the Greek road transport sector. - Highlights: ► Alternative fuels for the Greek road transport sector have been evaluated. ► The method of the AHP was used. ► Seven different alternatives of fuel mode are considered. ► The evaluation is performed according to cost and policy aspects. ► The ICE with 1st and 2nd generation biofuels are the most suitable fuels.

  3. Evaluation of next generation biomass derived fuels for the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsita, Katerina G.; Pilavachi, Petros A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates next generation biomass derived fuels for the transport sector, employing the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Eight different alternatives of fuels are considered in this paper: bio-hydrogen, bio-synthetic natural gas, bio-dimethyl ether, bio-methanol, hydro thermal upgrading diesel, bio-ethanol, algal biofuel and electricity from biomass incineration. The evaluation of alternative fuels is performed according to various criteria that include economic, technical, social and policy aspects. In order to evaluate each alternative fuel, one base scenario and five alternative scenarios with different weight factors selection per criterion are presented. After deciding the alternative fuels’ scoring against each criterion and the criteria weights, their synthesis gives the overall score and ranking for all alternative scenarios. It is concluded that synthetic natural gas and electricity from biomass incineration are the most suitable next generation biomass derived fuels for the transport sector. -- Highlights: •Eight alternative fuels for the transport sector have been evaluated. •The method of the AHP was used. •The evaluation is performed according to economic, technical, social and policy criteria. •Bio-SNG and electricity from biomass incineration are the most suitable fuels

  4. Turkish Banking Sector Credit-Deposit Developments Regionally Analysis (2005-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalet HAZAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Banking sector takes over the mediation function between fund suppliers and demand. So by the time the financial system gets deeper, banking sector involves to the dinamics and becomes a vital part of economic growth. In our country which expressed as having insufficiant savings, regionally analising in 2005-2011 period developments is the purpose of this study. On the numerical estimations, in spite of having more capacity to purchase parity, big cities shows a higher performance for savings. However especially the cities in the regions of East and Southeast Anatolia, purchase capacity parity is lower and savings are under their own costs.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Levels of Banking Sector Markets Concentration in CEE Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaličanin Tijana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Banking sector is an important development factor of the total financial and economic system. Number of banks and dispersion of their individual shares defines competitive structure of banking sector, manifested by its concentration. Market concentration may be presented as a function of a number of enterprises competing in a market and their individual comparative market shares. Concentration analysis is significant with regard to the fact that the level of concentration demonstrates relations among competitors in a market, as well as influence each competitor has on consumers, branch and economy as a whole. Starting from 2008 crisis, domino effect of which hit banking sector and has had a huge impact on it, authors of this paper aimed at establishing a level of market concentration of the banking sector in Serbia and countries in the region in 2015 by application of a large number of market concentration indicators.

  6. South-East Region in Bulgaria: Economic Performance and Key Sectors Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoaneta GOLEMANOVA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to provide insight into the economicperformance of the South-east region (SER of Bulgaria by presenting quantitativerelationships between sectors in the regional economy. Methodologically it is basedon the construction of the regional Input–Output model. It was carried out troughapplying the non-servey GRIT technique, based on Flegg & Webber locationquotient (2000. The dirived Rasmussen & Hirschman backward linkages andMattas & Shrestha input-output elasticities from the model enable to identify thekey economic sectors within the region. This could be considered as a starting pointfor the future impact assesment of different EU policies, as well as designing ofbetter regional development strategies, assuring better economic performance.

  7. [Availability of generic drugs in the public sector and prices in the private sector in different regions of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Elaine Silva; Pinto, Cláudia Du Bocage Santos; dos Reis, André Luis de Almeida; Emmerick, Isabel Cristina Martins; Campos, Mônica Rodrigues; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa

    2009-10-01

    A study to identify availability and prices of medicines, according to type of provider, was conducted in the five regions of Brazil. A list of medicines to treat prevalent diseases was investigated, using the medicines price methodology developed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International, adapted for Brazil. In the public sector, bioequivalent (vis-à-vis reference brand) generics are less available than multisource products. For most medicines (71.4%), the availability of bioequivalent generics was less than 10%. In the private sector, the average number of different bioequivalent generic versions in the outlets was far smaller than the number of versions on the market. There was a positive correlation between the number of generics on the market, or those found at outlets, and the price variation in bioequivalent generic products, in relation to the maximum consumer price. It is estimated that price competition is occurring among bioequivalent generic drugs and between them and multisource products for the same substance, but not with reference brands.

  8. Assessment of GHG mitigation and CDM technology in urban transport sector of Chandigarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Nitin; Gurjar, Bhola Ram; Mor, Suman; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2018-01-01

    The increase in number of vehicles in metropolitan cities has resulted in increase of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in urban environment. In this study, emission load of GHGs (CO, N 2 O, CO 2 ) from Chandigarh road transport sector has been estimated using Vehicular Air Pollution Inventory (VAPI) model, which uses emission factors prevalent in Indian cities. Contribution of 2-wheelers (2-w), 3-wheelers (3-w), cars, buses, and heavy commercial vehicles (HCVs) to CO, N 2 O, CO 2 , and total GHG emissions was calculated. Potential for GHG mitigation through clean development mechanism (CDM) in transport sector of Chandigarh under two scenarios, i.e., business as usual (BAU) and best estimate scenario (BES) using VAPI model, has been explored. A major contribution of GHG load (~ 50%) in Chandigarh was from four-wheelers until 2011; however, it shows a declining trend after 2011 until 2020. The estimated GHG emission from motor vehicles in Chandigarh has increased more than two times from 1065 Gg in 2005 to 2486 Gg by 2011 and is expected to increase to 4014 Gg by 2020 under BAU scenario. Under BES scenario, 30% of private transport has been transformed to public transport; GHG load was possibly reduced by 520 Gg. An increase of 173 Gg in GHGs load is projected from additional scenario (ADS) in Chandigarh city if all the diesel buses are transformed to CNG buses by 2020. Current study also offers potential for other cities to plan better GHG reduction strategies in transport sector to reduce their climate change impacts.

  9. Rail Transport : Framework for Improving Railway Sector Performance in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Olievschi, Vasile Nicolae

    2013-01-01

    In most of the Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries railways have played, throughout history, a key part in the economic development maintaining a dominant role in transporting freight and passengers at low costs. During the last 50 years, the road transport in the region as throughout the world has expanded rapidly due to the aggressive development of the automobile industry. African gover...

  10. Regional total factor energy efficiency: An empirical analysis of industrial sector in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhao-Hua; Zeng, Hua-Lin; Wei, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Yi-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We evaluate energy efficiency under framework of total factor energy efficiency. ► We focus on industry sector of China. ► We use statistical data of industrial enterprises above designated size. ► Energy efficiencies among regions in China are obvious because of technological differences. ► Large scale of investment should be stopped especially in central and western regions. -- Abstract: The rapid growth of the Chinese economy has resulted in great pressure on energy consumption, especially the energy intensive sector – the industrial sector. To achieve sustainable development, China has to consider how to promote energy efficiency to meet the demand of Chinese rapid economic growth, as the energy efficiency of China is relatively low. Meanwhile, the appeal of energy saving and emission reduction has been made by the Chinese central government. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the energy efficiency of industrial sector in China and to assess efficiency development probabilities. The framework of total factor energy efficiency index is adopted to determine the discrepancy of energy efficiency in Chinese industrial sector based on the provincial statistical data of industrial enterprises above designated size in 30 provinces from 2005 to 2009, with gross industrial output as the output value and energy consumption, average remaining balance of capital assets and average amount of working force as the input values. Besides, in considerate of the regional divide of China, namely eastern, central, and western, and economic development differences in each region, energy efficiency of each region is also analysed in this paper. The results show that there is room for China to improve its energy efficiency, especially western provinces which have large amount of energy input excess. Generally speaking, insufficient technological investment and fail of reaching best scale of manufacture are two factors preventing China from energy

  11. regional grain allocation and transportation in China

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... China was partitioned into eight regions, and the virtual water flow due to regional grain allocation and ... strategy can be choices which can realize Chinese food security and ..... Globalization of water: Sharing the planet's ...

  12. U. K. surface passenger transport sector. Energy consumption and policy options for conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltby, D; Monteath, I G; Lawler, K A

    1978-12-01

    Forecasts of U.K. energy consumption in this sector for four future scenarios based on different economic growth rates, energy prices, and energy conservation policies, show that by the year 2000, private transport will probably account for 76-94% of total energy consumption in surface passenger transport. A 33% increase in the average miles-per-gallon fuel consumption through technological improvements in private vehicles, conversion of private vehicles to diesel oil, additional fuel taxation equivalent to 25 or 50% fuel price increase, a 10% reduction in average car engine size (encouraged by taxation), and changes in public transport technology offer energy savings of about 20, 5-10, 6.3 or 12.5, 2-4, and 2%, respectively. There is considerable uncertainty about the outcome of these options.

  13. Energy and exergy utilization efficiencies and emission performance of Canadian transportation sector, 1990–2035

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motasemi, F.; Afzal, Muhammad T.; Salema, Arshad Adam; Moghavvemi, M.; Shekarchian, M.; Zarifi, F.; Mohsin, R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation sector of Canada is the second largest energy consuming sector which accounts for 30% of the total energy consumption of the country in 2009. The purpose of this work was to analyze the energy, exergy, and emission performance for four different modes of transport (road, air, rail, and marine) from the year 1990–2035. For historical period, the estimated overall energy efficiency ranges from 22.41% (1991) to 22.55% (2006) with a mean of 22.48 ± 0.07% and the overall exergy efficiency ranges from 21.61% (2001) to 21.87 (2006) with a mean of 21.74 ± 0.13%. Energy and exergy efficiencies may reach 20.95% and 20.97% in the year 2035 respectively based on the forecasted data. In comparison with other countries, we found that in the year 2000 the overall energy and exergy efficiencies for Canadian transportation sector were higher than Jordan, China, Norway, and Saudi Arabia but lower than Turkey and Malaysia. Between the year 1990–2009, the highest amount of emission produced in each subsector was: road CO 2 (80%), NO x (72%), and CO (carbon monoxide) (96%); air SO 2 (86%); rail NO x (6%) and marine NO x (7%). The road subsector produced the highest amount of emissions. - Highlights: • Energy, exergy and emission performance for Canadian transport was analyzed. • Maximum energy and exergy efficiencies were 22.55% and 21.87% in 2006 respectively. • Energy and exergy efficiencies may decrease in the year 2035. • CO 2 was the largest pollutant emitted followed by CO, NO x , and SO 2 . • Utilization of green fuels can improve exergy and emission performance

  14. Adaptation to climate-induced regional water constraints in the Spanish energy sector: An integrated assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Zarrar; Linares, Pedro; García-González, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The energy sector depends on water in all phases of its life-cycle, including raw material extraction, power plant cooling, irrigation of biofuel crops and directly in hydropower generation. In the coming decades, several regions of the world are expected to experience a decrease in water resource availability, in part due to climate change. The dependence of the energy sector on water resources calls for an active effort to adapt to the possible scenarios. This paper presents a novel model that addresses the direct impacts of regional and temporal water shortages on energy operation and investment decisions. The paper investigates the costs and benefits of adapting the energy sector to climate-induced water scarcity. The results show that the increase in costs for an energy plan that considers future water stress is relatively small as compared to one which ignores it. A plan which ignores water constraints, however, may lead to significant economic damages when actually exposed to water shortages. The results also highlight the value of the availability of water for the energy sector, which is significantly higher than existing prices. The paper concludes that the potential benefits to be gained by integrating energy and water models can be considerable. - Highlights: • Spatial and temporal water constraints are added to an energy planning model. • Integrated water-energy planning can lead to significant savings in future water-stressed scenarios. • Actual value of water for the energy sector may be much higher than existing prices.

  15. Electrification of the Canadian road transportation sector: A 2050 outlook with TIMES-Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, Olivier; Marcy, Mathilde; Vaillancourt, Kathleen; Waaub, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    We use a newly developed bottom-up model of the entire Canadian energy system (TIMES-Canada) to assess potentials for electrification of the road transport sector. A special emphasis has been put on the modelling of the Canadian road transport, by considering a variety of vehicles for passenger and freight transportation. Besides a business-as-usual (baseline) scenario, we have analysed an energy policy scenario imposing targets for electric vehicle penetration and a climate policy scenario imposing targets for greenhouse gas emission reduction. Our analysis shows on the one hand that electric vehicles penetrate notably the passenger vehicle market after 2040 in the baseline scenario and after 2030 in the energy policy scenario (following the assumed penetration targets). On the other hand, the assumed climate policy forces a stronger penetration of electric vehicles for passenger transportation, with a progressive phasing out of internal combustion engine vehicles, whereas the latter vehicles remain dominant for freight transportation but with a shift away of fossil fuels and in favour of biofuels. A sensitivity analysis on the (assumed) evolution of electric vehicles over time confirms these general trends. -- Highlights: •We use a newly developed TIMES-Canada model of the entire Canadian energy system. •We assess potentials for electrification of the Canadian road transport sector. •We analyse three scenarios: baseline, energy policy and climate policy. •EVs penetrate notably after 2040 in the baseline and after 2030 in the energy policy scenario. •The climate policy forces a stronger penetration of EVs

  16. Comparing the value of bioenergy in the heating and transport sectors of an electricity-intensive energy system in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assefa Hagos, Dejene; Gebremedhin, Alemayehu; Folsland Bolkesjø, Torjus

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the most valuable sector for the use of bioenergy in a flexible energy system in order to meet the energy policy objectives of Inland Norway. A reference system was used to construct alternative systems in the heating and transport sectors. The alternative system in the heating sector is based on heat pumps and bio-heat boilers while the alternative systems in the transport sector are based on three different pathways: bio-dimethyl ether, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and battery electric vehicles. The alternative systems were compared with the reference system after a business-economic optimisation had been made using an energy system analysis tool. The results show that the excess electricity availability due to increased energy efficiency measures hampers the competitiveness and penetration of bio-heating over heat pumps in the heating sector. Indeed, the synergy effect of using bio-dimethyl ether in the transport sector for an increased share of renewable energy sources is much higher than that of the hydrogen fuel cell vehicle and battery electric vehicle pathways. The study also revealed that increasing renewable energy production would increase the renewable energy share more than what would be achieved by an increase in energy efficiency. -- Highlights: •Bio-heating is less competitive over heat pump for low quality heat production. •Renewable energy production meets policy objectives better than system efficiency. •Bioenergy is more valuable in the transport sector than the heating sector

  17. Climate cure 2020 measures and instruments to achieve Norwegian climate goals by 2020. Chapter 10 - the transport sector analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    This document is a translation of Chapter 10, Sector analysis of transport, in the Norwegian report Climate Cure 2020, Measures and Instruments for Achieving Norwegian Climate Goals by 2020. The sector analysis has been prepared by an inter agency working group, conducted by the Norwegian Public Road Administration. (Author)

  18. Big data analytics — A review of data-mining models for small and medium enterprises in the transportation sector.

    OpenAIRE

    Selamat, Siti Aishah Mohd; Prakoonwit, Simant; Sahandi, Reza; Khan, W.; Ramachandran, M.

    2018-01-01

    The need for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to adopt data analytics has reached a critical point, given the surge of data implied by the advancement of technology. Despite data mining (DM) being widely used in the transportation sector, it is staggering to note that there are minimal research case studies being done on the application of DM by SMEs, specifically in the transportation sector. From the extensive review conducted, the three most common DM models used by large enterprises in...

  19. Regional transportation and land use decision making in metropolitan regions : findings from four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    "Throughout the United States, metropolitan regions face increasingly complex issues related to transportation and : land use. The diffuse nature of decision making creates a need to better coordinate land use and transportation to : address issues s...

  20. Trends in energy consumption in the transportation sector of Mexico and its environmental impact; Tendencias del consumo de energia en el Sector Transporte de Mexico y su impacto al medio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mar, E.; Sheinbaum, C. [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The Mexican transportation sector, as with that of many other countries, is characterized by basing its energy consumption in hydrocarbons (gasoline, diesel and LP gas). At the present times, this dependency has brought along a series of problems of environmental nature, which concentrate in a larger scale in the urban areas. Therefore, the study of the transportation sector as an energy consumer requires the institution of new terms where the constant to study (directly or indirectly) is the environmental variable, trying to correlate the proper sector activities, its development and the energy consumption with the environment. This paper`s objective is to know the actual situation of the transportation sector in the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC) and its environmental impact. It is therefore an energy-environmental inventory energy-environmental focussed to the use of fuels in the transportation sector, whose environmental effect has a significant cost for the country. This paper has been divided in four parts. First, the importance of the sector as an energy consumer in the MAMC is characterized in aggregated form. Second, the main variables that affect the development of the sector to obtain the consumption in separated form as well as the base criteria for its development, obtaining a series of results that show the effect of the different modes and types of energy consumption. In the third part, reference is made to the environmental impact originated by the utilization of fossil fuels in the transportation sector, emphasizing in the transportation means that more heavily affect for the emission of pollutants. Finally a series of options are presented that allow finding an equilibrium among transportation, energy and environment. [Espanol] El sector transporte mexicano, como el de muchos otros paises se caracteriza por basar su consumo energetico en hidrocarburos (gasolina, diesel y gas licuado). Actualmente esta dependencia ha traido consigo una

  1. Trends in energy consumption in the transportation sector of Mexico and its environmental impact; Tendencias del consumo de energia en el Sector Transporte de Mexico y su impacto al medio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mar, E; Sheinbaum, C [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The Mexican transportation sector, as with that of many other countries, is characterized by basing its energy consumption in hydrocarbons (gasoline, diesel and LP gas). At the present times, this dependency has brought along a series of problems of environmental nature, which concentrate in a larger scale in the urban areas. Therefore, the study of the transportation sector as an energy consumer requires the institution of new terms where the constant to study (directly or indirectly) is the environmental variable, trying to correlate the proper sector activities, its development and the energy consumption with the environment. This paper`s objective is to know the actual situation of the transportation sector in the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC) and its environmental impact. It is therefore an energy-environmental inventory energy-environmental focussed to the use of fuels in the transportation sector, whose environmental effect has a significant cost for the country. This paper has been divided in four parts. First, the importance of the sector as an energy consumer in the MAMC is characterized in aggregated form. Second, the main variables that affect the development of the sector to obtain the consumption in separated form as well as the base criteria for its development, obtaining a series of results that show the effect of the different modes and types of energy consumption. In the third part, reference is made to the environmental impact originated by the utilization of fossil fuels in the transportation sector, emphasizing in the transportation means that more heavily affect for the emission of pollutants. Finally a series of options are presented that allow finding an equilibrium among transportation, energy and environment. [Espanol] El sector transporte mexicano, como el de muchos otros paises se caracteriza por basar su consumo energetico en hidrocarburos (gasolina, diesel y gas licuado). Actualmente esta dependencia ha traido consigo una

  2. The Impact of Regional and Sectoral Productivity Changes on the U.S. Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Caliendo, Lorenzo; Parro, Fernando; Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban; Sarte, Pierre-Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We study the impact of regional and sectoral productivity changes on the U.S. economy. To that end, we consider an environment that captures the effects of interregional and intersectoral trade in propagating disaggregated productivity changes at the level of a sector in a given U.S. state to the rest of the economy. The quantitative model we develop features pairwise interregional trade across all 50 U.S. states, 26 traded and non-traded industries, labor as a mobile factor, and structures a...

  3. Is the Magnetic Field in the Heliosheath Sector Region and in the Outer Heliosheath Laminar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opher, M.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M. M.; Toth, G.

    2010-12-01

    All the current global models of the heliosphere are based on the assumption that the magnetic field in the outer heliosheath close to the heliopause is laminar. We argue that in the outer heliosheath the heliospheric magnetic field is not laminar but instead consists of nested magnetic islands. Recently, we proposed (Drake et al. 2009) that the annihilation of the ``sectored'' magnetic field within the heliosheath as it is compressed on its approach to the heliopause produces the anomalous cosmic rays (ACRs) and also energetic electrons. As a product of the annihilation of the sectored magnetic field, densly-packed magnetic islands are produced. These magnetic islands will be convected with the ambient flows as the sector boundary is carried to higher latitudes filling the outer heliosheath. We further argue that the magnetic islands will develop upstream (but still within the heliosheath) where collisionless reconnection is unfavorable -- large perturbations of the sector structure near the heliopause will cause compressions of the current sheet upstream, triggering reconnection. As a result, the magnetic field in the heliosheath sector region will be disordered well upstream of the heliopause. We present a 3D MHD simulation with unprecedent numerical resolution that captures the sector boundary. We show that due to the high pressure of the interstellar magnetic field the disordered sectored region fills a large portion of the northern part of the heliosphere with a smaller extension in the southern hemisphere. We test these ideas with observations of energetic electrons, which because of their high velocity are most sensitive to the structure of the magnetic field. We suggest that within our scenario we can explain two significant anomalies in the observations of energetic electrons in the outer heliosphere: the sudden decrease in the intensity of low energy electrons (0.02-1.5MeV) from the LECP instrument on Voyager 2 in 2008 (Decker 2010); and the dramatic

  4. Free Switzerland from fossil energy sources - Clear proposals for the building, transportation and electrical power sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, R.

    2010-10-01

    A comprehensive review of the current situation of energy resources and consumption and of the prevailing framework like climate change is given, with a focus on Switzerland. The author, a member of the Lower House of the Swiss Parliament, presents facts and figures in a simple language, illustrated by tables and diagrams, in a well structured, easy-to-read book, with detailed indications of his data sources. Starting from the limited character of fossil energy sources, 'peak-oil' and the necessary reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, the author states that nuclear energy is not the solution. Action is absolutely needed, but which policy should be adopted? A global strategy is required that includes the stabilization of the world population as a key factor. An international agreement signed by as many states as possible should create stringent commitments. The developed countries have to demonstrate that prosperity and high life standard are compatible with an economy based on renewable energy sources. This will give to the most ambitious countries a significant advantage on new markets created by renewable energy use and energy efficiency. The author goes on by describing the current status of the technologies needed. What regards the particular case of Switzerland, this country is strongly dependent on energy import - mainly fossil - and CO 2 emissions arise mainly from the building and transportation sectors. A 50% efficiency improvement until 2030 is needed in fossil energy use. Electricity use has to become more efficient as well. Electricity generation - today about 60% renewable - shall move towards 100% renewable. The next chapters discuss clear realistic proposals on how to achieve these goals in the transportation sector ('Intelligent mobility'), the building sector ('Retrofitting the buildings to get them up-to-date') and the electrical power sector ('Entirely renewable electricity'). The title of the conclusion chapter: 'Focus again on the general

  5. Potential emissions reduction in road transport sector using biofuel in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaquat, A. M.; Kalam, M. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Jayed, M. H.

    2010-10-01

    Use of biofuels as transport fuel has high prospect in developing countries as most of them are facing severe energy insecurity and have strong agricultural sector to support production of biofuels from energy crops. Rapid urbanization and economic growth of developing countries have spurred air pollution especially in road transport sector. The increasing demand of petroleum based fuels and their combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines have adverse effect on air quality, human health and global warming. Air pollution causes respiratory problems, adverse effects on pulmonary function, leading to increased sickness absenteeism and induces high health care service costs, premature birth and even mortality. Production of biofuels promises substantial improvement in air quality through reducing emission from biofuel operated automotives. Some of the developing countries have started biofuel production and utilization as transport fuel in local market. This paper critically reviews the facts and prospects of biofuel production and utilization in developing countries to reduce environmental pollution and petro dependency. Expansion of biofuel industries in developing countries can create more jobs and increase productivity by non-crop marginal lands and wastelands for energy crops plantation. Contribution of India and China in biofuel industry in production and utilization can dramatically change worldwide biofuel market and leap forward in carbon cut as their automotive market is rapidly increasing with a souring proportional rise of GHG emissions.

  6. Energy saving opportunities in the refrigerated transport sector through Phase Change Materials (PCMs) application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, P.; Fioretti, R.; Copertaro, B.

    2017-11-01

    Transportation of food products at controlled temperature is a critical task in the transport sector. In fact, whilst there is a need of ensuring both food quality and safety to the global population, its impact in terms of energy consumption and related CO2 emissions into the atmosphere is becoming increasingly evident. In this regard, Thermal Energy Storage (TES) using Phase Change Materials (PCMs) can be considered as a potential way of reducing the cooling load, energy consumption and related greenhouse gas emissions in refrigerated transport sector. In this paper two different PCM applications are investigated. Specifically, in the first study a PCM (35 °C melting temperature) layer was added to the external side of a refrigerated enclosure wall with the aim of managing the cooling peak (shifting and reducing) and reducing the daily energy rate. Outdoor experimental results showed that the added PCM layer helps to reduce (between 5.55% and 8.57%) and delay (between 4.30 h and 3.30 h) the peak load of incoming heat compared to the reference one. In the second study, the energy performance of a refrigerated chamber with an air heat exchanger containing PCM (5°C melting temperature) was investigated. The study purpose was to reduce the cooling energy consumption during steady state operating conditions and the rate of temperature increase throughout the course of a power failure event. Test results showed that using a PCM air heat exchanger addition, up to 16% of energy can be saved.

  7. Psychometric properties of the assessment of quality of working life scale in the urban transport sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Alberto Figueroa-Chaves

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Quality of Working Life (QWL is the degree of satisfaction, physical, mental and social well-being experienced by people in their working environment; it contains the objective and subjective dimensions. For this study, the subjective dimension of the QWL was addressed, which is formed by occupational health, labor welfare and perception of the work. Objective: To determine the psychometric properties of the assessment of quality of life scale at work in the transport sector. Materials and methods: A quantitative descriptive-instrumental study of the scale was made, which consists of 108 items and was applied to 468 drivers of the strategic system of public transport in the city of San Juan de Pasto. The evidence of Kaiser Meyer Olkin and roundness of Bartlett, the factorial analysis and Cronbach Alpha were calculated. Results: The scale presented appropriate features of validity and reliability. It evaluates two factors: labor welfare and healthy life styles, and the respective scales to be applied are presented. Conclusions: The factorial analysis allows us to affirm that the Scale of Quality of Working Life in the transport sector can be applied in subsequent studies.

  8. Linking the Power and Transport Sectors—Part 2: Modelling a Sector Coupling Scenario for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Robinius

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available “Linking the power and transport sectors—Part 1” describes the general principle of “sector coupling” (SC, develops a working definition intended of the concept to be of utility to the international scientific community, contains a literature review that provides an overview of relevant scientific papers on this topic and conducts a rudimentary analysis of the linking of the power and transport sectors on a worldwide, EU and German level. The aim of this follow-on paper is to outline an approach to the modelling of SC. Therefore, a study of Germany as a case study was conducted. This study assumes a high share of renewable energy sources (RES contributing to the grid and significant proportion of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs in the year 2050, along with a dedicated hydrogen pipeline grid to meet hydrogen demand. To construct a model of this nature, the model environment “METIS” (models for energy transformation and integration systems we developed will be described in more detail in this paper. Within this framework, a detailed model of the power and transport sector in Germany will be presented in this paper and the rationale behind its assumptions described. Furthermore, an intensive result analysis for the power surplus, utilization of electrolysis, hydrogen pipeline and economic considerations has been conducted to show the potential outcomes of modelling SC. It is hoped that this will serve as a basis for researchers to apply this framework in future to models and analysis with an international focus.

  9. CSR BENCHMARKING IN THE ROMANIAN BUSINESS AND ACADEMIC SECTOR OF CLUJ-NAPOCA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra GOGOZAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of the present article was to create an index or otherwise a database of CSR contributions that can be quantified and which should clarify the position of a company on the ladder of CSR, and also would enhance the comparability of efforts undertaken by socially responsible companies an institutions. 22 CSR aspects were taken into consideration concerning the interests of the banking sector, the commercial and academic sector, from Cluj-Napoca region, Romania. The benchmarking analysis took into consideration CSR aspects such as economical, environmental and social sustainability, the three pillars of sustainable development. The CSR aspects referred to all the stakeholders involved in those three sectors: employees, suppliers, costumers, community, shareholders and competitors.

  10. International comparisons of energy and environmental efficiency in the road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Abdallah, Khaled; Belloumi, Mounir; De Wolf, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present work provides an international comparison of the energy intensity and the carbon dioxide intensity in road transport for a group of 90 countries over the period 1980–2012. This paper attempts to perform a comparative analysis to find the most appropriate mapping of the energy performance in road transport taking into account the three dimensions of sustainable energy development, namely road transport-related energy consumption, economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions. An important result of the study is the inverse relationship between energy efficiency and environmental efficiency. Through the calculated Theil coefficient, our empirical findings highlight the existence of spatial and temporal disparities between countries. In 2012, Tunisia occupies the 48th and the 38th rank respectively in terms of energy and environmental efficiency. Based on a general index of energy performance in the road transport sector, it is deemed to have a medium–high energy performance by occupying the 34th rank. The study shows the importance of enhancing a number of policies for the road transport system through the joint improvement of the fuel price policy, of the road infrastructure policy and of the fuel-efficient road vehicles policy, in order to maintain sustainable energy road transport. - Highlights: • The paper presents an international comparative analysis of the energy performance. • The road transport is analyzed for a group of 90 countries over the period 1980–2012. • There is no convergence between energy and environmental efficiencies. • Tunisia has a medium-high energy performance by occupying the 34th rank in 2012. • The findings show the importance of enhancing some policies for the road transport.

  11. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT BASED ON CLUSTER IN LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT. CLUSTER IN LIVESTOCK SECTOR IN THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meerim SYDYKOVA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In most developing countries, where agriculture is the main economical source, clusters have been found as a booster to develop their economy. The Asian countries are now starting to implement agro-food clusters into the mainstream of changes in agriculture, farming and food industry. The long-term growth of meat production in the Kyrgyz Republic during the last decade, as well as the fact that agriculture has become one of the prioritized sectors of the economy, proved the importance of livestock sector in the economy of the Kyrgyz Republic. The research question is “Does the Kyrgyz Republic has strong economic opportunities and prerequisites in agriculture in order to implement an effective agro cluster in the livestock sector?” Paper focuses on describing the prerequisites of the Kyrgyz Republic in agriculture to implement livestock cluster. The main objective of the paper is to analyse the livestock sector of the Kyrgyz Republic and observe the capacity of this sector to implement agro-cluster. The study focuses on investigating livestock sector and a complex S.W.O.T. The analysis was carried out based on local and regional database and official studies. The results of research demonstrate the importance of livestock cluster for national economy. It can be concluded that cluster implementation could provide to its all members with benefits if they could build strong collaborative relationship in order to facilitate the access to the labour market and implicitly, the access to exchange of good practices. Their ability of potential cluster members to act as a convergence pole is critical for acquiring practical skills necessary for the future development of the livestock sector.

  12. LOGÍSTICA ESBELTA APLICADA AL TRANSPORTE EN EL SECTOR MINERO

    OpenAIRE

    ARANGO SERNA, MARTÍN D.; GIL GOMEZ, HERMENEGILDO; ZAPATA CORTÉS, JULIÁN A.

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo ha sido elaborado con el objetivo de plantear la logística esbelta como una de las soluciones actuales como factor de competitividad y reducción de costos en las empresas del sector minero. Aquí se expresa la necesidad de que las redes de transporte tengan opciones de mejorar su gestión logística manejando sus recursos de manera adecuada, reduciendo costos y usando herramientas de nueva generación, de modo que mejore sustancialmente su estrategia competitiva, con el fin de lograr...

  13. Logística esbelta aplicada al transporte en el sector minero

    OpenAIRE

    ARANGO SERNA, MARTÍN D.; GIL GOMEZ, HERMENEGILDO; ZAPATA CORTÉS, JULIÁN A.

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo  ha sido elaborado con el objetivo de plantear la logística esbelta como una de las soluciones actuales como factor de competitividad y reducción de costos en las empresas del sector minero. Aquí se expresa la necesidad de que las  redes de transporte tengan opciones de mejorar su gestión logística manejando sus recursos de manera adecuada, reduciendo costos y usando herramientas de nueva generación, de modo que mejore sustancialmente su estrategia competitiva, con el fin de logr...

  14. Research into the application of biodiesel in the transport sector of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lebedevas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The material of this publication presents the results of a complex research into the application of standard rapseed methyl ester (RME and new types of biodiesels produced from waste of vegetable oil and animal fat in the transport sector of Lithuania. The analytical analysis of physical, chemical and thermodynamical properties of biodiesels is performed and its results are evualated during the formation of tasks of experimental motor tests and research into mathematical modelling. Their influence for the paramaters of a working process and exploiting characteristics such as power, fuel economy, reliability and harmful emission of gases is evaluated.

  15. Maximum Regional Emission Reduction Potential in Residential Sector Based on Spatial Distribution of Population and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winijkul, E.; Bond, T. C.

    2011-12-01

    In the residential sector, major activities that generate emissions are cooking and heating, and fuels ranging from traditional (wood) to modern (natural gas, or electricity) are used. Direct air pollutant emissions from this sector are low when natural gas or electricity are the dominant energy sources, as is the case in developed countries. However, in developing countries, people may rely on solid fuels and this sector can contribute a large fraction of emissions. The magnitude of the health loss associated with exposure to indoor smoke as well as its concentration among rural population in developing countries have recently put preventive measures high on the agenda of international development and public health organizations. This study focuses on these developing regions: Central America, Africa, and Asia. Current and future emissions from the residential sector depend on both fuel and cooking device (stove) type. Availability of fuels, stoves, and interventions depends strongly on spatial distribution. However, regional emission calculations do not consider this spatial dependence. Fuel consumption data is presented at country level, without information about where different types of fuel are used. Moreover, information about stove types that are currently used and can be used in the future is not available. In this study, we first spatially allocate current emissions within residential sector. We use Geographic Information System maps of temperature, electricity availability, forest area, and population to determine the distribution of fuel types and availability of stoves. Within each country, consumption of different fuel types, such as fuelwood, coal, and LPG is distributed among different area types (urban, peri-urban, and rural area). Then, the cleanest stove technologies which could be used in the area are selected based on the constraints of each area, i.e. availability of resources. Using this map, the maximum emission reduction compared with

  16. An estimation of the energy and exergy efficiencies for the energy resources consumption in the transportation sector in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Sattar, M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Ahmed, S.; Hashim, U.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to apply the useful energy and exergy analysis models for different modes of transport in Malaysia and to compare the result with a few countries. In this paper, energy and exergy efficiencies of the various sub-sectors are presented by considering the energy and exergy flows from 1995 to 2003. Respective flow diagrams to find the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of Malaysian transportation sector are also presented. The estimated overall energy efficiency ranges from 22.74% (1999) to 22.98% (1998) with a mean of 22.82+/-0.06% and that of overall exergy efficiency ranges from 22.44% (2000) to 22.82% (1998) with a mean of 22.55+/-0.12%. The results are compared with respect to present energy and exergy efficiencies in each sub-sector. The transportation sector used about 40% of the total energy consumed in 2002. Therefore, it is important to identify the energy and exergy flows and the pertinent losses. The road sub-sector has appeared to be the most efficient one compared to the air and marine sub-sectors. Also found that the energy and exergy efficiencies of Malaysian transportation sector are lower than that of Turkey but higher than Norway

  17. Source contributions and regional transport of primary particulate matter in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianlin; Wu, Li; Zheng, Bo; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Chang, Qing; Li, Xinghua; Yang, Fumo; Ying, Qi; Zhang, Hongliang

    2015-12-01

    A source-oriented CMAQ was applied to determine source sector/region contributions to primary particulate matter (PPM) in China. Four months were simulated with emissions grouped to eight regions and six sectors. Predicted elemental carbon (EC), primary organic carbon (POC), and PPM concentrations and source contributions agree with measurements and have significant spatiotemporal variations. Residential is a major contributor to spring/winter EC (50-80%), POC (60%-90%), and PPM (30-70%). For summer/fall, industrial contributes 30-50% for EC/POC and 40-60% for PPM. Transportation is more important for EC (20-30%) than POC/PPM (Guangzhou and Chongqing. Dust contributes to 1/3-1/2 in spring/fall of Beijing, Xi'an and Chongqing. Based on sector-region combination, local residential/transportation and residential/industrial from Heibei are major contributors to spring PPM in Beijing. In summer/fall, local industrial is the largest. In winter, residential/industrial from local and Hebei account for >90% in Beijing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ergonomic work analysis: A case study of bus drivers in the private collective transportation sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Adolfo Vicente; Arcanjo, Gemima Santos; Fernandes, Haroldo; Arcanjo, Georgia Santos

    2018-05-03

    The collective transportation system is essential to reduce the number of automobiles in the roads. Concerns exist related to quality, comfort and safety of bus driver's workstations. The objective of this study was to improve the driver's workstation in the private collective transportation sector by analyzing ergonomic practices using the Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA). The EWA was chosen because it seeks to evaluate the labor condition as it relates to the psychophysiological conditions of workers, it complies with regulatory standard 17 (NR17). To identify driver concerns, interviews and questionnaires were administered. The workstation and worker routines were observed. The analysis revealed that the largest number of complaints related to noise, display light and location of the passenger identifier device. Drivers reported discomfort in the knees and lower back. Recommendations were made to improve the workstation and change the routine to minimize the discomfort and ergonomic risk factors.

  19. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model. The NEMS Transportation Model comprises a series of semi-independent models which address different aspects of the transportation sector. The primary purpose of this model is to provide mid-term forecasts of transportation energy demand by fuel type including, but not limited to, motor gasoline, distillate, jet fuel, and alternative fuels (such as CNG) not commonly associated with transportation. The current NEMS forecast horizon extends to the year 2010 and uses 1990 as the base year. Forecasts are generated through the separate consideration of energy consumption within the various modes of transport, including: private and fleet light-duty vehicles; aircraft; marine, rail, and truck freight; and various modes with minor overall impacts, such as mass transit and recreational boating. This approach is useful in assessing the impacts of policy initiatives, legislative mandates which affect individual modes of travel, and technological developments. The model also provides forecasts of selected intermediate values which are generated in order to determine energy consumption. These elements include estimates of passenger travel demand by automobile, air, or mass transit; estimates of the efficiency with which that demand is met; projections of vehicle stocks and the penetration of new technologies; and estimates of the demand for freight transport which are linked to forecasts of industrial output. Following the estimation of energy demand, TRAN produces forecasts of vehicular emissions of the following pollutants by source: oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, total carbon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds.

  20. The transnational territorial transport system of the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk Ivan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the structure and territorial borders of the Baltic Sea region, and examine the key structural elements of the transnational territorial transport system. In this respect, we clarify some terms used in transport geography. For the first time the transport system gets territorially localized, which allows for a broad range of new studies of transnational transportation in the Baltic Sea area. We also identify the main principles of development and operation of international territorial transport systems and present them taking the Baltic Sea region as an example. Our findings, we hope, will have a great practical application for researchers of transport geography, especially those studying international logistics.

  1. LAS EMISIONES DE GASES DE EFECTO INVERNADERO EN EL SECTOR TRANSPORTE POR CARRETERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Sotelo Navalpotro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación que presentamos parte de la idea de que el transporte por carretera en sus modalidades, mercancías y pasajeros, y este último en sus dos tipos, privado y público conforma un sector con una notable relevancia socioeconómica. De hecho hay estimaciones que fijan su aportación al PIB de España en un 7% como media, alcanzando un 10% si se incluye el transporte por cuenta propia, y la producción de los medios y de las infraestructuras de transporte. Así, a los evidentes beneficios que aporta a la economía, que en gran medida se ven reflejados en las pertinentes estadísticas, habría que detraerle los notables costes que implica no sólo en términos de aumentar la dependencia energética de nuestro país, el enorme y dramático coste derivado de la accidentalidad, y también el derivado de los problemas que ocasiona en materia de contaminación y uso del suelo y congestión de las infraestructuras. En él se sientan las bases metodológicas para la construcción, por fases, de un Sistema de Indicadores que permita la evaluación y el seguimiento de la sostenibilidad del sector del Transporte en su triple dimensión: económica, ambiental y social; la comparación sincrónica y diacrónica de los indicadores; el establecimiento de valores Umbrales: criticos y deseables, y de valores Objetivos de progresos realistas hacia los deseables.

  2. Modelling of atmospheric transport of heavy metals emitted from Polish power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zysk, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Modelling of atmospheric transport of heavy metals emitted from Polish power sector. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the atmospheric heavy metals contamination and its deposition to ecosystems. The increasing attention to mercury pollution has been mainly driven by the growing evidence of its negative impacts on wildlife, ecosystems and particularly human health. Lead and cadmium are also toxics which are being emitted into the atmosphere by anthropogenic as well as natural sources. The harmful influence of these three heavy metals was underlined in the Aarhus Protocol on Heavy Metals of 1998. The Parties of this protocol (including Poland) are obligated to reduce emissions, observe the transport and the amounts of lead, mercury and cadmium in the environment. Poland is one of the biggest emitter of mercury, lead and cadmium in Europe mainly due to emission from coal combustion processes. Therefore in Poland, research efforts to study the heavy metals emission, atmospheric transport, concentration and deposition are extremely important. The objectives of this work were twofold: - The practical objective was to develop and run a model to represent the atmospheric dispersion of mercury and to implement it in the air quality modelling platform Polyphemus.- The scientific objective was to perform heavy metals dispersion studies over Europe and detailed studies of the impact of the polish power sector on the air quality regarding mercury, cadmium and lead. To meet the declared aim, a new mercury chemical model was implemented into the Polyphemus air quality system. The scientific literature was reviewed regarding mercury chemistry and mercury chemical models. It can be concluded that the chemistry of mercury is still not well known. The models also differ in the way of calculating the dry and wet deposition of mercury. The elemental gaseous mercury ambient concentrations are evenly distributed, on the contrary, high variations in the spatial gradients of

  3. Statewide Transportation Engineering Warehouse for Archived Regional Data (STEWARD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report documents Phase III of the development and operation of a prototype for the Statewide Transportation : Engineering Warehouse for Archived Regional Data (STEWARD). It reflects the progress on the development and : operation of STEWARD sinc...

  4. Role of regional planning organizations in transportation planning across boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-11

    The Volpe Center conducted research for the Federal Highway Administration Office of Planning that explores the implications of Regional Planning Organizations (RPO) engaging in transportation planning partnerships and projects of megaregions signifi...

  5. Corn Ethanol: The Surprisingly Effective Route for Natural Gas Consumption in the Transportation Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szybist, James P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curran, Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Proven reserves and production of natural gas (NG) in the United States have increased dramatically in the last decade, due largely to the commercialization of hydraulic fracturing. This has led to a plentiful supply of NG, resulting in a significantly lower cost on a gallon of gasoline-equivalent (GGE) basis. Additionally, NG is a domestic, non-petroleum source of energy that is less carbon-intensive than coal or petroleum products, and thus can lead to lower greenhouse gas emissions. Because of these factors, there is a desire to increase the use of NG in the transportation sector in the United States (U.S.). However, using NG directly in the transportation sector requires that several non-trivial challenges be overcome. One of these issues is the fueling infrastructure. There are currently only 1,375 NG fueling stations in the U.S. compared to 152,995 fueling stations for gasoline in 2014. Additionally, there are very few light-duty vehicles that can consume this fuel directly as dedicated or bi-fuel options. For example, in model year 2013Honda was the only OEM to offer a dedicated CNG sedan while a number of others offered CNG options as a preparation package for LD trucks and vans. In total, there were a total of 11 vehicle models in 2013 that could be purchased that could use natural gas directly. There are additional potential issues associated with NG vehicles as well. Compared to commercial refueling stations, the at-home refueling time for NG vehicles is substantial – a result of the small compressors used for home refilling. Additionally, the methane emissions from both refueling (leakage) and from tailpipe emissions (slip) from these vehicles can add to their GHG footprint, and while these emissions are not currently regulated it could be a barrier in the future, especially in scenarios with broad scale adoption of CNG vehicles. However, NG consumption already plays a large role in other sectors of the economy, including some that are important to

  6. Achieving reductions in greenhouse gases in the US road transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, Andrew I.; Noland, Robert B.; Rodier, Caroline J.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that GHG emissions must be reduced 50 to 80% by 2050 in order to limit global temperature increase to 2 °C. Achieving reductions of this magnitude in the transportation sector is a challenge and requires a multitude of policies and technology options. The research presented here analyzes three scenarios: changes in the perceived price of travel, land use intensification, and increases in transit. Elasticity estimates are derived using an activity-based travel model for the state of California and broadly representative of the US. The VISION model is used to forecast changes in technology and fuel options that are currently forecast to occur in the US for the period 2000–2040, providing a life-cycle GHG forecast for the road transportation sector. Results suggest that aggressive policy action is required, especially pricing policies, but also more on the technology side, especially increases in the carbon efficiency of medium and heavy-duty vehicles. - Highlights: • Travel elasticities are calculated for policy scenarios using an activity-based travel model. • These elasticities are used to estimate changes in total life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. • Current technology and fuel policy and the strongest behavioral policy will not meet targets. • Heavy and medium-duty trucks need more aggressive technology and fuel options

  7. Pump-to-Wheels Methane Emissions from the Heavy-Duty Transportation Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nigel N; McKain, David L; Johnson, Derek R; Wayne, W Scott; Li, Hailin; Akkerman, Vyacheslav; Sandoval, Cesar; Covington, April N; Mongold, Ronald A; Hailer, John T; Ugarte, Orlando J

    2017-01-17

    Pump-to-wheels (PTW) methane emissions from the heavy-duty (HD) transportation sector, which have climate change implications, are poorly documented. In this study, methane emissions from HD natural gas fueled vehicles and the compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueling stations that serve them were characterized. A novel measurement system was developed to quantify methane leaks and losses. Engine related emissions were characterized from twenty-two natural gas fueled transit buses, refuse trucks, and over-the-road (OTR) tractors. Losses from six LNG and eight CNG stations were characterized during compression, fuel delivery, storage, and from leaks. Cryogenic boil-off pressure rise and pressure control venting from LNG storage tanks were characterized using theoretical and empirical modeling. Field and laboratory observations of LNG storage tanks were used for model development and evaluation. PTW emissions were combined with a specific scenario to view emissions as a percent of throughput. Vehicle tailpipe and crankcase emissions were the highest sources of methane. Data from this research are being applied by the authors to develop models to forecast methane emissions from the future HD transportation sector.

  8. Impact of the Introduction of Biofuel in the Transportation Sector in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni Jupesta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia faces serious energy problems; its status as an oil exporter has changed to that of a net oil importer. Additionally, a highly subsidized price of fossil fuels, combined with a high dependency on oil, burden Indonesia’s national budget. In 2006, the government enacted a Mix Energy Policy, which strives for a mixture of energy sources by introducing renewable energy into the existing energy systems. Among the several alternative renewable energy options, biofuel is perceived as having the most potential in Indonesia, due to favorable climate and the availability of land and technology. This paper assesses the impact of the introduction of biofuel in the transportation sector of Indonesia in terms of energy, economics and the environment. A linear programming model was built to simulate the impact of the introduction of biofuel. The author concludes that the introduction of biofuel may have a positive impact by partially replacing the oil used for domestic transportation, generating income due to export of excess production, creating jobs in several sectors, and reducing carbon emissions in a sustainable way. In the model, four scenarios are tested: under the scenario ‘land and technology’, with proper land allocation and technology development, biofuel production can reach 2,810 PJ/annum and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 168 million tons/annum CO2-equivalent. Furthermore, a profit of 49 billion USD can be generated in 2025 (all maximum values.

  9. Forecasting of Energy and Petroleum Consumption by Motor Transport in the Regions of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontiy Viktorovich Eder

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers the directions for the improvement of methodological approach to forecasting the energy consumption in transport, taking into account special features of Russian regions. The authors developed a multivariate model allowing to predict the motor vehicle rate specified for the regions of the Russian Federation depending on the economic, social and institutional features. We formalized the dynamic (trend model for predicting the effectiveness of energy consumption per unit of the vehicle in Russia with details on Federal districts. In the study, in predicting the number of motor transport, the authors applied the methods of economic and mathematical simulation modelling based on the results of the econometric analysis for the calculation of the population having motor transport. In determining the potential specific energy consumption, we have aggregated trending patterns and convergence. The study has shown that by 2040, the number of passenger cars in Russia will grow to 57.1 million, and the total number of all types of road transport will grow by 14.9 million units to 66.2 million. The highest growth rates are predicted in the Central regions of Russia and in some areas of Siberia. The smallest growth rates are expected in the Chukotka Autonomous District, Kamchatka and Primorsky regions. Energy efficiency in transport and active introduction of alternative motor fuels, primarily methane, will reduce the consumption of gasoline and diesel fuel by motor transport. Thus, in the forecast period of 2018–2040, the consumption of petroleum products by motor transport will be reduced by 8.9 million tons: from 61,9 million tons of oil to 51.7 million tons of oil. The results of the study can be applied for the formulation of proposals on the creation of scientific and methodological apparatus to predict the development of transport sector and oil products supply in of the regions of Russia.

  10. Regional risk associated with the transport of hazardous materials

    OpenAIRE

    Nardini, L.; Aparicio, L.; Bandoni, A.; Tonelli, S. M.

    2003-01-01

    An increasing concern over the level of risk associated with hazardous materials transportation has led international efforts to focus on risk assessment at regional level. Following this trend, the aim of this work is to review the latest procedures for analysing the regional risks resulting from hazardous materials transportation by means of road and rail. In particular, two methodologies are reviewed and discussed, a method recently developed at Swiss Federal Institute of Technology [1] an...

  11. Quantitative evaluation of time-series GHG emissions by sector and region using consumption-based accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Takashi; Akimoto, Keigo; Tomoda, Toshimasa

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates global time-series consumption-based GHG emissions by region from 1990 to 2005, including both CO 2 and non-CO 2 GHG emissions. Estimations are conducted for the whole economy and for two specific sectors: manufacturing and agriculture. Especially in the agricultural sector, it is important to include non-CO 2 GHG emissions because these are the major emissions present. In most of the regions examined, the improvements in GHG intensities achieved in the manufacturing sector are larger than those in the agricultural sector. Compared with developing regions, most developed regions have consistently larger per-capita consumption-based GHG emissions over the whole economy, as well as higher production-based emissions. In the manufacturing sector, differences calculated by subtracting production-based emissions from consumption-based GHG emissions are determined by the regional economic level while, in the agricultural sector, they are dependent on regional production structures that are determined by international trade competitiveness. In the manufacturing sector, these differences are consistently and increasingly positive for the U.S., EU15 and Japan but negative for developing regions. In the agricultural sector, the differences calculated for the major agricultural importers like Japan and the EU15 are consistently positive while those of exporters like the U.S., Australia and New Zealand are consistently negative. - Highlights: ► We evaluate global time-series production-based and consumption-based GHG emissions. ► We focus on both CO 2 and non-CO 2 GHG emissions, broken down by region and by sector. ► Including non-CO 2 GHG emissions is important in agricultural sector. ► In agriculture, differences in accountings are dependent on production structures. ► In manufacturing sector, differences in accountings are determined by economic level.

  12. Globalization of the Indian Economy: Effects on Sectoral/Regional/Employment Realignments

    OpenAIRE

    Pohit, Sanjib

    2003-01-01

    Globalization of the Indian industry received significant thrust since July 1991. It is expected that the reforms will be beneficial for growth. Few would deny that there would be transitional costs. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the changes in employment that will be required across sectors, occupation, and regions within India. With regard to the impact on occupational characteristics of employees, our study indicates that the deepening of reforms give a boost primarily to em...

  13. Learning Networks in Innovation Systems at Sector / Regional Level in Argentina: Winery and Dairy Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Sanchez; Roberto Bisang

    2011-01-01

    This work studies how the set of relationships that gives place to the learning processes is established in the food indus- try in Argentina. A theoretical ad hoc approach is adopted, conjugating the concepts of innovation systems at sector / regional level with some context considerations like the innovative behaviour of the global and local food industry and a description of the public and private S&T in Argentina. The study is focused in two cases: the wine industry, at the Mendoza provinc...

  14. European CO2 emission trends: A decomposition analysis for water and aviation transport sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoni, V.; Galmarini, S.

    2012-01-01

    A decomposition analysis is used to investigate the main factors influencing the CO 2 emissions of European transport activities for the period 2001–2008. The decomposition method developed by Sun has been used to investigate the carbon dioxide emissions intensity, the energy intensity, the structural changes and the economy activity growth effects for the water and the aviation transport sectors. The analysis is based on Eurostat data and results are presented for 14 Member States, Norway and EU27. Results indicate that economic growth has been the main factor behind the carbon dioxide emissions increase in EU27 both for water and aviation transport activities. -- Highlights: ► Decomposition analysis is used to investigate factors that influenced the energy-related CO 2 emissions of European transport. ► Economic growth has been the main factor affecting the energy-related CO 2 emissions increases. ► Investigating the CO 2 emissions drivers is the first step to define energy efficiency policies and emission reduction strategies.

  15. Accident risk and safety measures in the transport sector in Norway; Ulykkesrisiko og sikkerhetstiltak i transportsektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The scope of the work described in this report was (1) to evaluate methods for risk mapping considering all of the different means of transport, (2) to evaluate the extent to which measures should be taken against various types of accidents, (3) to evaluate cost-benefit assessments of accident-reducing measures irrespective of the different means of transport, (4) to evaluate the preferences of measures/cost effectiveness of different measures within different sectors, and (4) to evaluate the possibility of improving the efficiency of possible measures. It also considers the risk situation for ferry service. In addition to the purely human aspect, traffic accidents constitute an expensive social problem. Yet it would be too costly to meet a potential requirement that traffic accidents should disappear. The resources used by society to combat accidents have to be seen in the light of (1) the profit that can be achieved compared to alternative use of the resources, and (2) the possible negative consequences of different safety measures on, for instance, travel time and the extent of the transport. It is pointed out that when accident risk is compared from one transport means to another, different relative positions are found depending on how risk is quantified. Thus, for instance, on average, per year 5 times as many people die in accidents involving private cars as in motor cycle accidents, while for the number of deaths per billion person kilometers the ratio is almost the opposite,1:6.5. 34 refs., 12 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Transport corridors and settlements in a region. Linking settlements to public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Šašek Divjak

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the article is conditioning settlement to public transport on the regional and urban level. Similar to occurrences in Western Europe even in Slovenia strong settlement pressures and issues tied to development of suburbanisation are emerging in wider hinterlands of larger cities. In regional centres, where strong transport flows with frequent congestion happen, public transport should be the backbone of the transport system. It is important for consolidation of larger gravitation areas, especially conurbations. We can nevertheless establish that parallel to increasing use of private cars, the use of public transport is decreasing. Thus the present condition demands improvements of transport systems and suitable settlement density in conjunction with development of public transport. This can be achieved only by synergetic linking of public transport development and physical planning in a sustainable settlement system. In the Ljubljana functional region we specifically dealt with links between settlement and the regional public transport system, above all the proposed regional light-railway and tram system in the strict urban area. The decentralised denser settlement model is presented. Based on the study concerning settlement development in the railway corridors we proposed potential possibilities for denser settlement in the immediate areas of suburban railway stations in the northern part of the region, from Črnuče to Kamnik.

  17. Diseño de una estrategia que posicione a Transporte Comercial la Estrella SAS como una empresa mas competitiva en el sector transporte

    OpenAIRE

    Cifuentes Amaya, Mauricio Andrés

    2017-01-01

    La elaboración de este proyecto busca explicar los factores que actualmente afectan al sector transporte (Costos elevados, sobreoferta, chatarrización, fletes elevados, hacinamiento, Etc.) y, a partir de esto, diseñar estrategias que le permitan a la empresa de transporte: TRANSPORTE COMERCIAL LA ESTRELLA SAS, convertirse en una empresa más competitiva dentro del sector en el que se desenvuelve. El planteamiento estratégico estudiado se fundamenta en el modelo de las 5 fuerzas de Michael P...

  18. THE IMPORTANCE OF REGINONAL REGULATIONS SUPERVISION IN FINANCIAL SECTOR AFTER REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iza Rumesten RS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous regional administration may say 80% fail, even many violations in governance can be seen from the many local regulations canceled by the government. The problem of this study is how the regulatory supervision of the financial sector among local parent with a new autonomous regions. Methods used in this research is to examine the normative Law 23 of 2014 and Act No. 17 of 2003. From the results, that local governments still have to master to supervise all local regulations and regulatory policies that made the district / city, especially in the field of finance. An obligation on the parent region to assist funding over three years for new autonomous regions interfere with the delivery system of local governance parent, therefore before diotonomkan, candidates should be prepared to be autonomous administrative regions that after diotonomkan not interfere peyelenggaraan dependent and parent local government.

  19. Analysis of CO2 emissions reduction in the Malaysian transportation sector: An optimisation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapa, Siti Indati; Bekhet, Hussain Ali

    2016-01-01

    The demand for transport services is expected to rise, causing the CO 2 emissions level to increase as well. In Malaysia, the transportation sector accounts for 28% of total CO 2 emissions, of which 85% comes from road transport. By 2020, Malaysia is targeting a reduction in CO 2 emissions intensity by up to 40% and in this effort the role of road transport is paramount. This paper attempts to investigate effective policy options that can assist Malaysia in reducing the CO 2 emissions level. An Optimisation model is developed to estimate the potential CO 2 emissions mitigation strategies for road transport by minimising the CO 2 emissions under the constraint of fuel cost and demand travel. Several mitigation strategies have been applied to analyse the effect of CO 2 emissions reduction potential. The results demonstrate that removal of fuel price subsidies can result in reductions of up to 652 ktonnes of fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions can be decreased by 6.55%, which would enable Malaysia to hit its target by 2020. CO 2 emissions can be reduced significantly, up to 20%, by employing a combination of mitigation policies in Malaysia. This suggests that appropriate mitigation policies can assist the country in its quest to achieve the CO 2 emissions reduction target. - Highlights: • An optimisation model for CO 2 emissions reduction in Malaysia's road transport is formulated. • Sensible policy options to achieve the CO 2 emissions reduction target are provided. • Increase in fuel price has induced shift towards fuel efficient vehicles. • The CO 2 emissions can be reduced up to 5.7 MtCO 2 with combination of mitigation policies.

  20. Sectoral and regional impacts of the European carbon market in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robaina Alves, Margarita; Rodriguez, Miguel; Roseta-Palma, Catarina

    2011-01-01

    Across Europe, CO 2 emission allowances represent one of the main policy instruments to comply with the goals of the Kyoto Protocol. In this paper we use microdata to address two issues regarding the impact of the European Carbon Market (EU ETS). First, we analyze the sectoral effects of the EU ETS in Portugal. The goal is to study the distributive consequences of imbalances, with the novelty of taking into account firm financial data to put values into context. We show that a large majority of installations in most sectors had surpluses and the opportunity to raise remarkable revenues in some cases. We also look at the regional impact, since the pre-existing specialization of different regions in the production of different goods and services might lead to an uneven economic impact of the allowance market. In particular, Portuguese data indicate a distribution of revenue from low income to high income regions, or rather, between installations located in those regions. We focus on the first phase of the EU ETS, using data for each one of the 244 Portuguese installations in the market as well as financial data for 80% of these installations, although we also present data for 2008 and 2009. - Research highlights: → Analysis of distributional impact of the EU ETS for Portuguese sectors and regions. → EU ETS microdata, economic data and firm financial data used to provide context. → Most installations had surpluses and in some cases may have raised notable revenues. → There seems to be an income distribution effect from low to high-income regions. → Thermoelectric generation most likely to be short, but results vary with rainfall.

  1. Sectoral and regional impacts of the European carbon market in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robaina Alves, Margarita, E-mail: mrobaina@ua.p [GOVCOPP and Department of Economics, Management and Industrial Engineering, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rodriguez, Miguel [Department of Applied Economics, University of Vigo, Facultade Empresariais e Turismo, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Roseta-Palma, Catarina, E-mail: catarina.roseta@iscte.p [Department of Economics and UNIDE, ISCTE-Lisbon University Institute, Av. Forcas Armadas, 1629-026 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-05-15

    Across Europe, CO{sub 2} emission allowances represent one of the main policy instruments to comply with the goals of the Kyoto Protocol. In this paper we use microdata to address two issues regarding the impact of the European Carbon Market (EU ETS). First, we analyze the sectoral effects of the EU ETS in Portugal. The goal is to study the distributive consequences of imbalances, with the novelty of taking into account firm financial data to put values into context. We show that a large majority of installations in most sectors had surpluses and the opportunity to raise remarkable revenues in some cases. We also look at the regional impact, since the pre-existing specialization of different regions in the production of different goods and services might lead to an uneven economic impact of the allowance market. In particular, Portuguese data indicate a distribution of revenue from low income to high income regions, or rather, between installations located in those regions. We focus on the first phase of the EU ETS, using data for each one of the 244 Portuguese installations in the market as well as financial data for 80% of these installations, although we also present data for 2008 and 2009. - Research highlights: {yields} Analysis of distributional impact of the EU ETS for Portuguese sectors and regions. {yields} EU ETS microdata, economic data and firm financial data used to provide context. {yields} Most installations had surpluses and in some cases may have raised notable revenues. {yields} There seems to be an income distribution effect from low to high-income regions. {yields} Thermoelectric generation most likely to be short, but results vary with rainfall.

  2. Technological change and salary variation in Mexican regions: Analyzing panel data for the service sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Camberos C.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Hypothesis Biased Technological Change is applied for Mexican workers services sector, belonging several Mexican regions. Economics Census microdata, 1998, 2003 and 2008 are used. Hypothesis is proved with technological gaps, under consideration of different index and result statistics consistency by taking account panel analysis. Mayor wages differences at 2008 year were find out between Capital region and South one, about five hundred percent on 1998 year; but it was lower on 2008, two hundred percent. This result is in correspondence with diminishing technological gap, perhaps caused by economic crisis impact.

  3. INVENTORY OF GREEN HOUSE GASES AND OTHER POLLUTANTS FROM THE TRANSPORT SECTOR: DELHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. SHARMA, R. PUNDIR

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Delhi is the most urbanized city in India. Inventory estimates for the emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants like CO2, CO, NOx, and volatile organic compound from transport sector in Delhi, has been developed using bottom up approach provided by Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC-1996. The impacts of policy option in transport sector like introduction of Compressed Natural Gas for public transport in Delhi and introduction of Euro-1 norms for vehicles have also been estimated. The emission inventory reveals that total emission of pollutants from different categories vehicles have increased during the period 1990-2000. For example, the CO2 emission (1000, tones from gasoline driven vehicle (MC/SC in Delhi has increased from 766 in 1990-91 to 1187 in 1999-00. The diesel driven vehicles Light commercial vehicles in Delhi has contributed to 577 CO2 in 1990-91, which increased to 9779 in 1999-00. For other pollutants also, which have been estimated here, an increase in total emission from gasoline and diesel driven vehicles has been observed during this 1990-2000 periods. This study shows that the over all contribution of pollutants in the total emissions from gasoline and diesel driven vehicles have increased in Delhi during this period. The present study also shows that the implementation of Euro-1 in 2000 in Delhi has resulted in the decrease of total emission of CO, HC, NOx, and volatile organic compound for all the classes of vehicle for which the revised vehicle emissions norms were implemented. However this decrease in emission has become inefficient due to increase in vehicle population.

  4. Testing for convergence in electricity consumption across Croatian regions at the consumer's sectoral level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borozan, Djula

    2017-01-01

    Using the panel unit tests with and without structural break(s), the convergence hypothesis in relative per capita electricity consumption series is tested across Croatian regions during the period 2001–2013. The results are mixed, depending primarily on the consumption sector considered and the test applied. They indicate the necessity to conduct analysis and formulate energy policy measures on the sector-disaggregated and regional-specific electricity consumption time series. The Croatian electricity markets are not fully integrated, and some regions are faced with statistically significant structural break(s), demonstrating thereby the Croatian gradual energy reform process with several sudden innovations, significant regional differences, and the market dependence on expectations, domestic and international economic and non-economic innovations. The impacts of innovations are likely to be permanent for most of the regions, and their electricity consumption behaviours are likely to be path dependent. Consequently, innovations into the energy markets, including government interventions, may have long-run effects, indicating that space and time for experimenting with alternative mechanisms are quite limited.

  5. Emission Impacts of Electric Vehicles in the US Transportation Sector Following Optimistic Cost and Efficiency Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzmohammadian, Azadeh; Henze, Daven K; Milford, Jana B

    2017-06-20

    This study investigates emission impacts of introducing inexpensive and efficient electric vehicles into the US light duty vehicle (LDV) sector. Scenarios are explored using the ANSWER-MARKAL model with a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) 9-region database. Modified cost and performance projections for LDV technologies are adapted from the National Research Council (2013) optimistic case. Under our optimistic scenario (OPT) we find 15% and 47% adoption of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in 2030 and 2050, respectively. In contrast, gasoline vehicles (ICEVs) remain dominant through 2050 in the EPA reference case (BAU). Compared to BAU, OPT gives 16% and 36% reductions in LDV greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for 2030 and 2050, respectively, corresponding to 5% and 9% reductions in economy-wide emissions. Total nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and SO 2 emissions are similar in the two scenarios due to intersectoral shifts. Moderate, economy-wide GHG fees have little effect on GHG emissions from the LDV sector but are more effective in the electricity sector. In the OPT scenario, estimated well-to-wheels GHG emissions from full-size BEVs with 100-mile range are 62 gCO 2 -e mi -1 in 2050, while those from full-size ICEVs are 121 gCO 2 -e mi -1 .

  6. Evaporation as the transport mechanism of metals in arid regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lima, A.T.; Safar, Z.; Loch, J.P.G.

    Soils of arid regions are exposed to drought and drastic temperature oscillations throughout the year. Transport mechanisms in these soils are therefore very different from the ones in temperate regions, where rain dictates the fate of most elements in soils. Due to the low rainfall and high

  7. The peculiarities of process-based approach realization in transport sector company management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khripko, Elena; Sidorov, Gennadiy

    2017-10-01

    In the present article we study the phenomena of multiple meaning in understanding process-based management method in construction of transport infrastructure facilities. The idea of multiple meaning is in distortions which appear during reception of the management process paradigm in organizational environment of transport sector. The cause of distortion in process management is organizational resistance. The distortions of management processes are discovered at the level of diffusion among spheres of responsibility, collision in forms of functional, project and process interaction between the owner of the process and its participants. The level of distortion is affected by the attitude towards the result of work which means that process understanding of the result is replaced by the functional one in practice of management. This transfiguration is the consequence of regressive defensive mechanisms of the organizational environment. On the base of experience of forming process management in construction of transport infrastructure facilities company of the issues of diagnostics of various forms of organizational resistance and ways of reducing the destructive influence on managing processes are reviewed.

  8. Long-term developments in the transport sector -- comparing biofuel and hydrogen roadmaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uyterlinde, M.A.; Londo, M.; Godfroij, P.; Jeeninga, H.

    2007-07-01

    In view of climate change and declining oil reserves, alternative fuels for transport receive increasing attention. Two promising options are biofuels, of which the market penetration has already started, and hydrogen, which, when used in fuel cell cars, could lead to zero-emission vehicles. This paper draws on the results of two ongoing EU projects in which roadmaps are being developed for respectively biofuels and hydrogen . The most important potential conflict lies in competition for biomass as a feedstock. In this context, the hydrogen-fuel cell route has the advantage of a higher efficiency (in terms of km driven per ha or tonne biomass) than biofuels. Furthermore, hydrogen is more flexible in feedstock, since it can also be produced in a climate-friendly way from fossil resources such as coal. Synergy between biofuels and hydrogen is in gasification technology. This technology is required both for biomass-to-liquids, one of the more promising biofuels, and for hydrogen production from biomass and/or coal. Our analysis indicates that the transportation sector will need both options in the long term: while hydrogen may become dominant for passenger cars, greening of long-distance heavy duty transport will become dependent on a bio-based diesel substitute. (auth)

  9. Climate Change mitigation opportunities in the Energy sector for the Caribbean region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doral, Wenceslao Carrera; Chinchilla, Oscar Coto; Delgado, Ivan Relova

    , investment costs, available indigenous skills and management capabilities”. Seven of the countries in the area are currently members of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)5, with an additional three currently in the process of becoming members6. In this context, the electricity sector...... generation based on thermal fossil fuel based sources is in the order of 93.2% with renewable energy sources amounting to a mere 6.8% of total installed capacity (mainly from hydro resources in selected countries).......The “Climate change mitigation opportunities in the energy sector for the Caribbean region” has been prepared as part of the implementation of the Caribbean Regional Subcomponent of the MEAs Program for Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific (ACP MEAs)1. The study has being executed...

  10. The Effect of Mitigation Policy on Regional Climate Impacts on the U.S. Electric Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S. M.; Sun, Y.; Strzepek, K.; McFarland, J.; Boehlert, B.; Fant, C.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change can influence the U.S. electricity sector in many ways, the nature of which can be shaped by energy and environmental policy choices. Changing temperatures affect electricity demand largely through heating and cooling needs, and temperatures also affect generation and transmission system performance. Altered precipitation patterns affect the regional and seasonal distribution of surface water runoff, which changes hydropower operation and thermal cooling water availability. The extent to which these stimuli influence U.S. power sector operation and planning will depend to some extent on whether or not proactive policies are enacted to mitigate these impacts. Mitigation policies such as CO2 emissions limits or technology restrictions can change the makeup of the electricity system while reducing the extent of climate change itself. We use the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS), a U.S. electric sector capacity expansion model, to explore electric sector evolution through 2050 under alternative climate and policy assumptions. The model endogenously represents climate impacts on load, power system performance, cooling water availability, and hydropower, allowing internally consistent system responses to climate change along with projected technology, market, and policy conditions. We compare climate impacts across 5 global circulation models for a 8.5 W/m2 representative concentration pathway (RCP) without a climate mitigation policy and a 4.5 W/m2 RCP with climate mitigation. Climate drivers affect the capacity and generation mix at the national and regional levels, with relative growth of wind, solar, and natural gas-based technologies depending on local electricity system characteristics. These differences affect regional economic impacts, measured here as changes to electricity price and system costs. Mitigation policy reduces the economic and system impacts of climate change largely by moderating

  11. Theory and Practice of the Public Sector Savings: The Case of Czech Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan PŮČEK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the necessity to allocate resources in economically rational ways has been amplified in the context of budget austerity measures and the overall tendency for balanced public budgets. Under these long-term circumstances, political leaders and public sector managers will be motivated to allocate available resources in economic, effective and purposeful ways, thus reducing waste of resources and seeking rational savings. The study shows some ways of achieving that goals by finding rational savings in the performance of delegated central government administration. The study analyzes expenditures and revenues for those tasks of central government administration that are delegated to regions in the Czech Republic. Based on the proposed theoretical concept of public sector savings and on the analysis of secondary and primary data, it assesses possibilities for achieving regional savings in delegated central government administration. Calculations based on empirical data demonstrate that regional governments have space for internal savings; benchmarking comparison and simulations confirm the possibilities for reducing waste of resources and achieving rational savings. Total calculated savings for all regions (for the year 2009 range between EUR 16 million and 29 million according to simulations, and the highest savings would be achieved by Central Bohemia.

  12. Impacts of global, regional, and sectoral black carbon emission reductions on surface air quality and human mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Anenberg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, black carbon (BC is associated with premature human mortality. BC also affects climate by absorbing solar radiation and reducing planetary albedo. Several studies have examined the climate impacts of BC emissions, but the associated health impacts have been studied less extensively. Here, we examine the surface PM2.5 and premature mortality impacts of halving anthropogenic BC emissions globally and individually from eight world regions and three major economic sectors. We use a global chemical transport model, MOZART-4, to simulate PM2.5 concentrations and a health impact function to calculate premature cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths. We estimate that halving global anthropogenic BC emissions reduces outdoor population-weighted average PM2.5 by 542 ng m−3 (1.8 % and avoids 157 000 (95 % confidence interval, 120 000–194 000 annual premature deaths globally, with the vast majority occurring within the source region. Most of these avoided deaths can be achieved by halving emissions in East Asia (China; 54 %, followed by South Asia (India; 31 %, however South Asian emissions have 50 % greater mortality impacts per unit BC emitted than East Asian emissions. Globally, halving residential, industrial, and transportation emissions contributes 47 %, 35 %, and 15 % to the avoided deaths from halving all anthropogenic BC emissions. These contributions are 1.2, 1.2, and 0.6 times each sector's portion of global BC emissions, owing to the degree of co-location with population globally. We find that reducing BC emissions increases regional SO4 concentrations by up to 28 % of the magnitude of the regional BC concentration reductions, due to reduced absorption of radiation that drives photochemistry. Impacts of residential BC emissions are likely underestimated since indoor PM2.5 exposure is excluded. We estimate ∼8 times

  13. Impacts of global, regional, and sectoral black carbon emission reductions on surface air quality and human mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, S. C.; Talgo, K.; Arunachalam, S.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; West, J. J.

    2011-07-01

    As a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC) is associated with premature human mortality. BC also affects climate by absorbing solar radiation and reducing planetary albedo. Several studies have examined the climate impacts of BC emissions, but the associated health impacts have been studied less extensively. Here, we examine the surface PM2.5 and premature mortality impacts of halving anthropogenic BC emissions globally and individually from eight world regions and three major economic sectors. We use a global chemical transport model, MOZART-4, to simulate PM2.5 concentrations and a health impact function to calculate premature cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths. We estimate that halving global anthropogenic BC emissions reduces outdoor population-weighted average PM2.5 by 542 ng m-3 (1.8 %) and avoids 157 000 (95 % confidence interval, 120 000-194 000) annual premature deaths globally, with the vast majority occurring within the source region. Most of these avoided deaths can be achieved by halving emissions in East Asia (China; 54 %), followed by South Asia (India; 31 %), however South Asian emissions have 50 % greater mortality impacts per unit BC emitted than East Asian emissions. Globally, halving residential, industrial, and transportation emissions contributes 47 %, 35 %, and 15 % to the avoided deaths from halving all anthropogenic BC emissions. These contributions are 1.2, 1.2, and 0.6 times each sector's portion of global BC emissions, owing to the degree of co-location with population globally. We find that reducing BC emissions increases regional SO4 concentrations by up to 28 % of the magnitude of the regional BC concentration reductions, due to reduced absorption of radiation that drives photochemistry. Impacts of residential BC emissions are likely underestimated since indoor PM2.5 exposure is excluded. We estimate ∼8 times more avoided deaths when BC and organic carbon (OC) emissions are halved together, suggesting

  14. Are Chinese Green Transport Policies Effective? A New Perspective from Direct Pollution Rebound Effect, and Empirical Evidence From the Road Transport Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Yi Qiu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has become a serious challenge in China. Emissions from motor vehicles have been found to be one main sources of air pollution. Although the Chinese government has undertaken numerous green policies to mitigate harmful emissions from road transport sector, it is still uncertain for both policy makers and researchers to know whether the policies are effective in the short and long terms. We propose a new concept of “pollution rebound effect” (PRE to estimate the effectiveness of green traffic policies. We estimate direct air PRE as a measure of the effectiveness of the policies of reducing air pollution from the transport sector based on time-series data from the period 1986–2014. We find that the short-term direct air PRE is −0.4105, and the corresponding long-run PRE is −0.246. The negative results indicate that the direct air PRE does not exist in the road passenger transport sector in China, both in the short term and in the long term during the period 1986–2014. This implies that the Chinese green transport policies are effective in terms of harmful emissions reduction in the transport sector. This research, to the best of our knowledge, is the first attempt to quantify the effectiveness of the green transport policies in the transitional period that China is currently undergoing.

  15. Transport sector strategies and their impact on the air quality and on greenhouse gasses; Estrategias del sector del transporte y su impacto en la calidad del aire y en los gases de efecto invernadero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo Garcia, L.; Portillo Jimenez-Landi, A.

    2009-07-01

    The transport sector plays on essential role in our society, but generates non desired effects on the air quality as well on climate change. This is the reason why the transport and the environment governmental actions are crucial to mitigate them. In this article we introduced the most important resources and regulations to control and to evaluate the air quality and emissions, and also the most relevant objectives in transport actions to reduce them, not only in Spain but also in the European Union. We discuss herein their compliance degree and their effectiveness in relation with the transport emissions evolution during 1990-2006 in spain. (Author) 11 refs.

  16. Use of electric vehicles or hydrogen in the Danish transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Pizarro Alonso, Amalia Rosa; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2015-01-01

    of the energy system in 2050. Electricity demand for H2 generation via electrolysis is more flexible than EV charging and the production can therefore, to a larger degree be used to out-balance variable electricity surplus from a high share of wind and solar energy in the power system. H2 production may...... compares a likely scenario with two alternative ways to achieve the goal - either with a high percentage of electric vehicles (EV) or with a high percentage of hydrogen (H2) use in the transport sector. The STREAM model - an energy scenario simulating tool - provides insight into different potential energy...... cost of the energy system than a lower level of electrolyser capital cost. Therefore, the major driver of a successful H2 scenario is a high efficient and flexible H2 production in 2050. In other words, from a socio-economic view point this paper International Conference on Energy, Environment...

  17. Electric vehicles or use of hydrogen in the Danish transport sector in 2050?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Pizarro Alonso, Amalia Rosa; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    and calculates socio economic costs. It is used to model the different transport scenarios and their system integration with the electricity and heating sectors. The major findings of this paper are that an increased share of electric vehicles could significantly reduce the socio-economic cost of the system...... in 2050. Compared to the EV scenario, H2 generation from electrolysis is more flexible and the production can therefore to a larger degree be used to out-balance fluctuating electricity surplus from a high share of wind energy in the power system. H2 production may generate heat that can be used...... as district heating - replacing traditional heating plants, heat pumps and in some cases combined heat and power plants. Therefore the energy generation mix (electricity and heat) is more affected in the H2 scenario than in the EV scenario. Whether the H2 scenario is more costly to implement than the EV...

  18. Corporate governance and internationalization of capital of brazilian companies of the sectors construction and transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Beatriz Grangeiro Ribeiro Maia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at analyzing comparatively the representativeness of foreign capital in the capital of Brazilian companies of the sectors construction and transports, considering their segments on the BM&FBovespa. The internationalization of the 66 companies in the sample was measured by the percentage of the company's share capital held by foreign investors, and governance by the company's participation on the “Differentiated Level of Corporate Governance” (DLCG segments of BM&FBovespa. Using a descriptive and a quantitative study, the results of applying the Mann-Whitney test for the percentage of foreign capital in the capital of DLCG firms and of companies listed on the traditional market indicate that there is a difference statistically significant between the two groups of firms, confirming the hypothesis of this research. The conclusion is that governance is a sign of the internationalization of capital companies, confirming the efficiency of the administration based on the theory of transaction costs.

  19. China’s Energy Transition in the Power and Transport Sectors from a Substitution Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangfeng Han

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Facing heavy air pollution, China needs to transition to a clean and sustainable energy system, especially in the power and transport sectors, which contribute the highest greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. The core of an energy transition is energy substitution and energy technology improvement. In this paper, we forecast the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE for power generation in 2030 in China. Cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles is also calculated in this study. The results indicate that solar photovoltaic (PV and wind power will be cost comparative in the future. New energy vehicles are more expensive than conventional vehicles due to their higher manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP. The cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles would be $96.7/ton or $114.8/ton. Gasoline prices, taxes, and vehicle insurance will be good directions for policy implementation after the ending of subsidies.

  20. Evaluation of the energy efficiency evolution in the European road freight transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzzenenti, F.; Basosi, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate energy efficiency in the European freight transport sector over three decades, according to a variety of indicators, methodologies and databases. The aim is, on the one hand, of determining major drawbacks in energy efficiency metrics, on the other hand, identifying a possible trend in the sector. The present analysis shows that energy efficiency evaluation is generally subject to misinterpretation and distortion with regard to the methods and data source adopted. Two different indicators (energy intensity and fuel economy) were initially taken into account to select the most suitable for evaluating vehicles' efficiency. Fuel economy was then adopted and measured according to two different methodologies (top-down and bottom-up). We then considered all the possible sources of distortion (data sources employed, methods of data detection, speed of detection, power enhancement, size factor) with the aim of accomplishing a sound estimation. Fuel economy was eventually divided with the maximum power available (adjusted fuel economy), to account for the power shift of vehicles, that represents a further efficiency improvement.

  1. An assessment of the market for LPG and CNG in Peru's transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boykiw, A. L.

    1999-01-01

    This is an abridged version of the report prepared by Boykiw and Company Limited to provide a technical, statistical and financial assessment of potential sales of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) or propane, and compressed natural gas (CNG) to the transportation sector in Peru. Results show that use of CNG and LPG in Peru's transportation sector will primarily be a function of the counrty's vehicle population, the economics of conversion and the availability of infrastructure. With regard to conversion, the fact that 62 per cent of the nation's one million vehicles are located in Lima, combined with their age, the prospects appear to be very favourable. Changing to LPG will also benefit the environment since carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides emissions will be significantly reduced. Similar environmental benefits are expected from the use of CNG. Assuming that low cost first generation conversion kits can be made available, in combination with the growing refueling infrastructure ( from one in 1994 to 9 by the end of 1999, and an additional five in 2000) should result in a dramatic increase in the number of vehicles using LPG. By contrast, the prospect for CNG as vehicle fuel is less favourable because of the much more complex and costly refuelling station required to make it practicable. Based on very incomplete information on the Lima fleet of vehicles and their operating characteristics, the total number of CNG-fuelled vehicles five years after CNG becomes available in Lima, is estimated at between 2,000 and 3,000, and CNG requirements of between 800,000 and 1,500,000 cubic feet per day

  2. The impact of CO{sub 2} emissions trading on the European transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaageson, Per

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this report is to analyse how a common European scheme for CO{sub 2} emissions trading covering all sectors of society would affect the transport sector. Transport externalities other than CO{sub 2} are assumed to be internalised by kilometer charging. This means road fuels will no longer be subject to taxation. The European Union's commitment under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol can be reached at a marginal abatement cost around 65 Euro per tonne of CO{sub 2} in a case where emissions trading replaces all current taxes on fossil fuels. In a case where emissions trading is supplementary to today's energy and carbon taxes, the current average taxation (45-50 Euro per tonne CO{sub 2}) and the shadow price of the emission permits (33 Euro per tonne) would together give a total marginal abatement cost around 80 Euro per tonne Of CO{sub 2}. Having to buy emission permits would significantly raise the cost of fuel and electricity used in rail, aviation and short sea shipping, as these modes are currently not taxed at all. The resulting long-term (2025) improvement in specific energy efficiency is estimated at around 25 per cent compared to trend for rail and 20 and 40 per cent respectively for aviation and sea transport. A combination of CO{sub 2} emissions trading and km charging would moderately raise the variable cost of driving a gasoline car. The cost of using diesel vehicles would rise considerably in most Member States. Annual mileage per car would therefore decline somewhat. The fuel, however, would become cheaper than today (especially gasoline) and this would reduce the incentive to buy fuel-efficient vehicles. The reform would thus hamper the introduction of new, more efficient, technologies that might be needed for meeting more long-term commitments. Emissions trading would not encourage the introduction of biofuels in road transport. The incremental cost of producing ethanol or RME is much too high and cannot be expected to fall to the

  3. Global transportation scenarios in the multi-regional EFDA-TIMES energy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlich, P.; Hamacher, T.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the potential impact of the transportation sector on the role of fusion power in the energy system of the 21st century. Key indicators in this context are global passenger and freight transportation activities, consumption levels of fuels used for transportation purposes, the electricity generation mix and greenhouse gas emissions. These quantities are calculated by means of the global multi-regional EFDA-TIMES energy system model. For the present study a new transportation module has been linked to the EFDA-TIMES framework in order to arrive at a consistent projection of future transportation demands. Results are discussed implying various global energy scenarios including assumed crossovers of road transportation activities towards hydrogen or electricity infrastructures and atmospheric CO 2 concentration stabilization levels at 550 ppm and 450 ppm. Our results show that the penetration of fusion power plants is only slightly sensitive to transportation fuel choices but depends strongly on assumed climate policies. In the most stringent case considered here the contribution of electricity produced by fusion power plants can become as large as about 50% at the end of the 21st century. This statement, however, is still of preliminary nature as the EFDA-TIMES project has not yet reached a final status.

  4. Actions conducted in Switzerland for energy conservation and CO2 emission reduction, particularly in the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattin, J.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of Switzerland is to stabilize the CO 2 emissions by year 2000 and to reduce them from 20 pc by 2005 and from 50 pc by 2025. In order to attain these objectives, several measures should be taken: in the residential sector, the heating appliances (space heating and hot water production) should be efficiency-enhanced and an individual counting system should be used; energy audits should be enforced in industry; in the transportation sector, railway transportation should be enhanced and a pollution tax on automobile fuel should be applied

  5. Lessons from Transportation Agency Participation In Regional Conservation Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Lederman, Jaimee

    2017-01-01

    Transportation agencies struggle to maximize the benefits of transportation infrastructure while minimizing environmental harm. This dissertation examines institutional collaborations that integrate capital investments (e.g. highway and rail projects) with regional Habitat Conservation Plans (RHCPs) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). It addresses ways of maintaining these collaborations over time. The ESA requires that public and private project developers mitigate any harm to endangered...

  6. Intercontinental Transport of Aerosols: Implication for Regional Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Ginoux, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Aerosol particles, also known as PM2.5 (particle diameter less than 2.5 microns) and PM10 (particle diameter less than 10 microns), is one of the key atmospheric components that determine ambient air quality. Current US air quality standards for PM10 (particles with diameter air pollution problems, aerosols can be transported on a hemispheric or global scale. In this study, we use the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model to quantify contributions of long-range transport vs. local/regional pollution sources and from natural vs. anthropogenic sources to PM concentrations different regions. In particular, we estimate the hemispheric impact of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols and dust from major source areas on other regions in the world. The GOCART model results are compared with satellite remote sensing and ground-based network measurements of aerosol optical depth and concentrations.

  7. The impact of environmental policy on economic indicators. Moving from global to sectoral and regional perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, Sebastian

    2013-07-01

    In recent times, environmental, energy and climate policies have gained tremendously in importance. Not least, this is due to the latest research findings related to climate change and the resulting growing environmental awareness among people. However, policy approaches to combat environmental pollution and climate change differ both in their intention and in their economic impacts. For instance, command-and-control instruments such as performance or technology standards have different implications than market-based mechanisms such as permit trading of greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, sectoral and regional characteristics play an important role when implementing and assessing policy measures. This applies both to the attainability of the targets and to the available instruments. The present doctoral thesis addresses this point and analyzes in several essays different policy instruments and their economic effects from global, regional and sectoral perspectives. In this respect, it deals with various, often very heterogeneous question: How are specific policy types implemented in different countries? What is the CO2 abatement potential in specific regions and sectors? What policy measures can be plausibly used to exploit this potential? How can technological developments and technology-directed policy interventions contribute to improve energy efficiency? Does the promotion of certain energy sources necessarily create positive production and employment effects? To answer these and further questions, different economic methods are applied that accommodate the particular problem, where special emphasis is put on computable general equilibrium modeling. The aim of this work is to contribute to the academic and political debate on measures to combat environmental and climate problems.

  8. The impact of environmental policy on economic indicators. Moving from global to sectoral and regional perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    In recent times, environmental, energy and climate policies have gained tremendously in importance. Not least, this is due to the latest research findings related to climate change and the resulting growing environmental awareness among people. However, policy approaches to combat environmental pollution and climate change differ both in their intention and in their economic impacts. For instance, command-and-control instruments such as performance or technology standards have different implications than market-based mechanisms such as permit trading of greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, sectoral and regional characteristics play an important role when implementing and assessing policy measures. This applies both to the attainability of the targets and to the available instruments. The present doctoral thesis addresses this point and analyzes in several essays different policy instruments and their economic effects from global, regional and sectoral perspectives. In this respect, it deals with various, often very heterogeneous question: How are specific policy types implemented in different countries? What is the CO2 abatement potential in specific regions and sectors? What policy measures can be plausibly used to exploit this potential? How can technological developments and technology-directed policy interventions contribute to improve energy efficiency? Does the promotion of certain energy sources necessarily create positive production and employment effects? To answer these and further questions, different economic methods are applied that accommodate the particular problem, where special emphasis is put on computable general equilibrium modeling. The aim of this work is to contribute to the academic and political debate on measures to combat environmental and climate problems.

  9. Electricity and gas market design to supply the German transport sector with hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinius, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The German government has set targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 40% by 2020, 55% by 2030, 70% by 2040 and 80-95% by 2050 compared to 1990 as reference year. As well as meeting other requirements, these targets can be achieved by raising the contribution of renewably-generated power to Germany's gross electricity consumption to 80% by 2050. Based on Germany's potential, intermittent energy sources (IES) such as on- and offshore wind, as well as photovoltaics, are necessary sources that must be utilized in order to achieve these ambitious targets. Because of the intermittency of these sources, there will be times in which surplus power generated could be used for example for the transport sector. During these periods of surplus power, the storage capacity of hydrogen allows for a socalled ''power-to-gas'' concept whereby the surplus power can be used to produce hydrogen and oxygen by means of electrolyzers. The aim of this thesis is to identify and develop a market design that is characterized by high penetration levels of IES, supplemented by the use of hydrogen in the transport sector. Furthermore, the aim was to develop a model in which the electricity and gas sector, including a hydrogen pipeline grid, is represented so as to analyze and validate selected market designs. Therefore, potential electricity and gas markets, as well as the most important potential share and stakeholders of a hydrogen infrastructure, are analyzed. With the model developed in this thesis, an existing energy concept has been developed, analyzed and evaluated. In addition, the distribution of the hydrogen production costs was calculated by employing a Monte Carlo Simulation analysis. The developed energy concept relies on 170 GW onshore and 60 GW offshore wind capacity and these dominate the model. This leads to surplus power, especially in the federal states of Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. To supply the

  10. Job insecurity and salary in the Spanish hotel sector: a regional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    García-Pozo, Alejandro; Lópe- Rubio, José; Sánchez-Ollero, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    The economic crisis in which the Spanish economy finds itself has had serious negative impact on wages and in the lack of job stability for Spanish workers. In this paper, using the data available from the sample of 2010 of the Spanish Wage Structure Survey (WSS), we estimate the return to human capital in the hotel sector for the main Spanish touristic regions. For this purpose has been estimated an expanded version of the Mincer (1974) wage equation which includes, in addition to variables ...

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF THE INSTITUTIONAL BASIS FOR FINANCING THE PUBLIC SECTOR OF THE REGIONAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Sidorova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problems of financial support of the regional and municipal economy development. Formation of the institutional basis for the budgeting process and budgets interactions between the territories of different levels are shown on the base of retrospective analysis of foundation and development of budget federalism in Russia. Attraction of entrepreneurial sector resources on the conditions of public-private partnership is discussed as additional finance source and definite particularities of this process are described in line with the possibilities of their appliance.

  12. Beyond emission targets: how to decarbonize the passenger transport sector? Results from the Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project for Transport (DDPP-T)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-11-01

    Reaching the ambitious climate objective of the Paris Agreement requires decreasing significantly sectoral emissions from the transport sector. However, the ambition pledged for the transport sector under the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) remains very limited. The DDPP-T analyzes Paris-compatible sectoral strategies for the passenger transport that can serve to inform the 2018 Facilitative Dialogue and the preparation of future, more ambitious, NDCs by 2020. In a context of an expected steep increase in global mobility demand, deep decarbonization will require a mix of different 'well-known' options: the rapid diffusion of low-carbon vehicles and low-carbon fuels and the modal shift towards low-carbon modes like public transport and non-motorized transport (cycling and walking). However, while crucial, these options are not 'silver bullets' that on their own meet the decarbonization challenge, given their intrinsic individual limitations. The project adopts an integrated approach of sectoral deep decarbonization strategies articulating the diffusion of low-carbon technologies with the future of mobility and all its drivers, such as the demographic and economic situation, the localization of population centers, the transport and urban planning, the lifestyles and the features of mobility services. The strategies are context-specific in order to capture different country circumstances, and consider a long-term horizon to inform the short-term conditions enabling structural changes of the transport system. Building on four country analyses (France, Japan, Mexico and the United Kingdom), this Issue Brief derives five cross-cutting messages for a deep decarbonization of the passenger transport sector. Key messages: - Deep decarbonization of the passenger transport sector requires strong actions on four pillars of transformation. Only a consistent articulation of these synergistic pillars allows an effective deep decarbonization. - Deep

  13. Conceptual design of multi-source CCS pipeline transportation network for Polish energy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoli, Niccolo; Chaczykowski, Maciej

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify an optimal CCS transport infrastructure for Polish energy sector in regards of selected European Commission Energy Roadmap 2050 scenario. The work covers identification of the offshore storage site location, CO2 pipeline network design and sizing for deployment at a national scale along with CAPEX analysis. It was conducted for the worst-case scenario, wherein the power plants operate under full-load conditions. The input data for the evaluation of CO2 flow rates (flue gas composition) were taken from the selected cogeneration plant with the maximum electric capacity of 620 MW and the results were extrapolated from these data given the power outputs of the remaining units. A graph search algorithm was employed to estimate pipeline infrastructure costs to transport 95 MT of CO2 annually, which amount to about 612.6 M€. Additional pipeline infrastructure costs will have to be incurred after 9 years of operation of the system due to limited storage site capacity. The results show that CAPEX estimates for CO2 pipeline infrastructure cannot be relied on natural gas infrastructure data, since both systems exhibit differences in pipe wall thickness that affects material cost.

  14. Integration of renewable energy into the transport and electricity sectors through V2G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Henrik; Kempton, Willett

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale sustainable energy systems will be necessary for substantial reduction of CO 2 . However, large-scale implementation faces two major problems: (1) we must replace oil in the transportation sector, and (2) since today's inexpensive and abundant renewable energy resources have fluctuating output, to increase the fraction of electricity from them, we must learn to maintain a balance between demand and supply. Plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) could reduce or eliminate oil for the light vehicle fleet. Adding 'vehicle-to-grid' (V2G) technology to EVs can provide storage, matching the time of generation to time of load. Two national energy systems are modelled, one for Denmark, including combined heat and power (CHP) and the other a similarly sized country without CHP (the latter being more typical of other industrialized countries). The model (EnergyPLAN) integrates energy for electricity, transport and heat, includes hourly fluctuations in human needs and the environment (wind resource and weather-driven need for heat). Four types of vehicle fleets are modelled, under levels of wind penetration varying from 0% to 100%. EVs were assumed to have high power (10 kW) connections, which provide important flexibility in time and duration of charging. We find that adding EVs and V2G to these national energy systems allows integration of much higher levels of wind electricity without excess electric production, and also greatly reduces national CO 2 emissions

  15. Biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector; Biomassebaserade energibaerare foer transportsektorn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Bengt

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to study the technical and economic prerequisites to attain reduced carbon dioxide emissions through the use of biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector, and to study other environmental impacts resulting from an increased use of biomass-based energy carriers. CO{sub 2} emission reduction per unit arable and forest land used for biomass production (kg CO{sub 2}/ha,year) and costs for CO{sub 2} emission reduction (SEK/kg CO{sub 2}) are estimated for the substitution of gasoline and diesel with rape methyl ester, biogas from lucerne, ethanol from wheat and ethanol, methanol, hydrogen and electricity from Salix and logging residues. Of the studied energy carriers, those based on Salix provide the largest CO{sub 2} emission reduction. In a medium long perspective, the costs for CO{sub 2} emission reduction seem to be lowest for methanol from Salix and logging residues. The use of fuel cell vehicles, using methanol or hydrogen as energy carriers, can in a longer perspective provide more energy efficient utilization of biomass for transportation than the use of internal combustion engine vehicles. 136 refs, 12 figs, 25 tabs

  16. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The DOE is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States -- that is, a system that could easily switch between petroleum and another fuel, depending on price and availability. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues. This report examines environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with a switch to alternative- and flexible-fuel vehicles. Three potential alternatives to oil-based fuels in the transportation sector are considered: methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity. The objective is to describe and discuss qualitatively potential environmental, health, and safety issues that would accompany widespread use of these three fuels. This report presents the results of exhaustive literature reviews; discussions with specialists in the vehicular and fuel-production industries and with Federal, State, and local officials; and recent information from in-use fleet tests. Each chapter deals with the end-use and process emissions of air pollutants, presenting an overview of the potential air pollution contribution of the fuel --relative to that of gasoline and diesel fuel -- in various applications. Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone precursors, and carbon dioxide are emphasized. 67 refs., 6 figs. , 8 tabs

  17. Tourism sector, Travel agencies, and Transport Suppliers: Comparison of Different Estimators in the Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačić Nataša

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the effect of external integration (EI with transport suppliers on the efficiency of travel agencies in the tourism sector supply chains. The main aim is the comparison of different estimation methods used in the structural equation modeling (SEM, applied to discover possible relationships between EIs and efficiencies. The latter are calculated by the means of data envelopment analysis (DEA. While designing the structural equation model, the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses are also used as preliminary statistical procedures. For the estimation of parameters of SEM model, three different methods are explained, analyzed and compared: maximum likelihood (ML method, Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (BMCMC method, and unweighted least squares (ULS method. The study reveals that all estimation methods calculate comparable estimated parameters. The results also give an evidence of good model fit performance. Besides, the research confirms that the amplified external integration with transport providers leads to increased efficiency of travel agencies, which might be a very interesting finding for the operational management.

  18. Carbon dioxide emissions reduction in China's transport sector: A dynamic VAR (vector autoregression) approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bin; Lin, Boqiang

    2015-01-01

    Energy saving and carbon dioxide emission reduction in China is attracting increasing attention worldwide. At present, China is in the phase of rapid urbanization and industrialization, which is characterized by rapid growth of energy consumption. China's transport sector is highly energy-consuming and pollution-intensive. Between 1980 and 2012, the carbon dioxide emissions in China's transport sector increased approximately 9.7 times, with an average annual growth rate of 7.4%. Identifying the driving forces of the increase in carbon dioxide emissions in the transport sector is vital to developing effective environmental policies. This study uses Vector Autoregressive model to analyze the influencing factors of the changes in carbon dioxide emissions in the sector. The results show that energy efficiency plays a dominant role in reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Private vehicles have more impact on emission reduction than cargo turnover due to the surge in private car population and its low energy efficiency. Urbanization also has significant effect on carbon dioxide emissions because of large-scale population movements and the transformation of the industrial structure. These findings are important for the relevant authorities in China in developing appropriate energy policy and planning for the transport sector. - Highlights: • The driving forces of CO 2 emissions in China's transport sector were investigated. • Energy efficiency plays a dominant role in reducing carbon dioxide emissions. • Urbanization has significant effect on CO 2 emissions due to large-scale migration. • The role of private cars in reducing emissions is more important than cargo turnover

  19. Regional energy rebound effect: The impact of economy-wide and sector level energy efficiency improvement in Georgia, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xuewei; Moreno-Cruz, Juan; Crittenden, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Rebound effect is defined as the lost part of ceteris paribus energy savings from improvements on energy efficiency. In this paper, we investigate economy-wide energy rebound effects by developing a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for Georgia, USA. The model adopts a highly disaggregated sector profile and highlights the substitution possibilities between different energy sources in the production structure. These two features allow us to better characterize the change in energy use in face of an efficiency shock, and to explore in detail how a sector-level shock propagates throughout the economic structure to generate aggregate impacts. We find that with economy-wide energy efficiency improvement on the production side, economy-wide rebound is moderate. Energy price levels fall very slightly, yet sectors respond to these changing prices quite differently in terms of local production and demand. Energy efficiency improvements in particular sectors (epicenters) induce quite different economy-wide impacts. In general, we expect large rebound if the epicenter sector is an energy production sector, a direct upstream/downstream sector of energy production sectors, a transportation sector or a sector with high production elasticity. Our analysis offers valuable insights for policy makers aiming to achieve energy conservation through increasing energy efficiency. - Highlights: • We developed a CGE model to investigate economy-wide energy rebound in Georgia, USA. • The CGE model has detailed treatment for different energy inputs for production. • The model has a highly disaggregated sector profile helpful for policy making. • We compared the economy-wide impact shocks in different epicenter sectors. • We analyzed why epicenters generate dramatically different economy-wide impacts.

  20. Employment Pattern, Skills and Training Issues among Informal Sector Workers in Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay RODE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An informal sector in any economy provides different kinds of employment opportunities to people. In Mumbai Metropolitan Region, the female are more involved in regular jobs as compare to the causal and self-employed workers. The secondary and college studied male and female are found more in regular jobs. The high school studied male and illiterate female are working on causal jobs. The causal jobs do not require more education and skills. In self-employed category, the secondary school studied male and high school studied female are found more. The monthly income of workers involved in regular jobs is much higher than the causal and self-employed workers. The moderate malnourished females are found more as compare to the male in causal and self-employed category. The multi nominal logit regression model shows that the causal workers have positive correlation with illiterate male but it is negatively co-related with high school studied male, illiterate and secondary studied female. The monthly income, source of water, refrigerator and condom use is negatively co-related with causal workers as compare to regular workers. The self-employed workers have negative co-relation with monthly wage, source of water and watch cinema regularly as compare to the regular workers. Therefore government must provide infrastructural facilities in all slums of region. The infrastructural facilities such as water supply, electricity, sewage and solid waste collection must be provided in all slums of region. Causal workers must be provided the vocational training to start their own business. Commercial and co-operative banks must provide loans to poor people of slums. Females must be encouraged to take loan and start small business. Government must provide low cost housing to causal and self-employed workers in region. Such policies will certainly improve standard of living of informal sector workers in region.

  1. Technical advances and energy substitutions in the transportation sector; Progres techniques et substitutions energetiques dans le secteur des transports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromenschlager-Philippe, F.

    2002-11-01

    Alternative motorization technologies have been proposed in order to achieve energy diversification and a reduction in pollutant emissions. Fuel cell vehicles are, among others, at the centre of research carried out by car manufacturers and oil companies. The use of fuel cell vehicles could contribute, first to a less stringent long-term energy dependence of oil importing countries and, second, to pollutant reduction in the transport sector. First of all, we propose the definition of 'innovation' and its treatment in the frame of mainstream economic theories. Then we proceed to a retrospective analysis of diesel motorization of the car market. In the second part of our work, we conduct a survey among French households aiming to obtain up-to-date information about their degree of acceptance of fuel cell technology. We are concerned about highlighting the determining factors of fuel cell vehicle adoption by consumers. For this, we set up a discrete choice model linking the individual decision to the whole group of technical or socio-economical factors and characteristics. Finally, we develop patterns of fuel cell equipment of passenger cars which differ according to type of vehicle and possible purchase assistance. These patterns lead us to the analysis of long-term fuel cell vehicle development on the French car market. (authors)

  2. Continuity and Change: Dealing with Political Volatility to Advance Climate Change Mitigation Strategies—Examples from the Transport Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the recent withdrawal of the United States from the Paris Agreement has shown, political volatility directly affects climate change mitigation policies, in particular in sectors, such as transport associated with long-term investments by individuals (vehicles and by local and national governments (urban form and transport infrastructure and services. There is a large potential for cost-effective solutions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to improve the sustainability of the transport sector that is yet unexploited. Considering the cost-effectiveness and the potential for co-benefits, it is hard to understand why efficiency gains and CO2 emission reductions in the transport sector are still lagging behind this potential. Particularly interesting is the fact that there is substantial difference among countries with relatively similar economic performances in the development of their transport CO2 emissions over the past thirty years despite the fact that these countries had relatively similar access to efficient technologies and vehicles. This study aims to explore some well-established political science theories on the particular example of climate change mitigation in the transport sector in order to identify some of the factors that could help explain the variations in success of policies and strategies in this sector. The analysis suggests that institutional arrangements that contribute to consensus building in the political process provide a high level of political and policy stability which is vital to long-term changes in energy end-use sectors that rely on long-term investments. However, there is no direct correlation between institutional structures, e.g., corporatism and success in reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector. Environmental objectives need to be built into the consensus-based policy structure before actual policy progress can be observed. This usually takes longer in consensus democracies than in

  3. Energy and environmental impacts of alternative pathways for the Portuguese road transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Patrícia C.; Silva, Carla M.; Farias, Tiago L.; Heywood, John B.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a methodology to develop scenarios of evolution from 2010 to 2050, for energy consumption and emissions (CO 2 , HC, CO, NO x , PM) of the road transportation sector (light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles). The methodology is applied to Portugal and results are analyzed in a life-cycle perspective. A BAU trend and 5 additional scenarios are explored: Policy-based (Portuguese political targets considered); Liquid fuels-based (dependency on liquid fuels and no deployment of alternative refueling infrastructure); Diversified (introduction of a wide diversity of alternative vehicle technology/energy sources); Electricity vision (deployment of a wide spread electricity recharging infrastructure); Hydrogen pathway (a broad hydrogen refueling infrastructure is deployed). Total life-cycle energy consumption could decrease between 2 and 66% in 2050 relatively to 2010, while CO 2 emissions will decrease between 7 and 73% in 2050 relatively to 2010. In 2050 the BAU scenario remains 30% above the 1990 level for energy consumption and CO 2 emissions; the other considered scenarios lead to 4 to 29% reductions for energy consumption and 10 to 33% for CO 2 emissions in 2050 compared to the BAU. Therefore, alternative vehicle technologies are required in the long-term, but changes in taxation and alternative transportation modes policies are crucial for achieving short-term impacts. - Highlight: ► Assess future energy consumption and emissions scenarios for road transportation. ► LCA energy consumption could decrease 2 to 66% in 2050 relatively to 2010. ► Alternative vehicle technologies can help to lower the BAU scenario impacts. ► Different deployments of alternative technologies can lead to similar impacts.

  4. Characterization of the agricultural sector and conditions of corporatization in the region of Yopal, Casanare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Milena Carmona Muñoz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to present the partial results of a research process that aimed to identify the determinants of corporate development in the region of Yopal, Casanare, where La Salle University’s Utopia Project is contextualized. This paper presents the first progress based on a national and regional diagnostic component of the agricultural sector and the corporatization conditions surrounding it. The significance of the progress and results of this research process lies in the contribution that the different faculties can make to the growth and consolidation of the Utopia Project, the foundation of which is: “To transform young high school graduates in rural areas affected by violence into agricultural engineers [...] and to make them leaders for the socio-political transformation and the corporatization of the countryside at their places of origin” (Utopia Project.

  5. Regional aspects of long-term public sector psychiatric care in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sukeri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this research was to determine regional aspects (such as clinical, geographic and socio-demographic influencing the use of public sector long-term psychiatric services in the Eastern Cape. This is important in improving service delivery, to assist policy developers with evidence-based research and in providing equitable and efficient resource utilisation. Methodology: A situational analysis of Tower Psychiatric Hospital and Psychosocial Rehabilitation Centre (TPHPRC in the Eastern Cape was conducted. Patient administrative data were utilised to determine geographic origin, date and age at admission, gender and diagnosis as of December 2015. The number of admissions from each region for the years 2010–2015 was also extracted from these data. Results: As of December 2015, there were a total of 390 patients at TPHPRC. Of these, 87% were male patients. The average age at admission for male and female patients was 36 years and 44 years, respectively. Of the patients, 53% originated from the western regions and 57% of female patients presented with a dual diagnosis. The highest number of admissions was in 2015, with the majority originating from Port Elizabeth. Conclusion: Despite higher access to public psychiatric care in the western region, the majority of patients originated from there. Contributing factors to this include diagnoses, insufficient bed numbers and the absence of admission criteria and referral pathways. It is recommended that the provincial Department of Health set up a task team to determine a standardised working framework for all public sector psychiatric institutions. This should be informed by national policies, legislation and provincial norms and indicators.

  6. Classical convective energy transport in large gradient regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, F.L.

    1996-01-01

    Large gradients in density and temperature occur near the edge in H-mode plasmas and in the core of tokamak plasmas with negative central shear. Transport in these regions may be comparable to neoclassical. Standard neoclassical theory does not apply when the gradient lengths are comparable to an ion orbit excursion, or banana width. A basic question for neoclassical transport in large gradient regions is: do ion-ion collisions drive particle transport? Near the plasma edge in H-mode, where ion orbit loss requires that the ion energy transport be convective, neoclassical particle transport due to ion-ion collisions may play an important role. In negative central shear plasmas, where transport is inferred to be near neoclassical, it is important to have accurate predictions for the neoclassical rate of energy and particle transport. A simple 2-D slab model has been used, with a momentum-conserving collision operator, to show that ion-ion collisions do drive particle transport. When the gradients are large, the open-quotes field particleclose quotes contribution to the particle flux is non-local, and does not cancel the open-quotes test particleclose quotes contribution, which is local. Solutions of the kinetic equation are found which show that the steepness of the density profile, for increasing particle flux, is limited by orbit averaging. The gradient length is limited by the thermal gyroradius, and the convective energy flux is independent of ion temperature. This will allow an ion thermal runaway to occur, if there are no other ion energy loss mechanisms

  7. Analysis of the Environmental Efficiency of the Chinese Transportation Sector Using an Undesirable Output Slacks-Based Measure Data Envelopment Analysis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Song

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Many countries are attempting to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions while increasing the productivity and efficiency of their industries. An undesirable-output-oriented data envelopment analysis (DEA model with slacks-based measure (SBM was used to evaluate the changes in the environmental efficiency of the transportation sector in 30 Chinese provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions between 2003 and 2012. The potential for decreasing CO2 emissions and energy saving was also assessed. Transportation was found to be inefficient in most of the provinces and the average environmental efficiency was low (0.45. The overall average efficiency reached a maximum in 2005 and continually decreased until a minimum was reached in 2009; since then, it has increased. In general, transportation is more efficient in eastern than in central or western China. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out on the input and output indicators. Based on these findings, some policies are proposed to improve the environmental efficiency of the transportation sector in China.

  8. Low carbon society scenario analysis of transport sector of an emerging economy—The AIM/Enduse modelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvakkumaran, Sujeetha; Limmeechokchai, Bundit

    2015-01-01

    The transport sector of a country is the backbone driving the economy forward. Thailand’s land transport sector is modelled using the AIM/Enduse, which is a recursive dynamic optimization model, based on bottom-up modelling principle. The travel demand is divided into two major categories which are passenger travel and freight travel. The objective of this paper is to analyse the mitigation possible through low carbon society (LCS) measures and emission tax (ET). Two scenario clusters are devised along with the BAU case. The LCS scenario cluster has three designed scenarios which are LCS-L, LCS-M and LCS-H. The emission tax (ET) cluster has four scenarios, where the taxes of 50, 100, 200 and 500 USD/t-CO 2 are implemented. Along with this the marginal abatement costs (MAC) of the counter-measures (CMs) and the co-benefits in terms of energy security, productivity and air pollutant mitigation are also assessed. Results show that LCS scenarios are possible of mitigating up to 1230 Mt-CO 2 cumulatively, from 2010 to 2050. In terms of MACs, new vehicles play a pivotal role, along with hybrid vehicles. The Average Abatement Cost (AAC) assessment shows that the AAC of LCS-H scenario is in the order of 100 USD/t-CO 2 . All the LCS and ET scenarios show an enhancement in energy security and also a threefold increase in productivity. There is distinct mitigation in terms of air pollutants from the transport sector as well. -- Highlights: •Thailand transport sector has been modelled using AIM/Enduse model. •Potential cumulative mitigation of CO 2 during 2010–2050 is approximately 30% when compared the BAU scenario. •Abatement cost curves show that various counter measures are practical in the transport sector. •Energy security is enhanced due to CO 2 mitigation in the LCS scenario

  9. Evaporation as the transport mechanism of metals in arid regions

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ana T.

    2014-09-01

    Soils of arid regions are exposed to drought and drastic temperature oscillations throughout the year. Transport mechanisms in these soils are therefore very different from the ones in temperate regions, where rain dictates the fate of most elements in soils. Due to the low rainfall and high evaporation rates in arid regions, groundwater quality is not threatened and all soil contamination issues tend to be overlooked. But if soil contamination happens, where do contaminants go? This study tests the hypothesis of upward metal movement in soils when evaporation is the main transport mechanism. Laboratory evaporation tests were carried out with heavy metal spiked Saudi soil, using circulation of air as the driving force (Fig. 1). Main results show that loamy soil retains heavy metals quite well while evaporation drives heavy metals to the surface of a sandy soil. Evaporation transports heavy metals upward in sandy soils of arid regions, making them accumulate at the soil surface. Sand being the dominating type of soil in arid regions, soils can then be a potential source of contaminated aerosols and atmospheric pollution - a transboundary problem. Some other repercussions for this problem are foreseen, such as the public ingestion or inhalation of dust. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. High beta and second stability region transport and stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document summarizes progress made on the research of high beta and second region transport and stability. In the area second stability region studies we report on an investigation of the possibility of second region access in the center of TFTR ''supershots.'' The instabilities found may coincide with experimental observation. Significant progress has been made on the resistive stability properties of high beta poloidal ''supershot'' discharges. For these studies profiles were taken from the TRANSP transport analysis code which analyzes experimental data. Invoking flattening of the pressure profile on mode rational surfaces causes tearing modes to persist into the experimental range of interest. Further, the experimental observation of the modes seems to be consistent with the predictions of the MHD model. In addition, code development in several areas has proceeded

  11. Dust particle diffusion in ion beam transport region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, N.; Okajima, Y.; Romero, C. F.; Kuwata, Y.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M., E-mail: mwada@mail.doshisha.ac.jp [Graduate school of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Dust particles of μm size produced by a monoplasmatron ion source are observed by a laser light scattering. The scattered light signal from an incident laser at 532 nm wavelength indicates when and where a particle passes through the ion beam transport region. As the result, dusts with the size more than 10 μm are found to be distributed in the center of the ion beam, while dusts with the size less than 10 μm size are distributed along the edge of the ion beam. Floating potential and electron temperature at beam transport region are measured by an electrostatic probe. This observation can be explained by a charge up model of the dust in the plasma boundary region.

  12. The Baltic Sea Macro-Regional Transport Cluster as an Element of the Silk Road Economic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nežerenko Olga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the opportunities of the Chinese initiative “One Belt, One Road”, for the development of the Baltic Sea macro-region (BSR, as a single transport cluster. One of the objectives of the initiative is to strengthen transport linkages from the Pacific Ocean to the Baltic Sea Region. Thus, the contemporary macro-regional approach to the development of EU macro-regions can provide an additional impulse to the creation of formal macro-regional inter-cooperation, via in this case, the project that will advance the transport infrastructure of the region. This study examines the situation of the railway sector in the BSR in the period 2004–2015, through hierarchical cluster analysis, to identify countries with similar trends in cargo flow turnover. Taking into account the favorable geographical position of Poland, its transport performance and advanced (in comparison to other Baltic Sea region countries relations with China, it is concluded that Poland’s conditions are more suitable to promote economic integration with its closest neighbors – the Baltic countries-through the creation of formal macro-regional railway transport within the Rail Baltic project.

  13. Source contributions and regional transport of primary particulate matter in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jianlin; Wu, Li; Zheng, Bo; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Chang, Qing; Li, Xinghua; Yang, Fumo; Ying, Qi; Zhang, Hongliang

    2015-01-01

    A source-oriented CMAQ was applied to determine source sector/region contributions to primary particulate matter (PPM) in China. Four months were simulated with emissions grouped to eight regions and six sectors. Predicted elemental carbon (EC), primary organic carbon (POC), and PPM concentrations and source contributions agree with measurements and have significant spatiotemporal variations. Residential is a major contributor to spring/winter EC (50–80%), POC (60%–90%), and PPM (30–70%). For summer/fall, industrial contributes 30–50% for EC/POC and 40–60% for PPM. Transportation is more important for EC (20–30%) than POC/PPM ( 90% in Beijing. - Highlights: • A source-oriented CMAQ was established for primary particulate matter (PPM). • Source and region contributions to EC, POC and PPM in China were quantified. • Residential is major in spring/winter and industrial dominates in summer/fall. • Open burning is more important for southern while dust is in contrast. • Both local and Heibei emissions contribute to PPM in Beijing. - Source and region contributions to primary particulate matter in China were quantified for four months during 2012-2013. Residential and industrial are the major contributors.

  14. Emission of CO2 by the transport sector and the impact on the atmospheric concentration in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, M. D. F.; Kitazato, C.; Perez-Martinez, P.; Nogueira, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is impacted by the emission of 7 million vehicles, being 85% light-duty vehicles (LDV), 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDV)s, and 12% motorcycles. About 55% of LDVs burn a mixture of 78% gasoline and 22% ethanol (gasohol), 4% use hydrous ethanol (95% ethanol and 5% water), 38% are flex-fuel vehicles that are capable of burning both gasohol and hydrous ethanol and 3% use diesel (diesel + 5% bio-diesel). The owners of the flex-fuel vehicles decide to use ethanol or gasohol depending on the market price of the fuel. Many environmental programs were implemented to reduce the emissions by the LDV and HDV traffic; the contribution from the industrial sector has been decreasing as the industries have moved away from MASP, due to the high taxes applied to the productive sector. Due to the large contribution of the transport sector to CO2, its contribution is important in a regional scale. The total emission is estimated in 15327 million tons per year of CO2eq (60% by LDV, 38% HDV and 2% motorcycles). Measurements of CO2 performed with a Picarro monitor based on WS-CRDS (wavelength-scanned cavity ringdown spectroscopy) for the years 2012-2013 were performed. The sampling site was on the University of Sao Paulo campus (22o34´S, 46o44´W), situated in the west area of the city, surrounded by important traffic roads. The average data showed two peaks, one in the morning and the other in the afternoon, both associated with the traffic. Correlation analysis was performed between the concentrations and the number of vehicles, as a proxy for the temporal variation of the CO2 emission. The highest concentration was 430 ppm at 8:00am, associated to the morning peak hour of vehicles and the stable condition of the atmosphere. The average concentration was 406 ±12 ppm, considering all measured data. According to official inventories from the Environmental Agency (CETESB), the emission of CO2 has increased 39% from 1990 to 2008, associated

  15. Efficiency evaluation of gas fuelled and electric driven buses in the public transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, Tobias Alexander

    2013-07-01

    The following report evaluates the efficiency of gas fuelled and electric driven buses in the public transport sector on a theoretical basis. The results indicate that the combination of CHP power plants and electric driven buses reach an overall efficiency of about 51% throughout the production chain (Well-to-Wheel), including heat distribution losses. The overall Well-to-Wheel efficiency for conventional gas turbines without heat recovery decreases to around 28%. For gas fuelled buses the Well-to-Wheel efficiency is about 30%. The Co2-emissions are evaluated based on the example of a #Left Double Quotation Mark#Volvo B10L CNG#Right Double Quotation Mark# gas bus and the electric driven #Left Double Quotation Mark#Eurabus 600#Right Double Quotation Mark#. The low energy consumption of the electric driven bus results in Co2-emissions of only 181.4 g Co2/km (Grid-to-Wheel). Depending on the utilised power plant technology the overall Co2-emissions (Well-to-Wheel) amount to 307.5 g Co2/km for a CHP power plant and 553.5 g Co2/km for a conventional gas turbine. On the other hand, gas fuelled buses emit about 1.25 kg Co2/km (Tank-to-Wheel), which is eightfold the emissions of an electrical bus. The Well-to-Tank emissions further increase to about 1.32 kg Co2/km. The emission calculation is based on real gas consumption data from a Norwegian public transport utility. The results indicate that the combination of CHP plants and electrical buses provide a much higher efficiency while reducing Co2-emissions. (author)

  16. Safety as a management concept in the air transport sector: A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campa-Planas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of the present study is to conduct a literature review of the contribution made by safety in air transport, based on the existing international academic literature in the field of the social sciences. It primarily attempts to examine and verify the relationship between safety-related concepts (co-occurrence, the link between the different authors (co-authorship and the corresponding citations (co-citations. Methodology: To achieve the established objectives, a systematic literature review (SLR has been conducted using the Scopus database between the years 1990 and 2016, identifying international academic papers related to the research topic of the present study. Findings: It has been verified, on the one hand, that safety in the air transport sector is a field of growing interest, as the number of papers has increased considerably in recent years, thus demonstrating the importance that this topic has acquired over time. On the other hand, however, it must be mentioned that the total quantity of papers related to the topic is low in terms of absolute numbers. The results of the co-occurrence analysis show that the most important aspect of safety is safety management, while the strongest link is between safety management and aircraft accidents, a fact that is foreseeable a priori.  Originality/value: The approach used allows a better view of the academic contribution made in relation to safety; this serves as the link among the different elements of the concept studied, and it demonstrates the growing interest in this area.

  17. Biofuels - Meeting the energy and environmental challenges of the transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballerini, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Changes in the world energy context, the increasing awareness of the environmental stakes and the development of research on the production of second and third generation biofuels revealed a clear need to write a new book which updates and complements all technical, financial and environmental aspects of Les Biocarburants - etat des lieux, perspectives et enjeux du developpement (Biofuels - Current status, outlook and development stakes) published in 2006. This book provides a detailed state of the art of the first generation biofuel production technologies. It describes the new 'second generation' pathways which use lignocellulosic biomass as raw material and are starting to find industrial applications, thereby reducing the competition between the food resource and the use of agricultural materials for energy purposes. It also provides a technical update on the algae-to-energy pathway (third generation) and the production of methane and hydrogen by biochemical pathways. The book arrives at exactly the right time to renew the interest in biofuels, including for air transport, and provide an insight on the technological research and development axes currently being investigated. It is intended for transport companies, refiners, forestry companies, the agricultural and agribusiness sectors as well as the public authorities, students, university teachers and researchers. Contents: 1. Biofuels: a partial solution with several challenges. 2. First generation biofuels for spark ignition engines: ethanol and ETBE. 3. First generation biofuels for diesel engines. 4. Lignocellulosic biomass resources. 5. Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass by thermochemical pathway. 6. Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass by biochemical pathway, production of ethanol and ABE. 7. Other biomass-to-energy biochemical pathways. Appendixes

  18. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 3 November 16, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 3, which is comprised of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michiga...

  19. The empirical effects of a gasoline tax on CO2 emissions reductions from transportation sector in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Duk; Han, Hyun-Ok; Moon, Young-Seok

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of carbon tax is expected to mitigate GHG emissions cost-effectively. With this expectation identifying the impacts of carbon tax on energy demand and GHG emission reductions is an interesting issue. One of the basic methods of estimating these impacts is using the price elasticity. There are, however, some unanswered questions regarding the use of price elasticity. First, which elasticity estimates are appropriate to measure the impacts of carbon tax on energy demand? The existing estimates are estimated in the presence of a substitute. To assess the impact of carbon tax could we use these estimates? Second, how can we compromise the differences among the existing estimates depending on estimation methods and specifications? For example, how can we accommodate the difference in the estimates from the regional panel specification and the aggregate specification? This paper tries to answer these questions with the price elasticity of gasoline demand. With an appropriate price elasticity, we show how much gasoline consumption and GHG emissions are reduced by carbon tax for different scenarios of carbon tax rate. - Research highlights: →We offer an appropriate estimate for evaluating the effects of carbon tax. →We estimate the price elasticity of gasoline with instrument variables. →We measure the tax effects on CO 2 emissions from transportation sector.

  20. Electrification of the transportation sector: Is there a need for restructuring the automotive parts suppliers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaslan, A. Ebru

    The future of the transportation sector has significant implications for the mitigation of climate change through reduced GHG emissions as well as achieving energy efficiency and energy independence. Battery-powered, plug-in, and hybrid electric vehicles are widely seen as the greatest source of a solution. This thesis analyzes the historical development and growth of the automotive industry as well as the restructuring toward the next generation technologies in comparison with the U.S. and China to shed light on the question of how a developing country can structure its strategies to be able to upgrade and be competitive over time. Conventional business models can become obsolete. Companies will find it difficult to maintain their market position unless they gain new perspectives on the outlook of the industry as a whole, and take into account the successful business models of tomorrow. The potential for further growth of the Turkish automotive supplier base particularly in the next generation of automotive technologies is therefore highly dependent on policies and strategies at the national level as much as its dependence on the global strategies of the automotive industry's major players. In this sense, the key questions that motivate this study are whether there are foreseeable technological changes and product-segmentation strategies that could significantly enhance the competitiveness of local Turkish suppliers of automotive components. The thesis builds on the theory of innovative enterprise and evolutionary agglomeration to examine the competitive potential of the Konya Auto Part Suppliers' Cluster in Turkey.

  1. Pollution abatement from road transport: cross-sectoral implications, climate co-benefits and behavioural change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxley, T.; Elshkaki, A.; Kwiatkowski, L.; Castillo, A.; Scarbrough, T.; ApSimon, H.

    2012-01-01

    With the abatement potential of end-of-pipe technologies for road transport becoming increasingly marginal, and with greater emissions reductions still needed in order to reduce pollution, alternative strategies involving behavioural change and choices between fossil fuelled or low carbon vehicles becomes more important. The environmental requirements include local air quality objectives, meeting national emissions ceilings to limit transboundary effects, and to aspire to significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper we use the BRUTAL sub-model of the UK integrated Assessment Model (UKIAM) to investigate a selection of alternative strategies including downsizing of cars, switching from petrol to diesel, and the introduction of electric, bio-fuelled or hydrogen vehicles into the fleet, relative to a business-as-usual projection for 2020. Projected impacts upon air quality limit values, national emissions ceilings and CO 2 emissions are assessed in relation to local, national and international objectives. We discuss related life-cycle impacts, implications for infrastructure, and potential impacts upon emissions from other sectors in order to highlight the full potential implications of the different strategies within the context of changes resulting from other policy developments at different scales.

  2. Biomethane in the transport sector-An appraisal of the forgotten option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahman, Max

    2010-01-01

    The last 20 years efforts to find a long-term and large-scale biofuel alternative to petrol and diesel for the transport sector have been intensified with a focus on liquid biofuels, such as ethanol, methanol and Fischer-Tropsh diesel derived from wood. The large-scale production of biomethane has so far largely been overlooked in comparative studies that focus on the long-term renewable options. The aim of this article fills this gap and to provide a broad and systematic assessment of the future potential of biomethane compared to other biofuels. In order to become a large-scale option, biomethane production from woody biomass via gasification needs to be developed and commercialized. However, biomethane exhibits a clear development path with relatively low financial and technical risks starting with local solutions utilizing wet biomass resources towards medium and eventually large-scale gasification with economics similar to liquid second generation biofuels. The disadvantage of being a gaseous fuel is not insurmountable and can furthermore be relaxed by the integration and dual-use of the existing distribution system for natural gas. This assessment concludes that more emphasize should be given to biomethane as a large-scale option given the opportunity to use woody biomass from gasification.

  3. Good practices reducing the greenhouse gases in the transport sector; Buenas practicas en la reduccion de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero en el sector del transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo Garcia, L.; Garcia Cortes, A.; Jimenez Arroyo, F.; Montane Lopez, M. M.

    2010-07-01

    Public policies addressing the reduction of the greenhouse gases emission have to give response to the improvement of mobility in three aspects: passengers, freights, and urban and metropolitan areas. Passenger transport, because it involves long transportation distances consuming an important part of transport energy and raises difficult organizational problems. Freight transport, due to the complexity of interconnecting a lot of modes of transportation and the big range for improvement. Urban and metropolitan mobility, by the impact of actions in this field in the quality of life of a big part of the population. According to the peculiarities of their respective territories, different strategies of sustainable mobility that address the three considered aspects have been set up in Spain and its neighbouring countries. This article reviews some action lines implemented in spain, France and Germany, as a previous step to assess their possible adaptation to other territories. (Author) 6 refs.

  4. Comparative analysis of sustainable consumption and production in Visegrad region - conclusions for textile and clothing sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszewska, M.; Militki, J.; Mizsey, P.; Benda-Prokeinova, R.

    2017-10-01

    Gradual environmental degradation, shrinking of non-renewable resources, and lower quality of life are directly or indirectly arising from snowballing consumption. These unfavorable processes concern increasingly textile and clothing sector and are increasingly being felt in Visegrad Region (V4). The objective of the article was to access current consumption patterns in V4 countries, identify the factors that influence those patterns and finally to draw the conclusions for more sustainable consumption and production models as well as to make a comparative analysis of the results across V4 countries. A consumer survey was conducted to examine V4 citizens’ attitudes and behaviors in the context of sustainable consumption. To ensure sample size and comparability across countries 2000 randomly-selected V4 citizens, aged 18 and over, were interviewed. To analyze the supply side of the market and legal framework, the desk research was used. The results allowed to give some guidelines for the joint V4 strategy for solving ecological and social problems of V4 countries as well as the conclusions for textile and clothing sector.

  5. Ecological Pressure of Carbon Footprint in Passenger Transport: Spatio-Temporal Changes and Regional Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger transport has become a significant producer of carbon emissions in China, thus strongly contributing to climate change. In this paper, we first propose a model of ecological pressure of the carbon footprint in passenger transport (EPcfpt. In the model, the EPcfpt values of all the provinces and autonomous regions of China are calculated and analyzed during the period of 2006–2015. For the outlier EPcfpt values of Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin, the research areas are classified into two scenarios: the first scenario (all the provinces and autonomous regions and the second scenario (not including Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin. The global spatial autocorrelation analysis of the first scenario shows that the EPcfpt might be randomly distributed, while it shows positive spatial autocorrelation in the second scenario. Furthermore, we carry out the local spatial autocorrelation analysis of the second scenario, and find that the low aggregation areas are the most common type and are mainly located in the west of China. Then the disparities in EPcfpt between China’s Eight Comprehensive Economic Zones are further analyzed. Finally, we put forward a number of policy recommendations in relation to the spatio-temporal changes and the regional disparities of EPcfpt in China. This study provides related references for proposing effective policy measures to reduce the ecological pressure of carbon emissions from the passenger transport sector.

  6. Regional Air Pollutions in Three Different Regions of Asia From a Transcontinental Transport Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochanart, P.; Kanaya, Y.; Komazaki, Y.; Liu, Y.; Akimoto, H.

    2007-12-01

    Asia is known as one of the regions with the fastest rate of growing in industrialization and urbanization. As a result, the rapid increases of large-scale air pollution in Asia emerge as a serious concern at both domestic and international levels. Apart from the problems of air quality degradation, emission control, environmental risk, and health effect in a domestic level, evidences from scientific studies indicate that by the long-range transport, Asian air pollution is becoming a global problem. Observations and model studies confirm that air pollution from Asia could be transported to North America or farther. In this work, we investigate the Asian air pollutions, in particular ozone and some other atmospheric components such as carbon monoxide and black carbon, from the ground- based observations in the three different regions, namely 1) background region of Siberia and central Asia, 2) highly anthropogenic region in eastern China, and 3) the rim region of the Asia-Pacific. In a transcontinental transport perspective, these regions are regarded as the inflow region, source region, and outflow region of Asia, respectively. From the results, it is found that the influences from large-scale emission in East Asia are observed clearly in the source region, and to the significant extent in the outflow region. For the inflow region of Asia, our data in Siberia and Kyrgyzstan indicate that air masses in this region are mostly intact from large-scale anthropogenic emission, and remain much of the global background atmospheric pollution characteristic. When the air masses are transported to source region, the air pollutants level increased sharply and frequent episodes of extremely high pollutions have been observed. Our results show good correlation between the residence time of air masses over the source region in eastern China and the observed levels of air pollutants verifying the strong enhancements by anthropogenic emissions from industrialization and

  7. Assessment of applications of transport models on regional scale solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z.; Fogg, G. E.; Henri, C.; Pauloo, R.

    2017-12-01

    Regional scale transport models are needed to support the long-term evaluation of groundwater quality and to develop management strategies aiming to prevent serious groundwater degradation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the capacity of previously-developed upscaling approaches to accurately describe main solute transport processes including the capture of late-time tails under changing boundary conditions. Advective-dispersive contaminant transport in a 3D heterogeneous domain was simulated and used as a reference solution. Equivalent transport under homogeneous flow conditions were then evaluated applying the Multi-Rate Mass Transfer (MRMT) model. The random walk particle tracking method was used for both heterogeneous and homogeneous-MRMT scenarios under steady state and transient conditions. The results indicate that the MRMT model can capture the tails satisfactorily for plume transported with ambient steady-state flow field. However, when boundary conditions change, the mass transfer model calibrated for transport under steady-state conditions cannot accurately reproduce the tailing effect observed for the heterogeneous scenario. The deteriorating impact of transient boundary conditions on the upscaled model is more significant for regions where flow fields are dramatically affected, highlighting the poor applicability of the MRMT approach for complex field settings. Accurately simulating mass in both mobile and immobile zones is critical to represent the transport process under transient flow conditions and will be the future focus of our study.

  8. Economic condition of the transport, freight forwarding and logistics sector in Poland in the situation of the global economic recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently trends of macroeconomic indicators show that economy in Poland, despite the general recession in the EU, is in the stage of economic development. The question is 20 Ryszard Rolbiecki whether these positive signals in the Polish economy in relation to domestic demand, external investment, volume of industrial production and construction are reflected also in the improvement of economic situation in Transport, Freight Forwarding and Logistics (TFL sector in Poland. Hence the goal of the article is to analyze the economic condition of the TFL sector, which is recognized as one of the most important barometers of the economic growth.

  9. How do we convert the transport sector to renewable energy and improve the sector's interplay with the energy system? Main findings and recommendations from Workshop on Transport - renewable energy in the transport sector and planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soenderberg Petersen, L.; Larsen, Hans (eds.)

    2009-07-15

    As part of the DTU Climate Change Technologies Programme, DTU arranged a series of workshops and conferences on climate change technology focusing on assessment of and adaptation to climate changes as well as on mitigation of greenhouse gasses (GHG). Each workshop targeted a specific technology problem area. The Workshop on Transport took place at DTU 17 - 18 March 2009. The workshop developed and discussed recommendations for future climate change technologies. This report presents summary and recommendations from the workshop. (au)

  10. Transport equivalent diffusion constants for reflector region in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahara, Yoshihisa; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    The diffusion-theory-based nodal method is widely used in PWR core designs for reason of its high computing speed in three-dimensional calculations. The baffle/reflector (B/R) constants used in nodal calculations are usually calculated based on a one-dimensional transport calculation. However, to achieve high accuracy of assembly power prediction, two-dimensional model is needed. For this reason, the method for calculating transport equivalent diffusion constants of reflector material was developed so that the neutron currents on the material boundaries could be calculated exactly in diffusion calculations. Two-dimensional B/R constants were calculated using the transport equivalent diffusion constants in the two-dimensional diffusion calculation whose geometry reflected the actual material configuration in the reflector region. The two-dimensional B/R constants enabled us to predict assembly power within an error of 1.5% at hot full power conditions. (author)

  11. Analysis of policies to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse-gas emissions from the US transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross Morrow, W.; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Collantes, Gustavo; Lee, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Even as the US debates an economy-wide CO 2 cap-and-trade policy the transportation sector remains a significant oil security and climate change concern. Transportation alone consumes the majority of the US's imported oil and produces a third of total US Greenhouse-Gas (GHG) emissions. This study examines different sector-specific policy scenarios for reducing GHG emissions and oil consumption in the US transportation sector under economy-wide CO 2 prices. The 2009 version of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), a general equilibrium model of US energy markets, enables quantitative estimates of the impact of economy-wide CO 2 prices and various transportation-specific policy options. We analyze fuel taxes, continued increases in fuel economy standards, and purchase tax credits for new vehicle purchases, as well as the impacts of combining these policies. All policy scenarios modeled fail to meet the Obama administration's goal of reducing GHG emissions 14% below 2005 levels by 2020. Purchase tax credits are expensive and ineffective at reducing emissions, while the largest reductions in GHG emissions result from increasing the cost of driving, thereby damping growth in vehicle miles traveled. (author)

  12. Visions, beliefs, and transformation: exploring cross-sector and transboundary dynamics in the wider Mekong region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Smajgl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Policy and investment decisions in highly connected, developing regions can have implications that extend beyond their initial objectives of national development and poverty reduction. Local level decisions that aim to promote trajectories toward desirable futures are often transformative, unexpectedly altering factors that are determined at higher regional levels. The converse also applies. The ability to realize desirable local futures diminishes if decision-making processes are not coordinated with other influential governance and decision levels. Providing effective support across multiple levels of decision making in a connected, transformative environment requires (a identification and articulation of desired outcomes at the relevant levels of decision making, (b improved understanding of complex cross-scale interactions that link to potentially transforming decisions, and (c learning among decision makers and decision influencers. Research implemented through multiple participatory modalities can facilitate such relevant system learning to contribute to sustainable adaptation pathways. We test application of a systematic policy engagement framework, the Challenge and Reconstruct Learning or ChaRL framework, on a set of interdependent development decisions in the Mekong region. The analysis presented here is focused on the implementations of the ChaRL process in the Nam Ngum River Basin, Lao People's Democratic Republic and the Tonle Sap Lake and environs, Cambodia to exemplify what cross-scale and cross-sectoral insights were generated to inform decision-making processes in the wider Mekong region. The participatory process described aligns the facilitated development of scenarios articulating shared future visions at local and regional levels with agent-based simulations and facilitates learning by contrasting desired outcomes with likely, potentially maladaptive outcomes.

  13. Optimizing velocities and transports for complex coastal regions and archipelagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Patrick J.; Agarwal, Arpit; Lermusiaux, Pierre F. J.

    2015-05-01

    We derive and apply a methodology for the initialization of velocity and transport fields in complex multiply-connected regions with multiscale dynamics. The result is initial fields that are consistent with observations, complex geometry and dynamics, and that can simulate the evolution of ocean processes without large spurious initial transients. A class of constrained weighted least squares optimizations is defined to best fit first-guess velocities while satisfying the complex bathymetry, coastline and divergence strong constraints. A weak constraint towards the minimum inter-island transports that are in accord with the first-guess velocities provides important velocity corrections in complex archipelagos. In the optimization weights, the minimum distance and vertical area between pairs of coasts are computed using a Fast Marching Method. Additional information on velocity and transports are included as strong or weak constraints. We apply our methodology around the Hawaiian islands of Kauai/Niihau, in the Taiwan/Kuroshio region and in the Philippines Archipelago. Comparisons with other common initialization strategies, among hindcasts from these initial conditions (ICs), and with independent in situ observations show that our optimization corrects transports, satisfies boundary conditions and redirects currents. Differences between the hindcasts from these different ICs are found to grow for at least 2-3 weeks. When compared to independent in situ observations, simulations from our optimized ICs are shown to have the smallest errors.

  14. Optimizing velocities and transports for complex coastal regions and archipelagos

    OpenAIRE

    Haley, Patrick; Agarwal, Arpit; Lermusiaux, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We derive and apply a methodology for the initialization of velocity and transport fields in complex multiply-connected regions with multiscale dynamics. The result is initial fields that are consistent with observations, complex geometry and dynamics, and that can simulate the evolution of ocean processes without large spurious initial transients. A class of constrained weighted least squares optimizations is defined to best fit first-guess velocities while satisfying the complex bathymetry,...

  15. Regional distribution of serotonin transporter protein in postmortem human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kish, Stephen J. [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada)]. E-mail: Stephen_Kish@CAMH.net; Furukawa, Yoshiaki [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Chang Lijan [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Tong Junchao [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Ginovart, Nathalie [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Wilson, Alan [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Houle, Sylvain [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Meyer, Jeffrey H. [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    Introduction: The primary approach in assessing the status of brain serotonin neurons in human conditions such as major depression and exposure to the illicit drug ecstasy has been the use of neuroimaging procedures involving radiotracers that bind to the serotonin transporter (SERT). However, there has been no consistency in the selection of a 'SERT-free' reference region for the estimation of free and nonspecific binding, as occipital cortex, cerebellum and white matter have all been employed. Objective and Methods: To identify areas of human brain that might have very low SERT levels, we measured, by a semiquantitative Western blotting procedure, SERT protein immunoreactivity throughout the postmortem brain of seven normal adult subjects. Results: Serotonin transporter could be quantitated in all examined brain areas. However, the SERT concentration in cerebellar cortex and white matter were only at trace values, being approximately 20% of average cerebral cortex and 5% of average striatum values. Conclusion: Although none of the examined brain areas are completely free of SERT, human cerebellar cortex has low SERT binding as compared to other examined brain regions, with the exception of white matter. Since the cerebellar cortical SERT binding is not zero, this region will not be a suitable reference region for SERT radioligands with very low free and nonspecific binding. For SERT radioligands with reasonably high free and nonspecific binding, the cerebellar cortex should be a useful reference region, provided other necessary radioligand assumptions are met.

  16. Regional distribution of serotonin transporter protein in postmortem human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kish, Stephen J.; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Chang Lijan; Tong Junchao; Ginovart, Nathalie; Wilson, Alan; Houle, Sylvain; Meyer, Jeffrey H.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The primary approach in assessing the status of brain serotonin neurons in human conditions such as major depression and exposure to the illicit drug ecstasy has been the use of neuroimaging procedures involving radiotracers that bind to the serotonin transporter (SERT). However, there has been no consistency in the selection of a 'SERT-free' reference region for the estimation of free and nonspecific binding, as occipital cortex, cerebellum and white matter have all been employed. Objective and Methods: To identify areas of human brain that might have very low SERT levels, we measured, by a semiquantitative Western blotting procedure, SERT protein immunoreactivity throughout the postmortem brain of seven normal adult subjects. Results: Serotonin transporter could be quantitated in all examined brain areas. However, the SERT concentration in cerebellar cortex and white matter were only at trace values, being approximately 20% of average cerebral cortex and 5% of average striatum values. Conclusion: Although none of the examined brain areas are completely free of SERT, human cerebellar cortex has low SERT binding as compared to other examined brain regions, with the exception of white matter. Since the cerebellar cortical SERT binding is not zero, this region will not be a suitable reference region for SERT radioligands with very low free and nonspecific binding. For SERT radioligands with reasonably high free and nonspecific binding, the cerebellar cortex should be a useful reference region, provided other necessary radioligand assumptions are met

  17. Panorama 2015 - Greenhouse gas emissions in the road transport sector: moving towards inclusion in the European system of CO2 allowances?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussy, Paula; Portenart, Philomene; Afriat, Marion; Alberola, Emilie

    2014-12-01

    In the year 2000, out of 41.8 Gt of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, almost 10% came from transports sector. In Europe, this share of transports GHG emissions rises to 21% and emissions are forecast to rise. Against this background, should the road transport sector be included in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme and thereby contribute to national GHG emission reduction targets? (authors)

  18. The use of ethanol from sugar cane in the Brazilian transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Suzana Kahn

    1999-01-01

    The use of Ethanol as a fuel is a significant contribution to the efforts for reducing greenhouse effect related to gas emissions. The main objective of the present work, is to assess Brazil's performance regarding activities aimed at reducing harmful gas emissions, in the global context of the intensification of the greenhouse effect, assumed as a working hypothesis. Brazil's estimated emissions of greenhouse effect related to gases are far less than those of developed countries. The per capita consumption of energy and of fossil fuels is still quite low in Brazil. However, the means for reducing harmful gas emissions and the initiatives to control the greenhouse effect should not be directed to the maintenance of the present low level of energy consumption, for this would have negative repercussion on the economic development of the country. Developed countries have focused on the more rational uses of energy, i.e. more efficient and less polluting fuels, so as to reduce their own levels of greenhouse effect related to gas emissions. In this connection, the use of ethanol in Brazil for the transportation sector may prove to be an important alternative furthering the efforts to stabilised the actual level of gases in the atmosphere. The energy derived from biomass, and in this case, from a renewable, clean source, i.e., from sugar cane, has the unquestionable advantage of permitting the almost complete reabsorption of Carbon Dioxide emitted through the combustion of fuel alcohol. This closed cycle allows, in principle, to increase the energy supply, essential for sustained economic growth, without hazards to the environment. Furthermore, the Brazilian Fuel Alcohol Program has the potential to attract international interest as an important alternative relative to the efforts for controlling the global dangers of the greenhouse effect, as will be discussed in greater detail further on in this paper. (Author)

  19. The Impacts of Atmospheric Moisture Transportation on Warm Sector Torrential Rains over South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuixin Zhong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Warm Sector Torrential Rains (WSTRs occurring during the outbreak of the monsoon in May of 2015 in South China were studied using surface automatic weather observational data, sounding, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis interim Data (ERA-interim, satellite and radar data, and a four-level nested grid simulation with the finest grid spacing of 1 km using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF. The results show that the extreme precipitation event, which had maximum rainfall amounts of 406.3 mm in 10 h and 542.2 mm in 24 h on 20 May 2015, and was characterized by its rapid development and its highly concentrated and long duration of heavy rainfall, occurred over the trumpet-shaped topography of Haifeng. The simulation results indicated that the South China Sea (SCS atmospheric moisture transportation (AMT was crucial in triggering the precipitation of the WSTR over South China. The simulation of the WSTR was conducted by using the total energy-mass flux scheme (TEMF, which provided a reasonable simulation of the circulation and the vertical profile in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL as well as the estimation of the precipitation. The AMT, which extends from the Beibu Gulf and the South China Sea to the coastal areas and provides Shanwei with a considerable amount of moisture in the boundary layer, and the effects within the PBL, which include orographic effects, an extra low-level jet, and a high-energy tongue characterized by a high-potential pseudo-equivalent temperature tongue with a warm and moist southwesterly wind, were the important large-scale factors causing the WSTR.

  20. Large regional differences in incidence of arthroscopic meniscal procedures in the public and private sector in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare, Kristoffer Borbjerg; Vinther, Jesper Høeg; Lohmander, L Stefan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A recent study reported a large increase in the number of meniscal procedures from 2000 to 2011 in Denmark. We examined the nation-wide distribution of meniscal procedures performed in the private and public sector in Denmark since different incentives may be present and the use...... of these procedures may differ from region to region. SETTING: We included data on all patients who underwent an arthroscopic meniscal procedure performed in the public or private sector in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Data were retrieved from the Danish National Patient Register on patients who underwent arthroscopic...... for public and private procedures for each region. RESULTS: Incidence of meniscal procedures increased at private and at public hospitals. The private sector accounted for the largest relative and absolute increase, rising from an incidence of 1 in 2000 to 98 in 2011. In 2011, the incidence of meniscal...

  1. Economic analysis of the expected environmental impact of the Single European Market through the transport, waste and energy sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brutscher, S.

    1993-01-01

    Similarly to other studies the present dissertation presupposes that the Single European Market will lead to an increase in transport waste quantities, and energy consumption and consequently to greater environmental pollution. Of central importance here is the concept of ''expletive costs'' introduced in this paper which describes that damage to the natural and human environment which is not compensated. It forms out that the sectors of transport, waste, and energy alone will most probably send the expletive costs of the Single European Market into astronomic dimensions. In view of the interdependencies of these three sectors it seems doubtful whether the economic benefit to be expected from the establishment of the Single European Market can justify the additional environmental damage thus caused. (HP) [de

  2. Public Sector Education Institution's Analysis: A Way Forward to Curtail Rural-Regional Education Accessibility Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Aftab Hussain Talpur

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The availability of accessible educational facilities is essential for the better rural education. However, because of the huge population, lack of resources and absence of proper policy plans; the distance between educational facilities and rural communities is mounting as time progresses. These sorts of problematic circumstances put damaging effects on education standards and become responsible for the declining literacy rate. Hence, the goal of this research is to investigate the lack of educational institutions with respect to indigenous standards. Therefore, in this study, the dearth of education institutions was determined for the one of the most deprived sub-regions of Pakistan, i.e. Badin. The data were collected through observations, questionnaire survey, and from secondary sources, like census report and other pertinent public sector documents. The outcome of this study can be taken as an input to develop policy plans, targeting the education accessibility issues of backward communities. This research could show a guiding-path to local planning agencies, as these can come-up with the policy plans to trounce the education accessibility issues from the bucolic sub-regions of developing countries

  3. Climate, transports and regions. A study of goal-conflicts and goal-synergies; Klimat, transporter och regioner. En studie om maalkonflikter och maalsynergier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Matts; Hammarqvist, Jarl; Jarlebring, Isak; Algers, Staffan; Baeckstroem, Sebastian; Svalgaard, Stehn; Hultin, Kia [WSP Analys och Strategi, Stockholm (Sweden); Lundgren, Tommy [Dept. of Forest Economics, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2007-05-15

    In this report, we address how climate gas emissions and regional development are influenced by policy instruments. We compare costs in terms of decreased regional development with the benefits in CO{sub 2} reductions. Regional development is measured by production and employment within the manufacturing industry, and by the size of the labour markets. For two reasons, we study policy instruments in the transport system: 1. The transport system represents a large and constantly increasing part of CO{sub 2} emissions. 2. Within the transport industry, analytical tools are readily available. We study tax on fossil fuels, three levels of kilometer tax and car benefit tax based on CO{sub 2} emissions. The two first instruments are taken from a Swedish parliamentary investigation on road taxes, the third from an investigation by the Swedish environmental Protection Agency. All instruments have little impact on production. In total, production in the manufacturing industry is decreased by SEK 2 billion annually, or 0.1 per cent of GDP, when the highest kilometer tax is applied. For some industries the effects are noticeable in absolute values, though the largest decrease is only 2.5 percent of the production in the industry (earth and stone). The impact on employment is greater and positive. Employment in the manufacturing industry increases by 1.2 per cent, or 5,000 individuals, with the highest kilometer tax. Labour intense industries grow on behalf of transport intense industries and transports are exchanged for labour within each industry. As shown in the figure on the next page, the greatest increase is in the food and beverage industry and the largest decrease in paper and pulp. Our calculations of goods transport emissions are quite rough. The highest level of kilometer tax will decrease emissions from heavy goods vehicles with 5 to 11 per cent (which means a 1 to 2 percent decrease in emissions from the transport sector), whereas the middle level is decreases

  4. RTSTEP regional transportation simulation tool for emergency planning - final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, H.; Sokolov, V.; Hope, M.; Auld, J.; Zhang, K.; Park, Y.; Kang, X. (Energy Systems)

    2012-01-20

    Large-scale evacuations from major cities during no-notice events - such as chemical or radiological attacks, hazardous material spills, or earthquakes - have an obvious impact on large regions rather than on just the directly affected area. The scope of impact includes the accommodation of emergency evacuation traffic throughout a very large area; the planning of resources to respond appropriately to the needs of the affected population; the placement of medical supplies and decontamination equipment; and the assessment and determination of primary escape routes, as well as routes for incoming emergency responders. Compared to events with advance notice, such as evacuations based on hurricanes approaching an affected area, the response to no-notice events relies exclusively on pre-planning and general regional emergency preparedness. Another unique issue is the lack of a full and immediate understanding of the underlying threats to the population, making it even more essential to gain extensive knowledge of the available resources, the chain of command, and established procedures. Given the size of the area affected, an advanced understanding of the regional transportation systems is essential to help with the planning for such events. The objectives of the work described here (carried out by Argonne National Laboratory) is the development of a multi-modal regional transportation model that allows for the analysis of different evacuation scenarios and emergency response strategies to build a wealth of knowledge that can be used to develop appropriate regional emergency response plans. The focus of this work is on the effects of no-notice evacuations on the regional transportation network, as well as the response of the transportation network to the sudden and unusual demand. The effects are dynamic in nature, with scenarios changing potentially from minute to minute. The response to a radiological or chemical hazard will be based on the time-delayed dispersion of

  5. Incorporating global warming risks in power sector planning: A case study of the New England region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, F.; Busch, J.; Koomey, J.

    1992-11-01

    Growing international concern over the threat of global climate change has led to proposals to buy insurance against this threat by reducing emissions of carbon (short for carbon dioxide) and other greenhouse gases below current levels. Concern over these and other, non-climatic environmental effects of electricity generation has led a number of states to adopt or explore new mechanisms for incorporating environmental externalities in utility resource planning. For example, the New York and Massachusetts utility commissions have adopted monetized surcharges (or adders) to induce emission reductions of federally regulated air pollutants (notably, SO 2 , NO x , and particulates) beyond federally mandated levels. These regulations also include preliminary estimates of the cost of reducing carbon emissions, for which no federal regulations exist at this time. Within New England, regulators and utilities have also held several workshops and meetings to discuss alternative methods of incorporating externalities as well as the feasibility of regional approaches. This study examines the potential for reduced carbon emissions in the New England power sector as well as the cost and rate impacts of two policy approaches: environmental externality surcharges and a target- based approach. We analyze the following questions: Does New England have sufficient low-carbon resources to achieve significant reductions (10% to 20% below current levels) in fossil carbon emissions in its utility sector? What reductions could be achieved at a maximum? What is the expected cost of carbon reductions as a function of the reduction goal? How would carbon reduction strategies affect electricity rates? How effective are environmental externality cost surcharges as an instrument in bringing about carbon reductions? To what extent could the minimization of total electricity costs alone result in carbon reductions relative to conventional resource plans?

  6. FDI technology spillover and threshold effect of the technology gap: regional differences in the Chinese industrial sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Huifang; Cao, Zhiyong; Wang, Bowen

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new perspective that there is a double-threshold effect in terms of the technology gap existing in the foreign direct investment (FDI) technology spillover process in different regional Chinese industrial sectors. In this paper, a double-threshold regression model was established to examine the relation between the threshold effect of the technology gap and technology spillover. Based on the provincial panel data of Chinese industrial sectors from 2000 to 2011, the empirical results reveal that there are two threshold values, which are 1.254 and 2.163, in terms of the technology gap in the industrial sector in eastern China. There are also two threshold values in both the central and western industrial sector, which are 1.516, 2.694 and 1.635, 2.714, respectively. The technology spillover is a decreasing function of the technology gap in both the eastern and western industrial sectors, but a concave curve function of the technology gap is in the central industrial sectors. Furthermore, the FDI technology spillover has increased gradually in recent years. Based on the empirical results, suggestions were proposed to elucidate the introduction of the FDI and the improvement in the industrial added value in different regions of China.

  7. Construction of transport and energy networks in the Baltic region as an impetus for regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexey

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In light of some new aspects of the EU functioning, particularly, the recovery from the 2008-2009 global crisis, transportation and energy development projects are coming to the forefront in the Baltic region. At the same time, there is a need to consider EU’s recent adoption of a common seven-year financial program (2014—2020, which serves, in effect, as the Union’s budget. Given that, one may conclude that the countries of the Baltic region are entering a new stage of development. We look at the role and significance of transportation and energy projects as an instrument of economic development. Having studied the largest transport and energy projects in the Baltic region, we were able to show that the new infrastructure networks supported the investment expansion of Swedish and Finnish companies into the post-communist countries of the Baltic Region. Which, in its turn, allowed the Nordic investors to expand their domestic markets. The analysis also shows that the experience of private businesses proves a recent theoretical concept — the pyramid of regional development factors. As a result, the actual regional policy of the EU cannot be considered in the narrow sense of the Cohesion Policy alone.

  8. CRUDE OIL TRANSPORT FROM THE CASPIAN SEA REGION TO EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Przybyłowski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world, despite the growing importance and scale of the use of renewable energy , conventional energy resources still play a huge role. The European Union countries are dependent on the oil imports and the their main supplier of crude oil and natural gas has been the Russian Federation. After the collapse of the Soviet Union , the Caspian Sea region has become an alternative to Russian energy resources. The Unit-ed States , European Union, China and many other countries have shown their interest about this region. Despite a relatively large oil and natural gas reserves, the export of the-se commodities to the West is still problematic. Based on the available data and infor-mation, the publication explores the issue of energy resources transport directions with a particular emphasis on the crude oil from the Caspian Sea region to Europe.

  9. Investigation on the Relationship owth of Agricultural Sector’s Growth with Growth of Industrial and Service Sectors (Commerce, Transportation, Telecommunication in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yaghoob zeraatkish

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture has always been considerd as one of the important sectors in domestic and international economy .Based on the Central Bank Statistics; agriculture’s share in the Iranian GDP at the constant price of the year 1998 was 13 percent of the GDP in the year 2007. Therefore, studies on the role of agriculture in an economy and its interactions with other economic sectors should be considered with a special attention. This paper aimed at surveying the effects of growth of value-added in agriculture on the value-added of different sectors of industry, services as well as subordinate sectors of transportation, communication and commerce. In this regard, the status of the period between 1967 to 2009 is used. To determine the relationship among the study variables, some econometric techniques such as VAR were used. The results of VAR technique proves that there is a positive relation among the growth of value-added in the agricultural sector with the growth of industrial sector and the growth of sub-sectors of communication, transportation and commerce. Among the mentioned sectors and sub-sectors, the growth of commerce has maximum effect on the agricultural growth. Furthermore, in the short term, the growth variant of trading sector presented the largest share in explaining the variants of the agriculture sector . The growth variant of communication sector is trivial

  10. Nuclear Energy R and D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petti, David; Herring, J. Stephen

    2010-01-01

    As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Nuclear Energy R and D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R and D Roadmap, entitled 'Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors', addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R and D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: (1) Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, (2) Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and (3) Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation

  11. Integrated energy planning for transportation sector-A case study for Iran with techno-economic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Mehdi [Economics Department, Imam Sadiq University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Sadeghi@isu.ac.ir; Mirshojaeian Hosseini, Hossein [Tehran University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mirshojaeian@ut.ac.ir

    2008-02-15

    Transportation sectors in developing countries suffer from some diseases that one of them is ever-increasing energy consumption. Integrated National Energy Planning (INEP) in transportation sector is a solution for these countries to alter their suboptimal pattern and rationalize their energy consumption. One of the INEP targets is determining optimal patterns of fuels and transportation technologies to satisfy future demand of freight and passenger transportation at the lowest cost levels. Following the above target, this paper is concerned with the optimal consumption pattern of fuels focusing on vehicle technologies within the next 25 years (up to 2029). Using Energy Flow Optimization Model-ENVironment (EFOM-ENV) model, various steps as designing of 'Reference Energy System (RES)' of the model, data processing and scenario analysis are followed. Based on the modeling results, substitution of urban railroad technologies (subway, LRT and monorail), all of passenger CNG technologies (cars, buses and minibuses), rural railroad freight technologies (electrical, gas oil and LNG freight trains) and finally, CNG and LNG heavy and light trucks with current passenger and freight vehicle technologies are suggested. This scenario will decline fuel consumption by about 14% totally, that the most part of it belongs to gasoline and gas oil (24% and 17%, respectively). Total discounted cost of transportation system will decline from 806.20 to 691.74 billion dollars (14%) during the time horizon.

  12. Integrated energy planning for transportation sector-A case study for Iran with techno-economic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Mehdi; Mirshojaeian Hosseini, Hossein

    2008-01-01

    Transportation sectors in developing countries suffer from some diseases that one of them is ever-increasing energy consumption. Integrated National Energy Planning (INEP) in transportation sector is a solution for these countries to alter their suboptimal pattern and rationalize their energy consumption. One of the INEP targets is determining optimal patterns of fuels and transportation technologies to satisfy future demand of freight and passenger transportation at the lowest cost levels. Following the above target, this paper is concerned with the optimal consumption pattern of fuels focusing on vehicle technologies within the next 25 years (up to 2029). Using Energy Flow Optimization Model-ENVironment (EFOM-ENV) model, various steps as designing of 'Reference Energy System (RES)' of the model, data processing and scenario analysis are followed. Based on the modeling results, substitution of urban railroad technologies (subway, LRT and monorail), all of passenger CNG technologies (cars, buses and minibuses), rural railroad freight technologies (electrical, gas oil and LNG freight trains) and finally, CNG and LNG heavy and light trucks with current passenger and freight vehicle technologies are suggested. This scenario will decline fuel consumption by about 14% totally, that the most part of it belongs to gasoline and gas oil (24% and 17%, respectively). Total discounted cost of transportation system will decline from 806.20 to 691.74 billion dollars (14%) during the time horizon

  13. The Relationship between Corporate Governance Approach and Internal Audit in Tourism Sector: An Application in Marmaris Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağrı Köroğlu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tourism sector is one of the important sectors in Turkey. Corporate governance is an important tool to increase the efficiency of tourism sector. An effective i nternal audit helps to improve the effectiveness of corporate governance in tourism sector. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between corporate governance and the internal audit at four -star and five-star hotels in Marmaris. First, corporate governance and internal control concepts have been discussed within the scope of the literature. Next, in the application part, for the purpose of our study, four-star and five-star hotels were selected in Marmaris region. A survey was conducted on the hotel managers. The data set is analyzed by using SPSS. The results show significant relationship between internal control and corporate governance. In addition, hotel managements recognize the importance of the both the basic principles of corporate governance and internal audit activities.

  14. Passive scalar transport in peripheral regions of random flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernykh, A.; Lebedev, V.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate statistical properties of the passive scalar mixing in random (turbulent) flows assuming its diffusion to be weak. Then at advanced stages of the passive scalar decay, its unmixed residue is primarily concentrated in a narrow diffusive layer near the wall and its transport to the bulk goes through the peripheral region (laminar sublayer of the flow). We conducted Lagrangian numerical simulations of the process for different space dimensions d and revealed structures responsible for the transport, which are passive scalar tongues pulled from the diffusive boundary layer to the bulk. We investigated statistical properties of the passive scalar and of the passive scalar integrated along the wall. Moments of both objects demonstrate scaling behavior outside the diffusive boundary layer. We propose an analytic scheme for the passive scalar statistics, explaining the features observed numerically.

  15. Tourism innovation in the forestry sector: comparative analysis between Auckland Region (New Zealand) and Trentino (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Notaro S; Paletto A; Piffer M

    2012-01-01

    Innovation is a primary aspect of economic growth and development and depends on the ability of entrepreneurs to create economic value by introducing new products or services, designing different production processes or rearranging organisational practices. The spreading of innovation is a key element in all economic sectors, including the forestry sector. Four types of innovation can be found in the forestry sector: product innovations (e.g., wood assortments), service innovations (e.g., bio...

  16. Cosmic-Ray Transport in Heliospheric Magnetic Structures. II. Modeling Particle Transport through Corotating Interaction Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Andreas [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Physique Statistique et des Plasmas, CP 231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Wiengarten, Tobias; Fichtner, Horst [Institut für Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Effenberger, Frederic [Department of Physics and KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kühl, Patrick; Heber, Bernd [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrecht-Universität zu Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Raath, Jan-Louis; Potgieter, Marius S. [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, 2520 Potchefstroom (South Africa)

    2017-03-01

    The transport of cosmic rays (CRs) in the heliosphere is determined by the properties of the solar wind plasma. The heliospheric plasma environment has been probed by spacecraft for decades and provides a unique opportunity for testing transport theories. Of particular interest for the three-dimensional (3D) heliospheric CR transport are structures such as corotating interaction regions (CIRs), which, due to the enhancement of the magnetic field strength and magnetic fluctuations within and due to the associated shocks as well as stream interfaces, do influence the CR diffusion and drift. In a three-fold series of papers, we investigate these effects by modeling inner-heliospheric solar wind conditions with the numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) framework Cronos (Wiengarten et al., referred as Paper I), and the results serve as input to a transport code employing a stochastic differential equation approach (this paper). While, in Paper I, we presented results from 3D simulations with Cronos, the MHD output is now taken as an input to the CR transport modeling. We discuss the diffusion and drift behavior of Galactic cosmic rays using the example of different theories, and study the effects of CIRs on these transport processes. In particular, we point out the wide range of possible particle fluxes at a given point in space resulting from these different theories. The restriction of this variety by fitting the numerical results to spacecraft data will be the subject of the third paper of this series.

  17. Research on Demand for Bus Transport and Transport Habits of High School Students in Žilina Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konečný Vladimír

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of demand for bus transport to examine determinants of demand and practices of high school students based on survey of their transport habits in Žilina Region. Transport habits of students are individual and variable in time. This group of passengers is dependent on public passenger transport services because of their travelling to schools. Significant part of demand for public passenger transport is also formed by this this group of passengers. The knowledge of student's transport habits may help in process of adaptation of offering and quality of transport serviceability what may subsequently stabilize demand for public passenger transport.

  18. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Volume 2: Part 4, Transportation sector; Part 5, Forestry sector; Part 6, Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This volume, the second of two such volumes, contains sector-specific guidance in support of the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration. This voluntary reporting program was authorized by Congress in Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The General Guidelines, bound separately from this volume, provide the overall rationale for the program, discuss in general how to analyze emissions and emission reduction/carbon sequestration projects, and address programmatic issues such as minimum reporting requirements, time parameters, international projects, confidentiality, and certification. Together, the General Guidelines and the guidance in these supporting documents will provide concepts and approaches needed to prepare the reporting forms. This second volume of sector-specific guidance covers the transportation sector, the forestry sector, and the agricultural sector

  19. Transportation Improvement Program of the Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-20

    The MORPC Transportation Improvement program (TIP) is a staged, multi-year schedule of regionally significant transportation improvements in the Columbus area. The Federal-aid Highway Act of 1962 and the federal Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1964 ...

  20. Selected Processes in SMEs, Targeting to South Bohemia Region and Trade Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Březinová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Process management plays an important role in making up the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises. This issue is researched in the long term at the Economic University of South Bohemia. The paper presents a comparison of trends in the average level of functioning of core processes (selling, human resources, marketing and finance in the South Bohemian Region MSP for 3 years in the sector of trade. The first data was obtained under the grant GAJU 068/2010/S in 2010, and the second group of data was obtained from the grant GAJU 039/2013/S and GAJU 079/2013/S in 2013. From all the chosen processes within the research sample, significant changes can be shown only in the processes of human resources management and production where improvement of functioning of the processes was achieved. In the research project were used secondary data (financial statements of SMEs, who took part in the research and primary data which were obtained primarily through quantitative methods questionnaire supplemented by qualitative method of in-depth interviews.

  1. Learning Networks in Innovation Systems at Sector / Regional Level in Argentina: Winery and Dairy Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Sanchez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This work studies how the set of relationships that gives place to the learning processes is established in the food industry in Argentina. A theoretical ad hoc approach is adopted, conjugating the concepts of innovation systems at sector / regional level with some context considerations like the innovative behaviour of the global and local food industry and a description of the public and private S&T in Argentina. The study is focused in two cases: the wine industry, at the Mendoza province, and the dairy products industry at the centre of the Santa Fe province, both in Argentina. While the winery industry at the province of Mendoza exports differentiated products the dairy industry, at the central basin of the province of Santa Fe, exports commodities leaving differentiated (functional products for the domestic market. These facts determine different dynamics between them, despite of what the established set of relationships is very complex and knowledge intensive in both cases. Also, in both cases the preponderant contribution of the public institutions of science and technology as knowledge and technology source is flagged.

  2. Current status of technical-sports companies in the sector in the Valencian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Martínez Serrano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently, the issue of human resources is producing an impact in Spain and just need to approach the business biography to verify that the sector study of physical activity and sport is a field of scientific and social interest that needs to be investigated. Using a quantitative methodology, in which a descriptive method and a cross sectional survey was carried out and through a standardized interview as a tool for gathering information, results reveal the most significant characteristics found in Valencia Region. The results explain that the people working in physical and sports functions in companies are mostly young men who develop a wide variety of functions, work situations in which there is recruitment and showing a temporary high. The study also reveals that more than half the people will do business with a working week not exceeding four years, and there are people without official certification of physical activity and sport and being the most important personal contacts to find work. Keywords: technical-sports, business, management, sport, physical activity, sport.

  3. Large regional differences in incidence of arthroscopic meniscal procedures in the public and private sector in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Kristoffer Borbjerg; Vinther, Jesper Høeg; Lohmander, L Stefan; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch

    2015-02-24

    A recent study reported a large increase in the number of meniscal procedures from 2000 to 2011 in Denmark. We examined the nation-wide distribution of meniscal procedures performed in the private and public sector in Denmark since different incentives may be present and the use of these procedures may differ from region to region. We included data on all patients who underwent an arthroscopic meniscal procedure performed in the public or private sector in Denmark. Data were retrieved from the Danish National Patient Register on patients who underwent arthroscopic meniscus surgery as a primary or secondary procedure in the years 2000 to 2011. Hospital identification codes enabled linkage of performed procedures to specific hospitals. Yearly incidence of meniscal procedures per 100,000 inhabitants was calculated with 95% CIs for public and private procedures for each region. Incidence of meniscal procedures increased at private and at public hospitals. The private sector accounted for the largest relative and absolute increase, rising from an incidence of 1 in 2000 to 98 in 2011. In 2011, the incidence of meniscal procedures was three times higher in the Capital Region than in Region Zealand. Our study identified a large increase in the use of meniscal procedures in the public and private sector in Denmark. The increase was particularly conspicuous in the private sector as its proportion of procedures performed increased from 1% to 32%. Substantial regional differences were present in the incidence and trend over time of meniscal procedures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Global production chains in the fast fashion sector, transports and logistics: the case of the Spanish retailer Inditex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Escalona Orcao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent geographical analyses of global production networks in different economic sectors demonstrate that little attention has been paid to the logistical and transport systems through which networks are fully integrated. This paper on Inditex, a leading firm in the fast fashion sector, addresses this lack of attention and analyses how transport and logistics fit into the production network and provide the firm with one of its most notable competitive advantages. We describe the network of shops and manufacturing, present the principles of the logistical model, and provide details of the procedures applied for the functional and geographical integration of the chain of production of Zara, the best known of the company’s 11 brands. The analysis highlights the growing use of air transport in supplying chains of high-fashion-content products manufactured in distant countries and in the distribution of garments to distant markets. The conclusion of the paper is that logistics and transport strategies must be considered because the geographical configuration of global fashion networks increasingly depends on how rapidly the major fashion retailers are able to meet the needs of time-sensitive customers and the appropriate organisational and logistical strategies they adopt for that purpose.

  5. Retesting the causality between energy consumption and GDP in China: Evidence from sectoral and regional analyses using dynamic panel data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chuanguo; Xu, Jiao

    2012-01-01

    The increasing attention on energy policy needs has provided a renewed stimulus to research the linkages between energy consumption and economic performance in China. This paper examined the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in the regional and sectoral aspects by adopting provincial panel data in China from 1995 to 2008. The results indicate that economic growth causes more energy consumption in China not only at the national level but also at the regional and sectoral levels. Then the Eastern Region and the industrial sector show results quite similar to that of the whole country, in which a bidirectional causality relationship exists between energy consumption and economic growth. The implication for energy policies in China is that the Eastern Region and the industrial sector should play a leading role in the adjustment of energy consumption patterns and the transformation of the economy structure. Energy prices have limited effects on energy consumption but do have effects on economic growth because the energy price mechanism is more government-oriented than market-oriented in China.

  6. Regional impacts of environmental regulations and technical change in the US forestry sector: a multiregional CGE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouranga G. Das; Janki R.R. Alavalapati; Douglas R. Carter; Marions E. Tsigas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a multiregional computable general equilibrium model, which divides the United States (US) into four broad geographical regions and aggregates other nations into the rest of the world, is used to analyze the effects associated with environmental and technological policy shifts in the US forest sector. In particular, we analyze the impacts of: (i) a 20%...

  7. Change of direction required. Climate protection in the transport sector. Special report; Umsteuern erforderlich. Klimaschutz im Verkehrssektor. Sondergutachten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-11-15

    The transport sector is currently responsible for about one-fifth of Germany's greenhouse gas emissions. While in other sectors since 1990 partly clear emission reductions have been achieved, are the emissions of traffic during the same period even slightly increased. In his special report the German Council of Environmental Advisors (SRU) points out which strategic course should be set for the change in transport policy. The decarbonisation of the transport sector requires a consistent overall concept. It should be done as soon as possible, a switch to alternative drives. In traffic electromobility is to be accelerated, because of direct electrification the primary energy consumption is kept as low as possible. The extraction and recycling of the raw materials required for electromobility should be made sustainable. In addition, the energy consumption of motorized transport must also be be significantly further reduced, especially by on-board efficiency measures. In addition to technological changes a fundamental change of transport systems and mobility patterns is also necessary. The avoidance and relocation of traffic not only contributes to climate protection, but also to reduce its other environmental and health burdens. In order to promote cost transparency in the transport sector, taxes, levies and subsidies should be consistently aligned with climate, environmental and health policy objectives. For the SRU, this also includes the introduction of a route-dependent car toll. [German] Der Verkehrssektor ist derzeit fuer etwa ein Fuenftel der Treibhausgasemissionen Deutschlands verantwortlich. Waehrend in anderen Sektoren seit 1990 zum Teil deutliche Emissionsminderungen erzielt wurden, sind die Emissionen des Verkehrs im gleichen Zeitraum sogar leicht angestiegen. In seinem Sondergutachten ''Umsteuern erforderlich: Klimaschutz im Verkehrssektor'' zeigt der SRU auf, welche strategischen Weichen fuer die Verkehrswende gestellt werden

  8. What role does the real estate–construction sector play in China's regional economy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Honghao; Folmer, Henk; van der Vlist, Arno J.

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization, industrialization and real estate reform have led to a vast growth of the real estate–construction sector in China. Using the 2002 and 2007 provincial input–output tables, this paper examines the importance of the real estate–construction sector in the Chinese economy by applying the

  9. International regulations on labour health and safety applied to fishing and maritime transport sectors. Are maritime workers under-protected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Julio Louro; Portela, Rosa Mary de la Campa; Pardo, Guadalupe Martín

    2012-01-01

    The work activity developed on board is of great importance in our nearby environment, and it has a series of peculiarities that determine the service rendering of sea workers. On the other hand, work at sea is developed on an international basis. Nowadays such work becomes a completely globalised industrial sector in relation to the elements that make up the ship's operation, including manpower. For that reason several relevant international organisations have paid attention to this industrial sector and have adopted a broad regulation on this matter. In the case of the European Union, the Community procedure emphasises enormous interest in providing specific and comprehensive training to seafarers, as well as in regulating working time on board with the aim of minimising the safety problems caused by fatigue. In the present article a schematic presentation of regulations on workers' health and occupational safety protection derived from the European Union, the International Maritime Organisation, and the International Labour Organisation has been done. Also it shows what parts of these regulations are not applicable to the work on board, and it reveals how the workers of fishing and maritime transport sectors are under-protected with regard to the guarantee of their health and occupational safety compared to workers in other sectors.

  10. Renewable energy in the heating sector in Austria with particular reference to the region of Upper Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranzl, Lukas; Kalt, Gerald; Müller, Andreas; Hummel, Marcus; Egger, Christiane; Öhlinger, Christine; Dell, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The heating sector has been neglected in energy policies for quite some time, especially on the European level. Only recently, with the implementation of the European directive 2009/28/EC the sector has gained higher attention. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the heat market in Austria and of the current status and future prospects of renewable energy in the heat sector (RES-H) up to 2030. Despite the growing energy demand, the share of renewable energy in the total energy demand for space heating and hot water increased from about 20% in 1970 to about 34% in 2008. This is mainly due to ambitious RES-H support instruments and regional policy targets. For example, the government of the region of Upper Austria has implemented a target of 100% RES-H share in the space heating and hot water sector until the year 2030. However, the National Renewable Energy Action Plan for 2020 foresees only moderate growth rates for RES-H compared to recent market growth and scenarios in literature. Due to the ambitious targets and support schemes of regional governments it seems likely that RES-H deployment could growstronger than stated in the action plan. - Highlights: ► Overview on Austrian heat sector and RES-H development. ► Growing RES-H market mainly due to regional promotion schemes. ► Austrian NREAP foresees only moderate growth of RES-H up to 2020. ► Targets and policies on the regional level might lead to stronger RES-H deployment

  11. Tributación del Sector Transporte de Carga en Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Buonomo

    2004-01-01

    El objetivo general de este estudio es determinar la carga tributaria efectiva que incide sobre el transporte de cargas, en particular para los modos transporte terrestre (camión) y transporte aéreo, en la República Oriental del Uruguay.

  12. Impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere – Part 1: Tropospheric composition and air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles burning fossil fuel emit a number of substances that change the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere, and contribute to global air and water pollution and climate change. For example, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted as byproducts of fossil fuel combustion are key precursors to ground-level ozone and aerosol formation. In addition, on-road vehicles are major CO2 emitters. In order to tackle these problems, molecular hydrogen (H2 has been proposed as an energy carrier to substitute for fossil fuels in the future. However, before implementing any such strategy it is crucial to evaluate its potential impacts on air quality and climate. Here, we evaluate the impact of a future (2050 H2-based road transportation sector on tropospheric chemistry and air quality for several possible growth and technology adoption scenarios. The growth scenarios are based on the high and low emissions Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, A1FI and B1, respectively. The technological adoption scenarios include H2 fuel cell and H2 internal combustion engine options. The impacts are evaluated with the Community Atmospheric Model Chemistry global chemistry transport model (CAM-Chem. Higher resolution simulations focusing on the contiguous United States are also carried out with the Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ regional chemistry transport model. For all scenarios future air quality improves with the adoption of a H2-based road transportation sector; however, the magnitude and type of improvement depend on the scenario. Model results show that the adoption of H2 fuel cells would decrease tropospheric burdens of ozone (7%, CO (14%, NOx (16%, soot (17%, sulfate aerosol (4%, and ammonium nitrate aerosol (12% in the A1FI scenario, and would decrease those of ozone (5%, CO (4%, NOx (11%, soot (7%, sulfate aerosol (4%, and ammonium nitrate aerosol (9% in the B1 scenario

  13. Organización y actividades preventivas en el sector del transporte de mercancías por carretera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ordaz Castillo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar los recursos y actividades preventivas más prevalentes en el sector del transporte de mercancías por carretera y los hechos diferenciales con el resto de la población trabajadora española. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo de los datos de la Encuesta de Salud y Condiciones de Trabajo del sector del transporte y estudio comparativo con el resto de la población trabajadora a través de la V-Encuesta Nacional de Condiciones de Trabajo. Para el análisis estadístico se ha aplicado el ji cuadrado y la t-student. Resultados: El 77% de las empresas de este sector tienen menos de 50 trabajadores. El 41% de los conductores señala que en su empresa no existe Delegado de Prevención y un 25% no dispone de ningún Recurso Preventivo. Destaca el alto desconocimiento existente entre los conductores de los recursos preventivos en su empresa (34,3%. La modalidad preventiva más frecuentemente instaurada en el sector es la asunción de la prevención por parte del empresario (13,6% a diferencia del resto de sectores donde predomina el SP. Ajeno (43%. Conclusiones: Predominio de la pequeña empresa en el Sector del transporte asociado a un escaso desarrollo del tejido preventivo en comparación con la población de referencia. Ambas características pueden ser determinantes de la menor actividad preventiva, más baja que la observada en la población de referencia. El acceso a actividades preventivas entre los conductores se relaciona con una mejor salud percibida.Goals: To identify the most prevalent resources and preventive activities in professional long-haul drivers and their peculiarities related to the other Spanish production branches. Methodology: We develop a descriptive analysis of data from the Survey of Health and Working Conditions in professional truck drivers and we compare these results with the other Spanish production branches through the VNational Survey on Working Conditions. The statistical analysis applied T

  14. Legal gaps relating to labour safety and health in the maritime transport sector in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Julio Louro; Portela, Rosa Mary de la Campa; Carrera, Paula Vazquez

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays the labour sector is experiencing an important increase in the application of risk prevention policies. Although these policies are very significant due to their repercussions in the health of workers, we noticed important legal gaps in maritime sector regulations. Frequently sea workers are legally abandoned, by exclusion or omission, at the moment of claiming for the improvement of their working environment and the reduction of the negative consequences derived from this negligence over their safety and health. In the present paper we try to shed some light on this topic by analysing and examining minutely the Spanish applicable risk prevention legislation for this sector. Moreover, the recommendations of the International Maritime Organization are compared with the current application of the law. At the same time, we present some possible solutions to such problems from an objective point of view.

  15. Source region and sector contributions of atmospheric soot particle in a coalfield region of Dhanbad, eastern part of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S.; Tiwari, S.; Dumka, U. C.; Kumar, R.; Singh, P. K.

    2017-11-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols affect the Earth's climate directly by interacting with the solar radiation and indirectly by modifying the lifetime and optical properties of clouds. However, our understanding of BC aerosols and their impacts on the climate are limited by lack of in situ measurements of BC, especially in the developing world. This study reports measurements of BC from Dhanbad, a coalfields area of eastern India, we analyze BC data at 370 and 880 nm during 2013 to gain insight into the emission sources affecting the study area. Our analysis indicates significantly higher absorption at the lower wavelength (ultraviolet). We estimate that 33% of BC at Dhanbad comes from biomass/biofuel combustion and the remaining 67% from the fossil fuel combustion. Higher concentrations of BC370 nm (> 12 μg m- 3) were observed when the air masses affecting Dhanbad originated far away in countries like Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Oman, United Arab Emirates and passed over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) prior to arriving at the observation site. The source regions affecting BC880 nm were localized over the IGP but BC880 nm concentrations are 33% lower ( 8 μg m- 3) than BC370 nm. The cluster analysis showed that the largest fraction (35 and 29%) of the air masses arriving at Dhanbad passed through the boundary layer of the central IGP and north-west IGP region during the post-monsoon season. Average values of BC370 nm (16.0 and 20.0 μg m- 3) and BC880 nm (9.5 and 10.0 μg m- 3) in the IGP influenced air masses were significantly higher than those arriving from other source regions. The Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model were applied to understand the relative importance of different sources affecting Dhanbad. The variability of observed BC mass concentrations was captured fairly well by WRF-Chem with minor deviations from the measured values. Model results indicate that anthropogenic emissions account for more than 75% of the

  16. Relevant Organizational Factors for Social Efficiency in the Road Transport Sector; Procesos Organizativos Clave para la Eficiencia Social en el Transporte por Carretera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silla, I; Gamero, N

    2011-12-27

    Previous research has emphasized the need to consider the social dimension featuring organizations in order to maximize organizational efficiency (Rasmussen, 1997). In the road transport sector, previous research has focused on the relationship between human factor, stress, fatigue, and other relevant issues, and professional drivers health and safety (p.e., De Croon et al, 2004). However, research on relevant organizational factors is scarce. This study aims to examine the association between leadership and supportive climate, and employees health and safety. Moreover, the impact of stress (time pressure) was also examined because previous research has stressed its importance. This study used a sample of 486 employees from 35 different Spanish companies pertaining to the road transport sector. Findings showed time pressure to be negatively associated to employees health, job satisfaction and satisfaction with safety. Additionally, leadership was positively associated employees health, job satisfaction and satisfaction with safety. Finally, co-workers and supervisors supportive climate was positively associated with job satisfaction and negatively associated to illness. These findings have relevant practical implications for the competitiveness of road transport companies. (Author) 21 refs.

  17. Industrial Strategy and the Regions : the shortcomings of a narrow sectoral focus

    OpenAIRE

    Fothergill, Stephen; Gore, Tony; Wells, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Key points\\ud  - The new money that the UK government has allocated to support its industrial strategy is targeted at R&D in an exceptionally narrow range of sectors – healthcare & medicine, robotics & artificial intelligence, batteries, self-driving vehicles, materials for the future and satellites & space technology.\\ud  - Even on a generous definition of the industries that might benefit from the new Industrial Strategy Challenge Fund, these sectors account for little more than 1 per cen...

  18. A policy instruments working paper on reducing CO2 emissions from the transportation sector in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The cost effectiveness of policy instruments for reducing CO 2 emissions from transportation was studied. Cost effectiveness analyzed the impact of the policy instruments in reducing CO 2 emissions against the costs that were incurred while obtaining CO 2 reductions. The approach to defining sustainable transportation was identified which integrates three different visions of the transportation challenge: (1) changing urban form to reduce the need for transportation, (2) advancing technology to reduce the ecological impact of transportation, and (3) changing prices of transportation so that users pay for the full social and environmental costs of their decisions. The general consensus was that while fuel tax on gasoline for automobiles appeared to be the most cost effective option available, all revenue generating options, (e.g.,parking pricing, reference energy factor-related rebates, full cost road pricing and taxation) rated higher on the cost effectiveness indexes than any of the other policy instruments considered. refs., tabs., figs

  19. Life cycle GHG emissions from Malaysian oil palm bioenergy development: The impact on transportation sector's energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman; Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 41% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This paper addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse-gas emissions from land-use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270-530 and 120-190 g CO 2 -equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 and 85 g CO 2 -equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. These findings are used to recommend policies for mitigating GHG emissions impacts from the growth of palm oil use in the transportation sector. - Research highlights: → We modeled greenhouse gas emissions in the production of palm-biodiesel. → Five land types were included to model emissions associated with land-use change. → Land-use change has the biggest impact on the emissions in making palm-biodiesel. → Emissions from fertilizer use and effluent treatment are still significant. → At 5% biodiesel grown on suitable lands Malaysia would obtain an emissions savings.

  20. Life cycle GHG emissions from Malaysian oil palm bioenergy development: The impact on transportation sector's energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman, E-mail: mohdnorh@andrew.cmu.ed [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States); Jaramillo, Paulina [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States); Griffin, W. Michael [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States); Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 41% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This paper addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse-gas emissions from land-use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270-530 and 120-190 g CO{sub 2}-equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 and 85 g CO{sub 2}-equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. These findings are used to recommend policies for mitigating GHG emissions impacts from the growth of palm oil use in the transportation sector. - Research highlights: {yields} We modeled greenhouse gas emissions in the production of palm-biodiesel. {yields} Five land types were included to model emissions associated with land-use change. {yields} Land-use change has the biggest impact on the emissions in making palm-biodiesel. {yields} Emissions from fertilizer use and effluent treatment are still significant. {yields} At 5% biodiesel grown on suitable lands Malaysia would obtain an emissions savings.

  1. Measures applicable to transportation sector in order to improve their greenhouse gas emission balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamure, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    The greenhouse effect gases emitted by transport vehicles are mainly carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen dioxide; CO 2 emissions from transport vehicles (automobiles, aircraft) are growing and their relative importance is growing even more due to lowering of other CO 2 sources. Greenhouse gases from thermal engines are assessed as a function of engine and fuel types. Several solutions are proposed in order to reduce pollutant emissions: road traffic control (road pricing), automobile restricted utilization (speed, access areas, traffic and parking regulation), consumption regulation, collective transports (buses, mini buses), urban organization for pedestrian and bicycle transport, fuel substitution, life style modification tele-commuting, etc

  2. A French-German Energy Transition Alliance in Europe. The Case of the Power and Transport Sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescia, Dimitri; Buck, Matthias; Berghmans, Nicolas; Meyer, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Both France and Germany have ratified the Paris Agreement on Climate Change and are pursuing broad, long-term strategies to deeply decarbonize their economies by 2050. (France aims to reduce GHG emissions by 75% and Germany by 80 to 95% relative to their 1990 levels.) This strong political commitment to fighting climate change is deeply rooted in values and beliefs of German and French citizens and enjoys broad public support in both countries. The French Transition Energetique and the German Energiewende form the backbones of their respective decarbonization strategies. Both envisage step-by-step changes in the energy system, encompassing the power, transport and heating and cooling sectors

  3. Regional Atmospheric Transport Code for Hanford Emission Tracking (RATCHET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.; Simonen, C.A.; Burk, K.W.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate radiation doses that individuals may have received from operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. This report deals specifically with the atmospheric transport model, Regional Atmospheric Transport Code for Hanford Emission Tracking (RATCHET). RATCHET is a major rework of the MESOILT2 model used in the first phase of the HEDR Project; only the bookkeeping framework escaped major changes. Changes to the code include (1) significant changes in the representation of atmospheric processes and (2) incorporation of Monte Carlo methods for representing uncertainty in input data, model parameters, and coefficients. To a large extent, the revisions to the model are based on recommendations of a peer working group that met in March 1991. Technical bases for other portions of the atmospheric transport model are addressed in two other documents. This report has three major sections: a description of the model, a user's guide, and a programmer's guide. These sections discuss RATCHET from three different perspectives. The first provides a technical description of the code with emphasis on details such as the representation of the model domain, the data required by the model, and the equations used to make the model calculations. The technical description is followed by a user's guide to the model with emphasis on running the code. The user's guide contains information about the model input and output. The third section is a programmer's guide to the code. It discusses the hardware and software required to run the code. The programmer's guide also discusses program structure and each of the program elements

  4. Photochemistry and aerosol in alpine region: mixing and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaxel, E.

    2006-11-01

    The Alpine arc deeply interacts with general circulation of atmosphere. By studying configurations in summer and winter over various Alpine areas, this work explains how mixing and transport of airborne pollutants happen, both gaseous and particulate matter, from their emission sources to free troposphere. Using observational results and a comprehensive Eulerian modelling system, one focuses on mechanisms of pollution by ozone in summer and by particulate matter and benzene in winter. After having validated the modelling system using datasets from field experiments POVA, GRENOPHOT and ESCOMPTE, it is applied on two periods with principal interest in the Grenoble area: one is the heat-wave August 2003 and the other is a long episode of thermal inversion in February 2005. Uncertainties are also calculated. One finishes by applying the modelling chain to understand how a stratospheric intrusion following a tropopause fold affected the Alpine region in July 2004. (author)

  5. Relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in a water-scarce area in China: A quantitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Gao, Lei; Liu, Pin; Hailu, Atakelty

    2014-07-01

    Northern China has been facing severe water scarcity as a result of vigorous economic growth, population expansion and changing lifestyles. A typical case is Shandong province whose water resources per capita is approximately only a sixth of the national average and a twentieth of the global average. It is useful to assess the implications of the province’s growth and trade patterns for water use and water conservation strategies. This study quantitatively analyses relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in Shandong using an input-output model for virtual water resources. The changes in key indicators for 1997-2007 are tracked and the effects of water-saving policies on these changes are examined. The results highlight the benefits of applying a virtual water trade analysis on a water-scarce region where water resources exhibit highly heterogeneous temporal and geographical distributions. The net export of virtual water in Shandong was initially large, but this declined over the years and the province has recently become a net importer. Between 1997 and 2002, water use in most sectors increased due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Since then, water use in all Shandong economic sectors exhibit a downward trend despite continued increases in goods and services net exports, a trend which can be attributed to the vigorous implementation of water-saving policies and measures, especially water use quotas. Economic sectors consume water directly and indirectly and understanding the pattern of virtual water trade implied by sectoral relationships is important for managing water scarcity problems. This study fills the knowledge gap in the existing literature created by the lack of case studies that dynamically assess virtual water trade and analyse the effects of water-saving policies and measures. The study draws policy recommendations that are relevant for future water planning in Shandong and other regions in northern China.

  6. Impact of Market Reforms on the Agricultural Sector Development and Food Self-Sufficiency in the Northern Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Aleksandrovich Ivanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The successful development of Northern and Arctic areas depends on sustainable functioning of the agricultural sector. Agriculture and fishing agriculture is a way of life of the indigenous population. The article discusses the state of agriculture and food self-sufficiency in the Komi Republic in the years of relatively stable development (1960–1980 and in the conditions of market reforms. It analyzes production and consumption of food and shows a positive effect of modernization processes on the agricultural sector in the pre-reform period. It studies market transformation of the agrarian economy, accompanied in the 1990s by the sharp decline in agricultural production, degradation of productive capacity, rural demography, rural infrastructure, decrease in living standard of farmers, and disparity of prices on agricultural and industrial products. The paper discloses trends in food self-sufficiency of the northern region in 1980–2013 and reveals reasons for the decrease in its level in the period of market reforms. It considers possible scenarios to develop the agrarian sector and food self-sufficiency. To predict the agriculture development the author identifies strong and weak sides, opportunities and threats by means of SWOT-analysis. The article proposes 3 scenarios: inertial (pessimistic, baseline and optimistic. It finds out the most reasonable optimistic development scenario based on innovative modernization for the Komi Republic. The study results can be used to adjust the current State program of agricultural development and elaborate the strategy of the agro-food sector of the region

  7. Modelling the energy and exergy utilisation of the Mexican non-domestic sector: A study by climatic regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García Kerdan, Iván; Morillón Gálvez, David; Raslan, Rokia; Ruyssevelt, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a bottom-up stock model to perform a holistic energy study of the Mexican non-domestic sector. The current energy and exergy flows are shown based on a categorisation by climatic regions with the aim of understanding the impact of local characteristics on regional efficiencies. Due to the limited data currently available, the study is supported by the development of a detailed archetype-based stock model using EnergyPlus as a first law analysis tool combined with an existing exergy analysis method. Twenty-one reference models were created to estimate the electric and gas use in the sector. The results indicate that sectoral energy and exergy annual input are 95.37 PJ and 94.28 PJ, respectively. Regional exergy efficiencies were found to be 17.8%, 16.6% and 23.2% for the hot-dry, hot-humid and temperate climates, respectively. The study concludes that significant potential for improvements still exists, especially in the cases of space conditioning, lighting, refrigeration, and cooking where most exergy destructions occur. Additionally, this work highlights that the method described may be further used to study the impact of large-scale refurbishments and promote national regulations and standards for sustainable buildings that takes into consideration energy and exergy indicators. - Highlights: • A bottom-up physics model was developed to analyse the Mexican commercial stock. • A detailed energy analysis by climate, buildings and end-uses is presented. • The Mexican non-domestic sector as a whole has an exergy efficiency of 19.7%. • The lowest regional exergy efficiency is found at the hot-humid region with 16.6%. • By end use, the highest exergy destructions are caused by HVAC and lighting

  8. The Pricing Evolution in the Air Transportation Industry. Implication for the Romanian Tourism Sector in the Era of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Marin-Pantelescu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The globalization process involves the liberalization of the services and the air transportation industry is responsive to this reality. There is a developing tendency for global alliances and strategies in major airline companies. The globalization implies extending service networks in the whole world. Currently we are witnessing lower prices for domestic and foreign airline flights with benefits for the tourists’ business and leisure activities. The last minute offers and early booking prices provide a win-win situation, for the airline companies on one side and for the customers on the other side. The positive online reviews influence people buying decision because customers are more sensitive than ever to the services prices. Under this condition it is very interesting to see the evolution of pricing in the air transportation industry and the implication for the Romanian tourism sector.

  9. Equatorial 150 km echoes and daytime F region vertical plasma drifts in the Brazilian longitude sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Rodrigues

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that conventional coherent backscatter radar measurements of the Doppler velocity of the so-called 150 km echoes can provide an alternative way of estimating ionospheric vertical plasma drifts during daytime hours (Kudeki and Fawcett, 1993; Chau and Woodman, 2004. Using observations made by a small, low-power 30 MHz coherent backscatter radar located in the equatorial site of São Luís (2.59° S, 44.21° W; −2.35° dip lat, we were able to detect and monitor the occurrence of 150 km echoes in the Brazilian sector. Using these measurements we estimated the local time variation of daytime vertical ionospheric drifts in the eastern American sector. Here, we present a few interesting cases of 150 km-echoes observations made by the São Luís radar and estimates of the diurnal variation of vertical drifts. These cases exemplify the variability of the vertical drifts in the Brazilian sector. Using same-day 150 km-echoes measurements made at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory in Peru, we also demonstrate the variability of the equatorial vertical drifts across the American sector. In addition to first estimates of the absolute vertical plasma drifts in the eastern American (Brazilian sector, we also present observations of abnormal drifts detected by the São Luís radar associated with the 2009 major sudden stratospheric warming event.

  10. Weak-scale hidden sector and energy transport in fireball models of gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, Durmus A.; Mosquera Cuesta, Herman J.

    2000-12-01

    The annihilation of pairs of very weakly interacting particles in the neighborhood of gamma-ray sources is introduced here as a plausible mechanism to overcome the baryon load problem. This way we can explain how these very high energy gamma-ray bursts can be powered at the onset of very energetic events like supernovae (collapsars) explosions or coalescences of binary neutron stars. Our approach uses the weak-scale hidden sector models in which the Higgs sector of the standard model is extended to include a gauge singlet that only interacts with the Higgs particle. These particles would be produced either during the implosion of the red supergiant star core or at the aftermath of a neutron star binary merger. The whole energetics and timescales of the relativistic blast wave, the fireball, are reproduced. (author)

  11. Analysing policy interactions for promoting energy efficiency in the Hellenic sectors of buildings and transport

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Popi KONIDARI; Mrs. Anna FLESSA; Ms. Aliki-Nefeli MAVRAKI; Ms. Eleni-Danai MAVRAKI

    2016-01-01

    Policy interactions are important parameters for the successful implementation of policies, measures and policy instruments. The parallel implementation of a number of policy instruments has the potential to create synergies or conflicts that maximize or prevent the achievement of their anticipated outcomes. This paper analyses three cases of policy interactions between two policy instruments for promoting even more the energy efficiency outcomes in Greece for two sectors, buildings and trans...

  12. Review of Sector and Regional Trends in U.S. Electricity Markets. Focus on Natural Gas. Natural Gas and the Evolving U.S. Power Sector Monograph Series. Number 1 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey; Medlock III, Kenneth B.; Boyd, William C.

    2015-10-15

    This study explores dynamics related to natural gas use at the national, sectoral, and regional levels, with an emphasis on the power sector. It relies on a data set from SNL Financial to analyze recent trends in the U.S. power sector at the regional level. The research aims to provide decision and policy makers with objective and credible information, data, and analysis that informs their discussions of a rapidly changing energy system landscape. This study also summarizes regional changes in natural gas demand within the power sector. The transition from coal to natural gas is occurring rapidly along the entire eastern portion of the country, but is relatively stagnant in the central and western regions. This uneven shift is occurring due to differences in fuel price costs, renewable energy targets, infrastructure constraints, historical approach to regulation, and other factors across states.

  13. Mechanisms of energetic efficiency in the transportation sector: environmental impacts and reflections in final energy consumption: PNE 2030; Mecanismos de eficiencia energetica no setor de transportes: impactos ambientais e os reflexos no consumo final de energia: PNE 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berni, Mauro Donizeti [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], email: mauro_berni@nipeunicamp.org.br; Dorileo, Ivo Leandro [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (NIEPE/UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Planejamento Energetico; Perez, Andrea Juliana Ortiz [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia. Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica; Paccola, Jose Angelo; Silva Junior, Herculano Xavier da; Bernardes, Cyro Barbosa [MCPAR Engenharia, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work presents an energy efficiency mechanisms analysis in the Brazilian transport sector. Significant energy savings can be made in this sector and rely on urgent widespread implementation of mechanisms. The experience of the developed countries serves as base for the critical evaluation of the Brazilian situation, considering the current technological period, the investments and initiatives to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. (author)

  14. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Thiago Hérick de; Pereira, Rafael Henrique Moraes; Duran, Ana Clara; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-06-27

    To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. By using data from the Health section of 2008's Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil's National Household Sample Survey), we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making. Apresentar estimativas nacionais sobre o deslocamento a pé ou de bicicleta no trajeto casa-trabalho no Brasil e em 10 de suas regiões metropolitanas. Utilizando dados do Suplemento sobre Saúde da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios de 2008, estimamos a frequência de pessoas empregadas que se deslocam a pé ou de bicicleta no trajeto casa-trabalho estratificada por sexo, e segundo faixa etária, escolaridade, renda domiciliar per capita, residência em área urbana ou rural, regiões metropolitanas e macrorregiões do país. Adicionalmente, estimamos a distribuição da mesma frequ

  15. Photochemistry and aerosol in alpine region: mixing and transport; Photochimie et aerosol en region alpine: melange et transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaxel, E

    2006-11-15

    The Alpine arc deeply interacts with general circulation of atmosphere. By studying configurations in summer and winter over various Alpine areas, this work explains how mixing and transport of airborne pollutants happen, both gaseous and particulate matter, from their emission sources to free troposphere. Using observational results and a comprehensive Eulerian modelling system, one focuses on mechanisms of pollution by ozone in summer and by particulate matter and benzene in winter. After having validated the modelling system using datasets from field experiments POVA, GRENOPHOT and ESCOMPTE, it is applied on two periods with principal interest in the Grenoble area: one is the heat-wave August 2003 and the other is a long episode of thermal inversion in February 2005. Uncertainties are also calculated. One finishes by applying the modelling chain to understand how a stratospheric intrusion following a tropopause fold affected the Alpine region in July 2004. (author)

  16. Reaching carbon neutral transport sector in Denmark - Evidence from the incorporation of modal shift into the TIMES energy system modeling framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tattini, Jacopo; Gargiulo, Maurizio; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Energy/Economy/Environment/Engineering (E4) models have been rarely apt to represent human behaviour in transportation mode adoption. This paper contributes to the scientific literature by using an E4 model to analyse the long-term decarbonisation of the Danish transport sector. The study...

  17. ON PROBLEM OF REGIONAL WAREHOUSE AND TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Miretskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests an approach of solving the problem of warehouse and transport infrastructure optimization in a region. The task is to determine the optimal capacity and location of the support network of warehouses in the region, as well as power, composition and location of motor fleets. Optimization is carried out using mathematical models of a regional warehouse network and a network of motor fleets. These models are presented as mathematical programming problems with separable functions. The process of finding the optimal solution of problems is complicated due to high dimensionality, non-linearity of functions, and the fact that a part of variables are constrained to integer, and some variables can take values only from a discrete set. Given the mentioned above complications search for an exact solution was rejected. The article suggests an approximate approach to solving problems. This approach employs effective computational schemes for solving multidimensional optimization problems. We use the continuous relaxation of the original problem to obtain its approximate solution. An approximately optimal solution of continuous relaxation is taken as an approximate solution of the original problem. The suggested solution method implies linearization of the obtained continuous relaxation and use of the separable programming scheme and the scheme of branches and bounds. We describe the use of the simplex method for solving the linearized continuous relaxation of the original problem and the specific moments of the branches and bounds method implementation. The paper shows the finiteness of the algorithm and recommends how to accelerate process of finding a solution.

  18. Integration of carbon capture and sequestration and renewable resource technologies for sustainable energy supply in the transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minsoo; Won, Wangyun; Kim, Jiyong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of carbon capture and sequestration and renewable resource technologies. • A new superstructure-based optimization model to identify the energy supply system. • Model validation via application study of the future transportation sector in Korea. - Abstract: In this study, a new design for a sustainable energy system was developed by integrating two technology frameworks: the renewable resource-based energy supply and the conventional (fossil fuel) resource-based energy production coupled with carbon capture and sequestration. To achieve this goal, a new superstructure-based optimization model was proposed using mixed-integer linear programming to identify the optimal combination of these technologies that minimizes the total daily cost, subject to various practical and logical constraints. The performance of the proposed model was validated via an application study of the future transportation sector in Korea. By considering six different scenarios that combined varying crude oil/natural gas prices and environmental regulation options, the optimal configuration of the energy supply system was identified, and the major cost drivers and their sensitivities were analyzed. It was shown that conventional resource-based energy production was preferred if crude oil and natural gas prices were low, even though environmental regulation was considered. Environmental regulation caused an increase in the total daily cost by an average of 26.4%, mainly due to CO_2 capture cost.

  19. Ergonomic analyses within the French transport and logistics sector: first steps towards a new "act elsewhere" prevention approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wioland, Liên

    2013-10-01

    Statistics from the French Employee National Health Insurance Fund indicate high accident levels in the transport sector. This study represents initial thinking on a new approach to transport sector prevention based on the assumption that a work situation could be improved by acting on another interconnected work situation. Ergonomic analysis of two connected work situations, involving the road haulage drivers and cross-docking platform employees, was performed to test this assumption. Our results show that drivers are exposed to a number of identified risks, but their multiple tasks raise the question of activity intensification. The conditions, under which the drivers will perform their work and take to the road, are partly determined by the quality and organisation of the platform with which they interact. We make a number of recommendations (e.g. changing handling equipment, re-appraising certain jobs) to improve platform organisation and employee working conditions with the aim of also improving driver conditions. These initial steps in this prevention approach appear promising, but more detailed investigation is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluating the viability of dimethyl carbonate as an alternative fuel for the transportation sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Some of the most important questions in the development of sustainable transportation are : identify fuels that will reduce emissions, provide diversification from fossil fuels, reduce : greenhouse gas emissions, be produced from renewable sources, a...

  1. Towards a Common Research Strategic Roadmap for the Transportation Sector in Europe and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Bekiaris

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available DETRA (Developing a European Transport Research Alliance is a 7th Framework project, whose concept derived from the so-called Lyon Declaration and concerns the deepening of the European Research Area objectives in transport in order to address the Grand Challenges. Key priorities of this Alliance is to examine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT in the domain and develop common understanding and approaches to reducing fragmentation and overcoming barriers. The DETRA project aimed to meet and exceed the requirements and objectives of the call for an Analysis of the state of ERA development within the transport domain and to develop recommendations for the EC, member states and other stakeholders as well as for the DETRA partner organizations themselves. In this study, particular emphasis is given to the part of DETRA concerning the development of a single trans- European research program, which can be used as a compass for the future research activities of the whole transportation area.

  2. The U. S. transportation sector in the year 2030: results of a two-part Delphi survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, G.; Stephens, T.S. (Energy Systems); (Univ. of California at Davis); (ES)

    2011-10-11

    A two-part Delphi Survey was given to transportation experts attending the Asilomar Conference on Transportation and Energy in August, 2011. The survey asked respondents about trends in the US transportation sector in 2030. Topics included: alternative vehicles, high speed rail construction, rail freight transportation, average vehicle miles traveled, truck versus passenger car shares, vehicle fuel economy, and biofuels in different modes. The survey consisted of two rounds -- both asked the same set of seven questions. In the first round, respondents were given a short introductory paragraph about the topic and asked to use their own judgment in their responses. In the second round, the respondents were asked the same questions, but were also given results from the first round as guidance. The survey was sponsored by Argonne National Lab (ANL), the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL), and implemented by University of California at Davis, Institute of Transportation Studies. The survey was part of the larger Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project run by the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Of the 206 invitation letters sent, 94 answered all questions in the first round (105 answered at least one question), and 23 of those answered all questions in the second round. 10 of the 23 second round responses were at a discussion section at Asilomar, while the remaining were online. Means and standard deviations of responses from Round One and Two are given in Table 1 below. One main purpose of Delphi surveys is to reduce the variance in opinions through successive rounds of questioning. As shown in Table 1, the standard deviations of 25 of the 30 individual sub-questions decreased between Round One and Round Two, but the decrease was slight in most cases.

  3. Regional aspects of long-term public sector psychiatric care in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    such as clinical, geographic and socio-demographic) influencing the use of public sector long-term psychiatric services in the Eastern Cape. This is important in improving service delivery, to assist policy developers with evidence-based research ...

  4. Structure of the auroral precipitation region in the dawn sector: relationship to convection reversal boundaries and field-aligned currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Feldstein

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Simultaneous DMSP F7 and Viking satellite measurements of the dawnside high-latitude auroral energy electron and ion precipitation show that the region of the low and middle altitude auroral precipitation consists of three characteristic plasma regimes. The recommendation of the IAGA Working Group IIF/III4 at the IAGA Assembly in Boulder, July 1995 to decouple the nomenclature of ionospheric populations from magnetospheric population is used for their notation. The most equatorial regime is the Diffuse Auroral Zone (DAZ of diffuse spatially unstructured precipitating electrons. It is generated by the plasma injection to the inner magnetosphere in the nightside and the subsequent drift plasma to the dawnside around the Earth. Precipitating particles have a hard spectrum with typical energies of electrons and ions of more than 3 keV. In the DAZ, the ion pitch-angle distribution is anisotropic, with the peak near 90°. The next part is the Auroral Oval (AO, a structured electron regime which closely resembles the poleward portion of the night-side auroral oval. The typical electron energy is several keV, and the ion energy is up to 10 keV. Ion distributions are pre-dominantly isotropic. In some cases, this plasma regime may be absent in the pre-noon sector. Poleward of the Auroral Oval, there is the Soft Small Scale Luminosity (SSSL regime. It is caused by structured electron and ion precipitation with typical electron energy of about 0.3 keV and ion energy of about 1 keV. The connection of these low-altitude regimes with plasma domains of the distant magnetosphere is discussed. For mapping of the plasma regimes to the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere, the empirical model by Tsyganenko (1995 and the conceptual model by Alexeev et al. (1996 are used. The DAZ is mapped along the magnetic field lines to the Remnant Layer (RL, which is located in the outer radiation belt region; the zone of structured electrons and isotropic ion

  5. Structure of the auroral precipitation region in the dawn sector: relationship to convection reversal boundaries and field-aligned currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Feldstein

    Full Text Available

    Abstract. Simultaneous DMSP F7 and Viking satellite measurements of the dawnside high-latitude auroral energy electron and ion precipitation show that the region of the low and middle altitude auroral precipitation consists of three characteristic plasma regimes. The recommendation of the IAGA Working Group IIF/III4 at the IAGA Assembly in Boulder, July 1995 to decouple the nomenclature of ionospheric populations from magnetospheric population is used for their notation. The most equatorial regime is the Diffuse Auroral Zone (DAZ of diffuse spatially unstructured precipitating electrons. It is generated by the plasma injection to the inner magnetosphere in the nightside and the subsequent drift plasma to the dawnside around the Earth. Precipitating particles have a hard spectrum with typical energies of electrons and ions of more than 3 keV. In the DAZ, the ion pitch-angle distribution is anisotropic, with the peak near 90°. The next part is the Auroral Oval (AO, a structured electron regime which closely resembles the poleward portion of the night-side auroral oval. The typical electron energy is several keV, and the ion energy is up to 10 keV. Ion distributions are pre-dominantly isotropic. In some cases, this plasma regime may be absent in the pre-noon sector. Poleward of the Auroral Oval, there is the Soft Small Scale Luminosity (SSSL regime. It is caused by structured electron and ion precipitation with typical electron energy of about 0.3 keV and ion energy of about 1 keV. The connection of these low-altitude regimes with plasma domains of the distant magnetosphere is discussed. For mapping of the plasma regimes to the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere, the empirical model by Tsyganenko (1995 and the conceptual model by Alexeev et al. (1996 are used. The DAZ is mapped along the magnetic field lines to the Remnant Layer (RL, which is located in the outer radiation belt region; the zone of structured

  6. Vulnerability to crime in economic sectors: evidence from the hotel, restaurant and café business (Horeca) and the transport sector in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Klima, Noel

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the structures of economic sectors and the question as to what makes them particularly susceptible to be harmed by crime and/or what creates opportunities for criminal misuse. Initially, we highlight certain bottlenecks which the two sectors are currently faced with in the Belgian context. It is argued that some of these bottlenecks might lead to criminal exploitation. Drawing upon interviews with players in the two sectors, law enforcement agents, criminals that “know” th...

  7. Scenarios for biofuels in the road transport sector - environmental and welfare economic consequences. Synthesis report from the REBECa project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederiksen, P.

    2013-01-15

    The project, Renewable energy in the transport sector using biofuel as energy carrier (REBECa), aimed to investigate the potentials for providing biofuels for the road transport sector based on domestically cultivated bioenergy crops, and to analyse the consequences for air quality, land use, GHG emission and welfare economy. Moreover, a review of international perspectives on sustainability of biofuels was carried out. Different scenarios for the introduction of biofuels were developed - one aiming at 10 % share of biofuels in 2020, and another aiming at 25 % share in 2030. A forecast of the road transport until 2030 was produced and ensuing energy demand modelled. Estimates of the resulting demand for biomass, based on wheat grain, straw and rape, were introduced in agricultural scenarios of production and land use, and the possibilities for responding to the biomass requirements were analysed. Wellto-wheel emissions to air were calculated and impacts on air quality and health hazard investigated. Welfare economic effects corresponding to the well-to-wheel analytical framework were analysed. Results show that changes in air emissions (apart from CO{sub 2}) resulting from substitution of fossil fuel with biofuel were small, due to the general reduction of air emissions owing to EU policy implementation and technological development. The provision of sufficient home-grown bioenergy crops would at some stage influence the production of fodder. The overall results for fossil fuel reductions, CO{sub 2} emissions and the welfare economic costs using rape, wheat grain and straw as bioenergy crops, may point in opposite directions for the different fuels. While the largest gains in fossil fuel saving is related to the Rape Methyl Ester (RME) production chain, the welfare economic benefits show the largest positive results for 2{sup nd} generation biofuel. Results are highly dependent on decisions related to the analysis of co-products, and the prices of oil and wheat

  8. Modeling transitions in the California light-duty vehicles sector to achieve deep reductions in transportation greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leighty, Wayne; Ogden, Joan M.; Yang, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    California’s target for reducing economy-wide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. We develop transition scenarios for meeting this goal in California’s transportation sector, with focus on light-duty vehicles (LDVs). We explore four questions: (1) what options are available to reduce transportation sector GHG emissions 80% below 1990 levels by 2050; (2) how rapidly would transitions in LDV markets, fuels, and travel behaviors need to occur over the next 40 years; (3) how do intermediate policy goals relate to different transition pathways; (4) how would rates of technological change and market adoption between 2010 and 2050 impact cumulative GHG emissions? We develop four LDV transition scenarios to meet the 80in50 target through a combination of travel demand reduction, fuel economy improvements, and low-carbon fuel supply, subject to restrictions on trajectories of technological change, potential market adoption of new vehicles and fuels, and resource availability. These scenarios exhibit several common themes: electrification of LDVs, rapid improvements in vehicle efficiency, and future fuels with less than half the carbon intensity of current gasoline and diesel. Availability of low-carbon biofuels and the level of travel demand reduction are “swing factors” that influence the degree of LDV electrification required. - Highlights: ► We model change in California LDVs for deep reduction in transportation GHG emissions. ► Reduced travel demand, improved fuel economy, and low-carbon fuels are all needed. ► Transitions must begin soon and occur quickly in order to achieve the 80in50 goal. ► Low-C biofuel supply and travel demand influence the need for rapid LDV electrification. ► Cumulative GHG emissions from LDVs can differ between strategies by up to 40%.

  9. Framework for Assessing Indicators of Environmental Impacts in the Transport Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joumard, Robert; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Folkeson, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    The following questions were addressed in this study: How can environmental impacts of transport be identified? How can the impacts be represented by operational indicators? How can several indicators be considered jointly? How can indicators be used in planning and decision making? First......, a definition of the phrase “indicator of environmental impacts in the transport sector” was derived. The concept of a chain of causality between a source and a final target was developed as a common reference for indicators and their assessment. Criteria and methods for the assessment and selection...

  10. Trans-European transport networks influence on the regional development and urban systems: Serbian experience

    OpenAIRE

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2004-01-01

    The trans-European transport network has different effects at macro-regional, mezzo-regional and micro-regional level, and on urban systems development, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined...

  11. Impact of working conditions on the quality of working life: Case manufacturing sector colombian Caribbean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Martínez-Buelvas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La presenta investigación centra su atención en evaluar el impacto de las Condiciones de Trabajo en la Calidad de Vida Laboral del talento humano de sector manufacturero de la región Caribe colombiana. Para analizar este proceso se entrevistaron a 518 empleados del sector. El diseño utilizado fue no experimental de tipo transversal descriptivo, puesto que a cada participante se le aplicó una entrevista con el instrumento de Condiciones de Trabajo y la Herramienta de Calidad de Vida Laboral (Condiciones Salariales y Subjetivas. Los datos fueron analizados mediante análisis de correlación y modelos de regresión logística. Los resultados mostraron que el ambiente térmico y las normas de seguridad en el trabajo afectan de forma positiva la Calidad de Vida Laboral de los empleados del sector. Estos resultados ponen de manifiesto que la relación entre las condiciones de trabajo y la CVL se basa en la competencia y distan de ser una relación lineal y simple relacionada con la consideración de la presencia o la ausencia de las condiciones de trabajo. Ello tiene implicaciones a la hora de formular políticas, programas e intervenciones para prevenir, erradicar y amortiguar los efectos negativos de las condiciones de trabajo y mejorar la seguridad industrial dentro de las empresas.

  12. Accessibility-based evaluation of transportation and land-use planning : from laboratory to practice : USDOT Region V Regional University Transportation Center final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-16

    The concept of accessibility has made inroads into planning practice, largely at the system level. That is, accessibility is measured or modeled for current or future regional transportation and land-use scenarios for evaluation or broad policy guida...

  13. Regional transportation operations collaboration and coordination : a primer for working together to improve transportation safety, reliability, and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This primer was written for transportation professionals and public safety officials from cities, counties, and States who are responsible for day-to-day management and operations within a metropolitan region. It is intended to help agencies and orga...

  14. Transport and geographical position of the big and average cities of the Ukrainian Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Shulevskyi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There were features of the transport and geographical position of large and average cities of the Ukrainian Black Sea region described in the article. The situation of cities in relation to the existing network of main types of transport connections like road, rail, water, aviation was analyzed. The location of cities in relation to regional centers, the regional center of Odessa, the capital of the country and the state border were characterized. The situation of cities in relation to international transport corridors and the international E-road network was examined. The cities with the most and least favorable transport and geographical location in the region were highlighted.

  15. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Patel, D. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bertram, K. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  16. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  17. Raising Climate Finance from International Transport Sectors. Identification and Analysis of Governance Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Pahuja, N.; Garg, A. [The Energy and Resources Institute TERI, New Delhi (India)

    2012-03-15

    Market based instruments (MBIs) for maritime transport have the potential to reduce emissions while at the same time raising funds for climate policies in developing countries. GHG emissions from international aviation and maritime transport accounted for approximately 5% of global anthropogenic emissions in 2005 and are rising rapidly. There is a clear need to address these emissions in order not to undermine policies for mitigating land based emissions. Developing countries need financial support to carry out climate policies, both adaptation and mitigation. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) makes policies by developing countries conditional on climate finance. In the current economic and financial circumstances, there is a need for new sources of finance. The governance of such MBIs should ensure that they are neither an international tax nor require hypothecation of fiscal revenues, while they should provide new and additional finance. MBIs which are in fact an international tax would not be politically feasible, and likewise hypothecation would be opposed by many states. This report finds that an emissions trading scheme (ETS) can satisfy these criteria, provided that: (1) it transfers a share of allowances directly to developing countries in order to ensure there is no net incidence on them; developing countries could auction these allowances in order to raise revenue; (2) it transfers allowances to the Green Climate Fund to support climate policies; auctioning these allowances would provide revenues for the Fund; (3) it transfers allowances to IMO or another organisation in order to finance fuel-efficiency improvements in international transport.

  18. Developing countries participation in climate policies - Application to the electric and to the transport sectors in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathy, S.

    2004-03-01

    This PhD thesis is based on the observation that developing countries will not participate in climate policies as long as they perceive them as another constraint on their development. We demonstrate that emission reduction projects realised in DCs under the Kyoto Protocol may have a leverage effect on development by removal of barriers to development. They may also favour the implementation of domestic policies that will attract foreign private investors in projects responding to development priorities of the host country. We show the limits of the Kyoto Protocol concerning the implementation of emission reductions in high inertia sectors (transportation) and the necessity to coordinate climate policies with official development aid flows for the financing of infrastructures in an emerging context of public-private partnership. (author)

  19. Efectos de la RSC sobre el consumidor: una aplicación al sector de transporte público terrestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vila

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende contrastar los efectos que provoca el desarrollo de acciones de responsabilidad social corporativa, RSC, por parte de una empresa en el consumidor, en tres dimensiones: i el conocimiento de una empresa y sus productos; ii la actitud que despierta en el consumidor, y iii el comportamiento de compra que suscita. La idea es verificar, a través del contraste, hasta qué punto una empresa que desarrolla acciones de RSC es mejor percibida, preferida sobre las restantes y escogida en el momento de compra. Para ello se planteó realizar un estudio empírico en un sector de gran transcendencia social y que engloba características de la RSC: el transporte público terrestre en áreas urbanas.

  20. Transport mechanisms in the outer region of RFX-mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vianello, N.; Martines, E.; Agostini, M.; Alfier, A.; Canton, A.; Cavazzana, R.; De Masi, G.; Fassina, A.; Lorenzini, R.; Scarin, P.; Serianni, G.; Spagnolo, S.; Spizzo, G.; Spolaore, M.; Zuin, M.

    2009-01-01

    Transport properties of the edge region of RFPs are characterized by complicated mechanisms further entangled by the complex magnetic topology. Recently on RFX-mod (Sonato 2003 Fusion Eng. Des. 66-68 161) the use of an efficient feedback system for MHD control allowed the achievement of an unprecedented plasma current for an RFP, of up to 1.6 MA, with an improvement in the confinement properties. This is accompanied by an amelioration of the magnetic boundary and the observation of different MHD regimes, moving from low current multiple helical regime, to high current quasi-single helical ones. At a low plasma current (I p ∼ 300-400 kA) in multiple helicity discharge the plasma parameter profiles at the edge are strongly influenced by the presence of m = 0 islands which flatten the temperature profile and modify substantially both the electric drift flow and the E x B shear. The particle diffusion coefficient and the thermal conductivity χ e in this regime are 10-20 m 2 s -1 and 100-200 m 2 s -1 , respectively. Both temperature and pressure characteristic scale lengths are found to scale favourably with the decrease in the secondary modes achieved through the increase in the plasma current. The same trend is observed for the thermal conductivity, and the recently discovered single helical axis states (Lorenzini et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 025005) exhibit an edge χ e reduced by a factor of up to 40%. Finally the perpendicular flow at the edge is found to scale with the density normalized to the Greenwald density with a saturation at values around n/n G ∼ 0.35.

  1. ASN: regional day of information and exchange on transport of radioactive materials - 4 February 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document gathers Power Point presentations made during a meeting on the transport of radioactive materials. The contributions addressed the following topics: results of a survey based on questionnaires sent to actors of this sector, regulatory framework and radioprotection plan, case of parcels not submitted to the authority concerned, declaration of transport interesting or significant events, ASN inspections, the transport of radioactive products by the IBt Bebig company in France, the activities of the Institut de Soudure Industrie (industry welding institute), the activities of the ISO Life company specialized in health product transportation, the activities of the Securidis company (a consulting company for activities related to hazardous materials transportation, and notably radioactive materials), the activities a the ACE Environnement company (specialized in building diagnosis), the point of view of an academic research unit on radioactive material transportation, the experience of the hospital sector in radioactive source transportation, the experience of the Advanced Accelerator Applications company in radioactive material transportation, and a discussion on regulation application

  2. Developing an intelligent transportation systems (ITS) architecture for the KIPDA region : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    This report describes the development of a regional Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Architecture for the five-county urban area under the auspices of the Kentuckiana Regional Planning and Development Agency (KIPDA). The architecture developm...

  3. Morphology of F-region vertical E×B drifts in the African sector using ionosonde measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Oluwafemi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available F-region vertical velocities are derived from the ground-based ionosonde data for Ibadan (7.4°N, 3.9°E; dip 6°S: an equatorial station in the African zone, to study the general characteristics of electrodynamics of equatorial ionosphere, such as their variation with season, solar cycle, and magnetic activity at different local time sectors. The results show profound seasonal and geomagnetic effects. Except for equinoctial period, there is an excellent consistency in the magnitudes (nearly 20 m/s and patterns of upward daytime F-region drifts at low and high solar activity periods. Evening F-region exhibits strong motion with absolute mean value for quiet-time (15 m/s greater than on disturbed-time (10 m/s. The average downward quiet midnight-early morning hours sector value is well below than 10 m/s. The evening reversal time is earliest and latest during solstitial periods. Prereversal peak is season dependent and varies strongly with magnetic activity. We show that prereversal peak, daytime, and nighttime maximum drifts saturate at particular values of F10.7 cm solar radio flux index, effects not noticed with corresponding sunspot number. Our observations confirm several previous results from other equatorial sites utilizing different experimental techniques.

  4. The Possibilities of Installing Electronic CMR Waybill in Road Transport Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvydas Baublys

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article opportunities of changing paper CMR waybill into electronic are analysed, whereas the paper CMR waybill does not guarantee operational information exchange between participants of logistics chain components in road transport. Due to this reason use ofelectronic CMR waybill becomes more and more important. According to researches done by article authors, the article submitted the limitations of paper CMR waybill, benefits of electronic CMR waybill, concept model of implementing electronic CMR waybill and application possibilities of supply chain components.

  5. Case study; Paper on the energy efficiency evolution in the European road freight transport sector

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Basosi; Franco Ruzzenenti

    2014-01-01

    One of the goals of WP7 is that of analyzing the energy crisis within the global economic crisis and assess to what extent fuel prices can promote the transition towards a more sustainable and efficient energy regime. This paper addresses the European freight transport system, national and cross-boarder, and assesses the evolution of its efficiency and intensity during the period 1998-2011, when oil prices globally increased, up the hike of the 2008. It will also be investigated the rebound e...

  6. Impact of Knowledge Intensive Business Services on Economic Performance of Sectors and Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurenţiu Tăchiciu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of knowledge intensive services in today's economy are among the topics most frequently addressed in recent years by researchers. The major interest is targeting in particular services provided to enterprises, known internationally as knowledge intensive business services or, by abbreviation, KIBS. As a sector of the economy, KIBS consists of enterprises specializing in providing to other businesses services that require intensive use of advanced knowledge, thus characterized by the fact that intellectual input has a decisive share in the value added. Usually are considered part of this sector undertakings which have as object of activity the provision of services in the fields of research and development, design and technical assistance in implementing of new technologies including information and communication, training, management consulting, marketing and advertising, quality assurance and certification, accounting and auditing, legal consulting and assistance, architecture and construction engineering. According to the statistical classification NACE rev2, much of KIBS can be found in divisions 62, 63, 69, 71-74.

  7. Independent regulatory agencies and rules harmonization for the electricity sector and renewables in the Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambini, Carlo; Franzi, Donata

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyses the existing regulatory framework for the electricity and renewables sectors, and the role of regulatory agencies in Northern Africa and Middle East countries, under the promotion by the European Union. Using data collected through an original survey directed at regulators, ministry departments and energy companies of the southern Mediterranean, the study is aimed at assessing the extent of agencies' independence looking at three main dimensions of independence: regulatory instruments available to regulators and decision making autonomy; regulators' organizational autonomy; and regulators accountability. Results show that those countries having established an independent regulator have a more credible regulatory framework than those countries in which such a body does not exist. In particular, the analysis shows that Turkey, Croatia and Jordan have defined a regulatory framework that limits administrative expropriation and, consequently, creates an environment more suitable for attracting investments in the electricity and renewables sector. On the institutional ground, this is probably related with the harmonization of regulatory standards promoted by the European Union through the neighboring policy, for the Jordan case, and the membership perspective, in the Turkish and Croatian cases. - Highlights: • We analyze the existing regulatory framework in Northern Africa and Middle East countries. • We construct an original dataset through a survey directed to national regulators. • The extent of agencies' independence has been assessed in different dimensions. • These dimensions are decision making autonomy; organizational autonomy; and accountability. • Few countries have defined a regulatory framework limiting administrative expropriation

  8. Observations of the F-region ionospheric irregularities in the South American sector during the October 2003 "Halloween Storms"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sahai

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The response of the ionospheric F-region in the South American sector during the super geomagnetic storms on 29 and 30 October 2003 is studied in the present investigation. In this paper, we present ionospheric sounding observations during the period 29–31 October 2003 obtained at Palmas (a near equatorial location and Sao Jose dos Campos (a location under the southern crest of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly, Brazil, along with observations during the period 27–31 October 2003 from a chain of GPS stations covering the South American sector from Imperatriz, Brazil, to Rio Grande, Argentina. Also, complementary observations that include sequences of all-sky images of the OI 777.4 and 630.0 nm emissions observed at El Leoncito, Argentina, on the nights of 28–29 (geomagnetically quiet night and 29–30 (geomagnetically disturbed night October 2003, and ion densities observed in the South American sector by the DMSP F13, F14 and F15 satellites orbiting at about 800 km on 29 and 30 October 2003 are presented. In addition, global TEC maps derived from GPS observations collected from the global GPS network of International GPS Service (IGS are presented, showing widespread and drastic TEC changes during the different phases of the geomagnetic disturbances. The observations indicate that the equatorial ionospheric irregularities or plasma bubbles extend to the Argentinean station Rawson (geom. Lat. 33.1° S and map at the magnetic equator at an altitude of about 2500 km.

  9. Regional ozone impacts of increased natural gas use in the Texas power sector and development in the Eagle Ford shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacsi, Adam P; Kimura, Yosuke; McGaughey, Gary; McDonald-Buller, Elena C; Allen, David T

    2015-03-17

    The combined emissions and air quality impacts of electricity generation in the Texas grid and natural gas production in the Eagle Ford shale were estimated at various natural gas price points for the power sector. The increased use of natural gas in the power sector, in place of coal-fired power generation, drove reductions in average daily maximum 8 h ozone concentration of 0.6-1.3 ppb in northeastern Texas for a high ozone episode used in air quality planning. The associated increase in Eagle Ford upstream oil and gas production nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions caused an estimated local increase, in south Texas, of 0.3-0.7 ppb in the same ozone metric. In addition, the potential ozone impacts of Eagle Ford emissions on nearby urban areas were estimated. On the basis of evidence from this work and a previous study on the Barnett shale, the combined ozone impact of increased natural gas development and use in the power sector is likely to vary regionally and must be analyzed on a case by case basis.

  10. The Importance of Environment for the Tourism Sector Of Trnc Within The Context of Environmental Issues of the Mediterranean Region

    OpenAIRE

    Okan SAFAKLI

    2001-01-01

    The basic aim of this study is to emphasize the importance and necessity of the environment for the tourism sector of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) within the context of environmental. issues of the Mediterranean region. There are many types of tourism such as sea tourism (sea-sand-sun), ‘congress tourism‘, ‘health tourism‘, ‘yacht tourism‘, ‘cave tourism‘, ‘mountain tourism‘, ‘farm touris’, ‘hunting touris’, ‘golf touris’, ‘caravan touris’, ‘religion tourism’ and ‘history to...

  11. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of this report is to provide estimates of volumes and development costs of known nonassociated gas reserves in selected, potentially important supplier nations, using a standard set of costing algorithms and conventions. Estimates of undeveloped nonassociated gas reserves and the cost of drilling development wells, production equipment, gas processing facilities, and pipeline construction are made at the individual field level. A discounted cash-flow model of production, investment, and expenses is used to estimate the present value cost of developing each field on a per-thousand-cubic-foot (Mcf) basis. These gas resource cost estimates for individual accumulations (that is, fields or groups of fields) then were aggregated into country-specific price-quantity curves. These curves represent the cost of developing and transporting natural gas to an export point suitable for tanker shipments or to a junction with a transmission line. The additional costs of LNG or methanol conversion are not included. A brief summary of the cost of conversion to methanol and transportation to the United States is contained in Appendix D: Implications of Gas Development Costs for Methanol Conversion.

  12. Forest-derived methane in the Swedish transport sector: A closing window?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lönnqvist, Tomas; Grönkvist, Stefan; Sandberg, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Forest-derived methane could complement biogas from anaerobic digestion as a transport fuel. The conditions for a systemic transition have been analyzed in this article. The analysis contains three blocks: the vehicle gas development, the policy framework, and commercial projects to produce methane from forest biomass. The results reveal that several conditions for a systemic transition are in place. There is established infrastructure for feedstock supply and biofuels distribution. Infrastructure development is an important albeit not determining factor. Private and public actors have advanced plans for commercial scale plants, technological know-how, and experience from a demonstration plant. However, a major barrier for a systemic transition is the low predictability of Swedish policy instruments. The Swedish government is not free to design policy instruments but must consider compatibility with the EU framework and has changed the energy tax on biofuels several times to avoid overcompensation according to the EU regulation. This has contributed to the low predictability. The interviewees have suggested several concrete policy instruments. However, they have also emphasized that the exact design of the policy instruments is less important than the predictability of the support. - Highlights: • Forest-derived methane may complement biogas from anaerobic digestion in transport. • There are infrastructure and industrial actors ready for a commercial introduction. • The predictability of Swedish policy instruments is perceived as very low. • Compatibility with EU framework constrains Swedish policy instruments design.

  13. Relative costs of transporting low-level waste according to four postulated regional-management cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, E.L.; Shirley, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results presented in this paper show that almost any compact binding states into cooperating regions for disposal of LLW will reduce nationwide transportation costs markedly. As a corollary, the reduction of costs may reflect a two- to four-fold reduction of transportation distances with consequent reduction of risk to the public since risk generally decreases directly as transport distances decrease

  14. E and F region study of the evening sector auroral oval: A Chatanika/Dynamics Explorer 2/NOAA 6 comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, C.; Sharber, J.R.; Winningham, J.D.; De La Beaujardiere, O.; Heelis, R.A.; Evans, D.S.; Sugiura, M.; Hoegy, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Simultaneous data obtained with the Chatanika incoherent scatter radar and the Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) and NOAA 6 satellites are used to relate the locations of the precipitating particles, field-aligned currents, and E and F region ionization structures in the evening-sector auroral oval. The auroral E layer observed by the radar extends about 2 degree equatorward of the electron precipitation region, and its equatorward edge coincides with the equatorward edges of the region 2 field-aligned current and intense convection region (E ≅ 50 mV/m). It is shown that precipitating protons are responsible for part of the E region ionization within the electron precipitation region as well as south of it. E region density profiles calculated from ion spectra measured by the DE 2 and NOAA 5 satellites are in fairly good agreement with the Chatanika data. in the F region, a channel of enhanced ionization density, elongated along the east-west direction and having a width of about 100 km, marks the poleward edge of the main trough. it is colocated with the equatorward boundary of the electron precipitation from the central plasma sheet. Although enhanced fluxes of soft electrons are observed at this boundary, the energy input to the ionospheric electron gas, calculated from the radar data, shows that this ionization channel is not locally produced by this soft precipitation, but that it is rather a convected feature. In fact, both the trough and the ionization channel are located in a region where the plasma flows sunward at high speed, but the flux tubes associated with theses two features have different convective time histories. Keeping in mind that several processes operate together in the F region, the data set is consistent with the included trough and ionization channel formation mechanisms

  15. Heterogeneity of demand responses in modelling the distributional consequences of tradable carbon permits in the road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadud, Zia; Noland, Robert B.; Graham, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Personal road transport sector is one of the largest and fastest growing sources of CO 2 emissions. This paper investigates a tradable permit policy for mitigating carbon emissions from personal road transport and discusses various issues of permit allocation. As tradable permits will effectively raise the price of fuel, the policy has important distributional implications. The distribution of burden depends on permit allocation strategies and on the consumer response to an increase in price. The behavioural response may vary among different segments of the population depending on their travel needs, which in turn are contingent upon their income, location of residence and other factors. Consumer Expenditure Survey micro dataset from 1997 to 2002 has been used to econometrically model the possible variation of price elasticity for different socio-economic groups in the USA. Results indicate that the response of gasoline demand to a change in price does depend on income level or location of the household. Distributional impacts of the tradable permit policy are then evaluated using the micro dataset for year 2002. In this regard, different permit allocation schemes are considered in the analysis. Impacts on households owning a vehicle and households with no vehicles have been evaluated as well

  16. Marine and Maritime Sector Skills Shortages in the South West of England: Developing Regional Training Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Julian; Meethan, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Clustering theory assumes that companies gravitate towards each other on the basis of locally and regionally specific resources and supply chain characteristics, which lead in turn to innovation and high-value economic development. In line with such thinking, UK government policy has devolved certain functions to regional development agencies such…

  17. Using Grey Relational Analysis to Evaluate Energy Consumption, CO2 Emissions and Growth Patterns in China’s Provincial Transportation Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Changwei; Liu, Hongchao

    2017-01-01

    The transportation sector is a complex system. Collecting transportation activity and the associated emissions data is extremely expensive and time-consuming. Grey Relational Analysis provides a viable alternative to overcome data insufficiency and gives insights for decision makers into such a complex system. In this paper, we achieved three major goals: (i) we explored the inter-relationships among transportation development, energy consumption and CO2 emissions for 30 provincial units in China; (ii) we identified the transportation development mode for each individual province; and (iii) we revealed policy implications regarding the sustainable transportation development at the provincial level. We can classify the 30 provinces into eight development modes according to the calculated Grey Relational Grades. Results also indicated that energy consumption has the largest influence on CO2 emission changes. Lastly, sustainable transportation policies were discussed at the province level according to the level of economy, urbanization and transportation energy structure. PMID:29292779

  18. Model documentation report: Transportation sector model of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of TRAN for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirements of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, 57(b)(1)). Third, it permits continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements.

  19. Use of electric vehicles or hydrogen in the Danish transport sector in 2050?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Pizarro Alonso, Amalia Rosa; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2017-01-01

    of electric vehicles (EV) or with a high percentage of hydrogen use for transportation. The STREAM model—an energy scenario simulating tool—is used to model the different scenarios and their integration with the electricity and heating systems. The major findings are that an increased share of EV can reduce...... the socioeconomic cost of the energy system in 2050. However, electricity demand for H2 generation via electrolysis is more flexible than EV charging and the production can therefore, to a larger degree be used to out-balance variable electricity surplus from a high share of wind energy in the power system......, reducing the investments in backup capacity. Whether the hydrogen scenario (H2S) is more costly to implement than the EV scenario (EVS) mainly depends on the technological development—especially the improvement on the efficiency of the conversion from electricity to H2 and the cost of the hydrogen fuel...

  20. Identification of biased sectors in emission data using a combination of chemical transport model and receptor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uranishi, Katsushige; Ikemori, Fumikazu; Nakatsubo, Ryohei; Shimadera, Hikari; Kondo, Akira; Kikutani, Yuki; Asano, Katsuyoshi; Sugata, Seiji

    2017-10-01

    This study presented a comparison approach with multiple source apportionment methods to identify which sectors of emission data have large biases. The source apportionment methods for the comparison approach included both receptor and chemical transport models, which are widely used to quantify the impacts of emission sources on fine particulate matter of less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5). We used daily chemical component concentration data in the year 2013, including data for water-soluble ions, elements, and carbonaceous species of PM2.5 at 11 sites in the Kinki-Tokai district in Japan in order to apply the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model for the source apportionment. Seven PMF factors of PM2.5 were identified with the temporal and spatial variation patterns and also retained features of the sites. These factors comprised two types of secondary sulfate, road transportation, heavy oil combustion by ships, biomass burning, secondary nitrate, and soil and industrial dust, accounting for 46%, 17%, 7%, 14%, 13%, and 3% of the PM2.5, respectively. The multiple-site data enabled a comprehensive identification of the PM2.5 sources. For the same period, source contributions were estimated by air quality simulations using the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) with the brute-force method (BFM) for four source categories. Both models provided consistent results for the following three of the four source categories: secondary sulfates, road transportation, and heavy oil combustion sources. For these three target categories, the models' agreement was supported by the small differences and high correlations between the CMAQ/BFM- and PMF-estimated source contributions to the concentrations of PM2.5, SO42-, and EC. In contrast, contributions of the biomass burning sources apportioned by CMAQ/BFM were much lower than and little correlated with those captured by the PMF model, indicating large uncertainties in the biomass burning emissions used in the

  1. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 2 -- Appendices: Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The attachments contained within this appendix provide additional details about the model development and estimation process which do not easily lend themselves to incorporation in the main body of the model documentation report. The information provided in these attachments is not integral to the understanding of the model`s operation, but provides the reader with opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of some of the model`s underlying assumptions. There will be a slight degree of replication of materials found elsewhere in the documentation, made unavoidable by the dictates of internal consistency. Each attachment is associated with a specific component of the transportation model; the presentation follows the same sequence of modules employed in Volume 1. The following attachments are contained in Appendix F: Fuel Economy Model (FEM)--provides a discussion of the FEM vehicle demand and performance by size class models; Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Model--describes data input sources and extrapolation methodologies; Light-Duty Vehicle (LDV) Stock Model--discusses the fuel economy gap estimation methodology; Light Duty Vehicle Fleet Model--presents the data development for business, utility, and government fleet vehicles; Light Commercial Truck Model--describes the stratification methodology and data sources employed in estimating the stock and performance of LCT`s; Air Travel Demand Model--presents the derivation of the demographic index, used to modify estimates of personal travel demand; and Airborne Emissions Model--describes the derivation of emissions factors used to associate transportation measures to levels of airborne emissions of several pollutants.

  2. Study of carbon dioxide emission inventory from transportation sector at Kualanamu International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryati, I.; Indrawan, I.; Alihta, K. N.

    2018-02-01

    Transportation includes sources of greenhouse gas emission contributor in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). CO2 is one of the air pollutant gases that cause climate change. The source of CO2 emissions at airports comes from road and air transportation. Kualanamu International Airport is one of the public service airports in North Sumatera Province. The purpose of this study is to inventory the emission loads generated by motor vehicles and aircraft and to forecast contributions of CO2 emissions from motor vehicles and aircraft. The research method used is quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative method used is to estimate emission loads of motor vehicles based on vehicle volume and emission factors derived from the literature and using the Tier-2 method to calculate the aircraft emission loads. The results for the maximum CO2 concentration were 6,206,789.37 μg/m3 and the minimal CO2 concentration was 4,070,674.84 μg/Nm3. The highest aircraft CO2 emission load is 200,164,424.5 kg/hr (1.75 x 109 ton/year) and the lowest is 38,884,064.5 kg/hr (3.40 x 108 ton/year). Meanwhile, the highest CO2 emission load from motor vehicles was 51,299.25 gr/hr (449,38 ton/year) and the lowest was 38,990.42 gr/hr (341,55 ton/year). CO2 contribution from a motor vehicle is 65% and 5% from aircraft in Kualanamu International Airport.

  3. Reducing Information Gap and Increasing Market Orientation in the Agribusiness Sector: Some Evidences from Apulia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contò, Francesco; Santini, Cristina; La Sala, Piermichele; Fiore, Mariantonietta

    2016-01-01

    Market orientation plays a crucial role in reinforcing firm's competitive advantage; nevertheless, marketing myopia can negatively affect a clear perception of the market. An organization that defines itself by product rather than by market terms is probably affected by marketing myopia, a narrowness of mind towards any newness - newness respect to firms' convincement and routines - coming from the external environment. In that context some scientific relevant developments that comes from recent patents have been considered. This paper explores the determinants of marketing myopia in the Apulia wine business (South Italy). The aim of this paper is to describe how experiential research based on Consumer Science research tools, can facilitate a better market knowledge. Experimental sessions carried out in 2013 in Apulia with a group of professionals from the oil and wine sectors clearly demonstrate how country of origin effect can improve marketing myopia. Through a protocol based on an "academicians - practitioners" model, professionals can be facilitated in their strategy formulation.

  4. Development of regional public transportation GIS architecture and data model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The seven Florida Department of Transportation : (FDOT) districts are multicounty districts that : each interact with a number of county and : municipal agencies, including local transit : agencies. FDOT District 7 includes the Tampa-St. : Petersburg...

  5. Trans-European transport networks influence on the regional development and urban systems: Serbian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The trans-European transport network has different effects at macro-regional, mezzo-regional and micro-regional level, and on urban systems development, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined. The question is how the new major transport infrastructure affects the development of functional complementarity between cities and regions. Changes of the spatial organization, utilization and structure of cities, as well as of social benefits and losses subsequent to impacts of trans-European transport corridor "X" on urban system Ćuprija-Jagodina-Paraćin at section Belgrade-Nis have been analysed. The new trans-European or major transport infrastructure does not per se create regional and urban system network development, although it can affect the conditions for the processes that create growth and development. The effects can be increased by co-ordination of measures of regional and urban policy, land use, transport and other policies. The guidances and options of urban systems and urban centres development policies in trans-European transport corridor, as well as possibilities to improve our planning system have been given. The necessary measure is the introduction of spatial impact assessment as sectorial policy instrument for the large transport infrastructure projects.

  6. Transport volume in regions of the Czech Republic in relation to the production of waste

    OpenAIRE

    Pojkarová, Kateřina; Hruška, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the transport volume in regions of the Czech Republic in relation to the production of waste. On the basis of waste statistics and transport statistics is researched the greatness of the relation between the transport volume and the production of waste in regions of the Czech Republic. The relation is illustrated graphically too. We have many kinds of waste which we can monitor. The most important kinds of waste are municipal waste, industrial waste, construction ...

  7. Renewable and non-renewable exergy costs and CO2 emissions in the production of fuels for Brazilian transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flórez-Orrego, Daniel; Silva, Julio A.M. da; Velásquez, Héctor; Oliveira, Silvio de

    2015-01-01

    An exergy and environmental comparison between the fuel production routes for Brazilian transportation sector, including fossil fuels (natural gas, oil-derived products and hydrogen), biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel) and electricity is performed, and the percentage distribution of exergy destruction in the different units of the processing plants is characterized. An exergoeconomy methodology is developed and applied to properly allocate the renewable and non-renewable exergy costs and CO 2 emission cost among the different products of multiproduct plants. Since Brazilian electricity is consumed in the upstream processing stages of the fuels used in the generation thereof, an iterative calculation is used. The electricity mix comprises thermal (coal, natural gas and oil-fired), nuclear, wind and hydroelectric power plants, as well as bagasse-fired mills, which, besides exporting surplus electricity, also produce sugar and bioethanol. Oil and natural gas-derived fuels production and biodiesel fatty acid methyl-esters (FAME) derived from palm oil are also analyzed. It was found that in spite of the highest total unit exergy costs correspond to the production of biofuels and electricity, the ratio between the renewable to non-renewable invested exergy (cR/cNR) for those fuels is 2.69 for biodiesel, 4.39 for electricity, and 15.96 for ethanol, whereas for fossil fuels is almost negligible. - Highlights: • Total and non-renewable exergy costs of Brazilian transportation fuels are evaluated. • Specific CO 2 emissions in the production of Brazilian transportation fuels are determined. • Representative production routes for fossil fuels, biofuels and electricity are reviewed. • Exergoeconomy is used to distribute costs and emissions in multiproduct processes

  8. Evaluation of Alternatives for the Passenger Road Transport Sector in Europe: A Life-Cycle Assessment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Paulino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The road passenger transport is responsible for a large share of energy consumption and pollutants emission in Europe. Efforts have been made in the definition of new policies to reduce the environmental impacts of this sector. However, an integrated and consistent assessment of the most promising policies is required, using specific European indicators. For that matter, a life-cycle analysis was applied to the road passenger transport, for the European Union with 27 countries (EU27 in 2010, following a basket-of-products methodology and considering three main stages: production, use, and end-of-life of vehicles. Simapro 8 software was used, along with Ecoinvent 3 database and the impact assessment method International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD 2011 Midpoint+. Changes in vehicle production processes, vehicle constitution, and energy sources for vehicle propulsion were analyzed. The policies resulting in a decrease in all impact categories are the use of smaller or lightweight vehicles by positively influencing use, production, and end-of-life of vehicles. The use of more recent vehicles technology or diesel vehicles show substantial reductions in, respectively, five and eight impact categories (out of 15, justifying their adoption in the European fleet. Generally, the most notorious policies compared to the actual transport paradigm, like compressed natural gas (CNG, biofuels, or electric vehicles use, show the greatest reduction in climate change (up to 46% but also a very significant rise of impacts in the categories that in the conventional basket-of-products already resulted in the worst indicators after normalization.

  9. Rebound and disinvestment effects in refined oil consumption and supply resulting from an increase in energy efficiency in the Scottish commercial transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anson, Sam; Turner, Karen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we use an energy-economy-environment computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the Scottish economy to examine the impacts of an exogenous increase in energy augmenting technological progress in the domestic commercial Transport sector on the supply and use of energy. We focus our analysis on Scottish refined oil, as the main type of energy input used in commercial transport activity. We find that a 5% increase in energy efficiency in the commercial Transport sector leads to rebound effects in the use of oil-based energy commodities in all time periods, in the target sector and at the economy-wide level. However, our results also suggest that such an efficiency improvement may cause a contraction in capacity in the Scottish refined oil supply sector. This 'disinvestment effect' acts as a constraint on the size of rebound effects. However, the magnitude of rebound effects and presence of the disinvestment effect in the simulations conducted here are sensitive to the specification of key elasticities of substitution in the nested production function for the target sector, particularly the substitutability of energy for non-energy intermediate inputs to production.

  10. Rebound and disinvestment effects in refined oil consumption and supply resulting from an increase in energy efficiency in the Scottish commercial transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anson, Sam [Transport Analytical Services, Scottish Government, Victoria Quay, Edinburgh, EH6 6QQ (United Kingdom); Turner, Karen [Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde, Sir William Duncan Building, 130 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0GE (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper, we use an energy-economy-environment computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the Scottish economy to examine the impacts of an exogenous increase in energy augmenting technological progress in the domestic commercial Transport sector on the supply and use of energy. We focus our analysis on Scottish refined oil, as the main type of energy input used in commercial transport activity. We find that a 5% increase in energy efficiency in the commercial Transport sector leads to rebound effects in the use of oil-based energy commodities in all time periods, in the target sector and at the economy-wide level. However, our results also suggest that such an efficiency improvement may cause a contraction in capacity in the Scottish refined oil supply sector. This 'disinvestment effect' acts as a constraint on the size of rebound effects. However, the magnitude of rebound effects and presence of the disinvestment effect in the simulations conducted here are sensitive to the specification of key elasticities of substitution in the nested production function for the target sector, particularly the substitutability of energy for non-energy intermediate inputs to production. (author)

  11. The Impact of Intelligent Transportation System Implementations on the Sustainable Growth of Passenger Transport in EU Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Stawiarska

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses original studies that demonstrate the relation between developed elements of the transportation network (road system density; railway system density; number of regional railway and bus connections, length of regional railway and bus connections, online accessibility to transportation services and other services related to the development of IT techniques to benefit mass transit and the regional GNP. A new development relative to preceding studies (as quoted is that the correlation coefficients calculated do not indicate any essential interrelations between elements of the transport system, or even the number of regional passenger transport services and regional GNP. A determination of the remaining data interrelations indicated the elements of the network which are considered essential to the development of mass transit, as resulting from a study carried out for the first time in 2015 for the Górnośląska-Zagłębioska Metropolis. Considering the fact that the number of railway connections has proven to be the most important determinant of the overall number of passenger transport services, the second part of the article presents studies that focus on the modeling of the railway network, applying the graph theory (extensively applied for ITS. Selected optimized models were analyzed and assessed in terms of possible implementability of specific improvements and the resultant growth in the number of passenger transport services. The research method applied was not novel, but the conclusions drawn from it were surprising, as they indicated that an optimized network of railway connections would not cause any significant increase in the number of passenger transport services. Successive surveys (supplementing statistical analyses have confirmed the importance of ITS in increasing the share of mass transit in overall transit. (1 The study was carried out in Polish regions, with particular emphasis on Silesia. (2 Its

  12. Transforming the South African transport sector across the value chain for development impact

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vivekanandan, M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Electricity equipment 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 5 5 5 5 6 Pharmaceuticals Consumer Automobile Electrical household goods Gasoline, fuel, petrol stations Books, newspapers Repair service Orthopedics and antiquity Hotels and restaurants... Hotels (including budget hotels) to benefit from increased flow of regional tourists Restaurant / Service industries to benefit from higher PAX flow and greater population mass Retailers and consumer staples (e.g. food...

  13. Regional electric power demand elasticities of Japan's industrial and commercial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoe, Nobuhiro; Akiyama, Shu-ichi

    2009-01-01

    In the assessment and review of regulatory reforms in the electric power market, price elasticity is one of the most important parameters that characterize the market. However, price elasticity has seldom been estimated in Japan; instead, it has been assumed to be as small as 0.1 or 0 without proper examination of the empirical validity of such a priori assumptions. We estimated the regional power demand functions for nine regions, in order to quantify the elasticity, and found the short-run price elasticity to be 0.09-0.30 and the long-run price elasticity to be 0.12-0.56. Inter-regional comparison of our estimation results suggests that price elasticity in rural regions is larger than that in urban regions. Popular assumptions of small elasticity of 0.1, for example, could be suitable for examining Japan's aggregate power demand but not power demand functions that focus on respective regions. Furthermore, assumptions about smaller elasticity values such as 0.01 and 0 could not be supported statistically by this study.

  14. Regional electric power demand elasticities of Japan's industrial and commercial sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoe, Nobuhiro [National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, 7-22-1 Roppongi, Minato, Tokyo 106-8677 (Japan); Akiyama, Shu-ichi [Kushiro Public University of Economics, 4-1-1 Ashino, Kushiro, Hokkaido 085-8585 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    In the assessment and review of regulatory reforms in the electric power market, price elasticity is one of the most important parameters that characterize the market. However, price elasticity has seldom been estimated in Japan; instead, it has been assumed to be as small as 0.1 or 0 without proper examination of the empirical validity of such a priori assumptions. We estimated the regional power demand functions for nine regions, in order to quantify the elasticity, and found the short-run price elasticity to be 0.09-0.30 and the long-run price elasticity to be 0.12-0.56. Inter-regional comparison of our estimation results suggests that price elasticity in rural regions is larger than that in urban regions. Popular assumptions of small elasticity of 0.1, for example, could be suitable for examining Japan's aggregate power demand but not power demand functions that focus on respective regions. Furthermore, assumptions about smaller elasticity values such as 0.01 and 0 could not be supported statistically by this study. (author)

  15. What is a fair CO2 tax increase? On fair emission reductions in the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammar, Henrik; Jagers, Sverker C.

    2007-01-01

    We examine how individual preferences for fair reductions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions affect the support for increases in the CO 2 tax on gasoline and diesel. We assume that people not only care about their own material welfare, but also have preferences for fairness in policy design, and we explore the implications using original data from a mail questionnaire sent to a representative sample of the Swedish population. The main result is that fairness in policy design does matter. Those respondents who adhere to a fairness principle tend to be relatively more positive to increases in the CO 2 tax. One possible explanation for this result is that there is a relatively high degree of reciprocity regarding the origin of emissions and the fairness regarding who should bear the burden of CO 2 reductions. Via a split sample analysis, we also find that the relative importance of fairness principles is dependent upon whether one uses a car often or not. This sheds light on the potential goal conflict between the importance of fairness principles and self-interest in the form of a need for private car transportation. (author)

  16. Geographic Access Modeling of Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care in Kigoma Region, Tanzania: Transportation Schemes and Programmatic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi No; Schmitz, Michelle M; Serbanescu, Florina; Dynes, Michelle M; Maro, Godson; Kramer, Michael R

    2017-09-27

    Access to transportation is vital to reducing the travel time to emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) for managing complications and preventing adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. This study examines the distribution of travel times to EmONC in Kigoma Region, Tanzania, using various transportation schemes, to estimate the proportion of live births (a proxy indicator of women needing delivery care) with poor geographic access to EmONC services. The 2014 Reproductive Health Survey of Kigoma Region identified 4 primary means of transportation used to travel to health facilities: walking, cycling, motorcycle, and 4-wheeled motor vehicle. A raster-based travel time model was used to map the 2-hour travel time catchment for each mode of transportation. Live birth density distributions were aggregated by travel time catchments, and by administrative council, to estimate the proportion of births with poor access. Of all live births in Kigoma Region, 13% occurred in areas where women can reach EmONC facilities within 2 hours on foot, 33% in areas that can be reached within 2 hours only by motorized vehicles, and 32% where it is impossible to reach EmONC facilities within 2 hours. Over 50% of births in 3 of the 8 administrative councils had poor estimated access. In half the councils, births with poor access could be reduced to no higher than 12% if all female residents had access to motorized vehicles. Significant differences in geographic access to EmONC in Kigoma Region, Tanzania, were observed both by location and by primary transportation type. As most of the population may only have good EmONC access when using mechanized or motorized vehicles, bicycles and motorcycles should be incorporated into the health transportation strategy. Collaboration between private transportation sectors and obstetric service providers could improve access to EmONC services among most populations. In areas where residents may not access EmONC facilities within 2 hours

  17. Evaluation of a regional chemistry transport model using a newly developed regional OMI NO2 retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, G.; Lam, Y. F.; Cheung, H. M.; Hartl, A.; Fung, J. C. H.; Chan, P. W.; Wenig, M. O.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we evaluate a high-resolution chemistry transport model (CTM) (3 km x 3 km spatial resolution) with the new Hong Kong (HK) NO2 retrieval developed for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on-board the Aura satellite. The three-dimensional atmospheric chemistry was modelled in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southern China by the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modelling system from October 2006 to January 2007. In the HK NO2 retrieval, tropospheric air mass factors (AMF) were recalculated using high-resolution ancillary parameters of surface reflectance, NO2 profile shapes and aerosol profiles of which the latter two were taken from the CMAQ simulation. We also tested four different aerosol parametrizations. Ground level measurements by the PRD Regional Air Quality Monitoring (RAQM) network were used as additional independent measurements. The HK NO2 retrieval increases the NO2 vertical column densities (VCD) by (+31 ± 38) %, when compared to NASA's standard product (SP2), and reduces the mean bias (MB) between satellite and ground measurements by 26 percentage points from -41 to -15 %. The correlation coefficient r is low for both satellite datasets (r = 0.35) due to the high spatial variability of NO2 concentrations. The correlation between CMAQ and the RAQM network is low (r ≈ 0.3) and the model underestimates the NO2 concentrations in the north-western model domain (Foshan and Guangzhou). We compared the CMAQ NO2 time series of the two main plumes with our regional OMI NO2 product. The model overestimates the NO2 VCDs by about 15 % in Hong Kong and Shenzhen, while the correlation coefficient is satisfactory (r = 0.56). In Foshan and Guangzhou, the correlation is low (r = 0.37) and the model underestimates the VCDs strongly (MB = -40 %). In addition, we estimated that the OMI VCDs are also underestimated by about 10 to 20 % in Foshan and Guangzhou because of the influence of the model parameters on the AMF. In this study

  18. Health and safety of competing fuel options for fuel cells in the road transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, E.; Short, S.; Stutt, E.; Wickramatillake, H.; Harrison, P.

    2000-07-01

    This report presents a critical analysis of the health and safety issues surrounding competing transport fuel options, including those for possible future fuel-cell powered vehicles. The fuels considered in this report are gasoline (unleaded and reformulated), diesel, hydrogen (H{sub 2}), methanol, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The analysis presented here is based on available information in peer-reviewed, published papers and other sources such as government department or research laboratory reports and websites. An overall evaluation of the fuels in terms of their toxicity and health effects, environmental fate, and fire and explosion safety aspects is presented. The report is based on current knowledge and makes no assumptions as to how fuels may change in the future if they are to be used in fuel-cell vehicles. The report identifies the hazards of the fuels but does not estimate the risks likely to be associated with their eventual use in fuel-cell vehicles. The focus is on the fuels themselves and not their exhaust or reaction products. sNo assessment has been made of the environmental effects data for the fuels. Broad environmental considerations such as ozone forming potential and also global warming are not considered. Basic information on environmental fate is included to provide an understanding of migratory pathways, environmental compartmentalisation and potential routes of human exposure. Other factors such as economics, government incentives or disincentives and public attitudes may have a bearing on which of the fuels are considered most appropriate for future fuel-cell vehicles; these factors are not considered in any detail in this report. (Author)

  19. Model documentation report: Transportation sector model of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    Over the past year, several modifications have been made to the NEMS Transportation Model, incorporating greater levels of detail and analysis in modules previously represented in the aggregate or under a profusion of simplifying assumptions. This document is intended to amend those sections of the Model Documentation Report (MDR) which describe these superseded modules. Significant changes have been implemented in the LDV Fuel Economy Model, the Alternative Fuel Vehicle Model, the LDV Fleet Module, and the Highway Freight Model. The relevant sections of the MDR have been extracted from the original document, amended, and are presented in the following pages. A brief summary of the modifications follows: In the Fuel Economy Model, modifications have been made which permit the user to employ more optimistic assumptions about the commercial viability and impact of selected technological improvements. This model also explicitly calculates the fuel economy of an array of alternative fuel vehicles (AFV`s) which are subsequently used in the estimation of vehicle sales. In the Alternative Fuel Vehicle Model, the results of the Fuel Economy Model have been incorporated, and the program flows have been modified to reflect that fact. In the Light Duty Vehicle Fleet Module, the sales of vehicles to fleets of various size are endogenously calculated in order to provide a more detailed estimate of the impacts of EPACT legislation on the sales of AFV`s to fleets. In the Highway Freight Model, the previous aggregate estimation has been replaced by a detailed Freight Truck Stock Model, where travel patterns, efficiencies, and energy intensities are estimated by industrial grouping. Several appendices are provided at the end of this document, containing data tables and supplementary descriptions of the model development process which are not integral to an understanding of the overall model structure.

  20. Railway optimal network simulation for the development of regional transport-logistics system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Borisovich Petrov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of logistics on mineral fuel is a stable tendency of regions development, though when making strategic plans of logistics in the regions, it is necessary to provide the alternative possibilities of power-supply sources change together with population density, transport infrastructure peculiarities, and demographic changes forecast. On the example of timber processing complex of the Sverdlovsk region, the authors suggest the algorithm of decision of the optimal logistics infrastructure allocation. The problem of regional railway network organization at the stage of slow transition from the prolonged stagnation to the new development is carried out. The transport networks’ configurations of countries on the Pacific Rim, which successfully developed nowadays, are analyzed. The authors offer some results of regional transport network simulation on the basis of artificial intelligence method. These methods let to solve the task with incomplete data. The ways of the transport network improvement in the Sverdlovsk region are offered.

  1. Convergence Among the Submarkets in Australian Regional Building and Construction Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxiao Liu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on market convergence are well considered in the literature. However, the majority of the previous research focused on housing markets and few studies have concentrated on construction markets. Owing to a simultaneously dramatic increase in the construction prices of the sub-markets in the building construction sector in Australia, this paper aims to identify the convergence among these markets, involving house construction market, other-residential building construction market, and non-residential building construction market. To achieve it the Granger causality test and generalized response function depending on the vector error correction model with the quarterly data of Australia’s eight states from 1998 to 2010 will be applied. Based upon the econometric tests, the price diffusion patterns among these construction markets have been identified. Research on the convergences of construction markets not only helps construction firms perform well in business operations and arbitrage activities, but also provides policy makers with useful information for enacting effective construction policies for national perspectives and approaches to infrastructure planning.

  2. Governance and institutions of transportation investments in U.S. mega-regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Vega

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available From a planning perspective, a mega-region can be defined as an extended network of metropolitan centers and their surrounding areas, crossing county and state lines, linked by integrated labor markets, land use systems and transportation and communication infrastructure. From a governance perspective, delimiting the jurisdictional borders of a mega-region is rather challenging due to the overlap of hierarchy of governance systems. It has been suggested that the effective management of existing transportation infrastructure and the planning and financing of new investments in these areas will need to operate under a regional framework of governance. What such regional framework might look like is still subject to debate. Despite years in the planning, currently no mega-regional transportation initiative has been implemented in the U.S. This article uses descriptive and interpretative analysis to further the debate in two areas. It first reviews definitional issues in the existing literature as they apply to mega-regions and transportation. Second, it undertakes a comprehensive survey of regional initiatives, such as the Corridors of the Future Program, to highlight the complexity of multi-state transportation projects. Lessons from this survey can be useful when developing future transport policy, as policymakers increase their efforts to adopt regional governance initiatives to finance transportation investments worldwide.

  3. City Size, Density and Sectoral Structure: Exploring Urban Sustainability in the Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirejeva-Hopkins, Anastasia

    2010-05-01

    For the first time in history, the Global population is more urban than rural and the trend is obvious at various scales. Cities do not serve just as dynamic centres of activities, jobs and consumption markets, social interactions and cultural expressions, but also carry the weight of the main environmental problems of current times and the near future. Global Warming, air and water pollution, population growth and recourse constraints, i.e. reduction of carrying capacity of the environment are among the well known ones. The overall aim of this research is to develop mitigation (at various scales) and adaptation systems, tailored to urban settlements. They should be effective at the very local as well as regional levels, assess and introduce innovative urban technologies and policies, reduce ecological footprint of cities and increase recycling efficiency. We propose the empirical method of urban sustainability assessment, that supports our hypothesis that city functioning, the changes in its population and area growth depends on the size, average and internal densities and the geographical form. The existing cities of three regions are examined: Western and Eastern Europe (incl. Russia), Latin America and China. There are fundamental urban developmental differences and also within the first region, namely between EU countries and the Eastern part of European geographical region. The cities are considered not only as some agglomerates of areas with dense population but from the ecological point of view, namely examining inflow of food and energy and outflow of waste products across the boundaries. There are major differences between the patterns of urbanisation in the studied regions, urban systems functioning and resilience. Continuous investigation of these differenced helps building regional scenarios of cities development, population allocation and pollution management for the 21st century.

  4. The economic situation and construction sector developments in the UNECE region, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman; Robert Shelburne

    2011-01-01

    The speed of the global recovery from the worst economic crisis since the 1930s varies significantly by region; growth is much faster in the emerging economies than in the advanced economies. Economic growth in the coming year is likely to remain weak in North America and western Europe, as austerity is implemented to address increasing sovereign debt levels. Given...

  5. Las Desigualdades del sector agropecuario: su competitividad, una alternativa para el desarrollo regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Bautista Hernández

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo hace una revisión acerca del desarrollo regional y su vinculación con la competitividad y la metodología de la cadena de valor; con el objetivo de analizar si estos tres cuerpos teóricos tienen vigencia en esta rama de la ciencia.

  6. An investigation of ionospheric F region response in the Brazilian sector to the super geomagnetic storm of May 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, A. J.; Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; Bittencourt, J. A.; Pillat, V. G.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the responses of the ionospheric F region at equatorial and low latitude regions in the Brazilian sector during the super geomagnetic storm on 15-16 May 2005. The geomagnetic storm reached a minimum Dst of -263 nT at 0900 UT on 15 May. In this paper, we present vertical total electron content (vTEC) and phase fluctuations (in TECU/min) from Global Positioning System (GPS) observations obtained at Belém, Brasília, Presidente Prudente, and Porto Alegre, Brazil, during the period 14-17 May 2005. Also, we present ionospheric parameters h'F, hpF2, and foF2, using the Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI) obtained at Palmas and São José dos Campos, Brazil, for the same period. The super geomagnetic storm has fast decrease in the Dst index soon after SSC at 0239 UT on 15 May. It is a good possibility of prompt penetration of electric field of magnetospheric origin resulting in uplifting of the F region. The vTEC observations show a trough at BELE and a crest above UEPP, soon after SSC, indicating strengthening of nighttime equatorial anomaly. During the daytime on 15 and 16 May, in the recovery phase, the variations in foF2 at SJC and the vTEC observations, particularly at BRAZ, UEPP, and POAL, show large positive ionospheric storm. There is ESF on the all nights at PAL, in the post-midnight (UT) sector, and phase fluctuations only on the night of 14-15 May at BRAZ, after the SSC. No phase fluctuations are observed at the equatorial station BELE and low latitude stations (BRAZ, UEPP, and POAL) at all other times. This indicates that the plasma bubbles are generated and confined on this magnetically disturbed night only up to the low magnetic latitude and drifted possibly to west.

  7. [Task delegation scenarios at national and regional levels of the French ambulatory care sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Danièle; Pavot, Jeanne; Doan, Bui Dang Ha

    2009-01-01

    The French sector of ambulatory care is characterized by two features: (i) health care providers are mostly independent practitioners paid on a fee-for-service basis; (ii) a large consensus is observed as concerns the shortage of health workers, particularly physicians and nurses. In such a context, if a task delegation programme is envisaged, attention should be paid, not only to the competencies of task receivers, but equally to the reluctance of health workforce. Given the current doctor shortage, it is probable that the reluctance of physicians is not vigorous. But on the side of task receivers (nurses, physiotherapists, other auxiliary workers...) reluctance should be taken into account. Shortage of nurses and physiotherapists (and consequently their growing workload) lowers their acceptance level (i.e., the proportion accepting task delegation) and reduces the time each accepting worker can devote to the activities delegated by physicians. The model shows that, in the current situation, French physicians can only expect a small reduction of their workload i they undertake to transfer to nurses some parts of their activities. When physician working time is not excessively lengthy, the overall reduction would be between 0.7% and 3.1%. When doctors have to work harder (when their shortage is acute), paradoxically, the reduction is lower, between 0.5% and 2.3%. The fact is easily understood as the stock of task receivers (the nurses) remains unchanged, but the volume of worked hours becomes larger. Other things being equal, the model shows that French southern physicians may take more profit from a task delegation programme than their counterparts practising in the northern areas of the country. As in the southern areas, the nurse/physician ratio is higher, the potential task receivers are in higher numbers and the volume of the tasks transferred may be much broader than in the northern areas. The paradox is that the workload of northern physicians is heavier

  8. Regional marine climate scenarios in the NE Atlantic sector close to the Spanish shores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damià Gomis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an overview of the changes expected during the 21st century in key marine parameters (sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, sea level and waves in the sector of the NE Atlantic Ocean close to the Spanish shores. Under the A1B scenario, open-sea surface temperatures would increase by 1°C to 1.5°C by 2050 as a consequence of global ocean warming. Near the continental margin, however, the global temperature rise would be counteracted by an enhancement of the seasonal upwelling. Sea surface salinity is likely to decrease in the future, mainly due to the advection of high-latitude fresher waters from ice melting. Mean sea level rise has been quantified as 15-20 cm by 2050, but two contributions not accounted for by our models must be added: the mass redistribution derived from changes in the large-scale circulation (which in the NE Atlantic may be as large as 15 cm in 2050 or 35 cm by 2100 and the increase in the ocean mass content due to the melting of continental ice (for which estimates are still uncertain. The meteorological tide shows very small changes, and therefore extreme sea levels would be higher in the 21st century, but mostly due to the increase in mean sea level, not to an increase in the storminess. The wave projections point towards slightly smaller significant wave heights, but the changes projected are of the same order as the natural variability.

  9. Transportation of Dangerous Goods in Green Transport Corridors - Conclusions from Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schröder Meike

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Green Corridor concept represents a cornerstone in the development and implementation of integrated and sustainable transport solutions based on trans-nationality, multi-modality and a high involvement of public and private stakeholders, including the political level. Despite the fact that the Green Transport Corridor (GTC concept is founded on the three dimensions of sustainability with a strong emphasis on environmental aspects, the corridor hubs as well as the whole transport corridors have to find ways to handle and transport dangerous goods by keeping the high sustainability standards.

  10. Regional health workforce monitoring as governance innovation: a German model to coordinate sectoral demand, skill mix and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, E; Lauxen, O; Larsen, C

    2016-11-28

    As health workforce policy is gaining momentum, data sources and monitoring systems have significantly improved in the European Union and internationally. Yet data remain poorly connected to policy-making and implementation and often do not adequately support integrated approaches. This brings the importance of governance and the need for innovation into play. The present case study introduces a regional health workforce monitor in the German Federal State of Rhineland-Palatinate and seeks to explore the capacity of monitoring to innovate health workforce governance. The monitor applies an approach from the European Network on Regional Labour Market Monitoring to the health workforce. The novel aspect of this model is an integrated, procedural approach that promotes a 'learning system' of governance based on three interconnected pillars: mixed methods and bottom-up data collection, strong stakeholder involvement with complex communication tools and shared decision- and policy-making. Selected empirical examples illustrate the approach and the tools focusing on two aspects: the connection between sectoral, occupational and mobility data to analyse skill/qualification mixes and the supply-demand matches and the connection between monitoring and stakeholder-driven policy. Regional health workforce monitoring can promote effective governance in high-income countries like Germany with overall high density of health workers but maldistribution of staff and skills. The regional stakeholder networks are cost-effective and easily accessible and might therefore be appealing also to low- and middle-income countries.

  11. Origin of surface and columnar Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) aerosols using source- and region-tagged emissions transport in a general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S.; Venkataraman, C.; Boucher, O.

    2008-12-01

    We study the relative influence of aerosols emitted from different sectors and geographical regions on aerosol loading in south Asia. Sectors contributing aerosol emissions include biofuel and fossil fuel combustion, open biomass burning, and natural sources. Geographical regions include India (the Indo-Gangetic plain, central India, south India, and northwest India), southeast Asia, east Asia, Africa-west Asia, and the rest of the world. Simulations of the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), from January to March 1999, are made in the general circulation model of Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD-ZT GCM) with emissions tagged by sector and geographical region. Anthropogenic emissions dominate (54-88%) the predicted aerosol optical depth (AOD) over all the receptor regions. Among the anthropogenic sectors, fossil fuel combustion has the largest overall influence on aerosol loading, primarily sulfate, with emissions from India (50-80%) and rest of the world significantly influencing surface concentrations and AOD. Biofuel combustion has a significant influence on both the surface and columnar black carbon (BC) in particular over the Indian subcontinent and Bay of Bengal with emissions largely from the Indian region (60-80%). Open biomass burning emissions influence organic matter (OM) significantly, and arise largely from Africa-west Asia. The emissions from Africa-west Asia affect the carbonaceous aerosols AOD in all receptor regions, with their largest influence (AOD-BC: 60%; and AOD-OM: 70%) over the Arabian Sea. Among Indian regions, the Indo-Gangetic Plain is the largest contributor to anthropogenic surface mass concentrations and AOD over the Bay of Bengal and India. Dust aerosols are contributed mainly through the long-range transport from Africa-west Asia over the receptor regions. Overall, the model estimates significant intercontinental incursion of aerosol, for example, BC, OM, and dust from Africa-west Asia and sulfate from distant regions (rest

  12. Emissions trading in the transport sector. Feasible approach for an upstream model. Executive summary; Emissionshandel im Verkehr. Ansaetze fuer einen moeglichen Up-Stream-Handel im Verkehr. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertenrath, Roman; Liebig, Lars [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Finanzwissenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut; Betz, Regina; Rogge, Karoline; Schade, Wolfgang [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Duennebeil, Frank; Lambrecht, Udo [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Bergmann, Heidi

    2005-11-15

    In July, 2003, FiFo Koeln (Cologne Centre for Public Economics) was mandated by the German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) with the examination of the UFOPLAN scheme 'Emissions Trading System for the Transport Sector - Development of a possible Trading Approach'. The main task of this study was the development of a concrete emissions trading approach for the transport sector, which triggers off a compulsory holding of emissions certificates at the beginning of the energy supply chain (upstream approach). The main focus was rather put on the practical options of the implementation of an upstream approach in the transport sector and its specific problems. The transaction costs of a trading system in the transport sector had to be kept at a minimum level. The upsteam approach discussed in his study seems to be more adequate to include further carbon dioxide emissions of other sectors than the EU downstream model. This can mainly be attributed to the amount and nature of the respective transaction costs. In Germany allocative failure in fuel taxation between diesel and petrol can be diminished regardless of the prices for CO{sub 2}. Emissions trading therefore leads to structural changes. An upstream approach has only indirect effects on the motorcar industry and refiners. Therefore, technical CO{sub 2} reduction can primarily be realised via an increased consumer demand for ore fuel-efficient vehicles, new propulsion technology or alternative fuels based on renewable energies. In the case of an open trading system the amount of transport emissions was estimated that actually could be reduced to be relatively small. The authors of the contribution under consideration are not convinced that the full potential of existing adaptation options in the transport sector can be tapped by an open emissions trading. The transport sector will cope with additional CO{sub 2} costs without tapping the potential of relatively cheap adaptation options. Also at closed

  13. Determinants of regional labour productivity growth: A study for the hospitality sector in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bienvenido Ortega Aguaza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the determinants of labour productivity growth in the hospitality industry in Spain using regional data over the period 1996-2004. The results obtained suggest that the increase in the number of 3-star hotels and the reduction process in the stock of physical capital per worker are factors which may have contributed to the fall in productivity growth. However, increased regional tourism intensity has a positive impact on the growth of labour productivity. Nonetheless, changes in demand-related factors, such as average length of stay and the seasonality of demand, have not had a significant aggregate impact on labour productivity growth during this period.

  14. Economic impacts from PM2.5 pollution-related health effects in China's road transport sector: A provincial-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xu; Dai, Hancheng; Geng, Yong; Wilson, Jeffrey; Wu, Rui; Xie, Yang; Hao, Han

    2018-06-01

    Economic impact assessments of air pollution-related health effects from a sectoral perspective in China is still deficient. This study evaluates the PM 2.5 pollution-related health impacts of the road transport sector on China's economy at both national and provincial levels in 2030 under various air mitigation technologies scenarios. Health impacts are estimated using an integrated approach that combines the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model, a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and a health model. Results show that at a national level, the road transport sector leads to 163.64 thousand deaths per year, increases the per capita risk of morbidity by 0.37% and accounts for 1.43 billion Yuan in health care expenditures. We estimate 442.90 billion Yuan of the value of statistical life loss and 2.09 h/capita of work time loss in 2015. Without additional control measures, air pollution related to the transport sector will cause 177.50 thousand deaths in 2030, a 0.40% per capita increase in the risk of morbidity, accounting for 4.12 billion Yuan in health care expenditures, 737.15 billion Yuan of statistical life loss and 2.23 h/capita of work time loss. Based on our model, implementing the most strict control strategy scenario would decrease mortality by 42.14%, morbidity risk by 42.14%, health care expenditures by 41.94%, statistical life loss by 26.22% and hours of work time loss by 42.65%, comparing with the no control measure scenario. In addition, PM 2.5 pollution from the road transport sector will cause 0.68% GDP loss in 2030. At a provincial level, GDP losses in 14 out of 30 provinces far exceed the national rate. Henan (1.20%), Sichuan (1.07%), Chongqing (0.99%), Hubei (0.94%), and Shandong (0.90%) would experience the highest GDP loss in 2030. Implementing control strategies to reduce PM 2.5 pollution in the road transport sector could bring positive benefits in half of the Chinese provinces especially in

  15. Competitive advantage of informational technologies and communications sector for the Romanian west 5 region

    OpenAIRE

    Duda-Daianu, Dana Codruta

    2008-01-01

    The present work paper aims to analyse and to point out the competitive advantage of the Western 5 Region in the field of information and communication technology (ICT). Applying the Michael Porter’s model was determined that the competitive advantage is given by human resources. The results of this research will help the decision factors at local level to understand that it may enforce the combination of development strategies.

  16. SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND ACCOUNTING SUMMARY OF THE GREEK AGRICULTURAL SECTOR 1950-2010: CENTRAL GREECE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Th. PAPAILIAS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Usually, the analysis of the economic and social development of a country or a region can be achieved either by using macroeconomic theories, or through a microeconomic approach (Sakellaropoulos, 1993. The innovation of this paper lies in the use of accounting techniques for capturing the relevant developments and in the fact that there are no similar studies in the Greek bibliography, except some fragmentary approaches of the 1950’s (Euelpides, 1953. Specifically, the objective of this article is the presentation of the social and economic development in a major region in Greece with the use of accounting statements. For this purpose the balance sheets and the income statements of the specific region were estimated per decade throughout the postwar period and the social-economic facts are tried to associate with the figures.The article is structured in three parts. The first refers to the methodology of the research. In the second, balance sheets and profit/loss accounts are presented in detail with the use of financial statement analysis methods and are attempted to correlate with the social-economic incidents. In the third the findings are evaluated.

  17. The Influence Of Highway Transportation Infrastructure Condition Toward Commodity Production Generation for The Resilience Needs at Regional Internal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbardin, Juang; Parikesit, Danang; Riyanto, Bambang; Mulyono, Agus Taufik

    2018-02-01

    The poultry commodity consumption and requirement is one of the main commodities that must be fulfilled in a region to maintain the availability of meat from poultry. Poultry commodity production is one of the production sectors that have a clean environment resistance. An increasing of poultry commodity generation production requires a smooth distribution to arrive at the processing. The livestock location as a commodity production is placed at a considerable far distance from residential and market locations. Zones that have poultry commodity production have an excess potential to supply other zones that are lacking in production to the consumption of these commodities. The condition of highway transportation infrastructure that is very diverse with the damage level availability in a zone has an influence in the supply and demand of poultry commodity requirement in the regional internal of Central Java province. In order to know the effect of highway transportation infrastructure condition toward the poultry commodity movement, demography factor and availability of freight vehicles will be reviewed to estimate the amount of poultry commodity movement generation production. Thus the poultry commodity consumption requirement that located in the internal - regional zone of central java province can be adequated from the zone. So it can be minimized the negative impacts that affect the environment at the zone in terms of comparison of the movement attraction and generation production at poultry commodity in Central Java.

  18. Transport code and nuclear data in intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Odama, Naomitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Maekawa, F.; Ueki, K.; Kosaka, K.; Oyama, Y.

    1998-11-01

    We briefly reviewed the problems of intermediate energy nuclear data file and transport codes in connection with processing of the data. This is a summary of our group in the task force on JENDL High Energy File Integral Evaluation (JHEFIE). In this article we stress the necessity of the production of intermediate evaluated nuclear data file up to 3 GeV for the application of accelerator driven transmutation (ADT) system. And also we state the necessity of having our own transport code system to calculate the radiation fields using these evaluated files from the strategic points of view to keep our development of the ADT technology completely free from other conditions outside of our own such as imported codes and data with poor maintenance or unknown accuracy. (author)

  19. Transport code and nuclear data in intermediate energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Odama, Naomitsu; Maekawa, F.; Ueki, K.; Kosaka, K.; Oyama, Y.

    1998-01-01

    We briefly reviewed the problems of intermediate energy nuclear data file and transport codes in connection with processing of the data. This is a summary of our group in the task force on JENDL High Energy File Integral Evaluation (JHEFIE). In this article we stress the necessity of the production of intermediate evaluated nuclear data file up to 3 GeV for the application of accelerator driven transmutation (ADT) system. And also we state the necessity of having our own transport code system to calculate the radiation fields using these evaluated files from the strategic points of view to keep our development of the ADT technology completely free from other conditions outside of our own such as imported codes and data with poor maintenance or unknown accuracy. (author)

  20. Regional and long-range transport of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandroni, S.

    1987-01-01

    The Course lectures presented are organised in four sections: atmospheric transport, conversion, deposition of atmospheric trace constituents and associated problems; conventional and sophisticated techniques for atmospheric sounding (e.g., Sodar, Lidar, Cospec, tetroons, instrument-carrying aircraft) and simulation techniques (non-reactive tracers); models available for various applications (long-range episodes, long-term averages, photochemical and deposition processes); a comparison of performances of different models and the linearity problem in the formation of acid deposition

  1. GHG Emissions and Costs of Developing Biomass Energy in Malaysia: Implications on Energy Security in the Transportation and Electricity Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 48% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This study addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions from land use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270 - 530 g and 120 -190 g CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 to 85 g CO2-eq per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. Fossil fuels contributed about 93% to Malaysia's electricity generation mix and emit about 65 million tonnes (Mt) or 36% of the country's 2010 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The government has set a target to install 330 MW biomass electricity by 2015, which is hoped to avoid 1.3 Mt of GHG emissions annually. The availability of seven types of biomass residues in Peninsular Malaysia is estimated based on residues-to-product ratio, recoverability and accessibility factor and other competing uses. It was found that there are approximately 12.2 Mt/yr of residues. Oil-palm residues contribute about 77% to the total availability with rice and forestry residues at 17%. Electricity from biomass can be produced via direct combustion in dedicated power plants or co-fired with coal. The co-firing of the residues at four existing coal plants in

  2. Report of the renewable energy sector Committee. National steering committee of the region and sector mobilization plan for the development of green growth professions 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After a presentation of the renewable energy sector, this report identifies the development or transformation of professions within this sector, and assesses its recruitment needs. It also identifies the associated needs in terms of education and of professional course organization. It indicates the various organizations and institutions involved in matching employment offer and demand. It discusses how to valorise the main professions and education courses. Recommendations are formulated to develop knowledge, to communicate, to educate all students in building construction and architecture, to promote architecture quality in individual housing, to educate both theoretically and practically, to match offer and demand, to propose appropriate remunerations, to educate teachers, and so on

  3. Regional disparity analysis of Chinese freight transport CO2 emissions from 1990 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Xiao; Dong, Liang; Dou, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Low-carbon urban development has been regarded as a promising is hot spot of global concern on fighting pathway for mitigatingto climate change, whileand transportation sector as a key role contributes takes a significant proportion to the total CO2 emission. Investigate Investigating the driving...... insights from an evolving perspective. Up to date, there are many emerging case studies on the analysis on urban transport CO2 emission in China; however it, but lacks in-depth decomposition and causal mechanism analysis, as well as comparative study. Under this circumstanceIn order to fill this gap...

  4. Evaporation as the transport mechanism of metals in arid regions

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ana T.; Safar, Zeinab; Loch, J.P. Gustav

    2014-01-01

    in soils. Due to the low rainfall and high evaporation rates in arid regions, groundwater quality is not threatened and all soil contamination issues tend to be overlooked. But if soil contamination happens, where do contaminants go? This study tests

  5. Transport of Aerosols: Regional and Global Implications for Climate, Weather, and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Yu, Hongbin; Bian, Huisheng; Remer, Lorraine; Kahn, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Long-range transport of atmospheric aerosols can have a significant impact on global climate, regional weather, and local air quality. In this study, we use a global model GOCART together with satellite data and ground-based measurements to assess the emission and transport of pollution, dust, biomass burning, and volcanic aerosols and their implications. In particular, we will show the impact of emissions and long-range transport of aerosols from major pollution and dust source regions to (1) the surface air quality, (2) the atmospheric heating rates, and (3) surface radiation change near the source and downwind regions.

  6. The impact of storms and stratification on sediment transport in the Rhine region of freshwater influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, Raúl P.; Rijnsburger, S.; Horner-Devine, Alexander R.; Souza, Alejandro J.; Pietrzak, J.D.

    2017-01-01

    We present measurements of along and across-shore sediment transport in a region of the Dutch coast 10 km north of the Rhine River mouth. This section of the coast is characterized by strong vertical density stratification because it is within the midfield region of the Rhine region of freshwater

  7. The Stress-Strain State of Recent Structures in the Northeastern Sector of the Russian Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaeva, L. P.; Imaev, V. S.; Mel'nikova, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    Complex research to determine the stress-strain state of the Earth's crust and the types of seismotectonic destruction for the northeastern sector of the Russian Arctic was conducted. The principles of regional ranking of neotectonic structures were developed according to the activity of geodynamic processes, and argumentation for their class differentiation is presented. The structural-tectonic position, the parameters of the deep structure, the system of active faults, and the tectonic stress fields, calculated on the basis of both tectonophysical analysis of discontinuous and folded late Cenozoic deformations and seismological data, were analyzed. This complex of investigations made it possible to determine the directions of the main axes of deformations of the stress-strain state of the Earth's crust and to reveal the regularity in the change of tectonic regimes.

  8. The agropecuarian sector in Los Lagos region, and the paradigm "Chile power food": challenges for a national agrarian policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ríos Núñez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The restructuring of the economic model in Chile in the mid- seventies hit all productive fields and the agropecuarian sector was no exception. Thus started the beginning of the "Agricultural export Age" that fostered productive guidelines with clear competitive advantages in international markets. The Chilean agricultural paradigm has been characterized by functioning on the basis of low wages, availability of labor and favorable exchange rate. In 2006, under this scenario, the public policy called "Chile Power Food 2020" was implemented, which seeks to reinforce the above formula. This initiative considers growth strategies which make bimodal agrarian structure, present in the country, invisible. To the above an added aggravating factor is that territories (such as Los Lagos Region in southern Chile with traditional productive orientations (specifically cattle have clearly vulnerable positions, especially in those producer groups which are characterized by different rationales to run business

  9. Health Sector Reform in the Kurdistan Region - Iraq: Financing Reform, Primary Care, and Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, C Ross; Moore, Melinda; Hilborne, Lee H; Mulcahy, Andrew W

    2014-12-30

    In 2010, the Kurdistan Regional Government asked the RAND Corporation to help guide reform of the health care system in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The overarching goal of reform was to help establish a health system that would provide high-quality services efficiently to everyone to prevent, treat, and manage physical and mental illnesses and injuries. This article summarizes the second phase of RAND's work, when researchers analyzed three distinct but intertwined health policy issue areas: development of financing policy, implementation of early primary care recommendations, and evaluation of quality and patient safety. For health financing, the researchers reviewed the relevant literature, explored the issue in discussions with key stakeholders, developed and assessed various policy options, and developed plans or approaches to overcome barriers and achieve stated policy objectives. In the area of primary care, they developed and helped to implement a new management information system. In the area of quality and patient safety, they reviewed relevant literature, discussed issues and options with health leaders, and recommended an approach toward incremental implementation.

  10. National and regional climate change impact assessments in the forestry sector. Workshop summary and abstracts of oral and poster presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, M [ed.

    2000-07-01

    Climate change is likely to affect forests and the forest industry during the 21{sup st} century. Different processes in forest ecosystems and the forest sector are sensitive to climate and many different projects have been conducted, in which the scale of study varied from the individual leaf to the whole globe. Several attempts have been made to link impact models (e.g., ecological and socio-economic models), and to integrate them in national or regional climate impact assessment studies. However, integration of climate impact assessments for the forestry sector is still a relatively new issue on the research agenda. From November 10 to 13, 1999 the Postdam Institue for Climate Impact Research and the European Forest Institute organised a workshop in Wenddoche near Belzig (Germany) to bring together individuals and research groups from the currently developing research community, to provide a forum for the exchange of experience, and to stimulate further research collaboration. The workshop attracted 31 scientists from 12 countries, representing a wide range of disciplines covering ecophysiology, soils, forest ecology, growth and yield, silviculture, remote sensing, forest policy, and forest economics. Several presentations investigated possible impacts of climate change on forest growth and development. A second major topic was the carbon budget and the possible contribution of forestry to carbon dioxide mitigation. The third important focus was the application of economic models to estimate socio-economic consequences of changes in forest productivity and the linkage of ecological and economic models. Non-timber forest benefits were addressed in one regional impact assessment and in two national integrated assessments from the U.S. and Germany. The latter also included social components with the involvement of stakeholders and the decision making of forest owners under global change.

  11. A Study of the Impacts of Npp-Desalination Development in Madura on Sectoral Regional Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang Eko-Afiatno; Mochammad Nasrullah; Sriyana

    2006-01-01

    Madura economy. The impact is transmitted through investment which is produced by sector 7 (construction), where from dynamic 1-0 simulation for this effect (cumulative) are increases in output, GRDP and employment respectively as much as Rp 335.43 billion, Rp 159.29 billion, and 14,941 men. In pre-operation stage in 2018 for 9 months for the first NPP unit (100MWe), and two units desalination (20.000m'/day). Based on price differencing scenarios and net production (electricity and water minus internal consumption amounted to 6,5% and 2%) new output is obtain as much as Rp 337.64 billion (first scenario) and Rp 398.08 billion (second scenario). Results from dynamic 1-0 simulation with first scenario show increases in output, GRDP and employment respectively up to Rp 441.6 billion, Rp 52.4 billion, and 4,544 men. As for the second scenario, the Madura economic output increases to Rp 519.7 milyar, GRDP rises to Rp 58.7 billion and employment for 5.313 men. (author)

  12. The Impact of Oil and Gas Resources In the Arctic on the Development of the Transport System in the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy I. Salygin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems of the Russian economy today is the development of the Arctic region. Given the key role of the energy sector in the economic balance of the country, as well as the problem of exhaustion of hydrocarbon resources, the Arctic is of particular interest from an economic and geopolitical point of view, ensuring the energy security of Russia. Active development of the region leads to the development of transport infrastructure, which is one of the priorities of Russia's energy policy. The issue of transportation plays a leading role in the context of the development of Arctic resources and involves a number of tasks. The first step is to ensure the safety of navigation in the Arctic ice. Also existing infrastructure needs substantial upgrading, as well as construction of new facilities (including ports, railways, roads, etc.. Of particular note is a unique transcontinental route - the Northern Sea Route. There is a need to modernize the Arctic Fleet, including the construction of modern icebreakers of the Arctic class. The current state of the port system, which does not fully meet the latest international standards, is of crucial importance as well. In addition, along the route the development of railway infrastructure is required. In addition, there is the problem of underdevelopment of the road network, which leads to a re-run and lack of access of some are as to the road network of Russia. Thus, the development of hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic region contributes to the development of infrastructure of the transport system in the region and, consequently, its economic development that contributes to the economic well-being of the country as a whole.

  13. Trans-European transport networks influence on the regional development and urban systems: Serbian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The trans-European transport network has different effects at macro regional mezzo-regional and micro-regional level, and its effectiveness rises with the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for a more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined. Changes in the spatial organization utilization and structure of cities, as well as in social benefits and losses subsequent to impacts of trans-European transport corridor "X" section Belgrade-Niš have been analyzed. The new trans-European or major transport infrastructure does not per se create regional and urban system network development, although it can affect the conditions for the processes that create growth and development. The effects can be increased by co-ordination of measures of regional, spatial and urban policy, land use transport, environmental and other policies. The necessary measure is the introduction of spatial impact assessment as sartorial policy instrument for the large transport infrastructure plans and projects.

  14. CENTRO REGIONAL DE INVESTIGACIONES OCEANOGRAFICAS PARA APOYO AL DESARROLLO DEL SECTOR PESQUERO DE CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    PRADO FIEDLER, ROBERTO

    1997-01-01

    Proyecto de infraestructura con el que se creó un consorcio especializado en oceangrafía física, química y biológica configurado por el instituto de oeceanología de la Universdiad de Valparaíso y la escuela de ciencias del mar de la Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, destinado a mejorar el conocimient