WorldWideScience

Sample records for regional trade agreements

  1. Why are Trade Agreements Regional?

    OpenAIRE

    Zissimos, Ben

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows how distance may be used to coordinate on a unique equilibrium in which trade agreements are regional. Trade agreement formation is modeled as coalition formation. In a standard trade model with no distance between countries, a familiar problem of coordination failure arises giving rise to multiple equilibria; any one of many possible trade agreements can form. With distance between countries, and through strategic interaction in tariff setting, regional trade agreements gene...

  2. Regional Trade Agreement and Agricultural Trade in East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intra-EAC trade is very low, that is, at 9 per cent of the total regional trade, but it is on upward trend. Agricultural trade accounts for over 40 per cent of the intra-EAC trade. This study investigated the effect of EAC regional trade agreement on the regions agricultural trade by analyzing the degree of trade creation and ...

  3. Hubs and spokes in Regional Trade Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de

    2017-01-01

    In the plethora of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) some countries are involved in much more RTAs than others. Furthermore, some countries take in a position as a hub: they have trade agreements with many other countries, while their partner countries are much less involved in RTA relations. Even

  4. Exploring hubness in Regional Trade Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de

    2016-01-01

    In the plethora of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) some countries take in a more central position than others in the sense that some countries are much more engaged with other countries through RTAs. Furthermore, the position of some countries is that of a hub: they have (many) trade

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Trade Facilitation in Selected Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Institute for International Trade

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the treatment of trade facilitation in four selected regional trade agreements, AFTA, APEC, SAFRA and PACER, and in one bilateral free trade agreement being the Australia-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (ASFTA), with a view to determining model trade facilitation principles and measures which may be instructive for developing country negotiations and policy makers.

  6. Regional trade agreements & procurement rules : facilitators or hindrances?

    OpenAIRE

    ANDERSON, Robert D.; MÜLLER, Anna Caroline; PELLETIER, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This Working Paper considers the significance of government procurement chapters in regional trade agreements (RTAs), both in their own right and vis-à-vis the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA). The paper finds, inter alia, that: (i) a strong complementarity exists between government procurement trade commitments and general goods and services trade commitments, making integration of procurement commitments in a more general system such as the WTO Agreements desirable; (ii) govern...

  7. India’s Participation In The Regional Trade Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Baronov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the proposed study is to identify the specifics of India’s participation in the regional trade agreements (RTAs, a comparative analysis of the main provisions of the RTAs and the impact of membership in the integration agreements on the country’s foreign trade relations. In the world economic literature there is no unity of opinions on the economic effect of the participation of states in RTAs. The author’s thesis is that the final effect of membership in the RTAs depends on the amount of customs duties on the date of signing the agreement (the higher they are, the greater the effect of trade creation, and also on the place of the partner country in the trade of another participating state (the greater is mutual turnover, the greater effect of trade creation. Of course, other factors affect, such as geographical proximity, transportation and other transaction costs. India’s participation in the regional trade agreements (RTA was one of the tasks of implementing the policy “Look East”, which was approved in 1991. The countries of Southeast Asia have been identified as a regional priority, which was caused by the geo-strategic and economic reasons. Later, regional coverage has been extended to the countries of Northeast and South Asia because of increasing the role of China in the world economy and politics, which has become a strategic challenge and economic opportunities for the Indian economy. India is a participant of 13 RTAs, the majority of which are bilateral. In India’s integration practice, one of four types of RTAs is applied: (1 agreement on comprehensive economic partnership, which differ in the widest scope of mutual economic relations; (2 agreement on comprehensive economic cooperation; (3 free trade agreement; (4 preferential trade agreement. Most often, there is used classical integration model (of preferential or free trade area.Initially, the Indian policy of RTA dominated the political factor

  8. Non-conventional provisions in regional trade agreements : do they enhance international trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Kimura, Fukunari; Nabeshima, Kaoru

    2011-01-01

    The scope of recent regional trade agreements (RTAs) is becoming much wider in terms of including several provisions such as competition policy or intellectual property. This paper empirically examines how far advanced, non-conventional provisions in RTAs increase trade values among RTA member countries, by estimating the gravity equation with more disaggregated indicators for RTAs. As a result, we find that the provision on competition policy has the largest impacts on trade values, followin...

  9. Disentangling regional trade agreements, trade flows and tobacco affordability in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appau, Adriana; Drope, Jeffrey; Labonté, Ronald; Stoklosa, Michal; Lencucha, Raphael

    2017-11-14

    In principle, trade and investment agreements are meant to boost economic growth. However, the removal of trade barriers and the provision of investment incentives to attract foreign direct investments may facilitate increased trade in and/or more efficient production of commodities considered harmful to health such as tobacco. We analyze existing evidence on trade and investment liberalization and its relationship to tobacco trade in Sub-Saharan African countries. We compare tobacco trading patterns to foreign direct investments made by tobacco companies. We estimate and compare changes in the Konjunkturforschungsstelle (KOF) Economic Globalization measure, relative price measure and cigarette prices. Preferential regional trade agreements appear to have encouraged the consolidation of cigarette production, which has shaped trading patterns of tobacco leaf. Since 2002, British American Tobacco has invested in tobacco manufacturing facilities in Nigeria, Kenya and South Africa strategically located to serve different regions in Africa. Following this, British America Tobacco closed factories in Ghana, Rwanda, Uganda, Mauritius and Angola. At the same time, Malawi and Tanzania exported a large percentage of tobacco leaf to European countries. After 2010, there was an increase in tobacco exports from Malawi and Zambia to China, which may be a result of preferential trade agreements the EU and China have with these countries. Economic liberalization has been accompanied by greater cigarette affordability for the countries included in our analysis. However, only excise taxes and income have an effect on cigarette prices within the region. These results suggest that the changing economic structures of international trade and investment are likely heightening the efficiency and effectiveness of the tobacco industry. As tobacco control advocates consider supply-side tobacco control interventions, they must consider carefully the effects of these economic agreements and

  10. Implications of the New Regional Trade Agreements for the World Trading System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The year 2013 witnessed an outstanding rise in the pace and scale of negotiations on regional trade agreements (RTAs. While RTAs are not a new phenomenon, current negotiations involve multiple parties and/or major trading countries that have a significant combined economic weight, i.e. mega-RTAs. This paper looks at the recent surge in trade regionalism and addresses some of the key issues related to the potential impact of mega-RTAs upon the world trading system and global trade patterns. It examines the peculiarities of the new mega-RTAs and the factors underlying their proliferation, and discusses the main concerns raised by their foreseeable impact on excluded countries and the wider trading system. The paper finds that, if successfully concluded, mega-RTAs are likely to have far-reaching implications for the world trading regime, affecting its transparency and coherence. Nevertheless, the adverse effects could be cushioned through a revival of trading nations’ interest in the multilateral Doha Round talks.

  11. REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS AND COMPETITION POLICY. CASE STUDY: EU, ASEAN AND NAFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fora Andreea-Florina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The large number of regional trade agreements notified to the World Trade Organization (WTO significantly influenced the flow of world trade. By April 2014 there had been notified 583 regional trade agreements to the WTO, of which only 379 are in force. The objective of this paper is to highlight the importance of regional trade agreements in world trade, especially the importance of establishing a regional competition policy in these agreements. The research methodology used is the analysis of legislation governing preferential trade agreements at the level of WTO, the collection and interpretation of statistical data provided by the WTO Secretariat, the case study, namely the study of literature. The paper is structured in three parts. The first part of the paper examines the basic laws based on which regional trade agreements are notified to the WTO and the evolution of these agreements in the period 1958-2013. The second part of the paper is devoted to the analysis of competition policy in regional trade agreements. In this part of the paper, to highlight the patterns of competition policy adopted under these agreements was analyzed by three case studies of competition policy in the EU, ASEAN and NAFTA. The three case studies have revealed that the three preferential trade agreements present regional competition policies with varying degrees of integration. The most complex form of competition policy is found in the European Union, because we are talking about a centralized model of competition policy. ASEAN presents a partially decentralized model, while NAFTA scrolls with a decentralized model of competition policy. The last part of the paper presents the characteristics of the four models of competition policy identified in the preferential trade agreements in force. It should be emphasized that if the initial preferential trade agreements have not put a great emphasis on the rules of competition policy, practice has shown the importance

  12. THE ROLE OF REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA GABRIELA RADULESCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional and sub-regional groups having an integrative character appeared after the war and they aimed at harmonizing their economic policies, and, at the same time, they ensured, in accordance with the agreed degree of integration, free turnover of goods, products, services, capitals and labor force. By setting up these international economic organizations, the states of the world and especially developing countries wanted to improve their efforts for a sustained economic growth, to counteract the effects of the unequal external affairs and to eliminate underdevelopment. Some of the regional agreements that represent the new regionalism have been motivated politically and they were stimulated by the conviction that good agreements do not necessarily stand for good neighbors. Such agreements consolidate good diplomatic practices and their objective is to reduce the inevitable confrontation that may appear as a result of com

  13. Korea’s Trade Strategies for Mega Free Trade Agreements in Regional and Global Economic Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Chul Park

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Korea has developed rapidly since the 1960s. It is one of the four Asian tiger economies and a good model for developing countries. Korea shows the world how a developing country can develop its economy rapidly and become industrialized. Its development strategy has mainly been an export-oriented trade policy. As a result, its trade volume grew from $1 billion in 1966 to $1 trillion in 2011, which is a 1,000-fold increase within five decades. Since 2011, Korea has become one of seven countries with a trade volume over $1 trillion. However, the Korean economy has experienced turbulence as well as positive growth. It underwent severe economic crises such as the Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the global financial crisis in 2008. Its economy has been extremely vulnerable to the external economic environment, although it has improved and strengthened, particularly since the global financial crisis. During those two crises, the government carried out an appropriate trade policy with a strategic approach to upgrade its industrial structure and competitiveness in global markets. This article comprehensively discusses Korean trade policy and strategy over the last five decades, and how its national economy has developed rapidly. It also explores how the government sets its strategic targets in Asia and the Asia Pacific region. It considers two mega free trade agreements (FTAs — the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership and the Trans-Pacific Partnership — as new opportunities for further development. Therefore, it is wise to analyze these regional mega FTAs in order to maximize the national interest.

  14. Trade Facilitation Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements: Discriminatory or Non-discriminatory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innwon Park

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The RTAs with trade facilitation provisions have been expected to generate a larger net trade-creating effect and complement the discriminatory feature of RTAs but have yet to be empirically proven. Recognizing the limitations of existing studies, we conducted a quantitative analysis on the effects of RTAs with and without trade facilitation provisions on both intra- and extra-bloc trade by using a modified gravity equation. We applied the Poisson Pseudo-Maximum Likelihood (PPML estimation with time varying exporter and importer fixed effect method to panel data consisting of 45,770 country pairs covering 170 countries for 2000-2010. We found that the trade facilitation provisions in existing RTAs are non-discriminatory by generating more intra- and extra-bloc trade in general. In particular, we found that the trade effects of RTAs in the APEC region are much stronger than the general case covering all RTAs in the world. In addition, as we control the trade effect of a country's trade facilitation, which is ranked by the World Bank's logistic performance index, RTAs consisting of trade facilitation provisions are discriminatory for trade in final goods and non-discriminatory for trade in intermediate goods. Overall, we endeavor to "explain," instead of "hypothesizing," why most of the recent RTAs contain trade facilitation provisions, especially in light of the deepening regional interdependence through trade in parts and components under global value chains and support the necessity of multilateralizing RTAs by implementing non-discriminatory trade facilitation provisions.

  15. Trade Liberalisation, Regional Agreements and Implications for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Management and Policy, 2006

    2006-01-01

    According to the OECD, the value of global annual trade in 1999 in higher education has been estimated at USD 30 billion. Australia is a major participant in international education: it is the third-largest international student destination in the English-speaking world behind the United States and the United Kingdom. In recent times, the…

  16. Trade Agreements PTI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The objective of the Trade Agreements PTI is to advance CBP’s mission by working with internal and external stakeholders to facilitate legitimate trade and address...

  17. Canada and the North American Free Trade Agreement: Between globalization and regional integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina García Segura

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to analize, from Canada’s perspective, the choice regarding the model of state as well as of economic and commercial policy which the decision to participate in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA implies. The debatewhich NAFTA provoked in Canada expresses in concrete terms that debate which, in much larger terms, takes place at the international level regarding the multilateralization and/or the regionalization of commercial exchanges. It is a reflection of the tension between theintegrating forces (process of globalization and the fragmenting ones (processes of regionalization which characterize the dynamics of the contemporary international system. The hypothesis of this work is that in spite of being a commercial agreement, the Canadian government’s decision to participate in NAFTA was a decision of a political nature which was not determined exclusively by the reality of the existing commercial exchanges between Canada and Mexico or by the perspectives of improving them inthe short term. The immediate objective of Canada was to avoid that a possible bilateral agreement between its prinicipal economic member, the United States, and Mexico would empty out the contents of the existing Free Trade Agreement (FTA between Canada and the United States. In this sense, NAFTA was the possible remedy to an unwanted situation (the negotiation of a US-Mexico bilateral agreement. The objective in the medium and long term is use the platform of regional integration as a trampoline from where the Canadian economy can be reorientated and driven in order to attain international competitiveness. In this sense, Canada’s true option had already beenrealised with the FTA.

  18. The role of trade agreements in regional and subregional integration in the caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Caballero, Enriqueta

    2016-01-01

    Esta comunicación tiene como objetivo analizar el papel de los acuerdos comerciales que han firmado la Comunidad del Caribe (en adelante CARICOM) y la Organización de Estados del Caribe Oriental (en adelante OECO), y ver si han influido en el fortalecimiento y en la reconfiguración de los procesos de integración regional y subregional en el Caribe. This communication aims to analyze the role that trade agreements it has signed the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the Organisation of Easte...

  19. Free Trade Regional Agreements and Human Rights: the case of TPP and its impact in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Lara

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The negotiation and signature of free trade agreements has been a policy implemented by governments of many countries with economies open to international trade. Chile has been part of that trend, with a recent example in the signature of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement. However, the content of such agreements is not exclusively related to conditions of trade between countries. In fact, this kind of agreement include progressively normative content of local nature, which are discussed and negotiated under much different conditions that local law or agreements signed in international forums. This implies consequences not only in the content of fundamental rights affected by the rules set in the agreements, but also in the shape that such rights are recognised and configured by democratic States.

  20. Managing Regional Collaboration in Higher Education: The Case of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Manuel

    2000-01-01

    Describes accomplishments in increasing collaboration in higher education within the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Analyzes procedures for determining equivalencies of courses and degrees and for improving transnational mobility of students and professors. Also discusses the role of the private sector in research, education and…

  1. Multi-membership and the effectiveness of regional trade agreements in Western and Southern Africa : A comparative study of ECOWAS and SADC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K. Afesorgbor (Sylvanus Kwaku); P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractUsing a gravity model for 35 countries and the years 1995-2006 we estimate the impact of regional trade agreements in Africa (in particular ECOWAS and SADC) and compare this to the a benchmark of North South trade integration (Europe’s preferential trade agreement). We find that •

  2. Analysis of international negotiations and trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Górriz Gonzalo, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to analyze international trade agreements and negotiations. For that purpose, two agreements made by the United States are chosen to be analyzed. In the first place, the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) agreement, that was signed by the United States, Canada and Mexico in 1994 in order to create a free trade area. In addition, the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) will be analyze, an agreement that is still being negotiated between the United Stat...

  3. Inter-regional transmission and power trading opportunities : making operating agreements work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DesRosiers, D.

    2001-01-01

    International electric power transmission issues were the focus of this power point presentation which included a corporate profile of the Detroit Edison and International Transmission Company (ITC) and an overview of the midwest U.S. market and the Michigan-Ontario interconnections. ITC owns the transmission assets of its parent company Detroit Edison. It has a commitment with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to be independent of all market participants within 18 months. ITC's peak load is 11,000 MW with 3 interconnections with Hydro One in Ontario, Consumers Energy in Michigan and First Energy in Ohio. The Ontario-Michigan interface includes four tie lines, 3 near Sarnia and 1 near Windsor, with a total capacity of 1,400 MW into Ontario and 2,000 MW out of Ontario. However, the amount of commercially available power is significantly inhibited by a phenomenon called loopflow, which is the difference between the scheduled and actual power flow. The problems and solutions to loopflow were also outlined. This presentation also briefly discussed the agreement reached between the Alliance RTO and the Midwest ISO that will allow the two to co-exist in the Midwest. tabs., figs

  4. Introduction To U.S. Free Trade Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gantz David A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This introduction explores the historical changes in the trade policies of the United States (U.S., namely, the shift from the support of multilateral rules to the embracement of regional trade agreements and provides an overview of the political and economic considerations behind the conclusion of the major U.S. free trade agreements.

  5. 48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 225.403 Section 225.403 Federal Acquisition... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and... Government Procurement Agreement, acquire only U.S.-made, qualifying country, or designated country end...

  6. Opening the Black Box of Trade Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, Tristan; De Lombaerde, Philippe; Saucedo Accosta, Edgar J.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter the author presents a coding methodology to capture the heterogeneity of trade agreements and to facilitate quantitative analysis departing from qualitative legal differences in trade agreements. The coding is based on whether the provisions of the World Trade Organization (WTO) are

  7. 48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 25.403 Section 25.403 Federal Acquisition... 25.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. (a... in 25.402(a)(1). The WTO GPA and FTAs specify procurement procedures designed to ensure fairness (see...

  8. U.S.-Peru Economic Relations and the U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Villarreal, M. A

    2007-01-01

    .... A free trade agreement with Peru is one of several bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) negotiated or being considered by the United States with Latin American countries in its effort to advance free trade throughout the region...

  9. 48 CFR 18.118 - Trade agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trade agreements. 18.118 Section 18.118 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.118 Trade agreements...

  10. The political economy of services trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    FIORINI, Matteo; LEBRAND, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Why do governments sign services trade agreements? This paper focuses on the role of international agreements in the context of trade in services when services are used as intermediate inputs in downstream industries. Compared to goods, services inputs are mostly non-tradable and complementary to other factors of production. We build a theoretical trade policy framework in which firms use foreign investment to contest foreign markets in services sectors and governments can restrict the entry ...

  11. The Kyoto Agreement: Trade and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Agreement from 1997 allows trade of CO2 emission quotas between the 38 industrialized countries which have committed themselves to an emission ceiling. However, it does not define how this potential trade system should be designed. The intention was to clarify these matters during the 1...

  12. World Trade Organisation (WTO): Trade rules/agreements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The GATT (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs) rules of 1947 were seen as prejudicial to the economic and development concerns of developing countries. With the coming into effect of World Trade Organization (WTO), it was expected that some of the concerns of the developing countries will be addressed.

  13. Plurilateral Trade Deals: An Alternative for Multilateral Trade Agreements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available While multilateral trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization (WTO continue to be in impasse, plurilateral trade negotiations – i.e. among a group of WTO members – have intensified in recent years, and also recorded a series of concrete results in liberalizing specific sectors of international trade. Hence, there is a widely shared view that plurilateral trade negotiations could be an alternative for the multilateral ones. This paper aims to answer the following questions: What are plurilateral trade agreements? Which are the reasons behind the surge in plurilateral negotiations in recent years? What are the main achievements in liberalizing trade at the plurilateral level? What are the advantages of plurilateral negotiations relative to multilateral ones, and why are they considered an attractive alternative for negotiations at the multilateral level?

  14. Trade creation and trade diversion in the Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly A. Clausing

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the changes in trade patterns introduced by the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement are examined. Variation in the extent of tariff liberalization under the agreement is used to identify the impact of tariff liberalization on the growth of trade both with member countries and non-member countries. Data at the commodity level are used, and the results indicate that the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement had substantial trade creation effects, with little evidence of ...

  15. International Environmental Agreements: Emissions Trade, Safety Valves and Escape Clauses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, Larry; Zhao, Jinhua

    2010-01-01

    We explain how the structure of multi-national or multi-regional environmental agreements affect their chance of success. Trade in emissions permits has ambiguous and in some cases surprising effects on both the equilibrium level of abatement, and on the ability to persuade nations or regions to participate in environmental agreements. An escape clause policy and a safety valve policy have essentially the same properties when membership in environmental agreement is pre-determined, but they create markedly different effects on the incentives to join such an agreement. The two policies lead to a qualitative difference in the leverage that a potential member of the agreement exercises on other members

  16. The bilateral trade agreements and export performance of South Asian nations with special reference to India Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The regional trade agreements (RTA have been one of the important developments in the world trading system in 1990s. There are number of studies on the effects trade agreements in different contexts. This study is an attempt to analyse the effects of bilateral trade agreements in the intraregional trade in the SAARC region with special reference to the Free Trade Agreements (FTA between India Sri Lanka. The study uses a panel regression analysis by using balance panel data. The study concludes that the FTA between India and Sri Lanka has brought positive results in the trade between these two nations by improving the bilateral trade in goods. The results of the study are important in the context of looking for the prospects of a free trade area in the region by member nations.

  17. International trade agreements: hazards to health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Brenner, Joseph E

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1980s, neoliberal policies have prescribed reducing the role of governments, relying on market forces to organize and provide health care and other vital human services. In this context, international trade agreements increasingly serve as mechanisms to enforce the privatization, deregulation, and decentralization of health care and other services, with important implications for democracy as well as for health. Critics contend that social austerity and "free" trade agreements contribute to the rise in global poverty and economic inequality and instability, and therefore to increased preventable illness and death. Under new agreements through the World Trade Organization that cover vital human services such as health care, water, education, and energy, unaccountable, secret trade tribunals could overrule decisions by democratically elected officials on public financing for national health care systems, licensing and training standards for health professionals, patient safety and quality regulations, occupational safety and health, control of hazardous substances such as tobacco and alcohol, the environment, and affordable access to safe water and sanitation. International negotiations in 2003 in Cancun and in Miami suggested that countervailing views are developing momentum. A concerned health care community has begun to call for a moratorium on trade negotiations on health care and water, and to reinvigorate an alternative vision of universal access to vital services.

  18. Making Education Markets through Global Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses the global trade negotiations and agreements, which include education sectors as potentially tradable services, to show the complex processes at work in making global education markets. Drawing on the work of Jens Beckert and others, I focus on the micro-processes of making capitalist orders and the challenges at hand in bringing…

  19. Do we really know that trade agreements increase trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, T.

    This study surveys the empirical literature in which the gravity equation has been used to study the effect of economic integration agreements (EIAs) on international trade flows. We show that most studies either focus on improving the methodology to assess regionalism’s overall impact, or on a

  20. Monitoring the impacts of trade agreements on food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, S; Hattersley, L; Snowdon, W; Thow, A-M; Lobstein, T; Sanders, D; Barquera, S; Mohan, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; L'Abbe, M; Lee, A; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Rayner, M; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    The liberalization of international trade and foreign direct investment through multilateral, regional and bilateral agreements has had profound implications for the structure and nature of food systems, and therefore, for the availability, nutritional quality, accessibility, price and promotion of foods in different locations. Public health attention has only relatively recently turned to the links between trade and investment agreements, diets and health, and there is currently no systematic monitoring of this area. This paper reviews the available evidence on the links between trade agreements, food environments and diets from an obesity and non-communicable disease (NCD) perspective. Based on the key issues identified through the review, the paper outlines an approach for monitoring the potential impact of trade agreements on food environments and obesity/NCD risks. The proposed monitoring approach encompasses a set of guiding principles, recommended procedures for data collection and analysis, and quantifiable 'minimal', 'expanded' and 'optimal' measurement indicators to be tailored to national priorities, capacity and resources. Formal risk assessment processes of existing and evolving trade and investment agreements, which focus on their impacts on food environments will help inform the development of healthy trade policy, strengthen domestic nutrition and health policy space and ultimately protect population nutrition. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  1. 77 FR 59064 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Trade Promotion Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Colombia. DATES: Interim...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (``CTPA'' or ``Agreement''), and on June 28, 2007, the Parties signed a...

  2. 76 FR 65365 - United States-OMAN Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... other customs-related provisions of the United States--Oman Free Trade Agreement entered into by the... the U.S.-Oman Free Trade Agreement (``OFTA'' or ``Agreement''). The provisions of the OFTA were...

  3. 78 FR 32356 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ...-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement entered into...-Korea Free Trade Agreement (hereinafter ``UKFTA'' or the ``Agreement''). On December 3, 2010, the United...

  4. EU-India free trade agreement : a quantitative assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbosch, T.J.; Kuiper, M.H.; Roza, P.

    2008-01-01

    This report analyses the effects of a regional trade agreement (FTA) between the EU and India, for which negotiations are underway. The study starts with abrief overview of the key insights from the existing literature on FTAs and their relationship with multilateral negotiations. The remainder of

  5. The ASEAN Free Trade Agreement: impact on trade flows and external trade barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Hector Calvo-Pardo; Caroline Freund; Emanuel Ornelas

    2009-01-01

    Using detailed data on trade and tariffs from 1992-2007, the authors examine how the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement has affected trade with nonmembers and external tariffs facing nonmembers. First, the paper examines the effect of preferential and external tariff reduction on import growth from ASEAN insiders and outsiders across HS 6-digit industries. The analysis finds no evidence that prefe...

  6. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements. ...

  7. 45 CFR 162.915 - Trading partner agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trading partner agreements. 162.915 Section 162... REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS General Provisions for Transactions § 162.915 Trading partner agreements. A covered entity must not enter into a trading partner agreement that would do any of the...

  8. 78 FR 60191 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States- Colombia Trade Promotion... States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (``CTPA'' or ``Agreement''), and on June 28, 2007, the Parties...

  9. 77 FR 64031 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement... other customs-related provisions of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (PTPA). Please...

  10. 78 FR 63052 - United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Trade Promotion Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Panama. DATES: Interim... and the Republic of Panama (the ``Parties'') signed the United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement...

  11. 48 CFR 52.225-6 - Trade Agreements Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trade Agreements....225-6 Trade Agreements Certificate. As prescribed in 25.1101(c)(2), insert the following provision: Trade Agreements Certificate (JAN 2005) (a) The offeror certifies that each end product, except those...

  12. 48 CFR 252.225-7020 - Trade Agreements Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trade Agreements... of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7020 Trade Agreements Certificate. As prescribed in 225.1101(5), use the following provision: Trade Agreements Certificate (JAN 2005) (a) Definitions. Designated...

  13. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany (Queen Mary Univ. of London (United Kingdom))

    2014-12-01

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  14. International Standards: Past Free Trade Agreements and the Prospects in the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasson Leif Johan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership represents a strategic vision of transatlantic relations, including job creation, global leadership, and establishing high international standards. This paper discusses how three recent bi-lateral and regional agreements, along with positions adopted in transatlantic negotiations, convey respective side's acceptable parameters, and how international standards are emerging from and disseminated through agreements involving the European Union and the United States

  15. The General Agreement on Trade in Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francina Esteve García

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The conclusion of GATS and its inclusion as an annex in the constitutive Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO responds to the need for disposing of a stable juridical instrument which, given the current economic interdependence between States, can be applied to the international trade in services.One of the main new features of this agreement is its field of application given that it includes all service sectors (except those provided for in the name of governmental authorities and the four forms of carrying out trade in services and, as regards the principle of market access and that of national treatment, will be regulated according to those respective obligations which the Members have assumed.In exchange for not accepting the exclusion of any service sector, the negotiations concerning some fundamental sectors could not be totally closed and deadlines were extended in order to unblock the most controversial themes.One of the fundamental principles of the GATS is the most favoured nation clause of inconditional character but its consecration has been attenuated by the possibility of maintaining important exceptions in its application. The principle of transparency is also essential in the field of services, given that this sector is characterised by large public interventionism in access regulation and the exercise of the different economic activities which form it.The balance of the GATS is globally positive given that it includes a multilateral framework of principles and disciplines which is administered in the headquarters of the WTO, which have been accepted by a great majority of States within the international community and which remain subject to the WTO’s mechanism for the solution of differences.However, the opening of the market and the suppression of restrictions which derive from internal regulations have not been achieved given that, orientating itself around the objectives of national politics, liberalization is

  16. Acordos bilaterais de comércio como estratégia de inserção regional e internacional do Chile Bilateral trade agreements as Chile's strategy for regional and international insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rossetto Lopes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho analisa a mudança na estratégia de inserção regional e internacional do Chile no começo dos anos 1990, com ênfase em acordos comerciais bilaterais, depois de ter praticado a abertura comercial generalizada desde meados da década de 1970. A opção por acordos bilaterais foi adotada pelo primeiro governo democrático, como parte da orientação de manter e aprofundar a abertura externa empreendida pela ditadura, e conseguiu ampliar as vendas externas e diversificar produtos e destinos. As exportações têm papel decisivo na economia chilena, aberta e pequena, e os 24 acordos bilaterais de comércio com diferentes países e regiões, além de outros em negociação, podem ser explicados pelo esgotamento das possibilidades de ampliar o comércio por meio de reduções adicionais da tarifa externa unilateral, hoje em 6% para quase todos os produtos. A formação de uma rede de acordos bilaterais ampla e diversificada, contudo, tem também interesses políticos, estratégicos e de segurança em relação a vizinhos e a países próximos, além de evitar que o Chile precise se integrar, como membro pleno, a blocos regionais para garantir seus interesses, o que amplia as possibilidades de lidar com diferentes e importantes parceiros no âmbito internacional.The paper analysis the change of Chile's regional and international strategy of insertion through bilateral trade agreements in the beginning of the 90s, after a generalized trade opening since the middle of the 70s. The bilateral trade agreements strategy was set up by the democratic governments as part of the direction of maintaining and deepening the unilateral trade liberalization undertaken by the dictatorship, enlarging exports and diversifying products and markets. Exports have a decisive role in Chile's economy, open and small. The 24 bilateral trade agreements already signed with different countries and regions (besides others under negotiation can be explained by the

  17. The future of human rights impact assessments of trade agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Future of Human Rights Impact Assessments of Trade Agreements develops a methodology for human rights impact assessments of trade agreements and considers whether there is any value in using the methodology on a sustained basis to ensure that the human dimensions of international trade are taken

  18. Draft Public Health Statement on the U.S.-Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. is rapidly negotiating a raft of new regional and bilateral trade agreements. The most recent agreement, with Central America, [was to] come before Congress for a vote as soon as late May. There is growing concern that international trade agreements threaten health care and the health of communities. . . . The Draft Public Health Statement on the U.S.-Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), developed by CPATH which planned a campaign around the issues, analyzes key provisions from the perspective of public health and suggests reframing the trade debate in terms of health.

  19. 75 FR 68808 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Free Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ...: Free trade agreements are established to reduce and eliminate barriers, strengthen and develop economic... information collection: Chile, Singapore, Australia, Morocco, Bahrain, Jordan, Oman, and Peru. These...

  20. The Algerian Foreign Trade between the Multilateral Trading System and the Regionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayreddine Belaaze

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution aims at highlighting a major challenge facing global trade and trade in developing countries. Indeed, regional and preferential trade agreements are now more than ever inconsistent and incoherent and one of the principles of the World Trade Organization, the clause of the most favored nation requiring eliminated all forms of discrimination between trading parties, but what we see in regional trade agreements that the preferential tariffs based on a principle of discrimination. All regional trade agreements granting preferential tariffs between member countries, these preferences do not include the remains of non-member countries (rest of world. On the other hand, preferential tariffs are lower than MFN rates. Meanwhile, the number of regional agreements has doubled since 1995 date creation of the WTO, and Algeria like other developing countries considered one of countries which have not benefit a lot from this situation.

  1. The high price of "free" trade: U.S. trade agreements and access to medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopert, Ruth; Gleeson, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    The United States' pursuit of increasingly TRIPS-Plus levels of intellectual property protection for medicines in bilateral and regional trade agreements is well recognized. Less so, however, are U.S. efforts through these agreements to influence and constrain the pharmaceutical coverage programs of its trading partners. Although arguably unsuccessful in the Australia- U.S. Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA), the U.S. nevertheless succeeded in its bilateral FTA with South Korea (KORUS) in establishing prescriptive provisions pertaining to the operation of coverage and reimbursement programs for medicines and medical devices, which have the potential to adversely impact future access in that country. More recently, draft texts leaked from the current Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) negotiations show that U.S. objectives include not only AUSFTA-Plus and KORUS-Plus IP provisions but also ambitious inroads into the domestic health programs of its TPPA partners. This highlights the apparent conflict between trade goals - pursued through multilateral legal instruments to promote economic "health"- and public health objectives, such as the development of treatments for neglected diseases, the pursuit of efficiency and equity in priority setting, and the procurement of medicines at prices that reflect their therapeutic value and facilitate affordable access. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  2. Effects of Free Trade Agreements on Foreign Trade: Predictions for Puerto Rico in the face of CAFTA-DR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Signoret

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of regional free trade agreements on international trade activity. The analysis estimates gravity models of trade that serve to assess the likely impact of CAFTA-DR on Puerto Rico and United States’ foreign trade. The estimated effects of CAFTA-DR on the US are invariably modest. For the case of Puerto Rico, the effects are of considerably larger importance, albeit still somewhat small. The inclusion of the Dominican Republic into the Agreement, however, is critical for these latter results.

  3. 76 FR 14570 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Trade Agreements Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... application of the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and the Free Trade Agreements, as... Parts 22, 25, and 52 Government procurement. Dated: March 4, 2011. Millisa Gary, Acting Director, Office... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Cecelia L. Davis, Procurement Analyst, at (202) 219-0202, for clarification of...

  4. International trade agreements challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Donald W

    2006-11-01

    This report reviews aspects of trade agreements that challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies. Trade agreements reduce barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote consumption. Conversely, tobacco and alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and promotion in order to reduce health and social problems. However, under current and pending international agreements, negotiated by trade experts without public health input, governments and corporations may challenge these protections as constraints on trade. Advocates must recognise the inherent conflicts between free trade and public health and work to exclude alcohol and tobacco from trade agreements. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has potential to protect tobacco policies and serve as a model for alcohol control.

  5. Are Preferential Trade Agreements with Non-trade Objectives a Stumbling Block for Multilateral Liberalization?

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Limão

    2007-01-01

    In many preferential trade agreements (PTAs), countries exchange not only reductions in trade barriers but also cooperation in non-trade issues such as labour and environmental standards, intellectual property, etc. We provide a model of PTAs motivated by cooperation in non-trade issues and analyse its implications for global free trade and welfare. We find that such PTAs increase the cost of multilateral tariff reductions and thus cause a stumbling block to global free trade. This occurs bec...

  6. 78 FR 42084 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ...] Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development Facility... The STDF is a unique global partnership established by the Food and Agriculture Organization, World... cooperative agreement in fiscal year 2013 (FY 2013) to the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Standards and...

  7. 76 FR 48145 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a..., United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of...

  8. Is there reciprocity in preferential trade agreements on services?

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, Juan; Roy, Martin; Zoratto, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Are market access commitments on services in Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) reciprocal or simply unilateral? If reciprocal, do concessions granted in services depend on concessions received from the trading partner in other services or in non-services areas as well? In this paper we investigate the presence of reciprocity in bilateral services agreements, by sub-sector, mode of supply and type of agreement (North-North, South-North, South-South). To do so, we use a database of concessio...

  9. Trade agreements and access to drugs in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Llamoza, Javier; Químico Farmacéutico, Acción Internacional para la Salud, Lima, Perú.

    2009-01-01

    Through Free Trade Agreements, the economies of the United States of America (USA) and the European Union (EU) have been achieving a higher standard of protection of the intellectual property rights. This increases unduly the monopolist rights of the industry, restricting competition and limiting the access of new generic drugs. Peru has not been the exception to this process, subscribing a free trade agreement with the USA called Agreement of Commercial Promotion (APC) that involved the ...

  10. GLOBALIZATION & REGIONALIZATION IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Frunză

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of globalization refers to the growing interdependence of countries, resulting from the increasing integration of trade, finance, investments, labor markets and ideas in one globalmarketplace. The most important elements of this process are the international trade and the cross-border investment flows. Economic globalization has increased the specialization of workers, while the companies compete in global markets. Even globalization has recently become a common topic in academic discourse, many economists focused, from the 1980s and 1990s, in addition to globalization, on regionalization - the growth of networks of interdependence within multinational regions of the world. The recent decades arecharacterized by the fact that the world trade grew faster than world output, which implies that an increasing share of world GDP crosses international borders. The trend is explained, mostly, by thesubstantially declining of the trade barriers during the same period, as a result of successive trade negotiation rounds under the auspices of the GATT/WTO, unilateral trade liberalization and regional tradeagreements. Even there are global connections between all the countries, the strongest political and economic integration is being created within a few specific regions of the world: Europe, North America and East Asia.

  11. THE TPP AND TTIP TRADE AGREEMENTS: THE INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana GUTU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Free trade is one of the ultimate purposes of the free trade agreements currently negotiated over the world. Two of these trials are represented by the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP. The common feature of these two trade deals is represented by the United States, a global actor that is making sure that it will be able to trade in best conditions on both of its geographical shores: on the Pacific and on The Atlantic. The negotiations are still ongoing, but results are expected on both sides. An important issue for the third parties, but not only, is represented by the secrecy of the negotiations undertaken and the lack of transparency shown by the negotiating Governments. If the agreements are concluded, a major global impact on trade and investments is expected, with significant positive implications for the TPP and TTIP negotiating states.

  12. Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA 2006 - Opportunities, Trade Relation and Evolution of Macedonian Economic Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krum Efremov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Main activity in the foreign trade policy of the Republic of Macedonia during the past 10 years was the integration of the country on the Central European Free Trade Agreement – (CEFTA. The reason for this is the expectation that the membership of the Republic of Macedonia in CEFTA will significantly contribute to the continual efforts for strengthening the regional trade cooperation, further liberalisation of foreign trade exchange, and continuation of activities for harmonisation of trade rules with international standards. Additionally, CEFTA 2006 provides a much more comprehensive framework for development of mutual relations and economic cooperation among the countries of South Easte Europe. We will explain the concept of development of economic diplomacy in the Republic of Macedonia as a tool for supporting Macedonian economy. The purpose of these activities is to present the Republic of Macedonia as an attractive destination for foreign investments through the promotion of business advantages, and giving incentive to Macedonian export, as well as through strengthening of the country’s position as a attractive touristic destination.

  13. Malaysia Economic Monitor, June 2016 : Leveraging Trade Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    The MEM is the World Bank's biannual flagship publication on Malaysia. It provides analysis of recent economic developments and the near-term outlook for Malaysia. Each publication also focuses on a special topic related to Malaysia's transformation into a high-income economy. Malaysia is at the forefront of a "new generation" of trade agreements that will shape trade and investment over t...

  14. Trade agreements, domestic environmental regulation, and transboundary pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Yu-Bong; Hu, Chia-Hsien [Department of Public Finance, National Taipei University (China)

    2008-05-15

    This paper investigates a second-best trade agreement between two countries that takes the distortion arising from their non-coordinated environmental policies into consideration. In a reciprocal-markets model with bidirectional transboundary pollution, we find that if the transboundary pollution is sufficiently strong, the second-best trade agreement requires that both countries subsidize the imported goods whose consumption gives rise to pollution. We also find that a bilateral tariff reduction is beneficial to the global environment. (author)

  15. Trade agreements, domestic environmental regulation, and transboundary pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Yu-Bong; Hu, Chia-Hsien

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates a second-best trade agreement between two countries that takes the distortion arising from their non-coordinated environmental policies into consideration. In a reciprocal-markets model with bidirectional transboundary pollution, we find that if the transboundary pollution is sufficiently strong, the second-best trade agreement requires that both countries subsidize the imported goods whose consumption gives rise to pollution. We also find that a bilateral tariff reduction is beneficial to the global environment. (author)

  16. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, E R; Brenner, J E; Houston, T P

    2005-08-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritize the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health.

  17. Heterogeneous trade agreements, WTO membership and international trade : an analysis using matching econometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, Tristan; Trojanowska, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the heterogeneous effects of trade agreements (TAs) and World Trade Organization (WTO) membership on the volume of international trade. We extend Baier and Bergstrand’s (2009a) application of matching econometrics by distinguishing between different types of TAs and WTO

  18. Agricultural Trade Barriers 10 years later Uruguay Round Trade Agreement Signature

    OpenAIRE

    Mahia, R.; Arce, Rafael de; Escribano, Gonzalo

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, an analysis of current state of agricultural trade barriers is carried out alter ten years of Uruguay Round Agricultural Trade Agreement Signature The descriptive analysis showed that small advances in trade barriers removing have been taken out. About the heterogeneity in tariff applications, tariff progresivity and peak tariffs, the same situation is pointed out.

  19. 78 FR 45181 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement..., (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement... Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: On...

  20. The Outlier Sectors: Areas of Non-Free Trade in the North American Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Eric T. Miller

    2002-01-01

    Since its entry into force, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has been enormously influential as a model for trade liberalization. While trade in goods among Canada, the United States and Mexico has been liberalized to a significant degree, this most famous of agreements nonetheless contains areas of recalcitrant protectionism. The first part of this paper identifies these "outlier sectors" and classifies them by primary source advocating protectionism, i.e., producer interests ...

  1. 76 FR 24026 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Trade Agreements Certificate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ...; Information Collection; Trade Agreements Certificate AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... approved information collection requirement concerning trade agreements certificate. Public comments are...-mail [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Purpose Under the Trade Agreements Act of...

  2. 75 FR 3179 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ...-AG31 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements--Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS... respect to Costa Rica, and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. The trade agreements waive... States Free Trade Agreement with respect to Costa Rica and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  3. Negotiating a Plurilateral Agreement on Trade in Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the ongoing plurilateral negotiations for a new Agreement on Trade in Services. Its aim is to answer to the following set of questions: (1 What are the motivations behind these negotiations as well as the objectives of the new plurilateral trade in services agreement? How will the architecture of the new agreement look like? (2 What are the interests involved in negotiating this new plurilateral agreement on trade in services? and (3 How will it fit into the multilateral trading system revolving around the WTO? According to the findings of the paper, the new deal that is promoted by 23 like-minded WTO Members, including the EU, is a policy response to disappointment over the protracted multilateral talks and the very impasse of the Doha Round. Yet, the stakes on negotiating an ambitious market opening for services are quite high, given the importance of services in international trade and particularly their crucial role in global production networks, that dominate nowadays global production, trade and investments.

  4. Regional Trade Integration and Conflict Resolution | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 déc. 2008 ... This book addresses the growth of regional trade agreements (RTAs) which have mushroomed since the 1990s, and considers their potential as a tool for reducing inter- and intra-state conflict.

  5. Regional Trade Integration and Conflict Resolution

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 Trading across the Straits: will a free trade agreement between China and Taiwan .... Moeed Yusuf is a consultant on Economic Policy at the SDPI, Islamabad, ...... In the tourism sector, joint marketing and management strategies could bring ...

  6. Improving regulatory capacity to manage risks associated with trade agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Helen L; Smith, Richard D; Drahos, Peter

    2015-03-21

    Modern trade negotiations have delivered a plethora of bilateral and regional preferential trade agreements (PTAs), which involve considerable risk to public health, thus placing demands on governments to strengthen administrative regulatory capacities in regard to the negotiation, implementation and on-going management of PTAs. In terms of risk management, the administrative regulatory capacity requisite for appropriate negotiation of PTAs is different to that for the implementation or on-going management of PTAs, but at all stages the capacity needed is expensive, skill-intensive and requires considerable infrastructure, which smaller and poorer states especially struggle to find. It is also a task generally underestimated. If states do not find ways to increase their capacities then PTAs are likely to become much greater drivers of health inequities. Developing countries especially struggle to find this capacity. In this article we set out the importance of administrative regulatory capacity and coordination to manage the risks to public health associated with PTAs, and suggest ways countries can improve their capacity.

  7. Leveraging Trade Agreements to Meet U.S. Security Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    President George H.W. Bush sought means to influence the policies of Latin American states more effectively. Mexico , particularly in the post-Cold War era...security goals. A review of the U.S. trade policy, and its nesting with the National Security Strategy, demonstrates how President Barack Obama’s... President Barack Obama’s strategic “pivot to Asia,” and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreement facilitate U.S. enduring national

  8. 77 FR 43081 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ...; Information Collection; Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate AGENCIES... approved information collection requirement concerning the Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli..., Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate, by any of the following...

  9. Stumbling Forward on Trade: The Doha Round, Free Trade Agreements, and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew B. Adler

    2008-01-01

    Before continuing a headlong rush to form free trade agreements with partners around the globe, Ottawa should pause to consider the effects of a web of FTAs. Matthew B. Adler argues that FTAs tend to interfere with multilateral trade negotiations, which potentially would deliver broader benefits.

  10. 77 FR 10479 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; First Request for Panel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement... Section of the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement... American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to replace domestic judicial review...

  11. 78 FR 18877 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement With Colombia (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement With Colombia (DFARS Case 2012-D032... Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to implement the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade Promotion Agreement is a free trade agreement that provides for mutually non-discriminatory treatment of...

  12. ASEAN’s Preferential Trade Agreements (PTA Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanyi Leu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a diversification explanation in order understand the development of PTAs in Southeast Asia. I argue that an important reason why ASEAN states participate in PTAs has been to diversify existing trade ties and to reduce overdependence on a narrow range of export markets. Southeast Asian countries have formed PTAs with markets with which they had weak or unexplored economic relations, as demonstrated by three case analyses: the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA, the ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement (ACFTA and the ASEAN-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (AJCEP. To maximise the economic gains and the diversification effects of PTA participation, ASEAN countries have pursued a strategy of strengthening economic unity while keeping external economic linkages as diversified as possible. Although East Asia, and especially China, was an important alternative market to reduce ASEAN’s dependence on trade with America, ASEAN countries have also pursued PTAs with a number of other trading partners. This paper explains how PTAs have helped ASEAN states to develop more policy autonomy in their trading environment.

  13. Policy space for health and trade and investment agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivusalo, Meri

    2014-06-01

    New trade agreements affect how governments can regulate for health both within health systems and in addressing health protection, promotion and social determinants of health in other policies. It is essential that those responsible for health understand the impacts of these trade negotiations and agreements on policy space for health at a national and local level. While we know more about implications from negotiations concerning intellectual property rights and trade in goods, this paper provides a screening checklist for less-discussed areas of domestic regulation, services, investment and government procurement. As implications are likely to differ on the basis of the organization and structures of national health systems and policy priorities, the emphasis is on finding out key provisions as well as on how exemptions and exclusions can be used to ensure policy space for health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on the Water Resources of Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Light, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    .... As trade surges along the US-Mexico border region, population growth and increased demand has stressed both water quality and quantity in this already water-stressed region. This paper examines NAFTA in light of these water resources issues, and the effectiveness of the Environmental Side Agreements to find solutions.

  15. 76 FR 23286 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement... Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice... International Trade Commission, in the matter of Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Mexico, Secretariat...

  16. Revenue, welfare and trade effects of European Union Free Trade Agreement on South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kore M.A. Guei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using the partial equilibrium WITS-SMART Simulation model to assess the impact of liberalisation under the Trade Development and Cooperation Agreement (TDCA of a free trade area between the European Union and South Africa. The identification of the impact of such agreement allows for trade policy negotiation adjustment that can be beneficial for South Africa. Aim: The aim of the study is to estimate and discuss the impact of a Free Trade Agreement (FTA with the European Union and South Africa. More specifically, the study intends to estimate the impact of revenue, welfare, imports, exports, trade creation and to come up with policies options for South Africa that can be used in negotiations and policy formulations. Setting: The study used international trade data (2012 available in the WITS-SMART model to assess bilateral trade agreement between the European Union and South Africa. Methods: To identify the impact on revenue, welfare, imports, exports and trade creation, the study simulated an FTA (0% tariff rate for all goods exchanged between the European Union and South Africa. Also, the elasticity of substitution used for the simulation model was 99%. Results: The findings of the study reveal that total trade effects in South Africa are likely to surge by US$ 1.036 billion with a total welfare valued at US$ 134 million. Dismantling tariffs on all European Union (EU goods would be beneficial to consumers through net trade creation. Total trade creation would be US$ 782 million. However, South African producers are likely to contribute a trade diversion of US$ 254 million which has a negative impact on consumer welfare. The country might also experience a revenue loss amounting to US$ 562 million because of the removal of tariffs. In trade, the country’s exports and imports to the EU are expected to increase by US$ 12.419 million and US$ 1.266 million, respectively. Conclusion: The European Union–South Africa FTA would

  17. Trading in Education: The "Agreement on Internal Trade," Labour Mobility and Teacher Certification in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Dick; Young, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Canada's provincial and territorial governments are committed to implement the Labour Mobility chapter of the "Agreement on Internal Trade" (AIT) in 2009. This article examines the implications of this agreement for teacher certification and teacher education programs. It argues that the full impact of AIT will not be immediately…

  18. THE FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND LATIN AMERICA. THE PERUVIAN AND MEXICAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manrique de LUNA BARRIOS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has signed a number of free trade agreements with different countries in Latin America because it is aware of the great importance that this region has gained as a destination for its exports and investments. Furthermore, the European Union wishes to reaffirm its ties with countries in the region because it hopes to consolidate its political and economic position as an international player with its presence in those markets. In this paper we will discuss the free trade agreements that the EU has signed with Mexico and later with Peru, because they are two examples where Latin American countries have achieved significant economic growth and where the trade has generated significant benefits. Additionally they are two major trading partners of the European Union and they have allowed the EU to continue to expand its zone of influence in Latin America.

  19. Energy and the NAFTA [North American Free Trade Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plourde, A.

    1993-01-01

    A review is presented of the implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for the energy industry. This agreement expands the coverage accorded to energy in the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (FTA), and is of limited significance with respect to Canada-US relations, but is quite important to these two countries' energy trade with Mexico. With respect to Canada-US trade, the most important departure from the FTA is that NAFTA tends to ensure a greater degree of respect for the terms of negotiated contracts, in particular by requiring the parties to make efforts to secure compliance with the national treatment provisions of the NAFTA by subfederal regulatory entities. Mexico's constitution severely restricts foreign participation in the activities of its energy industries, including basic petrochemicals. While NAFTA accomodates these restrictions, Canadian and US companies will have opportunities to bid on contracts for goods and services and construction in the Mexican energy sector on an equal footing with their Mexican counterparts. NAFTA also provides expanded opportunities for foreign investment and control in electricity generation for own-use, cogeneration and public service purposes. The parties are explicitly allowed to extend activity incentives to their respective oil and gas industries. 9 refs

  20. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nonproliferation and Arms Control Analysis Dept.

    1996-11-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations. Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  1. Services in Regioanl Trade Agreements: Implications for India

    OpenAIRE

    Nag, Biswajit; De, Debdeep

    2008-01-01

    Service sector has emerged as the largest and fastest-growing sector in the global economy in the last two decades, providing more than 60 per cent of global output and, in many countries, an even larger share of employment. The growth in services has also been accompanied by the rising share of services in world transactions. In fact trade in services has grown as fast as trade in goods in the period 1990- 2003 (6% per annum). In recent years the number of international agreements aiming to ...

  2. 48 CFR 52.225-3 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Israeli Trade Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Israeli Trade Act. 52.225-3 Section 52.225-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-3 Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Israeli Trade Act. As prescribed in 25.1101(b)(1)(i), insert the following clause: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Israeli...

  3. 48 CFR 52.225-4 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreement-Israeli Trade Act Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreement-Israeli Trade Act Certificate. 52.225-4 Section 52.225-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-4 Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreement—Israeli Trade Act... Agreement—Israeli Trade Act Certificate (JUN 2009) (a) The offeror certifies that each end product, except...

  4. 15 CFR Appendix A to Chapter Xx - Administration of the Trade Agreements Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration of the Trade Agreements Program A Appendix A to Chapter XX Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Ch. XX, App. A Appendix A to Chapter XX...

  5. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L.

    1995-08-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities: (1) the demilitarization of the Sinai region between Israel and Egypt in the 1970s; (2) the 1991 quadripartite agreement for monitoring nuclear facilities among Brazil, Argentina, The Argentine-Brazilian Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency; and (3) a bilateral Open Skies agreement between Hungary and Romania in 1991. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations.Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  6. WHAT COMES NEXT? A GLOBAL TRADE WAR OR THE RENEGOTIATION OF US TRADE AGREEMENTS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Câmpeanu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In March 2018, the US President announced additional tariffs on steel and aluminum imports to be applied to all exporters in the US market. The main reason behind these protectionist measures is the threat to national security caused by the US balance of trade, as reflected by annual losses of hundreds of billions of dollars. Strengthening of the US steel and aluminum industries, job creation and, hence, the consolidation of the US economy appear to be among the benefits of the new tariffs. This article aims to analyze US trade and issues related to the major trading partners, as well as the new protectionist measures initiated by president Trump, alongside the domestic and international responses. Finally, the article highlights the immediate and foreseeable consequences of these measures and concludes that rather than triggering a global trade war, the Trump administration is preparing the means to exert pressure to renegotiate the US trade agreements.

  7. 78 FR 6188 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... Promotion Agreement. This Trade Promotion Agreement is a free trade agreement (FTA) that provides for... 77 FR 27548 on May 10, 2012, to implement the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement... and safety effects, distributive impacts, and equity). E.O. 13563 emphasizes the importance of...

  8. The welfare impact of a free trade agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron; Vink, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The African market has become increasingly important to South Africa’s agricultural trade. Exports have been increasing rapidly, although imports have not kept pace. This pattern is also evident in the general trade in manufactured goods. The purpose of this article is to look at the best estimate...... conditiuons that will prevail with respect to trade in agricultural and manufactured goods between South Africa (SACU) and the member countries of SADC, the East African Comminuity and COMESA. The analysis is conducted using the GTAP database and its associated general equilibrium model. The results show...... that South Africa benefits from integration in SADC and from the integration of the entire region, but not from integration with the EAC and COMESA. However, the latter steps are necessary to reap the benefits of integration in the entire region....

  9. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and Mexican nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Allison

    2011-03-01

    In the context of nurse migration, experts view trade agreements as either vehicles for facilitating migration or as contributing to brain-drain phenomena. Using a case study design, this study explored the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on the development of Mexican nursing. Drawing results from a general thematic analysis of 48 interviews with Mexican nurses and 410 primary and secondary sources, findings show that NAFTA changed the relationship between the State and Mexican nursing. The changed relationship improved the infrastructure capable of producing and monitoring nursing human resources in Mexico. It did not lead to the mass migration of Mexican nurses to the United States and Canada. At the same time, the economic instability provoked by the peso crisis of 1995 slowed the implementation of planned advances. Subsequent neoliberal reforms decreased nurses' security as workers by minimizing access to full-time positions with benefits, and decreased wages. This article discusses the linkages of these events and the effects on Mexican nurses and the development of the profession. The findings have implications for nursing human resources policy-making and trade in services.

  10. Agreement on technology? Exploring the political feasibility of technology-oriented agreements and their compatibility with cap-and-trade approaches to address climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Coninck, H.C.; Bakker, S.; Van der Zwaan, B.; Junginger, M.; Kuik, O.; Massey, E.

    2007-11-01

    Climate change has been on the international policy agenda since the UNFCCC was agreed in 1992. The Kyoto Protocol was the UNFCCC's answer to the call for measures and has been effective in establishing an international carbon market and reducing emissions in some countries and regions. A follow-up of the Kyoto Protocol is currently under discussion. In theory, the economically most efficient form of a global agreement is a global cap-and-trade agreement. It remains highly uncertain whether an effective global climate regime fully founded on another cap-and-trade type of agreement is politically feasible. In addition, it has been suggested that a new agreement would have to be more effective in promoting technology development and diffusion. This report explores the compatibility of a cap-and trade regime with a different form of international agreements to address climate change: technology-oriented agreements (TOAs)

  11. The economic impact of the Australia-United States free trade agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Shiro Armstrong

    2015-01-01

    The Australia–United States free trade agreement (AUSFTA) came into effect in 2005. It was the second preferential trade agreement that Australia signed, after its agreement with Singapore, and marked a departure from the primacy of Australia’s previous trade policy of unilateral and multilateral trade liberalisation towards preferential liberalisation. This paper assesses the economic effects of AUSFTA by applying the Productivity Commission’s gravity model of trade from its Bilateral ...

  12. 75 FR 79069 - Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement: Request for Comments From the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... proposed agreement to strengthen international cooperation, enforcement practices and legal frameworks for... international cooperation and to promote strong enforcement practices. Together these provisions will help to... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement: Request for...

  13. Trade Agreements and Direct-to-Consumer Advertising of Pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Gleeson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There is growing international concern about the risks posed by direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA of prescription pharmaceuticals, including via the internet. Recent trade agreements negotiated by the United States, however, incorporate provisions that may constrain national regulation of DTCA. Some provisions explicitly mention DTCA; others enable foreign investors to seek compensation if new regulations are seen to harm their investments. These provisions may thus prevent countries from restricting DTCA or put them at risk of expensive legal action from companies seeking damages due to restrictions on advertising. While the most recent example, the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP, collapsed following US withdrawal in January 2017, early indications of the Trump Administration’s trade policy agenda signal an even more aggressive approach on the part of the United States in negotiating advantages for American businesses. Furthermore, the eleven remaining TPP countries may decide to proceed with the agreement in the absence of the United States, with most of the original text (including the provisions relevant to DTCA intact.

  14. Trade Agreements and Direct-to-Consumer Advertising of Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Deborah; Menkes, David B

    2017-10-16

    There is growing international concern about the risks posed by direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription pharmaceuticals, including via the internet. Recent trade agreements negotiated by the United States, however, incorporate provisions that may constrain national regulation of DTCA. Some provisions explicitly mention DTCA; others enable foreign investors to seek compensation if new regulations are seen to harm their investments. These provisions may thus prevent countries from restricting DTCA or put them at risk of expensive legal action from companies seeking damages due to restrictions on advertising. While the most recent example, the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), collapsed following US withdrawal in January 2017, early indications of the Trump Administration's trade policy agenda signal an even more aggressive approach on the part of the United States in negotiating advantages for American businesses. Furthermore, the eleven remaining TPP countries may decide to proceed with the agreement in the absence of the United States, with most of the original text (including the provisions relevant to DTCA) intact. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  15. Chile-EU Trade Agreement: What Can We Learn from Trade Statistics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime de Pablo Valenciano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An Association Agreement concluded between the European Union and Chile in 2002 included a comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (FTA that entered into force in February 2003. Our purpose is to analyse some of the economic consequences of the agricultural part of this agreement focusing in the fruit and vegetable market. Our finding is that market concentration has significantly decreased since the beginning of previous decade and has been reinforced in both markets. This has been an advantage for both Chilean producers and European consumers of fruits and vegetables.

  16. MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS AND THE TRADE MEASURES CONTAINED IN THESE AGREEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Timbur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The environmental problems which the society is facing, ozone depletion, biodiversity loss, the spread of persistent organic pollutants, are a result of human activity with a worldwide impact, requiring immediate resolution. In this context, negotiation, signing and implementation of several multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs are one of the best solutions, affordable and reliable. The aim of this study is to analyze the commercial measures, which to some extent, ensure stability, security, and expansion of MEAs. The paper discusses, also, the efficiency, necessity and the influences of trade measures in MEAs and the WTO role in signing these agreements.

  17. Social Debate on Free Trade Agreements: Illusions Versus Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Dzialo; Bogna Gawronska-Nowak; Jaroslaw Jura

    2017-01-01

    The paper reflects the problem of Free Trade Agreements (FTA) that recently have been raising vivid public discussion. The main focus of our study is to analyse the social debate on the FTA and to confront the social perception concerning the FTA with the so-called “expert knowledge”. This may contribute both to better understanding of the controversies on the FTA and to proper indicating the possible sources of social conflicts. The results obtained seem to prove that the mismatch between so...

  18. 48 CFR 252.225-7045 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Designated country means— (1) A World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement (WTO GPA) country... another country, has been substantially transformed in a Free Trade Agreement country into a new and... Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements. 252.225-7045 Section 252.225-7045 Federal...

  19. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and Singapore. DATES: July 15, 2010: Deadline for filing written... effects of the free trade agreements (FTAs) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report...

  20. 75 FR 78726 - Agency Information Collection Activities: North American Free Trade Agreement Duty Deferral

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Activities: North American Free Trade Agreement Duty Deferral AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP... collection requirement concerning the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Duty Deferral. This request...: 1651-0071. Abstract: The provisions of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) were adopted by the...

  1. 77 FR 14303 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country (Armenia) and Other Trade Agreements Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ..., the thirty-fourth line from the top of the page is amended to read: ``TRADE AGREEMENTS (MAR 2012). 8... read: ``BUY AMERICAN ACT-- CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS UNDER TRADE AGREEMENTS (MAR 2012)'' 10. On page 12937...--CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS UNDER TRADE AGREEMENTS (MAR 2012)'' [FR Doc. C1-2012-4495 Filed 3-8-12; 8:45 am] BILLING...

  2. 48 CFR 252.225-7022 - Trade agreements certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trade agreements... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7022 Trade agreements certificate—inclusion of Iraqi end products. As prescribed in 225.1101(7), use the following provision: Trade Agreements...

  3. Transatlantic Cooperation in Space: Eu-Canada Free Trade Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Weber-Steinhaus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available National governments are keenly aware of the need for investment in space. Canada, as a formal cooperating state in the European Space Agency (ESA, and Germany, as a leading member state of ESA, are interlinked in Europe’s space endeavours. Beyond ESA, Germany and Canada additionally have a strong history of bilateral cooperation on a range of space projects. This paper discusses the novel interdependencies between clear national and now supranational space policies, using the examples of the Canada-European Union (EU Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA. The agreement covers most aspects of the EU-Canada bilateral economic relationship and includes space. The paper focuses on international space policies, strategic bilateral co-operation, and technical accomplishments. It takes a closer look at German-Canadian collaboration in space programs and offers some reflection on the effect of both the EU and ESA’S transatlantic involvement in space.

  4. Regional Integration, Trade and Private Sector Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Regional Integration, Trade and Private Sector Development Program (Namibia) ... (NEPRU's other clients include regional and private sector institutions.) ... New Dutch-Canadian funding for the Climate and Development Knowledge Network.

  5. AFRA. African Regional Co-operative Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This publication provides an outline of the African Regional Co-operation Agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology (AFRA). The agreement stems from an initiative of several African member states of the IAEA to get the agency to help establish an African regional arrangement which would be similar to arrangements which were already in place in the Asian and Latin American regions. Through this regional approach to development, AFRA seeks to accelerate moves toward self-sufficiency in scientific disciplines and appropriate technologies by coordinating intellectual and physical resources and disseminating innovative methods and practices in a cost-effective manner

  6. The health impact of trade and investment agreements: a quantitative systematic review and network co-citation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Pepita; McKee, Martin; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

    2017-03-08

    Regional trade agreements are major international policy instruments that shape macro-economic and political systems. There is widespread debate as to whether and how these agreements pose risks to public health. Here we perform a comprehensive systematic review of quantitative studies of the health impact of trade and investment agreements. We identified studies from searches in PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Global Health Online. Research articles were eligible for inclusion if they were quantitative studies of the health impacts of trade and investment agreements or policy. We systematically reviewed study findings, evaluated quality using the Quality Assessment Tool from the Effective Public Health Practice Project, and performed network citation analysis to study disciplinary siloes. Seventeen quantitative studies met our inclusion criteria. There was consistent evidence that implementing trade agreements was associated with increased consumption of processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages. Granting import licenses for patented drugs was associated with increased access to pharmaceuticals. Implementing trade agreements and associated policies was also correlated with higher cardiovascular disease incidence and higher Body Mass Index (BMI), whilst correlations with tobacco consumption, under-five mortality, maternal mortality, and life expectancy were inconclusive. Overall, the quality of studies is weak or moderately weak, and co-citation analysis revealed a relative isolation of public health from economics. We identified limitations in existing studies which preclude definitive conclusions of the health impacts of regional trade and investment agreements. Few address unobserved confounding, and many possible consequences and mechanisms linking trade and investment agreements to health remain poorly understood. Results from our co-citation analysis suggest scope for greater interdisciplinary collaboration. Notwithstanding these limitations, our

  7. Relative intensity of bilateral trade flows, regional integration, and trade performance: the case of Brazil, 1984-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Valquiria da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to identify the component of trade that results specifically from bilateral relations and evaluate how the creation of trading blocs affects trade relations between countries. The trirapport coefficient of the relative intensity of bilateral agricultural sector trade flows between Brazil and other countries from 1984 and 1998 is used in the evaluation. In general, the results show that relative trade intensity between Brazil and its non-MERCOSUL trade partners fell after their entry into regional trade agreements (extra-bloc effect. The intra-bloc effect (trade expansion is reflected by changes in trade intensity between Brazil and the other MERCOSUL members and changes in trade intensity between NAFTA members Mexico, Canada, and the United States.

  8. 76 FR 76808 - Procurement Thresholds for Implementation of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Organization (WTO) Agreement on Government Procurement, Chapter 15 of the United States-Australia Free Trade... out U.S. trade agreement obligations under the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement, Chapter 15 of... Agreement on Government Procurement A. Central Government Entities Listed in U.S. Annex 1 (1) Procurement of...

  9. Protecting the autonomy of states to enact tobacco control measures under trade and investment agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew; Sheargold, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    Since the adoption of the WHO's WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, governments have been pursuing progressively stronger and more wide-reaching tobacco control measures. In response, tobacco companies are frequently using international trade and investment agreements as tools to challenge domestic tobacco control measures. Several significant new trade and investment agreements that some fear may provide new legal avenues to the tobacco industry to challenge health measures are currently under negotiation, including the Trans-Pacific Partnership (a 12 party agreement of Asia-Pacific regional countries) and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (an agreement between the USA and the European Union). This commentary examines different options for treaty provisions that the parties could employ in these agreements to minimise legal risks relating to tobacco control measures. It recommends that parties take a comprehensive approach, combining provisions that minimise the potential costs of litigation with provisions that increase the likelihood of a state successfully defending tobacco control measures in such litigation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. 78 FR 65221 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement-Panama (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Supplement (DFARS) to implement the United States--Panama Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade Promotion...--Panama Trade Promotion Agreement. No respondents submitted public comments in response to the interim... effects, distributive impacts, and equity). E.O. 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs...

  11. 78 FR 57838 - North American Free Trade Agreement Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Secretariat File No. USA-MEX-2011- 1904-02] North American Free Trade Agreement Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United... Decision and Order of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Binational Panel dated August 6, 2013...

  12. Prospects of an EU-Mercosur trade agreement for the Dutch agrifood sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkum, van S.

    2015-01-01

    This report provides insights into the current trade relations between the EU and Mercosur and assesses impacts of a comprehensive trade agreement between the two blocs on the Dutch agrifood sector. Trade opportunities of Dutch fruit & vegetables and dairy products would expand if an agreement

  13. How Do Professional Mutual Recognition Agreements Affect Higher Education? Examining Regional Policy in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Creso; Gaviria, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Professional mutual recognition agreements (MRAs) are one of the policy instruments employed in global and regional trade agreements to facilitate the mobility of skilled labour. While such agreements have been noted in the literature examining cross-border academic mobility, little is known about how they impact higher education. This paper…

  14. Enhancing regional security agreements through cooperative monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    This paper proposes that strengthening regional capabilities for formulating and implementing arms control and confidence-building measures is a tangible method of enhancing regional security. It discusses the importance of developing a regional infrastructure for arms control and confidence building and elucidates the role of technology in facilitating regional arms control and confidence-building agreements. In addition, it identifies numerous applications for regional cooperative monitoring in the areas of arms control, resource management, international commerce and disaster response. The Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories, whose aim is to help individual countries and regions acquire the tools they need to develop their own solutions to regional problems, is discussed briefly. The paper ends with recommendations for establishing regional cooperative monitoring centers

  15. The emergence of industrial relations in regional trade blocks: a comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaminska, M.E.; Visser, J.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the emergence and institutionalization of regional industrial relations arrangements in six regional integration agreements (European Union, North American Free Trade Association, Mercado Común del Sur, Economic Community of West African States, Southern African Development

  16. Impact of Zimbabwe - South Africa Trade Relations: A Bilateral, Regional, or Multilateral Approach?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mayihlome, Levi

    1997-01-01

    .... Whereas a functional bilateral trade agreement or a regional customs union culminating in a common market might improve Zimbabwe's regional competitiveness in the short run' due to South Africa's...

  17. Modern Integration Processes in the Asia-Pacific Region: the Formation of Trans-Regional Mega-Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliuta Iryna A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century, especially in the last decade, new intercontinental integration projects appear on the global stage with a high potential for influencing the regional economic structure and at the same time bearing certain challenges for the international geo-economic and geo-political map of the world. Comprehensive new-generation inter-regional agreements are being formed, such as the TTP, the TTIP, the RCEP, the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement between Canada and the EU (CETA, the Japan-EU Economic Partnership. The Asia-Pacific region has been an active participant in the creation and promotion of mega-regional trade agreements. Mega-regional trade agreements in the Asia-Pacific region, namely the TTP and the RCEP, are analyzed as mega-projects with an unprecedented scale of liberalization within the framework of the agreement that include provisions complementing the WTO framework or extending beyond it. There identified reasons for the emergence of mega-regional trade agreements and prospects for the implementation of these projects, as well as possible consequences for the international economic system. It is established that new trans-regional projects, providing certain advantages to the participating countries, simultaneously carry both opportunities and challenges for the world economy. The latter are associated with the threats of crowding the countries that do not take an active part in the integration processes out of the global chains of value creation as well as of the processes of international trade.

  18. 77 FR 72325 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement... Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of the Final resolution of the Countervailing Duty... 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to replace...

  19. 77 FR 26252 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; First Request for Panel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement... the North American Free Trade Agreement. On April 25, 2012, an additional Request was filed on behalf... INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to...

  20. 76 FR 16728 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement... American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of the U.S. Department of Commerce's final... INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to...

  1. 76 FR 10005 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement... Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of...-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement...

  2. 77 FR 66798 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement... Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of the Final Results of the Antidumping Administrative... INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to...

  3. 76 FR 42115 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement... Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of the Final Results of the 2008- 2009 and 2009-2010.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a...

  4. The Free Trade Agreement and the Mexican health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurell, A C; Ortega, M E

    1992-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the probable implications for the Mexican health sector of the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between the United States, Canada, and Mexico. The authors argue that the FTA should be seen as part of neoliberal policies adopted by the Mexican government in 1983 that are based on large-scale privatization and deregulation of labor relations. In this general context the health sector, which traditionally has been dominated by public institutions, is undergoing a deep restructuring. The main trends are the decapitalization of the public sector and a selective process of privatization that tends to constitute the private health sector in a field of capital accumulation. The FTA is likely to force a change in Mexican health legislation, which includes health services in the public social security system and recognizes the right to health, and to accelerate selective privatization. The U.S. insurance industry and hospital corporations are interested in promoting these changes in order to gain access to the Mexican market, estimated at 20 to 25 million persons. This would lead to further deterioration of the public institutions, increasing inequalities in health and strengthening the private sector. The historical trend toward the integration of a National Health Service in Mexico would be interrupted in favor of formation of a dual private-public system.

  5. A new generation of trade policy: potential risks to diet-related health from the trans pacific partnership agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Trade poses risks and opportunities to public health nutrition. This paper discusses the potential food-related public health risks of a radical new kind of trade agreement: the Trans Pacific Partnership agreement (TPP). Under negotiation since 2010, the TPP involves Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the USA, and Vietnam. Here, we review the international evidence on the relationships between trade agreements and diet-related health and, where available, documents and leaked text from the TPP negotiations. Similar to other recent bilateral or regional trade agreements, we find that the TPP would propose tariffs reductions, foreign investment liberalisation and intellectual property protection that extend beyond provisions in the multilateral World Trade Organization agreements. The TPP is also likely to include strong investor protections, introducing major changes to domestic regulatory regimes to enable greater industry involvement in policy making and new avenues for appeal. Transnational food corporations would be able to sue governments if they try to introduce health policies that food companies claim violate their privileges in the TPP; even the potential threat of litigation could greatly curb governments’ ability to protect public health. Hence, we find that the TPP, emblematic of a new generation of 21st century trade policy, could potentially yield greater risks to health than prior trade agreements. Because the text of the TPP is secret until the countries involved commit to the agreement, it is essential for public health concerns to be articulated during the negotiation process. Unless the potential health consequences of each part of the text are fully examined and taken into account, and binding language is incorporated in the TPP to safeguard regulatory policy space for health, the TPP could be detrimental to public health nutrition. Health advocates and health-related policymakers must be

  6. A new generation of trade policy: potential risks to diet-related health from the trans pacific partnership agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Gleeson, Deborah; Thow, Anne-Marie; Labonte, Ronald; Stuckler, David; Kay, Adrian; Snowdon, Wendy

    2013-10-16

    Trade poses risks and opportunities to public health nutrition. This paper discusses the potential food-related public health risks of a radical new kind of trade agreement: the Trans Pacific Partnership agreement (TPP). Under negotiation since 2010, the TPP involves Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the USA, and Vietnam. Here, we review the international evidence on the relationships between trade agreements and diet-related health and, where available, documents and leaked text from the TPP negotiations. Similar to other recent bilateral or regional trade agreements, we find that the TPP would propose tariffs reductions, foreign investment liberalisation and intellectual property protection that extend beyond provisions in the multilateral World Trade Organization agreements. The TPP is also likely to include strong investor protections, introducing major changes to domestic regulatory regimes to enable greater industry involvement in policy making and new avenues for appeal. Transnational food corporations would be able to sue governments if they try to introduce health policies that food companies claim violate their privileges in the TPP; even the potential threat of litigation could greatly curb governments' ability to protect public health. Hence, we find that the TPP, emblematic of a new generation of 21st century trade policy, could potentially yield greater risks to health than prior trade agreements. Because the text of the TPP is secret until the countries involved commit to the agreement, it is essential for public health concerns to be articulated during the negotiation process. Unless the potential health consequences of each part of the text are fully examined and taken into account, and binding language is incorporated in the TPP to safeguard regulatory policy space for health, the TPP could be detrimental to public health nutrition. Health advocates and health-related policymakers must be

  7. REGIONALIZATION AND INTRA-INDUSTRY TRADE. AN ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY TRADE IN NAFTA

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvie MONTOUT; Jean-Louis MUCCHIELLI; Soledad ZIGNAGO

    2002-01-01

    As was shown in some previous studies, the creation of the North American Free Trade American (NAFTA) has significantly increased trade and investment flows between member countries. Consequently, it seems appropriate to analyze the incidences of the free trade agreement on the nature of trade. In this paper, we study the intra-industry trade in the automobile industry within the NAFTA area. Our results highlight an increase in intra-industry trade since the beginning of the 1990s. The import...

  8. The Impact of the Canada-Korea Free Trade Agreement as Negotiated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Ciuriak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of the Canada-Korea Free Trade Agreement on the basis of the published text and agreed schedule of commitments. We find that the Agreement reinforces existing patterns of comparative advantage between Canada (agriculture and resource-based sectors and Korea (autos and other industries. The sensitive sectors that held up the deal for years - autos into Canada and beef into Korea - witness major trade gains, but are not unduly disrupted. In both economies, the major output gains otherwise come in non-traded services sectors, driven by income effects. We find that trade diversion effects are quite significant; this lends support for the domino theory of major free trade agreements - since the Korea-EU agreement broke the ice, the pressure has intensified on third parties to re-level playing fields by striking their own deals. The study breaks new ground in modelling services trade by developing policy impacts based on the extent to which the text of the Agreement modifies Korea's and Canada's scores on the OECD's Services Trade Restrictiveness Index and by providing estimates of Mode 3 Services trade impacts. The analysis of the Agreement as negotiated, the present study, in our view, is a step forward in understanding the impact of modern free trade agreements.

  9. 78 FR 76700 - Procurement Thresholds for Implementation of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... International Procurement Policy, Office of the United States Trade Representative, (202) 395-9646 or scott... the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Government Procurement, Chapter 15 of the United... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Procurement Thresholds for Implementation of the...

  10. The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-17

    U.S.-South Korea Merchandise Trade, Selected Years ......................................7 The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS...Research Service 7 Table 1. Annual U.S.-South Korea Merchandise Trade, Selected Years (Billions of U.S. Dollars) Year U.S. Exports U.S. Imports...household meat purchases, particularly on reducing beef consumption in restaurants . 157

  11. The Impacts of U.S. Agricultural and Trade Policy on Trade Liberalization and Integation via a U.S.-Central American Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Dale E. Hathaway

    2003-01-01

    This study looks at several major legislative actions in 2002 that will substantially affect trade negotiations with the United States, and examines the US import protection for agricultural products that will be critical in trade negotiations with Central American countries. The two important legislative actions were the passage of the 2002 Farm Bill and the passage of Trade Promotion Authority, which provides for "fast track" treatment of trade agreements. The 2002 farm bill was widely deno...

  12. 22 CFR 41.59 - Professionals under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professionals under the North American Free Trade Agreement. 41.59 Section 41.59 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF... Professionals under the North American Free Trade Agreement. (a) Requirements for classification as a NAFTA...

  13. 48 CFR 3027.208 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreements. 3027.208 Section 3027.208 Federal Acquisition... American Free Trade Agreements. (f) Contracting officers shall ensure compliance. ...

  14. 19 CFR 102.25 - Textile or apparel products under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Textile or apparel products under the North American Free Trade Agreement. 102.25 Section 102.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... or apparel products under the North American Free Trade Agreement. In connection with a claim for...

  15. 48 CFR 18.119 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... under the North American Free Trade Agreement. 18.119 Section 18.119 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.119 Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement. Requirement to obtain authorization prior to use of patented technology may be waived in...

  16. Sectoral and regional expansion of emissions trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph; Bouwe, Dijkstra; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2011-07-01

    We consider an international emissions trading scheme with partial sectoral and regional coverage. Sectoral and regional expansion of the trading scheme is beneficial in aggregate, but not necessarily for individual countries. We simulate international CO{sub 2} emission quota markets using marginal abatement cost functions and the Copenhagen 2020 climate policy targets for selected countries that strategically allocate emissions in a bid to manipulate the quota price. Quota exporters and importers generally have conflicting interests about admitting more countries to the trading coalition, and our results indicate that some countries may lose substantially when the coalition expands in terms of new countries. For a given coalition, expanding sectoral coverage makes most countries better off, but some countries (notably the USA and Russia) may lose out due to loss of strategic advantages. In general, exporters tend to have stronger strategic power than importers.(Author)

  17. 75 FR 13421 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-036, Trade Agreements-Costa Rica, Oman, and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... 9000-AL23 Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-036, Trade Agreements--Costa Rica, Oman, and... United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement, and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES... interim rule. The interim rule added Costa Rica, Oman, and Peru to the definition of ``Free Trade...

  18. 77 FR 66441 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; First Request for Panel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement... North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of the U.S. Department of Commerce's..., (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement...

  19. 76 FR 72677 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement... Trade Agreement. Panel review was requested of the final determination of the effective examination and... 20230, (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement...

  20. Regional Trade Integration and Conflict Resolution | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-12-05

    Dec 5, 2008 ... Presenting a series of case studies in four regions: South America; the southern African ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Doctoral Research Awards ... agreement to support joint research projects in December 2017.

  1. Estimating the Impact of the Indo-ASEAN FreeTrade Agreement on India’s Balance of Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ranajoy Bhattacharyya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available India signed a Free Trade Agreement with ASEAN on 13th August, 2009. In this paper we analyze one aspect of the possible impacts of the FTA: that on India’s Balance of Trade. It is found that the impact of the agreement on India’s balance of trade is expected to be negative. India’s imports will rise significantly, however there will be no commensurate rise in India’s export to these countries except to Indonesia.

  2. Regional Integration, Trade and Private Sector Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dr. Dirk Hansohm. Institution. Namibian Economic Policy Research Unit. Pays d' institution. Namibia. Site internet. http://www.nepru.org.na. Extrants. Rapports. Regional integration, trade and private sector development : final report. Contenus connexes. L'Initiative des conseils subventionnaires de la recherche scientifique ...

  3. Monitoring the impact of trade agreements on national food environments: trade imports and population nutrition risks in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravuvu, Amerita; Friel, Sharon; Thow, Anne-Marie; Snowdon, Wendy; Wate, Jillian

    2017-06-13

    Trade agreements are increasingly recognised as playing an influential role in shaping national food environments and the availability and nutritional quality of the food supply. Global monitoring of food environments and trade policies can strengthen the evidence base for the impact of trade policy on nutrition, and support improved policy coherence. Using the INFORMAS trade monitoring protocol, we reviewed available food supply data to understand associations between Fiji's commitments under WTO trade agreements and food import volume trends. First, a desk review was conducted to map and record in one place Fiji's commitments to relevant existing trade agreements that have implications for Fiji's national food environment under the domains of the INFORMAS trade monitoring protocol. An excel database was developed to document the agreements and their provisions. The second aspect of the research focused on data extraction. We began with identifying food import volumes into Fiji by country of origin, with a particular focus on a select number of 'healthy and unhealthy' foods. We also developed a detailed listing of transnational food corporations currently operating in Fiji. The study suggests that Fiji's WTO membership, in conjunction with associated economic and agricultural policy changes have contributed to increased availability of both healthy and less healthy imported foods. In systematically monitoring the import volume trends of these two categories of food, the study highlights an increase in healthy foods such as fresh fruits and vegetables and whole-grain refined cereals. The study also shows that there has been an increase in less healthy foods including fats and oils; meat; processed dairy products; energy-dense beverages; and processed and packaged foods. By monitoring the trends of imported foods at country level from the perspective of trade agreements, we are able to develop appropriate and targeted interventions to improve diets and health. This

  4. The prospects for the World Trade Organisation Agreement on Government Procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Arwel

    2000-01-01

    This thesis questions the prospects for the World Trade Organisation, Agreement on Government Procurement. This is the most important international agreement seeking to promote cross-border trade in hitherto closed national procurement markets. For the above threshold goods, services and construction services contracts which it covers, the Agreement's principal objective is to require the non-discriminatory treatment of foreign suppliers. It is because of this general insistence on non-discri...

  5. The European Window: Challenges in the Negotiation of Mexico's Free Trade Agreement with the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Gómez Lora; Jaime Zabludovsky

    2005-01-01

    On 1 July 2000 regulations to liberalize trade flows between Mexico and the European Union came into force, after more than six years of diplomatic work and complex negotiations. These regulations are part of the ¿Tratado de Libre Comercio (TLCUEM), which is also one of the components of the Agreement on Economic Association, Political Concertation and Cooperation (¿Global Agreement¿). The Global Agreement through its three components ¿ political dialogue, trade liberalization and cooperation...

  6. THE UTILITY OF THE BARTER AGREEMENT IN INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA RĂVAŞ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to explain how barter, as an economic institution, can help deal with the problem of contract enforcement across national borders in international trade and within borders in transition economies.

  7. International R&D collaboration networks and free trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hua Sheng

    2006-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the analysis of optimal industrial and strategic trade policy in the presence of oligopoly and other forms of imperfect competition, so as to make contact with important empirical regularities and policy concerns, such as international R&D collaboration, unionization and free trade. First, in the context of international competition in which R&D plays an important role, we study the consequences of allowing governments to subsidize R&D and coalition devi...

  8. Analysis of trade condition in Ras region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andelić Slavica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern academic literature in the field of trade in macro and mesoeconomic atmosphere, is trying to shed light on the data which defines exchange flows in intra and international environment. The study of this work is based on the database based through state registers, where with their sizing and analysis, we are coming to a deeper insight into the condition of market channels of Ras region and its relationship with the environment. The aim of this work is meticulous interpretation of trade patterns as a result of macro and meso trade policy, which could serve as an incentive for local and governmental structures in developing commercial potential of the southern part of our country.

  9. Protocol to monitor trade agreement food-related aspects: the Fiji case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravuvu, Amerita; Friel, Sharon; Thow, Anne Marie; Snowdon, Wendy; Wate, Jillian

    2017-04-26

    Despite the growing rates of obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases, globally, public health attention has only relatively recently turned to the links between trade agreements and the nutritional risks associated with it. Specific trade agreements appear to have played an influential role in the volume and types of foods entering different countries, yet there is currently no systematic and objective monitoring of trade agreements for their impacts on food environments. Recently, INFORMAS was set up to monitor and benchmark food environments, government policies and private sector actions within countries and globally. One of its projects/modules focuses on trade policy and in particular the food-related aspects of trade agreements. This paper describes the INFORMAS trade protocol, an approach to collecting food-related information about four domains of trade: trade in goods; trade in services and foreign direct investment; domestic supports, and policy space. Specifically, the protocol is tested in Fiji. The development and testing of this protocol in Fiji represents the first effort to set out a framework and process for objectively monitoring trade agreements and their impacts on national food supply and the wider food environment. It has shown that entry into WTO trade agreements contributed to the nutrition transition in Fiji through the increased availability of imported foods with varying nutritional quality. We observed an increase in imports of both healthy and less healthy foods. The application of the monitoring protocol also highlights challenges for data collection associated with each trade domain that should be considered for future data collection and analysis in other low and middle income countries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Fears and Strategies: The EU, China and their Free Trade Agreements in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Garcia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The stalemate at the WTO Doha Round sparked a new wave of bilateral preferential and free trade agreements (FTAs. Nowhere has this been more evident than in the Asia Pacific region. Whilst there are economic reasons for FTAs, these are less efficient and more complex than multilateral agreements and most have had fairly small economic impacts. This paper compares the strategies of a newcomer to the FTA arena, China, and the actor with the most cumulative FTAs, the EU. It ponders on the different reasons informing their strategies and on how these may be affecting each other. It also considers the role of competitive fears and competitive diffusion in the formulation of their policies.

  11. Trade Mark Coexistence Agreements: What is all the (lack of) fuss about?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    time and space is allocated to trade mark coexistence agreements. Despite a shortage of authoritative rulings, it is not immediately clear why, especially as they may be having a profound impact on the use of product markers. Coexistence agreements commonly exist between parties with at least similar...... trade marks who decide to formally coexist, often in the wake of legal skirmishes. In the busy European market, where Community-wide protection is available, an up-front contract may be an attractive way to avoid trade mark conflict. When these contracts work, trade mark law is effectively pre...

  12. ROMANIAN FOREIGN TRADE - A REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Carmen Pascariu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing integration of Romania in the global economy is a reality of the last years, proved through a constant growth of the foreign trade with other countries, which exceeded, in terms ofdynamics, both GDP and industrial production. In the first part of our paper, we intend to analyze the evolution of Romanian foreign trade in the period 1995-2007, focusing on the proportions of the imports and exports, at regional level. We wish to emphasize the correlations between the indicators that describe the degree of openness to foreign trade and indicators of competitiveness and specialization in different industries. The main goal of our approach is to highlight the sectors which generate comparative advantages and potential competitiveness poles, contributing significantly to the increase of the Romanian economy, expressed in GDP/capita. In the second part of the paper, based on the frame of analysis and interpretation defined and implemented in the first part, we intend to establish if the agglomeration processes in some regions of ourcountry will lead gradually to the strengthening of growth poles and, therefore to boost the foreign trade.

  13. Europe’s Preferential Trade Agreements: Status, Content, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    Access to the EU, HNMINT, February 4, 2010. 56 Business Standard, “India, EU to resume FTA talks next week,” January 22, 2010. 57 Factiva, Accord Fintech ...much in value terms ($3.4 trillion versus $0.52 trillion) than U.S. PTAs. These numbers can be used to support the argument that U.S. firms may face...multilateral trade liberalization.3 If PTAs, on balance, create more trade (by allowing production to shift to the more competitive producers in the

  14. Are Competitors' Free Trade Agreements Putting U.S. Agricultural Exporters at a Disadvantage?

    OpenAIRE

    Wainio, John; Dyck, John H.; Gehlhar, Mark J.; Vollrath, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    The growing number of free trade agreements among U.S. competitors has prompted questions about whether U.S. agricultural exporters may lose a share of the global market. ERS research shows that the recently created ASEAN-China and ASEANAustralia/ New Zealand free trade agreements are likely to have modest adverse impacts on U.S. agricultural exports. The Mercosur-Colombia free trade agreement has reduced U.S. agricultural exports to Colombia; U.S. grain sellers face increasingly stiff compet...

  15. 76 FR 697 - United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... comments may also be inspected during regular business days between the hours of 9 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. at... corruption in international trade and investment; fostering creativity and innovation by improving technology... preference or other rights or benefits under the OFTA and the Act. The likely respondents are business...

  16. 48 CFR 52.225-5 - Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Basin Trade Partnership Act of 2000. (3) Section XXII, Chapter 98, Subchapter II, Articles Exported and..., Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea..., Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru...

  17. 75 FR 66680 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-New Thresholds (DFARS 2009-D040)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and the Free Trade Agreements, as determined by the... of Subjects in 48 CFR Part 225 Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition...

  18. 75 FR 13494 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement... Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of... Section, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of First Request for...

  19. The Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    Agreement ( TIEA ), which provides greater tax transparency in support of curbing illicit financial transactions associated with money laundering activities...Exchange Agreement ( TIEA ) with the United States, and took other measures necessary to be removed from the OECD “Gray List,” including implementing tax...resolution on the tax transparency issue on November 30, 2010, when they signed a TIEA . The TIEA permits either country to request information on most types

  20. The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, William H; Manyin, Mark E; Jones, Vivian C; Cooney, Stephen; Jurenas, Remy

    2008-01-01

    ....-South Korean Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA) for their respective countries. If approved, the KORUS FTA would be the largest FTA that South Korea has signed to date and would be the second largest...

  1. 48 CFR 3025.7002-3 - Specific application of trade agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-discriminatory treatment under the World Trade Organization Agreement on Government Procurement (WTO GPA), or any... the WTO GPA, or any FTA listed in (FAR) 48 CFR subpart 25.4, apply the restrictions of (HSAR) 48 CFR...

  2. Proposed EU-India free trade agreement could impede manufacture of generic HIV drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sandra Ka Hon

    2011-04-01

    Medical experts are warning that an international trade agreement being brokered between the European Union (EU) and India could greatly restrict the access of people living with HIV in the developing world to life-saving antiretroviral medication.

  3. Tinjauan Yuridis Terhadap Asean-China Free Trade Agreement (ACFTA) Dan Implikasinya Terhadap Pengaturan Penanaman Modal

    OpenAIRE

    NAINGGOLAN, SUSPIM GP; GINTING, BUDIMAN; SIREGAR, MAHMUL

    2013-01-01

    ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement (ACFTA) is a free agreement which is formed the member countries of ASEAN with China. ACFTA is one of the free Trade Agreement that has been agreed since 2001, and are formed based on the basic of International law, namely the Framework Agreement and Comprehensive Economic Co-operation between ASEAN and The People's Republic of China, which is signed on 4 November 2002 in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, by the heads of government from ASEAN countries and The People's of...

  4. 76 FR 5825 - U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of...) instituted investigation No. 332-523, U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update. DATES... concluded negotiations to modify the FTA, including certain provisions relating to the passenger vehicle...

  5. Transition problems in economic reform: agriculture in the North American free trade agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the effecto of the North American Free Trade Agreement on agriculture in Mexico. Implications on policy design for the absence of efficient capital markets, on the welfare costs of reforming gradually, on incentive problems created by trade adjustement policies and on the redistribution

  6. 77 FR 74174 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section.... Therefore, on the basis of the Panel Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was...

  7. 78 FR 5778 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... the Panel Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was completed and the...

  8. 78 FR 17639 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was completed and the panelists were...

  9. 78 FR 10600 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was completed and the panelists were...

  10. 78 FR 11627 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was completed and the panelists were...

  11. 77 FR 72325 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was completed and the panelists were...

  12. 76 FR 71617 - Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... Government Procurement. (2) Whether Canada or Mexico has failed to comply with its telecommunications... the United States: The World Trade Organization (``WTO'') General Agreement on Trade in Services; The... telecommunications products and services. For the current review, the USTR seeks comments on: (1) Whether any WTO...

  13. 77 FR 30355 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... already a designated country under the WTO GPA. Although the rule now opens up Government procurement to... Korea is already party to the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement. DATES... note)). The Republic of Korea is already party to the World Trade Organization Government Procurement...

  14. 78 FR 20137 - Probable Economic Effect of Certain Modifications to the North American Free Trade Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. TA-103-027] Probable Economic Effect of Certain... investigation No. TA-103-027, Probable Economic Effect of Certain Modifications to the North American Free Trade... reached agreement in principle with representatives of the governments of Canada and Mexico on proposed...

  15. 77 FR 37948 - Free Trade Agreements; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on Dispute Settlement Lists for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ..., Colombia, Korea, Morocco, and Singapore AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative (``USTR...-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (``USSFTA''). USTR is inviting interested persons to apply to be on one or...-9483 to arrange for an alternative method of transmission. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For...

  16. The U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement: Effects After Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    U.S. service providers in Singapore under the FTA , Citibank has been able to expand its operations there (it has 50% of the credit card market...failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 26 MAR 2010 2. REPORT...U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement: Effects After Five Years Congressional Research Service Summary The U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement ( FTA

  17. The 2030 Architecture of Association of Southeast Asian Nations Free Trade Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Suthiphand Chirathivat; Piti Srisangnam

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates and analyzes the present status, potential, and prospects of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) free trade agreements (FTAs). It begins with a review of the historical evolution of ASEAN FTAs, which captures the achievements of the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AFTA) and the efforts meant to lead to a further step of deeper integration, i.e., the realization of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by 2015. The paper then offers a view on how the grouping adopte...

  18. 77 FR 13153 - National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements; Notice of Open...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ....S. Free Trade Agreements; Notice of Open Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S... meeting is to discuss the implementation of the labor provisions of the Free Trade Agreements, technical... of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs), a brief presentation on USDOL technical assistance efforts in FTA...

  19. 78 FR 13088 - National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements; Notice of Open...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ....S. Free Trade Agreements; Notice of Open Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S... meeting is to discuss the implementation of the labor provisions of Free Trade Agreements, as well as a... implementation of the labor provisions of Free Trade Agreements, and a review and discussion by the full...

  20. 48 CFR 27.204-1 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... under the North American Free Trade Agreement. 27.204-1 Section 27.204-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Patents and Copyrights 27.204-1 Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement... the patent holder is from a country that is a party to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA...

  1. 48 CFR 52.225-12 - Notice of Buy American Act Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements. 52.225-12 Section 52.225-12 Federal Acquisition...—Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements. As prescribed in 25.1102(d)(1), insert the following provision: Notice of Buy American Act Requirement—Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements (FEB 2009) (a...

  2. Regional cooperative agreement for the Asia and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Among the means available to the International Atomic Energy Agency to promote cooperative efforts in the nuclear field is the Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) for Research, Development, and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology for the Asia and Pacific Region. Under the terms of this agreement, which came into force on June 12, 1972, participating countries aim to promote and coordinate research, development, and training projects in nuclear fields through collaborative efforts among relevant national institutions in the region. The Agency's role is to provide organizational, administrative, advisory, technical, and financial assistance when needed to secure successful execution of the projects undertaken within the framework of the RCA. Although this presentation deals primarily with the benefits of regional cooperation under the agreement, a review of the RCA would be somewhat imbalanced without a mention of its shortcomings. One of the principal impediments to more rapid progress, as is the case in many other areas, is financing. There is no stable source of funding outside the research contract program and, the likelihood of large-scale UNDP support notwithstanding, a greater willingness on the part of participating Member States to support the program along with the development of a greater sense of common purpose are called for. In this connection serious consideration is being given to the possibility of establishing an Asian Centre for Research and Training, an institute that would bring together scientists from the region to collaborate on problems common to the RCA countries. A study group has already been convened to investigate the feasibility of this proposal

  3. Leveraging Trade Agreements to Meet U.S. Security Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    market , accounting for $24.9 billion in exports . An estimated 800,000 U.S. jobs are tied to trade with China .6 President Nixon’s 1972 goal of bringing...pursued a foreign policy initiative referred to as the “North American Accord,” explaining, A developing closeness among Canada, Mexico , and the United...framework to facilitate better cooperation with their powerful southern neighbor.9 Reagan’s North American Accord with Mexico took longer to evolve

  4. EU-Mercosur Trade Agreement: Potential Impacts on Rural Livelihoods and Gender (with Focus on Bio-fuels Feedstock Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonith Hinojosa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The trade-sustainable impact assessment of the European Union-Mercosur trade agreement found that the economic impact of the trade liberalisation scenario could be positive in the agricultural sectors of Mercosur countries. However, it also found that the social and environmental impacts would be mixed and potentially detrimental. This paper addresses the likely effects on the livelihoods of vulnerable rural populations. It argues that the potential impacts can be analysed within a diversified livelihood strategies framework, which is expanded to include institutional and policy factors. It concludes that the negative expected impact responds to the highly uneven access to capital assets. On the other hand, the effects are not generalised to all Mercosur countries, nor to all regions in each of the member countries. Enhancing or mitigating measures refer to the importance of sequencing and regulation to improve disadvantaged groups‘ abilities to participate in trade-led agricultural intensification or industrialisation processes.

  5. Trends in Global and Regional Integration by means of Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Monica Oehler-Șincai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we aim to emphasize several aspects of the economic integration realized through the channel of trade, from a double perspective. The first point of view is given by the formal framework, de jure, composed by the multitude of preferential trade agreements, while the second one, de facto, market-driven, is concretized by the global production networks. The first stance is exemplified through the agreements negotiated or concluded by the traditional trade powers, EU, US and Japan. Although, economically, EU is more present in Asia-Pacific than the US, the latter are politically more active and seem to gain ground. The second stance is underlined by means of the Asian integration specificity. East and South-East Asia represents the core of „Factory Asia” and is governed by the activity of the transnational corporations, their investment and cross-border networks, which makes the production process more fragmented and the regional economies more mutually dependent.

  6. Jane Kelsey, Serving Whose Interests? The Political Economy of Trade in Services Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Irish

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Serving Whose Interests is an examination of the General Agreement on Trade in Services [GATS] since its inception in 1995, with several case studies that discuss services trade in specific applications around the world. The scholarship i s extensive and detailed. Jane Kelsey, law professor at the University of Auckland, has criticized the pro-market services trade regime i n her role as a political activist. In this book, her goals are to make the technicalities of trade rules accessible and to show their effects on people and communities.

  7. 78 FR 18876 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Agreement. The Republic of Korea is already party to the World Trade Organization Government Procurement...) Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA). Although the rule now opens up Government procurement to the... 48 CFR Parts 225 and 252 Government procurement. Kortnee Stewart, Editor, Defense Acquisition...

  8. Multilateral aspects of advanced regulatory cooperation: considerations for a Canada-EU Comprehensive Trade Agreement (CETA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, J.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers equivalency recognition for goods and for services in the context of the applicable WTO agreements and provisions. The discussion of equivalency arises from certain elements presented by the Canada-EU Comprehensive Trade Agreement (CETA), in which economically developed

  9. The Role of Institutional Environment in International Trade. The Case of Spanish Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Márquez-Ramos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We move beyond the nation-state as the unit of analysis and use subnational spatial variation to study the effect of the institutional environment on international trade. Additionally, we address the heterogeneous effect of trade agreements on different regions within a country. Employing a gravity model approach, we use a region-to-country dataset to estimate the determinants of Spanish regional exports and we apply quantile regressions for panel data. We find that better institutional quality of trade agreements leads to an increase in both the intensive and the extensive margins of trade. The institutional quality of trade agreements exerts a differential effect on regional exports at different locations within a country, although differences across Spanish regions seem to be larger for the intensive margin than for the extensive margin. We do, however, find a common trend: for the relatively more important exporting regions, the institutional quality of TAs is less relevant for trade margins. Therefore, our results posit that subnational spatial variation should be added to the analysis of the determinants of international trade flows.

  10. "Trade creep" and implications of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement for the United Kingdom National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivusalo, Meri; Tritter, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The ambitious and comprehensive Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement (TTIP/TAFTA) agreement between the European Union and United States is now being negotiated and may have far-reaching consequences for health services. The agreement extends to government procurement, investment, and further regulatory cooperation. In this article, we focus on the United Kingdom National Health Service and how these negotiations can limit policy space to change policies and to regulate in relation to health services, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and health industries. The negotiation of TTIP/TAFTA has the potential to "harmonize" more corporate-friendly regulation, resulting in higher costs and loss of policy space, an example of "trade creep" that potentially compromises health equity, public health, and safety concerns across the Atlantic.

  11. Bilateral agreements in the field of nuclear trade and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Primio, J.C.

    1989-03-01

    This report analyses the evolution of the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the non-proliferation regime since the nineteen sixties from the angle of an interdisciplinary approach. The medium- and long-term issues of non-proliferation are identified and discussed in connection with the NPT revisional conference to be held in 1990, and the NPT extension conference in 1995. The major subjects under review include: the international safeguards system; NP aspects of new technologies; bilateral agreements on cooperation in nuclear energy; developments on the international nuclear market; arms control issues of relevance to the NPT; the non-proliferation interests of the Federal Republic of Germany. Looking ahead to the conferences in 1990 and 1995, the report reveals some major aspects and recommendations for consideration in decisions on the future line of non-proliferation policy pursued by the Federal German government. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Effect of the International Agreement on Government Procurement and the Government Procurement Chapter of the North American Free Trade Agreement on public contracting opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Heldreth, Steven E.

    1994-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper explores the specific legal content of the 1979 and 1993 Agreements on Government Procurement as well as the North American Free Trade Agreement's Chapter Ten (Government Procurement). One chapter addresses the use of free trade agreements, associated problems, and how the agreements have been applied to the public sector. The content of each of the primary documents is an...

  13. 76 FR 68067 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... between the Parties and promoting regional economic integration; promoting broad-based economic development in order to reduce poverty and generate opportunities for sustainable economic alternatives to... rule. CBP also invites comments that relate to the economic, environmental, or federalism effects that...

  14. 78 FR 23954 - U.S.-EU Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement: Advice on the Probable Economic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. TA-131-037 and TA-2104-029] U.S.-EU Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement: Advice on the Probable Economic Effect of Providing.... TA-131-037 and TA-2104-029, U.S.-EU Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement: Advice...

  15. 77 FR 56233 - National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements; Notice of Open...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ....S. Free Trade Agreements; Notice of Open Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S... meeting is to discuss the implementation of the labor provisions of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs... Advisory Committee Act (FACA), as amended, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, the Office of Trade and Labor Affairs (OTLA...

  16. Health preemption behind closed doors: trade agreements and fast-track authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Eric; Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-09-01

    Noncommunicable diseases result from consuming unhealthy products, including tobacco, which are promoted by transnational corporations. The tobacco industry uses preemption to block or reverse tobacco control policies. Preemption removes authority from jurisdictions where tobacco companies' influence is weak and transfers it to jurisdictions where they have an advantage. International trade agreements relocate decisions about tobacco control policy to venues where there is little opportunity for public scrutiny, participation, and debate. Tobacco companies are using these agreements to preempt domestic authority over tobacco policy. Other transnational corporations that profit by promoting unhealthy foods could do the same. "Fast-track authority," in which Congress cedes ongoing oversight authority to the President, further distances the public from the debate. With international agreements binding governments to prioritize trade over health, transparency and public oversight of the trade negotiation process is necessary to safeguard public health interests.

  17. Health Preemption Behind Closed Doors: Trade Agreements and Fast-Track Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Eric; Gonzalez, Mariaelena

    2014-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases result from consuming unhealthy products, including tobacco, which are promoted by transnational corporations. The tobacco industry uses preemption to block or reverse tobacco control policies. Preemption removes authority from jurisdictions where tobacco companies’ influence is weak and transfers it to jurisdictions where they have an advantage. International trade agreements relocate decisions about tobacco control policy to venues where there is little opportunity for public scrutiny, participation, and debate. Tobacco companies are using these agreements to preempt domestic authority over tobacco policy. Other transnational corporations that profit by promoting unhealthy foods could do the same. “Fast-track authority,” in which Congress cedes ongoing oversight authority to the President, further distances the public from the debate. With international agreements binding governments to prioritize trade over health, transparency and public oversight of the trade negotiation process is necessary to safeguard public health interests. PMID:25033124

  18. The role of veterinary epidemiology and veterinary services in complying with the World Trade Organization SPS agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, C; Salman, M; Thiermann, A; Kellar, J; Rojas, H; Willeberg, P

    2005-02-01

    The agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS agreement) was one of the major products of the GATT's Uruguay round of multilateral trade negotiations, signed in Marrakesh on 15 April 1994. This agreement and others are part of the treaty that established the World Trade Organization (WTO). The WTO superseded the GATT as the umbrella organization for international trade (WTO, 1998a). The SPS agreement's main intent is to provide guidelines and provisions to member countries to facilitate trade while taking measures to protect human, animal or plant life or health. The agreement dictates that all sanitary measures must be scientifically based and not more restrictive than required to avoid the risk identified. The agreement recommends the use of international standards from the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), Codex Alimentarius (CAC) and the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) as the basis for import requirements. If a country chooses to apply more restrictive measures than those in the international standards, it has to justify its position through a risk analysis, thus avoiding the use of sanitary and phytosanitary measures as unjustified barriers to trade. More than ever, veterinary services worldwide are faced with having to fulfill a crucial role in protecting their country's animal health status, provide sound surveillance information on the occurrence of diseases within their territories, and conduct scientifically valid risk analyses to establish justified import requirements. During the past two decades, most countries have experienced resource reduction in their veterinary services. The effect of these policies has been severe, in many cases leading to an inability of veterinary services to conduct their disease prevention and control duties. There is a clear inconsistency between the demands placed on veterinary services and the current level of funding and support they are receiving, particularly in

  19. Long-run Effects of the Korea-China Free-Trade Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghyun Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a 53-country 15-industry computable general equilibrium model of trade to analyze the effects of the Korea-China free trade agreement on the Korean economy, the manufacturing sector in particular. The model is based on Yaylaci and Shikher (2014 which uses the Eaton-Kortum methodology to explain intra-industry trade. The model predicts that the Korea-China FTA will increase Korea-China manufacturing trade by 56%, manufacturing employment in Korea by 5.7% and China by 0.55%. The model also predicts significant reallocation of employment across industries with the Food industry in Korea losing jobs and other industries there gaining jobs, with the Medical equipment industry gaining the most. There will be some trade diversion from the ASEAN countries, as well as Japan and the United States.

  20. Emissions Trading Regimes and Incentives to Participate in International Climate Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchner, B.; Carraro, C.

    2003-11-01

    This paper analyses whether different emissions trading regimes provide different incentives to participate in a cooperative climate agreement. Different incentive structures are discussed for those countries, namely the US, Russia and China, that are most important in the climate negotiation process. Our analysis confirms the conjecture that, by appropriately designing the emission trading regime, it is possible to enhance the incentives to participate in a climate agreement. Therefore, participation and optimal policy should be jointly analysed. Moreover, our results show that the US, Russia and China have different most preferred climate coalitions and therefore adopt conflicting negotiation strategies

  1. Pengaruh Kebijakan Agreement on Agriculture (Aoa) Oleh World Trade Organization (WTO) Terhadap Kenaikan Impor Kopi Indonesia Tahun 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Jamaan, Ahmad; Parapat, Johan Kristo

    2015-01-01

    This research describes and proves the influence of policy AgreementOn Agriculture (AoA) by the World Trade Organization (WTO) for theIndonesian coffee. AoA policy is a policy of international trade in agricultureby WTO.This research uses perspective of pluralism. Pluralist assumes that stateis not unitary actor. This study also uses international trade and internationalorganizations theory.Agreement On Agriculture (AoA) is an international treaty on trade inagriculture in the WTO context. Ao...

  2. 76 FR 13436 - National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... point of contact for the NAALC and the Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements. The committee is... Labor Affairs serves as the U.S. point of contact under the FTAs listed above. The committee shall... Committee. Members of the Committee will not be compensated for their services or reimbursed for travel...

  3. Institutional Arrangements that Affect Free Trade Agreements: Economic Rationality Versus Interest Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. del Pilar Londoño (María)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation presents a time motion study of what actually happens at the busiest U.S-Mexican border crossing at Laredo. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) assumes seamless border crossings without detailing however how this would be achieved particularly in the case of

  4. United States versus Mexican Perceptions of the Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Joel D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Surveys U.S. and Mexican managerial attitudes concerning the impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) process on the United States. Discusses differences in Mexican and U.S. attitudes concerning NAFTA and a number of socioeconomic concerns. (SR)

  5. Commercial Trucking: Safety and Infrastructure Issues Under the North American Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-29

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) provided for the U.S.-Mexican border to be opened for increased commercial truck traffic within the respective border states-four in the United States (Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas) and si...

  6. Language Learning for the 21st Century: Challenges for the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. Richard

    1993-01-01

    The American phenomenon of pervasive monolingualism is considered, and potential implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement are described. Five second-language learning/teaching areas are projected: language for specific purposes; obligatory language study; exchange programs; technological advances; and information resources.…

  7. The Fast Track Trade Agreement: Help or Hurt for the U.S.-Mexico Border Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lynda

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the environmental and labor problems associated with the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between the United States, Mexico, and Canada. A joint environmental plan between the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and SEDUE (Mexico's EPA equivalent) does not adequately address the problems. Offers recommendations for…

  8. Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    Panama, and South Korea Remy Jurenas Specialist in Agricultural Policy February 4, 2010 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov...Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues. Author Contact Information Remy Jurenas Specialist in Agricultural Policy rjurenas@crs.loc.gov, 7-7281 .

  9. What will a Mexican trade agreement mean to the US energy industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the effects that a free trade agreement with Mexico will have on the American energy sector in the fuel supply or electricity generating side of the industry. Topics are oil and gas areas available to US enterprise, the import and export of electricity, schedule for completion of negotiations, and the protection of domestic US oil and gas resources

  10. 78 FR 66899 - International Trade Administration, North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government of the United States, the Government of Canada and the Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article...

  11. The Politics of Global Value Chains: Import-dependent Firms and EU-Asia Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Poletti, Arlo

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, the European Commission released its Global Europe Communication, in which it announced a shift from a multilateral to a bilateral trade strategy. One of the key pillars of this new strategy was to strengthen the bilateral trade relations with key Asian countries. In contrast to existing analyses that focus on European Union (EU) decision makers' agency, we propose an explanation for this notable shift in the EU's trade policy that stresses the political role of import-dependent firms. In light of the increasing integration of such firms into global value chains, the article argues that a plausible case can be made, both theoretically and empirically, that import-dependent firms had a clear stake in the signing of preferential trade agreements between the EU and Asian countries and that their lobbying efforts significantly affected the EU's decision to start negotiations with South Korea, India and Vietnam.

  12. The Politics of Global Value Chains: Import-dependent Firms and EU–Asia Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Poletti, Arlo

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, the European Commission released its Global Europe Communication, in which it announced a shift from a multilateral to a bilateral trade strategy. One of the key pillars of this new strategy was to strengthen the bilateral trade relations with key Asian countries. In contrast to existing analyses that focus on European Union (EU) decision makers’ agency, we propose an explanation for this notable shift in the EU’s trade policy that stresses the political role of import-dependent firms. In light of the increasing integration of such firms into global value chains, the article argues that a plausible case can be made, both theoretically and empirically, that import-dependent firms had a clear stake in the signing of preferential trade agreements between the EU and Asian countries and that their lobbying efforts significantly affected the EU’s decision to start negotiations with South Korea, India and Vietnam. PMID:28018131

  13. Networks of global bird invasion altered by regional trade ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reino, Luís; Figueira, Rui; Beja, Pedro; Araújo, Miguel B; Capinha, César; Strubbe, Diederik

    2017-11-01

    Wildlife trade is a major pathway for introduction of invasive species worldwide. However, how exactly wildlife trade influences invasion risk, beyond the transportation of individuals to novel areas, remains unknown. We analyze the global trade network of wild-caught birds from 1995 to 2011 as reported by CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora). We found that before the European Union ban on imports of wild-caught birds, declared in 2005, invasion risk was closely associated with numbers of imported birds, diversity of import sources, and degree of network centrality of importer countries. After the ban, fluxes of global bird trade declined sharply. However, new trade routes emerged, primarily toward the Nearctic, Afrotropical, and Indo-Malay regions. Although regional bans can curtail invasion risk globally, to be fully effective and prevent rerouting of trade flows, bans should be global.

  14. The gravity model specification for modeling international trade flows and free trade agreement effects: a 10-year review of empirical studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kepaptsoglou, Konstantinos; Karlaftis, Matthew G.; Tsamboulas, Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    The gravity model has been extensively used in international trade research for the last 40 years because of its considerable empirical robustness and explanatory power. Since their introduction in the 1960's, gravity models have been used for assessing trade policy implications and, particularly recently, for analyzing the effects of Free Trade Agreements on international trade. The objective of this paper is to review the recent empirical literature on gravity models, highlight best practic...

  15. Regional Trade Integration and Conflict Resolution | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Regional Trade Integration and Conflict Resolution. Couverture du livre Regional Trade Integration and Conflict Resolution. Directeur(s) : Shaheen Rafi Khan. Maison(s) d'édition : Routledge, CRDI. 5 décembre 2008. ISBN : 9780415476737. 288 pages. e-ISBN : 9781552504147. Téléchargez le PDF · Téléchargez le ...

  16. An Assessment of the China-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Implementation Outcome and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiling Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available China-Korea Free Trade Agreement tops the list of trade volume covered by 14 FTAs China has signed with its signatory counterparts. In principle, 100 days of China-Korea Free Trade Agreement (ChKFTA into effect as of December 20, 2015, through two stages of tariff reduction and/or elimination, can result in substantial benefits for Chinese imports and/or exports firms. The paper is a pilot questionnaire study assessing the enforcement outcome of ChKFTA, based on the responding firms’ perceived observations and views of the impact of ChKFTA on their trading activities in the first quarter of 2016, and the role of related rule of origin (RoO. Such an inquiry of the relationship between rule of origin and trade in goods aims at yielding evidence for decision-making on how to optimize the outcome of ChKFTA and China’s increasing number of FTAs as well.

  17. Rights, Free Trade, and Politics: The Strategic Use of a Rights Discourse in the Negotiation of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Rettberg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to describe the strategic use of a rights discourse by domestic and international actors involved in the negotiation and ratification processes of free trade agreements between Colombia, the United States, and the European Union. We suggest that some of the differences between both FTAs and the processes leading up to their approval and ratification can be attributed to the ability of relevant actors to build and disseminate rights-based arguments in order to develop like-minded political coalitions, and other institutional and contextual characteristics.

  18. Free Trade Agreements and Firm-Product Markups in Chilean Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamorgese, A.R.; Linarello, A.; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    In this paper, we use detailed information about firms' product portfolio to study how trade liberalization affects prices, markups and productivity. We document these effects using firm product level data in Chilean manufacturing following two major trade agreements with the EU and the US....... The dataset provides information about the value and quantity of each good produced by the firm, as well as the amount of exports. One additional and unique characteristic of our dataset is that it provides a firm-product level measure of the unit average cost. We use this information to compute a firm...

  19. 48 CFR 252.225-7036 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7036 Section 252.225-7036 Federal Acquisition... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(11)(i), use the following clause: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As used...

  20. 48 CFR 252.225-7035 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate. 252.225-7035 Section 252.225-7035 Federal... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate. As prescribed in 225.1101(10), use the following provision: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate (DEC...

  1. Canada - United States Natural Gas Trade - A Model for Expanding Regional Energy Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D ArcyMcGee, T.

    1996-01-01

    This document deals with the expansion of Canadian natural gas exports to the United States. Over the past decade, these exports have more than tripled. The expansion of energy trade requires a growing market, a competitive supply source, deregulation of markets and free trade agreements, capital investment and eventually a transparent market with many buyers and sellers. Even if all these factors coexisted, there have been problems linked to this expansion of exports, such as the construction of transportation capacity. (TEC)

  2. 75 FR 68153 - To Adjust the Rules of Origin Under the United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement, Implement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ...-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement, Implement Modifications to the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act, and... Adjust the Rules of Origin Under the United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement, Implement Modifications to the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act, and for Other Purposes By the President of the United...

  3. Globalisation and Exploitation in Peru. Strategic Selectivities and the Defeat of Labour in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the socio-economic implications of the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement for the governance of Peruvian labour relations. It is argued that the trade agreement aims to lock-in the neoliberal market reforms carried out since the 1990s, which have given rise to an export-oriented

  4. 77 FR 47880 - U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Canada and Mexico: Advice on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ....S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on Probable Economic... Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Canada and Mexico: Advice on the Probable Economic Effect of... Mexico: Advice on the Probable Economic Effect of Providing Duty-Free Treatment for Imports. DATES...

  5. 75 FR 65031 - U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on the Probable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on the Probable Economic Effect of Providing Duty...-2104-027, U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on the Probable Economic Effect of Providing Duty-Free Treatment for Imports. DATES: November 10, 2010: Deadline...

  6. 48 CFR 752.225-9 - Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.225-9 Buy American Act—Trade Agreements Act—Balance of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program. 752.225-9 Section 752.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  7. Potential Economic Impacts of the Vietnam-Korea Free Trade Agreement on Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Hoan Phan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an assessment of the potential economic impacts of the Vietnam-Korea free trade agreement on Vietnam, by using general equilibrium modeling. The results show that Vietnam-Korea FTA will increase aggregate welfare for both countries in the long run. The most important gains accrue from better allocation of resources consequent to trade liberalization. All the sectoral differences and changes are consistent with the trade profiles of the two countries, and the long-run results are more pronounced than those of the short-run. In comparison with other ASEAN countries, the CGE analysis suggests that Vietnam's agriculture exports to Korea would especially rise in the long run. However, there will be strong competition in this sector among ASEAN members. Thus, an earlier conclusion of a comprehensive FTA with Korea is expected to be a good strategy for Vietnam, so as to avoid the direct competition with ASEAN members in the future.

  8. Proposed U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Background and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    exports. China is the second-leading supplier of Colombia’s imports, after the United States, accounting for 13% of total imports, followed by Mexico...which accounted for 9% of Colombia’s imports in 2010. China also ranks second among Colombia’s export markets, accounting for 5.0% of total...Postura Institucional, April 12, 2007. CUT, TLC: Todos Limosnearemos Comida , April 2008. Proposed U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Background and

  9. The Proposed U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Economic and Political Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    2008. 50 Ibid, p. 2. 51 Colombia’s Observatorio del Programa Presidencial de DDHH y DIH, Vicepresidencia de la República, April 2008. 52 See CRS...on the yarn-forward standard to encourage production and economic integration. A “ de minimis” provision would allow limited amounts of specified...agreement on May 10, 2007 on a new bipartisan trade framework that calls for the inclusion of core labor and environmental standards in the text of

  10. The U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Economic and Political Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    a Colombia, Anuncia el Presidente de Colombia en Entrevista a Caracol Radio,” May 3, 2007. 48 Colombia’s Observatorio del Programa Presidencial de ...forward standard to encourage production and economic integration. A “ de minimis” provision would allow limited amounts of specified third-country...negotiation, Congress and the Administration reached an agreement on May 10, 2007 on a new bipartisan trade framework that calls for the inclusion of

  11. Democratic discussion in newspaper reporting of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Robbie

    2008-10-01

    This article presents a Habermasian analysis of newspaper reporting of the debate surrounding the effect of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (the FTA) on access to medicines through Australian patent law. Habermas's concept of the public sphere is utilised in determining whether discussion within the print media adequately conveyed complex legal issues to the public and facilitated democratic discussion. It was found that newspaper reporting generally failed to meet this standard.

  12. Preferential Trade Agreements and the Law and Politics of GATT Article XXIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alavi, Amin

    2010-01-01

    The tasks Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) perform are expressed in their scope and covered issues, thus in order to be WTO compatible these aspects of PTAs should comply with the relevant WTO rules. This paper examines which aspects of PTAs can violate these rules and therefore can be challe...... be challenged before the WTO Dis-pute Settlement Body, who may initiate such cases and why there hasn´t been more cases dealing with this im-portant issue....

  13. Governance, corruption, and trade in the Asia Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Kazutomo; Wilson, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of reducing corruption and improving transparency to lower trade costs in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation region. The authors find, based on a computable general equilibrium model, significant potential trade and welfare gains for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation members, with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption. Results suggest that ...

  14. The Rights of Private Economic Actors Under the World Trade Organization Agreements in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Soeparna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nothing in the Uruguay Round mentions directly about rights of private economic actors. It seems that the relationship to private economic actors (or may be individual does not exist within the WTO Agreements, because as a general rule, private parties are not legal subjects of the international legal order. However, this article will prevail upon this situation, by looking closer at the essence of the WTO Agreements to discern the rights of private economic actors that derive from the WTO. The main question of this article is to what extent then Indonesia is dealing with the rights of private economic actors under the WTO Agreements? The background of this questionis because four years after ratifying the WTO Agreements, Indonesia has been facing what is arguably the most serious multidimensional crisis in 1997, some difficult situations have arisen from the crisis; therefore, the society hesitated to accept the open world trading system. The society seemed look askance to the implementation of the WTO Agreements. But Indonesian Government took major step to reduce the skepticism of society toward liberalization, by readjusting its national laws conform to the WTO Agreements with the intention to support the rights of national economic actors under the WTO Agreements in order to achieve total benefits of the WTO rules.

  15. Trade in health services in the ASEAN region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunanondchai, Jutamas; Fink, Carsten

    2006-12-01

    Promoting quality health services to large population segments is a key ingredient to human and economic development. At its core, healthcare policymaking involves complex trade-offs between promoting equitable and affordable access to a basic set of health services, creating incentives for efficiencies in the healthcare system and managing constraints in government budgets. International trade in health services influences these trade-offs. It presents opportunities for cost savings and access to better quality care, but it also raises challenges in promoting equitable and affordable access. This paper offers a discussion of trade policy in health services for the ASEAN region. It reviews the existing patterns of trade and identifies policy measures that could further harness the benefits from trade in health services and address potential pitfalls that deeper integration may bring about.

  16. Free Trade and Regional Development in Northern Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leendert de Bell

    2010-01-01

    The impressive economic performance of Mexico during the first years after signing the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with Canada and the United States has generated much interest as an example for other Latin American countries in their transition towards market-led economies. However,

  17. Assessment of regional trade and virtual water flows in China

    OpenAIRE

    Dabo, G.; Hubacek, K.

    2007-01-01

    The success of Chinas economic development has left deep marks on resource availability and quality. Some regions in China are relatively poor with regards to water resources. This problem is exacerbated by economic growth. Flourishing trade activities on both domestic and international levels have resulted in significant amounts of water withdrawal and water pollution. Hence the goal of this paper is to evaluate the current inter-regional trade structure and its effects on water consumption ...

  18. The impact of the CEFTA trade agreement on economic development in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Leonora Vranja

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the fact that Kosovo was in a difficult economic situation, it became a member of CEFTA, so that domestic producers could export their goods, benefit from free trade, attract foreign investors, and also it was seen as an opportunity for integration into the European Union (EU. After the signing of this agreement, eventhough expectations were optimistic about economic development, the agreement was not fully implemented. Kosovo, compared to other SouthEast European countries that are also members of this agreement, has been discriminated against in terms of export of domestic products and the number of foreign investors has decreased. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of this agreement on Kosovo's economic development. For analyzing the macroeconomic indicators affected by this agreement, analytical methods were used, and interviews were conducted with a local producer as well as with an economic expert. The results of this research show that the CEFTA 2006 agreement did not have the expected positive impact on the development of the economy in Kosovo.

  19. Free Trade Agreements in East Asian Countries: What Has Been Done and What Needs to Be Done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JungTaik Hyun

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we attempt to make a critical assessment of East Asia's free trIn this paper, we attempt to make a critical assessment of East Asia's free trade agreements (FTAs and suggest future steps of action. The FTAs of three Northeast Asian countries and five ASEAN countries are examined. We find that the concluded and currently negotiated FTAs of East Asia have produced a fairly limited impact on trade and welfare. The limitation came from the fact that the selection of FTA partners was not based on economic gains but on an ad hoc basis or a defensive purpose. Therefore, we suggest that East Asian countries concentrate FTA activities on trade partners with large trade volumes. In this regard, the successful conclusion of the ongoing Korea-Japan FTA negotiation is crucial, and the two governments need to dissociate social and historical concerns with economic considerations. The FTAs between China, Korea, Japan and the U.S. should immediately follow the Korea-Japan FTA to realize the potentials and to prevent biased specialization. The FTAs of East Asia allowed a wide range of exemptions to protect inefficient sectors such as agriculture. The proper approach, we suggest, is not to avoid the problem but to proceed with comprehensive agreements and thus maximize the gains of FTAs. Restructuring industries and reallocating resources to the sectors with comparative advantage, while providing adequate assistance programs, is required. We also note that East Asian countries should utilize existing unilateral, regional and multilateral methods of liberalization as well as bilateral FTAs.

  20. The Rise of the Spirit of National Interest and the Existence of World Trade Organization Agreement: A Case Study of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Parikesit

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been an anxiety over the rise of the spirit of national interest on the existence of World Trade Organization. This spirit that has been reflected from domestic trade policy, to some extent, has undermined trade negotiation process under the WTO as shown by the failure of the Doha Round to conclude significant trade deals. Countries also started concluding bilateral and regional trade agreements instead of the WTO. This article aimed to analyze whether the rise of the spirit of national interest has threaten the existence of the WTO agreements, putting Indonesia as a case study. This article is a normative research, analyzing the dynamics development of the national interest under the WTO, especially Indonesia, and how the judicial body has responded the rise of this spirit in its decisions. This article argues that the spirit of national interest will not threaten the existence of WTO as this spirit has been exist from the early establishment of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in 1947 to the latest WTO negotiation. Moreover, the existence of the WTO judicial body will secure the existence of the WTO, especially because it has successfully controlled the overwhelming spirit of national interest of its members through its decisions.

  1. The Impact of U.S. Free Trade Agreements on Calorie Availability and Obesity: A Natural Experiment in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Pepita; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2018-05-01

    Globalization via free trade and investment agreements is often implicated in the obesity pandemic. Concerns center on how free trade and investment agreements increase population exposure to unhealthy, high-calorie diets, but existing studies preclude causal conclusions. Few studies of free trade and investment agreements and diets isolated their impact from confounding changes, and none examined any effect on caloric intake, despite its critical role in the etiology of obesity. This study addresses these limitations by analyzing a unique natural experiment arising from the exceptional circumstances surrounding the implementation of the 1989 Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement. Data from the UN (2017) were analyzed using fixed-effects regression models and the synthetic control method to estimate the impact of the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement on calorie availability in Canada, 1978-2006, and coinciding increases in U.S. exports and investment in Canada's food and beverage sector. The impact of changes to calorie availability on body weights was then modeled. Calorie availability increased by ≅170 kilocalories per capita per day in Canada after the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement. There was a coinciding rise in U.S. trade and investment in the Canadian food and beverage sector. This rise in calorie availability is estimated to account for an average weight gain of between 1.8 kg and 12.2 kg in the Canadian population, depending on sex and physical activity levels. The Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement was associated with a substantial rise in calorie availability in Canada. U.S. free trade and investment agreements can contribute to rising obesity and related diseases by pushing up caloric intake. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Regional Trade Integration and Conflict Resolution | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    étudiant que le spécialiste des échanges commerciaux, des relations ... IDRC and the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) signed a scientific and technological cooperation agreement to support joint research projects in ...

  3. No fracking way: how the EU-US trade agreement risks expanding fracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-03-01

    rights from the agreement and from other trade deals in the pipeline - including the EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA)

  4. Capacity-Building Programs Under the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States signed the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) in August 2004 with five Central American countries (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) and the Dominican Republic.

  5. 48 CFR 27.204-2 - Use of patented technology under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of patented technology... Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND... and Trade (GATT). Article 31 of Annex 1C, Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property...

  6. Free Trade Agreements With The United States: 8 Lessons For Prospective Parties From Australia’s Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Tully Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    This article identifies 8 key lessons for those States contemplating a free trade agreement with the United States (U.S.) arising from Australia’s experience. The standards of intellectual property protection under the Australia-U.S. Free Trade Agreement and their impact on pharmaceutical prices in Australia are a particular focus. Prospective parties must first conduct a national interest self-assessment which reviews the desired strength of intellectual property protection under national la...

  7. Booming Asia-Pacific oil trade spawns regional storage projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that surging oil trade in the Asia-Pacific region is spawning a number of big petroleum storage projects there. Among the biggest are those in Indonesia and Singapore. A group led by Singapore's Sembawang Group plans to build a $272 million (Singapore) oil storage terminal on Karimun Island in Riau province, Indonesia. Other participants include Kuo International, Hong Kong, and likely companies from Japan, Europe, and the U.S. According to press reports from Jakarta and Singapore, Van Ommeren Terminals of Netherlands was also reportedly involved in negotiations on the projects. A joint venture agreement was expected to be signed by the third quarter. Plans call for building a terminal with a capacity of 1.5 million cu m on the island, where Sembawang has a 100 year lease. Ultimately, Sembawang and Indonesian company Bangun Cipta want to develop the site as an industrial city with petrochemical plants, engineering and manufacturing industries, and shipyards. Semabawang Project Engineering recently completed a feasibility study of the Karimun storage project

  8. An Analysis of the New Trade Regime for State-Owned Enterprises under the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikyung Yun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the new discipline on state-owned enterprises contained in the recently concluded Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement, and evaluates various factors that influenced the shaping of its specific rules. The new discipline consolidates and strengthens related provisions in current trade regimes, reflects various aspects of trade disputes between China and the US, and adopts, as its general underlying rationale, the principle of competitive neutrality. The new discipline contains elements that may challenge the multilateral trade regime, and may serve as a role model in regulating state-owned enterprises, including subsidies in services trade in other on-going trade negotiations. The new regime makes us think hard about fundamental issues regarding enforcement of competition policy against state-owned enterprises, treatment of non-market economies, and how to deal with effects of subsidies in international trade, bringing competition issues back on the trade agenda.

  9. The impact of TTIP agreement on the European Union-United States coal trade potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkuski Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to assess the impact of currently negotiated TTIP agreement (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership on the use of hard coal in the EU and the US. Hard coal is the most important fuel in global electricity generation. This also applies to the United States, a leading manufacturer and exporter of this energy source. The US coal is exported to the EU market. The article presents the estimated exports of hard coal from the US to the EU. Due to the fact that price has a major impact on the size of exports, the paper presents the estimated prices, including freight costs, of power coal for the analyzed scenarios. According to one scenario, the US and European prices will be equalized (including freight costs by 2020, while from 2025 on the comparative advantage and competitiveness of the US hard coal will decrease. Taking into account the fact that the export of coal from the United States is free from customs duties, the acceptance of TIPP should not affect the currently existing trade between the two continents and the amount of exported coal. Nevertheless, the question of hard coal economy cannot be separated from other sectors of the energy market, which can be significantly affected by the future agreement.

  10. Past, present and future of pharmaceutical patents under Korea-US Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoon Suk

    2016-07-01

    The introduction of substance patents in 1987 was viewed with apprehension as it was believed that the system would only reinforce the domination of the technology of advanced countries based on the trade agreement between Korea and the USA. However, substance patents provided the Korean pharmaceutical industry with the driving force required to develop new substances, and the Korean pharmaceutical industry has been constantly improving its research and development capability. The patent-approval linkage system was implemented according to the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement in 2015. The system comprises the following: registering the drugs in the Green List, notifying the listed patent and marketing approval holders about the application for generic marketing approval, patent holder's request for staying generic sales and first generic exclusivity. Korean generic companies are expected to have opportunities that enable them to challenge the global market by accumulating experience of designing of generic products, making patent challenges and strategically developing of new drugs or incrementally modified drugs through the linkage system.

  11. Impact of India-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement: A cross-country analysis using applied general equilibrium modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrima Sikdar; Biswajit Nag

    2011-01-01

    The India-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AIFTA) came into effect on 1 January 2010 with regard to Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. For the remaining ASEAN members it will come into force after they have completed their internal requirements. With this background, the present study analyses the impact of this free trade agreement (FTA) on India and the ASEAN members. The study also attempted to analyse the long-term effects of the FTA on India. It is argued that after full trade liberalization, ...

  12. Regional trade market analysis: resort marketing approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Bojanic; Rodney B. Warnick

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the value of geographic segmentation for a regional ski resort in New England. Customers from different user groups were surveyed along with a list of inquiries and a purchased list, and grouped according to their area of origin. An ANOVA was performed to determine if there were differences in attitudes and trip behaviors between the segments. It...

  13. THE DYNAMIC OF REGIONAL TRADE SPECIALISATION PATTERN IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Ancuţa Stângaciu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the evolution of the regional trade specialization pattern in Romanian regions, by studying the dynamic of their comparative advantages over the period 2000 - 2009. The study finds that, in almost all regions (exceptions are North-East and South-East Region the international specialization has increased for products in which regions were initially relatively less specialized and has decreased for those in which they were initially highly specialized. Finally, most regions recorded large respectively small specialization improvements in products for which the internal respectively external demand expanded at the fastest rate over the time.

  14. WTO’s information technology agreement (ITA and its expansion (ITA II: multilateralizing regionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Capucio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind the complex context of the relationship between multilateralism and regionalism, the conclusion of plurilateral agreements within the WTO, open to participation of all interested members, offers a multilateral perspective of regionalism, in which the benefits of partial consensus are to be extended to the multilateral sphere. The ITA - Information Technology Agreement - is mentioned as an example of this possibility, and its recent expansion, through the negotiation of the ITA II, demonstrates the strengthening of this multilateralisation trend of regionalism, although with special features. Thus, this article is developed drawing the context and introduction of the theme of regionalism and multilateralism, and presents the theory of multilateralisation of regionalism and the ITA as one of those experiences, and its recent expansion as a resumption of the relevance of this theory. Considering the impasses for the conclusion of the Doha Round, the expansion of these partial consensus and the continuation of negotiations at the World Trade Organization by the conclusion of sectoral plurilateral agreements emerges as a possible way out, which demands a re-architecture of the interpretation of the role of the WTO in the global economic governance.

  15. Dynamics of a developing economy with a remote region: Agglomeration, trade integration and trade patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commendatore, Pasquale; Kubin, Ingrid; Sushko, Iryna

    2018-05-01

    We consider a three-region developing economy with poor transport infrastructures. Two models are related to different stages of development: in the first all regions are autarkic; in the second two of the regions begin to integrate with the third region still not accessible to trade. The properties of the two models are studied also considering the interplay between industry location and trade patterns. Dynamics of these models are described by two-dimensional piecewise smooth maps, characterized by multistability and complex bifurcation structure of the parameter space. We obtain analytical results related to stability of various fixed points and illustrate several bifurcation structures by means of two-dimensional bifurcation diagrams and basins of coexisting attractors.

  16. Oil's role in free trade agreement crux of Mexico's petroleum sector dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Mexico's president Salinas' efforts at privatization have not yet touched Mexico's most valuable industry, oil. That remains under control of state owned Petroleos Mexicanos. Pemex and Mexico's huge oil union have come under increasing criticism for alleged abuses of power. In addition, controversy rages as to the true extent of Mexican oil resources and whether Pemex has the wherewithal to meet domestic demand and sustain oil exports. Critics also contend opening Mexico's oil sector to foreign participation would introduce new efficiencies and cost cutting measures in the cash strapped state oil industry. This paper reports that at the center of the controversy is the proposed Free Trade Agreement among Mexico, the U.S., and Canada, pushed strongly by Salinas. Oil's role in the FTA may prove the pact's main sticking point

  17. An Experimental Study on Internal and External Negotiation for Trade Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankyoung Sung

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper experimentally studies the performance of negotiation considering individual and party, like a country, share of benefit over the best ones. It experiments two-stage bargaining games, internal and external negotiations. From the experimental results, this paper shows strong tendency to select fair allocation in the internal negotiations, but the tendency would be weaker with attractive outside option. In addition, the outside option may claim difference in individual benefit. From the regressions on individual performance in the negotiations, being a proposing party would matter to enhance the performance. However, relative individual performance within party fairness matters. Still attractive no-agreement options happen to break the tendency. As policy implication for trade negotiation, this paper warns that possible loss in individual benefit from not active participation to the external negotiations, no active role of proposer in case that players stick to internal allocations, and deviation of advantageous sector due to attractive outside options.

  18. Trade agreements with side-effects? : European Union and United States to negotiate Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Mildner, Stormy-Annika; Schmucker, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    "At the G8 summit in Northern Ireland on June 17, the European Union and the United States kicked off the negotiations for a comprehensive Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) to reduce tariffs and non-tariff trade barriers. While the expected economic benefits for both sides would be more than welcome in an era of gloomy growth forecasts, a TTIP is not entirely without risks for global trade and the multilateral trading system. The talks could tie up a considerable portion o...

  19. The European Union’s Trade Strategy and Its Reflections on Turkey: an Evaluation from the Perspective of Free Trade Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait AKMAN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to assess implications, of European Union’s (EU new trade strategy and its Free Trade Agreements (FTAs with third countries, on Turkey-EU relations. It analyses critics raised in the context of FTAs and puts forward that the sustainability of the relations is contingent to the satisfaction of a set of criteria.The EU shifted its trade policy from sole reliance on multilateral trade negotiations towards initiatives for bilateral and preferential agreements (PTAs under its ‘Global Europe’ strategy which was adopted in 2006, to propose its trade policy agenda and priorities in accordance with its Lisbon Strategy. WTO Doha Round is currently in deadlock and it is improbable that it will be concluded in the near future. Partly for this reason, the EU tends to implement its policy objectives constantly through a set of FTAs. Turkey has to align its trade policy to the EU’s preferential regimes, pursuant to its obligations arising from the Customs Union (CU. Hence, it has concluded so far sixteen FTAs with relevant countries. On the other hand, the intensification of critics about the FTAs process and the CU brings impediments for Turkey to commit itself to its CU obligations in the next period. Two main motives can be cited as a reason: First, the EU trade strategy obviously considers the global context within which the EU rests; and the Member States’ interests, which are subsequently reflected into its FTAs. Nevertheless, a harmonious action by Turkey becomes onerous as long as EU trade priorities diverge from Turkey’s long term trade strategy. Second reason, aside from technical aspects of the CU, can be attributed to the ‘political uncertainty’ converged around the ‘open-endedness’ of the membership process, which in turn affects the CU, Turkey’s most vital linkage to the EU, and the commitments there from.

  20. Law [Review of: World trade report 2011: the WTO and preferential trade agreements: from co-existence to coherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The World Trade Review asked distinguished scholars from the three different fields of economics (Pravin Krishna), political science (Edward D. Mansfield) and law (James H. Mathis) to independently review the WTO's annual World Trade Report for 2011, the theme of which is The WTO and Preferential

  1. Trade liberalisation and financial compensation : the BLNS states in the wake of the EU-South African trade and development agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staak, van der S.

    2006-01-01

    This study discusses the fate of Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland (BLNS) following the 1999 free trade agreement between the European Union and South Africa. As members - with South Africa - of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), the BLNS countries are now effectively locked into

  2. Will the next generation of preferential trade and investment agreements undermine prevention of noncommunicable diseases? A prospective policy analysis of the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Snowdon, Wendy; Labonté, Ronald; Gleeson, Deborah; Stuckler, David; Hattersley, Libby; Schram, Ashley; Kay, Adrian; Friel, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    The Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) is one of a new generation of 'deep' preferential trade and investment agreements that will extend many of the provisions seen in previous agreements. This paper presents a prospective policy analysis of the likely text of the TPPA, with reference to nutrition policy space. Specifically, we analyse how the TPPA may constrain governments' policy space to implement the 'policy options for promoting a healthy diet' in the World Health Organization's Global Action Plan for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) 2013-2020. This policy analysis suggests that if certain binding commitments are made under the TPPA, they could constrain the ability of governments to protect nutrition policy from the influence of vested interests, reduce the range of interventions available to actively discourage consumption of less healthy food (and to promote healthy food) and limit governments' capacity to implement these interventions, and reduce resources available for nutrition education initiatives. There is scope to protect policy space by including specific exclusions and/or exceptions during negotiation of trade and investment agreements like the TPPA, and by strengthening global health frameworks for nutrition to enable them to be used as reference during disputes in trade fora. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 78 FR 19566 - Request for Comments Concerning Proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    .... International Trade Commission (ITC) regarding the probable economic effect on U.S. industries and consumers of... disciplines addressing emerging challenges in international trade that should be pursued in the negotiations and that would benefit U.S.-EU trade as well as strengthen the multilateral rules-based trading system...

  4. Free Trade Agreements With The United States: 8 Lessons For Prospective Parties From Australia’s Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tully Stephen R.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies 8 key lessons for those States contemplating a free trade agreement with the United States (U.S. arising from Australia’s experience. The standards of intellectual property protection under the Australia-U.S. Free Trade Agreement and their impact on pharmaceutical prices in Australia are a particular focus. Prospective parties must first conduct a national interest self-assessment which reviews the desired strength of intellectual property protection under national law and their preference for using flexibilities available to them under the existing international intellectual property rights framework. The United States negotiates free trade agreements in light of previous ones, negotiating outcomes obtained in other fora and the decisions of international trade tribunals. Negotiations typically occur behind closed doors, which is a process having adverse implications for transparent decision-making, public consultation periods and contributions from interested non-governmental actors. A concluded agreement will build on prior treaties and influence the course of future international arrangements. But the impact of a United States free trade agreement is not always clear, including because of a lack of reliable data, and the extent of national legal change is a contested issue given existing reform agendas and external influences. The United States seek to redesign national health care systems in its own image and had little success in Australia’s case. National legal systems need not be harmonised: although there can be some convergence in intellectual property rights regimes, significant differences may also remain. Negotiators must reconcile competing cultures, philosophies and perspectives between States for a free trade agreement to be worthwhile.

  5. A New Leader in Asian Free Trade Agreements? Chinese Style Global Trade: New Rules, No Labor Protections

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Ronald C.

    2017-01-01

    In 2017, after the election of Donald Trump and his subsequent language and actions surrounding global trade, Chinese President Xi Jinping took the world stage at the World Economic Forum’s Annual Meeting in a moment that led many to say he assumed the mantle of world leader on globalism and global trade, particularly in Asia. Previously, President Obama noted that the TPP presented an opportunity for the U.S., along with its partners, to write the rules of international trade with Asia-Pacif...

  6. The role of COMESA in promoting intra-regional agricultural trade: Case study of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azharia Abdelbagi Elbushra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available African countries have created many regional trade agreements with the economic objectives of reducing trade barriers and encouraging economic growth. The COMESA is an example of regional integration singed on 1993 by 19 African countries including Sudan. COMESA represents a chance for member countries to enhance their economic and social relations through increasing intra-trade. The objective of this paper is to assess the role of COMESA in promoting intra-regional agricultural trade between Sudan and COMESA countries. A multi-market model with Armington non-linear specification was applied. The paper results showed that there is a great potential for Sudan to increase its agricultural exports to other COMESA countries. The domestic agricultural markets are expected to be hampered by imports surge and increase in competition, while the producers of agricultural export commodities will be better off. In order to compete and benefit from potential in the COMESA markets, the paper recommended improving efficiency in the Sudanese agricultural sector through increasing productivity, lowering cost of production, enhancing marketing services, attaining economies of scale and attracting foreign investment.

  7. Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    These columns summarize the different bilateral and multilateral agreements concluded recently between the different OECD countries and concerning the nuclear energy domain: Argentina - Australia: Agreement concerning Co-operation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy (2001). Argentina - Brazil: Joint Declaration regarding the Creation of the Argentinean-Brazilian Agency for Nuclear Energy Applications (2001). Australia - Czech Republic / Australia - Hungary: Agreements on Co-operation in Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy and the Transfer of Nuclear Material (2001). Australia - Indonesia: Arrangement Concerning Co-operation on Nuclear Safeguards and Related Matters (2001). Austria - Switzerland: Agreement on the Early Exchange of Information in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation. Brazil - United States: Extension of the Agreement concerning Research and Development in Nuclear Material Control, Accountancy, Verification, Physical Protection, and Advanced Containment and Surveillance Technologies for International Safeguards Applications (2001). Czech Republic - Republic of Korea: Agreement for Co-operation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy (2001). European Union- Russian Federation: Agreements on Nuclear Safety and Controlled Nuclear Fusion (2001). France - United States: Agreement for Co-operation in Advanced Nuclear Reactor Science and Technology (2001). Japan - United Kingdom: Co-operation Agreement on Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Fast Breeder Reactor and Other Related Technologies (2001). Republic OF Korea - United States: Annex IV Joint Project on Cintichem Technology (2000). Morocco - United States: Protocol amending the Co-operation Agreement on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy (2001). Multilateral Agreements: Agreement for Information Exchange on Radiological Surveillance in Northern Europe (2001). Status of Conventions in the Field of Nuclear Energy. (author)

  8. Southern African Development Community (SADC) trade legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) lays down the legal principles with which regional trade agreements have to conform. Based on these principles, WTO members have the mandate to determine the legality of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) under the GATT. Article XXIV permits both ...

  9. 78 FR 28623 - U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Japan: Advice on the Probable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... Probable Economic Effect of Providing Duty-Free Treatment for Imports after Malaysia joined the... Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Japan: Advice on the Probable Economic Effect of Providing Duty... Economic Effect of Providing Duty-Free Treatment for Imports. DATES: May 28, 2013: Deadline for filing...

  10. Accreditation in Western Europe: adequate reactions to Bologna declaration and the General Agreement on Trade in Services?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerheijden, Donald F.

    2003-01-01

    Challenged by globalization (especially the General Agreement on Trade in Services [GATS]) and by European developments (the Bologna process), the Netherlands will introduce program accreditation as a new form of quality assurance. Other, sometimes similar initiatives are found in other countries

  11. Towards a Continental Energy Market: From the Energy Crisis to the Free Trade Agreement, 1970-88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the impact the 1973 oil embargo and resulting energy crisis had on Canadian energy policies, which eventually led in 1987 to the enactment of the Free Trade Agreement between Canada and the United States. Includes excerpts of three documents which reveal much about the shift in Canadian policy toward a continental energy market. (LS)

  12. 78 FR 29779 - Labor Affairs Council of the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement; Notice of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... Trade Promotion Agreement; Notice of Public Session Meeting AGENCY: International Labor Affairs Bureau... Labor Affairs Bureau (ILAB) of the U.S. Department of Labor gives notice of the public session of the meeting of the Labor Affairs Council (``Council'' or ``LAC''). The LAC public session has been rescheduled...

  13. International conventions and agreements in the ecological area: In light of modern civilization and international trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of authors examine the problem of environmental protection in their papers. The concept of sustainable development and intensive use of modern technology in order to overcome the environmental problems of modern civilization becomes an imperative. Theoretical engagement in ecological issues is not enough. It is necessary to implement ecological measures in practice and to spread environmental awareness. Modern science and social practice have interdependence of economy and ecology in their focus. The main direction of social change is movement from economic to ecological paradigm that involves an ethical responsibility to the current and future generations. There is a need to establish effective programs to protect the environment at the national and supranational level. Active international cooperation in the field of ecology has resulted in the formulation of a number of documents on environmental protection. This paper illustrates the importance of environmental protection and the necessity of implementing international conventions and agreements in the environmental field, with focus on their impact on international trade.

  14. Talking in Taejon : regional cooperative agreement project formulation meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency as part of its Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) with countries in east Asia and the neighboring Pacific, has had a project on strengthening radiation protection infrastructures operating for some years. This project has arranged training courses, workshops and other activities on a range of topics related to establishing or improving radiation protection measures and safety of radiation sources in member states of the region. A second 5 year phase of planned activities is to be concluded during 1997, and the value of the project is such that member coutntries proposed its continuation for a further 5 year period commencing in 1998. For this purpose a Task Group took the lead in assembling and evaluating proposals for consideration and approval at a meeting of national coordinators for the project held in Taejon Korea, 24-28 February. The RCA project for Phase III will be titled Enhancement and Harmonisation of Radiation Protection. The meeting of national coordinators from the region represents a unique opportunity for information sharing and cooperation in radiation protection betweem countries. (author)

  15. Regional trade and border markets between Niger, Benin and Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Tenikué, Michel; Kuepié, Mathias

    The objective of this methodological paper is to identify a number of products or sectors whose trade is relevant for border regions in West Africa. Focusing on Niger, Benin and Nigeria, we start with contextualising the importance of border markets by quantifying the changes in the relative values...... and volumes of imports and exports passing through border posts. In a second step, we determine which are the products most commonly found among the imports and exports of the border posts. The study shows that seven products are recognised as being heavily imported, subject to significant trade from large...... traders, and considered as re-export products: building materials, cereals and flour, textile, used clothing, used vehicles, cigarettes and oil....

  16. Sectoral agreements and competitive distortions - a Swedish perspective; Effects of EU Emissions Trading System for European industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zetterberg, Lars; Holmgren, Kristina

    2009-03-15

    sector approaches to be discussed under the Ad-hoc Working Group on future commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP): i) Sector CDM - a CDM crediting mechanism with a previously established baseline ii) Sectoral no-lose mechanism - Sectoral crediting against a previously established no-lose target iii) Sectoral emission trading based on a sector emissions cap Based on these three sectoral models, we have analysed what parameters are important for reducing competition distortion for Swedish industry. We have assumed that these sector agreements are implemented in a developing country (DC). We conclude that if sector agreements are to reduce distortions on competition, it is important that the sector agreements create a real carbon price in the DC, i.e. that emissions of carbon dioxide are associated with a cost for the emitter. All three sector agreement-models suggested by the EU can potentially create a carbon price. The driver for emission reductions are in all three cases the international demand for offsets. As a potentially large buyer of off-sets, the EU demand for off-sets is likely to increase the carbon price in the DC sector. The choice of EU policy with respect to imports of off-set will therefore have great importance. Other buyers, such as other countries, emission trading systems or the voluntary credit market will of course also be important. Moreover, imports of off-sets may reduce the price on EU ETS allowances, thus further narrowing the carbon price gap between the two markets. If an important objective of a sectoral agreement is to reduce competition distortion it should be implemented in sectors where the corresponding Swedish industry has significant carbon related costs and where there is significant trade intensity between Sweden and regions outside the EU. Our preliminary analysis indicates that Swedish sectors with potentially high maximum value at stake are Refineries; Pulp and Paper; Iron and Steel; Cement and Lime; and

  17. Implications of the Central America-Dominican Republic-Free Trade Agreement for the nutrition transition in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna; Thow, Anne Marie

    2008-11-01

    To identify potential impacts of the Central America-Dominican Republic-Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) on food consumption patterns associated with the nutrition transition, obesity, and diet-related chronic diseases. Examination of CAFTA-DR agreement to identify measures that have the potential to affect food availability and retail prices. CAFTA-DR includes agreements on tariffs, tariff-rate quotas (TRQs), and sanitary and phytosanitary regulations with direct implications for the availability and prices of various foods. Agreements on investment, services, and intellectual property rights (IPR) are also relevant because they create a business climate more conducive to long-term investment by the transnational food industry. Trade liberalization under CAFTA-DR is likely to increase availability and lower relative prices of two food groups associated with the nutrition transition: meat and processed foods. These outcomes are expected to occur as the direct result of increased imports from the United States and increased production by U.S. companies based in Central America, and the indirect result of increased domestic meat production (due to increased availability of cheaper animal feed) and increased production of processed foods by domestic companies (due to a more competitive market environment). CAFTA-DR is likely to further the nutrition transition in Central America by increasing the consumption of meat; highly processed foods; and new, non-traditional foods. The public health community should be more aware of the implications of trade agreements for dietary health. Governments and related stakeholders should assess the coherence between changes fostered by specific trade agreements with national policies on diet and nutrition.

  18. Health Impacts from Corn Production Pre-and Post-NAFTA Trade Agreement (1986–2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cano, Oliver; Sánchez-Piña, Ramón Alberto; González-Ibarra, Álvaro Jesús; Murillo-Zamora, Efrén; Nava-Garibaldi, Cynthia Monique

    2016-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a powerful methodology for the study of health impacts and public policies. We performed this study to quantitatively explain the potential health impacts on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of corn produced in Mexico and imported from the United States of America (U.S.) from 1984 until 2014. The processes are hybrid and organic corn production. The functional unit was defined as 1 ton of corn production. Results indicate a total value of 178,431, 244,175, and 283,426 DALYs of three decades: 1984–1993, 1994–2003, and 2004–2013, of Mexican production; the U.S. production and transport were also calculated, showing values of 29,815, 65,837, and 107,729 for the same three decades. Additionally, DALYs were obtained for the category of human health and climate change by functional unit: 802.31 (1984–1993), 802.67 (1994–2003), and 803.92 (2004–2013), and for imported corn transported to Mexico from the U.S., 859.12 (1984–2013). DALYs on human toxicity were obtained: 99.05 (1984–1993), 99.05 (1994–2003), and 99.04 (2004–2013), and for the corn imported and transported to Mexico from the U.S., 116.25 (1984–2013). Conclusions: Environmental and health impacts in terms of DALYs are higher when corn is imported versus the corn produced in Mexico. Environmental health and nominal corn cultivation and transport impacts have increased as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Mexico needs to redefine its public policies to suffer less of an environmental burden from corn to ensure global environmental health and food security. PMID:27420088

  19. Health Impacts from Corn Production Pre-and Post-NAFTA Trade Agreement (1986-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cano, Oliver; Sánchez-Piña, Ramón Alberto; González-Ibarra, Álvaro Jesús; Murillo-Zamora, Efrén; Nava-Garibaldi, Cynthia Monique

    2016-07-13

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a powerful methodology for the study of health impacts and public policies. We performed this study to quantitatively explain the potential health impacts on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of corn produced in Mexico and imported from the United States of America (U.S.) from 1984 until 2014. The processes are hybrid and organic corn production. The functional unit was defined as 1 ton of corn production. Results indicate a total value of 178,431, 244,175, and 283,426 DALYs of three decades: 1984-1993, 1994-2003, and 2004-2013, of Mexican production; the U.S. production and transport were also calculated, showing values of 29,815, 65,837, and 107,729 for the same three decades. Additionally, DALYs were obtained for the category of human health and climate change by functional unit: 802.31 (1984-1993), 802.67 (1994-2003), and 803.92 (2004-2013), and for imported corn transported to Mexico from the U.S., 859.12 (1984-2013). DALYs on human toxicity were obtained: 99.05 (1984-1993), 99.05 (1994-2003), and 99.04 (2004-2013), and for the corn imported and transported to Mexico from the U.S., 116.25 (1984-2013). Environmental and health impacts in terms of DALYs are higher when corn is imported versus the corn produced in Mexico. Environmental health and nominal corn cultivation and transport impacts have increased as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Mexico needs to redefine its public policies to suffer less of an environmental burden from corn to ensure global environmental health and food security.

  20. FTA Corpus: a parallel corpus of English and Spanish Free Trade Agreements for the study of specialized collocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Patiño García

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Corpus of Free Trade Agreements (henceforth FTA, a specialized parallel corpus in English and Spanish from Europe and America and a smaller subcorpus in English-Norwegian and Spanish-Norwegian that was prepared and then aligned with Translation Corpus Aligner 2 (Hofland & Johansson, 1998. The data was taken from Free Trade Agreements. These agreements are specialized texts officially signed and ratified by several countries and blocks of countries in the last twenty years. Thus, FTAs are a rich repository for terminology and phraseology that is used in different fields of business activity throughout the world. The corpus contains around 1.37 million words in the English section and 1.48 million words in its Spanish counterpart, plus 60,000 words each in the Spanish-Norwegian and English-Norwegian subcorpus. The corpus is being used primarily to study the terms and specialized collocations that include these terms in this kind of specialized texts.Keywords: specialized collocation, specialized parallel corpus, corpus linguistics, Free Trade Agreement

  1. Trade Policies in Central Asia after EU Enlargement and before Russian WTO accession: Regionalism and Integration into the world economy.

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Pomfret

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the choices between regionalism and multilateralism, and the impact of WTO membership on the five Central Asian countries. The two main sections analyse (1) why the large number of regional trade agreements which the Central Asian countries have signed have had little economic impact, and (2) the consequences for the Central Asian countries of Chinese and Russian WTO membership and the consequences of the current Central Asian applicants’ (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbeki...

  2. Impact of the EU-Ukraine Free trade Agreement on the Dutch Economy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomes, N.; Appelman, R.; Witteman, J.

    2017-01-01

    We predict the impact of the EU-Ukraine DCFTA on the Dutch economy using an international trade model. We find that, in the long run, the DCFTA could nearly triple Dutch exports to Ukraine and nearly double Dutch imports from Ukraine. These effects are not yet clearly visible in recent trade

  3. THE FREE TRADE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE EAEU AND VIETNAM AS A FACTOR OF RUSSIAN-VIETNAMESE RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Fedorov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the infl uence of the free trade agreement between the Eurasian Economic Union and Vietnam on  Russian-Vietnamese relations. The author considers preconditions for expansion of the EAEU, main steps of negotiations, special features  of the agreement, and results, achieved by present time. The author  pays special attention to evolution of Russian-Vietnamese relations  and also to key factors of Vietnam’s foreign policy. Russian- Vietnamese relations have been developing on the base of the USSR- Vietnam partnership in the Cold War. They were marked by stability  and high level of political contacts, but at the same time scales of economic cooperation were relatively low. Established interaction  between two states was a foundation for the dialogue for the  involvement of Vietnam in Eurasian integration. Vietnam, in turn,  tried to conduct multilateral foreign policy (including the expansion of network of free trade agreements and so it had positive attitude  for cooperation with Russia in a sphere of Eurasian integration. For  Russia, the EAEU – Vietnam free trade agreement has both political  (expansion of Eurasian integration beyond the Post-Soviet space and rise of prestige of the EAEU and economic (impact on trade and investment cooperation with the SRV signifi cance. The agreement entered into force in October 2016 and under its realization some  results have already been made. At the same time the agreement is of compromise and “test” sort. So it’s rather able to make an  immediate breakthrough in Russian-Vietnamese trade and Russian  policy in the Asia-Pacifi c in whole. But this agreement can be an  additional factor for attraction to Vietnam in Russia and enlargement of cooperation with Vietnamese counterparts.

  4. Natural gas in Asia: Trade, markets and regional institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivoda, Vlado

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas trade in Asia has been dominated by long-established market structures, under which liquefied natural gas (LNG) has remained indexed based on the price of crude oil. High transaction costs in the region in recent years imply that the regional market is sub-optimally organized. Since 2010, the continued prevalence of oil-indexation has had the most adverse effect on Japan, the world’s largest LNG importer. In response, Japan implemented several strategies to challenge traditional LNG pricing mechanisms in the region and ultimately reduce transaction costs. Japan’s efforts include an increase in the share of spot and short-term purchases, sourcing new supplies from the United States under alternative pricing arrangements and driving regional buyer cooperation. This paper evaluates the potential effect of Japan’s LNG strategy on regional pricing in the broader institutional context, arguing that LNG pricing in the region will only partially shift away from oil-indexation by the end of the decade. While recent cooperation among regional LNG importers indicates that there may be scope for change in the regional institutional setting, the degree of cooperation is insufficient to have a profound effect on regional pricing. - Highlights: • Sub-optimal natural gas market outcomes in Asia since 2010. • Asian buyers have challenged oil-indexation in the region. • Concrete evidence of Japan-led buyer cooperation since 2013. • Pricing will only partially shift from oil-indexation by 2020. • Security of supply remains a top policy priority

  5. Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNET ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    During Phase II, ARTNET will continue its training and capacity building efforts, focusing on trade facilitation, preferential trade agreements (PTAs) and other trade agreements. Given the complexity of the trade and investment environment in the region, ARTNET will explore the interaction between trade, investment, ...

  6. Assessing the impact of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement on Australian and global medicines policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searles Andrew

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract On 1 January 2005, a controversial trade agreement entered into force between Australia and the United States. Though heralded by the parties as facilitating the removal of barriers to free trade (in ways not achievable in multilateral fora, it also contained many trade-restricting intellectual property provisions and others uniquely related to altering pharmaceutical regulation and public health policy in Australia. The latter appear to have particularly focused on the world-respected process of federal government reimbursement after expert cost-effectiveness evaluation, popularly known as the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme ('PBS'. It remains uncertain what sort of impacts – if any – the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement ('AUSFTA' will have on PBS processes such as reference pricing and their important role in facilitating equitable and affordable access to essential medicines. This is now the field of inquiry for a major three year Australian Research Council ('ARC'-funded study bringing together a team of senior researchers in regulatory theory from the Australian National University and pharmacoeconomics from the University of Newcastle. The project proposes to monitor, assess and analyse the real and potential impacts of the AUSFTA in this area, providing Australian policy-makers with continuing expertise and options. To the extent that the AUSFTA medicines provisions may represent animportant precedent in a global strategy by industry oncost-effectiveness evaluation of pharmaceuticals, the study will also beof great interest to policy makers in other jurisdictions.

  7. 75 FR 4607 - Free Trade Agreements; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on Dispute Settlement Rosters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... roster under a particular agreement are appointed by consensus of the parties to the agreement... appoint persons to the rosters. False Statements False statements by an applicant regarding his or her...

  8. Addressing legal and political barriers to global pharmaceutical access: options for remedying the impact of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and the imposition of TRIPS-plus standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Kohler, Jillian Clare; Forman, Lisa; Lipkus, Nathaniel

    2008-07-01

    Despite myriad programs aimed at increasing access to essential medicines in the developing world, the global drug gap persists. This paper focuses on the major legal and political constraints preventing implementation of coordinated global policy solutions - particularly, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and bilateral and regional free trade agreements. We argue that several policy and research routes should be taken to mitigate the restrictive impact of TRIPS and TRIPS-plus rules, including greater use of TRIPS flexibilities, advancement of human rights, and an ethical framework for essential medicines distribution, and a broader campaign that debates the legitimacy of TRIPS and TRIPS-plus standards themselves.

  9. Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  10. Environmental impacts of a free trade agreement between China and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauchald, Ole Kristian; Vennemo, Haakon

    2012-11-01

    The report assesses the likely impacts of the FTA for environmental policies, regulations and the physical environment. The analysis covers the main parts of the FTA: Trade in goods, trade in services and investments, and is limited to those parts of the FTA that are assumed to have the greatest effects. The analysis is based on scenarios setting out possible results of the negotiations. These scenarios build on existing obligations in the WTO seen in conjunction with the public documents that the negotiations are based upon. The report contains the following core elements: 1. The details of a baseline scenario. 2. Two scenarios based on possible outcomes of the negotiations - a free trade scenario and a green trade scenario. 3. Screening and scoping in light of input from consultations with public authorities, non-governmental organizations and the team of Chinese researchers. 4. Five case studies that focus on effects of the FTA on trade and investment between Norway and China, and the resulting environmental consequences. 5. Five regulatory studies that focus on effects of the FTA for environmental rules and policy.(auth)

  11. Trade Logistic and Regional Integration in Latin America & the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Guerrero; Krista Lucenti; Sebastián Galarza S.

    2009-01-01

    During the past few decades, the landscape of the world economy has changed. New trade patterns reflect the globalization of the supply chain and intra-industry trade, and increasing flows between neighboring countries and trading blocs with similar factor endowments. Similarly, the approach to production, trade, and transportation has evolved incorporating freight logistics as an important valueadded service in the global production. This integrated approach have become essential, and as suc...

  12. TRADE, REVENUE AND WELFARE EFFECTS UNDER AN ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT BETWEEN BURKINA FASO AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. Onogwu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the impact on Burkina Faso of eliminating tariffs on imports from the EU under EPAs, considering trade, revenue and welfare effects. At complete elimination of tariffs on all products imports from trade classification sections (TDC 01-13 from the EU. Burkina Faso is likely to experience both welfare gains and losses depending on the values of imports of each trade classification section in question. The overall welfare effect relative to GDP tends to be very small and positive, but potential tariff revenue losses are enormous even when the country has up to fifteen - twenty-five years in which to implement the tariff reductions, unless with scope for tax substitution. EPAs effects are concentrated on those product sections where trade creation outweighs trade diversion such as Animal products, Vegetable products, Animal/Veg. products, Mineral products, and Textiles products. Besides, product sections with the greatest market opportunities for EU suppliers to displace any of the other suppliers, ECOWAS and/or ROW include sections where trade diversion outweighs trade creation effects, such as prepared foodstuffs, product of chemicals, plastics, raw hides & skin, etc. The sensitive products (SPs to be excluded from tariff removal should include sections in which ECOWAS member nations are suppliers to regional importers so that excluding them as SPs would improve the welfare gain compared to estimates where tariff are removed from those products in which ECOWAS have zero potential. The results at this level of aggregation will provide useful information to the on-going negotiations between ECOWAS and the EU in determining Burkinabe's products to be exempted from tariff removal during EPAs based on the severity of the effects on varied trade classification (TDC sections, among other considerations.

  13. 78 FR 9938 - U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Effects on U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises; Institution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... Trade Agreement on U.S. small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) since entry into force of the... effects of the agreement on the production, distribution, and export strategy of U.S. SMEs, as identified by those SMEs, and describing how U.S. SMEs have benefited from specific provisions of the agreement...

  14. New Insights on US Aggregate and State Level Trade with the China Region%New Insights on US Aggregate and State Level Trade with the China Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catherine Y. Co

    2011-01-01

    Aggregate trade data with breakdown into related and non-related party components show that US multinational enterprises use different trading strategies in the China region relative to other countries. US trade with the China region in 2002-007 is characterized by arm 's- length transactions. State-level trade data show great variability in state engagement with the region through trade: exports to the region range from 1 to 28 percent of state exports. In addition, compared to exports to other countries, exports to the region are highly concentrated. At the extreme, for some states, 96-98 percent of exports to the region are computer and electronic products. Finally, gravity regressions show that state exports to Hong Kong are posflively associated with the relative size of the ltong Kong-born population in the states. There is no evidence that stricter labor regimes lead to lower state exports.

  15. Regional cooperation based on multilateral international agreements in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcic, I.

    1996-01-01

    Multilateral international agreements have defined the framework of behavior and cooperation in various fields and aspects of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Thus, obligations have been defined in the following areas: nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, physical protection of nuclear material, liability for nuclear damage, nuclear safety, early notification about a nuclear accident and assistance in case of nuclear accident. Obligations regarding radioactive waste management should be defined soon. This paper gives a review of obligations from particular agreements with a special emphasis on those which are being realized through mutual cooperation of concerned countries and are important for safe use of nuclear energy. (author)

  16. A conceptual framework for investigating the impacts of international trade and investment agreements on noncommunicable disease risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Ashley; Ruckert, Arne; VanDuzer, J Anthony; Friel, Sharon; Gleeson, Deborah; Thow, Anne-Marie; Stuckler, David; Labonte, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    We developed a conceptual framework exploring pathways between trade and investment and noncommunicable disease (NCD) outcomes. Despite increased knowledge of the relevance of social and structural determinants of health, the discourse on NCD prevention has been dominated by individualizing paradigms targeted at lifestyle interventions. We situate individual risk factors, alongside key social determinants of health, as being conditioned and constrained by trade and investment policy, with the aim of creating a more comprehensive approach to investigations of the health impacts of trade and investment agreements, and to encourage upstream approaches to combating rising rates of NCDs. To develop the framework we employed causal chain analysis, a technique which sequences the immediate causes, underlying causes, and root causes of an outcome; and realist review, a type of literature review focussed on explaining the underlying mechanisms connecting two events. The results explore how facilitating trade in goods can increase flows of affordable unhealthy imports; while potentially altering revenues for public service provision and reshaping domestic economies and labour markets-both of which distribute and redistribute resources for healthy lifestyles. The facilitation of cross-border trade in services and investment can drive foreign investment in unhealthy commodities, which in turn, influences consumption of these products; while altering accessibility to pharmaceuticals that may mediate NCDs outcomes that result from increased consumption. Furthermore, trade and investment provisions that influence the policy-making process, set international standards, and restrict policy-space, may alter a state's propensity for regulating unhealthy commodities and the efficacy of those regulations. It is the hope that the development of this conceptual framework will encourage capacity and inclination among a greater number of researchers to investigate a more comprehensive

  17. The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    the agreement soon. Lee’s Grand National Party controls a majority in the unicameral National Assembly, and most observers believe the agreement...the unicameral National Assembly to take effect. The Assembly is controlled by President Lee Myung Bak’s Grand National Party, which officially

  18. Testing the effectiveness of an international conservation agreement: marketplace forensics and CITES caviar trade regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaedra Doukakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The international wildlife trade is a key threat to biodiversity. Temporal genetic marketplace monitoring can determine if wildlife trade regulation efforts such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES are succeeding. Protected under CITES effective 1997, sturgeons and paddlefishes, the producers of black caviar, are flagship CITES species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We test whether CITES has limited the amount of fraudulent black caviar reaching the marketplace. Using mitochondrial DNA-based methods, we compare mislabeling in caviar and meat purchased in the New York City area pre and post CITES listing. Our recent sampling of this market reveals a decrease in mislabeled caviar (2006-2008; 10%; n = 90 compared to pre-CITES implementation (1995-1996; 19%; n = 95. Mislabeled caviar was found only in online purchase (n = 49 online/41 retail. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Stricter controls on importing and exporting as per CITES policies may be having a positive conservation effect by limiting the amount of fraudulent caviar reaching the marketplace. Sturgeons and paddlefishes remain a conservation priority, however, due to continued overfishing and habitat degradation. Other marine and aquatic species stand to benefit from the international trade regulation that can result from CITES listing.

  19. Testing the effectiveness of an international conservation agreement: marketplace forensics and CITES caviar trade regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukakis, Phaedra; Pikitch, Ellen K; Rothschild, Anna; DeSalle, Rob; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis

    2012-01-01

    The international wildlife trade is a key threat to biodiversity. Temporal genetic marketplace monitoring can determine if wildlife trade regulation efforts such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) are succeeding. Protected under CITES effective 1997, sturgeons and paddlefishes, the producers of black caviar, are flagship CITES species. We test whether CITES has limited the amount of fraudulent black caviar reaching the marketplace. Using mitochondrial DNA-based methods, we compare mislabeling in caviar and meat purchased in the New York City area pre and post CITES listing. Our recent sampling of this market reveals a decrease in mislabeled caviar (2006-2008; 10%; n = 90) compared to pre-CITES implementation (1995-1996; 19%; n = 95). Mislabeled caviar was found only in online purchase (n = 49 online/41 retail). Stricter controls on importing and exporting as per CITES policies may be having a positive conservation effect by limiting the amount of fraudulent caviar reaching the marketplace. Sturgeons and paddlefishes remain a conservation priority, however, due to continued overfishing and habitat degradation. Other marine and aquatic species stand to benefit from the international trade regulation that can result from CITES listing.

  20. PRINSIP-PRINSIP GATS (GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TRADE IN SERVICES TERHADAP PERDAGANGAN JASA PENDIDIKAN TINGGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta Hartiana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available International trade in higher education belongs to the more complex reality in the international trade in services, become global trends and reform in system of higher education all over the world. This research is aimed at finding out both modes of supply and principles of GATS regarding international trade in services. The main objective of the GATS is creating a credible and reliable system of international trade rules; ensuring fair and equitable treatment of all members; stimulating economic activity through guaranteed policy bindings and promoting trade and development through progressive liberalization. This study used normative research. The method used for collecting data was the statute approach. Primary legal sources derived from WTO Trade in Services Division regarding GATS obligations and the principles of the international trade in services. The result of this study, it was found that, there were four modes of supply trade in education under GATS (article 1:2 such as: cross-border supply; consumption abroad; commercial presence and delivery abroad; and the principles of GATS divided into two categories; Firstly, unconditionally obligations, such as the Most-Favoured Nation (article II GATS and Transparency (article III GATS apply directly and automatically to all WTO members and services sector regardless of whether WTO member schedule commitment or not; Secondly, conditionally obligations such as: National Treatment (article XVII and Market Access (article XVI  and only applies to commitment listed in national schedules. Perdagangan internasional dalam pendidikan tinggi milik realitas yang lebih kompleks dalam perdagangan internasional di bidang jasa, menjadi tren global dan reformasi dalam sistem pendidikan tinggi di seluruh dunia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui model-model pasokan dan prinsip-prinsip GATS mengenai perdagangan internasional di bidang jasa. Tujuan utama dari GATS adalah menciptakan sistem yang kredibel

  1. The role of regional economic integrations for trade margins: A case of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Zajc Kejžar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this investigation is to research the development of intensive and extensive trade margins on product-country level data for Croatia during the period 2000–2012. Hypothesis of our paper is that RTAs-induced trade liberalization will have heterogeneous effects on particular product groups with indirect implications on national welfare. Static and dynamic gravity trade models are used on panel data accounting for over 90% of total trade during the observed period. Estimations of the trade gravity model and trade margins showed that while SAA and CEFTA arrangements positively affected different measures of intensive and extensive trade margins, specially exports and imports of consumption products, effects on trade in intermediate and capital goods were relatively subdued. This suggests a tendency for market-seeking rather than efficiency-seeking behaviour of Croatia’s trade sector. When comparing the results for two trade agreements using dynamic model, we find that SAA primarily affected trade in consumption goods while effects of CEFTA are more evenly dispersed across different product groups. Main conclusion of the paper is that Croatia’s policy makers should try to keep the preferential status of Croatia within the CEFTA market in the medium term, focusing on the Croatian economy.

  2. Benchmarking and the allocation of emission rights. European Parliament agreement on CO2 emission trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmsen, H.

    2003-01-01

    July 2, 2003, the Parliament of the European Union approved the directive for CO2 emission trade, which means that the energy-intensive industry and businesses in Europe have to deal with cost for CO2 emission from 2005 onwards. It is estimated that the Dutch government will have to distribute circa 90 million ton of CO2 emission rights (1.8 billion euro at a price of 20 euro per ton CO2). In order to realize a fair and transparent distribution of the rights use can be made of the Covenant Benchmarking for Energy Efficiency [nl

  3. The Text of the Fifth Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA). Extension of Agreement. Latest Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Text of the Fifth Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA). Extension of Agreement. Latest Status [es

  4. 77 FR 70527 - Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Australia, Bahrain, Chile, Colombia, Korea, Morocco, Oman, Panama, Peru, and Singapore; the Dominican... Paper on Pro-Competitive Regulatory Principles; the WTO Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing... CAFTA-DR; (4) Whether Australia, Bahrain, Chile, Colombia, Korea, Morocco, Oman, Panama, Peru, or...

  5. 78 FR 73583 - Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Australia, Bahrain, Chile, Colombia, Korea, Morocco, Oman, Panama, Peru, and Singapore; the Dominican... Paper on Pro-Competitive Regulatory Principles; the WTO Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing... CAFTA-DR; (4) Whether Australia, Bahrain, Chile, Colombia, Korea, Morocco, Oman, Panama, Peru, or...

  6. 75 FR 20567 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government of the United States, the Government of Canada and the Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article...

  7. 77 FR 65864 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into... Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules...

  8. 76 FR 56156 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government of the United States, the Government of Canada and the Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article...

  9. 77 FR 74174 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... duty law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came... Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules...

  10. 78 FR 51708 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government of... Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal...

  11. 75 FR 74686 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government of... Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal...

  12. 76 FR 4633 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... duty law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came... Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules...

  13. 76 FR 14917 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1... established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were...

  14. 76 FR 56404 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into... Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules...

  15. 77 FR 29965 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government of... Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal...

  16. 75 FR 70770 - Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... inconsistent with the terms of such agreement or otherwise denies U.S. firms, within the context of the terms... Submission Comments in response to this notice must be written in English, must identify (on the first page... electronically by 5 p.m. on December 17, 2010. Reply comments must also be in English and must be submitted by 5...

  17. Trade openness, space relocation and regional salaries in México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Castro Lugo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The central objective of this document is to identify the occupational transformations among cities, as well as to explore if other elements related to the regional characteristics exist, such as economies of agglomeration and accessibility to the markets, that influence in the wage differences among cities. The most relevant methodological contribution that distinguishes it of previous studies in México is that for the analysis uses information at level of micro data of wage-earning workers of the National Survey of Urban Employment used for the period 1992-2002 considering 33 urban areas. The results of this research indicate changes in the spatial distribution of the manufacturing activities. Also, it is evidence that the economies of agglomeration and accessibility to the markets they have relevance in the wage disparity in the later years to the Free Trade Agreement of North America, although its influences is different by activity.

  18. Opportunities of Trade in Services between the EU and Ukraine: the Case of Telecommunications Services under the GATS and the Association Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batura, Olga; Kretova, Olga A.

    This working paper studies the legal and regulatory conditions for trade in ser- vices between the European Union (EU) and Ukraine on the example of tele- communications services that are important carrier services for various busi- ness activities in the cross-border trade. The paper outlines...... the general frame- work for trade in services under the GATS as expressed in the commitments undertaken by Ukraine and examines the detailed provisions of the EU- Ukraine Association Agreement on trade liberalisation and regulatory approx- imation that is a WTO-extra agreement. It also provides an overview...... – the internal mar- ket treatment – is difficult to reach due to unclear and complicated rules on regulatory approximation. Key words: EU, Ukraine, trade in services, telecommunications services, liber- alisation, regulatory approximation...

  19. Services and investment in the EU-South Korea free-trade area: implications of a new approach for GATS V agreements and for bilateral investment treaties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, J.; Laurenza, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the services and investment features of the recently concluded free trade agreement between the European Union and its Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Korea, of the other part. This agreement is an early example of a new scheduling approach adopted by the

  20. CHALLENGE FOR ASEAN-CHINA FREE TRADE AGREEMENT ON INDONESIA EMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Riswati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the challenges for Indonesian economy towards the implementation ofASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA especially on employment opportunity in Indonesia.Using regression technique, the labour cost and change in fix capital are statistically significant ininfluencing the employment opportunity. This result implies that ACFTA will challenge the Indonesiancompetitiveness due to increasing labour cost, while ACFTA also potentially increases capitalflow from China which has ambiguous impacts on labour absorption. The SWOT (Strength,Weakness, Opportunity and Threat analysis recommends for Indonesian government to improvecomprehensive strategy of national industry to be more competitive to China products.Keywords: ACFTA, employment opportunity, structural equation modelJEL classification numbers: F13, F14, F15, F42

  1. The Impact of Free Trade Agreements on Foreign Direct Investment: The Case of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chankwon Bae

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to empirically identify the effects of FTAs on outward and inward FDIs in Korea. Considering the income differences between Korea and its FTA partners, we hypothesize that FTAs have a positive effect on outward FDI to developing countries and inward FDI from developed countries. An underlying source of the hypothesis is the Knowledge-Capital model, addressing the positive (negative relationship between trade costs and horizontal (vertical FDI. We test for the hypothesis using data on Korea's FTAs and FDI over the period 2000-2010. We find that our empirical results support the hypothesis, and additionally, FTAs in general encourage FDI by creating an FDI-friendly environment.

  2. Analysis Of Agricultural Productivity And Growth On Safta (South Asian Free Trade Agreement And Its Imact On Economy Of Pakistan By Using CGE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Ahmed GOPANG

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research explore the opportunities and analyzing the cost andbenefit on Pak-India trade on South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTAand its possible impact on the welfare of both countries. Pak-India trade on SAFTA create opportunities for the both countries in export Laid growth. In First Scenario when normal trading relation will be restores and given MFN(Most Favored Nations status given to each other to attack the trade between two countries. The Global trade analysis GTAP model is used to analyze the possible impact of SAFTA on Pakistan in a multi country, multi sector applied General equilibrium frame work. After employing the simplified static analysis framework, the analysis based on simulations revealsthat current demand for Pakistani Basmati Rice and other consumer items like leather and cotton-made garments will expand after the FTA and consumer surplus will increase. The export of Rice, leather and cotton-made garments may be conducted by two scenarios, i.e. when normal trading relations between Pakistan and India will be restored and when there will be a free trade between Pakistan and India in the presence of South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA. Results based on this research reveal that on SAFTA, grounds, there will be net export benefi ts in Pakistan’s economy.

  3. The Text of the Agreement of 8 July Extending the Asian Regional Co-Operative Project on Food Irradiation. Extension Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The text of the Agreement to Extend the Agreement of 23 May 1980 Establishing the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Food Irradiation within the framework of the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology of 1972, as extended in 1977 and in 1982, is reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  4. Is health impact assessment useful in the context of trade negotiations? A case study of the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Katherine; Haigh, Fiona; Gleeson, Deborah; Harris, Patrick; Thow, Anne Marie; Friel, Sharon

    2016-04-04

    The Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) is a recently concluded free trade agreement involving Australia and 11 other Pacific-rim nations, which has the potential for far-reaching impacts on public health. A health impact assessment (HIA) was carried out during the negotiations to determine the potential future public health impact in Australia and to provide recommendations to mitigate potential harms. This paper explores the findings and outcomes of the HIA, and how this approach can be used to provide evidence for public health advocacy. A modified version of the standard HIA process was followed. The HIA was led by technical experts in HIA, trade policy, and health policy, in collaboration with advocacy organisations concerned with the TPP and health. The HIA reviewed the provisions in leaked TPP text in order to determine their potential impact on future health policy. As part of this process, researchers developed policy scenarios in order to examine how TPP provisions may affect health policies and their subsequent impact to health for both the general and vulnerable populations. The four policy areas assessed were the cost of medicines, tobacco control, alcohol control and food labelling. In all areas assessed, the HIA found that proposed TPP provisions were likely to adversely affect health. These provisions are also likely to more adversely affect the health of vulnerable populations. The HIA produced relevant evidence that was useful in advocacy efforts by stakeholders, and engaging the public through various media platforms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  6. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-02-07

    The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency.

  7. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency

  8. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency [es

  9. The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-17

    imports, see Appendix A.) About 20% of the export increase would benefit U.S. producers and exporters of pork, poultry and other meat products.20 In...more than $1.5 billion (45%) higher under the KORUS FTA than would be the case otherwise. Sales of beef, poultry , and pork would account for $644...U.S. beef primarily to regional markets and neighborhood butcher shops. However, U.S. exporters are watching for changes in consumer sentiment that

  10. Greenhouse gas emission management in the US - current regional initiatives compared with international carbon trading programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rink, A.G.; Law, S.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States (US) there are currently voluntary reporting programs (EPA Climate Leaders, Carbon Disclosure Project and The Climate Registry), organized market-based trading platforms (Chicago Climate Exchange and The Green Exchange) and proposed regional mandatory cap and trade programs in California, the Northeast, the West and the Midwest. The past success of the US Acid Rain 'cap-and-trade' system market-based format together with the availability of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme to serve as a template for future greenhouse gas regulations is promising as the US can participate in the world wide carbon markets already established. (author)

  11. Review of the impact of the Ukraine-EU free trade agreement on manufacturing industries (mechanical engineering, chemical and light industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Usenko

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a definition to the concept of ‘deep integration’ taken by the Ukrainian Government as a framework concept for the establishment of a Ukraine-EU free trade area. The paper uses the term ‘deep free trade’ or ‘free trade area +’. It offers a review of the Ukrainian economy and its readiness to open such industries as mechanical engineering, chemical and light industry to free trade with the EU. It examines which cooperative steps might be taken in the sectors in question in the framework of a free trade area by identifying specific features of those sectors in Ukraine and the EU through SWOT analysis and review of certain provisions in relevant agreements between the EU and other countries. It proposes to forecast the possible impact of a free trade area on stakeholders’ position regarding the agreement by using the ‘stakeholder approach’ (identifying and classifying interest groups and the European Commission’s method of ‘impact assessment’. Based on the results of this research, conclusions are made concerning the fundamental negotiation principles for talks between Ukraine and the EU as to the economic and trade component of the new ‘enhanced agreement.

  12. Adapting veterinary infrastructures to meet the challenges of globalisation and the requirements of the World Trade Organization Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, A

    2004-04-01

    To maximise the benefits of globalisation, countries and their stakeholders must become familiar with and adhere to the rights and obligations set out by the World Trade Organization under the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. Furthermore, for trade in animals and animal products, they must adhere to the standards, guidelines and recommendations established by the OIE (World organisation for animal health), which also encourages participation of countries in the standard-setting process. Only after implementing these requirements and strengthening veterinary infrastructures and surveillance and monitoring systems, will countries be able to fully benefit from the new international trade rules.

  13. The Text of the Third Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology of 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The text of the Third Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology of 1972 the RCA Agreement, extended first in 1977 and then in 1982, for a further period of five years with effect from 12 June 1987, is reproduced herein for the information of all Members [fr

  14. The Text of the Second Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology of 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    The text of the Second Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology of 1972 the RCA Agreement, fist extended in 1977, for a further period of five years with effect from 12 June 1982, is reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  15. International Trade, Pollution Accumulation and Sustainable Growth: A VAR Estimation from the Pearl River Delta Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hui; Tian, Lu

    2018-03-01

    In order to investigate international trade influence in the regional environment. This paper constructs a vector auto-regression (VAR) model and estimates the equations with the environment and trade data of the Pearl River Delta Region. The major mechanisms to the lag are discussed and the fit simulation of the environmental change by the international impulse is given. The result shows that impulse of pollution-intensive export deteriorates the environment continuously and impulse of such import improves it. These effects on the environment are insignificantly correlated with contemporary regional income but significantly correlative to early-stage trade feature. To a typical trade-dependent economy, both export and import have hysteresis influence in the regional environment. The lagged impulse will change environmental development in the turning point, maximal pollution level and convergence.

  16. The Text of the Third Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA). Latest Status. Extension of Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The text of the Third Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, t he 1987 RCA , is reproduced herein for the information of all Members [es

  17. The Text of the Fourth Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA). Extension of Agreement. Latest Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Fourth Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 'the 1987 RCA', is reproduced herein for the information of all Members [es

  18. The Text of the Fourth Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA). Extension of Agreement. Latest Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Fourth Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 'the 1987 RCA', is reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  19. Moving on from NAFTA to the FTAA?: the impact of trade agreements on social and health conditions in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel San Sebastián

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Gracias a los tratados comerciales internacionales, el comercio mundial y la inversión extranjera se han incrementado vertiginosamente en los últimos 25 años. Es preciso, entonces, examinar las pruebas acumuladas de que el comercio tiene un efecto sobre la salud e incorporarlas en el proceso de formulación de políticas. Uno de los acuerdos en actual proceso de negociación es el Área de Libre Comercio de las Américas (Free Trade Agreement of the Americas,o ALCA. Con el fin de ayudar a evaluar las posibles consecuencias sanitarias de este acuerdo en el Hemisferio Occidental, este artículo examina los 10 años de experiencia que han tenido Canadá, México y los Estados Unidos de América con el Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (North American Free Trade Agreement,o TLCAN. Aunque los tres países han visto una expansión macroeconómica, las ganancias prometidas en lo referente a mayores fuentes de empleo, mayores ingresos y menos desigualdad y pobreza no se han producido. El TLCAN también ha tenido un gran impacto en la agricultura, los servicios públicos y el grado de soberanía ejercido por los tres gobiernos en lo que respecta a la adopción de políticas en pro de los intereses del público. Se espera que el ALCA sea el régimen de comercio e inversión más completo del mundo. Representa un mayor peligro que el TLCAN debido a la vulnerabilidad de la mayoría de los países de las Américas y a la propuesta de que se incorporen al ALCA nuevos reglamentos muy estrictos encaminados a extender la injerencia del tratado hacia nuevos sectores que el TLCAN no abarca. Las organizaciones de salud pública deben participar en la polémica en torno al ALCA y los gobiernos de los países de las Américas deben darle mayor prioridad a la salud que al comercio si se han de evitar riesgos innecesarios para la salud de los pueblos americanos.

  20. THE EFFECT OF PREFERENTIAL TRADE AREAS (PTAs IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF REGIONALISM: THE CASE OF ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Al-Faqiih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The issue of regionalism particularly in the matter of preferential trade area is not an old fashion debate, but it becomes a prominent feature and a popular tool for global trading system. However, it does not mean that the regionalism might always bring benefit for any actor especially in terms of every national interest in the region. This paper would elaborate the effect of preferential trade area (PTAs establishment on the economic interest of ASEAN countries member. Through literature study, this paper concludes that the PTAs produce many positive benefits for the ASEAN countries member. The flexibility of partnerships and coverage selection under PTAs has helped ASEAN solve the crisis and increase efficiency as well as stimulate the main goal of global fair trade by expanding economic linkages. Thus, it could be said that PTAs enhance the multilateralism under the WTO system

  1. Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on transportation in the border areas of the United States : with emphasis on the California-Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    This report identifies impacts of the North ?American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on transportation in the U.S. border areas. Emphasis is on the California-Baja California border zone. Focus is on the identification of recommendations to the Califor...

  2. Where Symbolism Prospers : An Analysis of the Impact on Enabling Rights of Labour Standards Provisions in Trade Agreements with South Korea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Roozendaal, Gerda

    2017-01-01

    Can trade agreements be used as a tool for improving the conditions under which people work? The evidence from this study suggests this is not the case, even if the country in question—in this instance South Korea—is a well-developed and democratic country. While over the past six years South Korea

  3. African Regional Co-operative Agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology. Extension of agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Pursuant to Article XIV.2, the Agreement ''shall continue in force for a period of five years from the data of its entry into force and may be extended for further periods of five years if the Government Parties so agree''. The extension of the Agreement entered into force on 4 April 1995, upon expiration of the original Agreement

  4. African Regional Co-operative Agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology. Extension of agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-10

    Pursuant to Article XIV.2, the Agreement ``shall continue in force for a period of five years from the data of its entry into force and may be extended for further periods of five years if the Government Parties so agree``. The extension of the Agreement entered into force on 4 April 1995, upon expiration of the original Agreement.

  5. Trade in goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards......An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards...

  6. For Smooth Expansion of Coal Trade in the Asia-Pacific Region and the World:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, H.

    1996-01-01

    This document deals with issues related to the smooth expansion of coal trade in the Asia-Pacific region and the world. Since the oil crises, the coal trade has significantly expanded and will further expand, but there remain barriers to this expansion. This paper describes the issues discussed during the first Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Coal Flow Seminar which took place in Tokyo on October 4 to 6, 1994. With the expected increase in coal demand, there will be less barriers concerning its trade. (TEC)

  7. Trade-FDI Linkages in a System of Gravity Equations for German Regional Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo; Alecke, Björn; Untiedt, Gerhard

    We analyse the nature of German trade-FDI linkages within the EU27 based on a simultaneous equation gravity approach for imports, exports, in- and outward FDI stocks.We adopt both a Hausman-Taylor (1981) IV approach (3SLS-GMM) and rival non-IV estimation (the system extension to the Fixed Effects...... substitutive links between trade flows and outward FDI in line with earlier empirical evidence for Germany. Building upon German state level data we are also able to analyse the sensitivity of the results for regional sub-samples. The latter disaggregation hints at structural differences among the trade...

  8. Where Symbolism Prospers: An Analysis of the Impact on Enabling Rights of Labour Standards Provisions in Trade Agreements with South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Van Roozendaal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Can trade agreements be used as a tool for improving the conditions under which people work? The evidence from this study suggests this is not the case, even if the country in question—in this instance South Korea—is a well-developed and democratic country. While over the past six years South Korea has taken part in a number of Free Trade Agreements containing labour provisions, the impact of these on enabling rights has been rather low. This would suggest that without the willingness to enforce these parts of the agreements, or without the willingness to implement them on the Korean side, the inclusion of such provisions remains a fairly symbolic undertaking.

  9. Economic Diplomacy in Africa: The Impact of Regional Integration versus Bilateral Diplomacy on Bilateral Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku

    The paper examines the impact of two main instruments of economic diplomacy — regional integration and commercial diplomacy on export flows among African states. We test whether there is any evidence of a trade-off or complementary interaction between these two instruments in trade facilitation. We...... compared to regional integration. We also find a nuanced interaction between these two instruments of economic diplomacy: the trade–stimulating effect of diplomatic exchange is less pronounced among African countries that shared membership of the same regional bloc. Generally, this could mean...... that there exists a trade-off between regional integration and commercial diplomacy in facilitating exports or a lack of complementarity between these two instruments of economic diplomacy....

  10. Re-examining the Role of Transport Infrastructure in Trade, Regional Growth and Governance: Comparing the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS and Central Eastern Europe (CEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Bafoil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to question the hypothesis of the role of transport infrastructures in regional economic growth by comparing Central Eastern Europe (supported by the EU structural and cohesion funds and the Greater Mekong Subregion (mainly supported by the “economic corridors” of the ADB. Three main components of trade efficiency are scrutinized and compared: (1 the historical development of trade agreements, (2 the supra-national (regional capacity of trade regulation, and (3 the micro level of governance between the different actors involved in trade. The comparison between CEE and the GMS is all the more warranted because of two paradoxes that need to be explained: The first one results from the existing link between transport and growth in the case of the GMS, and the lack of a link in the case of CEE. The second paradox insists on the fact that despite their very different institutional frameworks, both subregions continue to face similar challenges concerning the implementation of trade agreements and the exchange of facilities at the local level – pointing towards the issue of governance.

  11. A regional perspective on the spatial concentration in Romania’s international trade in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuta Stangaciu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I aimed at analyzing the territorial structure of the international trade in Romania in 2011 on the level of each development region. Starting from the values of the export and import trade flows pertaining to each region of Romania and using statistical methods of analysis, we processed the existing data in order to determine the distribution of foreign trade and to emphasize the regional poles of competitiveness from this point of view. Since other indexes, such as the trade balance or the import/export coverage ratio, are also marks of competitiveness and of the increase or decrease in the performance of a certain economy, we also calculated these indexes for each region of the country. In order to statistically substantiate the existence of a certain degree of spatial concentration of the Romanian international trade in different regions of the country, we resorted to the boxplot graphical representation and to the Gini square and the Gini index respectively.

  12. The text of the agreement to extend the regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987, for a further period of five years with effect from 12 June 1992. Australia, Bangladesh, the People's Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam are parties of this Agreement

  13. Evaluation of the European Union-United States oil and petroleum-based fuels trade potential in the context of the negotiated TTIP agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkuski Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article evaluates the European Union-United States oil and petroleum-based fuels trade potential. The planned trade structure and balance according to IEA (International Energy Agency and IHS (IHS CERA www.ihs.com scenarios, the projected volume of imports and exports, and differences in price levels and costs are presented. The projected potential of the trade volume, taking into account the possible impact of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP, is also presented. The analysis has shown that the elimination of trade barriers between the European Union and the United States would be more beneficial to US refineries. Due to the higher import tariffs to the EU, the potential benefits of US exporters are higher than those of the EU exporters to the US. This confirms the fears of European negotiators that some aspects of the agreement will have a negative impact on European businesses. However, in the case of petroleum products the TTIP agreement will have a negligible impact on increasing the export volume.

  14. Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on high-fructose corn syrup supply in Canada: a natural experiment using synthetic control methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Pepita; McKee, Martin; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

    2017-07-04

    Critics of free trade agreements have argued that they threaten public health, as they eliminate barriers to trade in potentially harmful products, such as sugar. Here we analyze the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), testing the hypothesis that lowering tariffs on food and beverage syrups that contain high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) increased its use in foods consumed in Canada. We used supply data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to assess changes in supply of caloric sweeteners including HFCS after NAFTA. We estimate the impact of NAFTA on supply of HFCS in Canada using an innovative, quasi-experimental methodology - synthetic control methods - that creates a control group with which to compare Canada's outcomes. Additional robustness tests were performed for sample, control groups and model specification. Tariff reductions in NAFTA coincided with a 41.6 (95% confidence interval 25.1 to 58.2) kilocalorie per capita daily increase in the supply of caloric sweeteners including HFCS. This change was not observed in the control groups, including Australia and the United Kingdom, as well as a composite control of 16 countries. Results were robust to placebo tests and additional sensitivity analyses. NAFTA was strongly associated with a marked rise in HFCS supply and likely consumption in Canada. Our study provides evidence that even a seemingly modest change to product tariffs in free trade agreements can substantially alter population-wide dietary behaviour and exposure to risk factors. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  15. African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology. Third extension of agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Pursuant to Article XIV.2, the Agreement 'shall continue in force for a period of five years from the date of its entry into force and may be extended for further periods of five years if the Government Parties so agree'. The third extension of the Agreement entered into force on 4 April 2005, upon expiration of the second extension of the Agreement and will remain in force for an additional period of five years, i.e. through 3 April 2010. As of 10 May 2005, 20 States have notified the Agency of their acceptance of the extension of the Agreement. The status list of the Agreement is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. Members will be notified of further acceptances of the extension of the Agreement by addenda to this information circular

  16. CETA and pharmaceuticals: impact of the trade agreement between Europe and Canada on the costs of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexchin, Joel; Gagnon, Marc-André

    2014-05-06

    On a per capita basis, Canadian drug costs are already the second highest in the world after the United States and are among the fastest rising in the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development. The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between the European Union (EU) and Canada will further exacerbate the rise in costs by:  Committing Canada to creating a new system of patent term restoration thereby delaying entry of generic medicines by up to two years; Locking in Canada's current term of data protection, and creating barriers for future governments wanting to reverse it;  Implementing a new right of appeal under the patent linkage system that will create further delays for the entry of generics.CETA will only affect intellectual property rights in Canada-not the EU. This analysis estimates that CETA's provisions will increase Canadian drug costs by between 6.2% and 12.9% starting in 2023. The Canadian government committed to compensating provinces for the rise in costs for their public drug plans. Importantly, this means that people paying out-of-pocket for their drugs or receiving them through private insurance, will be charged twice: once through higher drug costs and once more through their federal taxes.As drug costs continue to grow, there are limited options available for provincial/territorial governments: restrict the choice of medicines in public drug plans; transfer costs to patients who typically are either elderly or sick; or take money from other places in the health system, and threaten the viability of Canada's single payer system. CETA will therefore negatively impact the ability of Canada to offer quality health care.

  17. The text of the third agreement to extend the regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology of 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The full text of the third agreement to extend the regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology of 1972 (INFCIRC/167) (extended first in 1977 and then in 1982) for a further period of five years with effect from 12 June 1987, is reproduced

  18. The Text of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology. Acceptance of the Agreement by Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    On 23 October 1974 the Government of Bangladesh notified the Agency of its acceptance of the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology between the Agency and Member States, in accordance with Section 9 thereof. Pursuant to Section 10, the Agreement consequently entered into force with respect to the Government of Bangladesh on that date

  19. The text of the second agreement to extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Second Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for a further period of five years with effect from 12 june 1997, i.e., through 11 June 2002

  20. 7 CFR Guide 1 to Subpart G of... - Project Management Agreement Between the ____ Regional Commission and the Farmers Home...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Project Management Agreement Between the ____ Regional... Guide 1 to Subpart G of Part 1942—Project Management Agreement Between the ____ Regional Commission and... successor agency under Public Law 103-354, in concurring to this Project Management Agreement, hereby...

  1. African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology. Fourth Extension of Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Pursuant to Article XIV.2, the Agreement 'shall continue in force for a period of five years from the date of its entry into force and may be extended for further periods of five years if the Government Parties so agree'. The fourth extension of the Agreement entered into force on 4 April 2010, upon expiration of the third extension of the Agreement and will remain in force for an additional period of five years, i.e. through 3 April 2015. As of 30 April 2010, 8 States have notified the Agency of their acceptance of the extension of the Agreement. The status list of the Agreement is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [es

  2. The impact of domestic trade on China's regional energy uses: A multi-regional input–output modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bo; Chen, Z.M.; Xia, X.H.; Xu, X.Y.; Chen, Y.B.

    2013-01-01

    To systematically reveal how domestic trade impacts on China's regional energy uses, an interprovincial input–output modeling is carried out to address demand-derived energy requirements for the regional economies in 2007 based on the recently available data. Both the energy uses embodied in final demand and interregional trade are investigated from the regional and sectoral insights. Significant net transfers of embodied energy flows are identified from the central and western areas to the eastern area via interregional trade. Shanxi is the largest energy producer and interregional embodied energy deficit receiver, in contrast to Guangdong as the largest energy user and surplus receiver. By considering the impacts of interregional trade, the energy uses of most eastern regions increase remarkably. For instance, Shanghai, Hainan, Zhejiang, Beijing, Jiangsu and Guangdong have their embodied energy requirements 87.49, 19.97, 13.64, 12.60, 6.46 and 6.38 times of their direct energy inputs, respectively. In contrast, the embodied energy uses of some central and western regions such as Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Xinjiang, Shaanxi and Guizhou decrease largely. The results help understand the hidden network linkages of interregional embodied energy flows and provide critical insight to amend China's current end-reduction-oriented energy policies by addressing the problem of regional responsibility transfer. - Highlights: • Demand-derived energy requirements for China's regional economies are addressed. • Significant interregional transfers of embodied energy flows are identified. • Energy surpluses are obtained by 19 regions and deficits by the other 11 regions. • The eastern regions should take more responsibility for reducing China's energy uses

  3. 75 FR 14159 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... parties to exchange slots in the trade between U.S. East Coast ports and ports in Turkey. Agreement No.: 201048-005. Title: Lease and Operating Agreement between Philadelphia Regional Port Authority and... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Notice of Agreements Filed The Commission hereby gives notice of the...

  4. Ethnobotany and trade of medicinal plants in the Qaysari Market, Kurdish Autonomous Region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mati, Evan; de Boer, Hugo

    2011-01-27

    Marketplaces epitomize a region's culture and trade, and can give a rapid insight into traditions and salience of commercialized medicinal products. The Qaysari bazaar, bordering the citadel in Erbil city in the Kurdistan Autonomous Region, Iraq, has 21 herbalist shops trading natural medicinal products, wild-crafted and cultivated from all over the Middle East and Asia Minor. Freelist surveys were conducted with 18 of these herbalists to determine diversity and salience of traded traditional medicinal plants. Interviews were conducted to document use, trade volume, origin, stock and value of the reported species. Plant species were identified using a combination of morphological identification and molecular barcoding using the ITS region. Vouchers were collected for a total of 158 samples, corresponding to 82 species of plants, 5 animal products, 8 types of stones, minerals or chemicals, as well as 16 mixtures of plant products. Consensus Analysis of the herbalist interviews shows strong support for a single culture of herbalist plant use. Most reported plant species are known to have been used since antiquity, and uses are identical or similar to previously documented uses. Herbalists report a steady year-on-year increase in trade due to the economic stability in recent times. A majority (64%) of medicinal plants is imported from outside Iraq, and the data shows that imported plants trade at a higher price than locally-sourced species, and that these species are stocked in higher volumes by the herbalists to ensure a steady supply to consumers. A strong tradition of herbal medicine exists in Kurdistan today exemplified by the diverse and vigorous trade in medicinal plants commercialized from the provinces around Erbil to countries as far away as India, Spain and Libya. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Regional Cooperation Agreement for Asia and the Pacific (RCA). A mechanism for nuclear technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin Muslim, N.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the regional cooperation programs of the IAEA which have as purpose to promote the applications of peaceful uses of atomic energy and to transfer technology to the developing countries. The paper focusses on the (RCA) program for Asia and the Pacific, it is considered the most important mechanism for genuine technology transfer. The annex no 1 lists the full text of the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987 (13 articles). The annex no.3 lists also the full text of the African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (14 articles). 11 refs., 17 tabs

  6. Modelling regional trade of CO{sub 2} certificates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueeler, B.; Bahn, O.; Kypreos, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Many countries have developed energy models (such as MARKAL-MACRO---MM) to assess their energy policies, in particular concerning the curbing of their carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. To integrate national MM models, we propose a multi-regional MARKAL-MACRO (3M) model. It enables one to study an international co-operation to curb jointly CO{sub 2} emissions through a market of emission permits. Furthermore, from a decision support perspective, the 3M model can be used to integrate aspects of ecological sustainability (in relation to global climate change issue), economic welfare, efficient resource use and technological innovation. To solve 3M, we follow two alternative mathematical methods. (author) 4 refs.

  7. Strategic trade between two regions with partial local consumer protection - General setup and nash equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanov, Iordan V.; Vassilev, Andrey A.

    2017-12-01

    We construct a model of the trade relations between two regions for the case when the trading entities (consumers) compete for a scarce good and there is an element of strategic interdependence in the trading process. Additionally, local consumers enjoy partial protection in the form of guaranteed access to a part of the locally-supplied quantity of the good. The model is formulated for the general asymmetric case, where the two regions differ in terms of parameters such as income, size of the local market supply, degree of protection and transportation costs. For this general model we establish the existence of Nash equilibria and obtain their form as a function of the model parameters, producing a typology of the equilibria. This is a required step in order to rigorously study various types of price dynamics for the model.

  8. ASSOCIATION / FREE TRADE AGREEMENT - BI-REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN EUROPEAN UNION AND ANDEAN COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildikó Szegedy-Maszák

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se discutirán los desarrollos actuales en las políticas exteriores de la Unión Europea y sus aplicaciones en Latinoamérica incluyendo las posibilidades de negociar una asociación estratégica birregional entre la Unión Europea y la Comunidad Andina de Naciones. Se analizará el camino desde un Acuerdo Asociativo hacía un Tratado de Libre Comercio presentando los diferentes puntos de vista de las partes negociadores y las posibles diferencias ideológicas. Se presentará la teoría de espacio interregional Eurolatinoamericano y su aplicación en las integraciones birregionales. Como parte de las conclusiones se expresarán las preocupaciones sobre el futuro de las negociaciones de asociaciones birregionales especialmente entre integraciones con asimetrías.

  9. Elasmobranch fisheries in the Arabian Seas Region: Characteristics, trade and management

    KAUST Repository

    Jabado, Rima W

    2017-05-23

    The Arabian Seas Region plays an important role in the global landings and trade of sharks and rays. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Yemen, two countries with stark socio-economic differences, serve as major regional trade hubs for shark and ray products and four countries (Oman, Pakistan, UAE and Yemen) supply nearly 11% of dried fin exports to Hong Kong. Yet, little information is available on the characteristics of this trade and the fisheries contributing to it. Here, we review the fisheries characteristics, trade, utilization and distribution chain of sharks and rays in 15 countries of the Arabian Seas Region based on published and grey literature, landing surveys, field observations and interviews with fishermen and traders. Although regional shark fisheries remain mostly artisanal, reported shark and ray landings represent 28% of the regional total fish production, reaching 56,074 mt in 2012 (7.3% of total world catches), with Iran, Oman, Pakistan and Yemen ranking as the primary catchers. Utilization and distribution patterns are complex, vary between landing sites and countries, and remain unmonitored. Based on widespread over-exploitation of most teleost fisheries, current exploitation levels for most sharks and rays are potentially unsustainable. The situation is exacerbated by limited research and political will to support policy development, the incomplete nature of fisheries data, as well as insufficient regulations and enforcement. A better understanding of shark and ray fisheries will be key for regulating trade, promoting conservation and developing management initiatives to secure food security, livelihoods and biodiversity conservation in the region.

  10. Trade-off analysis for sustainability evaluation: a case study of the Purhepecha region, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, E.N.; Astier, M.; López Ridaura, S.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the use and role of trade-off analysis as a decision-making tool in the implementation of new technologies and sustainability evaluation. As an example, soils in the Purhepecha region in Mexico have been eroding for decades and crop residue retention has been suggested as an

  11. The potential impact of the World Trade Organization's general agreement on trade in services on health system reform and regulation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skala, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The collapse of the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha Round of talks without achieving new health services liberalization presents an important opportunity to evaluate the wisdom of granting further concessions to international investors in the health sector. The continuing deterioration of the U.S. health system and the primacy of reform as an issue in the 2008 presidential campaign make clear the need for a full range of policy options for addressing the national health crisis. Yet few commentators or policymakers realize that existing WTO health care commitments may already significantly constrain domestic policy options. This article illustrates these constraints through an evaluation of the potential effects of current WTO law and jurisprudence on the implementation of a single-payer national health insurance system in the United States, proposed incremental national and state health system reforms, the privatization of Medicare, and other prominent health system issues. The author concludes with some recommendations to the U.S. Trade Representative to suspend existing liberalization commitments in the health sector and to interpret current and future international trade treaties in a manner consistent with civilized notions of health care as a universal human right.

  12. Foreign Direct Investment from China in the Regions of Russia: Are They Substitutes or Compliments of Foreign Trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Nikolaevna Novopashina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study summarizes theoretical approaches explaining the conditions under which foreign direct investment (FDI can complement or substitute foreign trade depending on investment incentives. The author examines the example of investment and trade cooperation between cross-border and internal regions of Russia and China. Using regression analysis of China’s FDI impact on the foreign trade of Russian regions with China the author concludes that cross-border regions can attract China’s FDI because of their comparative advantages. The paper also employs FDI localization ratios in cross-border and internal regions and the structure of China’s FDI by different activities. The study shows that FDI from China can complement foreign trade with China in cross-border regions. However internal regions attract FDI from China mostly because of access to their home markets, and in this case FDI are substitutes of foreign trade with China

  13. Implications of the cattle trade network in Cameroon for regional disease prevention and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Paolo; Porphyre, Thibaud; Handel, Ian; Hamman, Saidou M.; Ngu Ngwa, Victor; Tanya, Vincent; Morgan, Kenton; Christley, Rob; Bronsvoort, Barend M. Dec.

    2017-03-01

    Movement of live animals is a major risk factor for the spread of livestock diseases and zoonotic infections. Understanding contact patterns is key to informing cost-effective surveillance and control strategies. In West and Central Africa some of the most rapid urbanization globally is expected to increase the demand for animal-source foods and the need for safer and more efficient animal production. Livestock trading points represent a strategic contact node in the dissemination of multiple pathogens. From October 2014 to May 2015 official transaction records were collected and a questionnaire-based survey was carried out in cattle markets throughout Western and Central-Northern Cameroon. The data were used to analyse the cattle trade network including a total of 127 livestock markets within Cameroon and five neighboring countries. This study explores for the first time the influence of animal trade on infectious disease spread in the region. The investigations showed that national borders do not present a barrier against pathogen dissemination and that non-neighbouring countries are epidemiologically connected, highlighting the importance of a regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the benefit of strategic risk-based approaches for disease monitoring, surveillance and control, as well as for communication and training purposes through targeting key regions, highly connected livestock markets and central trading links.

  14. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Sanders, David; Drury, Eliza; Puoane, Thandi; Chowdhury, Syeda N; Tsolekile, Lungiswa; Negin, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region - largely from Asia and the Middle East - are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could complement the SADC's ongoing commitment to regional trade policy.

  15. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Sanders, David; Drury, Eliza; Puoane, Thandi; Chowdhury, Syeda N.; Tsolekile, Lungiswa; Negin, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Background Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Design Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Results Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region – largely from Asia and the Middle East – are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. Conclusions There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could complement the SADC

  16. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Thow

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Design: Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Results: Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region – largely from Asia and the Middle East – are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. Conclusions: There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could

  17. The determinants of intra-regional trade in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Trivić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that have an influence on bilateral trade among the Western Balkan countries for the period from 1995 to 2012. Unlike a majority of works that have dealt with the subject of trade in the Balkans or the SEEs, not only geographical, economic or political factors are taken into account, but also factors constituting cultural, communicational and historical types of the so-called “distance” between countries. In order to assess their influence on trade values, an augmented version of the gravity model is employed. It was estimated threefold: as pooled data by OLS, as a random effects model and as a fixed effects model with an additional estimation of time-invariant variables following the method of Cheng and Wall (2005. The results of the research are surprising, as the strongest influence on trade values were exhibited by variables representing ease of a direct communication and similarity of religious structures. In addition, war and one-year-post-war effect showed a strong and statistically important influence. Thus, the main conclusion is that non-economic factors in the region of the Western Balkans play the most important role in determining trade values between countries.

  18. Global warming agreements, international trade and energy/carbon embodiments: an input-output approach to the Italian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongelli, I.; Tassielli, G.; Notarnicola, B.

    2006-01-01

    In the Kyoto Protocol the absence of Green House Gases (GHGs) commitments of developing countries (non-Annex I) and the more flexible terms of implementation which are allowed to countries shifting toward a market economy (transition economies) naturally lead to the absence or to less constraining national measures and policies of reduction of the GHGs emissions which, in turn, may determine a comparative advantage in the production of the highest energy/carbon intensive commodities for these countries. These arguments are valid also considering the future implementation of the European Emission Allowance Trading Scheme (EATS). Thus, developing countries may become a haven for the production of not environmental-friendly commodities; in this case, the so-called Pollution Haven Hypothesis, stating that due to freer international trade the comparative advantage may change the economic structure and consequently the trade patterns of the countries linked by trade relationships, could occur. This would lead to the increase of the transfers of energy and carbon embodied in traded commodities from developing countries and transition economies toward Kyoto or EATS constrained countries. The aim of this paper is to verify if for Italy, as a Kyoto and EATS complying country, evidence of a change in the trade patterns, occurred on the basis of the Pollution Haven Hypothesis, does exist and to estimate the magnitude of the under-estimation of the carbon actually emitted: the carbon leakage. The Input-Output model has been used to calculate the intensities of energy consumption and the related Green House Gases emission, for each Italian economic sector

  19. LNG (liquefied natural gas) in the Asia-Pacific region: Twenty years of trade and outlook for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiani, B.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: the current status of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region; present structure and projected demand in the Asia-Pacific region; prospective and tentative projects; and LNG contracts: stability versus flexibility.

  20. The Asia-Pacific Region on the Paris Agreement against Climate Change: Geopolitics and Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bertha Cuevas Tello

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the complexity surrounding climate change, it is argued that the willingness to cooperate on the part of the States is based on one of the faces that, for the climate field, can offer geopolitics: strengths or weaknesses (understood as vulnerability of geographical conditions, location and territory. That is, the physical, geographic, economic and demographic factors of each State influence the decision making of the foreign climate policy, which induces them to cooperate or the abstention of it. This paper will address, broadly speaking, the participation of the main economies of the Asia-Pacific region in the institutionalization of climate change in the International Agenda; the importance of the economies of the Asia-Pacific region with regard to the Paris Agreement; and the geopolitical strengths and weaknesses that explain the cooperative or non-cooperative behavior of the region in the fight against climate change.

  1. The Southern African Development Community Trade Legal Instruments Compliance with Certain Criteria of GATT Article XXIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Saurombe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT lays down the legal principles with which regional trade agreements have to conform. Based on these principles, WTO members have the mandate to determine the legality of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs under the GATT. Article XXIV permits both regional and bilateral preferential trade agreements leading to the formation of customs unions and free trade areas, and seeks to integrate them in the multilateral trading system envisioned for the world. SADC is an RTA created under this Article. Notwithstanding the controversies surrounding the provisions and interpretation of Article XXIV, this paper seeks to establish the extent to which the SADC Protocol on Trade and free trade area comply with WTO rules. An analysis of selected Article XXIV provisions and the SADC Trade Protocol provisions will be undertaken in trying to establish this compliance.

  2. On the Role of Hyper-arid Regions within the Virtual Water Trade Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggrey, James; Alshamsi, Aamena; Molini, Annalisa

    2016-04-01

    Climate change, economic development, and population growth are bound to increasingly impact global water resources, posing a significant threat to the sustainable development of arid regions, where water consumption highly exceeds the natural carrying capacity, population growth rate is high, and climate variability is going to impact both water consumption and availability. Virtual Water Trade (VWT) - i.e. the international trade network of water-intensive products - has been proposed as a possible solution to optimize the allocation of water resources on the global scale. By increasing food availability and lowering food prices it may in fact help the rapid development of water-scarce regions. The structure of the VWT network has been analyzed by a number of authors both in connection with trade policies, socioeconomic constrains and agricultural efficiency. However a systematic analysis of the structure and the dynamics of the VWT network conditional to aridity, climatic forcing and energy availability, is still missing. Our goal is hence to analyze the role of arid and hyper-arid regions within the VWN under diverse climatic, demographic, and energy constraints with an aim to contribute to the ongoing Energy-Water-Food nexus discussion. In particular, we focus on the hyper-arid lands of the Arabian Peninsula, the role they play in the global network and the assessment of their specific criticalities, as reflected in the VWN resilience.

  3. A Global Maritime Emissions Trading System. Design and Impacts on the Shipping Sector, Countries and Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Markowska, A.; Eyring, V.; Cionni, I.; Selstad, E. Shipping / Emissions trading / Economy / Costs / Effects / Developing countries Publication number:

    2010-01-15

    This report designs a global cap-and-trade scheme for maritime transport and assesses its impacts on the shipping sector, regions and groups of countries. It shows that it is feasible to implement a cap-and-trade scheme for greenhouse gas emissions in the maritime transport sector. Such a scheme ensures that the environmental target is met, while allowing the sector to grow and ensuring that the target is met in the most cost-effective way. An emissions trading scheme would result in an increase in the costs of shipping of less than 10%, depending on the price of allowances. The increase in import values is likely to be less than 1% for most commodity groups, and the impact on consumer prices even lower. Using new data on emissions of ships sailing to regions and country groups, this report demonstrates that the additional costs of imports for most regions and country groups are estimated to be less than 0.2% of GDP, with a few exceptions. This report demonstrates that it is possible to compensate developing countries for the increased costs of imports by using approximately two thirds of the revenues of the auction. The remainder of the revenues can be used for other aims, such as R and D into fuel-efficiency of ships.

  4. The text of the third agreement to extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA). Extension of agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The text of the Third Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 'the 1987 RCA', is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. Pursuant to Article 1 of the Third Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement, the 1987 RCA shall continue in force for a further period of five years with effect from 12 June 2002, i.e., through 11 June 2007. As of 15 May 2002, notifications of acceptance had been received by the Director General from the Governments of Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Viet Nam. The latest status list is attached

  5. What Prospects for the World Trading System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New developments and dramatic changes are under way in the world trading system. This paper aims to take stock of the latest and most relevant developments and highlight the prospects for global trade governance. The focus is on three major issues, i.e. : (1 the outcome of the Ninth WTO Ministerial Conference in December 2013 in Bali (Indonesia and especially its significance for enhancing the multilateral trading system; (2 the accelerated pace and scale of negotiations on regional trade agreements (RTAs and their wider impact; and (3 the positive results of continued unilateral trade liberalization efforts, in contrast with the pervasiveness of crisis-related protectionist measures. The paper concludes that, despite improved prospects for multilateral trade liberalization following the last WTO Ministerial Conference, the world trading system is becoming more fragmented and less coherent, and also more uncertain, being increasingly driven by RTAs and a variable geometry approach to WTO trade agreements.

  6. Emission Trading as a Basis for new Bioenergy Business Concepts in the Baltic Sea Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesterinen, Pirkko; Helynen, Satu

    2006-01-01

    The new EU Emission Trading system started in the beginning of 2005. This system will bring new challenges, but also new opportunities for the energy market in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) countries. Typically in some EU countries the decreasing of greenhouse gas emissions tends to be more expensive to achieve than in the others. This brings about new trade schemes that could be implemented in the BSR. One important way of reducing emissions is to replace fossil fuels with biomass-based fuels in large scale power and steam production. As the availability of biomass, price level of biomass, electricity and steam, and national subsidies and taxation are different in different countries, it may be economically viable to create a framework for international trade. The product to be traded may be e.g. wood fuel (either as logs and chips or in refined form like pellets), energy (electricity), green certificates or emission allowances. It is also possible to implement so-called JI (Joint Implementation) projects to reach the emission reduction targets.All the above mentioned options may be realised in different ways. The purpose of the project is to find win-win opportunities, in which both the exporting and importing countries/regions will get profit from the system. These positive impacts may be quite impressive in regional level, as they directly boost several business areas like fuel production and transport, equipment manufacturing and maintenance, plant construction, as well as energy production and use. In addition, the impacts cover also forestry and agriculture, by bringing new value and utilisation options for their by-products.The paper presents the first results of an on-going project which is co-financed by the EU programme BSR INTERREG III B. The two-year project started in the beginning of 2005, and the main results will be available in autumn 2006

  7. Ethical principles in international nuclear trade and the role of international treaties and agreements in their implementation. Reflections on the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalanti, C. de A.

    1992-01-01

    The growing importance of nuclear energy (on the threshold of the twenty-first century) and of its ethical uses is considered, including major political events in recent years, their social and economic consequences in the world scene. International Nuclear Law is seen as the most adequate instrument to promote the ethical uses of nuclear energy on a worldwide basis, so that mankind can benefit safely and properly and improving their living conditions in general. Problems associated with access to nuclear technology, plants, equipments and materials are addressed. Basic principles of international agreements ruling nuclear trade, ethical aspects are also covered. The different markets involved in international nuclear trade and their specific requirements are described. Certain international treaties on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are discussed such as the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Tlatelolco Treaty as are international conventions on matters related to the use of nuclear energy, such as the environment and protection of personnel. The author concludes by debating whether ethical uses of nuclear energy are a possible reality or merely utopia. Prospects on the future of international nuclear trade are considered. (author)

  8. Evolving trade policy and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: does it threaten Vietnam's access to medicine and its progress towards scaling up HIV prevention, treatment and care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linh, Nguyen Nhat; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Thuy, Hua Thanh

    2015-01-01

    The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) has undergone 18 rounds of secretive negotiation between the USA and 11 Asia-Pacific countries. Aiming at a free trade area, this multilateral trade proposal covers all aspects of commercial relations among the countries involved. Despite some anticipated positive impacts in trade, specific articles in this proposal's intellectual property and transparency chapters might negatively impact access to medicine, in general, and to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, in particular, in Vietnam. Drawing on a desk review and qualitative in-depth interviews with 20 key informants from government, academia, hospitals and civil society, we analyse various provisions of the proposal being negotiated leaked after the 14th round of negotiations in September 2012. Findings suggest that the TPP could lead to increased monopoly protection and could limit technological advancements within the local pharmaceutical manufacturing industry, resulting in higher medicine prices in Vietnam. This outcome would have a significant impact on Vietnam's ability to achieve goals for HIV prevention, treatment and care, and create barriers to universal health-care coverage. This research provides unique evidence for Vietnam to advocate for more equitable pharmaceutical provisions in and to raise awareness of the implications of the TPP among the pharmaceutical stakeholder community in Vietnam.

  9. KOREA-CHILE FREE TRADE AGREEMENT – A CASE STUDY FROM THE CHILEAN SIDE TO ANALYZE HOW IT CAN BE IMPROVED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Maldaner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Trade in the global market is one of the most important ways to achieve economic growth. Some countries sell raw materials and others sell value added products. Innovation is the key issue in this competition and, in a sense, it makes a big difference in trade balance worldwide. FTA (Free Trade Agreement is one of the means to gain different markets. The Korea-Chile FTA is a good example of success in terms of trade agreement. Korea sells value added products to Chile, and Chile sells raw materials to Korea, mainly copper. Korea and Chile can improve their Free Trade Agreement to the higher level, which is to produce conductors and semi-conductors in Chile through Korea’s investment. Korea has technology and Chile can offer tax advantages to Korean companies which are interested to invest in Chile. For Chile, it is possible to achieve a huge market in North and Latin America. This is one way to improve the successful Korea-Chile FTA. Keywords: Free Trade Agreement. Innovation. Government Strategy. Results and Improvement.     TRATADO DE LIVRE COMÉRCIO ENTRE COREIA DO SUL E CHILE – UM ESTUDO DE CASO DO PONTO DE VISTA CHILENO PARA ANALISAR COMO ESTE PODE SER AMPLIADO RESUMO O comércio no mercado global é um dos mais importantes caminhos para obter crescimento econômico. Alguns países vendem matérias-primas e outros vendem produtos com valor agregado. Inovação é um ponto-chave nessa competição e, em certo sentido, faz uma grande diferença na balança comercial mundial. Tratado de livre comércio é um dos caminhos para atingir diferentes mercados. O Tratado de Livre Comércio (TLC entre Coreia do Sul e Chile é um bom exemplo de sucesso, tratando-se de acordos comerciais. Coreia do Sul vende produtos de valor agregado para o Chile e o Chile vende matérias-primas para a Coreia, principalmente cobre. Coreia e Chile podem ampliar o seu tratado de livre comércio para um nível mais elevado, qual seja, produzir condutores e

  10. ASEAN: Regional Integration and Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Mari PANGESTU; Lili Yan ING

    2015-01-01

    Over recent decades, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has advanced a policy of regional integration, starting with the ASEAN Free Trade Area, followed by the ASEAN+1 free trade agreements with its six main trading partners, and now with ASEAN+6. For ASEAN to further advance regional integration in the East Asian context, it should continue to focus on trade in goods, investment, and services, to smooth out the process of trade creation and investment realisation. East Asian ...

  11. Agreement for the Establishment in Cairo of a Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-10-18

    On 14 September 1962 the Board of Governors approved an Agreement for the establishment in Cairo of a Middle Eastern regional radioisotope centre for the Arab countries. The text of this Agreement is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  12. Agreement for the Establishment in Cairo of a Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    On 14 September 1962 the Board of Governors approved an Agreement for the establishment in Cairo of a Middle Eastern regional radioisotope centre for the Arab countries. The text of this Agreement is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  13. An Investigation into the Effects Which Aerospace Industry Offset Trade Agreements Have on United States Air Force Mission Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    technology transfer, and countertrade (see the glossary at the end of this chapter for a definition of each of these terms). After WW II, the U.S...manufacturers. 17 COUNTERTRADE - various types of commercial agreements which include at least one of the following: BARTER - a one time transaction... countertrade , accounted for the remaining 53 percent (38:21). 37 atls 1. Value of Military Export Sales Contracts and Associated Offset Obligations by

  14. Contractual stability and its relationship with the political process of law-making: An analysis of Peru’s public procurement and the principles of the Agreement on Government Procurement with the World Trade Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Zegarra Pinto, José; Peche Loayza, Luwing

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops an analysis of the impacts of the Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA) Principles and Rules on the Peruvian Public Procurement regulation, and Peruvian participation in the process of international standardisation of public procurement through signing different kinds of free trade agreements (FTAs).

  15. The IPA and the American Psychoanalytic Association: a perspective on the regional association agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, R S

    1998-06-01

    Ever since 1938 the American Psychoanalytic Association has had a special autonomous relationship within the IPA accorded to no other component organisation. This Regional Association status has had two main features: (1) total internal control over training standards and membership criteria, with no accountability to the IPA; and (2) an 'exclusive franchise', so that the IPA was barred from recognising any other component within the United States. This unique Regional Association status reflected the resolution at the time (1938) of the long-standing controversy between the IPA and the American over the issue of 'lay analysis', and remained unaltered for half a century until, with the resolution of the 3 1/2-year long law-suit against the American (and secondarily against the IPA) in 1988, the Regional Association agreement was modified (but not totally abrogated) by the American's giving up the 'exclusive franchise' aspect (thus permitting IPA recognition of psychoanalytic groups in the US organised outside the American), but still retaining its internal full control over training and membership. The meanings and consequences for psychoanalysis of this special status of the American are explored.

  16. New Regionalism in Africa: Waves of Integration | Bachinger | Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The international trading environment is shaped by the so-called 'new regionalism', an increasingly complex phenomenon with a rapid proliferation of Regional Integration Agreements (RIAs), overlapping memberships, deeper integration efforts and trade blocs signed between developing and industrialised countries.

  17. Potential risk of regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S Dean

    Full Text Available Transboundary animal movements facilitate the spread of pathogens across large distances. Cross-border cattle trade is of economic and cultural importance in West Africa. This study explores the potential disease risk resulting from large-scale, cross-border cattle trade between Togo, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin, and Nigeria for the first time.A questionnaire-based survey of livestock movements of 226 cattle traders was conducted in the 9 biggest cattle markets of northern Togo in February-March 2012. More than half of the traders (53.5% operated in at least one other country. Animal flows were stochastically simulated based on reported movements and the risk of regional disease spread assessed. More than three quarters (79.2%, range: 78.1-80.0% of cattle flowing into the market system originated from other countries. Through the cattle market system of northern Togo, non-neighbouring countries were connected via potential routes for disease spread. Even for diseases with low transmissibility and low prevalence in a given country, there was a high risk of disease introduction into other countries.By stochastically simulating data collected by interviewing cattle traders in northern Togo, this study identifies potential risks for regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade. The findings highlight that surveillance for emerging infectious diseases as well as control activities targeting endemic diseases in West Africa are likely to be ineffective if only conducted at a national level. A regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control is essential.

  18. Potential Risk of Regional Disease Spread in West Africa through Cross-Border Cattle Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Anna S.; Fournié, Guillaume; Kulo, Abalo E.; Boukaya, G. Aboudou; Schelling, Esther; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2013-01-01

    Background Transboundary animal movements facilitate the spread of pathogens across large distances. Cross-border cattle trade is of economic and cultural importance in West Africa. This study explores the potential disease risk resulting from large-scale, cross-border cattle trade between Togo, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin, and Nigeria for the first time. Methods and Principal Findings A questionnaire-based survey of livestock movements of 226 cattle traders was conducted in the 9 biggest cattle markets of northern Togo in February-March 2012. More than half of the traders (53.5%) operated in at least one other country. Animal flows were stochastically simulated based on reported movements and the risk of regional disease spread assessed. More than three quarters (79.2%, range: 78.1–80.0%) of cattle flowing into the market system originated from other countries. Through the cattle market system of northern Togo, non-neighbouring countries were connected via potential routes for disease spread. Even for diseases with low transmissibility and low prevalence in a given country, there was a high risk of disease introduction into other countries. Conclusions By stochastically simulating data collected by interviewing cattle traders in northern Togo, this study identifies potential risks for regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade. The findings highlight that surveillance for emerging infectious diseases as well as control activities targeting endemic diseases in West Africa are likely to be ineffective if only conducted at a national level. A regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control is essential. PMID:24130721

  19. Within and Between Panel Cointegration in the German Regional Output-Trade-FDI Nexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo

    For spatial data with a sufficiently long time dimension, the concept of global cointegration has been recently included in the econometrics research agenda. Global cointegration arises when non-stationary time series are cointegrated both within and between spatial units. In this paper, we analyze...... the role of globally cointegrated variable relationships using German regional data (NUTS 1 level) for GDP, trade, and FDI activity during the period 1976–2005. Applying various homogeneous and heterogeneous panel data estimators to a Spatial Panel Error Correction Model (SpECM) for regional output growth...... allows us to analyze the short- and long-run impacts of internationalization activities. For the long-run cointegration equation, the empirical results support the hypothesis of export- and FDI-led growth. We also show that for export and outward FDI activity positive cross-regional eff ects are at work...

  20. Access to generic antiretrovirals: inequality, intellectual property law, and international trade agreements Acceso a antirretrovirales genéricos: desigualdad, derecho de propiedad intelectual y acuerdos comerciales internacionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arachu Castro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The governments of numerous low- and middle-income countries are currently instituting rules that strengthen changes in domestic intellectual property legislation, often made to conform to the mandates of "free" trade agreements signed with the United States. These measures frequently include intellectual property provisions that extend beyond the patent law standards agreed upon in recent World Trade Organization negotiations, which promised to balance the exigencies of public health and patent holders. In this paper, we analyze the concern that this augmentation of patent law standards will curtail access to essential medicines, particularly as they relate to the AIDS pandemic. We critically examine the potential threats posed by trade agreements vis-à-vis efforts to provide universal access to antiretroviral medications and contend that the conditioning of economic development upon the strengthening of intellectual property law demands careful attention when public health is at stake. Finally, we examine advocacy successes in challenging patent law and conclude that greater advocacy and policy strategies are needed to ensure the protection of global health in trade negotiations.Actualmente diversos países de renta media y baja están creando leyes de propiedad intelectual más rígidas, muchas veces para adaptarse a las exigencias de los tratados de "libre" comercio con los Estados Unidos. Tales medidas suelen incluir dispositivos que transcienden las normas sobre patentes negociadas recientemente en la Organización Mundial del Comercio, que prometían equilibrar las exigencias de la salud pública y las de patentes. Este artículo analiza la preocupación de que este endurecimiento restrinja el acceso a medicamentos esenciales, en particular en el contexto de la pandemia de SIDA. El artículo examina las amenazas potenciales creadas por los tratados comerciales contra los esfuerzos dirigidos para el acceso universal a los

  1. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The text of the Agency's agreement for co-operation with the Organization of African Unity (OAU) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 26 March 1969

  2. The text of the Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987. Status of acceptances as of 28 February 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The document gives the status of acceptances as of 28 February 1993 of the agreement to extend regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology from 1987

  3. Air pollution reduction and control in south asia need for a regional agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwaja, M.A.; Shaheen, N.; Sherazi, A.; Shaheen, F.H.

    2012-01-01

    With increasing urbanization and economic growth, air pollution is becoming an urgent concern in South Asia. The objective of this study is to look into and discuss the socioeconomic situation of South Asia, the existing situation of air pollution in the countries of the region, resulting health impacts of air pollution on the population and the responses, if any, of national governments to combat this problem. With the increase in industrial activity and exponential growth in number of vehicles and population, the contribution of each South Asian country to the regional air pollution will increase over time. As evident from the review of the available country data, sulfur dioxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter (PM) emissions have been rising steadily over past few decades. The air pollutants can be transported across state and national boundaries, therefore, pollutants produced by one country can, as well, have adverse impacts on the environment and public health of neighboring countries. It has been reported by the country national health authorities that air pollution has pushed respiratory diseases up in the ranks as the leading cause of hospitalization. To minimize the socio-economic and health impacts, resulting from air pollution, South Asian states have developed environmental legal and regulatory frameworks in their respective countries. However, the implementation of country national environmental action plan has been limited due to lack of financial resources and technical know-how. Recommendations have been made for policy actions, including a legally binding agreement for South Asia (LBA-SA), for strengthening the framework for air pollution reduction at regional and national levels in South Asia. (author)

  4. El Proceso de Negociacion del TLC entre Colombia y Estados Unidos / The Negotiation Process of the Colombia-United States Free Trade Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cristina Silva.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the negotiation process of the Free Trade Agreement between Colombia and the USA. It analyzes the actions and tactics developed by the actors (members of the Government and the Congress, entrepreneurs, civil society, as well as the political context, in order to identify the Colombian negotiation strategy and study its effectiveness. This means evaluating how well the government manage to reconcile the negotiation with the counterpart and with the domestic actors. The conclusion shows that, although President Alvaro Uribe got enough support from Colombian Congress and entrepreneurs, his diplomatic strategy was not efficient because it ignored not only the USA domestic policy, but also Ecuador’s and Peru’s. The analysis is supported on the “two-level games” model, which explains the connections between domestic policy and diplomacy in international negotiations.

  5. The Impact of Japan’s Rivalry with China on Its Willingness to Pursue Free Trade Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Chum

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the main causes that have led Japan to conclude an FTA with ASEAN. This paper appraises Japan­ASEAN relations and shows that closer relations between Japan and ASEAN have provided momentum for the launch of Japan's FTAs with ASEAN. Consequently, this paper explores the origins and progress of Japan­ASEAN FTA, as well as the strategies and initiatives embraced by Japan in its FTA negotiations with ASEAN. By examining the domestic, regional, and global factors that led to the launch of the Japan­ASEAN FTA, this paper concludes that the strategies adopted were primarily aimed at its main rival, China. The rivalry has resulted in both positive and negative consequences for East Asian Regional economic environment. The negative consequences include the creation of a "spaghetti bowl", which increases costs for Japanese firms operating abroad, and "slows down the progress of the creation of an effective single regional institution".

  6. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations; Teksty Soglashenij o Sotrudnichestve Mezhdu Agentstvom i Regional 'Nymi Mezhpravitel' Stvennymi Organizacijami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-02-07

    The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency [Russian] Teksty soglashenii Agentstva o sotrudnichestve s perechislennymi nizhe regional'nymi mezhpravitel'stvennymi organizacijami vmeste s sootvetstvujushhimi protokolami, udostoverjajushhimi ih autentichnost'; soglashenija perechisleny v porjadke vstuplenija ih v silu.

  7. Assessing the environmental consequences of global climate and economic changes in Venezuela: Impacts of the greenhouse effect and of free trade agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, M.F.; Harwell, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    The ecological resources of most Latin American countries are subject to intense pressures for economic and industrial development which need to be balanced with local and global concerns about the long term sustainability of that resource base. Global issues and their potential long term effects should not be ignored when environmental policy strategies at the national level are elaborated. In this paper, the potential environmental consequences of two important global changes are examined, by taking Venezuela as a country case study: changes in climate, temperature, precipitation and radiation, generated by the greenhouse effect and changes in environmental stresses originating from shifts in local economic activity due to changing global trade, specifically free trade agreements. Both assessments are conducted using scenario-consequence approaches and expert judgment. The first analysis reported here is an example of the application of simulation models of global climate and local ecosystems, whereas the second analysis demonstrates the application of screening methodology which relies on processing of qualitative information. The approaches illustrated here are generic and can be applied to other Latin American countries

  8. Trade Integration Effects in ASEAN Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Valeryevna Dyomina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines evolution of trade integration process in ASEAN. The author employs three methods in order to evaluate the degree of ASEAN‘s trade integration that has been achieved over two decades since the signing of the Association of South-East Asian Nations Free Trade Area Agreement (AFTA in 1992. The high degree of trade integration among member states allows moving to the next stage of international economic integration (ASEAN countries are going to form ASEAN Community (the Common Market by the 1st of January 2016. So the study assesses the ASEAN’s preparedness to the Common Market by determining the share of mutual (intraregional trade, regional trade intensity index (RTII and trade integration effects (trade creation and trade diversion effects for each member state, 2 groups of ASEAN countries (ASEAN-6 and ASEAN-4 and the Association as a whole. The paper shows that despite the increase in the share of intraregional trade during the years of the AFTA functioning, the member states of ASEAN still demonstrate low levels of trade integration: a 75% of the Association’s external trade focuses on extra regional partners; b ASEAN as a whole has the low volume of RTII and among its member states only Singapore has the high one; c trade diversion effect prevails over trade creation one

  9. Impact of the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) agreement on India as a supplier of generic antiretrovirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babovic, Sonja; Wasan, Kishor M

    2011-03-01

    This is a commentary on how the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) agreement has impacted India as a supplier of generic antiretrovirals (ARVs). We provide a systematic review of the issues related to the TRIPS agreement that affects India. This includes discussion around (a) the legal landscape underpinning India as a supplier of generic ARVs; (b) supply of second-line ARVs; and (c) the future of generic drug production in India. The proclamation into force of TRIPS-compliant intellectual property law in India is likely to affect its position as a supplier of affordable ARVs, especially drugs brought to market after 2005. Currently, mechanisms exist for the generic production of almost all ARVs in India, including second-line drugs; however, the manufacture of these drugs by generic pharmaceutical companies may require additional market incentives. Compulsory licensing may emerge as an additional mechanism by which India can provide affordable versions of patented drugs to Least Developed Countries (LDCs). Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Finding a pareto-optimal solution for multi-region models subject to capital trade and spillover externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leimbach, Marian [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany); Eisenack, Klaus [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics and Statistics

    2008-11-15

    In this paper we present an algorithm that deals with trade interactions within a multi-region model. In contrast to traditional approaches this algorithm is able to handle spillover externalities. Technological spillovers are expected to foster the diffusion of new technologies, which helps to lower the cost of climate change mitigation. We focus on technological spillovers which are due to capital trade. The algorithm of finding a pareto-optimal solution in an intertemporal framework is embedded in a decomposed optimization process. The paper analyzes convergence and equilibrium properties of this algorithm. In the final part of the paper, we apply the algorithm to investigate possible impacts of technological spillovers. While benefits of technological spillovers are significant for the capital-importing region, benefits for the capital-exporting region depend on the type of regional disparities and the resulting specialization and terms-of-trade effects. (orig.)

  11. Putting new economic geography to the test : Free-ness of trade and agglomeration in the EU regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry; Schrannn, Marc; Schramm, M.

    For the NUTS II EU regions we estimate the wage equation that is central to the new economic geography literature. Our first main finding is that a spatial wage structure exists for the EU regions. Next, we analyze what our estimations imply for the link between the free-ness of trade and

  12. The NOx Budget Trading Program: A Collaborative, Innovative Approach to Solving a Regional Air Pollution Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article examines the development and implementation of the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP) and the lessons the Environmental Protection Agency has learned from this seasonal emissions cap-and-trade program.

  13. The U.S.-Brazil-China trade and transportation triangle : implications for the southwest region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The advent of globalization and more integrated international trade has placed increased demands : on transportation infrastructure. This report assesses the impacts of triangular trade between and among : the United States, Brazil and China with an ...

  14. Trade-Off and Synergy among Ecosystem Services in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyu Qin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural ecosystems provide society with important goods and services. With rapidly increasing populations and excessive utilization of natural resources, humans have been enhancing the production of some services at the expense of others. Although the need for certain trade-offs between conservation and development is urgent, having only a small number of efficient methods to assess such trade-offs has impeded progress. This study focuses on the evaluation of ecosystem services under different land use schemes. It reveals the spatial and temporal distributions of and changes in ecosystem services. Based on a correlation rate model and distribution mapping, the trade-offs and synergies of these ecosystem services can be found. Here, we also describe a new simple approach to quantify the relationships of every trade-off and synergy. The results show that all ecosystem services possess trade-offs and synergies in the study area. The trend of improving carbon sequestration and water interception indicate that these key ecosystem services have the strongest synergy. And the decrease in regional agricultural production and other services, except water yield, may be considered as trade-offs. The synergy between water yield and agricultural production was the most significant, while the trade-off between water interception and carbon sequestration was the most apparent, according to our interaction quantification model. The results of this study have implications for planning and monitoring the future management of natural capital and ecosystem services, and can be integrated into land use decision-making.

  15. Trade-Off and Synergy among Ecosystem Services in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Keyu; Li, Jing; Yang, Xiaonan

    2015-11-03

    Natural ecosystems provide society with important goods and services. With rapidly increasing populations and excessive utilization of natural resources, humans have been enhancing the production of some services at the expense of others. Although the need for certain trade-offs between conservation and development is urgent, having only a small number of efficient methods to assess such trade-offs has impeded progress. This study focuses on the evaluation of ecosystem services under different land use schemes. It reveals the spatial and temporal distributions of and changes in ecosystem services. Based on a correlation rate model and distribution mapping, the trade-offs and synergies of these ecosystem services can be found. Here, we also describe a new simple approach to quantify the relationships of every trade-off and synergy. The results show that all ecosystem services possess trade-offs and synergies in the study area. The trend of improving carbon sequestration and water interception indicate that these key ecosystem services have the strongest synergy. And the decrease in regional agricultural production and other services, except water yield, may be considered as trade-offs. The synergy between water yield and agricultural production was the most significant, while the trade-off between water interception and carbon sequestration was the most apparent, according to our interaction quantification model. The results of this study have implications for planning and monitoring the future management of natural capital and ecosystem services, and can be integrated into land use decision-making.

  16. Medicine procurement and the use of flexibilities in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, 2001–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraldi, Jacquelyn; Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans V

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Millions of people, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, lack access to effective pharmaceuticals, often because they are unaffordable. The 2001 Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO) adopted the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) Agreement and Public Health. The declaration recognized the implications of intellectual property rights for both new medicine development and the price of medicines. The declaration outlined measures, known as TRIPS flexibilities, that WTO Members can take to ensure access to medicines for all. These measures include compulsory licensing of medicines patents and the least-developed countries pharmaceutical transition measure. The aim of this study was to document the use of TRIPS flexibilities to access lower-priced generic medicines between 2001 and 2016. Overall, 176 instances of the possible use of TRIPS flexibilities by 89 countries were identified: 100 (56.8%) involved compulsory licences or public noncommercial use licences and 40 (22.7%) involved the least-developed countries pharmaceutical transition measure. The remainder were: 1 case of parallel importation; 3 research exceptions; and 32 non-patent-related measures. Of the 176 instances, 152 (86.4%) were implemented. They covered products for treating 14 different diseases. However, 137 (77.8%) concerned medicines for human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome or related diseases. The use of TRIPS flexibilities was found to be more frequent than is commonly assumed. Given the problems faced by countries today in procuring high-priced, patented medicines, the practical, legal pathway provided by TRIPS flexibilities for accessing lower-cost generic equivalents is increasingly important. PMID:29531417

  17. Medicine procurement and the use of flexibilities in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, 2001-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Hoen, Ellen Fm; Veraldi, Jacquelyn; Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans V

    2018-03-01

    Millions of people, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, lack access to effective pharmaceuticals, often because they are unaffordable. The 2001 Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO) adopted the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) Agreement and Public Health. The declaration recognized the implications of intellectual property rights for both new medicine development and the price of medicines. The declaration outlined measures, known as TRIPS flexibilities, that WTO Members can take to ensure access to medicines for all. These measures include compulsory licensing of medicines patents and the least-developed countries pharmaceutical transition measure. The aim of this study was to document the use of TRIPS flexibilities to access lower-priced generic medicines between 2001 and 2016. Overall, 176 instances of the possible use of TRIPS flexibilities by 89 countries were identified: 100 (56.8%) involved compulsory licences or public noncommercial use licences and 40 (22.7%) involved the least-developed countries pharmaceutical transition measure. The remainder were: 1 case of parallel importation; 3 research exceptions; and 32 non-patent-related measures. Of the 176 instances, 152 (86.4%) were implemented. They covered products for treating 14 different diseases. However, 137 (77.8%) concerned medicines for human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome or related diseases. The use of TRIPS flexibilities was found to be more frequent than is commonly assumed. Given the problems faced by countries today in procuring high-priced, patented medicines, the practical, legal pathway provided by TRIPS flexibilities for accessing lower-cost generic equivalents is increasingly important.

  18. The impact of foreign capital inflows and trade expansion on integrated pollutant discharge from China: Regional differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiufeng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the years from 1991 to 2012 of the nine categories of the provincial pollutant discharge indexes of China, uses the „vertical and horizontal method“ to calculate the comprehensive indexes that can fully measure the provincial pollutant discharge situation of China, establishes a dynamic inter-provincial panel data regression model and makes an empirical test on the relationship among foreign direct investments, foreign trade and pollutant discharge these three factors. The results show that foreign direct investment and foreign trade in different regions have a different impact on pollutant discharge. Therefore, local governments should at all levels be based on local conditions to attract foreign investment and develop foreign trade for the targeted optimization of the structure of introducing foreign investment and improving the quality of foreign trade growth, thus improving the overall situation of China’s pollutant discharge.

  19. Regional Innovation Policies in MERCOSUR : Obstacles and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... review existing regional cooperation initiatives, identify sectors with strong potential for regional cooperation, review other experiences in regional cooperation for innovation (European Union - EU, North American Free Trade Agreement - NAFTA), and propose institutional arrangements for promoting innovation among ...

  20. Carbon emission, energy consumption and intermediate goods trade: A regional study of East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    Using country level panel data from East Asia over the period 1998–2011, this paper examines the implications of international production fragmentation-induced intermediate goods trade on the link between energy consumption and carbon pollution. The paper focuses on the interaction effect between energy consumption and trade in intermediate goods on carbon emission. The empirical results presented suggest that international trade in intermediate goods decreases the positive impact on carbon emission of energy consumption. When compared with the trade in final goods, intermediate goods trade contributes to a greater decrease in carbon pollution resulting from energy consumption. These results confirm that the link between energy consumption and carbon pollution in East Asia is significantly affected by international production fragmentation-induced trade in intermediate goods. The results presented in this paper have some important policy implications. - Highlights: • This paper tests the role of intermediates trade in energy-development nexus. • Empirical study is based on data of East Asia. • International trade can reduce the carbon pollution caused by energy use. • Intermediates trade has higher moderating effect than non-intermediate trade.

  1. Regional drivers of clutch loss reveal important trade-offs for beach-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslo, Brooke; Schlacher, Thomas A; Weston, Michael A; Huijbers, Chantal M; Anderson, Chris; Gilby, Ben L; Olds, Andrew D; Connolly, Rod M; Schoeman, David S

    2016-01-01

    Coastal birds are critical ecosystem constituents on sandy shores, yet are threatened by depressed reproductive success resulting from direct and indirect anthropogenic and natural pressures. Few studies examine clutch fate across the wide range of environments experienced by birds; instead, most focus at the small site scale. We examine survival of model shorebird clutches as an index of true clutch survival at a regional scale (∼200 km), encompassing a variety of geomorphologies, predator communities, and human use regimes in southeast Queensland, Australia. Of the 132 model nests deployed and monitored with cameras, 45 (34%) survived the experimental exposure period. Thirty-five (27%) were lost to flooding, 32 (24%) were depredated, nine (7%) buried by sand, seven (5%) destroyed by people, three (2%) failed by unknown causes, and one (1%) was destroyed by a dog. Clutch fate differed substantially among regions, particularly with respect to losses from flooding and predation. 'Topographic' exposure was the main driver of mortality of nests placed close to the drift line near the base of dunes, which were lost to waves (particularly during storms) and to a lesser extent depredation. Predators determined the fate of clutches not lost to waves, with the depredation probability largely influenced by region. Depredation probability declined as nests were backed by higher dunes and were placed closer to vegetation. This study emphasizes the scale at which clutch fate and survival varies within a regional context, the prominence of corvids as egg predators, the significant role of flooding as a source of nest loss, and the multiple trade-offs faced by beach-nesting birds and those that manage them.

  2. Regional drivers of clutch loss reveal important trade-offs for beach-nesting birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke Maslo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Coastal birds are critical ecosystem constituents on sandy shores, yet are threatened by depressed reproductive success resulting from direct and indirect anthropogenic and natural pressures. Few studies examine clutch fate across the wide range of environments experienced by birds; instead, most focus at the small site scale. We examine survival of model shorebird clutches as an index of true clutch survival at a regional scale (∼200 km, encompassing a variety of geomorphologies, predator communities, and human use regimes in southeast Queensland, Australia. Of the 132 model nests deployed and monitored with cameras, 45 (34% survived the experimental exposure period. Thirty-five (27% were lost to flooding, 32 (24% were depredated, nine (7% buried by sand, seven (5% destroyed by people, three (2% failed by unknown causes, and one (1% was destroyed by a dog. Clutch fate differed substantially among regions, particularly with respect to losses from flooding and predation. ‘Topographic’ exposure was the main driver of mortality of nests placed close to the drift line near the base of dunes, which were lost to waves (particularly during storms and to a lesser extent depredation. Predators determined the fate of clutches not lost to waves, with the depredation probability largely influenced by region. Depredation probability declined as nests were backed by higher dunes and were placed closer to vegetation. This study emphasizes the scale at which clutch fate and survival varies within a regional context, the prominence of corvids as egg predators, the significant role of flooding as a source of nest loss, and the multiple trade-offs faced by beach-nesting birds and those that manage them.

  3. The geography of international trade in services: Australia and the APEC region

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin O'Connor; Peter Daniels

    2001-01-01

    This paper develops a new perspective to describe and account for the geography of trade in advanced services. The authors begin by acknowledging the national and global significance of trade in advanced services within national economic change and also global trade policy. They find current approaches to this issue, based on firm decisionmaking, are narrow, and seek out a broader perspective. The foundation for that perspective incorporates established research on the preconditions necessary...

  4. Text of an African regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    As of 1 September 1994, notifications of acceptance of the African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (see INFCIRC/377), in accordance with Article XIII thereof, had been received by the Director General from the Governments of: Tunisia, Egypt, Algeria, Nigeria, Madagascar, Libya, Morocco, Kenya, Sudan, Ghana, Tanzania, Mauritius, Cameroon, South Africa, Zaire, Ethiopia, Zambia, Niger. The Agreement entered into force on 4 April 1990, the date of receipt of the third notification of acceptance

  5. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations. The Agreement with the League of Arab States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The text of the Agency's agreement for co-operation with the League of Arab States is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 15 December 1971 pursuant to Article IX

  6. Experience with WASP and MAED among IAEA Member States participating in the Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) in Asia and the Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The report includes the proceedings and papers presented during the workshop on the experience with WASP/MAED computer programs among IAEA Member States participating in the regional co-operative agreement (RCA) in Asia and the Pacific Region, organized by the IAEA and held in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) between 5-9 December 1988. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 14 papers presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Regional Monopoly and Interregional and Intraregional Competition: The Parallel Trade in Coca-Cola between Shanghai and Hangzhou in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, Godfrey; Mok, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    This article uses a “principal-agent-subagent” analytical framework and data that were collected from field surveys in China to (1) investigate the nature and causes of the parallel trade in Coca-Cola between Shanghai and Hangzhou and (2) assess the geographic and theoretical implications for the regional monopolies that have been artificially created by Coca-Cola in China. The parallel trade in Coca-Cola is sustained by its intraregional rivalry with Pepsi-Cola in Shanghai, where Coca-Cola (...

  8. Selected Processes in SMEs, Targeting to South Bohemia Region and Trade Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Březinová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Process management plays an important role in making up the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises. This issue is researched in the long term at the Economic University of South Bohemia. The paper presents a comparison of trends in the average level of functioning of core processes (selling, human resources, marketing and finance in the South Bohemian Region MSP for 3 years in the sector of trade. The first data was obtained under the grant GAJU 068/2010/S in 2010, and the second group of data was obtained from the grant GAJU 039/2013/S and GAJU 079/2013/S in 2013. From all the chosen processes within the research sample, significant changes can be shown only in the processes of human resources management and production where improvement of functioning of the processes was achieved. In the research project were used secondary data (financial statements of SMEs, who took part in the research and primary data which were obtained primarily through quantitative methods questionnaire supplemented by qualitative method of in-depth interviews.

  9. Agreement Between Cytology and Histopathology for Regional Lymph Node Metastasis in Dogs With Melanocytic Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Janet A; Matz, Brad M; Christopherson, Pete W; Koehler, Jey W; Cappelle, Kelsey K; Hlusko, Katelyn C; Smith, Annette

    2017-07-01

    Melanocytic neoplasms are common in dogs and frequently occur within the oral cavity or in haired skin. The behavior of melanocytic neoplasms is variable and depends on tumor location, size, and histopathologic features. This study compared cytopathology and histopathology of 32 lymph nodes from 27 dogs diagnosed with melanocytic neoplasms. Agreement between the original cytology report, cytology slide review, original histopathology report, and histopathology slide review was determined for each lymph node. A subset of lymph nodes was subjected to immunohistochemistry (Melan-A) and additional histochemical stains/techniques (Prussian blue, bleach) to assist in differentiation of melanocytes and melanophages. Agreement ranged from slight to fair for each of the variables evaluated with weighted kappa (κ w ) or kappa (κ) analysis (original cytology vs cytology review κ w = 0.24; original cytology vs original histopathology κ w = 0.007; original cytology vs histopathology review κ w = 0.23; cytology review vs original histopathology κ w = 0.008; cytology review vs histopathology review κ w = 0.006; and original histopathology vs histopathology review κ = 0.18). The diagnoses (metastatic, equivocal, or negative for metastasis) of the original report and slide review for both cytology and histopathology were not significantly correlated with survival in this population of patients. Overall, agreement between cytology and histopathology was poor even with a single clinical or anatomic pathologist performing slide review. Consensus between routine cytology and histopathology for staging of lymph nodes in patients with melanocytic neoplasms is poor and does not correlate with survival.

  10. African Regional Integration: Implications for Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van M.

    2011-01-01

    This report looks at the African regional trade, regional integration agreements (RIAs) and the implications for food security. An overview is presented on the present state of African regional integration and the determinants of regional trade in agriculture and food commodities. In particular the

  11. Inter-rater agreement of the PEWS tools used in Central Denmark Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus Sixtus; Aagaard, Hanne; Olesen, Hanne Vebert

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paediatric early warning score (PEWS) assessment tools can assist healthcare providers in the timely detection and recognition of subtle patient condition changes signalling clinical deterioration. However, PEWS tools instrument data are only as reliable and accurate as the caregivers...... agreement. The nurses assigned the exact same aggregated score for both PEWS models in 76% of the cases. In 98% of the PEWS assessments, the aggregated PEWS scores assigned by the nurses were equal to or below 1 point in both models. CONCLUSION: The study showed good to very good inter-rater reliability...

  12. Africa's intra-regional, inter-regional and intercontinental electricity trade - Techno-politico-economic considerations and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, Babu

    2007-07-01

    The majority of Africa's population does not have access to electricity. The Sub-Saharan African is largely hit save South Africa. Among the many reasons for this situation, the major one is: the insufficient growth of the investment against the demand of electricity. This is to say that the investment has not been able to keep pace with the demand which has been rising with the growing population and with the economic activities. As a result, there is a backlog of investment. To circumvent this situation, 4 billion dollar annual investment is needed in the electricity sector. But the risks and high transaction costs of African economies deter investors and are relatively unable to attract them. Furthermore, a number of African economies are small due to which the benefits of the economy of scale are not realizable. Moreover, isolated and individualistic planning makes countries incur huge investment and makes the supply of electricity to disadvantaged areas even costlier. The supply costs can be reduced by invoking meticulously to coordinated combined planning and regional integration. New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) advocates a development paradigm based on the principles of interdependence, cooperation, and regional integration. However, the absence of infrastructure and institutions and harmonized policies obstruct the integration of electricity supply systems. Creating regional electricity markets is a way to reduce risks and transaction costs and to lure investors to develop much needed electricity generation and transmission facilities for increasing electricity access in rural areas. This paper extends the themes of regional integration to establishing the regional electricity markets/power pools. It considers the intra-regional and inter-regional electricity trade in Africa. It also considers Africa's inter-continental trade that is its trade with Europe and Asia. This paper examines technical constraints, proposes solutions

  13. The Text of the Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987. Status of Acceptances as of 28 February 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    As of 28 February 1993, notifications of acceptance of the Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987 (See INFCIRC/ 167/Add.15), in accordance with Article 2 thereof, had been received by the Director General from the Governments [ru

  14. The Text of the Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987. Status of Acceptances as of 28 February 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    As of 28 February 1993, notifications of acceptance of the Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987 (See INFCIRC/ 167/Add.15), in accordance with Article 2 thereof, had been received by the Director General from the Governments [es

  15. The text of the Agreement establishing the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Medical and Biological Applications of Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The full text of the Agreement establishing the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Medical and Biological Applications of Nuclear Techniques between the Agency and Member States is reproduced. The Agreement entered into force on 20 May 1986 after the Governments of Japan, Bangladesh and the Philippines had notified the Agency of their acceptance of the Agreement

  16. Technical cooperation for the pacific uses of nuclear technology in Latin America and Caribbean: the experience of regional agreement ARCAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondinelli Junior, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    This thesis studies the international technical cooperation in the field of peaceful applications of the nuclear technology, focusing on the experience of Latin American countries, where the Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean, also known as ARCAL, is in force. The study adopts as theoretical approach the concept of state capacities, particularly with regard to the institutional capacities applicable to the ARCAL Agreement. Within this approach, three dimensions of analysis are adopted: the institutional dimension, the governance dimension and the focus on outcomes. The evaluation of the ARCAL Agreement is carried out in order to confirm if the intended role to promote regional technical cooperation in the nuclear sector is being implemented. The methodological approach adopted the case study model. It starts with the analysis of the institutional evolution of the Agreement, and identifies variables articulating with the three dimensions above mentioned. The empirical data were collected in two stages. In the first stage it were performed 29 interviews carried out by the author with the technical and staff members of the Department of Technical Cooperation of IAEA, in Vienna, Austria, headquarter of IAEA. The other stage involved an electronic questionnaire submitted to the national coordinator of ARCAL in 14 countries, in a universe of 21 member states. The conclusion of the research points to the fact that the ARCAL Agreement has incorporated, throughout its trajectory, elements of the institutional capacities which are still in the process of development. They give to the Agreement the potential to induce the development of the state capacities of the respective countries in the field of peaceful applications of nuclear technology. (author)

  17. Medicine procurement and the use of flexibilities in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, 2001–2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Hoen, Ellen F. M.; Veraldi, Jacquelyn; Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hendrik

    Millions of people, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, lack access to effective pharmaceuticals, often because they are unaffordable. The 2001 Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO) adopted the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual

  18. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations. The Agreement with the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The text of the Agency's agreement for co-operation with the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 3 October 1972 pursuant to Article VIII

  19. Trade and the Development of the Pacific Alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Armando Hernández Bernal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Alliance is a process of deep integration among Colombia, Chile, Peru and Mexico, which aims to build a free trade area and to project into the Asia-Pacific region, in order to enhance existing trade agreements among the members. There is no deep trade relationships among these four countries, despite having regional agreements since the 1990s, as demonstrated by the low volume of reciprocal exports and imports, in addition to the low indicator of intra-industrial trade. In this paper, intra-regional trade index is calculated among the countries of the Pacific Alliance, evidencing low indicators, but with a growth, encouraged by reciprocal or unilateral policies of commercial opening, and by an environment favoring economic growth throughout the region.

  20. Treatment of Anti-Dumping Policies Within the Framework of the wto and Free Trades Agreements Signed and Ratified by Colombia with Canada, Republic Of Korea and The United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Pineda Cely

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Free Trade Agreements (FTA have become an important tool for the comercial and social development of the nations, that promotes the reduction of taxes, production and promotion of economic growth, and also opens the door to generate economies of scale, specialization of domestic production and increases domestic trade. That´s why today is particularly important the study of the regulatory framekwork of such Agreements, which includes different and varied aspects. This document will try to focus in just one of them, which is the norms and policies directed to correct and eliminate the negative effects that dumpin practices may cause in the country and the national companies development.

  1. Virtual water trade and time scales for loss of water sustainability: a comparative regional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Prashant; Nishad, Shiv Narayan

    2015-03-20

    Assessment and policy design for sustainability in primary resources like arable land and water need to adopt long-term perspective; even small but persistent effects like net export of water may influence sustainability through irreversible losses. With growing consumption, this virtual water trade has become an important element in the water sustainability of a nation. We estimate and contrast the virtual (embedded) water trades of two populous nations, India and China, to present certain quantitative measures and time scales. Estimates show that export of embedded water alone can lead to loss of water sustainability. With the current rate of net export of water (embedded) in the end products, India is poised to lose its entire available water in less than 1000 years; much shorter time scales are implied in terms of water for production. The two cases contrast and exemplify sustainable and non-sustainable virtual water trade in long term perspective.

  2. Clean coal technologies and possible emission trading regimes in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torok, S.

    1992-01-01

    After reviewing clean coal technologies currently under study in the United States, Australia, and Japan, under the current climate of global warming concerns, one concludes that some of these technologies might well be commercialised soon, especially if some kind of 'emission trading' regime is encouraged after the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environmental and Development (UNCED, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June 1992). Some alternative financing possibilities under various emission trading regimes are studied for a 'sample' technology to illustrate the issues involved in clean-coal technology penetration. It is concluded that a financial 'carbon saving credit' alone might prove sufficient to stimulate such penetration. (author)

  3. Understanding the poultry trade network in Kenya: Implications for regional disease prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Margaret; Munyua, Peninah; Cheng, Po-Yung; Manga, Thomas; Wanjohi, Cathryn; Moen, Ann; Mounts, Anthony; Katz, Mark A

    2015-07-01

    Infectious diseases in poultry can spread quickly and lead to huge economic losses. In the past decade, on multiple continents, the accelerated spread of highly pathogenic avian Influenza A (H5N1) virus, often through informal trade networks, has led to the death and culling of hundreds of millions of poultry. Endemic poultry diseases like Newcastle disease and fowl typhoid can also be devastating in many parts of the world. Understanding trade networks in unregulated systems can inform policy decisions concerning disease prevention and containment. From June to December 2008 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of backyard farmers, market traders, and middlemen in 5/8 provinces in Kenya. We administered a standardized questionnaire to each type of actor using convenience, random, snowball, and systematic sampling. Questionnaires addressed frequency, volume, and geography of trade, as well as biosecurity practices. We created a network diagram identifying the most important locations for trade. Of 380 respondents, 51% were backyard farmers, 24% were middlemen and 25% were market traders. Half (50%) of backyard farmers said they raised poultry both for household consumption and for sale. Compared to market traders, middlemen bought their poultry from a greater number of villages (median 4.2 villages for middlemen vs. 1.9 for market traders). Traders were most likely to purchase poultry from backyard farmers. Of the backyard farmers who sold poultry, 51% [CI 40-63] reported selling poultry to market traders, and 54% [CI 44-63] sold to middlemen. Middlemen moved the largest volume of poultry on a weekly basis (median purchases: 187 birds/week [IQR 206]; median sales: 188 birds/week [IQR 412.5]). The highest numbers of birds were traded in Nairobi - Kenya's capital city. Nairobi was the most prominent trading node in the network (61 degrees of centrality). Many smaller sub-networks existed as a result of clustered local trade. Market traders were also integral to the

  4. Implications for U.S. trade and nonindigenous species risk resulting from increased economic integration of the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda M. Countryman; Travis Warziniack; Erin Grey

    2018-01-01

    This work investigates how potential changes in trade patterns resulting from increased economic integration in the Asia-Pacific region may affect the risk for nonindigenous species spread to the United States. We construct an invasion risk index utilizing the results from a global economic modeling framework in tandem with data for climate similarities between trade...

  5. On the regulatory potential of regional organic standards: Towards harmonization, equivalence, and trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pekdemir, Ceren

    The growing demand for organic produce has augmented the international trade for organic products. At the same time, the label ‘organic’ has increasingly become legally protected as standards specify the exact requirements for organic production and labelling. While private labels were the first to

  6. Elasmobranch fisheries in the Arabian Seas Region: Characteristics, trade and management

    KAUST Repository

    Jabado, Rima W; Spaet, Julia L.Y.

    2017-01-01

    products and four countries (Oman, Pakistan, UAE and Yemen) supply nearly 11% of dried fin exports to Hong Kong. Yet, little information is available on the characteristics of this trade and the fisheries contributing to it. Here, we review the fisheries

  7. B-WEST Regional Workforce Training Center. Building Workers Entering Skilled Trades. Employer Training Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portland Community Coll., OR.

    This guide, which was developed during the B-WEST (Building Workers Entering Skilled Trades) project, includes materials for use in training and providing on-site consultations to contractors, managers, supervisors, office/technical staff, and others in two areas: diversity in the workplace and sexual harassment in the workplace. Part 1, which…

  8. A fuzzy multi-regional input–output optimization model for biomass production and trade under resource and footprint constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Raymond R.; Aviso, Kathleen B.; Barilea, Ivan U.; Culaba, Alvin B.; Cruz, Jose B.

    2012-01-01

    Interest in bioenergy in recent years has been stimulated by both energy security and climate change concerns. Fuels derived from agricultural crops offer the promise of reducing energy dependence for countries that have traditionally been dependent on imported energy. Nevertheless, it is evident that the potential for biomass production is heavily dependent on the availability of land and water resources. Furthermore, capacity expansion through land conversion is now known to incur a significant carbon debt that may offset any benefits in greenhouse gas reductions arising from the biofuel life cycle. Because of such constraints, there is increasing use of non-local biomass through regional trading. The main challenge in the analysis of such arrangements is that individual geographic regions have their own respective goals. This work presents a multi-region, fuzzy input–output optimization model that reflects production and consumption of bioenergy under land, water and carbon footprint constraints. To offset any local production deficits or surpluses, the model allows for trade to occur among different regions within a defined system; furthermore, importation of additional biofuel from external sources is also allowed. Two illustrative case studies are given to demonstrate the key features of the model.

  9. The budgeting and reporting process of a multinational organisation across regions and trade centres

    OpenAIRE

    Robusti, Fiorenza

    2012-01-01

    In the contemporary international business environment, a multinational organisation faces great challenges when it comes to budgeting and reporting. The complexity of budgeting and reporting is even greater when it implies the coordination of budgets and reports of trade centres located in other countries than the country of origin. A multinational organisation often adopts the participative budgeting method. The purpose of participative budgeting is to involve managers at lower manage...

  10. The Text of the Agreement for conducting under the Auspices of the Agency. A Regional Joint Training and Research Programme using a Neutron Crystal Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    On 11 June 1964 the Board of Governors approved an Agreement for conducting, under the auspices of the Agency, a regional joint training and research programme using a neutron crystal spectrometer. The text of that Agreement is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The entry into force of the Agreement in accordance with Section 17 thereof, as well as later acceptances by additional Governments, will be notified to Members in addenda to this document

  11. The Text of the Agreement for conducting under the Auspices of the Agency. A Regional Joint Training and Research Programme using a Neutron Crystal Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-07-22

    On 11 June 1964 the Board of Governors approved an Agreement for conducting, under the auspices of the Agency, a regional joint training and research programme using a neutron crystal spectrometer. The text of that Agreement is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The entry into force of the Agreement in accordance with Section 17 thereof, as well as later acceptances by additional Governments, will be notified to Members in addenda to this document.

  12. States’ regulatory autonomy to protect societal values by legitimate regulatory distinctions : Finding the balance in the WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade through adjudication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prévost, Denise; Choukroune, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Trade disputes in which public policy regulation is challenged have been among the most difficult and controversial of those before the adjudicatory bodies of the WTO. They have showcased the crucial role of adjudication in achieving an appropriate balance between the sovereign autonomy of States to

  13. The text of an African regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The document reproduces the text of an African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology among African Member States that was endorsed by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1990

  14. ENHANCING EU-TAIWAN ECONOMIC COOPERATION AGREEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-hung Cho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s 2015 new trade strategy: Trade for all: toward a more responsible trade and investment policy, highlights its key role in keeping markets open worldwide and lists the Asia-Pacific region as the priority party for signing Regional Trade Arrangements (RTAs with the EU. The new strategy allows the EU and its member states to initiate talks on economic cooperation agreement (ECA with Taiwan. This article takes the EU-Asia interregional cooperation as a case study while exploring the role of Taiwan in the region. The first section describes the shift in EU’s trade policies and the special features of the types of interregionalism between the EU and Asia. The second section explores the bilateral trade relations. The third section evaluates the opportunities and the internal and external challenges and limitations of an EU-Taiwan ECA, emphasizing the factor of mainland China. The final section provides conclusions on the influence of an EU-Taiwan ECA on the relations of EUTaiwan considering economic and non-economic factor

  15. Past, Present and Future: GATT, Free Trade Areas and... the World Trade Organization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Bernardos

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this article are, on the one hand, to carry out a reconsideration of the workings of the commercial system since the Bretton Woods agreements and, on the other hand, to make some reflections regarding the function that the World Trade Organizationmust carry out in the future in a world divided, probably just like now, in regional areas of free trade. In order to achieve these aims the following are specified: the bases on which the liberalization of trade has been founded after the Second World War, the causes whichprovoked the wave of protectionism in the Eighties, the reasons which have brought about the division of the world into trading blocks as well as the need for an organization which encourages inter-regional trade and reduces the commercial wars between these blocks.

  16. Agreement on trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights and access to medication: does Egypt have sufficient safeguards against potential public health implications of the agreement / Heba Wanis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wanis, Heba

    2010-01-01

    Intellektuaalomandi Õiguste Kaubandusaspektide Lepingust (TRIPS Agreement) ja selle mõjust ravimitele juurdepääsule Egiptuses. Ülevaade ravimitööstusest, ravimitele juurdepääsu põhiteguritest ning ravimite ja tervishoiu olukorrast

  17. Agreement for the Establishment in Cairo of a Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries. Acceptances of the Agreement and Pledges of Additional Contributions to the Centre. Information Received up to 31 December 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    The Government of the United Arab Republic, the Host State of the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, has notified the Agency that on the dates shown the following Arab States deposited with the Government instruments of acceptance of the Agreement establishing the Centre

  18. China’s Role at Global and Regional Levels from the Perspective of Trade and FDI Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Monica Oehler-Șincai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration its economic scale and growth potential, we can assert that China represents a regional as well a global player. Gradually, its growth model centred on exports becomes one based on innovation in which exports have a complementary role. Our objective is to reflect China’s role in the field of trade and FDI at regional and global level as well as its transformation into an economy centred on innovation. Following this rationale, the present paper is structured around four main sections, as follows. First, we bring to the forefront the impact of the financial and economic crisis on the Chinese economy and on two of its growth engines: the internal demand and exports. Second, we present China’s trade in goods as one of the main engines of its economic growth. Third, we demonstrate that China represents the linkage between the Eastern, Southern and South-Eastern Asian countries through FDI flows. Fourth, we reflect how China becomes gradually an economy centred on innovation.

  19. The IAEA regional cooperative agreement programme (RCA) on enhancement and harmonization of radiation protection in the Asia-Pacific Region (1998-2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.F.; Oresegun, M.O.

    2000-01-01

    The IAEA Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) was initiated in 1972, and currently consists of 17 Member States from East Asia and Oceania. These countries are Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam. The RCA is one of three cooperative agreements under the aegis of the IAEA, the other two being for Africa (AFRA) and Latin America (ARCAL). The RCA agreement has been extended five times, as it meets particular needs of the participating countries. The region covered by the RCA comprises nearly half of the world's population and is undergoing a rapid expansion in nuclear power development and in the uses of radiation sources (radioactive materials and irradiating equipment). A number of activities in a wide range of areas of Agency interest are carried out under RCA. The Project to Strengthen Radiation Protection Infrastructures was initiated in 1988, as a five year programme, to offer a regional response to some of the radiation protection issues that were raised following the Chernobyl accident. It was extended into Phase 2 from 1993 to 1998 and has now reached a new phase. The IAEA has a dual role to establish standards in radiation protection and safety and to provide for their application. Since the status of the implementation of radiation safety laws and regulations is variable within the RCA countries, the primary focus has been on providing assistance to member states in the drafting of laws and regulations to ensure that sources are authorized and are properly controlled. A number of accidents worldwide have resulted from inappropriate or a complete lack of regulations on the control of sources. However as countries develop, their needs change and it is important that the RCA project in radiation protection changes with them. Hence the new Phase 3 programme in radiation protection has a mixture of events to strengthen radiation

  20. An Agreement to Disagree: The ASEAN Human Rights Declaration and the Absence of Regional Identity in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Davies

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ASEAN’s engagement with human rights culminated in the creation of the ASEAN Human Rights Declaration in 2012. The Declaration is fascinating in three ways: Its institutional origins are surprising, it was agreed upon by states with very different positions on the role of human rights domestically, and it both contains commitments far in advance of some members and is at the same time dangerously regressive. The three leading frameworks that currently interrogate the Declaration fail to provide convincing insights into all three of those dimensions. To correct these shortcomings, this article applies the notion of an “incompletely theorized agreement” to the study of the Declaration, arguing that member states understand the Declaration in very different ways and agreed to it for similarly diverse reasons. Further, I argue that the Declaration neither articulates a shared regional identity relating to respect for human rights, nor can it be understood as marking an early point towards the creation of this identity. Instead, the current diversity of regional opinions on human rights and democracy is perceived as legitimate and will endure. The article concludes by considering whether this denudes the Declaration of value, arguing that its importance will vary: The more progressive the member state, the more important the Declaration will be in the future.

  1. Trade and health: an agenda for action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Lee, Kelley; Drager, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The processes of contemporary globalisation are creating ever-closer ties between individuals and populations across different countries. The health of a population, and the systems in place to deliver health care, are affected increasingly by factors beyond the population and health system. The Lancet’s Series on trade and health has provided an overview of these links between international trade, trade liberalisation, and health, and raised the key issues that face the health community. In this final paper in the Series, we call for a substantial and sustained effort by those within the health profession to engage with issues of trade, to strengthen institutional capacity in this area, and to place health higher on the agenda of trade negotiations. The rapid rise of trade agreements and treaties, as well as trade that occurs beyond these institutional boundaries, means that further action is required by a range of actors, including WHO, the World Bank, the World Trade Organization (WTO), regional agencies, foundations, national governments, civil society, non-governmental organisations, and academics. The stewardship of a domestic health system in the 21st century requires a sophisticated understanding of how trade affects, and will affect, a country’s health system and policy, to optimise opportunities to benefit health and health care while minimising the risks posed though the assertion of health goals in trade policy. To acheive this will place a premium on all those engaged in health to understand the importance of trade and to engage with their counterparts involved in trade and trade policy. We hope that this Series has prompted the reader to become involved in these efforts. PMID:19167056

  2. Trade and health: an agenda for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Lee, Kelley; Drager, Nick

    2009-02-28

    The processes of contemporary globalisation are creating ever-closer ties between individuals and populations across different countries. The health of a population, and the systems in place to deliver health care, are affected increasingly by factors beyond the population and health system. The Lancet's Series on trade and health has provided an overview of these links between international trade, trade liberalisation, and health, and raised the key issues that face the health community. In this final paper in the Series, we call for a substantial and sustained effort by those within the health profession to engage with issues of trade, to strengthen institutional capacity in this area, and to place health higher on the agenda of trade negotiations. The rapid rise of trade agreements and treaties, as well as trade that occurs beyond these institutional boundaries, means that further action is required by a range of actors, including WHO, the World Bank, the World Trade Organization (WTO), regional agencies, foundations, national governments, civil society, non-governmental organisations, and academics. The stewardship of a domestic health system in the 21st century requires a sophisticated understanding of how trade affects, and will affect, a country's health system and policy, to optimise opportunities to benefit health and health care while minimising the risks posed though the assertion of health goals in trade policy. To acheive this will place a premium on all those engaged in health to understand the importance of trade and to engage with their counterparts involved in trade and trade policy. We hope that this Series has prompted the reader to become involved in these efforts.

  3. Synergies, Trade-offs, and Losses of Ecosystem Services in Urban Regions: an Integrated Multiscale Framework Applied to the Leipzig-Halle Region, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Haase

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Because we have entered the 'millennium of the cities', urban ecological research needs to account for the provisions ecosystem services provide to urban regions. In urban areas, ecosystem service assessment studies need to account for the complex land use patterns, which change over relatively short periods of time. We discuss an analytical framework for the spatial and temporal integration of different ecosystem services in an urban region to determine synergies, trade-offs and losses, and we employ a case study in Leipzig-Halle, Germany. The following five ecosystem services, which are of special importance for urban areas, were selected: local climate regulation, recreation potential, biodiversity potential, food supply, and above-ground carbon storage. These services were analyzed from 1990 to 2006. Our results identified only slight increases in urbanization (1% or 3 km² and in mining restoration (-11 km². However, the detected land use changes led to synergies with biodiversity and climate regulation of > 50% of the total area, whereas trade-offs of approximately 60% were detected between variables such as climate regulation and recreation. Finally, we address both the opportunities and the challenges that were encountered in the integration study, specifically with respect to the application in land use planning.

  4. Assessment of nuclear energy embodied in international trade following a world multi-regional input–output approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortés-Borda, D.; Guillén-Gosálbez, G.; Jiménez, L.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power can contribute to cover the increasing demand of energy while keeping the carbon emissions within the desired limits. Many countries are reluctant to implement nuclear technologies in their territories, but might still use them through imports of products that embody nuclear energy in their life cycle. This work quantifies the difference between the production-based (territorial) and consumption-based (global) nuclear energy use in the main 40 economies of the world (85% of the world's GDP) through the application of a multi-regional environmentally extended input–output model. The mismatch between the direct (territorial) and total (global) use of nuclear energy varies from −237% to 44% in the top economies. From a consumption-based viewpoint, 10 out of the 40 countries reduced the per-capita use of nuclear energy in the period 1995–2009, and 7 when following a production-based approach. The per-capita nuclear energy use could differ in up to 26.2 GJ/inhabitant·year, depending on whether the assessment is consumption or production based. It was also found that around 3.5% of the world's nuclear energy production is trade-embodied and that this amount is growing along with the global production of nuclear energy. Our findings might help to develop more effective environmental regulations worldwide. - Highlights: • Global and territorial nuclear energy could differ up to 237% in the main economies. • Trade-embodied nuclear energy has increased from 1.4% to 2.5% in 15 years. • Nuclear energy production has rised in tandem with trade-embodied nuclear energy. • Nuclear production decrease in 7 countries does not counteract the increase in others.

  5. Analysis of virtual water flows associated with the trade of maize in the SADC region: importance of scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Dabrowski

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of virtual water encourages a country to view agricultural crops in terms of the amount of water required to produce those crops, with a view to implementing trading policies that promote the saving of scarce water resources. Recently, increased attention has focussed on partitioning the virtual water content of crops into green and blue water (derived from rainfall and irrigation, respectively as the latter has higher opportunity costs associated with its use and therefore impacts directly on scarcity. Maize is the most important crop traded within the SADC region. South Africa is the largest producer and exporter of maize, with the majority of its exports destined for other SADC countries. In comparison to other SADC countries, South Africa produces maize relatively efficiently, with a low virtual water content and a high green (868 m3 t−1 to blue (117 m3 t−1 water ratio. The blue water content is however higher than for maize produced in all other SADC countries, with the exception of Namibia (211 m3 t−1. Current trade patterns therefore result in a net expenditure of blue water (66×106 m3, almost all of which is exported by South Africa (65×106 m3. South Africa is one of the most water scarce countries in the region and analysis of virtual water flows indicates that current SADC maize trading patterns are influenced by national productivity as opposed to water scarcity. The virtual water content of maize was estimated for each of South Africa's nineteen Water Management Area's (WMA and used as a proxy to represent water use efficiency for maize production. The virtual water content varied widely across all of the WMAs, ranging from 360 m3 t−1 in the Ustutu Mhlatuze to 1000 m3 t−1 in the Limpopo. A comparison of the virtual water content and production of maize

  6. Evaluation of reconstruction techniques in regional cerebral blood flow SPECT using trade-off plots: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Anna; Arlig, Asa; Carlsson, Gudrun Alm; Gustafsson, Agnetha

    2007-09-01

    The image quality of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) depends on the reconstruction algorithm used. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate parameters in ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) and to compare systematically with filtered back-projection (FBP) for reconstruction of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) SPECT, incorporating attenuation and scatter correction. The evaluation was based on the trade-off between contrast recovery and statistical noise using different sizes of subsets, number of iterations and filter parameters. Monte Carlo simulated SPECT studies of a digital human brain phantom were used. The contrast recovery was calculated as measured contrast divided by true contrast. Statistical noise in the reconstructed images was calculated as the coefficient of variation in pixel values. A constant contrast level was reached above 195 equivalent maximum likelihood expectation maximization iterations. The choice of subset size was not crucial as long as there were > or = 2 projections per subset. The OSEM reconstruction was found to give 5-14% higher contrast recovery than FBP for all clinically relevant noise levels in rCBF SPECT. The Butterworth filter, power 6, achieved the highest stable contrast recovery level at all clinically relevant noise levels. The cut-off frequency should be chosen according to the noise level accepted in the image. Trade-off plots are shown to be a practical way of deciding the number of iterations and subset size for the OSEM reconstruction and can be used for other examination types in nuclear medicine.

  7. Commerce in health services in North America within the context of the North American Free Trade Agreement El comercio de servicios de salud en América del Norte en el contexto del Tratado de Libre Comercio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Gómez-Dantés

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the future of commercial trade in personal health services in North America within the context of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA and the latter's potential influence on health care for the Mexican people. It begins by defining concepts related to international trade of services, particularly health services, and then proceeds to analyze elements of NAFTA that affect the delivery, regulation, and financing of such services, as well as their future trade within the NAFTA area. It concludes with some recommendations directed at helping Mexico's national health care system confront the risks posed while taking advantage of the opportunities offered by the Mexican economy's entry into a broader market.El presente artículo discute el futuro del intercambio comercial de servicios personales de salud en América del Norte en el contexto del Tratado de Libre Comercio (TLC y la posible influencia de este último sobre la atención de salud de la población mexicana. En la primera parte se definen conceptos relacionados con el intercambio internacional de servicios en general y de servicios de salud en particular y se analizan los componentes del TLC que afectan a la prestación, regulación y financiamiento de estos servicios, así como a su futuro intercambio en la zona del TLC. Al final del artículo se hacen recomendaciones dirigidas a ayudar al sistema nacional de salud de México a enfrentar los riesgos y aprovechar las oportunidades que brinda la incorporación de la economía mexicana a un mercado más amplio.

  8. Lead (Pb) Isotope Baselines for Studies of Ancient Human Migration and Trade in the Maya Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenov, George D.; Gilli, Adrian; Hodell, David A.; Emery, Kitty F.; Brenner, Mark; Krigbaum, John

    2016-01-01

    We examined the potential use of lead (Pb) isotopes to source archaeological materials from the Maya region of Mesoamerica. The main objectives were to determine if: 1) geologic terrains throughout the Maya area exhibit distinct lead isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb), and 2) a combination of lead and strontium ratios can enhance sourcing procedures in the Mesoamerica region. We analyzed 60 rock samples for lead isotope ratios and a representative subset of samples for lead, uranium, and thorium concentrations across the Maya region, including the Northern Lowlands of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula, the Southern Lowlands of Guatemala and Belize, the Volcanic Highlands, the Belizean Maya Mountains, and the Metamorphic Province/Motagua Valley. Although there is some overlap within certain sub-regions, particularly the geologically diverse Metamorphic Province, lead isotopes can be used to distinguish between the Northern Lowlands, the Southern Lowlands, and the Volcanic Highlands. The distinct lead isotope ratios in the sub-regions are related to the geology of the Maya area, exhibiting a general trend in the lowlands of geologically younger rocks in the north to older rocks in the south, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the southern highlands. Combined with other sourcing techniques such as strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and oxygen (δ18O), a regional baseline for lead isotope ratios can contribute to the development of lead isoscapes in the Maya area, and may help to distinguish among geographic sub-regions at a finer scale than has been previously possible. These isotope baselines will provide archaeologists with an additional tool to track the origin and movement of ancient humans and artifacts across this important region. PMID:27806065

  9. Lead (Pb) Isotope Baselines for Studies of Ancient Human Migration and Trade in the Maya Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Ashley E; Kamenov, George D; Gilli, Adrian; Hodell, David A; Emery, Kitty F; Brenner, Mark; Krigbaum, John

    2016-01-01

    We examined the potential use of lead (Pb) isotopes to source archaeological materials from the Maya region of Mesoamerica. The main objectives were to determine if: 1) geologic terrains throughout the Maya area exhibit distinct lead isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb), and 2) a combination of lead and strontium ratios can enhance sourcing procedures in the Mesoamerica region. We analyzed 60 rock samples for lead isotope ratios and a representative subset of samples for lead, uranium, and thorium concentrations across the Maya region, including the Northern Lowlands of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula, the Southern Lowlands of Guatemala and Belize, the Volcanic Highlands, the Belizean Maya Mountains, and the Metamorphic Province/Motagua Valley. Although there is some overlap within certain sub-regions, particularly the geologically diverse Metamorphic Province, lead isotopes can be used to distinguish between the Northern Lowlands, the Southern Lowlands, and the Volcanic Highlands. The distinct lead isotope ratios in the sub-regions are related to the geology of the Maya area, exhibiting a general trend in the lowlands of geologically younger rocks in the north to older rocks in the south, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the southern highlands. Combined with other sourcing techniques such as strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and oxygen (δ18O), a regional baseline for lead isotope ratios can contribute to the development of lead isoscapes in the Maya area, and may help to distinguish among geographic sub-regions at a finer scale than has been previously possible. These isotope baselines will provide archaeologists with an additional tool to track the origin and movement of ancient humans and artifacts across this important region.

  10. Coverage of the WTO's Agreement on Government Procurement: Challenges of Integrating China and other Countries with a Large State Sector into the Global Trading System

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Ping

    2007-01-01

    The WTO's plurilateral Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA) is a significant WTO instrument to develop disciplines regulating government procurement. A recent major review of the GPA has led to a revised text, likely to enter into force in 2007. In the meanwhile, China, a country with a large state sector, has promised to initiate GPA accession negotiations by the end of 2007.The article provides a critical assessment of the extent to which the recent review of the coverage of the GPA ha...

  11. The Emergence of the Table Dance Within the Context of the North American Free Trade Agreement in Mexico: Symbolic Impact and the Deconstruction of Erotic Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto López Villagrán

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing qualitative methodology, as well as indirect documentary sources, this article aims to deconstruct the table dance erotic industry in Mexico, taking into account the context of free trade and the expectations it exploded. The explanation takes into account context, symbols and institutions. The article further analyses the conceptual aspects of the signification of the body and pornotopia and posits the category of poliperformatividad as an aggregate of performative acts in order to understand the semiotics of the table dance. Using the stories as its basis, this serves to measure the problem of social stigma within the collective of erotic dancers in Mexico.

  12. WTO new round agreement and nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. K.; Moon, L. H.; Kim, S. S.

    2002-01-01

    The start of new round of WTO could be recognized as a turning point shifting from bilateral or regional trade system to multilateral trade system worldwide. The changes in international trade system are expected to have some impact on the Korean nuclear industry. The purpose of this study is to understand the impact on prepare opening the market for the plant design and engineering. This market has been protected by Agreement on Government Procurement(AGP). However, this market will be eventually influenced by GATS(General Agreement on Trade in Services) with KEPCO's on going privatization being completed. There have been no impacts on R and D fund provided by the government as yet. However, in case of Government supported R and D for commercial purpose, there are much concerns to be discussed further within new WTO agreement. It is necessary to develop a strategy for maximizing national interests and promoting R and D in the negotiation for design and construction services related with nuclear industry, and energy services. Furthermore, to effectively explore new nuclear markets in developing countries including China, market analyses for their countries are required

  13. The text of an African regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The document informs that as of 31 January 1993, the following states sent to the Director General notifications of acceptance of the African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology: Tunisia, Egypt, Algeria, Nigeria, Madagascar, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco, Kenya, Sudan, Ghana, Tanzania, Mauritius, Cameroon, South Africa and Zaire. The Agreement entered into force on 4 April 1990

  14. Strategy of Trade-Reliable Featured Product Supporting Regional Innovation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskiawan, H. Y.; Purnomo, B. H.; Abdurahman, A.; Hariono, B.; Puspitasari, T. D.

    2018-01-01

    Pacitan, Ponorogo, and Magetan had planned the development of featured products as contained in the Medium Term Development Plan (MTDP) until 2020. The focus of development is almost similar to featured products derived from agribusiness, food processing, handycrafts, and tourism. The geographical proximity results characteristics of natural resources and social culture have similarities, including the type of featured products, constraints, problems, and opportunities for development. Given the characteristics and the support system of some featured products contained in these three regions have a lot in common and their functional interactions involving actors from across the region, it is necessary to develop cross-jurisdictional policy. The resulting strategy should be able to support the development of Regional Innovation System (RIS). The purpose of this research is 1) Determining featured product cross-regional between Pacitan regency; Ponorogo and Magetan districts in support of RIS development; and 2) Designing a featured product development strategy using supply chain management in order to drive the local economy. Based on the results of research conducted, featured products across the region that have potentiality to be developed are: processed products of “janggelan” leather products, and woven bamboo.

  15. Industrial Restructuring and Urban Change in the Pittsburgh Region: Developmental, Ecological, and Socioeconomic Trade-offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Haller

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the steel industry's restructuring during the 1980s and its consequences for older industrial regions tied historically to steel production. These regions contained large working-class communities that declined because of deindustrialization and restructuring. This article first examines the transition of the steel industry from its roots in extractive and primary manufacturing to a scrap-recycling industry that minimizes labor and raw material inputs. This transition parallels the structural changes in other industries addressed by political economic perspectives, such as the new international division of labor and globalization of production. The article then focuses on the socioeconomic and structural changes, using the Pittsburgh region as an example, including the employment and land-use consequences of deindustrialization and the relationship between losses in manufacturing employment and increases in persistent joblessness and poverty associated with growth of the urban underclass.

  16. Benefits of coastal recreation in Europe: identifying trade-offs and priority regions for sustainable management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghermandi, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the welfare dimension of the recreational services of coastal ecosystems through the application of a meta-analytical value transfer framework, which integrates Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for the characterization of climate, biodiversity, accessibility, and anthropogenic pressure in each of 368 regions of the European coastal zone. The relative contribution of international, domestic, and local recreationists to aggregated regional values is examined. The implications of the analysis for prioritization of conservation areas and identification of good management practices are highlighted through the comparative assessment of estimated recreation values, current environmental pressures, and existing network of protected sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Maltrata valley in the inter regional trade nets of the obsidian in Meso america: origin by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina V, R. O.

    2011-01-01

    The study of the obsidian in Mexico has included different research lines, as they are: the study of the elaboration techniques of several things, forms, dating: deposits localization and extraction of the raw material; study about the physical and mineralogical characteristics, and those focused to the trade routes of several things; which is developed in this thesis. The topic developed in this research is to propose the possible communication routes in which the obsidian of the Maltrata valley has participated among the Gulf coast and of the Altiplano 12 central. With the characterization study of the obsidian is possible to know the origin of this and also the relationship with other societies, because the exploitation of raw materials of mineral origin was an activity of great economic and politics importance in the pre hispanic societies. When the origin is determined is possible to relate the supplier, with the distributor and consumer and this way to trace on a map the movement routes that people settled down and for those that the obsidian circulated. To define the origin of the Maltrata obsidian was used the analysis technique by neutron activation, which allowed knowing the origin place of the raw material. This work is organized in five chapters. In the first chapter the theoretical and methodological bases are developed to define the research. A revision is made to the antecedents on trade and origin in the center and south of Veracruz. In the second chapter a general panorama of the geographical and geologic environment of the region is described, with the purpose of to delineate the own characteristics of the valley and to distinguish it of the diverse areas and regions of the coast of the Gulf. In the chapter third, the data of the material context and the places of where they took the representative samples are provided; equally the methodology carried out for its selection, classification and registration is presented. For the fourth chapter is

  18. Employing SWOT Analysis in Coursework on the Geographies of Regional Economic Development and Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafsky, Ronald V.; Sonnichsen, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    The use of SWOT analysis is a means through which geography students can investigate key concepts in economic geography and essential topics in regional economic development. This article discusses the results of a course project where economic geography students employed SWOT analysis to explore medium-sized metropolitan areas across the southern…

  19. 70 Bush Meat Trading in the Oban Hills Region of South-Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    2008-03-01

    Mar 1, 2008 ... diversity of faunal species of the region can be found in ... B. The traditional inclination of rural people to bush ... (types and kinds) or species of animals involved in the .... Apes and/or. Prosimians, Reptiles; Rodents; birds, etc).

  20. Global Trade Alert (GTA) - Phase II: Year 2 - Monitoring and Analysis ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Trade data provided by the major international institutions such as the United Nations (UN) ... are not only ponderous and slow to appear, but also focus on traditional border tax ... Building on inputs supplied by regional institutional partners and ... High-level Dialogue on Trade Agreements, Competition and Development.