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Sample records for regional stratigraphic framework

  1. Subsurface geology of the Lusi region: preliminary results from a comprehensive seismic-stratigraphic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscariello, Andrea; Do Couto, Damien; Lupi, Matteo; Mazzini, Adriano

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the subsurface data of a large sector in the Sidoarjo district (East Java, Indonesia) where the sudden catastrophic Lusi eruption started the 26th May 2006. Our goal is to understand the stratigraphic and structural features which can be genetically related to the surface manifestations of deep hydrothermal fluids and thus allow us to predict possible future similar phenomena in the region. In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126) we examined a series of densely spaced 2D reflection commercial seismic lines This allowed the reconstruction of the lateral variability of key stratigraphic horizons as well as the main tectonic features. In particular, we shed light on the deep structure of the Watukosek fault system and the associated fracture corridors crossing the entire stratigraphic successions. To the South-West, when approaching the volcanic complex, we could identify a clear contrast in seismic facies between chaotic volcanoclastic wedges and clastic-prone sedimentary successions as well as between the deeper stratigraphic units consisting of carbonates and lateral shales units. The latter show possible ductile deformation associated to fault-controlled diapirism which control in turns deformation of overlying stratigraphic units and deep geo-fluids circulation. Large collapse structures recognized in the study area (e.g. well PRG-1) are interpreted as the results of shale movement at depth. Similarly to Lusi, vertical deformation zones ("pipes"), likely associated with deeply rooted strike-slip systems seem to be often located at the interface between harder carbonate rocks forming isolated build ups and the laterally nearby clastic (shale-prone)-units. The mechanisms of deformation of structural features (strike vs dip slip systems) which may affect either the basement rock or the overlying deeper stratigraphic rocks is also being investigated to understand the relationship between deep and shallower (i.e. meteoric) fluid

  2. Neoproterozoic–Cambrian stratigraphic framework of the Anti-Atlas and Ouzellagh promontory (High Atlas), Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro, Jose Javier; Benziane, Fouad; Thomas, Robert; Walsh, Gregory J.; Yazidi, Abdelaziz

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, great progress has been made in the geochronological, chrono- and chemostratigraphic control of the Neoproterozoic and Cambrian from the Anti-Atlas Ranges and the Ouzellagh promontory (High Atlas). As a result, the Neoproterozoic is lithostratigraphically subdivided into: (i) the Lkest-Taghdout Group (broadly interpreted at c. 800–690 Ma) representative of rift-to-passive margin conditions on the northern West African craton; (ii) the Iriri (c. 760–740 Ma), Bou Azzer (c. 762–697 Ma) and Saghro (c. 760?–610 Ma) groups, the overlying Anezi, Bou Salda, Dadès and Tiddiline formations localized in fault-grabens, and the Ouarzazate Supergroup (c. 615–548 Ma), which form a succession of volcanosedimentary complexes recording the onset of the Pan-African orogeny and its aftermath; and (iii) the Taroudant (the Ediacaran–Cambrian boundary lying in the Tifnout Member of the Adoudou Formation), Tata, Feijas Internes and Tabanite groups that have recorded development of the late Ediacaran–Cambrian Atlas Rift. Recent discussions of Moroccan strata to select new global GSSPs by the International Subcommissions on Ediacaran and Cambrian Stratigraphy have raised the stratigraphic interest in this region. A revised and updated stratigraphic framework is proposed here to assist the tasks of both subcommissions and to fuel future discussions focused on different geological aspects of the Neoproterozoic–Cambrian time span.

  3. Revised stratigraphic nomenclature and correlation of early proterozoic rocks of the Darwin - Katherine region, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, R.S.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    New stratigraphic names and correlations are given for parts of the Early Proterozoic Pine Creek Geosyncline metasedimentary sequence and overlying felsic volcanics of the Darwin-Katherine region. They have significant implications for the stratigraphic distribution of uranium mineralisation in the Rum Jungle, Alligator Rivers and South Alligator Valley uranium fields

  4. Neoproterozoic stratigraphic framework of the Tarim Craton in NW China: Implications for rift evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin; Guan, Shuwei; Zhang, Shuichang; Yang, Haijun; Jin, Jiuqiang; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Chunyu

    2018-06-01

    The Tarim Craton is overlain by thick Neoproterozoic sedimentary successions in rift tectonic setting. This study examines the latest outcrop, seismic, and drilling core data with the objective of investigating the regional stratigraphy to deeply recognize the evolution of rifting in the craton. Cryogenian to Lower Ediacaran successions are mainly composed of clastic rocks with thicknesses of 2000-3000 m, and the Upper Ediacaran successions are composed of carbonate rocks with thicknesses of 500-800 m. The rift basins and stratigraphic zones are divided into northern and southern parts by a central paleo-uplift. The northern rift basin extends through the northern Tarim Craton in an E-W direction with two depocenters (Aksu and Kuruktag). The southern rift basin is oriented NE-SW. There are three or four phases of tillites in the northern zone, while there are two in the southern zone. Given the north-south difference of the stratigraphic framework, the northern rift basin initiated at ca. 740 Ma and the southern rift basin initiated at ca. 780 Ma. During the Cryogenian and Ediacaran, the northern and southern rift basins were separated by the central paleo-uplift, finally connecting with each other in the early Cambrian. Tectonic deformation in the Late Ediacaran led to the formation of a parallel unconformity in the rift basins and an angular unconformity in the central paleo-uplift. The Neoproterozoic rift basins continued to affect the distribution of Lower Cambrian hydrocarbon source rocks. The north-south distribution and evolution of the rift basins in the Tarim Craton have implications for reconstructions of the Rodinia supercontinent.

  5. Sequence stratigraphy in the middle Ordovician shale successions, mid-east Korea: Stratigraphic variations and preservation potential of organic matter within a sequence stratigraphic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Uk Hwan; Lee, Hyun Suk; Kwon, Yi Kyun

    2018-02-01

    The Jigunsan Formation is the middle Ordovician shale-dominated transgressive succession in the Taebaeksan Basin, located in the eastern margin of the North China platform. The total organic carbon (TOC) content and some geochemical properties of the succession exhibit a stratigraphically distinct distribution pattern. The pattern was closely associated with the redox conditions related to decomposition, bulk sedimentation rate (dilution), and productivity. To explain the distinct distribution pattern, this study attempted to construct a high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework for the Jigunsan Formation. The shale-dominated Jigunsan Formation comprises a lower layer of dark gray shale, deposited during transgression, and an upper layer of greenish gray siltstone, deposited during highstand and falling stage systems tracts. The concept of a back-stepped carbonate platform is adopted to distinguish early and late transgressive systems tracts (early and late TST) in this study, whereas the highstand systems tracts and falling stage systems tracts can be divided by changes in stacking patterns from aggradation to progradation. The late TST would be initiated on a rapidly back-stepping surface of sediments and, just above the surface, exhibits a high peak in TOC content, followed by a gradually upward decrease. This trend of TOC distribution in the late TST continues to the maximum flooding surface (MFS). The perplexing TOC distribution pattern within the late TST most likely resulted from both a gradual reduction in productivity during the late TST and a gradual increase in dilution effect near the MFS interval. The reduced production of organic matter primarily incurred decreasing TOC content toward the MFS when the productivity was mainly governed by benthic biota because planktonic organisms were not widespread in the Ordovician. Results of this study will help improve the understanding of the source rock distribution in mixed carbonate

  6. The geostatistical approach for structural and stratigraphic framework analysis of offshore NW Bonaparte Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, Ali; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed; Yusoff, Wan Ismail Wan; Gaafar, Gamal Ragab

    2016-01-01

    Geostatistics or statistical approach is based on the studies of temporal and spatial trend, which depend upon spatial relationships to model known information of variable(s) at unsampled locations. The statistical technique known as kriging was used for petrophycial and facies analysis, which help to assume spatial relationship to model the geological continuity between the known data and the unknown to produce a single best guess of the unknown. Kriging is also known as optimal interpolation technique, which facilitate to generate best linear unbiased estimation of each horizon. The idea is to construct a numerical model of the lithofacies and rock properties that honor available data and further integrate with interpreting seismic sections, techtonostratigraphy chart with sea level curve (short term) and regional tectonics of the study area to find the structural and stratigraphic growth history of the NW Bonaparte Basin. By using kriging technique the models were built which help to estimate different parameters like horizons, facies, and porosities in the study area. The variograms were used to determine for identification of spatial relationship between data which help to find the depositional history of the North West (NW) Bonaparte Basin

  7. The geostatistical approach for structural and stratigraphic framework analysis of offshore NW Bonaparte Basin, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahid, Ali, E-mail: ali.wahid@live.com; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed, E-mail: mohamed.salim@petronas.com.my; Yusoff, Wan Ismail Wan, E-mail: wanismail-wanyusoff@petronas.com.my [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32610 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Gaafar, Gamal Ragab, E-mail: gaafargr@gmail.com [Petroleum Engineering Division, PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-02-01

    Geostatistics or statistical approach is based on the studies of temporal and spatial trend, which depend upon spatial relationships to model known information of variable(s) at unsampled locations. The statistical technique known as kriging was used for petrophycial and facies analysis, which help to assume spatial relationship to model the geological continuity between the known data and the unknown to produce a single best guess of the unknown. Kriging is also known as optimal interpolation technique, which facilitate to generate best linear unbiased estimation of each horizon. The idea is to construct a numerical model of the lithofacies and rock properties that honor available data and further integrate with interpreting seismic sections, techtonostratigraphy chart with sea level curve (short term) and regional tectonics of the study area to find the structural and stratigraphic growth history of the NW Bonaparte Basin. By using kriging technique the models were built which help to estimate different parameters like horizons, facies, and porosities in the study area. The variograms were used to determine for identification of spatial relationship between data which help to find the depositional history of the North West (NW) Bonaparte Basin.

  8. Lithostratigraphy and volcanology of the Serra Geral Group, Paraná-Etendeka Igneous Province in Southern Brazil: Towards a formal stratigraphical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Lucas; Lima, Evandro F.; Waichel, Breno L.; Hole, Malcolm J.; Simões, Matheus S.; Scherer, Claiton M. S.

    2018-04-01

    The volcanic rocks of the Lower Cretaceous Paraná-Etendeka Igneous Province, in Brazil, are grouped in the Serra Geral Group. The province can be chemically divided into low-TiO2, and high-TiO2. In southern Brazil, the low-TiO2 lava pile reaches a thickness of 1 km and is formed of heterogeneous lava packages here divided into four lava formations. Torres Formation (TF) is characterized by chemically more primitive basaltic (> 5 wt% MgO) compound pahoehoe flow fields; these lavas stratigraphically overly aeolian sandstones of Botucatu Formation and represent the onset of the volcanic activity. Vale do Sol Formation (VSF) groups vertically stacked sheet-like rubbly pahoehoe basaltic andesites (SiO2 > 51 wt%; MgO < 5 wt%). These lavas covered the former basalts in the Torres Syncline axis and pinch out towards southwest and represent the most voluminous mafic lava flows. Dacites and rhyolites of Palmas Formation (PF) overlay VSF flows in the central and eastern outcrop area and rest directly upon TF lavas in the west. The acidic units were emplaced as lava domes and widespread tabular lava flows. Esmeralda Formation (EF) is the upper stratigraphic unit and it is formed by a basaltic pahoehoe flow field emplaced during the waning phase of volcanic activity of the low-TiO2 lava sequence. Sedimentary interbeds are preserved throughout the whole lava pile and were deposited during quiescence periods of volcanic activity, and represent important stratigraphic markers (e.g. TF-VSF contact). The newly proposed stratigraphy provides promptly recognized stratigraphic units in a regional framework of fundamental importance for future correlations and provide vital information in the understanding of how the Paraná-Etendeka Igneous Province evolved through time.

  9. Stratigraphic, regional unconformity analysis and potential petroleum plays of East Siberian Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Yury; Stoupakova, Antonina; Suslova, Anna; Agasheva, Mariia

    2017-04-01

    The East Siberian Sea basin (ESSB) one of the most unexplored part of the Russian Arctic shelf, extending for over 1000 km from New Siberian Islands archipelago to Wrangel Island. This region is considered as a region with probable high petroleum potential. Within the ESSB several phases of orogeny are recognized [1]: Elsmerian orogeny in Early Devonian, Early Brooks orogeny in Early Cretaceous, Late Brooks orogeny in Late Cretaceous. Two generations of the basins could be outlined. Both of these generations are controlled by the basement domains [1]: Paleozoic (post-Devonian) to Mesozoic basins preserved north of the Late Mesozoic frontal thrusts; Aptian-Albian to Quaternary basins, postdating the Verkhoyansk-Brookian orogeny, and evolving mainly over the New-Siberian-Chukchi Fold Belt. Basin is filled with siliclastic sediments and in the deepest depocentres sediments thickness exceeds 8-10 km in average. Seismic data was interpreted using methods of seismic stratigraphy. Finally, main seismic horizons were indicated and each horizon follows regional stratigraphic unconformities: mBU - in base of Cenozoic, BU - in base of Upper Cretaceous, LCU - in base of Cretaceous, JU - in middle of Jurassic, F - in top of Basement. In ESSB, we can identify Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene and Neogene seismic stratigraphy complexes. Perspective structures, investigated in ESSB were founded out by comparing seismogeological cross-sections with explored analogs in other onshore and offshore basins [2, 3, 4]. The majority of structures could be connected with stratigraphic and fault traps. The most perspective prospects are probably connected with grabens and depressions, where thickness of sediments exceed 10 km. Reservoirs in ESSB are proposed by regional geological explorations on New Siberian Islands Archipelago and Wrangel Island. Potential seals are predominantly assigned to Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. Thick clinoform units of various geometry and

  10. Stratigraphic units overlying the Zambales Ophiolite Complex (ZOC) in Luzon, (Philippines): Tectonostratigraphic significance and regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queaño, Karlo L.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Yumul, Graciano P.; Marquez, Edanjarlo J.; Faustino-Eslava, Decibel V.; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Ishida, Keisuke

    2017-07-01

    The Zambales Ophiolite Complex (ZOC) on the island of Luzon, Philippines is one of the most well-studied crust-mantle sequences in the region. Several massifs comprise the ZOC, one of which is the Coto Block overlain by clastic sedimentary units previously dated as Eocene. Geochronologic studies from diabase, granodiorites and other late-stage magmatic products similarly yielded the same age. Succeeding tectonic models have therefore all been grounded on the assumption that the entire ZOC is Eocene. Recent investigations, however, revealed the presence of chert blocks within the Early to Middle Miocene clastic formation overlying the Acoje Block in the northern part of the ophiolite complex. Radiolarians extracted from the cherts yielded a stratigraphic range that suggests a Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age. The recognition of a much older age than previously reported of the ZOC warrants a re-examination of its actual distribution and genesis. Correlating with other similarly-aged ophiolites, we suggest defining a western Mesozoic ophiolite belt, largely extending from the west-central portion of the archipelago to the northeastern tip of Luzon island. Tentatively, we attribute the Mesozoic ophiolitic and associated rocks in western Luzon to an arc-continent collision involving the Philippine Mobile Belt and the Palawan Microcontinental Block. In addition, differences in the clastic compositions of the Cenozoic sedimentary formations provide material not only for deciphering the ZOC's unroofing history but also for constraining the timing of province linkage. The intermittent appearance of lithic fragments and detrital minerals from the ophiolite in the units of the Middle Miocene Candelaria Limestone and the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene Sta. Cruz Formation indicates significant but geographically variable contributions from the ophiolite complex. In the northern Zambales Range, the Sta. Cruz Formation caps the Coto Block and the Acoje Block of the ZOC

  11. Sequence Stratigraphic Framework Analysis of Putaohua Oil Reservoir in Chaochang Area of Songliao Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yan; Liu, Dameng; Yao, Yanbin

    2018-01-01

    The regional structure of the Changchang area in the Songliao Basin is located on the Chaoyangou terrace and Changchunling anticline belt in the central depression of the northern part of the Songliao Basin, across the two secondary tectonic units of the Chaoyanggou terrace and Changchunling anticline. However, with the continuous development of oil and gas, the unused reserves of Fuyu oil reservoir decreased year by year, and the oil field faced a serious shortage of reserve reserves. At the same time, during the evaluation process, a better oil-bearing display was found during the drilling and test oil in the Putao depression to the Chaoyanggou terraces, the Yudong-Taipingchuan area, and in the process of drilling and testing oil in the Putaohua reservoir. Zhao41, Zhao18-1, Shu38 and other exploration wells to obtain oil oil, indicating that the area has a further evaluation of the potential. Based on the principle of stratification, the Putao area was divided into three parts by using the core, logging and logging. It is concluded that the middle and western strata of the study area are well developed, including three sequences, one cycle from bottom to top (three small layers), two cycles (one small layer), three cycles (two small layers) Rhythm is positive-anti-positive. From the Midwest to the southeastern part of the strata, the strata are overtaken, the lower strata are missing, and the top rhythms become rhythmic.

  12. A not-so-big crisis: re-reading Silurian conodont diversity in a sequence-stratigraphic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarochowska, Emilia; Munnecke, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Conodonts are extensively used in Ordovician through Triassic biostratigraphy and fossil-based geochemistry. However, their distribution in rock successions is commonly taken at face value, without taking into account their diverse and poorly understood ecology. Multielement taxonomy, ontogenetic and environmental variability, difficulties in extraction, and relative rarity all contribute to the general lack of quantitative studies on conodont stratigraphic distribution and temporal turnover. With respect to Silurian conodonts, the concept of recurrent conodont extinction events - the so called Ireviken, Mulde and Lau events - has become a standard in the stratigraphic literature. The concept has been proposed based on qualitative observations of local extirpations of open-marine pelagic or nekto-benthic taxa and temporary dominance of shallow-water species in the Silurian succession of the Swedish island of Gotland. These changes coincided with positive carbon isotope excursions, abrupt facies shifts, "blooms" of benthic fauna, and changes in reef communities, which have all been combined into a general view of Silurian bio-geochemical events. This view posits a deterministic, reproducible pattern in Silurian conodont diversity, attributed to recurrent ecological or geochemical conditions. The growing body of sequence-stratigraphic interpretations across these events in Gotland and other sections worldwide indicate that in all cases the Silurian "events" are associated with rapid global regressions. This suggests that faunal changes such as the dominance of shallow-water, low-diversity conodont fauna and the increase of benthic invertebrate diversity and abundance represent predictable consequences of the variation in the completeness of the rock record and preservation potential of different environments. Our studies in Poland and Ukraine indicate that the magnitude of change in the taxonomic composition of conodont assemblages across the middle Silurian global

  13. Appalachian basin oil and natural gas: stratigraphic framework, total petroleum systems, and estimated ultimate recovery: Chapter C.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Milici, Robert C.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The most recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Appalachian basin was completed in 2002 (Milici and others, 2003). This assessment was based on the total petroleum system (TPS), a concept introduced by Magoon and Dow (1994) and developed during subsequent studies such as those by the U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team (2000) and by Biteau and others (2003a,b). Each TPS is based on specific geologic elements that include source rocks, traps and seals, reservoir rocks, and the generation and migration of hydrocarbons. This chapter identifies the TPSs defined in the 2002 Appalachian basin oil and gas assessment and places them in the context of the stratigraphic framework associated with regional geologic cross sections D–D′ (Ryder and others, 2009, which was re-released in this volume, chap. E.4.1) and E–E′ (Ryder and others, 2008, which was re-released in this volume, chap. E.4.2). Furthermore, the chapter presents a recent estimate of the ultimate recoverable oil and natural gas in the basin.

  14. Facies-succession and architecture of the third-order sequences and their stratigraphic framework of the Devonian in Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, South China

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    Mei Mingxiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Caledonian orogeny at the end of the Silurian resulted in great changes in the palaeogeography in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area of South China; the continental area of the Early Paleozoic evolved into the extensive Dian-Qian-Gui Sea in the Late Paleozoic. Early in the Devonian, as a result of a major transgression, seawater encroached gradually from the south to the north and clastic facies were deposited. Carbonate deposition was then established in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, with a palaeogeography marked by attached platforms, isolated platforms and narrow basins. As a result of the Ziyun movement towards the end of the Devonian, the Upper Devonian strata are regressive and thin out from the open-sea to the land areas. A study of the nature and distribution of sedimentary facies in space and time recognises 13 third-order sequences in the Devonian strata in Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, and these form two second-order sequences. The strata of the Lower Devonian comprise 5 third-order sequences (SQ1 to SQ5, which are dominated by transgressive clastics. 4 third-order sequences (SQ6 to SQ9 in the Middle Devonian are characterized by alternations of transgressive clastics and highstand carbonates. In the Upper Devonian, carbonates constitute 4 third-order sequences (SQ10 to SQ13, which are generally marked by the transgressive limestones and highstand dolomites. On the basis of earlier biostratigraphic studies, sea-level changes represented by the third-order sequences with their different facies successions are explored, and the sequence stratigraphic framework is established. Therefore, the Devonian strata in the study area provide an example for further understanding of depositional trends within the sequence-stratigraphic framework.

  15. Regional geologic framework off northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlee, J.; Behrendt, J.C.; Grow, J.A.; Robb, J.M.; Mattick, R.E.; Taylor, P.T.; Lawson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    Six multichannel seismic-reflection profiles taken across the Atlantic continental margin off the northeastern United States show an excess of 14 km of presumed Mesozoic and younger sedimentary rocks in the Baltimore Canyon trough and 8 km in the Georges Bank basin. Beneath the continental rise, the sedimentary prism thickness exceeds 7 km south of New Jersey and Maryland, and it is 4.5 km thick south of Georges Bank Stratigraphically, the continental slope--outer edge of the continental shelf is a transition zone of high-velocity sedimentary rock, probably carbonate, that covers deeply subsidized basement. The spatial separation of magnetic and gravity anomalies on line 2 (New Jersey) suggests that in the Baltimore Canyon region the magnetic-slope anomaly is due to edge effects and that the previously reported free-air and isostatic gravity anomalies over the outer shelf may be due in part to a lateral increase in sediment density (velocity) near the shelf edge. The East Coast magnetic anomaly and the free-air gravity high both coincide over the outer shelf edge on line 1 (Georges Bank) but are offset by 20 km from the ridge on the reflection profile

  16. Regional geologic framework off northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, J.; Behrendt, John C.; Grow, J.A.; Robb, James M.; Mattick, R.; Taylor, P.T.; Lawson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    Six multichannel seismic-reflection profiles taken across the Atlantic continental margin Previous HitoffTop the northeastern United States show an excess of 14 km of presumed Mesozoic and younger sedimentary rocks in the Baltimore Canyon trough and 8 km in the Georges Bank basin. Beneath the continental rise, the sedimentary prism thickness exceeds 7 km south of New Jersey and Maryland, and it is 4.5 km thick south of Georges Bank. Stratigraphically, the continental slope--outer edge of the continental shelf is a transition zone of high-velocity sedimentary rock, probably carbonate, that covers deeply subsided basement. Acoustically, the sedimentary sequence beneath the shelf is divided into three units which are correlated speculatively with the Cenozoic, the Cretaceous, and the Jurassic-Triassic sections. These units thicken offshore, and some have increased seismic velocities farther offshore. The uppermost unit thickens from a fraction of a kilometer to slightly more than a kilometer in a seaward direction, and velocity values range from 1.7 to 2.2 km/sec. The middle unit thickens from a fraction of a kilometer to as much as 5 km (northern Baltimore Canyon trough), and seismic velocity ranges from 2.2 to 5.4 km/sec. The lowest unit thickens to a maximum of 9 km (northern Baltimore Canyon), and velocities span the 3.9 to 5.9-km/sec interval. The spatial separation of magnetic and gravity anomalies on line 2 (New Jersey) suggests that in the Baltimore Canyon region the magnetic-slope anomaly is due to edge effects and that the previously reported free-air and isostatic gravity anomalies over the outer shelf may be due in part to a lateral increase in sediment density (velocity) near the shelf edge. The East Coast magnetic anomaly and the free-air gravity high both coincide over the outer shelf edge on line 1 (Georges Bank) but are offset by 20 km from the ridge on the reflection profile. Because the magnetic-slope-anomaly wavelength is nearly 50 km across, a

  17. Regional frameworks applied to hydrology: can landscape-based frameworks capture the hydrologic variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. McManamay; D. Orth; C. Dolloff; E. Frimpong

    2011-01-01

    Regional frameworks have been used extensively in recent years to aid in broad-scale management. Widely used landscape-based regional frameworks, such as hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) and physiographic provinces, may provide predictive tools of hydrologic variability. However, hydrologic-based regional frameworks, created using only streamflow data, are also...

  18. Sequence-Stratigraphic Analysis of the Regional Observation Monitoring Program (ROMP) 29A Test Corehole and Its Relation to Carbonate Porosity and Regional Transmissivity in the Floridan Aquifer System, Highlands County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, W. C.; Cunningham, K.J.; Renken, R.A.; Wacker, M.A.; Carlson, J.I.

    2003-01-01

    An analysis was made to describe and interpret the lithology of a part of the Upper Floridan aquifer penetrated by the Regional Observation Monitoring Program (ROMP) 29A test corehole in Highlands County, Florida. This information was integrated into a one-dimensional hydrostratigraphic model that delineates candidate flow zones and confining units in the context of sequence stratigraphy. Results from this test corehole will serve as a starting point to build a robust three-dimensional sequence-stratigraphic framework of the Floridan aquifer system. The ROMP 29A test corehole penetrated the Avon Park Formation, Ocala Limestone, Suwannee Limestone, and Hawthorn Group of middle Eocene to Pliocene age. The part of the Avon Park Formation penetrated in the ROMP 29A test corehole contains two composite depositional sequences. A transgressive systems tract and a highstand systems tract were interpreted for the upper composite sequence; however, only a highstand systems tract was interpreted for the lower composite sequence of the deeper Avon Park stratigraphic section. The composite depositional sequences are composed of at least five high-frequency depositional sequences. These sequences contain high-frequency cycle sets that are an amalgamation of vertically stacked high-frequency cycles. Three types of high-frequency cycles have been identified in the Avon Park Formation: peritidal, shallow subtidal, and deeper subtidal high-frequency cycles. The vertical distribution of carbonate-rock diffuse flow zones within the Avon Park Formation is heterogeneous. Porous vuggy intervals are less than 10 feet, and most are much thinner. The volumetric arrangement of the diffuse flow zones shows that most occur in the highstand systems tract of the lower composite sequence of the Avon Park Formation as compared to the upper composite sequence, which contains both a backstepping transgressive systems tract and a prograding highstand systems tract. Although the porous and permeable

  19. Multi-scale constraints of sediment source to sink systems in frontier basins: a forward stratigraphic modeling case study of the Levant region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawie, Nicolas; Deschamps, Remy; Granjeon, Didier; Nader, Fadi-Henri; Gorini, Christian; Müller, Carla; Montadert, Lucien; Baudin, François

    2015-04-01

    Recent scientific work underlined the presence of a thick Cenozoic infill in the Levant Basin reaching up to 12 km. Interestingly; restricted sedimentation was observed along the Levant margin in the Cenozoic. Since the Late Eocene successive regional geodynamic events affecting Afro-Arabia and Eurasia (collision and strike slip deformation)induced fast marginal uplifts. The initiation of local and long-lived regional drainage systems in the Oligo-Miocene period (e.g. Lebanon versus Nile) provoked a change in the depositional pattern along the Levant margin and basin. A shift from carbonate dominated environments into clastic rich systems has been observed. Through this communication we explore the importance of multi-scale constraints (i.e.,seismic, well and field data) in the quantification of the subsidence history, sediment transport and deposition of a Middle-Upper Miocene "multi-source" to sink system along the northernLevant frontier region. We prove through a comprehensive forward stratigraphic modeling workflow that the contribution to the infill of the northern Levant Basin (offshore Lebanon) is split in between proximal and more distal clastic sources as well as in situ carbonate/hemipelagic deposition. In a wider perspective this work falls under the umbrella of multi-disciplinary source to sink studies that investigate the impact of geodynamic events on basin/margin architectural evolutions, consequent sedimentary infill and thus on petroleum systems assessment.

  20. Iowa Stratigraphic Data Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The Iowa stratigraphic column consists of rock materials of varying geologic age that have been categorized into a shapefile for summarizing the 3 dimensional aspect...

  1. Use of radiometric (Cs-137, Pb-210), geomorphic, and stratigraphic techniques to date recent oxbow sediments in the Rio Puerco drainage Grants uranium region, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, C.J.; Dehn, M. (New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Tech., Socorro (United States)); Hawley, J.W.; Love, D.W. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro (United States))

    1988-06-01

    In the absence of historic geochemical baseline data for the Grants uranium region, environmental changes resulting from uranium mine-mill activities can be determined only by indirect methods. A methodology for determining the age of recent sediments in streams draining the region has been established based on combined geomorphic, stratigraphic, and radiometric dating techniques. Because clay-rich sediments retain possible radionuclides and heavy metals derived from mineralization and mined sources, sample sites which contain fine-grained deposits that both predate and postdate mine-mill activity were located in abandoned-channel segments (oxbows) of major streams draining the eastern Grants uranium region. Aerial photographs (and derivative maps) taken between 1935 and 1971 provided the historical and geomorphic documentation of approximate dates of oxbow formation and ages of alluvial fills in the abandoned-channel segments. Pits were dug at these oxbow sites to determine stratigraphy and composition of the deposits. Samples collected from pit walls and auger holes below the pits were subjected to radiometric analysis by gamma ray spectrometry for the artificial radionuclide Cs-137 and the natural radionuclide Pb-210 as well as other U-238 and Th-232 daughters. Because of the dynamic nature of the system, absolute dating with Cs-137 was not possible but samples could be dated as either pre- or post-1950. The 1950 date is important because it marked the beginning of the uranium exploitation in the region. The Pb-210 dating was not possible because background Pb-210 was very high relative to fallout Pb-210.

  2. Facies associations, depositional environments and stratigraphic framework of the Early Miocene-Pleistocene successions of the Mukah-Balingian Area, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Muhammad; Rahman, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Sum, Chow Weng; Konjing, Zainey

    2018-02-01

    Thirty-five stratigraphic section exposed along the Mukah-Selangau road in the Mukah-Balingian area have been studied. Sedimentological and palynological data have been integrated to gain a better insight into the depositional architecture of the area. Broadly, the Mukah-Balingian area is dominated by fluvial, floodplain and estuarine related coal-bearing deposits. The Balingian, Begrih and Liang formations have been described and interpreted in terms of seven facies association. These are: FA1 - Fluvial-dominated channel facies association; FA2 - Tide-influenced channel facies association; FA3 - Tide-dominated channel facies association; FA4 - Floodplain facies association; FA5 - Estuarine central basin-mud flats facies association; FA6 - Tidal flat facies association and FA7 - Coastal swamps and marshes facies association. The Balingian Formation is characterised by the transgressive phase in the base, followed by a regressive phase in the upper part. On the basis of the occurrence of Florscheutzia trilobata with Florscheutzia levipoli, the Early to Middle Miocene age has been assigned to the Balingian Formation. The distinct facies pattern and foraminifera species found from the samples taken from the Begrih outcrop imply deposition in the intertidal flats having pronounced fluvio-tidal interactions along the paleo-margin. Foraminiferal data combined with the pronounced occurrence of Stenochlaena laurifolia suggest at least the Late Miocene age for the Begrih Formation. The internal stratigraphic architecture of the Liang Formation is a function of a combination of sea level, stable tectonic and autogenic control. Based on stratigraphic position, the Middle Pliocene to Pleistocene age for the Liang Formation is probable. The Balingian, Begrih and Liang formations display deposits of multiple regressive-transgressive cycles while the sediments were derived from the uplifted Penian high and Rajang group.

  3. Characteristics, stratigraphic architecture, and time framework of multi-order mixed siliciclastic and carbonate depositional sequences, outcropping Cisco Group (Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian), Eastern Shelf, north-central Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan; Kominz, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    The Cisco Group on the Eastern Shelf of the Midland Basin is composed of fluvial, deltaic, shelf, shelf-margin, and slope-to-basin carbonate and siliciclastic rocks. Sedimentologic and stratigraphic analyses of 181 meter-to-decimeter-scale depositional sequences exposed in the up-dip shelf indicated that the siliciclastic and carbonate parasequences in the transgressive systems tracts (TST) are thin and upward deepening, whereas those in highstand systems tracts (HST) are thick and upward shallowing. The sequences can be subdivided into five types on the basis of principal lithofacies, and exhibit variable magnitude of facies shift corresponding to variable extents of marine transgression and regression on the shelf. The sequence stacking patterns and their regional persistence suggest a three-level sequence hierarchy controlled by eustasy, whereas local and regional changes in lithology, thickness, and sequence type, magnitude, and absence were controlled by interplay of eustasy, differential shelf subsidence, depositional topography, and pattern of siliciclastic supply. The outcropping Cisco Group is highly incomplete with an estimated 6-11% stratigraphic completeness. The average duration of deposition of the major (third-order) sequences is estimated as 67-102 ka on the up-dip shelf and increases down dip, while the average duration of the major sequence boundaries (SB) is estimated as 831-1066 ka and decreases down dip. The nondepositional and erosional hiatus on the up-dip shelf was represented by lowstand deltaic systems in the basin and slope.

  4. Some debatable problems of stratigraphic classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladenkov, Yury

    2014-05-01

    Russian geologists perform large-scale geological mapping in Russia and abroad. Therefore we urge unification of legends of geological maps compiled in different countries. It seems important to continuously organize discussions on problems of stratigraphic classification. 1. The stratigraphic schools (conventionally called "European" and "American") define "stratigraphy" in different ways. The former prefers "single" stratigraphy that uses data proved by many methods. The latter divides stratigraphy into several independent stratigraphers (litho-, bio-, magneto- and others). Russian geologists classify stratigraphic units into general (chronostratigraphic) and special (in accordance with a method applied). 2. There exist different interpretations of chronostratigraphy. Some stratigraphers suppose that a chronostratigraphic unit corresponds to rock strata formed during a certain time interval (it is somewhat formalistic because a length of interval is frequently unspecified). Russian specialists emphasize the historical-geological background of chronostratigraphic units. Every stratigraphic unit (global and regional) reflects a stage of geological evolution of biosphere and stratisphere. 3. In the view of Russian stratigraphers, the main stratigraphic units may have different extent: a) global (stage), b) regional (regional stage,local zone), and c) local (suite). There is no such hierarchy in the ISG. 4. Russian specialists think that local "lithostratigraphic" units (formations) which may have diachronous boundaries are not chronostratigraphic ones in strict sense (actually they are lithological bodies). In this case "lithostratigraphy" can be considered as "prostratigraphy" and employed in initial studies of sequences. Therefore, a suite is a main local unit of the Russian Code and differs from a formation, although it is somewhat similar. It does not mean that lithostratigraphy is unnecessary. Usage of marker horizons, members and other bodies is of great help

  5. Stratigraphic framework of Cambrian and Ordovician rocks in the central Appalachian Basin from Medina County, Ohio, through southwestern and south-central Pennsylvania to Hampshire County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Harris, Anita G.; Repetski, John E.; revised and digitized by Crangle, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    A 275-mi-long restored stratigraphic cross section from Medina County, Ohio, through southwestern and south-central Pennsylvania to Hampshire County, W. Va., provides new details on Cambrian and Ordovician stratigraphy in the central Appalachian basin and the structure of underlying Precambrian basement rocks. From west to east, the major structural elements of the block-faulted basement in this section are (1) the relatively stable, slightly extended craton, which includes the Wooster arch, (2) the fault-controlled Ohio-West Virginia hinge zone, which separates the craton from the adjoining Rome trough, (3) the Rome trough, which consists of an east-facing asymmetric graben and an overlying sag basin, and (4) a positive fault block, named here the South-central Pennsylvania arch, which borders the eastern margin of the graben part of the Rome trough. Pre-Middle Ordovician structural relief on Precambrian basement rocks across the down-to-the-west normal fault that separates the Rome trough and the adjoining South-central Pennsylvania arch amounted to between 6,000 and 7,000 ft. The restored cross section shows eastward thickening of the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence from about 3,000 ft near the crest of the Wooster arch at the western end of the section to about 5,150 ft at the Ohio-West Virginia hinge zone adjoining the western margin of the Rome trough to about 19,800 ft near the depositional axis of the Rome trough. East of the Rome trough, at the adjoining western edge of the South-central Pennsylvania arch, the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence thins abruptly to about 13,500 ft and then thins gradually eastward across the arch to about 12,700 ft near the Allegheny structural front and to about 10,150 ft at the eastern end of the restored section. In general, the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence along this section consists of four major lithofacies that are predominantly shallow marine to peritidal in origin. In ascending stratigraphic order, the lithofacies

  6. Regional Jurassic geologic framework of Alabama coastal waters area and adjacent Federal waters area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.; Mancini, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    To date, numerous Jurassic hydrocarbon fields and pools have been discovered in the Cotton Valley Group, Haynesville Formation, Smackover Formation and Norphlet Formation in the tri-state area of Mississippi, Alabama and Florida, and in Alabama State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters area. Petroleum traps are basement highs, salt anticlines, faulted salt anticlines and extensional faults associated with salt movement. Reservoirs include continental and marine sandstones, limestones and dolostones. Hydrocarbon types are oil, condensate and natural gas. The onshore stratigraphic and structural information can be used to establish a regional geologic framework for the Jurassic for the State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters areas. Evaluation of the geologic information along with the hydrocarbon data from the tri-state area indicates that at least three Jurassic hydrocarbon trends (oil, oil and gas condensate, and deep natural gas) can be identified onshore. These onshore hydrocarbon trends can be projected into the Mobile area in the Central Gulf of Mexico and into the Pensacola, Destin Dome and Apalachicola areas in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico. Substantial reserves of natural gas are expected to be present in Alabama State waters and the northern portion of the Mobile area. Significant accumulations of oil and gas condensate may be encountered in the Pensacola, Destin Dome, and Apalachicola areas. ?? 1989.

  7. A framework of region-based dynamic image fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-hua; QIN Zheng; LIU Yu

    2007-01-01

    A new framework of region-based dynamic image fusion is proposed. First, the technique of target detection is applied to dynamic images (image sequences) to segment images into different targets and background regions. Then different fusion rules are employed in different regions so that the target information is preserved as much as possible. In addition, steerable non-separable wavelet frame transform is used in the process of multi-resolution analysis, so the system achieves favorable characters of orientation and invariant shift. Compared with other image fusion methods, experimental results showed that the proposed method has better capabilities of target recognition and preserves clear background information.

  8. Stratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental framework of the Early ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dolomite above and occasional oil shale. Formation. Age ... under a range of continental and marginal-to- shallow .... Salt Range to 150 m in the Sarin and Zaluch areas of the western Salt ..... Accumulation of the Permian sequence in the. Salt Range ...

  9. An analytical quality framework for learning cities and regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisinger-Kleine, Randolph

    2013-09-01

    There is broad agreement that innovation, knowledge and learning have become the main source of wealth, employment and economic development of cities, regions and nations. Over the past two decades, the number of European cities and regions which label themselves as "learning city" or "learning region" has constantly grown. However, there are also pitfalls and constraints which not only hinder them in unlocking their full potential, but also significantly narrow their effects and their wider impact on society. Most prominently, learning cities and regions manifest serious difficulties in rendering transparent the surplus value they generate, which is vital for attracting investment into lifelong learning. While evaluation and quality management are still perceived as being a bureaucratic necessity rather than a lesson one could learn from or an investment in the future, it is also true that without evaluation and quality assurance local networks do not have the means to examine their strengths and weaknesses. In order to design strategies to maximise the strengths and effectively address the weaknesses it is necessary to understand the factors that contribute to success and those that pose challenges. This article proposes an analytical quality framework which is generic and can be used to promote a culture of quality in learning cities and regions. The proposed framework builds on the findings and results of the R3L+ project, part-funded by the European Commission under the Grundtvig (adult education) strand of the Lifelong Learning programme 2007-2013.

  10. Energy autarky: A conceptual framework for sustainable regional development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Matthias Otto; Staempfli, Adrian; Dold, Ursula; Hammer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Energy autarky is presented as a conceptual framework for implementing sustainable regional development based on the transformation of the energy subsystem. It is conceptualized as a situation in which the energy services used for sustaining local consumption, local production and the export of goods and services are derived from locally renewable energy resources. Technically, the implementation of higher degrees of energy autarky rests on increasing energy efficiency, realizing the potential of renewable energy resources and relying on a decentralized energy system. Practically, a transition towards regional energy autarky requires administrations and civil society actors to initialize and develop projects at the local level, ensure their acceptance and support by the regional population and implement the project in collaboration with relevant actors. Besides the description of the concept and the benefits its implementation brings, this article provides a process for implementation, and some examples from Austria, Germany and Switzerland. - Highlights: → We introduce energy autarky as a conceptual framework for sustainable development. → Transforming the energy subsystem creates various benefits for communities. → Local participation should lead to social acceptance of renewables. → We review and discuss projects implementing energy autarky. → Further research needs to compare successful implementations with failures.

  11. Urban water sustainability: an integrative framework for regional water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, P.; Ajami, N. K.

    2015-11-01

    Traditional urban water supply portfolios have proven to be unsustainable under the uncertainties associated with growth and long-term climate variability. Introducing alternative water supplies such as recycled water, captured runoff, desalination, as well as demand management strategies such as conservation and efficiency measures, has been widely proposed to address the long-term sustainability of urban water resources. Collaborative efforts have the potential to achieve this goal through more efficient use of common pool resources and access to funding opportunities for supply diversification projects. However, this requires a paradigm shift towards holistic solutions that address the complexity of hydrologic, socio-economic and governance dynamics surrounding water management issues. The objective of this work is to develop a regional integrative framework for the assessment of water resource sustainability under current management practices, as well as to identify opportunities for sustainability improvement in coupled socio-hydrologic systems. We define the sustainability of a water utility as the ability to access reliable supplies to consistently satisfy current needs, make responsible use of supplies, and have the capacity to adapt to future scenarios. To compute a quantitative measure of sustainability, we develop a numerical index comprised of supply, demand, and adaptive capacity indicators, including an innovative way to account for the importance of having diverse supply sources. We demonstrate the application of this framework to the Hetch Hetchy Regional Water System in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. Our analyses demonstrate that water agencies that share common water supplies are in a good position to establish integrative regional management partnerships in order to achieve individual and collective short-term and long-term benefits.

  12. World Regional Studies as a Research Framework and Academic Discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina V. Koldunova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic development of international processes at the regional level, various trajectories of regionalization in Europe, Asia, Latin America and other parts of the world created a complex and multidimensional picture of the contemporary international relations. However Social Sciences and IR retained a distinct eurocentrism. This eurocentrism only partly meant that students of IR did not take into account non-European or non-Western realities. Thus, a German Scholar J. Vullers from German Institute of Global and Area Studies analyzing in 2014 three leading International Relations journals (International Organization, World Politics, European Journal of International Relations diagnosed a serious geographic imbalance in the international studies, which meant a very limited number of articles based on the nonWestern empirical data.Even with such geographic imbalance in IR studies more important for preserving eurocentrism there was the absence of non-Western IR theories or IR theories originating from non-Western political context. The collective monograph edited by Barry Buzan and Amitav Acharya focused exactly on this problem. The title of the book was provocatively asking why there is no non-Western IR theory. Thus, the book in question provoked a lively academic debate on the topic. Russia was not covered in this book. Therefore, this very fact gives one some reasons to reflect on how Russian research in the field may face a double challenge of a changing international environment and an inappropriate level of its intellectual assessment. Against this background this article analyzes World Regional Studies, a research framework and discipline, which is rapidly developing in Russia and may to some extent contribute to a more correct understanding of the international processes.

  13. Correlation chart of Pennsylvanian rocks in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania showing approximate position of coal beds, coal zones, and key stratigraphic units: Chapter D.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin, one of the largest Pennsylvanian bituminous coal-producing regions in the world, currently contains nearly one-half of the top 15 coal-producing States in the United States (Energy Information Agency, 2006). Anthracite of Pennsylvanian age occurs in synclinal basins in eastern Pennsylvania, but production is minimal. A simplified correlation chart was compiled from published and unpublished sources as a means of visualizing currently accepted stratigraphic relations between the rock formations, coal beds, coal zones, and key stratigraphic units in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. The thickness of each column is based on chronostratigraphic divisions (Lower, Middle, and Upper Pennsylvanian), not the thickness of strata. Researchers of Pennsylvanian strata in the Appalachian basin also use biostratigraphic markers and other relative and absolute geologic age associations between the rocks to better understand the spatial relations of the strata. Thus, the stratigraphic correlation data in this chart should be considered provisional and will be updated as coal-bearing rocks within the Appalachian coal regions continue to be evaluated.

  14. A conceptual framework for regional feedbacks in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlle Bayer, L.; van den Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Strengers, B.

    2012-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems and climate influence each other through biogeochemical (e.g. carbon cycle) and biogeophysical (e.g. albedo, water fluxes) processes. These interactions might be disturbed when a climate human-induced forcing takes place (e.g. deforestation); and the ecosystem responses to the climate system might amplify (positive feedback) or dampen (negative feedback) the initial forcing. Research on feedbacks has been mainly based on the carbon cycle at the global scale. However, biogeophysical feedbacks might have a great impact at the local or regional scale, which is the main focus of this article. A conceptual framework, with the major interactions and processes between terrestrial ecosystems and climate, is presented to further explore feedbacks at the regional level. Four hot spots with potential changes in land use/management and climate are selected: sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Europe, the Amazon Basin and South and Southeast Asia. For each region, diverse climate human-induced forcings and feedbacks were identified based on relevant published literature. For Europe, the positive soil moisture-evapotranspiration (ET) is important for natural vegetation during a heat wave event, while the positive soil moisture-precipitation feedback plays a more important role for droughts in the Amazon region. Agricultural expansion in SSA will depend on the impacts of the changing climate on crop yields and the adopted agro-technologies. The adoption of irrigation in the commonly rainfed systems might turn the positive soil moisture- ET feedback into a negative one. In contrast, South and Southeast Asia might face water shortage in the future, and thus turning the soil moisture-ET feedback into a positive one. Further research is needed for the major processes that affect the ultimate sign of the feedbacks, as well as for the interactions, which effect remains uncertain, such as ET-precipitation interaction. In addition, socio-economic feedbacks need to be added

  15. Framework for probabilistic flood risk assessment in an Alpine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Klaus; Huttenlau, Matthias; Steinberger, Thomas; Achleitner, Stefan; Stötter, Johann

    2014-05-01

    historic and synthetic flood events have to be spatially interpolated from point scale (i.e. river gauges) to the river network. Therefore, topological kriging (Top-kriging) proposed by Skøien et al. (2006) is applied. Top-kriging considers the nested structure of river networks and is therefore suitable to regionalise flood characteristics. Thus, the characteristics of a large number of possible flood events can be transferred to arbitrary locations (e.g. community level) at the river network within a study region. This framework has been used to generate a set of spatial correlated river flood events in the Austrian Federal Province of Vorarlberg. In addition, loss-probability-curves for each community has been calculated based on official inundation maps of public authorities, elements at risks and their vulnerability. One location along the river network within each community refers as interface between the set of flood events and the individual loss-probability relationships for the individual communities. Consequently, every flood event from the historic and synthetic generated dataset can be monetary evaluated. Thus, a time series comprising a large number of flood events and their corresponding monetary losses serves as basis for a probabilistic flood risk assessment. This includes expected annual losses and estimates of extreme event losses, which occur over the course of a certain time period. The gained results are essential decision-support for primary insurers, reinsurance companies and public authorities in order to setup a scale adequate risk management.

  16. Uncertainty management in stratigraphic well correlation and stratigraphic architectures: A training-based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jonathan; Lallier, Florent; Caumon, Guillaume; Carpentier, Cédric

    2018-02-01

    We discuss the sampling and the volumetric impact of stratigraphic correlation uncertainties in basins and reservoirs. From an input set of wells, we evaluate the probability for two stratigraphic units to be associated using an analog stratigraphic model. In the presence of multiple wells, this method sequentially updates a stratigraphic column defining the stratigraphic layering for each possible set of realizations. The resulting correlations are then used to create stratigraphic grids in three dimensions. We apply this method on a set of synthetic wells sampling a forward stratigraphic model built with Dionisos. To perform cross-validation of the method, we introduce a distance comparing the relative geological time of two models for each geographic position, and we compare the models in terms of volumes. Results show the ability of the method to automatically generate stratigraphic correlation scenarios, and also highlight some challenges when sampling stratigraphic uncertainties from multiple wells.

  17. Stratigraphic implications of uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langford, F.F.

    1980-01-01

    One of the most consistent characteristics of economic uranium deposits is their restricted stratigraphic distribution. Uraninite deposited with direct igneous affiliation contains thorium, whereas chemical precipitates in sedimentary rocks are characterized by thorium-free primary uranium minerals with vanadium and selenium. In marine sediments, these minerals form low-grade disseminations; but in terrestrial sediments, chiefly fluvial sandstones, the concentration of uranium varies widely, with the high-grade portions constituting ore. Pitchblende vein deposits not only exhibit the same chemical characteristics as the Colorado-type sandstone deposits, but they have a stratigraphically consistent position at unconformities covered by fluvial sandstones. If deposits in such diverse situations have critical features in common, they are likely to have had many features of their origin in common. Thus, vein deposits in Saskatchewan and Australia may have analogues in areas that contain Colorado-type sandstone deposits. In New Mexico, the presence of continental sandstones with peneconformable uranium deposits should also indicate good prospecting ground for unconformity-type vein deposits. All unconformities within the periods of continental deposition ranging from Permian to Cretaceous should have uranium potential. Some situations, such as the onlap of the Abo Formation onto Precambrian basement in the Zuni Mountains, may be directly comparable to Saskatchewan deposition. However, uranium occurrences in the upper part of the Entrada Sandstone suggest that unconformities underlain by sedimentary rocks may also be exploration targets

  18. Central San Juan caldera cluster: Regional volcanic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Peter W.

    2000-01-01

    symmetrically resurgent Creede caldera, the volcanic framework for Lake Creede, has been exceptionally preserved because of rapid infilling by moat sediments of the Creede Formation, which were preferentially eroded during the past few million years. The ash-flow tuffs and caldera of the central San Juan region have been widely recognized as exceptional sites for study of explosive volcanic processes, and the results reported here provide new insights into processes of pyroclastic eruption and emplacement, geometric interrelations between caldera subsidence and resurgence, the petrologic diversity of sequential ash-flow eruptions, recurrent eruption of intermediate-composition lavas after each caldera-forming event, associated regional fault development, volume relations between ash-flow eruptions and associated calderas, the emplacement of subvolcanic batholiths, and involvement of mantle-derived mafic phases in magma-generation processes.

  19. An Analytical Quality Framework for Learning Cities and Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisinger-Kleine, Randolph

    2013-01-01

    There is broad agreement that innovation, knowledge and learning have become the main source of wealth, employment and economic development of cities, regions and nations. Over the past two decades, the number of European cities and regions which label themselves as "learning city" or "learning region" has constantly grown.…

  20. MODEL OF REGIONAL KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER: MAIN ACTORS, FRAMEWORK AND THEORY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla LEVITSKAIA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses potential mechanism of regional knowledge transfer in region with poorly developed innovation infrastructure (the Autonomous Territorial Unit Gagauzia, Republic of Moldova through interactions between regional major players of the Regional Innovation System - the educational and research institutions, small and medium enterprises (SMEs and local authorities. Solution of this problem can be found in modern studies of territories innovation development through the clustering processes. Through the empirical study - innovation potential analysis of local SMEs - we proposed advantage mechanism which focused on the one type of knowledge cluster – Innovation and Educational Cluster. The symbiosis of entrepreneurs, government agencies, educational institutions and business service providers with the regional core - University, allows to increasing exchange flows of innovative knowledge between all members of the cluster and distributing them to the entire region and beyond. The results and proposals of this study formed the basis of the “Program of increasing the innovation potential of Gagauz SMEs”.

  1. Geomorphologic, stratigraphic and sedimentologic evidences of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The EPF particularly has acted significantly and influenced in evolving the geomorphological landscape and the stratigraphic architecture of the area. The block bounded by the two faults has earlier been considered as a single entity, constituting a half-graben. The present investigation (by morpho-stratigraphic and ...

  2. Framework for regional environmental management. [Problem-solving techniques; public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievering, H.; Sinopoli, J.

    1976-04-01

    A framework for environmental decision-making is described in which both qualitative and quantitative aspects of regional problems can be integrated into a problem-solving context. The techniques employed in this framework are computer simulation, games, and vote-trading. The paper concludes that through this framework: (a) environmental analysts can assess public value structure goal sets which can be used in the development of regional simulations, and (b) in turn, the quantitative aspects of the problems will be more easily communicated to the affected public. A brief description of the application of the framework is also presented.

  3. Sustainability assessment of regional water resources under the DPSIR framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shikun; Wang, Yubao; Liu, Jing; Cai, Huanjie; Wu, Pute; Geng, Qingling; Xu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water is a scarce and critical resource in both natural and socioeconomic systems. Increasing populations combined with an increasing demand for water resources have led to water shortages worldwide. Current water management strategies may not be sustainable, and comprehensive action should be taken to minimize the water budget deficit. Sustainable water resources management is essential because it ensures the integration of social, economic, and environmental issues into all stages of water resources management. This paper establishes the indicators to evaluate the sustainability of water utilization based on the Drive-Pressure-Status-Impact-Response (DPSIR) model. Based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method, a comprehensive assessment of changes to the sustainability of the water resource system in the city of Bayannur was conducted using these indicators. The results indicate that there is an increase in the driving force of local water consumption due to changes in society, economic development, and the consumption structure of residents. The pressure on the water system increased, whereas the status of the water resources continued to decrease over the study period due to the increasing drive indicators. The local government adopted a series of response measures to relieve the decreasing water resources and alleviate the negative effects of the increasing driver in demand. The response measures improved the efficiency of water usage to a large extent, but the large-scale expansion in demands brought a rebounding effect, known as ;Jevons paradox; At the same time, the increasing emissions of industrial and agriculture pollutants brought huge pressures to the regional water resources environment, which caused a decrease in the sustainability of regional water resources. Changing medium and short-term factors, such as regional economic pattern, technological levels, and water utilization practices, can contribute to the sustainable utilization of

  4. Heating & cooling: Policy frameworks in six European cities, their regions and countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büchele, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Report on current regulations, support policies, and other related framework conditions on EU level, national, regional and local level for the target countries, and assessment of specific characteristics of successful regulations and policies from a local perspective....

  5. Public health and health promotion capacity at national and regional level: a review of conceptual frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Aluttis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of capacity building for public health has gained much attention during the last decade. National as well as international organizations increasingly focus their efforts on capacity building to improve performance in the health sector. During the past two decades, a variety of conceptual frameworks have been developed which describe relevant dimensions for public health capacity. Notably, these frameworks differ in design and conceptualization. This paper therefore reviews the existing conceptual frameworks and integrates them into one framework, which contains the most relevant dimensions for public health capacity at the country or regional level. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify frameworks addressing public health capacity building at the national or regional level. We content-analysed these frameworks to identify the core dimensions of public health capacity. The dimensions were subsequently synthesized into a set of thematic areas to construct a conceptual framework which describes the most relevant dimensions for capacities at the national or regional level. The systematic review resulted in the identification of seven core domains for public health capacity: resources, organizational structures, workforce, partnerships, leadership and governance, knowledge development and country specific context. Accordingly, these dimensions were used to construct a framework, which describes these core domains more in detail. Our research shows that although there is no generally agreed upon model of public health capacity, a number of key domains for public health and health promotion capacity are consistently recurring in existing frameworks, regardless of their geographical location or thematic area. As only little work on the core concepts of public health capacities has yet taken place, this study adds value to the discourse by identifying these consistencies across existing frameworks and by synthesising

  6. A Reusable Framework for Regional Climate Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, A. F.; Goodale, C. E.; Mattmann, C. A.; Lean, P.; Kim, J.; Zimdars, P.; Waliser, D. E.; Crichton, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Climate observations are currently obtained through a diverse network of sensors and platforms that include space-based observatories, airborne and seaborne platforms, and distributed, networked, ground-based instruments. These global observational measurements are critical inputs to the efforts of the climate modeling community and can provide a corpus of data for use in analysis and validation of climate models. The Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES) is an effort currently being undertaken to address the challenges of integrating this vast array of observational climate data into a coherent resource suitable for performing model analysis at the regional level. Developed through a collaboration between the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the UCLA Joint Institute for Regional Earth System Science and Engineering (JIFRESSE), the RCMES uses existing open source technologies (MySQL, Apache Hadoop, and Apache OODT), to construct a scalable, parametric, geospatial data store that incorporates decades of observational data from a variety of NASA Earth science missions, as well as other sources into a consistently annotated, highly available scientific resource. By eliminating arbitrary partitions in the data (individual file boundaries, differing file formats, etc), and instead treating each individual observational measurement as a unique, geospatially referenced data point, the RCMES is capable of transforming large, heterogeneous collections of disparate observational data into a unified resource suitable for comparison to climate model output. This facility is further enhanced by the availability of a model evaluation toolkit which consists of a set of Python libraries, a RESTful web service layer, and a browser-based graphical user interface that allows for orchestration of model-to-data comparisons by composing them visually through web forms. This combination of tools and interfaces dramatically simplifies the process of interacting with and

  7. Paleocene stratigraphic plays in Uruguay offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, E; Soto, M; Ferro, S; Tomasini, J; De Santa Ana, H; Conti, B.; Veroslavsky, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Uruguayan continental margin offshore evolution is represented by three large mega sequences: pre rift, rift and post rift, which are correlated with other South Atlantic basins. The tectonic and stratigraphic knowledge about the Uruguayan offshore evolution enable a hydrocarbon potential approximation . The mapping of the seismic depositional sequences are covered by deep basins. The methodology used identify the migration of Uruguayan side depo centers such as the stratigraphic plays group in particular a prospective Paleocene sequence

  8. National, Regional and Global Certification Bodies for Polio Eradication: A Framework for Verifying Measles Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblina Datta, S; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Reef, Susan; William Schluter, W; Adams, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    The Global Certification Commission (GCC), Regional Certification Commissions (RCCs), and National Certification Committees (NCCs) provide a framework of independent bodies to assist the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in certifying and maintaining polio eradication in a standardized, ongoing, and credible manner. Their members meet regularly to comprehensively review population immunity, surveillance, laboratory, and other data to assess polio status in the country (NCC), World Health Organization (WHO) region (RCC), or globally (GCC). These highly visible bodies provide a framework to be replicated to independently verify measles and rubella elimination in the regions and globally. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  9. Leveraging Regional Exploration to Develop Geologic Framework for CO2 Storage in Deep Formations in Midwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2009-09-30

    Obtaining subsurface data for developing a regional framework for geologic storage of CO{sub 2} can require drilling and characterization in a large number of deep wells, especially in areas with limited pre-existing data. One approach for achieving this objective, without the prohibitive costs of drilling costly standalone test wells, is to collaborate with the oil and gas drilling efforts in a piggyback approach that can provide substantial cost savings and help fill data gaps in areas that may not otherwise get characterized. This leveraging with oil/gas drilling also mitigates some of the risk involved in standalone wells. This collaborative approach has been used for characterizing in a number of locations in the midwestern USA between 2005 and 2009 with funding from U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE award: DE-FC26-05NT42434) and in-kind contributions from a number of oil and gas operators. The results are presented in this final technical report. In addition to data collected under current award, selected data from related projects such as the Midwestern Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP), the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} storage project at and near the Mountaineer Plant, and the drilling of the Ohio Stratigraphic well in Eastern Ohio are discussed and used in the report. Data from this effort are also being incorporated into the MRCSP geologic mapping. The project activities were organized into tracking and evaluation of characterization opportunities; participation in the incremental drilling, basic and advanced logging in selected wells; and data analysis and reporting. Although a large number of opportunities were identified and evaluated, only a small subset was carried into the field stage. Typical selection factors included reaching an acceptable agreement with the operator, drilling and logging risks, and extent of pre-existing data near the candidate wells. The region of study is primarily along

  10. REGIONAL BLACK SEA ARCHITECTURE AND CONSEQUENCES FOR THE REGIONAL COOPERATION FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Homorozean

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes considered an asset, other times a liability, the Black Sea started recently to be regarded as a region. However, the Black Sea Region lacks a common vision, often due to the complicated and often inefficient nexus of regional cooperation initiatives. Following the logic of finding regional solutions for regional problems, this paper aims to assess existing institutional and regional initiatives, reflecting on the implications for the success of Black Sea regionalism in creating patterns of sustained and sustainable development and a high degree of actors' involvement.This paper concentrates on two complementary research questions: What is the regional order in the BSR and what does it imply for its future? What is the current contribution of the most significant cooperation initiatives and what are the consequences for regional institutionalism? For the purpose of this paper, I draw on best-practices from other two regions: the Northern Dimension and South- East Asia. Through a comparative perspective, I suggest an analysis of the most important initiatives: BSEC, CDC, Black Sea Synergy, Eastern Partnership, Baku Initiative and the BSF. This paper argues that a possible strategic solution for successful policy development lies in the creation of an integrated regional cooperation package, functioning on the principles of multi-speed and multi-dimensional cooperation in several policy fields, in a context in which the BSR seems to be caught between two paradigms: a European and a Russian-oriented one.

  11. [A process of aquatic ecological function regionalization: The dual tree framework and conceptual model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shu Hai; Wu, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Aquatic ecological regionalization and aquatic ecological function regionalization are the basis of water environmental management of a river basin and rational utilization of an aquatic ecosystem, and have been studied in China for more than ten years. Regarding the common problems in this field, the relationship between aquatic ecological regionalization and aquatic ecological function regionalization was discussed in this study by systematic analysis of the aquatic ecological zoning and the types of aquatic ecological function. Based on the dual tree structure, we put forward the RFCH process and the diamond conceptual model. Taking Liaohe River basin as an example and referring to the results of existing regionalization studies, we classified the aquatic ecological function regions based on three-class aquatic ecological regionalization. This study provided a process framework for aquatic ecological function regionalization of a river basin.

  12. SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES, REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND NETWORKING: THE EMERGING FRAMEWORK IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Luminita Constantin

    2002-01-01

    Networking is a key word in the recent debates on SMEs and regional policies, pointing out the need and advantages of integrating these businesses in a coherent framework, which creates links, relations, exchanges between them and other actors within the region (banks, universities, research institutes, training centres, consulting firms, chambers of commerce, associations of producers, local public administration). This paper aims to explore the main features and significance of the SME sect...

  13. A regional classification of unregulated stream flows: spatial resolution and hierarchical frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan A. McManamay; Donald J. Orth; Charles A. Dolloff; Emmaneul A. Firmpong

    2012-01-01

    River regulation has resulted in substantial losses in habitat connectivity, biodiversity and ecosystem services. River managers are faced with a growing need to protect the key aspects of the natural flow regime. A practical approach to providing environmental flow standards is to create a regional framework by classifying unregulated streams into groups of similar...

  14. A regional chemostratigraphically-defined correlation framework for the late Triassic TAG-I Formation in Blocks 402 and 405a, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliffe, K.T.; Martin, J.; Pearce, T.J. [Chemostrat ltd., Llanfyllin, Powys (United Kingdom); Hughes, A.D. [Bington Resources, London (United Kingdom); Lawton, D.E. [BHP Billiton Petroleum Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Wray, D. [University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime (United Kingdom). Department of Earth Sciences; Bessa, F. [Sonatrach, Hydra (Algeria). Division Petroleum Engineering and Development

    2006-07-01

    The Triassic Argilo-Greseux Inferieur Formation (TAG-I) is one of the principal hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Berkine Basin of Algeria. Sedimentological studies have shown that it exhibits marked spatial and temporal facies variations on both a local field scale and a regional basinal scale. This variability, combined with a lack of diagnostic flora and fauna, makes regional correlation within the unit difficult. In turn, the lack of a consistent regional stratigraphic framework hampers the comparison of the various correlation schemes devised by operators in the basin. Contrasting the TAG-I in Blocks 402 and 405a exemplifies the problems encountered when attempting regionally to define a correlation framework for the interval. Between these two blocks, a distance of approximately 200 km, there are marked changes in the style of deposition from sand-dominated, proximal fluvial systems in the SW (Block 405a, MLN, MLC, KMD and MLNW fields) to a more distal, more clay-prone system in the NE (Block 402, ROD/BRSE/BSFN, SFNE and BSF fields). A chemostratigraphic study of the TAG-I in these clocks has allowed a four-fold correlation framework to be defined, where each chemostratigraphic package has distinctive geochemical features. Chemostratigraphic Package 10, the oldest unit, lies above the Hercynian Unconformity, but beneath a geochemically identifiable hiatal surface. Chemostratigraphic Package 20 lies above the hiatal surface but is separated from the overlying packages by a mineralogical change identifiable in both claystone and sandstone geochemistry. Chemostratigraphic Packages 30 and 40 are chemically somewhat similar, but are separated by a regional event interpreted as a period of dolocrete and lacustrine development. By combining the geochemical differentiation of the units and recognition of their stratal boundaries, it is possible to define a correlation for the TAG-I between Blocks 402 and 405a. The proposed correlation between the two blocks suggests that

  15. Strengthening ASEAN+3 Regional Financial Arrangements: A New Framework Beyond CMIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joon Park

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the operational limitations of the Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralization (CMIM as a regional financial safety net in East Asia and presents a new regional financial arrangement. To overcome the drawbacks of the Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralization which has never been activated so far, this study proposes that ASEAN+3 establish a new lending facility, so-called a Reserve Fund Facility, and create a regional common reserves asset. The proposed Reserve Fund Facility framework guarantees lending automaticity of the liquidity facility, based on upfront funding instead of pledge funding. Establishing the Reserve Fund Facility could find a way of making up for weakness of the Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralization and responding to the regional needs for effective regional financial arrangement. The full-fledged Reserve Fund Facility will ultimately contribute to the future development of East Asia's monetary and financial cooperation beyond the Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralization.

  16. The stratigraphic imprint of a mid-Telychian (Llandovery, Early Silurian glaciation on far-field shallow-water carbonates, Anticosti Island, Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Clayer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The near-field stratigraphic record of the Early Silurian glaciations is well documented in the literature. Data from far-field areas are, however, sparse. One of the best far-field stratigraphic records of these Llandovery glaciations is exposed on Anticosti Island in eastern Canada. Eight shallow-water paleotropical facies are present close to the mid-Telychian Jupiter–Chicotte formational boundary along the south-central coast of Anticosti Island. These can be grouped into three facies associations that include, from bottom to top: a carbonate facies association (FA-1, a mixed siliciclastic and carbonate facies association (FA-2 and an encrinitic facies association (FA-3. These mid- to outer-ramp strata represent deposition mostly from episodic, high-energy storm events as evidenced by their sharp bases, hummocky cross-stratification, large wave ripples, gutter casts and wave-enhanced sediment gravity flow deposits. Superimposed on a long-term regressive trend, one main transgressive–regressive (TR sequence and four meter-scale TR cycles are evident, indicating a multi-order stratigraphic framework developed under the influence of glacio-eustasy. The Jupiter–Chicotte formational boundary, a regional discontinuity surface caused by a forced regression, corresponds to the onset of a far-field mid-Telychian glaciation.

  17. Stratigraphic and structural framework of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, R.W.; Fox, K.F. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is located within the southwestern Nevada volcanic field, ∼140 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and 50 km northeast of Death Valley, California. The mountain consist of a series of long, linear, north-trending volcanic ridges that approach an 1800-m maximum elevation near The Prow. The broad intermontane alluviated valleys of Crater Flat, the Amargosa Desert, and Jackass Flats, averaging 800 to 1100 m in elevation, form the western, southern, and eastern margins of Yucca Mountain, respectively. North of The Prow, Yucca Mountain merges with other volcanic highlands that flank the southern rim of the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex. The stratigraphy and structure of the area are discussed. Future geologic studies will attempt to determine if faults extend beneath Yucca Mountain, and, if present, their potential effects on the hydrologic and tectonic regimes

  18. Development of a landscape integrity model framework to support regional conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Leroy J; Hartmann, Heidi M

    2018-01-01

    Land managers increasingly rely upon landscape assessments to understand the status of natural resources and identify conservation priorities. Many of these landscape planning efforts rely on geospatial models that characterize the ecological integrity of the landscape. These general models utilize measures of habitat disturbance and human activity to map indices of ecological integrity. We built upon these modeling frameworks by developing a Landscape Integrity Index (LII) model using geospatial datasets of the human footprint, as well as incorporation of other indicators of ecological integrity such as biodiversity and vegetation departure. Our LII model serves as a general indicator of ecological integrity in a regional context of human activity, biodiversity, and change in habitat composition. We also discuss the application of the LII framework in two related coarse-filter landscape conservation approaches to expand the size and connectedness of protected areas as regional mitigation for anticipated land-use changes.

  19. A climate robust integrated modelling framework for regional impact assessment of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Gijs; Bakker, Alexander; van Ek, Remco; Groot, Annemarie; Kroes, Joop; Kuiper, Marijn; Schipper, Peter; van Walsum, Paul; Wamelink, Wieger; Mol, Janet

    2013-04-01

    Decision making towards climate proofing the water management of regional catchments can benefit greatly from the availability of a climate robust integrated modelling framework, capable of a consistent assessment of climate change impacts on the various interests present in the catchments. In the Netherlands, much effort has been devoted to developing state-of-the-art regional dynamic groundwater models with a very high spatial resolution (25x25 m2). Still, these models are not completely satisfactory to decision makers because the modelling concepts do not take into account feedbacks between meteorology, vegetation/crop growth, and hydrology. This introduces uncertainties in forecasting the effects of climate change on groundwater, surface water, agricultural yields, and development of groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems. These uncertainties add to the uncertainties about the predictions on climate change itself. In order to create an integrated, climate robust modelling framework, we coupled existing model codes on hydrology, agriculture and nature that are currently in use at the different research institutes in the Netherlands. The modelling framework consists of the model codes MODFLOW (groundwater flow), MetaSWAP (vadose zone), WOFOST (crop growth), SMART2-SUMO2 (soil-vegetation) and NTM3 (nature valuation). MODFLOW, MetaSWAP and WOFOST are coupled online (i.e. exchange information on time step basis). Thus, changes in meteorology and CO2-concentrations affect crop growth and feedbacks between crop growth, vadose zone water movement and groundwater recharge are accounted for. The model chain WOFOST-MetaSWAP-MODFLOW generates hydrological input for the ecological prediction model combination SMART2-SUMO2-NTM3. The modelling framework was used to support the regional water management decision making process in the 267 km2 Baakse Beek-Veengoot catchment in the east of the Netherlands. Computations were performed for regionalized 30-year climate change

  20. A Framework for Assessing the Impacts of Mining Development on Regional Water Resources in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil McIntyre

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing its large-scale mining industry is an economic priority for Colombia. However, national capacity to assess and manage the water resource impacts of mining is currently limited. This includes lack of baseline data, lack of suitable hydrological models and lack of frameworks for evaluating risks. Furthermore, public opposition to large scale mining is high and is a barrier to many proposed new mining projects mainly because of concerns about impacts on water resources. There are also concerns about impacts on the uplands that are important water sources, particularly the páramo ecosystem. This paper argues the case for a new framework for Strategic Assessment of Regional Water Impacts of Mining, aiming to support land use planning decisions by government for selected mining and prospective mining regions. The proposed framework is modelled on the Australian Government’s Bioregional Assessments program, converted into seven stages plus supporting activities that meet the Colombian development context. The seven stages are: (1 Contextual information; (2 Scenario definition; (3 Risk scoping; (4 Model development; (5 Risk analysis; (6 Database development; and (7 Dissemination by government to stakeholders including the general public. It is emphasised that the process and results should be transparent, the data and models publicly accessible, and dissemination aimed at all levels of expertise.

  1. The Regional Entrepreneurial Transformation Process—A Mid-Level Framework for Describing and Fostering Socioeconomic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Rüdiger Lange

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conceptual framework for the socioeconomic transition of regions. It was developed in and for the region of Lusatia, which faces the challenge of becoming more entrepreneurial in order to maintain and regain economic strength. Based on theories of entrepreneurial ecosystems and structuration as well as on extensive practical experience, a mid-level framework for describing and fostering regional change is derived.

  2. A comparison of regional flood frequency analysis approaches in a simulation framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganora, D.; Laio, F.

    2016-07-01

    Regional frequency analysis (RFA) is a well-established methodology to provide an estimate of the flood frequency curve at ungauged (or scarcely gauged) sites. Different RFA approaches exist, depending on the way the information is transferred to the site of interest, but it is not clear in the literature if a specific method systematically outperforms the others. The aim of this study is to provide a framework wherein carrying out the intercomparison by building up a virtual environment based on synthetically generated data. The considered regional approaches include: (i) a unique regional curve for the whole region; (ii) a multiple-region model where homogeneous subregions are determined through cluster analysis; (iii) a Region-of-Influence model which defines a homogeneous subregion for each site; (iv) a spatially smooth estimation procedure where the parameters of the regional model vary continuously along the space. Virtual environments are generated considering different patterns of heterogeneity, including step change and smooth variations. If the region is heterogeneous, with the parent distribution changing continuously within the region, the spatially smooth regional approach outperforms the others, with overall errors 10-50% lower than the other methods. In the case of a step-change, the spatially smooth and clustering procedures perform similarly if the heterogeneity is moderate, while clustering procedures work better when the step-change is severe. To extend our findings, an extensive sensitivity analysis has been performed to investigate the effect of sample length, number of virtual stations, return period of the predicted quantile, variability of the scale parameter of the parent distribution, number of predictor variables and different parent distribution. Overall, the spatially smooth approach appears as the most robust approach as its performances are more stable across different patterns of heterogeneity, especially when short records are

  3. The ecological limits of hydrologic alteration (ELOHA): A new framework for developing regional environmental flow standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poff, N.L.; Richter, B.D.; Arthington, A.H.; Bunn, S.E.; Naiman, R.J.; Kendy, E.; Acreman, M.; Apse, C.; Bledsoe, B.P.; Freeman, Mary C.; Henriksen, J.; Jacobson, R.B.; Kennen, J.G.; Merritt, D.M.; O'Keeffe, J. H.; Olden, J.D.; Rogers, K.; Tharme, R.E.; Warner, A.

    2010-01-01

    The flow regime is a primary determinant of the structure and function of aquatic and riparian ecosystems for streams and rivers. Hydrologic alteration has impaired riverine ecosystems on a global scale, and the pace and intensity of human development greatly exceeds the ability of scientists to assess the effects on a river-by-river basis. Current scientific understanding of hydrologic controls on riverine ecosystems and experience gained from individual river studies support development of environmental flow standards at the regional scale. 2. This paper presents a consensus view from a group of international scientists on a new framework for assessing environmental flow needs for many streams and rivers simultaneously to foster development and implementation of environmental flow standards at the regional scale. This framework, the ecological limits of hydrologic alteration (ELOHA), is a synthesis of a number of existing hydrologic techniques and environmental flow methods that are currently being used to various degrees and that can support comprehensive regional flow management. The flexible approach allows scientists, water-resource managers and stakeholders to analyse and synthesise available scientific information into ecologically based and socially acceptable goals and standards for management of environmental flows. 3. The ELOHA framework includes the synthesis of existing hydrologic and ecological databases from many rivers within a user-defined region to develop scientifically defensible and empirically testable relationships between flow alteration and ecological responses. These relationships serve as the basis for the societally driven process of developing regional flow standards. This is to be achieved by first using hydrologic modelling to build a 'hydrologic foundation' of baseline and current hydrographs for stream and river segments throughout the region. Second, using a set of ecologically relevant flow variables, river segments within the

  4. A preliminary guidebook for identifying stratigraphic contacts at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawloski, G.A.; McKague, H.L.; Wagoner, J.L.; McKinnis, W.B.

    1992-01-01

    Lithologic variation, regional depositional trends, and the lack of written guidelines have resulted in inconsistencies in the recognition of stratigraphic contacts in drill holes at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Stratigraphic identification, based on mineralogy of discrete samples, can be augmented by geophysical logs and downhole movies to more accurately and consistently locate contacts between units. Criteria are established for locating the base of the Pahute Mesa ash-flow tuff, the top of the Ammonia Tanks ash-flow tuff, the top of the Ammonia Tanks bedded tuff, and the top and the base of the Rainier Mesa Tuff

  5. Stratigraphic Profiles for Selected Hanford Site Seismometer Stations and Other Locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Stratigraphic profiles were constructed for eight selected Hanford Site seismometer stations, five Hanford Site facility reference locations, and seven regional three-component broadband seismometer stations. These profiles provide interpretations of the subsurface layers to support estimation of ground motions from past earthquakes, and the prediction of ground motions from future earthquakes. In most cases these profiles terminated at the top of the Wanapum Basalt, but at selected sites profiles were extended down to the top of the crystalline basement. The composite one-dimensional stratigraphic profiles were based primarily on previous interpretations from nearby boreholes, and in many cases the nearest deep borehole is located kilometers away.

  6. Stratigraphic relations and hydrologic properties of the Paintbrush Tuff (PTn) hydrologic unit, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K.; Flint, L.E.

    1996-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is being investigated as a potential site for a high- level nuclear waste repository. The intent of this study was to clarify stratigraphic relations within the Paintbrush Tuff (PTn) unit at Yucca Mountain in order to better understand vertical and lateral variations in hydrologic properties as they relate to the lithologic character of these rocks. This report defines informal stratigraphic units within the PTn interval, demonstrates their lateral continuity in the Yucca Mountain region, describes later and vertical variations within them, and characterizes their hydrologic properties and importance to numerical flow and transport models. We present tables summarizing the depth to stratigraphic contacts in cored borehole studies, and unit descriptions and correlations in 10 measured sections

  7. Stratigraphic relations and hydrologic properties of the Paintbrush Tuff (PTn) hydrologic unit, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K. [Science Applications International Corp., Golden, CO (United States); Flint, L.E. [U.S. Geological Survey, Yucca Mountain Project, Mercury, NV (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Yucca Mountain is being investigated as a potential site for a high- level nuclear waste repository. The intent of this study was to clarify stratigraphic relations within the Paintbrush Tuff (PTn) unit at Yucca Mountain in order to better understand vertical and lateral variations in hydrologic properties as they relate to the lithologic character of these rocks. This report defines informal stratigraphic units within the PTn interval, demonstrates their lateral continuity in the Yucca Mountain region, describes later and vertical variations within them, and characterizes their hydrologic properties and importance to numerical flow and transport models. We present tables summarizing the depth to stratigraphic contacts in cored borehole studies, and unit descriptions and correlations in 10 measured sections.

  8. A regional-scale ecological risk framework for environmental flow evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Gordon C.; Dickens, Chris; Hines, Eleanor; Wepener, Victor; Stassen, Retha; Quayle, Leo; Fouchy, Kelly; MacKenzie, James; Graham, P. Mark; Landis, Wayne G.

    2018-02-01

    Environmental flow (E-flow) frameworks advocate holistic, regional-scale, probabilistic E-flow assessments that consider flow and non-flow drivers of change in a socio-ecological context as best practice. Regional-scale ecological risk assessments of multiple stressors to social and ecological endpoints, which address ecosystem dynamism, have been undertaken internationally at different spatial scales using the relative-risk model since the mid-1990s. With the recent incorporation of Bayesian belief networks into the relative-risk model, a robust regional-scale ecological risk assessment approach is available that can contribute to achieving the best practice recommendations of E-flow frameworks. PROBFLO is a holistic E-flow assessment method that incorporates the relative-risk model and Bayesian belief networks (BN-RRM) into a transparent probabilistic modelling tool that addresses uncertainty explicitly. PROBFLO has been developed to evaluate the socio-ecological consequences of historical, current and future water resource use scenarios and generate E-flow requirements on regional spatial scales. The approach has been implemented in two regional-scale case studies in Africa where its flexibility and functionality has been demonstrated. In both case studies the evidence-based outcomes facilitated informed environmental management decision making, with trade-off considerations in the context of social and ecological aspirations. This paper presents the PROBFLO approach as applied to the Senqu River catchment in Lesotho and further developments and application in the Mara River catchment in Kenya and Tanzania. The 10 BN-RRM procedural steps incorporated in PROBFLO are demonstrated with examples from both case studies. PROBFLO can contribute to the adaptive management of water resources and contribute to the allocation of resources for sustainable use of resources and address protection requirements.

  9. SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES, REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND NETWORKING: THE EMERGING FRAMEWORK IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Luminita Constantin

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Networking is a key word in the recent debates on SMEs and regional policies, pointing out the need and advantages of integrating these businesses in a coherent framework, which creates links, relations, exchanges between them and other actors within the region (banks, universities, research institutes, training centres, consulting firms, chambers of commerce, associations of producers, local public administration. This paper aims to explore the main features and significance of the SME sector development for addressing the regional question in Romania during the transition period and to identify the emerging evidence and perspectives of SME territorial networking phenomenon in the specific context induced by the European integration processes. Up to present the idea of creating and supporting regional networks has not been offered the adequate importance in Romania – being only partially, indirectly envisaged, so that this paper proposes some reflections that could be considered by the Romanian regional policy in the forthcoming years, as resulted from the analysis of the international experience and literature devoted to this subject.

  10. Developing a methodological framework for estimating water productivity indicators in water scarce regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubako, S. T.; Fullerton, T. M.; Walke, A.; Collins, T.; Mubako, G.; Walker, W. S.

    2014-12-01

    Water productivity is an area of growing interest in assessing the impact of human economic activities on water resources, especially in arid regions. Indicators of water productivity can assist water users in evaluating sectoral water use efficiency, identifying sources of pressure on water resources, and in supporting water allocation rationale under scarcity conditions. This case study for the water-scarce Middle Rio Grande River Basin aims to develop an environmental-economic accounting approach for water use in arid river basins through a methodological framework that relates water use to human economic activities impacting regional water resources. Water uses are coupled to economic transactions, and the complex but mutual relations between various water using sectors estimated. A comparison is made between the calculated water productivity indicators and representative cost/price per unit volume of water for the main water use sectors. Although it contributes very little to regional economic output, preliminary results confirm that Irrigation is among the sectors with the largest direct water use intensities. High economic value and low water use intensity economic sectors in the study region include Manufacturing, Mining, and Steam Electric Power. Water accounting challenges revealed by the study include differences in water management regimes between jurisdictions, and little understanding of the impact of major economic activities on the interaction between surface and groundwater systems in this region. A more comprehensive assessment would require the incorporation of environmental and social sustainability indicators to the calculated water productivity indicators.

  11. Venusian extended ejecta deposits as time-stratigraphic markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenberg, Noam R.

    1992-01-01

    Use of impact crater ejects at time-stratigraphic markers was established during lunar geologic mapping efforts. The basic premise is that the deposition of impact ejecta, either by itself or mixed with impact-excavated material, is superimposed on a surface. The deposit becomes an observable, mappable unit produced in a single instant in geologic time. Up to two-thirds of Venus craters exhibit extended ejecta deposits. A reconnaissance survey of 336 craters (about 40 percent of the total population) was conducted. About half the craters examined were located in and around the Beta-Atla-Themis region, and half were spread over the western hemisphere of the planet. The survey was conducted using primarily C1-MIDR images. The preliminary survey shows: (1) of the 336 craters, 223 were found to have extended ejecta deposits. This proportion is higher than that found in other Venus crater databases by up to a factor of 2. (2) 53 percent of all extended ejecta craters were unambiguously superimposed on all volcanic and tectonic units. Crater Annia Faustina's associated parabolic ejecta deposit is clearly superimposed on volcanic flows coming from Gula Mons to the west. Parabola material from Faustina has covered the lava flows, smoothing the surface and reducing its specific backscatter cross section. The stratigraphy implies that the parabola material is the youngest observable unit in the region. (3) 12 percent of extended ejecta deposits are superimposed by volcanic materials. Crater Hwangcini has extended ejecta that has been covered by volcanic flows from a dome field to the northwest, implying that the volcanic units were emplaced subsequent to the ejecta deposit and are the youngest units in the locality. (4) It is difficult to determine the stratigraphic relationships of the remaining extended ejecta deposits in SAR at C1-MIDR resolution. Examination of higher resolution images and application of the other Magellan datasets in systematic manner should resolve

  12. South American regional ionospheric maps computed by GESA: A pilot service in the framework of SIRGAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunini, C.; Meza, A.; Gende, M.; Azpilicueta, F.

    2008-08-01

    SIRGAS (Geocentric Reference Frame for the Americas) is an international enterprise of the geodetic community that aims to realize the Terrestrial Reference Frame in the America's countries. In order to fulfill this commitment, SIRGAS manages a network of continuously operational GNSS receivers totalling around one hundred sites in the Caribbean, Central, and South American region. Although the network was not planed for ionospheric studies, its potential to be used for such a purpose was recently recognized and SIRGAS started a pilot experiment devoted to establish a regular service for computing and releasing regional vertical TEC (vTEC) maps based on GNSS data. Since July, 2005, the GESA (Geodesia Espacial y Aeronomía) laboratory belonging to the Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas of the Universidad Nacional de La Plata computes hourly maps of vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) in the framework of the SIRGAS pilot experiment. These maps exploit all the GNSS data available in the South American region and are computed with the LPIM (La Plata Ionospheric Model). LPIM implements a de-biasing procedure that improves data calibration in relation to other procedures commonly used for such purposes. After calibration, slant TEC measurements are converted to vertical and mapped using local-time and modip latitude. The use of modip latitude smoothed the spatial variability of vTEC, especially in the South American low latitude region and hence allows for a better vTEC interpolation. This contribution summarizes the results obtained by GESA in the framework of the SIRGAS pilot experiment.

  13. Regional and site geological frameworks : proposed Deep Geologic Repository, Bruce County, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raven, K.; Sterling, S.; Gaines, S.; Wigston, A. [Intera Engineering Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Frizzell, R. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization is conducting geoscientific studies on behalf of Ontario Power Generation into the proposed development of a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (L and ILW) at the Bruce site, near Tiverton, Ontario. This paper presented a regional geological framework for the site that was based on a review of regional drilling; structural geology; paleozoic stratigraphy and sedimentology; a 3D geological framework model; a DGR geological site characterization model; bedrock stratigraphy and marker beds; natural fracture frequency data; and formation predictability. The studies have shown that the depth, thickness, orientation and rock quality of the 34 rock formations, members or units that comprise the 840 m thick Paleozoic bedrock sequence at the Bruce site are very uniform and predictable over distances of several kilometres. The proposed DGR will be constructed as an engineered facility comprising a series of underground emplacement rooms at a depth of 680 metres below ground within argillaceous limestones. The geoscientific studies are meant to provide a basis for the development of descriptive geological, hydrogeological and geomechanical models of the DGR site that will facilitate environmental and safety assessments. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  14. A systematic intercomparison of regional flood frequency analysis models in a simulation framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganora, Daniele; Laio, Francesco; Claps, Pierluigi

    2015-04-01

    Regional frequency analysis (RFA) is a well-established methodology to provide an estimate of the flood frequency curve (or other discharge-related variables), based on the fundamental concept of substituting temporal information at a site (no data or short time series) by exploiting observations at other sites (spatial information). Different RFA paradigms exist, depending on the way the information is transferred to the site of interest. Despite the wide use of such methodology, a systematic comparison between these paradigms has not been performed. The aim of this study is to provide a framework wherein carrying out the intercomparison: we thus synthetically generate data through Monte Carlo simulations for a number of (virtual) stations, following a GEV parent distribution; different scenarios can be created to represent different spatial heterogeneity patterns by manipulating the parameters of the parent distribution at each station (e.g. with a linear variation in space of the shape parameter of the GEV). A special case is the homogeneous scenario where each station record is sampled from the same parent distribution. For each scenario and each simulation, different regional models are applied to evaluate the 200-year growth factor at each station. Results are than compared to the exact growth factor of each station, which is known in our virtual world. Considered regional approaches include: (i) a single growth curve for the whole region; (ii) a multiple-region model based on cluster analysis which search for an adequate number of homogeneous subregions; (iii) a Region-of-Influence model which defines a homogeneous subregion for each site; (iv) a spatially-smooth estimation procedure based on linear regressions.. A further benchmark model is the at-site estimate based on the analysis of the local record. A comprehensive analysis of the results of the simulations shows that, if the scenario is homogeneous (no spatial variability), all the regional approaches

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A FINANCIAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE NATIONAL PLAN FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: THE EVIDENCE FROM SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Bozha Vukovic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the development of a financial framework for assessing the effectiveness of interventions. The research is based on the evidence from Serbia. In terms of methods applied, we used econometric and scenario analysis. We presented — as individual separate items — the issues such as “who” — Government budget (Ministry, specific program, loan, donor, etc., “how much” — the amount spent, “where” (NUTS 2 region, and on “what” (type of initiative. In our model, each of the interventions applied to one of the regional development priorities is linked and evaluated by its effectiveness observing the performance of the group of indicators associated with each of the priorities. All data obtained from 8 sectors were categorized under 4 priorities, i.e. “People, Place, Productive Capacity, and Institutional Capacity”. Accordingly, we evaluate the effectiveness by observing the performance of a group of indicators related to each of the priorities. Our recommendations for optimizing the distribution structure of regional policies and regions are determined by the analysis of the performance of the group of indicators and their relative rankings per NUTS 2 region. The results are significant for further theoretical and applied research, as well as decision-making in the field of government financial policy. Our results confirmed that calculations of funds for regional development in strategic areas appear to be slightly problematic because, in the past, there was no strategic distribution based on established facts, which could be measured in terms of performance.

  16. Accommodation and supply—a dual control on stratigraphic sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Wolfgang

    1993-07-01

    It is widely accepted that both eustatic and tectonically controlled regional changes of sea level have contributed to the record of stratigraphic sequences. I suggest that environmental change be added as a third, autonomous control. Sedimentologic principles clearly indicate that sequences and their systems tracts are controlled by the interplay of two rates —the rate of change in accommodation (space available for sedimentation) and the rate of sediment supply. Sea level has direct control on accommodation, but its influence on sediment supply is remote and easily overshadowed by environmental factors. For instance, the record of the most recent sea-level rise is a transgressive systems tract where supply is low; it is a prograding highstand systems tract in deltas where the supply is high. Examples of sequence boundaries generated by changes in sediment supply include tectonically driven shifts in sediment input into basins, changes in ocean currents, pulsating supply from failure of submarine slopes and drowning of carbonate platforms by environmental stress. Furthermore, the stratigraphic sequences in fluviatile continental basins are physically removed from sea-level induced changes in accommodation and must have formed by changes in the rate and pattern of supply. Subaerial exposure of marine sediments at the sequence boundary is a most important criterion for recognizing sea level cycles as opposed to supply cycles. Other criteria include downstepping of shelf breaks and characteristic patterns in the spacing of time lines within sequences. Some third-order cycles (ca. 0.5-3 Ma duration) meet these criteria, others do not. Cycle-stacking patterns and the shifting facies belts on cratons indicate that many second- and third-order cycles lack pronounced exposure unconformities and represent gradual changes superimposed on more rapid, shorter oscillations. Seismic data yield poor images of these gradational changes because they lack resolution. Seismic

  17. A Nuclear Third Party Liability Regime of a Multilateral Nuclear Approaches Framework in the Asian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Tazaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two primary challenges for establishing nuclear third party liability (TPL regimes within multilateral nuclear approaches (MNA to nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the Asian region. The first challenge is to ensure secure and prompt compensation, especially for transboundary damages, which is also a challenge for a nation-based facility. One possible solution is that in order to share common nuclear TPL principles, all states in the region participate in the same international nuclear TPL convention, such as the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC, with a view to its entry into force in the future. One problem with this approach is that many states in the Asian region need to raise their amount of financial security in order to be able to participate in the CSC. The second challenge lies with the multiple MNA member states and encompasses the question of how decisions are to be made and responsabilities of an installation state are to be shared in case of a nuclear incident. Principally, a host state of the MNA facility takes on this responsibility. However, in certain situations and in agreement with all MNA member states, such responsibilities can be indirectly shared among all MNA member states. This can be done through internal arrangements within the MNA framework, such as reimbursement to a host state based on pre-agreed shares in accordance with investment and/or making deposits on such reimbursements in case of an incident.

  18. A Synthetic Fusion Rule for Salient Region Detection under the Framework of DS-Evidence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Ayoub

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Saliency detection is one of the most valuable research topics in computer vision. It focuses on the detection of the most significant objects/regions in images and reduces the computational time cost of getting the desired information from salient regions. Local saliency detection or common pattern discovery schemes were actively used by the researchers to overcome the saliency detection problems. In this paper, we propose a bottom-up saliency fusion method by taking into consideration the importance of the DS-Evidence (Dempster–Shafer (DS theory. Firstly, we calculate saliency maps from different algorithms based on the pixels-level, patches-level and region-level methods. Secondly, we fuse the pixels based on the foreground and background information under the framework of DS-Evidence theory (evidence theory allows one to combine evidence from different sources and arrive at a degree of belief that takes into account all the available evidence. The development inclination of image saliency detection through DS-Evidence theory gives us better results for saliency prediction. Experiments are conducted on the publicly available four different datasets (MSRA, ECSSD, DUT-OMRON and PASCAL-S. Our saliency detection method performs well and shows prominent results as compared to the state-of-the-art algorithms.

  19. Stratigraphic inversion of pre-stack multicomponent data; Inversion stratigraphique multicomposante avant sommation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo, Y.

    2005-09-15

    This thesis present the extension of mono-component seismic pre-stack data stratigraphical inversion method to multicomponent data, with the objective of improving the determination of reservoir elastic parameters. In addiction to the PP pressure waves, the PS converted waves proved their interest for imaging under gas clouds; and their potential is highly significant for the characterization of lithologies, fluids, fractures... Nevertheless the simultaneous use ol PP and PS data remains problematic because of their different the time scales. To jointly use the information contained in PP and PS data, we propose a method in three steps first, mono-component stratigraphic inversions of PP then PS data; second, estimation of the PP to PS time conversion law; third, multicomponent stratigraphic inversion. For the second point, the estimation of the PP to PS conversion law is based on minimizing the difference between the S impedances obtained from PP and PS mono-component stratigraphic inversion. The pre-stack mono-component stratigraphic inversions was adapted to the case of multicomponent data by leaving each type of data in its own time scale in order to avoid the distortion of the seismic wavelet. The results obtained on a realistic synthetic PP-PS case show on one hand that determining PP to PS conversion law (from the mono-component inversion results) is feasible, and on the other hand that the joint inversion of PP and PS data with this conversion law improves the results compared to the mono-component inversion ones. Although this is presented within the framework of the PP and PS multi-component data, the developed methodology adapts directly to PP and SS data for example. (author)

  20. WheelerLab: An interactive program for sequence stratigraphic analysis of seismic sections, outcrops and well sections and the generation of chronostratigraphic sections and dynamic chronostratigraphic sections

    OpenAIRE

    Adewale Amosu; Yuefeng Sun

    2017-01-01

    WheelerLab is an interactive program that facilitates the interpretation of stratigraphic data (seismic sections, outcrop data and well sections) within a sequence stratigraphic framework and the subsequent transformation of the data into the chronostratigraphic domain. The transformation enables the identification of significant geological features, particularly erosional and non-depositional features that are not obvious in the original seismic domain. Although there are some software produ...

  1. [Core competencies in public health: a regional framework for the Americas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejero, Juana Suárez; Godue, Charles; Gutiérrez, José Francisco García; Valladares, Laura Magaña; Rabionet, Silvia; Concha, José; Valdés, Manuel Vázquez; Gómez, Rubén Darío; Mujica, Oscar J; Cabezas, César; Lucano, Lindaura Liendo; Castellanos, Jorge

    2013-07-01

    The response is described to the 2010 call from the Pan American Health Organization to develop a Regional Framework on Core Competencies in Public Health, with a view to supporting the efforts of the countries in the Americas to build public health systems capacity as a strategy for optimal performance of the Essential Public Health Functions. The methodological process for the response was divided into four phases. In the first, a team of experts was convened who defined the methodology to be used during a workshop at the National Institute of Public Health of Mexico in 2010. The second phase involved formation of the working groups, using two criteria: experience and multidisciplinary membership, which resulted in a regional team with 225 members from 12 countries. This team prepared an initial proposal with 88 competencies. In the third phase, the competencies were cross-validated and their number reduced to 64. During the fourth phase, which included two workshops, in March 2011 (Medellín, Colombia) and June 2011 (Lima, Peru), discussions centered on analyzing the association between the results and the methodology.

  2. Economics of Developing Hot Stratigraphic Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Hillary Hanson; Rick Allis; Joseph Moore

    2014-09-01

    Stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs at 3 – 4 km depth in high heat-flow basins are capable of sustaining 100 MW-scale power plants at about 10 c/kWh. This paper examines the impacts on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of reservoir depth and temperature, reservoir productivity, and drillhole/casing options. For a reservoir at 3 km depth with a moderate productivity index by hydrothermal reservoir standards (about 50 L/s/MPa, 5.6 gpm/psi), an LCOE of 10c/kWh requires the reservoir to be at about 200°C. This is the upper temperature limit for pumps. The calculations assume standard hydrothermal drilling costs, with the production interval completed with a 7 inch liner in an 8.5 inch hole. If a reservoir at 4 km depth has excellent permeability characteristics with a productivity index of 100 L/s/MPa (11.3 gpm/psi), then the LCOE is about 11 c/kWh assuming the temperature decline rate with development is not excessive (< 1%/y, with first thermal breakthrough delayed by about 10 years). Completing wells with modest horizontal legs (e.g. several hundred meters) may be important for improving well productivity because of the naturally high, sub-horizontal permeability in this type of reservoir. Reducing the injector/producer well ratio may also be cost-effective if the injectors are drilled as larger holes.

  3. A new framework for estimating return levels using regional frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Hugo; Bernardara, Pietro; Clegg, Georgina

    2017-04-01

    We propose a new framework for incorporating more spatial and temporal information into the estimation of extreme return levels. Currently, most studies use extreme value models applied to data from a single site; an approach which is inefficient statistically and leads to return level estimates that are less physically realistic. We aim to highlight the benefits that could be obtained by using methodology based upon regional frequency analysis as opposed to classic single site extreme value analysis. This motivates a shift in thinking, which permits the evaluation of local and regional effects and makes use of the wide variety of data that are now available on high temporal and spatial resolutions. The recent winter storms over the UK during the winters of 2013-14 and 2015-16, which have caused wide-ranging disruption and damaged important infrastructure, provide the main motivation for the current work. One of the most impactful natural hazards is flooding, which is often initiated by extreme precipitation. In this presentation, we focus on extreme rainfall, but shall discuss other meteorological variables alongside potentially damaging hazard combinations. To understand the risks posed by extreme precipitation, we need reliable statistical models which can be used to estimate quantities such as the T-year return level, i.e. the level which is expected to be exceeded once every T-years. Extreme value theory provides the main collection of statistical models that can be used to estimate the risks posed by extreme precipitation events. Broadly, at a single site, a statistical model is fitted to exceedances of a high threshold and the model is used to extrapolate to levels beyond the range of the observed data. However, when we have data at many sites over a spatial domain, fitting a separate model for each separate site makes little sense and it would be better if we could incorporate all this information to improve the reliability of return level estimates. Here

  4. A Bayesian Belief Network framework to predict SOC stock change: the Veneto region (Italy) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Ferro, Nicola; Quinn, Claire Helen; Morari, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    were only slightly involved in C regulation within the 0-30 cm layer. The proposed BBN framework was flexible to perform both field-scale validation and regional-scale predictions. Moreover, BBN provided guidelines for improved land management strategies in a perspective of climate change scenarios, although further validation, including a broader set of experimental data, is needed to strengthen the outcomes across Veneto region.

  5. A Hybrid Framework to Bias Correct and Empirically Downscale Daily Temperature and Precipitation from Regional Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P.; Abraham, Z.; Winkler, J. A.; Perdinan, P.; Zhong, S. S.; Liszewska, M.

    2013-12-01

    Bias correction and statistical downscaling are widely used approaches for postprocessing climate simulations generated by global and/or regional climate models. The skills of these approaches are typically assessed in terms of their ability to reproduce historical climate conditions as well as the plausibility and consistency of the derived statistical indicators needed by end users. Current bias correction and downscaling approaches often do not adequately satisfy the two criteria of accurate prediction and unbiased estimation. To overcome this limitation, a hybrid regression framework was developed to both minimize prediction errors and preserve the distributional characteristics of climate observations. Specifically, the framework couples the loss functions of standard (linear or nonlinear) regression methods with a regularization term that penalizes for discrepancies between the predicted and observed distributions. The proposed framework can also be extended to generate physically-consistent outputs across multiple response variables, and to incorporate both reanalysis-driven and GCM-driven RCM outputs into a unified learning framework. The effectiveness of the framework is demonstrated using daily temperature and precipitation simulations from the North American Regional Climate Change Program (NARCCAP) . The accuracy of the framework is comparable to standard regression methods, but, unlike the standard regression methods, the proposed framework is able to preserve many of the distribution properties of the response variables, akin to bias correction approaches such as quantile mapping and bivariate geometric quantile mapping.

  6. Stratigraphic sequence and sedimentary characteristics of Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation in Sichuan Basin and its peripheral areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuman Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A high-precision sedimentary environment study of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation is an important subject for shale gas exploration and development in Sichuan Basin and its surrounding areas. On the basis of outcrops and drilling data, its isochronous stratigraphic framework was built according to a particular graptolite zone and an important marker bed, and lithofacies, paleontology, calcareous content, well logging, geochemistry and other geologic information were combined to describe the sedimentary microfacies of Longmaxi Formation and its stratigraphic sequence, sedimentary evolution process and high quality shale distribution features as follows: ① with regional diachronism of the top and the bottom, the Longmaxi Formation is divided into two third-order sequences (SQ1 and SQ2, of which SQ1 is mainly an abyssal sedimentary assemblage deposited in the marine transgression period, and SQ2 is a bathyal to shallow sea sedimentary assemblage deposited in the marine regression period; ② there are eight microfacies such as deep calcareous shelf and deep argillaceous shelf in this formation and the organic-rich shale was mainly deposited in the deep water area of SQ1; and ③ from SQ1 to SQ2, the depocenter moved from the depression area in southern-eastern to northern Sichuan Basin, but the central Sichuan uplift remained an underwater one. It is concluded from this study that: ① shale gas production layers were mainly deposited in SQ1, the southern-eastern depression area was the depocenter in SQ1 and a shale gas enrichment area; and ② black shale in northern Sichuan was deposited in late SQ2, with limited distribution and relatively insufficient exploration potential, but the potential of shale gas exploration in western Hubei area is between southern-eastern and northern Sichuan Basin.

  7. Cumulative effect assessment in Canada: a regional framework for aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dube, Monique G.

    2003-01-01

    Sustainable development of the aquatic environment depends upon routine and defensible cumulative effects assessment (CEA). CEA is the process of predicting the consequences of development relative to an assessment of existing environmental quality. Theoretically, it provides an on-going mechanism to evaluate if levels of development exceed the environment's assimilative capacity; i.e., its ability to sustain itself. In practice, the link between CEA and sustainable development has not been realized because CEA concepts and methods have developed along two dichotomous tracks. One track views CEA as an extension of the environmental assessment (EA) process for project developments. Under this track, stressor-based (S-B) methods have been developed where the emphasis is on local, project-related stressors, their link with aquatic indicators, and the potential for environmental effects through stressor-indicator interactions. S-B methods focus on the proposed development and prediction of project-related effects. They lack a mechanism to quantify existing aquatic quality especially at scales broader than an isolated development. This limitation results in the prediction of potential effects relative to a poorly defined baseline state. The other track views CEA as a broader, regional assessment tool where effects-based (E-B) methods specialize in quantification of existing aquatic effects over broad spatial scales. However, the predictive capabilities of E-B methods are limited because they are retrospective, i.e., the stressor causing the effect is identified after the effect has been measured. When used in isolation, S-B and E-B methods do not address CEA in the context necessary for sustainable development. However, if the strengths of these approaches were integrated into a holistic framework for CEA, an operational mechanism would exist to better monitor and assess sustainable development of our aquatic resources. This paper reviews the existing conceptual basis

  8. Regional hydrogen roadmap. Project development framework for the Sahara Wind Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhamou, Khalid [Sahara Wind Inc., Rabat (Morocco); Arbaoui, Abdelaziz [Ecole National Superieure des Arts et Metiers ENSAM Meknes (Morocco); Loudiyi, Khalid [Al Akhawayn Univ. (Morocco); Ould Mustapha, Sidi Mohamed [Nouakchott Univ. (Mauritania). Faculte des Sciences et Techniques

    2010-07-01

    The trade winds that blow along the Atlantic coast from Morocco to Senegal represent one of the the largest and most productive wind potentials available on earth. Because of the erratic nature of winds however, wind electricity cannot be integrated locally on any significant scale, unless mechanisms are developed for storing these intermittent renewable energies. Developing distributed wind energy solutions feeding into smaller electricity markets are essential for solving energy access issues and enabling the development of a local, viable renewable energy industry. These may be critical to address the region's economic challenges currently under pressure from Sub-Saharan migrant populations. Windelectrolysis for the production of hydrogen can be used in grid stabilization, as power storage, fuel or chemical feedstock in specific industries. The objective of the NATO SfP 'Sahara Trade Winds to Hydrogen' project is to support the region's universities through an applied research framework in partnership with industries where electrolysis applications are relevant. By powering two university campuses in Morocco and Mauritania with small grid connected wind turbines and 30 kW electrolyzers generating hydrogen for power back-up as part of ''green campus concepts'' we demonstrated that wind-electrolysis for the production of hydrogen could absorb larger quantities of cheap generated wind electricity in order to maximize renewable energy uptakes within the regions weaker grid infrastructures. Creating synergies with local industries to tap into a widely available renewable energy source opens new possibilities for end users such as utilities or mining industries when processing raw minerals, whose exports generates key incomes in regions most exposed to desertification and climate change issue. Initiated by Sahara Wind Inc. a company from the private sector, along with the Al Akhawayn University, the Ecole Nationale Superieure

  9. Integrating Recovery within a Resilience Framework: Empirical Insights and Policy Implications from Regional Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lex Drennan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Within Australia’s federal system, responsibility for preventing, preparing for, responding to and recovering from natural disasters is shared between the three tiers of government. Intergovernmental policy and funding arrangements are premised on shared responsibility and aim to foster individual, business and community resilience. These arrangements underpin Australia’s international reputation for effectiveness in its management of natural disasters. The capacity of the diverse networks that comprise the disaster management system to coordinate and deliver in the preparedness and response phases of a disaster, and to provide relief in the immediate aftermath, has been developed over time and tested and refined through the experience of frequent, severe disaster events over recent decades. Less well developed is the system’s ability to support economic recovery in disaster-affected communities over the longer term. This paper presents case studies of regional communities affected by two of Australia’s most expensive and deadly natural disasters—the 2009 Victorian bushfires and the cyclones and floods that struck the state of Queensland in 2010–2011. It highlights significant gaps in policy and funding arrangements to support recovery and offers lessons for aligning recovery within a resilience framework.

  10. A LOCAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT IN THE FRAMEWORK OF PUBLIC POLICIES FOCUSED ON REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Schin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at outlining a successful implementation of a project within LEADER framework, which is a local development method which allows local actors to develop an area by using its endogenous development potential. After a brief presentation of the characteristics of regional development strategies in Romania, there were emphasized the objectives and activities encompassed in a local development plan, managed by the leaders of the local action group called ‘Vrancea County’. In order to reinforce the strengths of Vrancea County and implicitly to assure a sustainable development of this area from the South-East part of Romania, a LAG constituted through a partnership between public and private actors settled a set of priorities to be exploited by means of specific actions. The goal of this paper is to highlight these priorities, by integrating them in a project management approach. The paper concludes with specifications about how Microsoft Project software could support project management initiatives that will be developed by the LAG Vrancea County in the next period.

  11. “Fear or Love Thy Neighbour”? The EU Framework for Promoting Regional Cooperation in the South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelli Babayan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Building on the model of the enlargement policy, the European Union (EU designed the European Neighbourhood Policy and the Eastern Partnership to further promote its norms and principles. One of the goals of its new policies has been to foster regional cooperation among partner countries and their neighbours. This article specifies the EU’s framework for promoting regional cooperation through the aforementioned policies and discusses its potential impact on the example of the South Caucasus republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The South Caucasus has not only been an arena of intraregional conflicts, but has also often been troubled by disputes between its neighbours. This article argues that, due to a lack of proactive and consistent engagement, the EU’s framework risks leaving regional conflicts in the current state of stagnation and without advancement in regional cooperation.

  12. Litho-stratigraphic and Hydrogeological Evaluation of Groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2015-10-30

    ://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem http://www.bioline.org.br/ja. Litho-stratigraphic and Hydrogeological Evaluation of Groundwater System in Parts of. Benin Metropolis, Benin City Nigeria: The Key to Groundwater Sustainability.

  13. The stratigraphic filter and bias in measurement of geologic rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Rina; Jerolmack, Douglas; McElroy, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    Erosion and deposition rates estimated from the stratigraphic record frequently exhibit a power-law dependence on measurement interval. This dependence can result from a power-law distribution of stratigraphic hiatuses. By representing the stratigraphic filter as a stochastic process called a reverse ascending ladder, we describe a likely origin of power-law hiatuses, and thus, rate scaling. While power-law hiatuses in certain environments can be a direct result of power-law periods of stasis (no deposition or erosion), they are more generally the result of randomness in surface fluctuations irrespective of mean subsidence or uplift. Autocorrelation in fluctuations can make hiatuses more or less heavy-tailed, but still exhibit power-law characteristics. In addition we show that by passing stratigraphic data backward through the filter, certain statistics of surface kinematics from their formative environments can be inferred.

  14. New insights into structural and stratigraphic aspects of central Northern Switzerland from the Nagra 2D reflection seismic campaign 2011/12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, some findings resulting from the interpretation of reprocessed and newly acquired 2D seismic data in the central Northern Switzerland are presented. The seismic examples illustrate the relationship between basement and cover-tectonics and offer a closer look at seismic-stratigraphic characteristics which can be observed in the Middle Jurassic sequence. The new 2D seismic data have closed an important data gaps between the Nagra siting regions 'Jura Ost' and Nördlich Lägern' proposed for radioactive waste disposal and allow clarification of the general structural framework and internal composition of the Permo-Carboniferous Through. Furthermore, the kinematic relationships between the basement and cover structures can be studied and the newly acquired seismic data have allowed detailed depositional structures and seismic facies changes within the Mid-Upper Dogger sequence to be recognized, particularly east and west of the lower Aare valley. (author)

  15. SERA Scenarios of Early Market Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Introductions: Modeling Framework, Regional Markets, and Station Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Daniel, W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the development and analysis of detailed temporal and spatial scenarios for early market hydrogen fueling infrastructure clustering and fuel cell electric vehicle rollout using the Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization and Analysis (SERA) model. The report provides an overview of the SERA scenario development framework and discusses the approach used to develop the nationwidescenario.

  16. A framework for delineating the regional boundaries of PM2.5 pollution: A case study of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Weifeng; Wu, Jiansheng

    2018-04-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) pollution has been a major issue in many countries. Considerable studies have demonstrated that PM 2.5 pollution is a regional issue, but little research has been done to investigate the regional extent of PM 2.5 pollution or to define areas in which PM 2.5 pollutants interact. To allow for a better understanding of the regional nature and spatial patterns of PM 2.5 pollution, This study proposes a novel framework for delineating regional boundaries of PM 2.5 pollution. The framework consists of four steps, including cross-correlation analysis, time-series clustering, generation of Voronoi polygons, and polygon smoothing using polynomial approximation with exponential kernel method. Using the framework, the regional PM 2.5 boundaries for China are produced and the boundaries define areas where the monthly PM 2.5 time series of any two cities show, on average, more than 50% similarity with each other. These areas demonstrate straightforwardly that PM 2.5 pollution is not limited to a single city or a single province. We also found that the PM 2.5 areas in China tend to be larger in cold months, but more fragmented in warm months, suggesting that, in cold months, the interactions between PM 2.5 concentrations in adjacent cities are stronger than in warmer months. The proposed framework provides a tool to delineate PM 2.5 boundaries and identify areas where PM 2.5 pollutants interact. It can help define air pollution management zones and assess impacts related to PM 2.5 pollution. It can also be used in analyses of other air pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. IMPACT ANALYSIS OF LEGISLATIVE AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ON THE POLICY FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE LIGHT OF THE REGIONAL OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu (Stîngaciu Ana-Maria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the administrative capacity of institutions in the regional development starts from the analysis of the existing framework for the implementation of regional politics in Romania and studies the extent to what the structures and competencies were regionally enlarged as to contribute in the regional development. The basic hypothesis considered for such analysis had in view the fact that the differences recorded with respect to the implementation capacity of the regional development policy are caused by the various levels of the administrative capacity of the national, regional and local institutions existent in Romania. Although the regional development activity is, both centrally and regionally, dominated by the Regional Operational Programmme 2007-2013 (ROP implementation, significant activity also exists outside the ROP, but only regionally. The regional strategies incorporate to a great extent the strategic objectives established nationally, being coordinated with the national financing instruments for economic, social and territorial development. The undertaking degree of responsibilities regarding the objectives fulfillment of the regional development policy is relatively low both regionally and locally, and the main indicator which contributes in sustaining this conclusion is the absence of an adequate level regarding the property holding on certain strategies and also the methodological lack of strategies. Nationally, the current activity of Ministry of Regional Development and Tourism in the field of regional development totally overlaps the management activity of ROP. The management of structural funds 2007-2013 granted through ROP deals with various situations in which, due to the fact that the Law of regional development remained behind the legislation for the structural instruments implementation in Romania, additional resources are necessary to be granted in order to be found solutions through other types of

  18. Salt Repository Project site study plan for stratigraphic boreholes: Revision 1, December 18, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This site study describes the Stratigraphic Boreholes field work to be conducted during the early stages of Site Characterization at the Deaf Smith County, Texas site. The field program has been designed to provide data useful in addressing information/data needs resulting from Federal/State/local regulations, and repository program requirements. Four Stratigraphic Holes will be drilled near the perimeter of the site to document the subsurface geologic conditions in that area and to provide data necessary for design and construction of the Exploratory Shaft Facilities. Continuous samples will be recovered from the ground surface to the total depth of each sell. Geophysical well logs will provide additional coverage of the stratigraphic section. In-situ down hole testing will include short term hydrologic tests and hydraulic fracture tests to provide information on deep groundwater characteristics and regional stress patterns, respectively. Field methods/tests are chosen that provide the best or only means of obtaining the required data. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule which the program will operate. The Technical Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 30 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of Cumuruxatiba Basin - Brazil; Evolucao tectono-estratigrafica da Bacia de Cumuruxatiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, Gustavo; Fernandes, Flavio L.; Silva, Eric Zagotto; Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem Multidisciplinar de Bacias Sedimentares; Ribeiro, Juliana [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In recent years, the exploratory interest on Cumuruxatiba Basin has been inconstant, with modest discoveries of oil. Aiming to deepen the geological knowledge of the basin and in order to attract the interest of oil companies, the ANP (National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels) signed contract with COPPE/UFRJ for carrying out an analysis basin project. The project was developed by the Basin Analysis Multidisciplinary Modeling Laboratory (Lab2M/UFRJ) in the period 2006/2007, and was with the main objective outline the main structural and seismo-stratigraphic features of the basin, and in an integrated and multidisciplinary way, build a model of its sedimentation and tectono-stratigraphic evolution. This paper presents the results of the regional seismic mapping, aided by well and potential methods data. The stratigraphic succession the basin has been divided into genetic units (UN-B, UN-C e UN-D) corresponding to second order depositional sequences, they are: UN-B, corresponding by a rift and sag-rift siliciclastic deposits, plus the Aptian evaporitic deposits; UN-C, characterized by carbonatic deposits, and shelf related sediments; and UN-D, corresponding by a final transgressive (siliciclastic) - regressive (mix) cycle, between Cenomanian and actual days. (author)

  20. Integration of seismic-reflection and well data to assess the potential impact of stratigraphic and structural features on sustainable water supply from the Floridan aquifer system, Broward County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and Broward County water managers commenced a 3.5-year cooperative study in July 2012 to refine the geologic and hydrogeologic framework of the Floridan aquifer system (FAS) in Broward County. A lack of advanced stratigraphic knowledge of the physical system and structural geologic anomalies (faults and fractures originating from tectonics and karst-collapse structures) within the FAS pose a risk to the sustainable management of the resource. The principal objective of the study is to better define the regional stratigraphic and structural setting of the FAS in Broward County. The objective will be achieved through the acquisition, processing, and interpretation of new seismic-reflection data along several canals in Broward County. The interpretation includes integration of the new seismic-reflection data with existing seismic-reflection profiles along Hillsboro Canal in Broward County and within northeast Miami-Dade County, as well as with data from nearby FAS wellbores. The scope of the study includes mapping the geologic, hydrogeologic, and seismic-reflection framework of the FAS, and identifying stratigraphic and structural characteristics that could either facilitate or preclude the sustainable use of the FAS as an alternate water supply or a treated effluent repository. In addition, the investigation offers an opportunity to: (1) improve existing groundwater flow models, (2) enhance the understanding of the sensitivity of the groundwater system to well-field development and upconing of saline fluids, and (3) support site selection for future FAS projects, such as Class I wells that would inject treated effluent into the deep Boulder Zone.

  1. Proposed stratigraphic nomenclature and macroscopic identification of lithostratigraphic units of the Paintbrush Group exposed at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buesch, D.C.; Spengler, R.W.; Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K.

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes the formations of the Paintbrush Group exposed at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, presents a detailed stratigraphic nomenclature for the Tiva Canyon and Topopah spring Tuffs, and discusses the criteria that define lithostratigraphic units. The Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Tuffs are divided into zones, subzones, and intervals on the basis of macroscopic features observed in surface exposures and borehole samples. Primary divisions reflect depositional and compositional zoning that is expressed by variations in crystal content, phenocryst assemblage, pumice content and composition, and lithic content. Secondary divisions define welding and crystlalization zones, depositional features, or fracture characteristics. Both formations are divided into crystal-rich and crystal-poor members that have an identical sequency of zones, although subzone designations vary slightly between the two units. The identified lithostratigraphic divisions can be used to approximate thermal-mechanical and hydrogeologic boundaries in the field. Linking these three systems of nomenclature provides a framework within which to correlate these properties through regions of sparse data.

  2. Proposed stratigraphic nomenclature and macroscopic identification of lithostratigraphic units of the Paintbrush Group exposed at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buesch, D.C.; Spengler, R.W.; Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the formations of the Paintbrush Group exposed at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, presents a detailed stratigraphic nomenclature for the Tiva Canyon and Topopah spring Tuffs, and discusses the criteria that define lithostratigraphic units. The Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Tuffs are divided into zones, subzones, and intervals on the basis of macroscopic features observed in surface exposures and borehole samples. Primary divisions reflect depositional and compositional zoning that is expressed by variations in crystal content, phenocryst assemblage, pumice content and composition, and lithic content. Secondary divisions define welding and crystlalization zones, depositional features, or fracture characteristics. Both formations are divided into crystal-rich and crystal-poor members that have an identical sequency of zones, although subzone designations vary slightly between the two units. The identified lithostratigraphic divisions can be used to approximate thermal-mechanical and hydrogeologic boundaries in the field. Linking these three systems of nomenclature provides a framework within which to correlate these properties through regions of sparse data

  3. Geomorphologic, stratigraphic and sedimentologic evidences of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Central Ground Water Board, Mid-eastern Region, 6th and 7th floor, Lok Nayak Jai Prakash Bhawan,. Fraser Road ...... Under the conditions of seasonal/altered flow regime and low ..... stress field in the western Gangetic plains; Curr. Sci.

  4. Hétérogenéité quantitative et qualitative de la matière organique dans les argiles du Kimmeridgien du val de Pickering (Yorkshire, UK. Cadre sédimentologique et stratigraphique Quantitative and Qualitative Heterogeneity of the Organic Matter Within the Kimmeridge Clay of the Vale of Pickering (Yorkshire, Uk. Sedimentological and Stratigraphical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penn I. E.

    2006-11-01

    character of the sequence is geographically and stratigraphically homogeneous, indicating generally unchanging conditions of deposition overall. Sedimentation generally occurred in a low energy depositional environment and comprises essential clay minerals (kaolinite, illite and mixed-layer illite-smectite with accessory biogenic calcite, mainly planktonic (coccolith material. Intercalated with the main body of mudstone, are beds of carbonate, which facilitate inter borehole correlation. These beds are coccolith-rich limestones which have subsequently been dolomitised, increasingly so toward the west, by a process dependent on the amount of organic carbon present. Their great lateral extent witnesses to geodynamic controlof regional extent. Preserved organic carbon content shows a gradual increase (by over 50% when traced from the highin the east towards the centre of the basin in the west, where the beds are thickest. This is true despite cyclic fluctuation in both quantity and quality which can also be followed from the Reighton 87 to the Marton 87 borehole. In each borehole, stratigraphical variability of organic carbon is related to, fundamentally cyclic, sedimentological variation. The earliest preserved organic matter lies within the Cymodoce Zone. Three subsequent maxima were attained; at the top of the Eudoxus Zones, the base of the Hudlestoni Zone, and at the base of the Pectinatus Zone. The two highest horizons correspond to episodes of maximum transgression or highstand. Although very variable in time and space, the geographical distribution of organic matter may be easily explained, being related to bed thickness, depth of water and transgressive and regressive cycles of sedimentation. Consistent variations which has been found on the scale of tens of kilometres in the Cleveland Basin can be moreover extended at a palaeogegraphical scale. For example, the phase of maximum occurrence of organic material at the top of the Wheatleyensis Zone corresponds to the

  5. Business networking for SMEs as a means to promote regional competitiveness: A Theoretical Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Vitor Braga

    2004-01-01

    The competitiveness of regions, as a means of promoting the competitiveness of a country as a whole, has been one of the main topics on the agenda of policy makers over the last decades. Several attempts at promoting competitiveness have been made with different degrees of success. In most cases, public investment in the regions was perceived as the solution to promote regional competitiveness and top-down policies were implemented. However, competitiveness also has an important dimension tha...

  6. Unaccompanied & Denied: Regional Legal Framework for Unaccompanied Minors Asylum Seekers (UMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohaida Nordin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unaccompanied minor asylum seekers are vulnerable and thus, provided special international law protections. However, in reality, they are being mistreated as illegal immigrants and on thereceiving end of ethnic violence, discrimination, restrictions in enjoyment of their rights duly recognised by international human rights law. This article identifies legislative, policy and supportmechanisms which encompass the minimum UMAS guardianship standards at international law and which are evidence-based from best practice models for the provision of guardians for UMASinternationally. It presents situation of UMAS in relation to human rights violations with emphasis on the legal framework and practices in Australia and five ASEAN State Members. This article also highlights the various stands taken by various countries providing better legal framework and practices regarding the terms for protection and enforcement of human rights for UMAS. Finally, this article provides recommendations for Australia and ASEAN Member States to adopt in order to realise the international human rights of UMAS with respect to guardianship.

  7. A framework for diagnosing the regional impacts of energy price policies. An application to natural gas deregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, S.; Kalt, J.P.; Lee, H.

    1986-03-01

    Energy policy debates in the U.S. have frequently centered upon asserted regional effects. 'Consuming' regions are commonly pitted against 'producing' regions, with the latter purportedly gaining/losing at the expense of the former under higher/lower energy prices. Such simple views ignore regional trade linkages, the geographic distribution of ownership in energy using and producing firms, and the microeconomics of the incidence of energy price changes. This study presents a framework which incorporates these factors and allows assessment of the net regional income effects of changing energy prices. When applied to U.S. natural gas policy, the study's results indicate that the income effects of a rise in gas prices tend to be much more evenly spread than a naive assignment of increased costs and revenues to consuming and producing regions, respectively, would indicate. Under a number of plausible scenarios, in fact, it is likely that certain net gas consuming regions (e.g., the Pacific Northwest) have benefitted from the recent deregulation of U.S. gas prices. 14 refs. (A.V.)

  8. ANTI-TERROR POLICY OF UZBEKISTAN IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE REGIONAL ANTI-TERRORIST POLICY OF THE SCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С П Базылева

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the XXI century was marked by a number of serious problems, including cancer, world hunger, environmental problems and increasing every year the problem of global terrorism, which poses a great threat to the security of the modern multipolar world. Uzbekistan today occupies a firm position in fight against terrorist threat. The principled position of Uzbekistan in the fight against terrorism is that “no country should exclude their participation in the fight against global terrorism, there must be no transit zones and "green corridors" for terrorist organizations”. The Central Asian region is one of the most vulnerable, because it is necessary to pay special attention to the strategy of the anti-terrorist security of the countries included in the structure of the Central Asian region. In this article, we consider the anti-terrorist policy of Uzbekistan in the framework of the regional anti-terrorist policy of the SCO.

  9. A statistical framework to predict functional non-coding regions in the human genome through integrated analysis of annotation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiongshi; Hu, Yiming; Sun, Jiehuan; Cheng, Yuwei; Cheung, Kei-Hoi; Zhao, Hongyu

    2015-05-27

    Identifying functional regions in the human genome is a major goal in human genetics. Great efforts have been made to functionally annotate the human genome either through computational predictions, such as genomic conservation, or high-throughput experiments, such as the ENCODE project. These efforts have resulted in a rich collection of functional annotation data of diverse types that need to be jointly analyzed for integrated interpretation and annotation. Here we present GenoCanyon, a whole-genome annotation method that performs unsupervised statistical learning using 22 computational and experimental annotations thereby inferring the functional potential of each position in the human genome. With GenoCanyon, we are able to predict many of the known functional regions. The ability of predicting functional regions as well as its generalizable statistical framework makes GenoCanyon a unique and powerful tool for whole-genome annotation. The GenoCanyon web server is available at http://genocanyon.med.yale.edu.

  10. Sequence Stratigraphic Appraisal: Coastal Swamp Depobelt In The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mid-Lower Miocene Agbada sedimentary intercalations of “AB” Field in the coastal swamp depobelt, Western Niger-Delta, were evaluated to determine their sequence stratigraphic character. The analysis was based on a combination of data sets including logs of six wells to describe lithic variations of the Agbada Formation ...

  11. Petroleum system elements within the Late Cretaceous and Early Paleogene sediments of Nigeria's inland basins: An integrated sequence stratigraphic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dim, Chidozie Izuchukwu Princeton; Onuoha, K. Mosto; Okeugo, Chukwudike Gabriel; Ozumba, Bertram Maduka

    2017-06-01

    Sequence stratigraphic studies have been carried out using subsurface well and 2D seismic data in the Late Cretaceous and Early Paleogene sediments of Anambra and proximal onshore section of Niger Delta Basin in the Southeastern Nigeria. The aim was to establish the stratigraphic framework for better understanding of the reservoir, source and seal rock presence and distribution in the basin. Thirteen stratigraphic bounding surfaces (consisting of six maximum flooding surfaces - MFSs and seven sequence boundaries - SBs) were recognized and calibrated using a newly modified chronostratigraphic chart. Stratigraphic surfaces were matched with corresponding foraminiferal and palynological biozones, aiding correlation across wells in this study. Well log sequence stratigraphic correlation reveals that stratal packages within the basin are segmented into six depositional sequences occurring from Late Cretaceous to Early Paleogene age. Generated gross depositional environment maps at various MFSs show that sediment packages deposited within shelfal to deep marine settings, reflect continuous rise and fall of sea levels within a regressive cycle. Each of these sequences consist of three system tracts (lowstand system tract - LST, transgressive system tract - TST and highstand system tract - HST) that are associated with mainly progradational and retrogradational sediment stacking patterns. Well correlation reveals that the sand and shale units of the LSTs, HSTs and TSTs, that constitute the reservoir and source/seal packages respectively are laterally continuous and thicken basinwards, due to structural influences. Result from interpretation of seismic section reveals the presence of hanging wall, footwall, horst block and collapsed crest structures. These structural features generally aid migration and offer entrapment mechanism for hydrocarbon accumulation. The combination of these reservoirs, sources, seals and trap elements form a good petroleum system that is viable

  12. Measuring Stratigraphic Congruence Across Trees, Higher Taxa, and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Anne; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-09-01

    The congruence between the order of cladistic branching and the first appearance dates of fossil lineages can be quantified using a variety of indices. Good matching is a prerequisite for the accurate time calibration of trees, while the distribution of congruence indices across large samples of cladograms has underpinned claims about temporal and taxonomic patterns of completeness in the fossil record. The most widely used stratigraphic congruence indices are the stratigraphic consistency index (SCI), the modified Manhattan stratigraphic measure (MSM*), and the gap excess ratio (GER) (plus its derivatives; the topological GER and the modified GER). Many factors are believed to variously bias these indices, with several empirical and simulation studies addressing some subset of the putative interactions. This study combines both approaches to quantify the effects (on all five indices) of eight variables reasoned to constrain the distribution of possible values (the number of taxa, tree balance, tree resolution, range of first occurrence (FO) dates, center of gravity of FO dates, the variability of FO dates, percentage of extant taxa, and percentage of taxa with no fossil record). Our empirical data set comprised 647 published animal and plant cladograms spanning the entire Phanerozoic, and for these data we also modeled the effects of mean age of FOs (as a proxy for clade age), the taxonomic rank of the clade, and the higher taxonomic group to which it belonged. The center of gravity of FO dates had not been investigated hitherto, and this was found to correlate most strongly with some measures of stratigraphic congruence in our empirical study (top-heavy clades had better congruence). The modified GER was the index least susceptible to bias. We found significant differences across higher taxa for all indices; arthropods had lower congruence and tetrapods higher congruence. Stratigraphic congruence-however measured-also varied throughout the Phanerozoic, reflecting

  13. Glaciotectonic deformation and reinterpretation of the Worth Point stratigraphic sequence: Banks Island, NT, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jessica M.; England, John H.; Evans, David J. A.

    2014-05-01

    capping till. The investigation of the Worth Point stratigraphic sequence provides the first detailed description of the internal architecture of a polydeformed hill-hole pair, and as such provides an insight into the formation and evolution of an enigmatic landform. Notably, the stratigraphic sequence documents ice-marginal and subglacial glaciotectonics in permafrost terrain, as well as regional glacial and relative sea level histories. The reinterpreted stratigraphy fundamentally rejects the long-established paleoenvironmental history of Worth Point that assumed a simple ‘layer-cake’ stratigraphy including the type-site for an organically rich, preglacial interval (Worth Point Fm).

  14. A framework to predict the impacts of shale gas infrastructures on the forest fragmentation of an agroforest region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot, Alexandre; Babin-Roussel, Véronique; Dauphinais, Jean-François; Joly, Jean-Sébastien; Noël, Pascal; Lavoie, Claude

    2014-05-01

    We propose a framework to facilitate the evaluation of the impacts of shale gas infrastructures (well pads, roads, and pipelines) on land cover features, especially with regards to forest fragmentation. We used a geographic information system and realistic development scenarios largely inspired by the PA (United States) experience, but adapted to a region of QC (Canada) with an already fragmented forest cover and a high gas potential. The scenario with the greatest impact results from development limited by regulatory constraints only, with no access to private roads for connecting well pads to the public road network. The scenario with the lowest impact additionally integrates ecological constraints (deer yards, maple woodlots, and wetlands). Overall the differences between these two scenarios are relatively minor, with shale gas industry, we show that it is possible, within a reasonable time frame, to produce a robust assessment of the impacts of shale gas extraction. The framework we propose could easily be applied to other contexts or jurisdictions.

  15. Development of ecological monitoring systems for near-boundary regions of Russia and Kazakhstan in the 'Integration' Federal program framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valyaev, A.N.; Kiselev, V.P.; Gerasimenko, N.N.; Dzhamanbalin, K.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to description of basic works carrying out within framework of the International project 'Ecological monitoring of Russia and Kazakhstan boundary regions'. In 2002 the works were conducted by three directions: preparation of necessary boundary areas' electronic maps; overview of existing information sources (Kostanai and Chelyabinsk cities are as an example); implementation of ecological information data bases structures on boundary areas. The geographic information system MapInfo was selected in the capacity of geo-information system. The implementation information-simulating complex is planing as open developing system. In the framework of the complex the combined operation of a set of different-scale special-purpose information, simulating and geo-information systems have been provided

  16. Framework for developing a regional system architecture for intelligent transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Defining an architecture for intelligent transportation systems (ITS) at the regional level, where most ITS deployment occurs, is constrained by jurisdictional, institutional, financial, political, and regulatory factors. These constraints provide op...

  17. From smart specialisation to smart experimentation: Towards a new theoretical framework for EU regional policy

    OpenAIRE

    Benner, Maximilian

    2013-01-01

    The idea of smart specialisation has gained high prominence in the discourse about EU regional policy. In the coming program period from 2014 to 2020 it is expected to be a major pillar of EU structural funds. The notion of smart specialisation incorporates some basic principles of evolutionary economics and centers on the idea of an entrepreneurial discovery process of new trajectories on the regional level. It does not, however, sufficiently take into account the relevance of in...

  18. A Bayesian posterior predictive framework for weighting ensemble regional climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel Bayesian statistical approach to computing model weights in climate change projection ensembles in order to create probabilistic projections. The weight of each climate model is obtained by weighting the current day observed data under the posterior distribution admitted under competing climate models. We use a linear model to describe the model output and observations. The approach accounts for uncertainty in model bias, trend and internal variability, including error in the observations used. Our framework is general, requires very little problem-specific input, and works well with default priors. We carry out cross-validation checks that confirm that the method produces the correct coverage.

  19. Extending the Multi Regional Input-Output framework to labor related impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardadi, Gilang; Pizzol, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    -O framework to social impacts. These challenges are addressed in this study where the Exiobase database was extended with new data on five quantitative indicators available from the International Labor Organization: employment; working hours; salary; occupational accident cases; and unemployment....... This required modeling steps, such as the disaggregation of data from sector to product group level, and filling the data gaps for missing countries by primary data collection or interpolation. A characterization step where indicator values are converted into social impacts on human productivity and human well...

  20. Stratigraphic evidence of desertification in the west-central Great Plains within the past 1000 yr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madole, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    Stratigraphic and geomorphic relations, archaeological data, and eight radiocarbon ages at five widely scattered localities in northeastern Colorado indicate that eolian sand was mobilized over broad areas within the past 1000 yr. The mobilization began after 1 ka, was episodic, and ended at some as yet undetermined time prior to the latter part of the 19th century. Given that climate-model simulations suggest only slight variation in average surface temperature and annual precipitation in this region during the past 1000 yr, this part of the Great Plains evidently is near the threshold of widespread eolian sand transport under the present climate. -Author

  1. Beyond CDR-grafting: Structure-guided humanization of framework and CDR regions of an anti-myostatin antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apgar, James R; Mader, Michelle; Agostinelli, Rita; Benard, Susan; Bialek, Peter; Johnson, Mark; Gao, Yijie; Krebs, Mark; Owens, Jane; Parris, Kevin; St Andre, Michael; Svenson, Kris; Morris, Carl; Tchistiakova, Lioudmila

    2016-10-01

    Antibodies are an important class of biotherapeutics that offer specificity to their antigen, long half-life, effector function interaction and good manufacturability. The immunogenicity of non-human-derived antibodies, which can be a major limitation to development, has been partially overcome by humanization through complementarity-determining region (CDR) grafting onto human acceptor frameworks. The retention of foreign content in the CDR regions, however, is still a potential immunogenic liability. Here, we describe the humanization of an anti-myostatin antibody utilizing a 2-step process of traditional CDR-grafting onto a human acceptor framework, followed by a structure-guided approach to further reduce the murine content of CDR-grafted antibodies. To accomplish this, we solved the co-crystal structures of myostatin with the chimeric (Protein Databank (PDB) id 5F3B) and CDR-grafted anti-myostatin antibody (PDB id 5F3H), allowing us to computationally predict the structurally important CDR residues as well as those making significant contacts with the antigen. Structure-based rational design enabled further germlining of the CDR-grafted antibody, reducing the murine content of the antibody without affecting antigen binding. The overall "humanness" was increased for both the light and heavy chain variable regions.

  2. A multicriteria framework for producing local, regional, and national insect and disease risk maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank J. Jr. Krist; Frank J. Sapio

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the 2006 National Insect and Disease Risk Map, compiled by the USDA Forest Service, State and Private Forestry Area, Forest Health Protection Unit, resulted in the development of a GIS-based, multicriteria approach for insect and disease risk mapping that can account for regional variations in forest health concerns and threats. This risk mapping...

  3. Educating for Futures in Marginalized Regions: A Sociological Framework for Rethinking and Researching Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipin, Lew; Sellar, Sam; Brennan, Marie; Gale, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    "Raising aspirations" for education among young people in low socioeconomic regions has become a widespread policy prescription for increasing human capital investment and economic competitiveness in so-called "knowledge economies". However, policy tends not to address difficult social, cultural, economic and political…

  4. The regional governance of climate adaptation: a framework for developing legitimate, effective, and resilient governance arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Dewulf, A.; Rijswick, H.F.M.W.; Buuren, van A.; Huitema, D.; Meijerink, S.; Rayner, T.; Wiering, M.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation to climate change raises important governance issues. Notwithstanding the increasing attention on climate adaptation at the global and European level, the variety of local conditions and climate impacts points towards a prime role for regional actors in climate change adaptation. They

  5. The regional governance of climate adaptation : A framework for developing legitimate, effective, and resilient governance arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, Catrien C. J. A. M.; Dewulf, Art; Van Rijswick, Helena; Van Buuren, Arwin; Huitema, Dave; Meijerink, Sander; Rayner, Tim; Wiering, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation to climate change raises important governance issues. Notwithstanding the increasing attention on climate adaptation at the global and European level, the variety of local conditions and climate impacts points towards a prime role for regional actors in climate change adaptation. They

  6. The Council of Regional Accrediting Commissions Framework for Competency-Based Education: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butland, Mark James

    2017-01-01

    Colleges facing pressures to increase student outcomes while reducing costs have shown an increasing interest in competency-based education (CBE) models. Regional accreditors created a joint policy on CBE evaluation. Two years later, through this grounded theory study, I sought to understand from experts the nature of this policy, its impact, and…

  7. Revised geochronology, correlation, and dinosaur stratigraphic ranges of the Santonian-Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) formations of the Western Interior of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Denver Warwick

    2017-01-01

    Interbasinal stratigraphic correlation provides the foundation for all consequent continental-scale geological and paleontological analyses. Correlation requires synthesis of lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and geochronologic data, and must be periodically updated to accord with advances in dating techniques, changing standards for radiometric dates, new stratigraphic concepts, hypotheses, fossil specimens, and field data. Outdated or incorrect correlation exposes geological and paleontological analyses to potential error. The current work presents a high-resolution stratigraphic chart for terrestrial Late Cretaceous units of North America, combining published chronostratigraphic, lithostratigraphic, and biostratigraphic data. 40Ar / 39Ar radiometric dates are newly recalibrated to both current standard and decay constant pairings. Revisions to the stratigraphic placement of most units are slight, but important changes are made to the proposed correlations of the Aguja and Javelina formations, Texas, and recalibration corrections in particular affect the relative age positions of the Belly River Group, Alberta; Judith River Formation, Montana; Kaiparowits Formation, Utah; and Fruitland and Kirtland formations, New Mexico. The stratigraphic ranges of selected clades of dinosaur species are plotted on the chronostratigraphic framework, with some clades comprising short-duration species that do not overlap stratigraphically with preceding or succeeding forms. This is the expected pattern that is produced by an anagenetic mode of evolution, suggesting that true branching (speciation) events were rare and may have geographic significance. The recent hypothesis of intracontinental latitudinal provinciality of dinosaurs is shown to be affected by previous stratigraphic miscorrelation. Rapid stepwise acquisition of display characters in many dinosaur clades, in particular chasmosaurine ceratopsids, suggests that they may be useful for high resolution biostratigraphy.

  8. BRICK v0.2, a simple, accessible, and transparent model framework for climate and regional sea-level projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tony E.; Bakker, Alexander M. R.; Ruckert, Kelsey; Applegate, Patrick; Slangen, Aimée B. A.; Keller, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    Simple models can play pivotal roles in the quantification and framing of uncertainties surrounding climate change and sea-level rise. They are computationally efficient, transparent, and easy to reproduce. These qualities also make simple models useful for the characterization of risk. Simple model codes are increasingly distributed as open source, as well as actively shared and guided. Alas, computer codes used in the geosciences can often be hard to access, run, modify (e.g., with regards to assumptions and model components), and review. Here, we describe the simple model framework BRICK (Building blocks for Relevant Ice and Climate Knowledge) v0.2 and its underlying design principles. The paper adds detail to an earlier published model setup and discusses the inclusion of a land water storage component. The framework largely builds on existing models and allows for projections of global mean temperature as well as regional sea levels and coastal flood risk. BRICK is written in R and Fortran. BRICK gives special attention to the model values of transparency, accessibility, and flexibility in order to mitigate the above-mentioned issues while maintaining a high degree of computational efficiency. We demonstrate the flexibility of this framework through simple model intercomparison experiments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that BRICK is suitable for risk assessment applications by using a didactic example in local flood risk management.

  9. The stratigraphic distribution of large marine vertebrates and shell beds in the Pliocene of Tuscany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Stefano; Benvenuti, Marco; Danise, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    The record of 337 shark fossils, 142 cetaceans and 10 sea cows from the Pliocene of Tuscany, mostly from historical museum collections, is revised. The majority of these fossils are concentrated at a few geographic sites from separated hinterland basins, on the South-Western side of the Northern Apennines. To better understand the meaning of these concentrations, the sequence stratigraphic distribution of more recent findings of large marine vertebrates is reconstructed against a high-resolution framework based on sedimentary facies analysis. These remains are usually covered by, or included in mudstones deposited far from the coast (N=12), skeletons being usually articulated, slightly displaced, and often bioeroded. A minor part of better preserved articulated skeletons is associated with sandstones from deltaic paleonenvironments (N=2). Marine mammal and shark remains may be associated with laterally-continuous shell accumulations, a type of concentration occurring at maximum flooding surfaces, separating relatively coarse-grained facies from open marine mudstones. Shell beds were bulk-sampled at 66 locations from six basins, covering a wide range of sedimentary facies, and spanning a chronologic interval of about 2.5 million years. A dataset of 62,655 mollusc specimens belonging to 496 species formed the basis of a statistical study to reconstruct the structure of the benthic communities, and to estimate paleodepths from intertidal to upper bathyal settings. Mollusc associations closely mirror the distribution of sedimentary facies, allowing for a fine tuning of the sequence stratigraphic architecture. Merging paleogeographic, stratigraphic and paleoecologic data, we conclude that the more abundant and diverse accumulations of large vertebrates took place in settings under the influence of coastal upwelling. A modern analogue occurs today in the Ligurian Sea, on the Tuscan offshore, where abundant nutrients carried by deep-marine currents of Western origin

  10. Understanding urban water performance at the city-region scale using an urban water metabolism evaluation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Marguerite A; Kenway, Steven J; Lam, Ka Leung; Weber, Tony; Roux, Estelle; Serrao-Neumann, Silvia; Choy, Darryl Low; Morgan, Edward A

    2018-06-15

    Water sensitive interventions are being promoted to reduce the adverse impacts of urban development on natural water cycles. However it is currently difficult to know the best strategy for their implementation because current and desired urban water performance is not well quantified. This is particularly at the city-region scale, which is important for strategic urban planning. This work aimed to fill this gap by quantifying the water performance of urban systems within city-regions using 'urban water metabolism' evaluation, to inform decisions about water sensitive interventions. To do this we adapted an existing evaluation framework with new methods. In particular, we used land use data for defining system boundaries, and for estimating natural hydrological flows. The criteria for gauging the water performance were water efficiency (in terms of water extracted externally) and hydrological performance (how much natural hydrological flows have changed relative to a nominated pre-urbanised state). We compared these performance criteria for urban systems within three Australian city-regions (South East Queensland, Melbourne and Perth metropolitan areas), under current conditions, and after implementation of example water sensitive interventions (demand management, rainwater/stormwater harvesting, wastewater recycling and increasing perviousness). The respective water efficiencies were found to be 79, 90 and 133 kL/capita/yr. In relation to hydrological performance, stormwater runoff relative to pre-urbanised flows was of most note, estimated to be 2-, 6- and 3- fold, respectively. The estimated performance benefits from water sensitive interventions suggested different priorities for each region, and that combined implementation of a range of interventions may be necessary to make substantive gains in performance. We concluded that the framework is suited to initial screening of the type and scale of water sensitive interventions needed to achieve desired water

  11. Readying Health Services for Climate Change: A Policy Framework for Regional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Climate change presents the biggest threat to human health in the 21st century. However, many public health leaders feel ill equipped to face the challenges of climate change and have been unable to make climate change a priority in service development. I explore how to achieve a regionally responsive whole-of-systems approach to climate change in the key operational areas of a health service: service governance and culture, service delivery, workforce development, asset management, and financing. The relative neglect of implementation science means that policymakers need to be proactive about sourcing and developing models and processes to make health services ready for climate change. Health research funding agencies should urgently prioritize applied, regionally responsive health services research for a future of climate change. PMID:21421953

  12. Readying health services for climate change: a policy framework for regional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Erica

    2011-05-01

    Climate change presents the biggest threat to human health in the 21st century. However, many public health leaders feel ill equipped to face the challenges of climate change and have been unable to make climate change a priority in service development. I explore how to achieve a regionally responsive whole-of-systems approach to climate change in the key operational areas of a health service: service governance and culture, service delivery, workforce development, asset management, and financing. The relative neglect of implementation science means that policymakers need to be proactive about sourcing and developing models and processes to make health services ready for climate change. Health research funding agencies should urgently prioritize applied, regionally responsive health services research for a future of climate change.

  13. The impact of the petrochemical industry in the economic development framework of the Montreal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danis, M.

    1992-01-01

    A brief overview of the petrochemical industry in Canada was presented. The industry, which employs approximately 100,000 Canadians, has an annual production estimated to be in excess of 20 billion dollars. Similarly, in the province of Quebec, the petrochemical industry makes a very significant contribution to the economy of the province, especially to that of the Montreal region. Recent initiatives and investments by the Canadian Government in the petrochemical sector were summarized. Among these, subsidies to Petromont to improve and modernize its plant facilities in Varennes, to Himont Canada, also of Varennes, to develop a new manufacturing process, to Gaz Metropolitain to establish a centre of gas technology, were highlighted. These and other government measures and initiatives provide a solid foundation for the petrochemical industry to continue to play a pre-eminent role in the economy of the Montreal region

  14. Potential Bias in Projecting Future Regional Megadrought Risk: Insights From A Global Data-Model Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overpeck, J. T.; Ault, T.; Cole, J. E.; Fasullo, J.; Loope, G. R.; Parsons, L. A.; Stevenson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Megadrought is one of the most significant and costly climate extremes, and one that stakeholders (e.g., water and other resource managers) the world over wish to understand better; in particular, they need estimates of the risk of severe droughts as a function of drought frequency, severity, duration, and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration. In many dry-climate regions of the globe, megadrought is synonymous with multi-decadal drought. However, in other regions, megadrought can be defined as extended drought, mostly not seen in the period of instrumental observations, and that would have large impacts if it were to occur in the future. New and published paleoclimatic observations allow us to understand the spectrum of drought in many regions of the globe; droughts exceeding 50 years have occurred in recent Earth history in southwestern North America, sub-Saharan Africa, the Mediterranean and Australia, whereas shorter megadroughts have occurred in Monsoon Asia, Amazonia and elsewhere. Data-model comparisons for regions with sufficiently long (e.g., 1000-2000 years) records of observed hydroclimatic variability suggest that state-of-the-art models can provide realistic estimates of interannual to decadal drought risk, but underestimate the risk of megadrought. Likely reasons for this shortcoming are the lack of sufficient multi-decadal variability in simulations of the past and future, plus an underappreciated understanding about how temperature variability and land-surface feedbacks interact with hydrological and ecological drought, as well as the roles played by unusually wet hydroclimatic extremes (e.g., ENSO related) in ending droughts of long duration. Paleoclimatic records also provide the opportunity to estimate how much models underestimate megadrought risk as a function of locale, frequency, severity, duration, and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration; they also aid in providing stakeholders with bias-corrected estimates of megadrought risk.

  15. Gas hydrate on the northern Cascadia margin: regional geophysics and structural framework

    OpenAIRE

    Riedel, Michael; Willoughby, E. C.; Chen, M. A.; He, T.; Novosel, I.; Schwalenberg, K.; Hyndman, R. D.; Spence, G. D.; Chapman, N. R.; Edwards, R. N.

    2006-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 311 is based on ex- tensive site survey data and historic research at the northern Cas- cadia margin since 1985. This research includes various regional geophysical surveys using a broad spectrum of seismic tech- niques, coring and logging by the Ocean Drilling Program Leg 146, heat flow measurements, shallow piston coring, and bottom video observations across a cold-vent field, as well as novel con- trolled-source electromagne...

  16. Analysis of Drought in North Darfur Region of Sudan: Application of the DPSIR Framework on Long Term Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohmmed, Alnail; Zhange, Ke; Makomere, Reuben; Twecan, Dalson; Mohamme, Mustafa

    2017-04-01

    Darfur region in western Sudan is located in one of the world's most inhospitable environments, adjacent to the Sahara desert, conflicts and drought have severely degraded this fragile area, devastating the environment, livestock and people. Northern Darfur is bedeviled with frequent drought due to insufficient water resources, high summer temperatures, and poor precipitation. Monitoring drought and providing timely seasonal predictions is important for integrated drought risk reduction in the region. This paper evaluates drought conditions in North Darfur by applying meteorological, remote sensing and crop production data, as well as the Driving force-Pressure-State-Impacts-Response (DPSIR) assessment framework. Interviews, group discussions and participant observations were conducted in order to understand the DPSIR framework indicators. The relationship between the Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI), Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) and Soil Moisture Content Index (SMCI) were evaluated utilizing data from all five North Darfur counties during 10 growing seasons (2004-2013). Our results showed a strong correlation between RDI, VCI, and SMAI. Also, a significant agreement was noticed between Yield Anomaly Index (YAI) and Rainfall Anomaly Index (RAI). Generally, a high correlation coefficient was obtained between the meteorology drought index and remote sensing indices, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the above indices for evaluating agricultural drought in the sub-Saharan area. Keywords: Drought; Vegetation Condition Index; Reconnaissance Drought Index; Soil Moisture Content Index; North Darfur.

  17. Regional management units for marine turtles: a novel framework for prioritizing conservation and research across multiple scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bryan P; DiMatteo, Andrew D; Hurley, Brendan J; Finkbeiner, Elena M; Bolten, Alan B; Chaloupka, Milani Y; Hutchinson, Brian J; Abreu-Grobois, F Alberto; Amorocho, Diego; Bjorndal, Karen A; Bourjea, Jerome; Bowen, Brian W; Dueñas, Raquel Briseño; Casale, Paolo; Choudhury, B C; Costa, Alice; Dutton, Peter H; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Girard, Alexandre; Girondot, Marc; Godfrey, Matthew H; Hamann, Mark; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Marcovaldi, Maria Angela; Mortimer, Jeanne A; Musick, John A; Nel, Ronel; Pilcher, Nicolas J; Seminoff, Jeffrey A; Troëng, Sebastian; Witherington, Blair; Mast, Roderic B

    2010-12-17

    Resolving threats to widely distributed marine megafauna requires definition of the geographic distributions of both the threats as well as the population unit(s) of interest. In turn, because individual threats can operate on varying spatial scales, their impacts can affect different segments of a population of the same species. Therefore, integration of multiple tools and techniques--including site-based monitoring, genetic analyses, mark-recapture studies and telemetry--can facilitate robust definitions of population segments at multiple biological and spatial scales to address different management and research challenges. To address these issues for marine turtles, we collated all available studies on marine turtle biogeography, including nesting sites, population abundances and trends, population genetics, and satellite telemetry. We georeferenced this information to generate separate layers for nesting sites, genetic stocks, and core distributions of population segments of all marine turtle species. We then spatially integrated this information from fine- to coarse-spatial scales to develop nested envelope models, or Regional Management Units (RMUs), for marine turtles globally. The RMU framework is a solution to the challenge of how to organize marine turtles into units of protection above the level of nesting populations, but below the level of species, within regional entities that might be on independent evolutionary trajectories. Among many potential applications, RMUs provide a framework for identifying data gaps, assessing high diversity areas for multiple species and genetic stocks, and evaluating conservation status of marine turtles. Furthermore, RMUs allow for identification of geographic barriers to gene flow, and can provide valuable guidance to marine spatial planning initiatives that integrate spatial distributions of protected species and human activities. In addition, the RMU framework--including maps and supporting metadata--will be an

  18. Regional Management Units for Marine Turtles: A Novel Framework for Prioritizing Conservation and Research across Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bryan P.; DiMatteo, Andrew D.; Hurley, Brendan J.; Finkbeiner, Elena M.; Bolten, Alan B.; Chaloupka, Milani Y.; Hutchinson, Brian J.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto; Amorocho, Diego; Bjorndal, Karen A.; Bourjea, Jerome; Bowen, Brian W.; Dueñas, Raquel Briseño; Casale, Paolo; Choudhury, B. C.; Costa, Alice; Dutton, Peter H.; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Girard, Alexandre; Girondot, Marc; Godfrey, Matthew H.; Hamann, Mark; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Marcovaldi, Maria Angela; Mortimer, Jeanne A.; Musick, John A.; Nel, Ronel; Pilcher, Nicolas J.; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Troëng, Sebastian; Witherington, Blair; Mast, Roderic B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Resolving threats to widely distributed marine megafauna requires definition of the geographic distributions of both the threats as well as the population unit(s) of interest. In turn, because individual threats can operate on varying spatial scales, their impacts can affect different segments of a population of the same species. Therefore, integration of multiple tools and techniques — including site-based monitoring, genetic analyses, mark-recapture studies and telemetry — can facilitate robust definitions of population segments at multiple biological and spatial scales to address different management and research challenges. Methodology/Principal Findings To address these issues for marine turtles, we collated all available studies on marine turtle biogeography, including nesting sites, population abundances and trends, population genetics, and satellite telemetry. We georeferenced this information to generate separate layers for nesting sites, genetic stocks, and core distributions of population segments of all marine turtle species. We then spatially integrated this information from fine- to coarse-spatial scales to develop nested envelope models, or Regional Management Units (RMUs), for marine turtles globally. Conclusions/Significance The RMU framework is a solution to the challenge of how to organize marine turtles into units of protection above the level of nesting populations, but below the level of species, within regional entities that might be on independent evolutionary trajectories. Among many potential applications, RMUs provide a framework for identifying data gaps, assessing high diversity areas for multiple species and genetic stocks, and evaluating conservation status of marine turtles. Furthermore, RMUs allow for identification of geographic barriers to gene flow, and can provide valuable guidance to marine spatial planning initiatives that integrate spatial distributions of protected species and human activities. In addition

  19. WheelerLab: An interactive program for sequence stratigraphic analysis of seismic sections, outcrops and well sections and the generation of chronostratigraphic sections and dynamic chronostratigraphic sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosu, Adewale; Sun, Yuefeng

    WheelerLab is an interactive program that facilitates the interpretation of stratigraphic data (seismic sections, outcrop data and well sections) within a sequence stratigraphic framework and the subsequent transformation of the data into the chronostratigraphic domain. The transformation enables the identification of significant geological features, particularly erosional and non-depositional features that are not obvious in the original seismic domain. Although there are some software products that contain interactive environments for carrying out chronostratigraphic analysis, none of them are open-source codes. In addition to being open source, WheelerLab adds two important functionalities not present in currently available software: (1) WheelerLab generates a dynamic chronostratigraphic section and (2) WheelerLab enables chronostratigraphic analysis of older seismic data sets that exist only as images and not in the standard seismic file formats; it can also be used for the chronostratigraphic analysis of outcrop images and interpreted well sections. The dynamic chronostratigraphic section sequentially depicts the evolution of the chronostratigraphic chronosomes concurrently with the evolution of identified genetic stratal packages. This facilitates a better communication of the sequence-stratigraphic process. WheelerLab is designed to give the user both interactive and interpretational control over the transformation; this is most useful when determining the correct stratigraphic order for laterally separated genetic stratal packages. The program can also be used to generate synthetic sequence stratigraphic sections for chronostratigraphic analysis.

  20. WheelerLab: An interactive program for sequence stratigraphic analysis of seismic sections, outcrops and well sections and the generation of chronostratigraphic sections and dynamic chronostratigraphic sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Amosu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available WheelerLab is an interactive program that facilitates the interpretation of stratigraphic data (seismic sections, outcrop data and well sections within a sequence stratigraphic framework and the subsequent transformation of the data into the chronostratigraphic domain. The transformation enables the identification of significant geological features, particularly erosional and non-depositional features that are not obvious in the original seismic domain. Although there are some software products that contain interactive environments for carrying out chronostratigraphic analysis, none of them are open-source codes. In addition to being open source, WheelerLab adds two important functionalities not present in currently available software: (1 WheelerLab generates a dynamic chronostratigraphic section and (2 WheelerLab enables chronostratigraphic analysis of older seismic data sets that exist only as images and not in the standard seismic file formats; it can also be used for the chronostratigraphic analysis of outcrop images and interpreted well sections. The dynamic chronostratigraphic section sequentially depicts the evolution of the chronostratigraphic chronosomes concurrently with the evolution of identified genetic stratal packages. This facilitates a better communication of the sequence-stratigraphic process. WheelerLab is designed to give the user both interactive and interpretational control over the transformation; this is most useful when determining the correct stratigraphic order for laterally separated genetic stratal packages. The program can also be used to generate synthetic sequence stratigraphic sections for chronostratigraphic analysis.

  1. An Improved Privacy-Preserving Framework for Location-Based Services Based on Double Cloaking Regions with Supplementary Information Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kuang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of location-based services in the field of mobile network applications, users enjoy the convenience of location-based services on one side, while being exposed to the risk of disclosure of privacy on the other side. Attacker will make a fierce attack based on the probability of inquiry, map data, point of interest (POI, and other supplementary information. The existing location privacy protection techniques seldom consider the supplementary information held by attackers and usually only generate single cloaking region according to the protected location point, and the query efficiency is relatively low. In this paper, we improve the existing LBSs system framework, in which we generate double cloaking regions by constraining the supplementary information, and then k-anonymous task is achieved by the cooperation of the double cloaking regions; specifically speaking, k dummy points of fixed dummy positions in the double cloaking regions are generated and the LBSs query is then performed. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by the experiments on real datasets.

  2. Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment: Building a Framework to Track Physical and Social Indicators of Climate Change Across Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecni, Z. N.; Keener, V. W.

    2016-12-01

    Assessments inform regional and local climate change governance and provide the critical scientific basis for U.S. climate policy. Despite the centrality of scientific information to public discourse and decision making, comprehensive assessments of climate change drivers, impacts, and the vulnerability of human and ecological systems at regional or local scales are often conducted on an ad hoc basis. Methods for sustained assessment and communication of scientific information are diverse and nascent. The Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment (PIRCA) is a collaborative effort to assess climate change indicators, impacts, and adaptive capacity of the Hawaiian archipelago and the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI). In 2012, PIRCA released the first comprehensive report summarizing the state of scientific knowledge about climate change in the region as a technical input to the U.S. National Climate Assessment. A multi-method evaluation of PIRCA outputs and delivery revealed that the vast majority of key stakeholders view the report as extremely credible and use it as a resource. The current study will present PIRCA's approach to establishing physical and social indicators to track on an ongoing basis, starting with the Republic of the Marshall Islands as an initial location of focus for providing a cross-sectoral indicators framework. Identifying and tracking useful indicators is aimed at sustaining the process of knowledge coproduction with decision makers who seek to better understand the climate variability and change and its impacts on Pacific Island communities.

  3. A multi-objective framework to predict flows of ungauged rivers within regions of sparse hydrometeorologic observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, M.; Kibler, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    Despite advances in flow prediction, managers of ungauged rivers located within broad regions of sparse hydrometeorologic observation still lack prescriptive methods robust to the data challenges of such regions. We propose a multi-objective streamflow prediction framework for regions of minimum observation to select models that balance runoff efficiency with choice of accurate parameter values. We supplement sparse observed data with uncertain or low-resolution information incorporated as `soft' a priori parameter estimates. The performance of the proposed framework is tested against traditional single-objective and constrained single-objective calibrations in two catchments in a remote area of southwestern China. We find that the multi-objective approach performs well with respect to runoff efficiency in both catchments (NSE = 0.74 and 0.72), within the range of efficiencies returned by other models (NSE = 0.67 - 0.78). However, soil moisture capacity estimated by the multi-objective model resonates with a priori estimates (parameter residuals of 61 cm versus 289 and 518 cm for maximum soil moisture capacity in one catchment, and 20 cm versus 246 and 475 cm in the other; parameter residuals of 0.48 versus 0.65 and 0.7 for soil moisture distribution shape factor in one catchment, and 0.91 versus 0.79 and 1.24 in the other). Thus, optimization to a multi-criteria objective function led to very different representations of soil moisture capacity as compared to models selected by single-objective calibration, without compromising runoff efficiency. These different soil moisture representations may translate into considerably different hydrological behaviors. The proposed approach thus offers a preliminary step towards greater process understanding in regions of severe data limitations. For instance, the multi-objective framework may be an adept tool to discern between models of similar efficiency to select models that provide the "right answers for the right reasons

  4. The framework of a UAS-aided flash flood modeling system for coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Xu, H.

    2016-02-01

    Flash floods cause severe economic damage and are one of the leading causes of fatalities connected with natural disasters in the Gulf Coast region. Current flash flood modeling systems rely on empirical hydrological models driven by precipitation estimates only. Although precipitation is the driving factor for flash floods, soil moisture, urban drainage system and impervious surface have been recognized to have significant impacts on the development of flash floods. We propose a new flash flooding modeling system that integrates 3-D hydrological simulation with satellite and multi-UAS observations. It will have three advantages over existing modeling systems. First, it will incorporate 1-km soil moisture data through integrating satellite images from European SMOS mission and NASA's SMAP mission. The utilization of high-resolution satellite images will provide essential information to determine antecedent soil moisture condition, which is an essential control on flood generation. Second, this system is able to adjust flood forecasting based on real-time inundation information collected by multi-UAS. A group of UAS will be deployed during storm events to capture the changing extent of flooded areas and water depth at multiple critical locations simultaneously. Such information will be transmitted to a hydrological model to validate and improve flood simulation. Third, the backbone of this system is a state-of-the-art 3-D hydrological model that assimilates the hydrological information from satellites and multi-UAS. The model is able to address surface water-groundwater interactions and reflect the effects of various infrastructures. Using Web-GIS technologies, the modeling results will be available online as interactive flood maps accessible to the public. To support the development and verification of this modeling system, surface and subsurface hydrological observations will be conducted in a number of small watersheds in the Coastal Bend region. We envision this

  5. 14C dating of the Early to Late Bronze Age stratigraphic sequence of Aegina Kolonna, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.M.; Gauss, W.; Forstenpointner, G.; Lindblom, M.; Smetana, R.; Steier, P.; Thanheiser, U.; Weninger, F.

    2010-01-01

    Aegina Kolonna, located in the center of the Saronic Gulf in the Aegean Mediterranean (Greece), is one of the major archaeological sites of the Aegean Bronze Age with a continuous stratigraphic settlement sequence from the Late Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age. Due to its position next to the maritime cross roads between central mainland Greece, the northeast Peloponnese, the Cyclades and Crete, the island played an important role in the trade between these regions. In the course of new excavations, which focused on the exploration of the Early, Middle and Late Bronze Age at Kolonna, several short lived samples from different settlement phases have been 14 C-dated with the AMS method at the VERA laboratory. Bayesian sequencing of the 14 C data according to the stratigraphic position of the samples in the profile was performed to enable estimates of the transition time between the cultural phases. The Aegina Kolonna 14 C sequence is one of the longest existing so far for the Aegean Bronze Age, and therefore of major importance for the absolute Bronze Age chronology in this region. Preliminary results indicate that the Middle Helladic period seems to have started earlier and lasted longer than traditionally assumed. Further, at the present stage of our investigation we can give also a very tentative time frame for the Santorini volcanic eruption which seems to be in agreement with the science derived VDL date.

  6. A framework for joint management of regional water-energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira-Cardenal, S.J.

    2013-09-15

    -power system, and the results compared with traditional methods that represent hydropower benefits through exogenous prices. It was found that representing hydropower benefits through a constant price can be inadequate because it does not reflect the seasonality in power demand and water inflows, which affect the availability, and therefore value, of hydropower. Monthly prices were able to represent seasonality but resulted in unrealistic operation rules, such as emptying the reservoir during the month with the highest price, which can only be avoided through the inclusion of additional constraints. In contrast, including a simple representation of the power market into a hydro-economic model resulted in more realistic reservoir operation policies that adapted to changing inflow conditions. The effects of spatial aggregation on the analysis of water-power systems were evaluated by comparing results from an aggregated and a partially disaggregated model. The aggregated model, where all reservoirs were represented as a single equivalent energy reservoir, provided valuable insights into the management of water and power systems, but only at the Peninsula scale. The disaggregated model revealed that optimal allocations were achieved by managing water resources differently in each river basin according to local inflow, storage capacity, hydropower productivity, and irrigation demand and productivity. This highlights the importance of considering spatial differences in this type of analysis. The method was successfully used to assess linkages between the water and the power systems of the Iberian Peninsula. The framework is flexible and can potentially be used to model more aspects of the water-energy nexus, for instance: the energy requirements of the transport sector and the impact of biofuels on agriculture; the impact of reduced river discharge on cooling of thermal power plants; or the impact of carbon capture and storage on water resources. The increasing pressure of

  7. Energy security and pattern of regional conflicts in Eurasia: From a constructive framework of analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalin Mohapatra

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The term energy security is undergoing a sea change from a state-centric economic conception to a sociological one. The definitional aspect is undergoing a transformation because of the changing pattern of relations between “energy producing and consuming states” along with “transit states”. Eurasia is one such region where the broader definition of energy security can be applicable. The existence of historically rooted social conflicts like Chechnya, South Ossetia, Crimea, “simmering discontent” in Siberia and Far East, and primordial apprehensions between ethnic groups (Armenian and Azeri in Nagorno Karabakh are providing a structural basis for the accentuation of regional conflicts. Most of these conflicts are taking place in Eurasia due to existence of natural resources like energy. Often competition over controlling transportation corridor is also generating societal tension. Some of these trajectories are putting this geopolitical space into a “cauldron.” Against this backdrop, Constructivism is emerging as a major theoretical approach to study the securitization processes in Eurasia.

  8. Rural and Regional Development Policies in Europe: Social Farming in the Common Strategic Framework (Horizon 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Francesc TULLA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Social Farming (SF is an emerging sector in the rural European context, but the European Economic and Social Committee (2013/C 44/07 emphasizes that SF should be planned and implemented under the new 2014-20 rural development policy because of the positive results obtained. The SF concept can be associated with agriculture as a multifunctional activity, giving agricultural practice new meanings and functions and incorporating social services, medical treatment and rehabilitation, and educational training and support. In addition, agriculture must be considered as a means of employment and social integration for groups as diverse as individuals who are unemployed or living with mental retardation, mental disorders, or addictions, among others. As a result, innovative SF activities are contributing to the social economy, rural and regional development, and support for a new agro-social paradigm. These are mainly activities linked with the endogenous resources of the territory that generate new enterprises, together with complementary activities that consolidate an economic network as the basis for regional development.

  9. Education and Research in the SEENET-MTP Regional Framework for Higher Education in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, R.; Djordjevic, G. S.

    2010-01-01

    Southeastern European countries undergo significant changes in the demand/supply ratio on the labour market and in the structure of professional competences that are necessary for undertaking a professional activity. In addition, brain-drain process and decrease of interest for a career in basic sciences put many challenges for our community. Consequently, based on the activity of the Southeastern European Network in Mathematical and Theoretical Physics (SEENET MTP Network) in connecting groups and persons working in mathematics and theoretical physics, we investigate specific qualifications recognized in these fields in all the countries from the region, and the related competences necessary for practising the respective occupations. A list of new possible occupations will be promoted for inclusion in the National Qualifications Register for Higher Education. Finally, we analyze the vision existing in this region on the higher education qualifications against the European vision and experience, in particular in training of Master students, PhD students, and senior teaching and research staff through the Network, i.e. multilateral and bilateral programs.

  10. Chapter 4: Regional magnetic domains of the Circum-Arctic: A framework for geodynamic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R.W.; Miller, E.L.; Gaina, C.; Brown, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    We identify and discuss 57 magnetic anomaly pattern domains spanning the Circum-Arctic. The domains are based on analysis of a new Circum-Arctic data compilation. The magnetic anomaly patterns can be broadly related to general geodynamic classification of the crust into stable, deformed (magnetic and nonmagnetic), deep magnetic high, oceanic and large igneous province domains. We compare the magnetic domains with topography/bathymetry, regional geology, regional free air gravity anomalies and estimates of the relative magnetic 'thickness' of the crust. Most of the domains and their geodynamic classification assignments are consistent with their topographic/bathymetric and geological expression. A few of the domains are potentially controversial. For example, the extent of the Iceland Faroe large igneous province as identified by magnetic anomalies may disagree with other definitions for this feature. Also the lack of definitive magnetic expression of oceanic crust in Baffin Bay, the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and the Amerasian Basin is at odds with some previous interpretations. The magnetic domains and their boundaries provide clues for tectonic models and boundaries within this poorly understood portion of the globe. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  11. West Siberian basin hydrogeology - regional framework for contaminant migration from injected wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.

    1994-05-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in massive contamination of the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. Our long-term goal at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is to help determine future environmental and human impacts given the releases that have occurred to date and the current waste management practices. In FY 1993, our objectives were to (1) refine and implement the hydrogeologic conceptual models of the regional hydrogeology of western Siberia developed in FY 1992 and develop the detailed, spatially registered digital geologic and hydrologic databases to test them, (2) calibrate the computer implementation of the conceptual models developed in FY 1992, and (3) develop general geologic and hydrologic information and preliminary hydrogeologic conceptual models relevant to the more detailed models of contaminated site hydrogeology. Calibration studies of the regional hydrogeologic computer model suggest that most precipitation entering the ground-water system moves in the near-surface part of the system and discharges to surface waters relatively near its point of infiltration. This means that wastes discharged to the surface and near-surface may not be isolated as well as previously thought, since the wastes may be carried to the surface by gradually rising ground waters

  12. Tectonic evolution of the Paranoá basin: New evidence from gravimetric and stratigraphic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Ferreira, Marco Antonio Caçador; Campos, José Eloi Guimarães; Von Huelsen, Monica Giannoccaro

    2018-06-01

    Field gravimetric and stratigraphic surveys were conducted with the aim to constraint the mechanisms responsible for the initiation of the Stenian-Tonian Paranoá basin, central Brazil, a subject not yet studied in detail. The Paranoá Group crops out in the external zone of the Brasília Belt, a Neoproterozoic orogen in the western margin of the São Francisco Craton. Detailed geological mapping confirmed the existence of a regional scale fault that controlled sedimentation of the Paranoá Group during the deposition of its basal formations, revealing important details about basin initiation and early evolution. Gravimetric modeling indicates the existence of paleorift structures beneath the Paranoá sequence in the study area. Results from both stratigraphic and gravimetric surveys show strong evidence of mechanical subsidence by faulting during basin initiation. Unsorted, angular, clasts cut by quartz veins and brecciated boulders present in the basal conglomerate, support this hypothesis. Basin initiation faults coincide with deeper paleorift faults and are thus interpreted as reactivations of the older Statherian Araí Rift. The reactivations favored an initial regime of mechanical subsidence, dominated by the development of epirogenic arches subsiding at different rates. Apart from faulting activity, the post-basal sequence presents no evidence of rift environment in the strict sense. Besides, the great lateral continuity and relatively constant thickness of facies, indicate that an initial mechanic subsidence rapidly gave way to flexural subsidence during subsequent stages of basin evolution. The Paranoá Group do not present reliable characteristics that would allow its strict classification as a passive margin. Its main stratigraphic characteristics, tectonic location and basement architecture, indicate that the Paranoá Group was deposited in a cratonic margin basin, and may have been either connected to a passive margin basin at times of sea level rise

  13. Curriculum Framework (CF) Implementation Conference. Report of the Regional Educational Laboratory Network Program and the National Network of Eisenhower Mathematics and Science Regional Consortia (Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, January 26-27, 1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jackie; Powell, Mary Jo

    The Laboratory Network Program and the National Network of Eisenhower Mathematics and Science Regional Consortia, operating as the Curriculum Frameworks Task Force, jointly convened a group of educators involved in implementing state-level mathematics or science curriculum frameworks (CF). The Hilton Head (South Carolina) conference had a dual…

  14. CarbonTracker-Lagrange: A Framework for Greenhouse Gas Flux Estimation at Regional to Continental Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    CarbonTracker-Lagrange (CT-L) is a flexible modeling framework developed to take advantage of newly available atmospheric data for CO2 and other long-lived gases such as CH4 and N2O. The North American atmospheric CO2 measurement network has grown from three sites in 2004 to >100 sites in 2015. The US network includes tall tower, mountaintop, surface, and aircraft sites in the NOAA Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network along with sites maintained by university, government and private sector researchers. The Canadian network is operated by Environment and Climate Change Canada. This unprecedented dataset can provide spatially and temporally resolved CO2 emissions and uptake flux estimates and quantitative information about drivers of variability, such as drought and temperature. CT-L is a platform for systematic comparison of data assimilation techniques and evaluation of assumed prior, model and observation errors. A novel feature of CT-L is the optimization of boundary values along with surface fluxes, leveraging vertically resolved data available from NOAA's aircraft sampling program. CT-L uses observation footprints (influence functions) from the Weather Research and Forecasting/Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (WRF-STILT) modeling system to relate atmospheric measurements to upwind fluxes and boundary values. Footprints are pre-computed and the optimization algorithms are efficient, so many variants of the calculation can be performed. Fluxes are adjusted using Bayesian or Geostatistical methods to provide optimal agreement with observations. Satellite measurements of CO2 and CH4 from GOSAT are available starting in July 2009 and from OCO-2 since September 2014. With support from the NASA Carbon Monitoring System, we are developing flux estimation strategies that use remote sensing and in situ data together, including geostatistical inversions using satellite retrievals of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence. CT-L enables quantitative

  15. An integrated framework to address climate change (ESCAPE) and further developments of the global and regional climate modules (MAGICC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulme, M.; Raper, S.C.B.

    1995-01-01

    ESCAPE (the Evaluation of Strategies to address Climate change by Adapting to and Preventing Emissions) is an integrated climate change assessment model constructed between 1990 and 1992 for DG XI of the Commission of the European Community by a consortium of research institutes headed by the Climatic Research Unit (CRU). It has been designed to enable the user to generate future scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (through an energy-economic model), examine their impact on global climate and sea level (through two independent global climate models), and illustrate some of the consequences of this global climate change at a regional scale for the European Community (through a regional climate scenario generator and impact models). We provide a very brief overview of the ESCAPE model which, although innovative, suffers from a number of major limitations. Subsequent work in the CRU has concentrated on improvements to the global climate module and work has also commenced on an improved regional climate scenario generating module. These improvements will lead to a new integrated climate change assessment model, MAGICC (Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse gas Induced Climate Change) which can easily be incorporated into new larger integrated frameworks developed by other institutes. (Author)

  16. A regional modeling framework of phosphorus sources and transport in streams of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria.; Hoos, Anne B.; Terziotti, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    We applied the SPARROW model to estimate phosphorus transport from catchments to stream reaches and subsequent delivery to major receiving water bodies in the Southeastern United States (U.S.). We show that six source variables and five land-to-water transport variables are significant (p < 0.05) in explaining 67% of the variability in long-term log-transformed mean annual phosphorus yields. Three land-to-water variables are a subset of landscape characteristics that have been used as transport factors in phosphorus indices developed by state agencies and are identified through experimental research as influencing land-to-water phosphorus transport at field and plot scales. Two land-to-water variables – soil organic matter and soil pH – are associated with phosphorus sorption, a significant finding given that most state-developed phosphorus indices do not explicitly contain variables for sorption processes. Our findings for Southeastern U.S. streams emphasize the importance of accounting for phosphorus present in the soil profile to predict attainable instream water quality. Regional estimates of phosphorus associated with soil-parent rock were highly significant in explaining instream phosphorus yield variability. Model predictions associate 31% of phosphorus delivered to receiving water bodies to geology and the highest total phosphorus yields in the Southeast were catchments with already high background levels that have been impacted by human activity.

  17. Framework for laboratory harmonization of folate measurements in low- and middle-income countries and regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Zhang, Mindy; Jabbar, Shameem

    2018-02-01

    The measurement of serum and red blood cell folate, two commonly used biomarkers of folate status in populations, is complicated by analytical and data interpretation challenges. Folate results show poor comparability across laboratories, even using the same analytical technique. The folate microbiologic assay produces accurate results and requires simple instrumentation. Thus, it could be set up and maintained in low- and middle-income country laboratories. However, the assay has to be harmonized through the use of common critical reagents (e.g., microorganism and folate calibrator) in order to produce comparable results across laboratories and over time, so that the same cutoff values can be applied across surveys. There is a limited need for blood folate measurements in a country owing to the periodic nature of surveys. Having a network of regional resource laboratories proficient in conducting the folate microbiologic assay and willing and able to perform service work for other countries will be the most efficient way to create an infrastructure wherein qualified laboratories produce reliable blood folate data. Continuous participation of these laboratories in a certification program can verify and document their proficiency. If the resource laboratories conduct the work on a fee-for-service basis, they could become self-sustaining in the long run. © 2018 This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. State — Region — Field — Enterprise: Framework of Economics System Stability of Russia Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy Borisovich Kleiner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the factors of a stability of the Russian economy are investigated from the systematic positions as a multilevel, multisubject and multidimensional socio-economic system. The concept of economics system stability as abilities to keep prerequisites for growth with the support and effective use of system structure of economy is formulated. The leading role of all economic subjects of different levels (including government as a subject of the international relations, regions as the subjects of Federation, enterprises as economic entities in economic stability is shown. The need of "extension" of a network of subjects due to strengthening of the subjectivity of economic fields is emphasized. Research of an internal basic system structure of an economic subject and external structure of its immediate environment in socioeconomic, administrative-and-managerial, and market spaces with the use of the results of the new theory of economic systems leads to a conclusion of similarity of these structures. It is shown that each of these system complexes includes (together with a subject four systems of various types — object, environmental, processed, and designed. The system environment of a subject in the administrative-and-managerial space of inter-level interactions has the same structure. It gives the chance to reduce a problem of subjects’ resistance to a question of balance of system structures of the complexes forming an internal filling and an external environment of subjects. The method of balance index of similar complexes is given. Recommendations on a choice of the measures of economic policy for providing economics system stability of Russia during the crisis are formulated. It is shown that such policy has to be developed with the principles of a subject-preservation, system balance of internal filling and external environment of subjects, a corporate solidarity of subjects despite their level in the administrative

  19. The ecological framework for environmental effects monitoring: a perspective from outside the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, J. P.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of key issues, early problems and experiences of the last two decades in environmental monitoring of offshore oil and natural gas exploration and production is provided, emphasizing that the key issues (What is being discharged? How much and how often? Where are things going in the environment? What are the short and long-term effects?) have not changed; we have a large body of scientific knowledge on the characterization of wastes, their fates in the marine environment and their zones of biological influence; we also have the experience gained over two decades of offshore exploration and production to provide guidance, and while every geographic region has its own uniqueness, the range of responses will not vary by orders of magnitude. It is suggested that it is not necessary to reinvent the wheel every time we move into a new exploration area. A more prudent strategy would be to concentrate on what is really unique about the particular area of interest, followed by a selective monitoring and assessment program to validate the data and the conclusions drawn from studies in other parts of the world. A number of specific studies done during the past two decades are identified as particularly significant in terms of variety of environments, target chemicals, target populations and environmental monitoring designs that may provide useful information for any pending environmental monitoring situation. Also included in this paper are valuable observations concerning the Canadian program of offshore environmental monitoring as gleaned from the papers presented and discussions which have taken place at this conference. 9 refs

  20. State — Region — Field— Enterprise: Framework of Economics System Stability of Russia Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy Borisovich Kleyner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the factors of a stability of the Russian economy are investigated from the systematic positions as a multilevel, multisubject and multidimensional socio-economic system. The concept of economics system stability as abilities to keep prerequisites for growth with the support and effective use of system structure of economy is formulated. The leading role of all economic subjects of different levels (including government as a subject of the international relations, regions as subjects of Federation, enterprises as economic entities in economic stability is shown. The need of «extension» of a network of subjects due to strengthening of the subjectivity of economic fields is emphasized. Research of an internal basic system structure of an economic subject and external structure of its immediate environment in socioeconomic, administrative-and-managerial, and market spaces with the use of the results of the new theory of economic systems leads to a conclusion of similarity of these structures. It is shown that each of these system complexes includes (together with a subject four systems of various types — object, environmental, processed, and designed. The system environment of a subject in the administrative-and-managerial space of inter-level interactions has the same structure. It gives the chance to reduce a problem of subjects’ resistance to a question of balance of system structures of the complexes forming an internal filling and an external environment of subjects. The method of balance index of similar complexes is given. Recommendations on a choice of the measures of economic policy for providing economics system stability of Russia during the crisis are formulated. It is shown that such policy has to be developed with the principles of a subject-preservation, system balance of internal filling and external environment of subjects, a corporate solidarity of subjects despite their level in the administrative hierarchy

  1. Synergies, Trade-offs, and Losses of Ecosystem Services in Urban Regions: an Integrated Multiscale Framework Applied to the Leipzig-Halle Region, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Haase

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Because we have entered the 'millennium of the cities', urban ecological research needs to account for the provisions ecosystem services provide to urban regions. In urban areas, ecosystem service assessment studies need to account for the complex land use patterns, which change over relatively short periods of time. We discuss an analytical framework for the spatial and temporal integration of different ecosystem services in an urban region to determine synergies, trade-offs and losses, and we employ a case study in Leipzig-Halle, Germany. The following five ecosystem services, which are of special importance for urban areas, were selected: local climate regulation, recreation potential, biodiversity potential, food supply, and above-ground carbon storage. These services were analyzed from 1990 to 2006. Our results identified only slight increases in urbanization (1% or 3 km² and in mining restoration (-11 km². However, the detected land use changes led to synergies with biodiversity and climate regulation of > 50% of the total area, whereas trade-offs of approximately 60% were detected between variables such as climate regulation and recreation. Finally, we address both the opportunities and the challenges that were encountered in the integration study, specifically with respect to the application in land use planning.

  2. A framework for streamflow prediction in the world's most severely data-limited regions: Test of applicability and performance in a poorly-gauged region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, M. H.; Kibler, Kelly M.

    2018-02-01

    A framework methodology is proposed for streamflow prediction in poorly-gauged rivers located within large-scale regions of sparse hydrometeorologic observation. A multi-criteria model evaluation is developed to select models that balance runoff efficiency with selection of accurate parameter values. Sparse observed data are supplemented by uncertain or low-resolution information, incorporated as 'soft' data, to estimate parameter values a priori. Model performance is tested in two catchments within a data-poor region of southwestern China, and results are compared to models selected using alternative calibration methods. While all models perform consistently with respect to runoff efficiency (NSE range of 0.67-0.78), models selected using the proposed multi-objective method may incorporate more representative parameter values than those selected by traditional calibration. Notably, parameter values estimated by the proposed method resonate with direct estimates of catchment subsurface storage capacity (parameter residuals of 20 and 61 mm for maximum soil moisture capacity (Cmax), and 0.91 and 0.48 for soil moisture distribution shape factor (B); where a parameter residual is equal to the centroid of a soft parameter value minus the calibrated parameter value). A model more traditionally calibrated to observed data only (single-objective model) estimates a much lower soil moisture capacity (residuals of Cmax = 475 and 518 mm and B = 1.24 and 0.7). A constrained single-objective model also underestimates maximum soil moisture capacity relative to a priori estimates (residuals of Cmax = 246 and 289 mm). The proposed method may allow managers to more confidently transfer calibrated models to ungauged catchments for streamflow predictions, even in the world's most data-limited regions.

  3. Geological Identification of Seismic Source at Opak Fault Based on Stratigraphic Sections of the Southern Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hita Pandita

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake is one of the unpredicted natural disasters on our earth. Despite of the absence of high-accuracy method to precisely predict the occurrence of earthquake, numerous studies have been carried out by seismologists to find it. One of the efforts to address the vulnerability of a region to earthquakes is by recognizing the type of rock as the source of the earthquake. Opak Fault is an active fault which was thought to be the source of earthquakes in Yogyakarta and adjacent areas. This study aimed to determine the seismic source types of rocks in Yogyakarta and adjacent areas. The methods were by measuring stratigraphic sections and the layer thickness in the western part of Southern Mountains. Field study was done in 6 (six research sites. Results of stratigraphic measurement indicated the sedimentary rocks in the Southern Mountains was 3.823 km in thick, while the bedrock was more than 1.042 km in thick. Based on the result, the rock types as the seismic source were thought to originate from the continental crust rocks formed of granite and metamorphic complex.

  4. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  5. Death Valley regional groundwater flow system, Nevada and California-Hydrogeologic framework and transient groundwater flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Wayne R.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient groundwater flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the groundwater flow system and previous less extensive groundwater flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect groundwater flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the groundwater flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural groundwater discharge occurring through evapotranspiration (ET) and spring flow; the history of groundwater pumping from 1913 through 1998; groundwater recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were provided

  6. Determination of Heat Capacity of Yucca Mountain Stratigraphic Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Hadgu; C. Lum; J.E. Bean

    2006-01-01

    The heat generated from the radioactive waste to be placed in the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, will affect the thermal-hydrology of the Yucca Mountain stratigraphic layers. In order to assess the effect of the movement of repository heat into the fractured rocks accurate determination of thermodynamic and hydraulic properties is important. Heat capacity is one of the properties that are required to evaluate energy storage in the fractured rock. Rock-grain heat capacity, the subject of this study, is the heat capacity of the solid part of the rock. Yucca Mountain consists of alternating lithostratigraphic units of welded and non-welded ash-flow tuff, mainly rhyolitic in composition and displaying varying degrees of vitrification and alteration. A number of methods exist that can be used to evaluate heat capacity of the stratigraphic layers that consist of different compositions. In this study, the mineral summation method has been used to quantify the heat capacity of the stratigraphic layers based on Kopp's rule. The mineral summation method is an addition of the weighted heat capacity of each mineral found in a specific layer. For this study the weighting was done based on the mass percentage of each mineral in the layer. The method utilized a mineralogic map of the rocks at the Yucca Mountain repository site. The Calico Hills formation and adjacent bedded tuff layers display a bimodal mineral distribution of vitric and zeolitic zones with differing mineralogies. Based on this bimodal distribution in zeolite abundance, the boundary between the vitric and zeolitic zones was selected to be 15% zeolitic abundance. Thus, based on the zeolite abundance, subdivisions have been introduced to these layers into ''vitric'' and ''zeolitic'' zones. Heat capacity values have been calculated for these layers both as ''layer average'' and ''zone average''. The heat capacity determination method presented in this report did not account for spatial

  7. Fossil preservation and the stratigraphic ranges of taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, M.; Raup, D. M.

    1996-01-01

    The incompleteness of the fossil record hinders the inference of evolutionary rates and patterns. Here, we derive relationships among true taxonomic durations, preservation probability, and observed taxonomic ranges. We use these relationships to estimate original distributions of taxonomic durations, preservation probability, and completeness (proportion of taxa preserved), given only the observed ranges. No data on occurrences within the ranges of taxa are required. When preservation is random and the original distribution of durations is exponential, the inference of durations, preservability, and completeness is exact. However, reasonable approximations are possible given non-exponential duration distributions and temporal and taxonomic variation in preservability. Thus, the approaches we describe have great potential in studies of taphonomy, evolutionary rates and patterns, and genealogy. Analyses of Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician trilobite species, Paleozoic crinoid genera, Jurassic bivalve species, and Cenozoic mammal species yield the following results: (1) The preservation probability inferred from stratigraphic ranges alone agrees with that inferred from the analysis of stratigraphic gaps when data on the latter are available. (2) Whereas median durations based on simple tabulations of observed ranges are biased by stratigraphic resolution, our estimates of median duration, extinction rate, and completeness are not biased.(3) The shorter geologic ranges of mammalian species relative to those of bivalves cannot be attributed to a difference in preservation potential. However, we cannot rule out the contribution of taxonomic practice to this difference. (4) In the groups studied, completeness (proportion of species [trilobites, bivalves, mammals] or genera [crinoids] preserved) ranges from 60% to 90%. The higher estimates of completeness at smaller geographic scales support previous suggestions that the incompleteness of the fossil record reflects loss of

  8. Stratigraphic cross section of measured sections and drill holes of the Neslan Formation and adjacent formations, Book Cliffs Area, Colorado and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshbaum, Mark A.; Spear, Brianne D.

    2012-01-01

    This study updates a stratigraphic cross section published as plate 2 in Kirschbaum and Hettinger (2004) Digital Data Series 69-G (http://pubs.usgs.gov/dds/dds-069/dds-069-g/). The datum is a marine/tidal ravinement surface within the Cozzette Sandstone Member of the Iles Formation and the Thompson Canyon Sandstone and Sulphur Canyon Sandstone Beds of the Neslen Formation. One of the cores shown was included on the original cross section, and new core descriptions have been added to the upper part of the cored interval. A new core description (S178) is included in this report. Cores are stored in the U.S. Geological Survey Core Research Facility at the Denver Federal Center, Colorado. The following information has also been added to help define the stratigraphic framework: 1) At least five claystones interpreted as altered volcanic ashes have been identified and may give future workers a correlation tool within the largely continental section. 2) Thickness and general geometry of the Sego Sandstone, Buck Tongue of the Mancos Shale, and Castlegate Sandstone have been added to provide additional stratigraphic context. 3) The geometry in the Sego Sandstone, Buck Tongue of the Mancos Shale, and Castlegate Sandstone has been added to provide additional stratigraphic context. 4) Ammonite collections are from Gill and Hail. The zone of Didymoceras nebrascense projected into the East Salt Wash area is based on correlation of the flooding surface at the base of the Cozzette Member to this point as shown in Kirschbaum and Hettinger. 5) A leaf locality of the Denver Museum of Nature and Science is shown in its approximate stratigraphic position near Thompson Canyon. 6) A dinosaur locality of the Natural History Museum of Utah is shown in the Horse Canyon area measured section at the stratigraphic position where it was extracted.

  9. A Framework Predicting Water Availability in a Rapidly Growing, Semi-Arid Region under Future Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, B.; Benner, S. G.; Glenn, N. F.; Lindquist, E.; Dahal, K. R.; Bolte, J.; Vache, K. B.; Flores, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change can lead to dramatic variations in hydrologic regime, affecting both surface water and groundwater supply. This effect is most significant in populated semi-arid regions where water availability are highly sensitive to climate-induced outcomes. However, predicting water availability at regional scales, while resolving some of the key internal variability and structure in semi-arid regions is difficult due to the highly non-linearity relationship between rainfall and runoff. In this study, we describe the development of a modeling framework to evaluate future water availability that captures elements of the coupled response of the biophysical system to climate change and human systems. The framework is built under the Envision multi-agent simulation tool, characterizing the spatial patterns of water demand in the semi-arid Treasure Valley area of Southwest Idaho - a rapidly developing socio-ecological system where urban growth is displacing agricultural production. The semi-conceptual HBV model, a population growth and allocation model (Target), a vegetation state and transition model (SSTM), and a statistically based fire disturbance model (SpatialAllocator) are integrated to simulate hydrology, population and land use. Six alternative scenarios are composed by combining two climate change scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) with three population growth and allocation scenarios (Status Quo, Managed Growth, and Unconstrained Growth). Five-year calibration and validation performances are assessed with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency. Irrigation activities are simulated using local water rights. Results show that in all scenarios, annual mean stream flow decreases as the projected rainfall increases because the projected warmer climate also enhances water losses to evapotranspiration. Seasonal maximum stream flow tends to occur earlier than in current conditions due to the earlier peak of snow melting. The aridity index and water deficit generally increase in the

  10. Quantifying the streamflow response to frozen ground degradation in the source region of the Yellow River within the Budyko framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taihua; Yang, Hanbo; Yang, Dawen; Qin, Yue; Wang, Yuhan

    2018-03-01

    The source region of the Yellow River (SRYR) is greatly important for water resources throughout the entire Yellow River Basin. Streamflow in the SRYR has experienced great changes over the past few decades, which is closely related to the frozen ground degradation; however, the extent of this influence is still unclear. In this study, the air freezing index (DDFa) is selected as an indicator for the degree of frozen ground degradation. A water-energy balance equation within the Budyko framework is employed to quantify the streamflow response to the direct impact of climate change, which manifests as changes in the precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, as well as the impact of frozen ground degradation, which can be regarded as part of the indirect impact of climate change. The results show that the direct impact of climate change and the impact of frozen ground degradation can explain 55% and 33%, respectively, of the streamflow decrease for the entire SRYR from Period 1 (1965-1989) to Period 2 (1990-2003). In the permafrost-dominated region upstream of the Jimai hydrological station, the impact of frozen ground degradation can explain 71% of the streamflow decrease. From Period 2 (1990-2003) to Period 3 (2004-2015), the observed streamflow did not increase as much as the precipitation; this could be attributed to the combined effects of increasing potential evapotranspiration and more importantly, frozen ground degradation. Frozen ground degradation could influence streamflow by increasing the groundwater storage when the active layer thickness increases in permafrost-dominated regions. These findings will help develop a better understanding of the impact of frozen ground degradation on water resources in the Tibetan Plateau.

  11. SIMULATION FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL GEOLOGIC CO{sub 2} STORAGE ALONG ARCHES PROVINCE OF MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sminchak, Joel

    2012-09-30

    This report presents final technical results for the project Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Infrastructure along Arches Province of the Midwest United States. The Arches Simulation project was a three year effort designed to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage infrastructure along the Arches Province through development of a geologic model and advanced reservoir simulations of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage. The project included five major technical tasks: (1) compilation of geologic, hydraulic and injection data on Mount Simon, (2) development of model framework and parameters, (3) preliminary variable density flow simulations, (4) multi-phase model runs of regional storage scenarios, and (5) implications for regional storage feasibility. The Arches Province is an informal region in northeastern Indiana, northern Kentucky, western Ohio, and southern Michigan where sedimentary rock formations form broad arch and platform structures. In the province, the Mount Simon sandstone is an appealing deep saline formation for CO{sub 2} storage because of the intersection of reservoir thickness and permeability. Many CO{sub 2} sources are located in proximity to the Arches Province, and the area is adjacent to coal fired power plants along the Ohio River Valley corridor. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, and geotechnical tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. Hydraulic parameters and historical operational information was also compiled from Mount Simon wastewater injection wells in the region. This information was integrated into a geocellular model that depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data

  12. SIMULATION FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL GEOLOGIC CO{sub 2} STORAGE ALONG ARCHES PROVINCE OF MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sminchak, Joel

    2012-09-30

    This report presents final technical results for the project Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Infrastructure along Arches Province of the Midwest United States. The Arches Simulation project was a three year effort designed to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage infrastructure along the Arches Province through development of a geologic model and advanced reservoir simulations of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage. The project included five major technical tasks: (1) compilation of geologic, hydraulic and injection data on Mount Simon, (2) development of model framework and parameters, (3) preliminary variable density flow simulations, (4) multi-phase model runs of regional storage scenarios, and (5) implications for regional storage feasibility. The Arches Province is an informal region in northeastern Indiana, northern Kentucky, western Ohio, and southern Michigan where sedimentary rock formations form broad arch and platform structures. In the province, the Mount Simon sandstone is an appealing deep saline formation for CO{sub 2} storage because of the intersection of reservoir thickness and permeability. Many CO{sub 2} sources are located in proximity to the Arches Province, and the area is adjacent to coal fired power plants along the Ohio River Valley corridor. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, and geotechnical tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. Hydraulic parameters and historical operational information was also compiled from Mount Simon wastewater injection wells in the region. This information was integrated into a geocellular model that depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data

  13. Geologic framework for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in sandstone reservoirs of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group, U.S. Gulf of Mexico region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eoff, Jennifer D.; Dubiel, Russell F.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is assessing the undiscovered oil and gas resources in sandstone reservoirs of the Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group in onshore areas and State waters of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico region. The assessment is based on geologic elements of a total petroleum system. Four assessment units (AUs) are defined based on characterization of hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks, seals, traps, and the geohistory of the hydrocarbon products. Strata in each AU share similar stratigraphic, structural, and hydrocarbon-charge histories.

  14. Oyster-bioimmured ammonites from the Upper Albian of Annopol, Poland: stratigraphic and palaeobiogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalski, Marcin; Kennedy, William J.

    2013-12-01

    Machalski, M. and Kennedy, W.J. 2013. Oyster-bioimmured ammonites from the Upper Albian of Annopol, Poland: stratigraphic and palaeobiogeographic implications. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (4), 545-554. Warszawa. Ammonites Mortoniceras (Subschloenbachia) sp. are preserved as attachment scars on the oyster shells from the topmost portion of the Albian succession at Annopol, Poland. These oyster-bioimmured ammonites show a closest affinity to the representatives of Mortoniceras (Subschloenbachia) characteristic of the upper Upper Albian Mortoniceras perinflatum Zone. No ammonites indicative of the uppermost Albian-lowermost Cenomanian Praeschloenbachia briacensis Zone are recorded. Thus, the hiatus at the Albian-Cenomanian boundary at Annopol embraces the latter zone. The presence (and dominance) of Mortoniceras in the upper Upper Albian ammonite assemblage of Annopol suggests that the representatives of this Tethyan genus could migrate into the epicratonic areas of Poland directly from the Tethyan Realm, via the Lwow (Lviv) region.

  15. Stochastic Coastal/Regional Uncertainty Modelling: a Copernicus marine research project in the framework of Service Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervatis, Vassilios; De Mey, Pierre; Ayoub, Nadia; Kailas, Marios; Sofianos, Sarantis

    2017-04-01

    The project entitled Stochastic Coastal/Regional Uncertainty Modelling (SCRUM) aims at strengthening CMEMS in the areas of ocean uncertainty quantification, ensemble consistency verification and ensemble data assimilation. The project has been initiated by the University of Athens and LEGOS/CNRS research teams, in the framework of CMEMS Service Evolution. The work is based on stochastic modelling of ocean physics and biogeochemistry in the Bay of Biscay, on an identical sub-grid configuration of the IBI-MFC system in its latest CMEMS operational version V2. In a first step, we use a perturbed tendencies scheme to generate ensembles describing uncertainties in open ocean and on the shelf, focusing on upper ocean processes. In a second step, we introduce two methodologies (i.e. rank histograms and array modes) aimed at checking the consistency of the above ensembles with respect to TAC data and arrays. Preliminary results highlight that wind uncertainties dominate all other atmosphere-ocean sources of model errors. The ensemble spread in medium-range ensembles is approximately 0.01 m for SSH and 0.15 °C for SST, though these values vary depending on season and cross shelf regions. Ecosystem model uncertainties emerging from perturbations in physics appear to be moderately larger than those perturbing the concentration of the biogeochemical compartments, resulting in total chlorophyll spread at about 0.01 mg.m-3. First consistency results show that the model ensemble and the pseudo-ensemble of OSTIA (L4) observation SSTs appear to exhibit nonzero joint probabilities with each other since error vicinities overlap. Rank histograms show that the model ensemble is initially under-dispersive, though results improve in the context of seasonal-range ensembles.

  16. Integrating seismic-reflection and sequence-stratigraphic methods to characterize the hydrogeology of the Floridan aquifer system in southeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system (FAS) is receiving increased attention as a result of regulatory restrictions on water-supply withdrawals and treated wastewater management practices. The South Florida Water Management District’s Regional Water Availability Rule, adopted in 2007, restricts urban withdrawals from the shallower Biscayne aquifer to pre-April 2006 levels throughout southeast Florida. Legislation adopted by the State of Florida requires elimination of ocean outfalls of treated wastewater by 2025. These restrictions have necessitated the use of the more deeply buried FAS as an alternate water resource to meet projected water-supply shortfalls, and as a repository for the disposal of wastewater via Class I deep injection wells and injection of reclaimed water. Some resource managers in Broward County have expressed concern regarding the viability of the FAS as an alternative water supply due to a lack of technical data and information regarding its long-term sustainability. Sustainable development and management of the FAS for water supply is uncertain because of the potential risk posed by structural geologic anomalies (faults, fractures, and karst collapse structures) and knowledge gaps in the stratigraphy of the system. The integration of seismic-reflection and borehole data into an improved geologic and hydrogeologic framework will provide a better understanding of the structural and stratigraphic features that influence groundwater flow and contaminant transport.

  17. OWL representation of the geologic timescale implementing stratigraphic best practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    The geologic timescale is a cornerstone of the earth sciences. Versions are available from many sources, with the following being of particular interest: (i) The official International Stratigraphic Chart (ISC) is maintained by the International Commission for Stratigraphy (ICS), following principles developed over the last 40 years. ICS provides the data underlying the chart as part of a specialized software package, and the chart itself as a PDF using the standard colours; (ii) ITC Enschede has developed a representation of the timescale as a thesaurus in SKOS, used in a Web Map Service delivery system; (iii) JPL's SWEET ontology includes a geologic timescale. This takes full advantage of the capabilities of OWL. However, each of these has limitations - The ISC falls down because of incompatibility with web technologies; - While SKOS supports multilingual labelling, SKOS does not adequately support timescale semantics, in particular since it does not include ordering relationships; - The SWEET version (as of version 2) is not fully aligned to the model used by ICS, in particular not recognizing the role of the Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Point (GSSP). Furthermore, it is distributed as static documents, rather than through a dynamic API using SPARQL. The representation presented in this paper overcomes all of these limitations as follows: - the timescale model is formulated as an OWL ontology - the ontology is directly derived from the UML representation of the ICS best practice proposed by Cox & Richard [2005], and subsequently included as the Geologic Timescale package in GeoSciML (http://www.geosciml.org); this includes links to GSSPs as per the ICS process - key properties in the ontology are also asserted to be subProperties of SKOS properties (topConcept and broader/narrower relations) in order to support SKOS-based queries; SKOS labelling is used to support multi-lingual naming and synonyms - the International Stratigraphic Chart is implemented

  18. Drilling rate for the Cerro Prieto stratigraphic sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prian C, R.

    1981-01-01

    Drilling practice at the field has been modified in several ways as better information is being obtained. The stratigraphic sequence of the area is made up of three sedimentary rock units of deltaic origin having different densities. These units have been named non-consolidated, semi-consolidated, and consolidated rocks; the thermal reservoirs are located in the latter. To investigate how the drilling rates are affected by the three rock units, plots of drilling advance versus time were made for a large number of wells. A typical plot is shown and drilling rates are practically constant in three different zones; that is, the drilling rate has only two breaks or changes in slope.

  19. Treinta y Tres stratigraphic terrain: ex Cuchilla Dionisio terrain. Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, J.

    2010-01-01

    From 1998 we are discussing if the eastern area of ZCSB is an allochtonous block named TCD or if it belongs to Dom Feliciano belt with an age of 500 - 700 Ma. This crustal block is difficult to study because Laguna Merin Graben cut it in two around 4000 k m2 crustal fragments distant s more de 100 km between them. Southern block which was named T PE by Masquelín (2006) was demonstrated as allochtonous by Bossi and Gaucher (2004) destroying the Cdf model but seriously complicating the stratigraphic terminology. It is proposed to do some changes in order to profit the general agreement about allochtomy. The CDT with change by Treinta y Tres terrane; T PE become sub - terrain Punta del Este; sub - terrain Cuchilla Dionisio for the septetrional block. From 1998 we are discussing if the eastern area of ZCSB is an allochtonous block named TCD or if it belongs to Dom Feliciano belt with an age of 500 - 700 Ma. This crustal block is difficult to study because Laguna Merín Graben cut it in two around 4000 k m2 crustal fragments distant s more de 100 km between them. Southern block which was named T PE by Masquelín (2006) was demonstrated as allochtonous by Bossi and Gaucher (2004) destroying the CDF model but seriously complicating the stratigraphic terminology. It is proposed to do some changes in order to profit the general agreement about allochtomy. The CDT with change by Treinta y Tres terrain; TPE become sub - terrain Punta del Este; sub - terrain Cuchilla Dionisio for the septetrional block

  20. Chemical Contaminants as Stratigraphic Markers for the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruge, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Thousands and even millions of years from now, widespread anthropogenic contaminants in sediments would likely persist, incorporated into the geological record. They would inadvertently preserve evidence of our present era (informally designated as the Anthropocene Epoch) characterized by large human populations engaged in intensive industrial and agricultural activities. Hypothetical geologists in the distant future would likely find unusually high concentrations of a wide variety of contaminants at stratigraphic levels corresponding to our present time, analogous to the iridium anomaly marking the bolide impact event at the close of the Cretaceous Period. These would include both organic and inorganic substances, such as industrially-derived heavy metals (e.g., Hg, Pb, Cr, Zn) and hydrocarbons, both petrogenic (derived directly from petroleum) and pyrogenic (combustion products). While there are natural sources for these materials, such as volcanic eruptions, wildfires, and oil seeps, their co-occurrence would provide a signature characteristic of human activity. Diagnostic assemblages of organic compounds would carry an anthropogenic imprint. The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a sediment sample could distinguish between natural and human sources. Stable isotopic signatures would provide additional evidence. Concentrations of contaminants in the sedimentary record would increase exponentially with increasing proximity to urban source areas, where at present billions of people are collectively consuming vast quantities of fossil fuels and generating large amounts of waste. Aolian and marine transport prior to deposition has been seen at present to globally redistribute detectable amounts of contaminants including Hg and PAHs, even at great distances from principal source areas. For organic contaminants, deposition in an anoxic sedimentary environment could insure their preservation, increasing the likelihood of their inclusion in the

  1. A Cross-cultural Analytical Framework for Territorial Development Policies : The Application to Flood Risk Management Policies in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongwinriyaphanich, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a proposed analytical framework that takes cultural dimensions as main parameters to explain territorial development processes. It is illustrated through the analysis of flood risk management in two case study areas in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region. It aims

  2. An analytical framework for extracting hydrological information from time series of small reservoirs in a semi-arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annor, Frank; van de Giesen, Nick; Bogaard, Thom; Eilander, Dirk

    2013-04-01

    small reservoirs in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Reservoirs without obvious large seepage losses (field survey) were selected. To verify this, stable water isotopic samples are collected from groundwater upstream and downstream from the reservoir. By looking at possible enrichment of downstream groundwater, a good estimate of seepage can be made in addition to estimates on evaporation. We estimated the evaporative losses and compared those with field measurements using eddy correlation measurements. Lastly, we determined the cumulative surface runoff curves for the small reservoirs .We will present this analytical framework for extracting hydrological information from time series of small reservoirs and show the first results for our study region of northern Ghana.

  3. The role of the Salon-Cavaillon fault in the structural framework of Provence region (SE France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molliex, Stéphane; Bellier, Olivier; Terrier, Monique; Lamarche, Juliette; Martelet, Guillaume; Espurt, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    The Provence region is located in the South-East France Basin, in the foreland domain of the Pyrenean and the Alpine mountain belts. The structural pattern of Provence is characterized by W-trending ramp anticlines and N- to NE-trending oblique reverse strike-slip faults. It results from the superimposition of Pyrenean (late Cretaceous to Eocene) and Alpine (Miocene to present-day) compressional tectonic regimes. In addition, extensional tectonics affected the region during Oligocene (W to NW-trending σ3). The Salon-Cavaillon strike-slip fault (SCF) separates two main E-trending ridges (Alpilles to the West and Luberon to the East). A structural study has been realized in order to characterize the post-Oligocene deformation of this domain. Field data and balanced cross-sections show that the post-Oligocene deformation drastically differs on both sides of the SCF. The Luberon ridge results from a fault propagation-fold developed on a S-verging ramp. Laterally, the western anticline termination is bended as a drag fold along the SCF. The Alpilles ridge results from a less developed fault propagation fold. Its eastern termination was affected by a rigid counter-clockwise rotation around a vertical axis, driven by a major curved right- lateral fault. In addition, we integrated gravity data and reprocessed seismic reflection sections to image the sub-surface structures to the West of the SCF at a larger scale. It permits to precise the regional tectonic framework in term of structure and chronology and to detect several hidden E-trending S-verging ramp anticline. The main shortening episode in Provence occurred during pyreneo-provençal phase from Late Cretaceous to Eocene, with 65 % of the total shortening to the East of the SCF and 95 % to the West. Alpine (Miocene to Present-day) shortening differs drastically on both sides of the SCF (2 km of shortening to the East, for less than 0.4 km to the West). This underlines the major role of the SCF in the transfer of

  4. Sedimentological and Stratigraphic Controls on Natural Fracture Distribution in Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaafi, Mohammed; Hariri, Mustafa; Abdullatif, Osman; Makkawi, Mohammed; Korvin, Gabor

    2016-04-01

    The Cambro-Permian Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia, is the main groundwater aquifer in Wadi Al-Dawasir and Najran areas. In addition, it has a reservoir potentiality for oil and natural gas in Rub' Al-Khali Basin. Wajid Group divided into four formations, ascending Dibsiyah, Sanamah, Khussyayan and Juwayl. They are mainly sandstone and exposed in an area extend from Wadi Al-Dawasir southward to Najran city and deposited within fluvial, shallow marine and glacial environments. This study aims to investigate the sedimentological and stratigraphic controls on the distribution of natural fractures within Wajid Group outcrops. A scanline sampling method was used to study the natural fracture network within Wajid Group outcrops, where the natural fractures were measured and characterized in 12 locations. Four regional natural fracture sets were observed with mean strikes of 050o, 075o, 345o, and 320o. Seven lithofacies characterized the Wajid Group at these locations and include fine-grained sandstone, coarse to pebbly sandstone, cross-bedded sandstone, massive sandstone, bioturbated sandstone, conglomerate sandstone, and conglomerate lithofacies. We found that the fine-grained and small scale cross-bedded sandstones lithofacies are characterized by high fracture intensity. In contrast, the coarse-grained sandstone and conglomerate lithofacies have low fracture intensity. Therefore, the relative fracture intensity and spacing of natural fractures within Wajid Group in the subsurface can be predicted by using the lithofacies and their depositional environments. In terms of stratigraphy, we found that the bed thickness and the stratigraphic architecture are the main controls on fractures intensity. The outcomes of this study can help to understand and predict the natural fracture distribution within the subsurface fractured sandstone hosting groundwater and hydrocarbon in Wajid and Rub' Al-Khali Basins. Hence, the finding of this study might help to explore and develop the

  5. Stratigraphic controls on fluid and solute fluxes across the sediment-water interface of an estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Audrey H.; Lazareva, Olesya; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Crespo, Kyle; Chan, Clara S.; Stieglitz, Thomas; Michael, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    Shallow stratigraphic features, such as infilled paleovalleys, modify fresh groundwater discharge to coastal waters and fluxes of saltwater and nutrients across the sediment–water interface. We quantify the spatial distribution of shallow surface water–groundwater exchange and nitrogen fluxes near a paleovalley in Indian River Bay, Delaware, using a hand resistivity probe, conventional seepage meters, and pore-water samples. In the interfluve (region outside the paleovalley) most nitrate-rich fresh groundwater discharges rapidly near the coast with little mixing of saline pore water, and nitrogen transport is largely conservative. In the peat-filled paleovalley, fresh groundwater discharge is negligible, and saltwater exchange is deep (∼1 m). Long pore-water residence times and abundant sulfate and organic matter promote sulfate reduction and ammonium production in shallow sediment. Reducing, iron-rich fresh groundwater beneath paleovalley peat discharges diffusely around paleovalley margins offshore. In this zone of diffuse fresh groundwater discharge, saltwater exchange and dispersion are enhanced, ammonium is produced in shallow sediments, and fluxes of ammonium to surface water are large. By modifying patterns of groundwater discharge and the nature of saltwater exchange in shallow sediments, paleovalleys and other stratigraphic features influence the geochemistry of discharging groundwater. Redox reactions near the sediment–water interface affect rates and patterns of geochemical fluxes to coastal surface waters. For example, at this site, more than 99% of the groundwater-borne nitrate flux to the Delaware Inland Bays occurs within the interfluve portion of the coastline, and more than 50% of the ammonium flux occurs at the paleovalley margin.

  6. Ichnology applied to sequence stratigraphic analysis of Siluro-Devonian mud-dominated shelf deposits, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedorko, Daniel; Netto, Renata G.; Savrda, Charles E.

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies of the Paraná Supersequence (Furnas and Ponta Grossa formations) of the Paraná Basin in southern Brazil have yielded disparate sequence stratigraphic interpretations. An integrated sedimentological, paleontological, and ichnological model was created to establish a refined sequence stratigraphic framework for this succession, focusing on the Ponta Grossa Formation. Twenty-nine ichnotaxa are recognized in the Ponta Grossa Formation, recurring assemblages of which define five trace fossil suites that represent various expressions of the Skolithos, Glossifungites and Cruziana ichnofacies. Physical sedimentologic characteristics and associated softground ichnofacies provide the basis for recognizing seven facies that reflect a passive relationship to bathymetric gradients from shallow marine (shoreface) to offshore deposition. The vertical distribution of facies provides the basis for dividing the Ponta Grossa Formation into three major (3rd-order) depositional sequences- Siluro-Devonian and Devonian I and II-each containing a record of three to seven higher-order relative sea-level cycles. Major sequence boundaries, commonly coinciding with hiatuses recognized from previously published biostratigraphic data, are locally marked by firmground Glossifungites Ichnofacies associated with submarine erosion. Maximum transgressive horizons are prominently marked by unbioturbated or weakly bioturbated black shales. By integrating observations of the Ponta Grossa Formation with those recently made on the underlying marginal- to shallow-marine Furnas Formation, the entire Paraná Supersequence can be divided into four disconformity-bound sequences: a Lower Silurian (Llandovery-Wenlock) sequence, corresponding to lower and middle units of the Furnas; a Siluro-Devonian sequence (?Pridoli-Early Emsian), and Devonian sequences I (Late Emsian-Late Eifelian) and II (Late Eifelian-Early Givetian). Stratigraphic positions of sequence boundaries generally coincide with

  7. Stratigraphic controls on saltwater intrusion in the Dominguez Gap area of coastal Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B.D.; Ehman, K.D.; Ponti, D.J.; Reichard, E.G.; Tinsley, J.C.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Land, M.

    2009-01-01

    a broad anticlinal fold that occurs parallel to, but ??2 km north of, the axis of the Pliocene Wilmington anticline. The Dominguez sequence breaches the crest of the young anticline, cuts through the upper Pleistocene Mesa and Pacific sequences, and into the middle Pleistocene Harbor sequence. Saltwater migrates along channels within the Dominguez sequence and into the underlying sequences (composed mostly of shallow marine and tidal sands, silts, and clays) that contain the classically defined Gage and Lynwood aquifers. The newly recognized Pacific Coast Highway fault cuts through the core of this young fold and is downthrown on the northern side, thereby creating accommodation space for a thick succession of middle Pleistocene sediments that constitute the Upper Wilmington sequence. North of the Pacific Coast Highway fault, the Upper Wilmington sequence contains the classic Silverado aquifer (composed of fluviodeltaic deposits); the Silverado is the primary freshwater aquifer for the West Coast and Central Los Angeles Groundwater Basins. Pore fluid and electric log analyses show the upper part of this aquifer to be saline-intruded near the crest of the young fold. This relationship implies that some saltwater is migrating into deeper aquifers from above, across the regional unconformity that marks the base of the Harbor sequence (ca. 240-270 ka). This sequence-stratigraphic model provides new insight into the potential flow paths for saltwater intrusion, and as such, should allow improved characterization of fluidflow that will aid in transport model studies and in managing groundwater resources. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  8. Stratigraphical discontinuities, tropical landscape evolution and soil distribution relationships in a case study in SE-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cooper

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available On a regional summit surface in the county of Piracicaba (SP within the Peripheric Depression of São Paulo, formed of discontinued flattened tops, there is an abrupt transition between a Typic Hapludox and a Kandiudalfic Eutrudox, together with two stoneline layers. Using stratigraphical, mineralogical, and cartographic studies, this transition and the soil distribution of this surface were studied, correlating them with the different parent materials and the morphoclimatic model of landscape evolution in Southeastern Brazil. The Typic Hapludox was formed on a sandy Cenozoic deposit (Q that overlies a pellitic deposit of the Iratí formation (Pi, representing a regional erosive discordance. Westwards to the Piracicaba River, this sequence is interrupted by a diabase sill overlain by a red clayey material which gave origin to the Kandiudalfic Eutrudox. Two post-Permian depositional events were identified by the two stonelines and stratigraphical discontinuities. The first event generated the deposition of a sandy sediment in the form of levelled alveoluses on regional barriers, most of these formed by dikes and diabase sills, probably during a drier phase. The second depositional event, leading to the deposition of the red clay was probably the dissection of the previously formed pediplane during a humid climate, followed by another pedimentation process during a later, drier period.

  9. Stratigraphical distribution of the Ordovician conodont Erraticodon Dzik in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, S.; Carlorosi, J.; Mestre, A.; Soria, T.

    2013-08-01

    Three different species of the Ordovician genus Erraticodon Dzik are described and illustrated. Erraticodon patu Cooper is reported from the Lower-Midde Ordovician strata of the Acoite and Alto del Cóndor formations. E. cf. Erraticodon balticus and Erraticodon hexianensis from Middle Ordovician carbonate deposits of the San Juan Formation are analyzed and compared to specimens of these species from Australia, China, Newfoundland, and Baltica. E. patu and E. hexianensis are recorded for first time in the San Juan Formation of Precordillera. The elements of E. cf. E. balticus resemble closely E. balticus Dzik but lack the important denticle on the posterior process of the S elements. An evaluation of the stratigraphic occurrences of these species relative to those of key Lower and Middle Ordovician conodont species such as Trapezognathus diprion Lindström, Oepikodus intermedius Serpagli, Baltoniodus triangularis (Lindström), Baltoniodus navis Lindström, Yangtzeplacognathus crassus (Chen and Zhang) and Eoplacognathus pseudoplanus (Viira) indicates they value for biostratigraphic correlation.

  10. Preliminary stratigraphic and hydrogeologic cross sections and seismic profile of the Floridan aquifer system of Broward County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ronald S.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    To help water-resource managers evaluate the Floridan aquifer system (FAS) as an alternative water supply, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study, in cooperation with the Broward County Environmental Protection and Growth Management Department, to refine the hydrogeologic framework of the FAS in the eastern part of Broward County. This report presents three preliminary cross sections illustrating stratigraphy and hydrogeology in eastern Broward County as well as an interpreted seismic profile along one of the cross sections. Marker horizons were identified using borehole geophysical data and were initially used to perform well-to-well correlation. Core sample data were integrated with the borehole geophysical data to support stratigraphic and hydrogeologic interpretations of marker horizons. Stratigraphic and hydrogeologic units were correlated across the county using borehole geophysical data from multiple wells. Seismic-reflection data were collected along the Hillsboro Canal. Borehole geophysical data were used to identify and correlate hydrogeologic units in the seismic-reflection profile. Faults and collapse structures that intersect hydrogeologic units were also identified in the seismic profile. The information provided in the cross sections and the seismic profile is preliminary and subject to revision.

  11. Study on the application of seismic sedimentology in a stratigraphic-lithologic reservoir in central Junggar Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yixin; Xia, Zhongmou

    2017-06-01

    This paper discusses the research idea of description for stratigraphic-lithologic reservoir based on seismic sedimentology methods. The sandstone reservoir of Jurrassic XiShanyao Formation in Junggar Basin is studied according to the theory and approaches of seismic sedimentology. By making full use of borehole data, the technologies of layer correlation based on the stratigraphic sequence framework, the forward seismic modeling, the stratal slicing and lithologic inversion are applied. It describes the range of denudation line, the distribution characteristics of sedimentary facies of the strata, the vertical and horizontal distribution of sand bodies and the favourable oil-gas bearing prospective area. The results shows that study area are dominated braided delta deposition including underwater distributary channel and distributary bay microfacies, the nip-out lines of the formation are northeast to southwest from north to south, the second Middle Jurassic sand body is the most widely distributed one among three sand bodies, the prospective oil-gas bearing area located in the south part and around the YG2 well area. The study result is effective on the practice of exploration in study area.

  12. Paleomagnetic constrains in the reconstruction of the recent stratigraphic evolution of the Po delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correggiari, Annamaria; Vigliotti, Luigi; Remia, Alessandro; Perini, Luisa; Calabrese, Lorenzo; Luciani, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    The delta and prodelta deposits are characterized by a complex stratigraphic architecture that can be approached with several multidisciplinary tools. We present an example from the Po delta system characterized by alternating phases of rapid advance and abandonment of its multiple deltaic lobes that has been investigated through: (1) a review of historical cartography extending back several centuries; (2) integrated surveys of VHR seismic profiles recorded offshore of the modern delta from water depths as shallow as 5 m to the toe of the prodelta in about 30 m; and (3) sedimentological and geochronological data from precisely positioned sediment cores. Within this well known stratigraphic framework we have acquired seismic data and sediment cores in the area of the post roman Po delta system. However a precise dating of the recent evolution of depositional delta lobes is difficult because of the lack of suitable dating methods. To constrain the emplacement timing of the Renaissance lobes a paleomagnetic studies was carried out on a sedimentary sequence representing a seismic facies well correlated in the cores by whole core magnetic susceptibility profile. Forty eight samples were collected from a core section (RER96-1) characterized by a fine grained lithology suitable for paleomagnetic investigations. The characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) of the sediments has been obtained by applying an AF cleaning between 10 and 30 millitesla. The results have been compared with the directions recorded by the historical lavas of the Etna and Vesuvius. The combination of the trends observed in the declination and inclination suggests that the results can be compatible with the directions of the secular variation of the earth magnetic field occurring during the XVII century. This allow to date the sismic unit as representative of the beginning of the new delta following the Porto Viro avulsion made by the Venice Republic in 1604 AD. This delta history reflects the

  13. SEDIMENTATION AND BASIN-FILL HISTORY OF THE PLIOCENE SUCCESSION EXPOSED IN THE NORTHERN SIENA-RADICOFANI BASIN (TUSCANY, ITALY: A SEQUENCE-STRATIGRAPHIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVAN MARTINI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Basin-margin paralic deposits are sensitive indicators of relative sea-level changes and typically show complex stratigraphic architectures that only a facies-based sequence-stratigraphic approach, supported by detailed biostratigraphic data, can help unravel, thus providing constraints for the tectono-stratigraphic reconstructions of ancient basins. This paper presents a detailed facies analysis of Pliocene strata exposed in a marginal key-area of the northern Siena-Radicofani Basin (Tuscany, Italy, which is used as a ground for a new sequence-stratigraphic scheme of the studied area. The study reveals a more complex sedimentary history than that inferred from the recent geological maps produced as part of the Regional Cartographic Project (CARG, which are based on lithostratigraphic principles. Specifically, four sequences (S1 to S4, in upward stratigraphic order have been recognised, each bounded by erosional unconformities and deposited within the Zanclean-early Gelasian time span. Each sequence typically comprises fluvial to open marine facies, with deposits of different sequences that show striking lithological similarities.The architecture and internal variability shown by the studied depositional sequences are typical of low-accommodation basin-margin settings, that shows: i a poorly-developed to missing record of the falling-stage systems tract; ii a lowstand system tract predominantly made of fluvio-deltaic deposits; iii a highstand system tract with substantial thickness variation between different sequences due to erosional processes associated with the overlying unconformity; iv a highly variable transgressive system tract, ranging from elementary to parasequential organization.

  14. CORE-BASED INTEGRATED SEDIMENTOLOGIC, STRATIGRAPHIC, AND GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE OIL SHALE BEARING GREEN RIVER FORMATION, UINTA BASIN, UTAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauren P. Birgenheier; Michael D. Vanden Berg,

    2011-04-11

    An integrated detailed sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical study of Utah's Green River Formation has found that Lake Uinta evolved in three phases (1) a freshwater rising lake phase below the Mahogany zone, (2) an anoxic deep lake phase above the base of the Mahogany zone and (3) a hypersaline lake phase within the middle and upper R-8. This long term lake evolution was driven by tectonic basin development and the balance of sediment and water fill with the neighboring basins, as postulated by models developed from the Greater Green River Basin by Carroll and Bohacs (1999). Early Eocene abrupt global-warming events may have had significant control on deposition through the amount of sediment production and deposition rates, such that lean zones below the Mahogany zone record hyperthermal events and rich zones record periods between hyperthermals. This type of climatic control on short-term and long-term lake evolution and deposition has been previously overlooked. This geologic history contains key points relevant to oil shale development and engineering design including: (1) Stratigraphic changes in oil shale quality and composition are systematic and can be related to spatial and temporal changes in the depositional environment and basin dynamics. (2) The inorganic mineral matrix of oil shale units changes significantly from clay mineral/dolomite dominated to calcite above the base of the Mahogany zone. This variation may result in significant differences in pyrolysis products and geomechanical properties relevant to development and should be incorporated into engineering experiments. (3) This study includes a region in the Uinta Basin that would be highly prospective for application of in-situ production techniques. Stratigraphic targets for in-situ recovery techniques should extend above and below the Mahogany zone and include the upper R-6 and lower R-8.

  15. Geologic, stratigraphic, thermal, and mechanical factors which influence repository design in the bedded salt environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, J.P.; Nair, O.; Ortman, D.; Rowe, J.

    1979-12-01

    This report describes the geologic, stratigraphic, thermal, and mechanical considerations applicable to repository design. The topics discussed in the report include: tectonic activity; geologic structure; stratigraphy; rock mechanical properties; and hydrologic properties

  16. Three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model of the Rio Grande transboundary region of New Mexico and Texas, USA, and northern Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2017-09-08

    As part of a U.S. Geological Survey study in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, a digital three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model was constructed for the Rio Grande transboundary region of New Mexico and Texas, USA, and northern Chihuahua, Mexico. This model was constructed to define the aquifer system geometry and subsurface lithologic characteristics and distribution for use in a regional numerical hydrologic model. The model includes five hydrostratigraphic units: river channel alluvium, three informal subdivisions of Santa Fe Group basin fill, and an undivided pre-Santa Fe Group bedrock unit. Model input data were compiled from published cross sections, well data, structure contour maps, selected geophysical data, and contiguous compilations of surficial geology and structural features in the study area. These data were used to construct faulted surfaces that represent the upper and lower subsurface hydrostratigraphic unit boundaries. The digital three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model is constructed through combining faults, the elevation of the tops of each hydrostratigraphic unit, and boundary lines depicting the subsurface extent of each hydrostratigraphic unit. The framework also compiles a digital representation of the distribution of sedimentary facies within each hydrostratigraphic unit. The digital three-dimensional hydrogeologic model reproduces with reasonable accuracy the previously published subsurface hydrogeologic conceptualization of the aquifer system and represents the large-scale geometry of the subsurface aquifers. The model is at a scale and resolution appropriate for use as the foundation for a numerical hydrologic model of the study area.

  17. The Influence of Stratigraphic History on Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, A. M.; Yanites, B.; Whipple, K. X.

    2016-12-01

    Variation in rock erodibility can play a significant role in landscape evolution. Using a version of the CHILD landscape evolution model that allows for variations in rock erodibility, we found surprisingly complex landscape evolution in simulations with simple, two unit stratigraphies with contrasting erodibility. This work indicated that the stratigraphic order of units in terms of erodibility, the orientation of the contact with respect to the main drainage direction, and the contact dip angle all have pronounced effects on landscape evolution. Here we expand that work to explore the implications of more complicated stratigraphies on landscape evolution. Introducing multiple units adds additional controls on landscape evolution, namely the thicknesses and relative erodibility of rock layers. In models with a sequence of five alternating hard and soft units embedded within arbitrarily thick over- and underlying units, the number of individual layers that noticeably influence landscape morphology decreases as the thickness of individual layers reduces. Contacts with soft rocks over hard produce the most noticeable effect in model output such as erosion rate and channel steepness. For large contrasts in erodibility of 25 m thick layers, only one soft over hard contact is clearly manifest in the landscape. Between 50 and 75 m, two such contacts are manifest, and by 100 m thickness, all three of these contacts are manifest. However, for a given thickness of layers, more units are manifest in the landscape as the erodibility contrast between units decreases. This is true even though the magnitude of landscape effects away from steady-state erosion rates or channel steepness also decrease with decreasing erodibility contrast. Finally, we explore suites of models with alternating layers reflecting either `hardening-' or `softening-upwards' stratigraphies and find that the two scenarios result in decidedly different landscape forms. Hardening-upwards sections produce a

  18. The Brahmaputra River: a stratigraphic analysis of Holocene avulsion and fluvial valley reoccupation history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzog, T. R.; Goodbred, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Brahmaputra River, one of the world's largest braided streams, is a major component of commerce, agriculture, and transportation in India and Bangladesh. Hence any significant change in course, morphology, or behavior would be likely to influence the regional culture and economy that relies on this major river system. The history of such changes is recorded in the stratigraphy deposited by the Brahmaputra River during the Holocene. Here we present stratigraphic analysis of sediment samples from the boring of 41 tube wells over a 120 km transect in the upper Bengal Basin of northern Bangladesh. The transect crosses both the modern fluvial valley and an abandoned fluvial valley about 60 km downstream of a major avulsion node. Although the modern Brahmaputra does not transport gravel, gravel strata are common below 20 m with fluvial sand deposits dominating most of the stratigraphy. Furthermore, the stratigraphy preserves very few floodplain mud strata below the modern floodplain mud cap. These preliminary findings will be assessed to determine their importance in defining past channel migration, avulsion frequency, and the reoccupation of abandoned fluvial valleys. Understanding the avulsion and valley reoccupation history of the Brahmaputra River is important to assess the risk involved with developing agriculture, business, and infrastructure on the banks of modern and abandoned channels. Based on the correlation of stratigraphy and digital surface elevation data, we hypothesize that the towns of Jamalpur and Sherpur in northern Bangladesh were once major ports on the Brahmaputra River even though they now lie on the banks of small underfit stream channels. If Jamalpur and Sherpur represent the outer extent of the Brahmaputra River braid-belt before the last major avulsion, these cities and any communities developed in the abandoned braid-belt assume a high risk of devastation if the next major avulsion reoccupies this fluvial valley. It is important to

  19. Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Overview of scientific and technical program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R.B.; Collett, T.S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B.J.; Digert, S.A.; Pospisil, G.; Baker, R.; Weeks, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well was drilled within the Alaska North Slope (ANS) Milne Point Unit (MPU) from February 3 to 19, 2007. The well was conducted as part of a Cooperative Research Agreement (CRA) project co-sponsored since 2001 by BP Exploration (Alaska), Inc. (BPXA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to help determine whether ANS gas hydrate can become a technically and commercially viable gas resource. Early in the effort, regional reservoir characterization and reservoir simulation modeling studies indicated that up to 0.34 trillion cubic meters (tcm; 12 trillion cubic feet, tcf) gas may be technically recoverable from 0.92 tcm (33 tcf) gas-in-place within the Eileen gas hydrate accumulation near industry infrastructure within ANS MPU, Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU), and Kuparuk River Unit (KRU) areas. To further constrain these estimates and to enable the selection of a test site for further data acquisition, the USGS reprocessed and interpreted MPU 3D seismic data provided by BPXA to delineate 14 prospects containing significant highly-saturated gas hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs. The "Mount Elbert" site was selected to drill a stratigraphic test well to acquire a full suite of wireline log, core, and formation pressure test data. Drilling results and data interpretation confirmed pre-drill predictions and thus increased confidence in both the prospect interpretation methods and in the wider ANS gas hydrate resource estimates. The interpreted data from the Mount Elbert well provide insight into and reduce uncertainty of key gas hydrate-bearing reservoir properties, enable further refinement and validation of the numerical simulation of the production potential of both MPU and broader ANS gas hydrate resources, and help determine viability of potential field sites for future extended term production testing. Drilling and data acquisition operations demonstrated that gas hydrate

  20. High resolution seismic stratigraphic analysis. An integrated approach to the subsurface geology of the SE Persian Gulf[Paper 2 is not open for the public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzadi, Pourdad

    2006-07-01

    The integration of seismic stratigraphy with depositional-sequence concepts has revolutionized the geologist's ability to predict subsurface stratigraphy. Describing sub-seismic-scale geometric and depositional cycle relationships within the larger, seismic-scale chronostratigraphic framework has given fascinating insights into carbonate platform evolution. Carbonates deposited on passive continental margins, such as on northeastern Arabian Platform which is the subject of this study, contain some of the major hydrocarbon accumulations of the world. As such, the study of their stratal geometric evolution has considerable relevance to hydrocarbon exploration. The first stage of this study focuses on the Cenomanian Mishrif and Khatiyah Formations in SE Persian Gulf. Working with 40 Hz conventional 3D seismic data in the first stage illustrated that, in comparison with high-resolution outcrop-defined sequences in the literature, the third-order sequence scale (composite sequence scale) within the Cenomanian Mishrif and Khatiyah Formations is seismically resolvable. This study brings new insight into carbonate platform evolution from the interpretation of the Khatiyah Formation, which is known only as a regional source rock, leading to recognition of a very low-risk prospect reservoir. The new information gained from the successive stages of drowning and back-stepping of carbonate platforms has important implications for reservoir development and can serve as a reference for regional stratigraphy. The seismic interpretation of the Aptian Dariyan Formation, a potential regional reservoir unit, illustrates that conventional seismic data are insufficient to reveal the internal heterogeneity. Outcrop examples of the laterally-equivalent Shu'aiba Formation, a prolific carbonate reservoir in the UAE, indicate the Dariyan Formation should have a complex internal architecture. However complex internal geometries are apparently not seismically resolvable in the

  1. Superfund Remedial Acquisition Framework SOL-R3-13-00006: Region 3 - National Remedial Action Contracts / Multiple Award Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Region 3 - EPA is performing market research to determine if industry has the capability and capacity to perform the work, on a national level, as described in the attached draft Statement of Work /Performance Work Statement(SOW/PWS).

  2. Discovery of Jurassic ammonite-bearing series in Jebel Bou Hedma (South-Central Tunisian Atlas): Implications for stratigraphic correlations and paleogeographic reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrouni, Néjib; Houla, Yassine; Soussi, Mohamed; Boughdiri, Mabrouk; Ali, Walid Ben; Nasri, Ahmed; Bouaziz, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Recent geological mapping undertaken in the Southern-Central Atlas of Tunisia led to the discovery of Jurassic ammonite-bearing series in the Jebel Bou Hedma E-W anticline structure. These series represent the Southernmost Jurassic rocks ever documented in the outcrops of the Tunisian Atlas. These series which outcrop in a transitional zone between the Southern Tunisian Atlas and the Chott basin offer a valuable benchmark for new stratigraphic correlation with the well-known Jurassic series of the North-South Axis of Central Tunisia and also with the Jurassic subsurface successions transected by petroleum wells in the study area. The preliminary investigations allowed the identification, within the most complete section outcropping in the center of the structure, of numerous useful biochronological and sedimentological markers helping in the establishment of an updated Jurassic stratigraphic framework chart of South-Western Tunisia. Additionally, the Late Jurassic succession documents syn-sedimentary features such as slumping, erosion and reworking of sediments and ammonite faunas that can be considered as strong witnesses of an important geodynamic event around the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary. These stratigraphic and geodynamic new data make of the Jurassic of Jebel Bou Hedma a key succession for stratigraphic correlation attempt between Atlas Tunisian series and those currently buried in the Chott basin or outcropping in the Saharan platform. Furthermore, the several rich-ammonite identified horizons within the Middle and Upper Jurassic series constitute reliable time lines that can be useful for both paleogeographic and geodynamic reconstructions of this part of the North African Tethyan margin but also in the refinement of the potential migration routes for ammonite populations from the Maghrebian Southern Tethys to Arabia.

  3. A stratigraphic model to support remediation of groundwater contamination in the southern San Francisco Bay area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinpress, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    Some early regional studies in the southern San Francisco Bay Area applied the term 'older bay mud' to Wisconsin and older deposits thought to be estuarine in origin. This outdated interpretation has apparently contributed to an expectation of laterally-continuous aquifers and aquitards. In fact, heterogeneous alluvial deposits often create complex hydrogeologic settings that defy simple remedial approaches. A more useful stratigraphic model provides a foundation for conducting site investigations and assessing the feasibility of remediation. A synthesis of recent regional studies and drilling results at one site on the southwest margin of the Bay indicate that the upper quaternary stratigraphy consists of four primary units in the upper 200 feet of sediments (oldest to youngest): (1) Illinoian glacial-age alluvium (an important groundwater source); (2) Sangamon interglacial-age deposits, which include fine-grained alluvial deposits and estuarine deposits equivalent to the Yerba Buena Mud (a regional confining layer); (3) Wisconsin glacial-age alluvial fan and floodplain deposits; and (4) Holocene interglacial-age sediments, which include fine-grained alluvial and estuarine deposits equivalent to the 'younger bay mud'. Remedial investigations generally focus on groundwater contamination in the Wisconsin and Holocene alluvial deposits. Detailed drilling results indicate that narrow sand and gravel channels occur in anastomosing patterns within a Wisconsin to Holocene floodplain sequence dominated by interchannel silts and clays. The identification of these small-scale high-permeability conduits is critical to understanding and predicting contaminant transport on a local scale. Discontinuous site-specific aquitards do not provide competent separation where stacked channels occur and the correlation of aquitards over even small distance is often tenuous at best

  4. The Oligocene-Miocene stratigraphic evolution of the Majella carbonate platform (Central Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandano, Marco; Cornacchia, Irene; Raffi, Isabella; Tomassetti, Laura

    2016-03-01

    The stratigraphic architecture of the Bolognano Formation documents the evolution of the Majella carbonate platform in response to global and local changes that affected the Mediterranean area during the Oligocene-Miocene interval. The Bolognano Formation consists of a homoclinal ramp that developed in a warm, subtropical environment. Five different lithofacies associations have been identified: Lepidocyclina calcarenites, cherty marly limestones, bryozon calcarenites, hemipelagic marls and marly limestones, and Lithothamnion limestones. Each association corresponds to a single lithostratigraphic unit except for the Lepidocyclina calcarenites that form two distinct lithostratigraphic units (Lepidocyclina calcarenites 1 and 2). These six units reflect alternation of shallow-water carbonate production and drowning. Specifically, two of the three stages of shallow-water carbonate production regard the development of wide dune fields within the middle ramp, one stage dominated by red algae and a sea-grass carbonate factory, whereas the two drowning phases are represented by marly cherty limestones and calcareous marls. A new biostratigraphic framework for Bolognano Formation is presented, based on high-resolution analysis of calcareous nannofossil assemblages, which proved to be very useful for biostratigraphic constraints also in shallow-water settings. Using this approach, we have linked the first drowning phase, late Chattian-Aquitanian p.p. in age, to western Mediterranean volcanism and the Mi-1 event, and the second drowning phase, late Burdigalian-Serravallian in age, to the closure of the Indo-Pacific passage and the occurrence of the global Monterey event. These results permit a new deciphering, in terms of sequence stratigraphy, of the Bolognano Formation that is interpreted as a 2nd-order super-sequence that can be subdivided into 3 transgressive-regressive sequences.

  5. [Political and organizational-legal frameworks for cooperation between countries of the Asia-Pacific region in the field of military medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholikov, I V; Dmitrakovich, D V

    2014-12-01

    A framework for cooperation in the field of military medicine in the Asia-Pacific region is considered. Expert Working Group on Military Medicine in cooperation with the Association of Southeast Asian dialogue partners (including Russia) was formed to discuss the most important issues in the field of military medicine, to share practical experience of military physicians, standardization and unification of medical equipment, medicines, levels and standards of medical services and other issues in order to enhance cooperation of military medical services of the participating countries. From 2014 to 2016, the Russian Federation and the Kingdom of Thailand are co-chairs of the expert group.

  6. Student learning and understanding of sequence stratigraphic principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Juan Sebastian

    Research in geoscience education addressing students' conceptions of geological subjects has concentrated in topics such as geological time, plate tectonics, and problem solving in the field, mostly in K-12 and entry level college scenarios. Science education research addressing learning of sedimentary systems in advance undergraduates is rather limited. Therefore, this dissertation contributed to filling that research gap and explored students' narratives when explaining geological processes associated with the interaction between sediment deposition and sea level fluctuations. The purpose of the present study was to identify the common conceptions and alternative conceptions held by students when learning the basics of the sub discipline known as sequence stratigraphy - which concepts students were familiar and easily identified, and which ones they had more difficulty with. In addition, we mapped the cognitive models that underlie those conceptions by analyzing students' gestures and conceptual metaphors used in their explanations. This research also investigated the interaction between geoscientific visual displays and student gesturing in a specific learning context. In this research, an in-depth assessment of 27 students' ideas of the basic principles of sequence stratigraphy was completed. Participants were enrolled in advanced undergraduate stratigraphy courses at three research-intensive universities in Midwest U.S. Data collection methods included semi-structured interviews, spatial visualization tests, and lab assignments. Results indicated that students poorly integrated temporal and spatial scales in their sequence stratigraphic models, and that many alternative conceptions were more deeply rooted than others, especially those related to eustasy and base level. In order to better understand the depth of these conceptions, we aligned the analysis of gesture with the theory of conceptual metaphor to recognize the use of mental models known as image

  7. BRICK v0.2, a simple, accessible, and transparent model framework for climate and regional sea-level projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Wong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Simple models can play pivotal roles in the quantification and framing of uncertainties surrounding climate change and sea-level rise. They are computationally efficient, transparent, and easy to reproduce. These qualities also make simple models useful for the characterization of risk. Simple model codes are increasingly distributed as open source, as well as actively shared and guided. Alas, computer codes used in the geosciences can often be hard to access, run, modify (e.g., with regards to assumptions and model components, and review. Here, we describe the simple model framework BRICK (Building blocks for Relevant Ice and Climate Knowledge v0.2 and its underlying design principles. The paper adds detail to an earlier published model setup and discusses the inclusion of a land water storage component. The framework largely builds on existing models and allows for projections of global mean temperature as well as regional sea levels and coastal flood risk. BRICK is written in R and Fortran. BRICK gives special attention to the model values of transparency, accessibility, and flexibility in order to mitigate the above-mentioned issues while maintaining a high degree of computational efficiency. We demonstrate the flexibility of this framework through simple model intercomparison experiments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that BRICK is suitable for risk assessment applications by using a didactic example in local flood risk management.

  8. Projecting regional climate and cropland changes using a linked biogeophysical-socioeconomic modeling framework: 1. Model description and an equilibrium application over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiling; Ahmed, Kazi Farzan; You, Liangzhi; Yu, Miao; Pal, Jeremy; Ji, Zhenming

    2017-03-01

    Agricultural land use alters regional climate through modifying the surface mass, energy, and momentum fluxes; climate influences agricultural land use through their impact on crop yields. These interactions are not well understood and have not been adequately considered in climate projections. This study tackles the critical linkages within the coupled natural-human system of West Africa in a changing climate based on an equilibrium application of a modeling framework that asynchronously couples models of regional climate, crop yield, multimarket agricultural economics, and cropland expansion. Using this regional modeling framework driven with two global climate models, we assess the contributions of land use change (LUC) and greenhouse gas (GHGs) concentration changes to regional climate changes and assess the contribution of climate change and socioeconomic factors to agricultural land use changes. For future cropland expansion in West Africa, our results suggest that socioeconomic development would be the dominant driver in the east (where current cropland coverage is already high) and climate changes would be the primary driver in the west (where future yield drop is severe). For future climate, it is found that agricultural expansion would cause a dry signal in the west and a wet signal in the east downwind, with an east-west contrast similar to the GHG-induced changes. Over a substantial portion of West Africa, the strength of the LUC-induced climate signals is comparable to the GHG-induced changes. Uncertainties originating from the driving global models are small; human decision making related to land use and international trade is a major source of uncertainty.

  9. A data-driven emulation framework for representing water-food nexus in a changing cold region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazemi, A.; Zandmoghaddam, S.; Hatami, S.

    2017-12-01

    Water resource systems are under increasing pressure globally. Growing population along with competition between water demands and emerging effects of climate change have caused enormous vulnerabilities in water resource management across many regions. Diagnosing such vulnerabilities and provision of effective adaptation strategies requires the availability of simulation tools that can adequately represent the interactions between competing water demands for limiting water resources and inform decision makers about the critical vulnerability thresholds under a range of potential natural and anthropogenic conditions. Despite a significant progress in integrated modeling of water resource systems, regional models are often unable to fully represent the contemplating dynamics within the key elements of water resource systems locally. Here we propose a data-driven approach to emulate a complex regional water resource system model developed for Oldman River Basin in southern Alberta, Canada. The aim of the emulation is to provide a detailed understanding of the trade-offs and interaction at the Oldman Reservoir, which is the key to flood control and irrigated agriculture in this over-allocated semi-arid cold region. Different surrogate models are developed to represent the dynamic of irrigation demand and withdrawal as well as reservoir evaporation and release individually. The nan-falsified offline models are then integrated through the water balance equation at the reservoir location to provide a coupled model for representing the dynamic of reservoir operation and water allocation at the local scale. The performance of individual and integrated models are rigorously examined and sources of uncertainty are highlighted. To demonstrate the practical utility of such surrogate modeling approach, we use the integrated data-driven model for examining the trade-off in irrigation water supply, reservoir storage and release under a range of changing climate, upstream

  10. The UNESCO-IOC framework – establishing an international early warning infrastructure in the Indian Ocean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lauterjung

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake with a magnitude of 9.3, and the subsequent destructive tsunami which caused more than 225 000 fatalities in the region of the Indian Ocean, happened on 26 December 2004. Less than one month later, the United Nations (UN World Conference on Disaster Reduction took place in Kobe, Japan to commemorate the 1995 Kobe earthquake. The importance of preparedness and awareness on regional, national and community levels with respect to natural disasters was discussed during this meeting, and resulted in the approval of the Hyogo Declaration on Disaster Reduction. Based on this declaration the UN mandated the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC of UNESCO (United Nations Education, Science and Cultural Organization, taking note of its over 40 years of successful coordination of the Pacific Tsunami Warning System (PTWC, to take on the international coordination of national early-warning efforts for the Indian Ocean and to guide the process of setting up a Regional Tsunami Early Warning System for the Indian Ocean.

  11. Assessing a cross-border logistics policy using a performance measurement system framework: the case of Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David W. C.; Choy, K. L.; Chow, Harry K. H.; Lin, Canhong

    2014-06-01

    For the most rapidly growing economic entity in the world, China, a new logistics operation called the indirect cross-border supply chain model has recently emerged. The primary idea of this model is to reduce logistics costs by storing goods at a bonded warehouse with low storage cost in certain Chinese regions, such as the Pearl River Delta (PRD). This research proposes a performance measurement system (PMS) framework to assess the direct and indirect cross-border supply chain models. The PMS covers four categories including cost, time, quality and flexibility in the assessment of the performance of direct and indirect models. Furthermore, a survey was conducted to investigate the logistics performance of third party logistics (3PLs) at the PRD regions, including Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. The significance of the proposed PMS framework allows 3PLs accurately pinpoint the weakness and strengths of it current operations policy at four major performance measurement categories. Hence, this helps 3PLs further enhance the competitiveness and operations efficiency through better resources allocation at the area of warehousing and transportation.

  12. Lithofacies and sequence stratigraphic description of the upper part of the Avon Park Formation and the Arcadia Formation in U.S. Geological Survey G–2984 test corehole, Broward County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Robinson, Edward

    2017-07-18

    Rock core and sediment from U.S. Geological Survey test corehole G–2984 completed in 2011 in Broward County, Florida, provide an opportunity to improve the understanding of the lithostratigraphic, sequence stratigraphic, and hydrogeologic framework of the intermediate confining unit and Floridan aquifer system in southeastern Florida. A multidisciplinary approach including characterization of sequence stratigraphy, lithofacies, ichnology, foraminiferal paleontology, depositional environments, porosity, and permeability was used to describe the geologic samples from this test corehole. This information has produced a detailed characterization of the lithofacies and sequence stratigraphy of the upper part of the middle Eocene Avon Park Formation and Oligocene to middle Miocene Arcadia Formation. This enhancement of the knowledge of the sequence stratigraphic framework is especially important, because subaerial karst unconformities at the upper boundary of depositional cycles at various hierarchical scales are commonly associated with secondary porosity and enhanced permeability in the Floridan aquifer system.

  13. New SHRIMP zircon results from Broken Hill: towards robust stratigraphic and event timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, R.W.; Stevens, B.P.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Zircon U-Pb SHRIMP geochronology is a powerful means of elucidating geological ages, providing that it is integrated with unequivocal field constraints, and providing that the fundamental assumptions which are behind any isotopic dating methods are geologically validated. In an attempt to better quantify the timing of Broken Hill's complex history and to reduce some current uncertainties, we report initial results from a new U-Pb SHRIMP investigation. This program was planned within the background of our own disparate stratigraphic and structural approaches to Broken Hill geology, and with objectives to (a) benchmark our new age results with those of previous workers as well as our own previous work in the Broken Hill Group, (b) evaluate and test the evidence for reported Archaean basement terrain, (c) date stratigraphic units in the upper parts of the Willyama Supergroup, (d) better constrain the timing of deformational events. Our U-Pb SHRIMP work on zircons from layered paragneisses in the Redan Geophysical Zone near Farmcote was catalysed by Nutman and Ehlers' (1998a) preferred interpretation that these 'strondhjemitic' gneisses represent an original ∼2650 Ma protolith. Our work finds zircon provenance age signatures typical of almost all ca. 1700 Ma metasediments, whether in the Broken Hill Block or other Australian Palaeoproterozoic settings. This therefore suggests that the rocks are not Archaean basement, but are part of a Thackaringa Group package possibly deposited about 1705-1710 Ma ago. New SHRIMP work on the Alma Gneiss provides a magmatic age of 1704±3 Ma, and a minimum stratigraphic age for host Thackaringa Group. This result is within error of our ages for other granitoids (1703±3 Ma, 1704±3 Ma) in the same stratigraphic position near Farmcote. As the Thackaringa Group is no more than 1000-1500 metres thick and includes 1710-1700 Ma detrital zircons, pan of the Alma Gneiss intrusion may well have been shallowly intruded, and akin to

  14. Assessment of gridded observations used for climate model validation in the Mediterranean region: the HyMeX and MED-CORDEX framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaounas, Emmanouil; Drobinski, Philippe; Borga, Marco; Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Delrieu, Guy; Morin, Efrat; Tartari, Gianni; Toffolon, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    This letter assesses the quality of temperature and rainfall daily retrievals of the European Climate Assessment and Dataset (ECA and D) with respect to measurements collected locally in various parts of the Euro-Mediterranean region in the framework of the Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment (HyMeX), endorsed by the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP). The ECA and D, among other gridded datasets, is very often used as a reference for model calibration and evaluation. This is for instance the case in the context of the WCRP Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) and its Mediterranean declination MED-CORDEX. This letter quantifies ECA and D dataset uncertainties associated with temperature and precipitation intra-seasonal variability, seasonal distribution and extremes. Our motivation is to help the interpretation of the results when validating or calibrating downscaling models by the ECA and D dataset in the context of regional climate research in the Euro-Mediterranean region. (letter)

  15. Towards a regional ocean forecasting system for the IBI (Iberia-Biscay-Ireland area: developments and improvements within the ECOOP project framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cailleau

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The regional ocean operational system remains a key element in downscaling from large scale (global or basin scale systems to coastal ones. It enables the transition between systems in which the resolution and the resolved physics are quite different. Indeed, coastal applications need a system to predict local high frequency events (inferior to the day such as storm surges, while deep sea applications need a system to predict large scale lower frequency ocean features. In the framework of the ECOOP project, a regional system for the Iberia-Biscay-Ireland area has been upgraded from an existing V0 version to a V2. This paper focuses on the improvements from the V1 system, for which the physics are close to a large scale basin system, to the V2 for which the physics are more adapted to shelf and coastal issues. Strong developments such as higher regional physics resolution in the NEMO Ocean General Circulation Model for tides, non linear free surface and adapted vertical mixing schemes among others have been implemented in the V2 version. Thus, regional thermal fronts due to tidal mixing now appear in the latest version solution and are quite well positioned. Moreover, simulation of the stratification in shelf areas is also improved in the V2.

  16. Modeling framework for estimating impacts of climate change on electricity demand at regional level: Case of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirasgedis, S.; Sarafidis, Y.; Georgopoulou, E.; Kotroni, V.; Lagouvardos, K.; Lalas, D.P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the potential upcoming impacts of climate change in the 21st century on electricity demand at regional/national levels for regions where topography and location result in large differences in local climate. To address this issue, a regional climate model, PRECIS, has been used to predict future climatic conditions under different emissions scenarios (namely A2 and B2 of the IPCC special report on emissions scenarios (SRES)) as an input to a multiple regression model of the sensitivity of electricity demand in the Greek interconnected power system to climate and socio-economic factors. The economic development input to the multiple regression model follows the same storylines of the SRES scenarios upto 2100 and includes sub-scenarios to cover larger and smaller economic development rates. The results of the analysis indicate an increase of the annual electricity demand attributable solely to climate change of 3.6-5.5% under all scenarios examined, most of which results from increased annual variability with substantial increases during the summer period that outweighs moderate declines estimated for the winter period. This becomes more pronounced if inter-annual variability, especially of summer months, is taken into consideration. It was also found that in the long run, economic development will have a strong effect on future electricity demand, thus increasing substantially the total amount of energy consumed for cooling and heating purposes. This substantial increase in energy demand with strong annual variability will lead to the need for inordinate increases of installed capacity, a large percentage of which will be under utilized. Thus, appropriate adaptation strategies (e.g. new investments, interconnections with other power systems, energy saving programmes, etc.) need to be developed at the state level in order to ensure the security of energy supply. (author)

  17. OptMAVEn--a new framework for the de novo design of antibody variable region models targeting specific antigen epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Li

    Full Text Available Antibody-based therapeutics provides novel and efficacious treatments for a number of diseases. Traditional experimental approaches for designing therapeutic antibodies rely on raising antibodies against a target antigen in an immunized animal or directed evolution of antibodies with low affinity for the desired antigen. However, these methods remain time consuming, cannot target a specific epitope and do not lead to broad design principles informing other studies. Computational design methods can overcome some of these limitations by using biophysics models to rationally select antibody parts that maximize affinity for a target antigen epitope. This has been addressed to some extend by OptCDR for the design of complementary determining regions. Here, we extend this earlier contribution by addressing the de novo design of a model of the entire antibody variable region against a given antigen epitope while safeguarding for immunogenicity (Optimal Method for Antibody Variable region Engineering, OptMAVEn. OptMAVEn simulates in silico the in vivo steps of antibody generation and evolution, and is capable of capturing the critical structural features responsible for affinity maturation of antibodies. In addition, a humanization procedure was developed and incorporated into OptMAVEn to minimize the potential immunogenicity of the designed antibody models. As case studies, OptMAVEn was applied to design models of neutralizing antibodies targeting influenza hemagglutinin and HIV gp120. For both HA and gp120, novel computational antibody models with numerous interactions with their target epitopes were generated. The observed rates of mutations and types of amino acid changes during in silico affinity maturation are consistent with what has been observed during in vivo affinity maturation. The results demonstrate that OptMAVEn can efficiently generate diverse computational antibody models with both optimized binding affinity to antigens and reduced

  18. Use of stratigraphic models as soft information to constrain stochastic modeling of rock properties: Development of the GSLIB-Lynx integration module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cromer, M.V.; Rautman, C.A.

    1995-10-01

    Rock properties in volcanic units at Yucca Mountain are controlled largely by relatively deterministic geologic processes related to the emplacement, cooling, and alteration history of the tuffaceous lithologic sequence. Differences in the lithologic character of the rocks have been used to subdivide the rock sequence into stratigraphic units, and the deterministic nature of the processes responsible for the character of the different units can be used to infer the rock material properties likely to exist in unsampled regions. This report proposes a quantitative, theoretically justified method of integrating interpretive geometric models, showing the three-dimensional distribution of different stratigraphic units, with numerical stochastic simulation techniques drawn from geostatistics. This integration of soft, constraining geologic information with hard, quantitative measurements of various material properties can produce geologically reasonable, spatially correlated models of rock properties that are free from stochastic artifacts for use in subsequent physical-process modeling, such as the numerical representation of ground-water flow and radionuclide transport. Prototype modeling conducted using the GSLIB-Lynx Integration Module computer program, known as GLINTMOD, has successfully demonstrated the proposed integration technique. The method involves the selection of stratigraphic-unit-specific material-property expected values that are then used to constrain the probability function from which a material property of interest at an unsampled location is simulated

  19. Stratigraphic evolution of the Late Jurassic Hanifa Formation along the Tuwaiq Escarpment, Saudi Arabia: Evidence for a carbonate ramp system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallatah, Mohammed I.; Kerans, Charles

    2018-01-01

    A sequence stratigraphic framework of the Late Jurassic (Oxfordian) Hanifa Formation at its exposure in Central Arabia is presented for the first time. This study offers the first high-resolution stratigraphic framework of the Hanifa along the Tuwaiq Escarpment by measuring 15 sections ( 770 m total thickness) over an oblique-to-dip distance of 260 km and collecting 295 samples for petrographic analysis. On the basis of these data, the Hanifa Formation can be subdivided into eight facies; 1) tabular cross-bedded quartz-peloidal-skeletal grainstone, 2) cross-bedded skeletal-peloidal grainstone, 3) bioturbated foraminiferal wackestone/mud-dominated packstone, 4) oncolitic rudstone, 5) stromatoporoid-coral biostrome/bioherm, 6) peloidal/composite-grain grain-dominated packstone/grainstone, 7) bioturbated spiculitic wackestone/mud-dominated packstone, and 8) thinly-bedded argillaceous mudstone/wackestone. The vertical and lateral distributions of these facies along the exposure define their sequence setting using the principals of sequence stratigraphy. By recognizing erosional surfaces, facies offset, and changes in facies proportions, five third-order sequences, with an average duration of 1.1 Myr, are interpreted for the Hanifa Formation. The correlation of the sequences across the study area shows that only four sequences are preserved in the north where shallow-water deposits are well-developed. Facies trends within these sequences are further illustrated in depositional models representing the highstand systems tracts (HST) and the transgressive systems tracts (TST) of the Hanifa Formation. These proposed models represent depositional settings of a carbonate ramp with normal open-marine conditions. The HST depositional model is characterized by a high-energy shoreline and depicts the presence of an offshore, structurally controlled skeletal-peloidal shoal body described here for the first time at the Hanifa exposure in the Hozwa area. This work provides a

  20. Knowledge and perceived implementation of food safety risk analysis framework in Latin America and the Caribbean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, C; Mohr, A Hofelich; Lindsay, T; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Hueston, W; Sampedro, F

    2014-12-01

    Risk analysis is increasingly promoted as a tool to support science-based decisions regarding food safety. An online survey comprising 45 questions was used to gather information on the implementation of food safety risk analysis within the Latin American and Caribbean regions. Professionals working in food safety in academia, government, and private sectors in Latin American and Caribbean countries were contacted by email and surveyed to assess their individual knowledge of risk analysis and perceptions of its implementation in the region. From a total of 279 participants, 97% reported a familiarity with risk analysis concepts; however, fewer than 25% were able to correctly identify its key principles. The reported implementation of risk analysis among the different professional sectors was relatively low (46%). Participants from industries in countries with a long history of trade with the United States and the European Union, such as Mexico, Brazil, and Chile, reported perceptions of a higher degree of risk analysis implementation (56, 50, and 20%, respectively) than those from the rest of the countries, suggesting that commerce may be a driver for achieving higher food safety standards. Disagreement among respondents on the extent of the use of risk analysis in national food safety regulations was common, illustrating a systematic lack of understanding of the current regulatory status of the country. The results of this survey can be used to target further risk analysis training on selected sectors and countries.

  1. Stratigraphic model deposit Ofi Inf SDZ-2X A1, Jun in block in Orinoco Oil belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, E.; Sandoval, D.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about the Stratigraphic model deposit O fi I nf SDZ-2X A1, Junin block in Orinoco Oil belt.This model was based on a chrono stratigraphic interpretation and was defined the correlation between the main and secondary surfaces. The wells of the study area pass through the Cambrian, Cretaceous and Miocene sediments. The last is more interesting for the study because of the stratigraphic and sand body surface presence

  2. Geostatistical and stratigraphic analysis of deltaic reservoirs from the Reconcavo Basin, Brazil; Analise estratigrafica e geoestatistica de reservatorios deltaicos da Bacia do Reconcavo (BA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Carlos Moreira

    1997-07-01

    This study presents the characterization of the external geometry of deltaic oil reservoirs, including the description of their areal distribution using geo statistic tools, such as variography and kriging. A high-resolution stratigraphic study was developed over a 25 km{sup 2} area, by using data from 276 closely-spaced wells of an oil-producer field from the Reconcavo Basin, northeastern Brazil. The studied succession records the progressive lacustrine transgression of a deltaic environment. Core data and stratigraphic cross sections suggest that the oil reservoirs are mostly amalgamated, delta-front lobes, and subordinately, crevasse deposits. Some important geometrical elements were recognized by the detailed variographic analysis developed for each stratigraphic unit (zone). The average width for the groups of deltaic lobes of one zone was measured from the variographic feature informally named as hole effect. This procedure was not possible for the other zones due to the intense lateral amalgamation of sandstones, indicated by many variographic nested structures. Net sand krigged maps for the main zones suggest a NNW-SSE orientation for the deltaic lobes, as also their common amalgamation and compensation arrangements. High-resolution stratigraphic analyses should include a more regional characterization of the depositional system that comprises the studied succession. On the other hand, geostatistical studies should be developed only after the recognition of the depositional processes acting in the study area and the geological meaning of the variable to be treated, including its spatial variability scales as a function of sand body thickness, orientation and amalgamation. (author)

  3. Stratigraphic architecture of a fluvial-lacustrine basin-fill succession at Desolation Canyon, Uinta Basin, Utah: Reference to Walthers’ Law and implications for the petroleum industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Grace L.; David R. Pyles,; Dechesne, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    A continuous window into the fluvial-lacustrine basin-fill succession of the Uinta Basin is exposed along a 48-mile (77-kilometer) transect up the modern Green River from Three Fords to Sand Wash in Desolation Canyon, Utah. In ascending order the stratigraphic units are: 1) Flagstaff Limestone, 2) lower Wasatch member of the Wasatch Formation, 3) middle Wasatch member of the Wasatch Formation, 4) upper Wasatch member of the Wasatch Formation, 5) Uteland Butte member of the lower Green River Formation, 6) lower Green River Formation, 7) Renegade Tongue of the lower Green River Formation, 8) middle Green River Formation, and 9) the Mahogany oil shale zone marking the boundary between the middle and upper Green River Formations. This article uses regional field mapping, geologic maps, photographs, and descriptions of the stratigraphic unit including: 1) bounding surfaces, 2) key upward stratigraphic characteristics within the unit, and 3) longitudinal changes along the river transect. This information is used to create a north-south cross section through the basin-fill succession and a detailed geologic map of Desolation Canyon. The cross section documents stratigraphic relationships previously unreported and contrasts with earlier interpretations in two ways: 1) abrupt upward shifts in the stratigraphy documented herein, contrast with the gradual interfingering relationships proposed by Ryder et al., (1976) and Fouch et al., (1994), 2) we document fluvial deposits of the lower and middle Wasatch to be distinct and more widespread than previously recognized. In addition, we document that the Uteland Butte member of the lower Green River Formation was deposited in a lacustrine environment in Desolation Canyon.

  4. People-Technology-Ecosystem Integration: A Framework to Ensure Regional Interoperability for Safety, Sustainability, and Resilience of Interdependent Energy, Water, and Seafood Sources in the (Persian) Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkati, Najmedin; Tabibzadeh, Maryam; Farshid, Ali; Rahimi, Mansour; Alhanaee, Ghena

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the interdependencies of human and organizational subsystems of multiple complex, safety-sensitive technological systems and their interoperability in the context of sustainability and resilience of an ecosystem. Recent technological disasters with severe environmental impact are attributed to human factors and safety culture causes. One of the most populous and environmentally sensitive regions in the world, the (Persian) Gulf, is on the confluence of an exponentially growing number of two industries--nuclear power and seawater desalination plants--that is changing its land- and seascape. Building upon Rasmussen's model, a macrosystem integrative framework, based on the broader context of human factors, is developed, which can be considered in this context as a "meta-ergonomics" paradigm, for the analysis of interactions, design of interoperability, and integration of decisions of major actors whose actions can affect safety and sustainability of the focused industries during routine and nonroutine (emergency) operations. Based on the emerging realities in the Gulf region, it is concluded that without such systematic approach toward addressing the interdependencies of water and energy sources, sustainability will be only a short-lived dream and prosperity will be a disappearing mirage for millions of people in the region. This multilayered framework for the integration of people, technology, and ecosystem--which has been applied to the (Persian) Gulf--offers a viable and vital approach to the design and operation of large-scale complex systems wherever the nexus of water, energy, and food sources are concerned, such as the Black Sea. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  5. The Model of Gas Supply Capacity Simulation In Regional Energy Security Framework: Policy Studies PT. X Cirebon Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryadin; Ronny Rahman Nitibaskara, Tb; Herdiansyah, Herdis; Sari, Ravita

    2017-10-01

    The needs of energy are increasing every year. The unavailability of energy will cause economic losses and weaken energy security. To overcome the availability of gas supply in the future, planning are cruacially needed. Therefore, it is necessary to approach the system, so that the process of gas distribution is running properly. In this research, system dynamic method will be used to measure how much supply capacity planning is needed until 2050, with parameters of demand in industrial, household and commercial sectors. From the model obtained PT.X Cirebon area in 2031 was not able to meet the needs of gas customers in the Cirebon region, as well as with Businnes as usual scenario, the ratio of gas fulfillment only until 2027. The implementation of the national energy policy that is the use of NRE as government intervention in the model is produced up to 2035 PT.X Cirebon area is still able to supply the gas needs of its customers.

  6. A regional scale modeling framework combining biogeochemical model with life cycle and economic analysis for integrated assessment of cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaie, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Bolte, John P; Murthy, Ganti S

    2018-06-01

    The goal of this study was to integrate a crop model, DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition), with life cycle assessment (LCA) and economic analysis models using a GIS-based integrated platform, ENVISION. The integrated model enables LCA practitioners to conduct integrated economic analysis and LCA on a regional scale while capturing the variability of soil emissions due to variation in regional factors during production of crops and biofuel feedstocks. In order to evaluate the integrated model, the corn-soybean cropping system in Eagle Creek Watershed, Indiana was studied and the integrated model was used to first model the soil emissions and then conduct the LCA as well as economic analysis. The results showed that the variation in soil emissions due to variation in weather is high causing some locations to be carbon sink in some years and source of CO 2 in other years. In order to test the model under different scenarios, two tillage scenarios were defined: 1) conventional tillage (CT) and 2) no tillage (NT) and analyzed with the model. The overall GHG emissions for the corn-soybean cropping system was simulated and results showed that the NT scenario resulted in lower soil GHG emissions compared to CT scenario. Moreover, global warming potential (GWP) of corn ethanol from well to pump varied between 57 and 92gCO 2 -eq./MJ while GWP under the NT system was lower than that of the CT system. The cost break-even point was calculated as $3612.5/ha in a two year corn-soybean cropping system and the results showed that under low and medium prices for corn and soybean most of the farms did not meet the break-even point. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Freight Analysis Framework Verson 4 (FAF4) - Building the FAF4 Regional Database: Data Sources and Estimation Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Hargrove, Stephanie [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Wilson, Daniel W [ORNL; Taylor, Rob D [ORNL; Davidson, Diane [ORNL

    2016-09-01

    The Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) integrates data from a variety of sources to create a comprehensive national picture of freight movements among states and major metropolitan areas by all modes of transportation. It provides a national picture of current freight flows to, from, and within the United States, assigns the flows to the transportation network, and projects freight flow patterns into the future. The FAF4 is the fourth database of its kind, FAF1 provided estimates for truck, rail, and water tonnage for calendar year 1998, FAF2 provided a more complete picture based on the 2002 Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) and FAF3 made further improvements building on the 2007 CFS. Since the first FAF effort, a number of changes in both data sources and products have taken place. The FAF4 flow matrix described in this report is used as the base-year data to forecast future freight activities, projecting shipment weights and values from year 2020 to 2045 in five-year intervals. It also provides the basis for annual estimates to the FAF4 flow matrix, aiming to provide users with the timeliest data. Furthermore, FAF4 truck freight is routed on the national highway network to produce the FAF4 network database and flow assignments for truck. This report details the data sources and methodologies applied to develop the base year 2012 FAF4 database. An overview of the FAF4 components is briefly discussed in Section 2. Effects on FAF4 from the changes in the 2012 CFS are highlighted in Section 3. Section 4 provides a general discussion on the process used in filling data gaps within the domestic CFS matrix, specifically on the estimation of CFS suppressed/unpublished cells. Over a dozen CFS OOS components of FAF4 are then addressed in Section 5 through Section 11 of this report. This includes discussions of farm-based agricultural shipments in Section 5, shipments from fishery and logging sectors in Section 6. Shipments of municipal solid wastes and debris from construction

  8. Formation and distribution of large lithologic-stratigraphic oil & gas fields (provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizhen Tao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the “Tenth Five-Year Plan”, lithologic and stratigraphic reservoirs have been the main contribution of both the discovery as well as reserve and production increase in China; there were about 80% of proven reserves. The typical reservoirs in six major basins in the eastern, central, and western China were adopted as reservoir forming models. The reservoir forming models in three types of slopes, three types of depressions, and three types of lithologic reservoir assemblages have been built on the basis of application of new technologies, physical modeling of reservoir forming mechanism, and investigation to the formation and distribution of the reservoirs. The evaluation methods for large lithologic reservoirs provinces were established based on the forming mechanism and main controlling factors mentioned above. In addition, the study reveals the main controlling factors and the laws of enrichment of two types of stratigraphic reservoirs (pinch-out and weathered karst reservoirs based on the evaluation methods for large stratigraphic reservoir provinces that have been established. By comprehensively understanding the laws of enrichment of lithologic-stratigraphic reservoirs in four types of basins, specific evaluation methods and fine exploration techniques have been developed. The findings led to an exploration direction in the “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan” period. The study supported the exploration and selection of oil and gas plays, as well as promoted the exploration of lithologic and stratigraphic reservoirs. Keywords: Lithologic trap, Stratigraphic trap, Lithostratigraphic reservoir, Large oil and gas field, Large oil and gas province, Formation and distribution, Exploration potential

  9. A conceptual model of the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system of the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers in the Pecos County region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumgarner, Johnathan R.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Teeple, Andrew; Thomas, Jonathan V.; Houston, Natalie A.; Payne, Jason; Musgrove, MaryLynn

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual model of the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system of the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers, which include the Pecos Valley, Igneous, Dockum, Rustler, and Capitan Reef aquifers, was developed as the second phase of a groundwater availability study in the Pecos County region in west Texas. The first phase of the study was to collect and compile groundwater, surface-water, water-quality, geophysical, and geologic data in the area. The third phase of the study involves a numerical groundwater-flow model of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer in order to simulate groundwater conditions based on various groundwater-withdrawal scenarios. Resource managers plan to use the results of the study to establish management strategies for the groundwater system. The hydrogeologic framework is composed of the hydrostratigraphy, structural features, and hydraulic properties of the groundwater system. Well and geophysical logs were interpreted to define the top and base surfaces of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer units. Elevations of the top and base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer generally decrease from the southwestern part of the study area to the northeast. The thicknesses of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer units were calculated using the interpolated top and base surfaces of the hydrostratigraphic units. Some of the thinnest sections of the aquifer were in the eastern part of the study area and some of the thickest sections were in the Pecos, Monument Draw, and Belding-Coyanosa trough areas. Normal-fault zones, which formed as growth and collapse features as sediments were deposited along the margins of more resistant rocks and as overlying sediments collapsed into the voids created by the dissolution of Permian-age evaporite deposits, were delineated based on the interpretation of hydrostratigraphic cross sections. The lowest aquifer transmissivity values were measured in the eastern part of the study area; the highest transmissivity values were

  10. Depositional framework and stratigraphy of the Konshisha area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focuses on the stratigraphic succession and depositional environment in areas around Konshisha, southern Benue Trough. The area is underlain by the Ezeaku Formation and Konshisha River Group. Integrated outcrop, textural and petrographic analysis aided inference of the depositional framework of ...

  11. A conceptual hydrogeologic model for the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system of the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers in the Pecos County region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Bumgarner, Johnathan R.; Pearson, Daniel K.; Teeple, Andrew; Houston, Natalie A.; Payne, Jason; Musgrove, MaryLynn

    2013-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer is a vital groundwater resource for agricultural, industrial, and municipal uses in the Trans-Pecos region of west Texas. A conceptual model of the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system in the 4,700 square-mile study area was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Middle Pecos Groundwater Conservation District, Pecos County, City of Fort Stockton, Brewster County, and Pecos County Water Control and Improvement District No. 1. The model was developed to gain a better understanding of the groundwater system and to establish a scientific foundation for resource-management decisions. Data and information were collected or obtained from various sources to develop the model. Lithologic information obtained from well reports and geophysical data were used to describe the hydrostratigraphy and structural features of the groundwater system, and aquifer-test data were used to estimate aquifer hydraulic properties. Groundwater-quality data were used to evaluate groundwater-flow paths, water and rock interaction, aquifer interaction, and the mixing of water from different sources. Groundwater-level data also were used to evaluate aquifer interaction as well as to develop a potentiometric-surface map, delineate regional groundwater divides, and describe regional groundwater-flow paths.

  12. Refining the structural framework of the Khimti Khola region, east-central Nepal Himalaya, using quartz textures and c-axis fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kyle P.

    2018-02-01

    New quartz texture and c-axis fabric data from across the Paleoproterozoic Ulleri-Phaplu-Melung orthogneiss in the Khimti Khola region of east central Nepal provide new constraints on the internal structural framework of the Himalaya that help shed light on the convergence accommodation processes active in the upper portion of the crust during orogenesis. These data outline a strain history that varies across the unit. Deformation near the base of the unit occurred at ∼605 (±50) °C with evidence of significant static recrystallization and recovery preserved in quartz, whereas deformation near the top of the unit occurred at ∼540 (±50) ˚C with quartz characterized by dynamic recrystallization mechanisms. The strength of the quartz c-axis fabrics follows a similar spatial pattern, with those from near the top of the unit recording stronger fabrics than those measured from lower in the unit. Together, these data are interpreted to indicate strain localization, possibly at progressively lower temperature, near the top of the Ulleri-Phaplu-Melung orthogneiss. This interpretation is consistent with cooling ages that indicate the upper boundary of the unit coincides with an out-of-sequence shear zone. This study not only provides a structural characterization of the shear zone, helping to refine the kinematic framework of this portion of the Himalaya, but also confirms the utility of fabric strength analysis in deciphering strain localization within pervasively deformed rocks.

  13. Spatio-temporal variation in groundwater head affected by stratigraphic heterogeneity of the alluvial aquifer in Northwest India

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, W. M.; Joshi, S. K.; Densmore, A. L.; Jackson, C. R.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Lafare, A. E. A.; Gupta, S.; Mackay, J. D.; Mason, P. J.; Sinha, R.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater is a primary source of freshwater in the alluvial aquifer system of northwestern India. Unsustainable exploitation of the groundwater resources has led to a regional hotspot in groundwater depletion. Rapid groundwater-level decline shows spatial variation, as the effects of various stresses, including precipitation, potential evapotranspiration and abstraction, are likely to be influenced by the stratigraphic and geomorphic heterogeneity between sediment fan and interfan areas (see Geomorphological map in Figure A). We used a transfer function-noise (TFN) time series approach to quantify the effect of the various stress components in the period 1974-2010, based on predefined impulse response functions (IRFs) of von Asmuth et al. (2008). The objective of this study was 1) to acquire the impulse response function of various stresses, 2) assess the spatial estimation parameter (the zeroth moment, M0) of the spatial development of the groundwater head and 3) relate the spatial M0 to the observed stratigraphic and geomorphic heterogeneity. We collected information on the groundwater head pre- and post-monsoon, the district-wise monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, and we modeled the monthly abstraction rate using land-use information. The TFN identified the IRF of precipitation as well as abstraction. The IRF, summarized in the parameter M0, identified a hotspot for the abstraction stress (see M0 spatial map for abstraction in Figure B) at the margins of the Sutlej and Yamuna fans. No hotspot is observed for the precipitation stress, but the M0 for precipitation increases with distance from the Himalayan front. At larger distances from the Himalayan front, observed groundwater head rises cannot be explained by the IRFs for the abstraction and precipitation stresses. This is likely because the current TFN models do not account for other stresses, such as recharge by canal leakage, which are locally important. We conclude that the spatial

  14. Multidisciplinary analysis of invasive meningococcal disease as a framework for continuous quality and safety improvement in regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kathryn A; Durrheim, David N; Merritt, Tony; Massey, Peter; Ferguson, John; Ryan, Nick; Hullick, Carolyn

    2018-01-01

    System factors in a regional Australian health district contributed to avoidable care deviations from invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) management guidelines. Traditional root cause analysis (RCA) is not well-suited to IMD, focusing on individual cases rather than system improvements. As IMD requires complex care across healthcare silos, it presents an opportunity to explore and address system-based patient safety issues. Baseline assessment of IMD cases (2005-2006) identified inadequate triage, lack of senior clinician review, inconsistent vital sign recording and laboratory delays as common issues, resulting in antibiotic administration delays and inappropriate or premature discharge. Clinical governance, in partnership with clinical and public health services, established a multidisciplinary Meningococcal Reference Group (MRG) to routinely review management of all IMD cases. The MRG comprised representatives from primary care, acute care, public health, laboratory medicine and clinical governance. Baseline data were compared with two subsequent evaluation points (2011-2012 and 2013-2015). Phase I involved multidisciplinary process mapping and development of a standardised audit tool from national IMD management guidelines. Phase II involved formalisation of group processes and advocacy for operational change. Phase III focused on dissemination of findings to clinicians and managers. Greatest care improvements were observed in the final evaluation. Median antibiotic delay decreased from 72 to 42 min and proportion of cases triaged appropriately improved from 38% to 75% between 2013 and 2015. Increasing fatal outcomes were attributed to the emergence of more virulent meningococcal serotypes. The MRG was a key mechanism for identifying system gaps, advocating for change and enhancing communication and coordination across services. Employing IMD case review as a focus for district-level process reflection presents an innovative patient safety approach

  15. On the question of stratigraphic detail Konkian deposits Borysthenian Bay (southern Ukraine on the fauna of molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staryn D.A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of study marine bivalve and gastropod from konkian-sarmatian deposits of the Southern Ukraine are gave. Their lateral and vertical distribution is studied. Local stratigraphic schemes for the Northern Black Sea region, Plane Crimea and Kerch peninsula are built. It is confirmed the Konkian regional stage divisible into three parts: the Kartvel (Ervilia and Pholada, Sartagan and Veselyanka layers. The lower part (Kartvel layers is characterized by monomorphic fauna of Ervilia and / or Pholada; other shellfish are virtually absent. The middle part (Sartagan layers contains polihalin shellfish such as Turritella, Chlamys et al., but their findings are rare. In this common transit fauna, which can cause significant difficulties in the stratification of the regional stage. The upper part (Veselyanka layers by the absence of (or single polihalin elements and extensive development of some types of Cardiidae. The individual seams with Ervilia and Barnea met throughout the section tram and fauna differ from the Kartvel layers joint finding other taxa Konkian shellfish and usually less power. The possibility of fractional stratification Sarmatian regional stage in different structural-facial areas of the Southern Ukraine. Change shellfish communities on the border of the lower and middle Sarmatian occurs gradually in clay sediments and more clearly in the coastal sandy and sandy-clay rocks. Separation of Vasilyevsky and Dnepropetrovsk layers of middle Sarmatian malacofauna problematic in areas of strong recrystallized limestone. For the detail section is necessary to study rocks in thin sections.

  16. An integrated assessment modeling framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change: the MIT IGSM-CAM (version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, E.; Scott, J. R.; Sokolov, A. P.; Forest, C. E.; Schlosser, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes a computationally efficient framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change. In this framework, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Integrated Global System Model (IGSM), an integrated assessment model that couples an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to a human activity model, is linked to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). Since the MIT IGSM-CAM framework (version 1.0) incorporates a human activity model, it is possible to analyze uncertainties in emissions resulting from both uncertainties in the underlying socio-economic characteristics of the economic model and in the choice of climate-related policies. Another major feature is the flexibility to vary key climate parameters controlling the climate system response to changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols concentrations, e.g., climate sensitivity, ocean heat uptake rate, and strength of the aerosol forcing. The IGSM-CAM is not only able to realistically simulate the present-day mean climate and the observed trends at the global and continental scale, but it also simulates ENSO variability with realistic time scales, seasonality and patterns of SST anomalies, albeit with stronger magnitudes than observed. The IGSM-CAM shares the same general strengths and limitations as the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) models in simulating present-day annual mean surface temperature and precipitation. Over land, the IGSM-CAM shows similar biases to the NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM) version 3, which shares the same atmospheric model. This study also presents 21st century simulations based on two emissions scenarios (unconstrained scenario and stabilization scenario at 660 ppm CO2-equivalent) similar to, respectively, the Representative Concentration Pathways RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios, and three sets of climate parameters. Results of the simulations with the chosen

  17. Devonian and Lower Carboniferous Conodonts of the Cantabrian Mountains (Spain) and their stratigraphic application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrichem Boogaert, van H.A.

    1967-01-01

    A short review of the literature on the stratigraphy of the Devonian and the Lower Carboniferous of the Cantabrian Mountains precedes the report of the author's stratigraphic and palaeontologic observations in León: the Río Esla area (Gedinnian to Viséan), the central Cantabrian area (Famennian to

  18. SDAR 1.0 a New Quantitative Toolkit for Analyze Stratigraphic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, John; Moreno, Carlos; Cardenas, Andres; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Since the foundation of stratigraphy geoscientists have recognized that data obtained from stratigraphic columns (SC), two dimensional schemes recording descriptions of both geological and paleontological features (e.g., thickness of rock packages, grain size, fossil and lithological components, and sedimentary structures), are key elements for establishing reliable hypotheses about the distribution in space and time of rock sequences, and ancient sedimentary environmental and paleobiological dynamics. Despite the tremendous advances on the way geoscientists store, plot, and quantitatively analyze sedimentological and paleontological data (e.g., Macrostrat [http://www.macrostrat.org/], Paleobiology Database [http://www.paleodb.org/], respectively), there is still a lack of computational methodologies designed to quantitatively examine data from a highly detailed SCs. Moreover, frequently the stratigraphic information is plotted "manually" using vector graphics editors (e.g., Corel Draw, Illustrator), however, this information although store on a digital format, cannot be used readily for any quantitative analysis. Therefore, any attempt to examine the stratigraphic data in an analytical fashion necessarily takes further steps. Given these issues, we have developed the sofware 'Stratigraphic Data Analysis in R' (SDAR), which stores in a database all sedimentological, stratigraphic, and paleontological information collected from a SC, allowing users to generate high-quality graphic plots (including one or multiple features stored in the database). SDAR also encompasses quantitative analyses helping users to quantify stratigraphic information (e.g. grain size, sorting and rounding, proportion of sand/shale). Finally, given that the SDAR analysis module, has been written in the open-source high-level computer language "R graphics/statistics language" [R Development Core Team, 2014], it is already loaded with many of the crucial features required to accomplish basic and

  19. Using a Three-Dimensional Hydrogeologic Framework to Investigate Potential Sources of Water Springs in the Death Valley Regional Groundwater Flow System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M. C.; Belcher, W. R.; Sweetkind, D. S.; Faunt, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Death Valley regional groundwater flow system encompasses a proposed site for a high-level nuclear waste repository of the United States of America, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), where nuclear weapons were tested, and National Park and BLM properties, and provides water for local communities. The model was constructed using a three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework and has been used as a resource planning mechanism by the many stakeholders involved, including four United States (U.S) federal agencies (U.S. Department of Energy, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) and local counties, towns, and residents. One of the issues in recent model development is simulation of insufficient water to regional discharge areas which form springs in valleys near the center of the system. Given what seems to be likely rock characteristics and geometries at depth, insufficient water is simulated to reach the discharge areas. This "surprise" thus challenges preconceived notions about the system. Here we use the hydrogeologic model to hypothesize alternatives able to produce the observed flow and use the groundwater simulation to test the hypotheses with other available data. Results suggest that the transmissivity measurements need to be used carefully because wells in this system are never fully penetrating, that multiple alternatives are able to produce the springflow, and that one most likely alternative cannot be identified given available data. Consequences of the alternatives are discussed.

  20. Trading off natural resources and rural livelihoods. A framework for sustainability assessment of small-scale food production in water-limited regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recanati, Francesca; Castelletti, Andrea; Dotelli, Giovanni; Melià, Paco

    2017-12-01

    Enhancing local production is key to promoting food security, especially in rural households of low-income countries, but may conflict with limited natural resources and ecosystems preservation. We propose a framework integrating the water-food nexus and a sustainable livelihoods perspective to assess small-scale food production in water-poor regions. We demonstrate it by assessing alternative production scenarios in the Gaza Strip at different spatial scales. At the scale of a single farm, there is a clear conflict among objectives: while cash crops ensure good incomes but contribute scarcely to domestic protein supply, crops performing well from the nutritional and environmental viewpoint are among the worst from the economic one. At the regional scale, domestic production might cover an important fraction of nutritional needs while contributing to household income, but water scarcity impairs the satisfaction of food demand by domestic production alone. Pursuing food security under multiple constraints thus requires a holistic perspective: we discuss how a multidimensional approach can promote the engagement of different stakeholders and allow the exploration of trade-offs between food security, sustainable exploitation of natural resources and economic viability.

  1. Automated recognition of stratigraphic marker shales from geophysical logs in iron ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silversides, Katherine; Melkumyan, Arman; Wyman, Derek; Hatherly, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The mining of stratiform ore deposits requires a means of determining the location of stratigraphic boundaries. A variety of geophysical logs may provide the required data but, in the case of banded iron formation hosted iron ore deposits in the Hamersley Ranges of Western Australia, only one geophysical log type (natural gamma) is collected for this purpose. The information from these logs is currently processed by slow manual interpretation. In this paper we present an alternative method of automatically identifying recurring stratigraphic markers in natural gamma logs from multiple drill holes. Our approach is demonstrated using natural gamma geophysical logs that contain features corresponding to the presence of stratigraphically important marker shales. The host stratigraphic sequence is highly consistent throughout the Hamersley and the marker shales can therefore be used to identify the stratigraphic location of the banded iron formation (BIF) or BIF hosted ore. The marker shales are identified using Gaussian Processes (GP) trained by either manual or active learning methods and the results are compared to the existing geological interpretation. The manual method involves the user selecting the signatures for improving the library, whereas the active learning method uses the measure of uncertainty provided by the GP to select specific examples for the user to consider for addition. The results demonstrate that both GP methods can identify a feature, but the active learning approach has several benefits over the manual method. These benefits include greater accuracy in the identified signatures, faster library building, and an objective approach for selecting signatures that includes the full range of signatures across a deposit in the library. When using the active learning method, it was found that the current manual interpretation could be replaced in 78.4% of the holes with an accuracy of 95.7%.

  2. A framework to assess the impacts of Climate Change for different hazards at local and regional scale through probabilistic multi-model approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercogliano, P.; Reder, A.; Rianna, G.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme weather events (EWEs) are projected to be more frequent and severe across the globe because of global warming. This poses challenging problems for critical infrastructures (CIs) which can be dramatically affected by EWEs needing adaptation countermeasures againts changing climate conditions. In this work, we present the main results achieved in the framework of the FP7-European project INTACT aimed at analyzing the resilience of CIs against shocks and stresses due to the climate changes. To identify variations in the hazard induced by climate change, appropriate Extreme Weather Indicators (EWIs) are defined for several case studies and different approaches are analyzed to obtain local climate projections. The different approaches, with increasing refinement depending on local information available and methodologies selected, are investigated considering raw versus bias corrected data and weighted or equiprobable ensemble mean projections given by the regional climate models within the Euro-CORDEX program. Specifically, this work focuses on two case studies selected from the five proposed within the INTACT project and for which local station data are available: • rainfall-induced landslide affecting Campania region (Southern Italy) with a special view on the Nocera municipality; • storms and heavy rainfall/winds in port of Rotterdam (Netherlands). In general, our results show a small sensitivity to the weighting approach and a large sensitivity to bias-correction in the future projections. For landslides in Campania region, the Euro-CORDEX simulations projected a generalized worsening of the safety conditions depending on the scenario (RCP4.5/8.5) and period (2011-2040/2041-2070/2071-2100) considered. For the port of Rotterdam, the Euro-CORDEX simulations projected an increment in the intense events of daily and weekly precipitation, also in this case depending on the scenario and period considered. Considering framework, methodologies and results, the

  3. A new watershed assessment framework for Nova Scotia: A high-level, integrated approach for regions without a dense network of monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Shannon M.; Garroway, Kevin; Guan, Yue; Ambrose, Sarah M.; Horne, Peter; Kennedy, Gavin W.

    2014-11-01

    High-level, integrated watershed assessments are a basic requirement for freshwater planning, as they create regional summaries of multiple environmental stressors for the prioritization of watershed conservation, restoration, monitoring, and mitigation. There is a heightened need for a high-level, integrated watershed assessment in Nova Scotia as it faces pressing watershed issues relating to acidification, soil erosion, acid rock drainage, eutrophication, and water withdrawals related to potential shale gas development. But because of the relative sparseness of the on-the-ground effects-based data, for example on water quality or fish assemblages, previously created approaches for integrated watershed assessment cannot be used. In a government/university collaboration, we developed a new approach that relies solely on easier-to-collect and more available exposure-based variables to perform the first high-level watershed assessment in Nova Scotia. In this assessment, a total of 295 watershed units were studied. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to map and analyze 13 stressor variables that represent risks to aquatic environment (e.g., road/stream crossing density, acid rock drainage risk, surface water withdrawals, human land use, and dam density). We developed a model to link stressors with impacts to aquatic systems to serve as a basis for a watershed threat ranking system. Resource management activities performed by government and other stakeholders were also included in this analysis. Our assessment identifies the most threatened watersheds, enables informed comparisons among watersheds, and indicates where to focus resource management and monitoring efforts. Stakeholder communication tools produced by the NSWAP include a watershed atlas to communicate the assessment results to a broader audience, including policy makers and public stakeholders. This new framework for high-level watershed assessments provides a resource for other regions that also

  4. Geomorphology and till architecture of terrestrial palaeo-ice streams of the southwest Laurentide Ice Sheet: A borehole stratigraphic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Sophie L.; Evans, David J. A.; Cofaigh, Colm Ó.

    2018-04-01

    A multidimensional study, utilising geomorphological mapping and the analysis of regional borehole stratigraphy, is employed to elucidate the regional till architecture of terrestrial palaeo-ice streams relating to the Late Wisconsinan southwest Laurentide Ice Sheet. Detailed mapping over a 57,400 km2 area of southwestern Saskatchewan confirms previous reconstructions of a former southerly flowing ice stream, demarcated by a 800 km long corridor of megaflutes and mega-scale glacial lineations (Ice Stream 1) and cross cut by three, formerly southeast flowing ice streams (Ice Streams 2A, B and C). Analysis of the lithologic and geophysical characteristics of 197 borehole samples within these corridors reveals 17 stratigraphic units comprising multiple tills and associated stratified sediments overlying preglacial deposits, the till thicknesses varying with both topography and distance down corridor. Reconciling this regional till architecture with the surficial geomorphology reveals that surficial units are spatially consistent with a dynamic switch in flow direction, recorded by the cross cutting corridors of Ice Streams 1, 2A, B and C. The general thickening of tills towards lobate ice stream margins is consistent with subglacial deformation theory and variations in this pattern on a more localised scale are attributed to influences of subglacial topography including thickening at buried valley margins, thinning over uplands and thickening in overridden ice-marginal landforms.

  5. Development of a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework for investigating the impact of climate change on allergic airway disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Duhl, T.; Salam, M. T.; House, J. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Avol, E. L.; Gilliland, F. D.; Guenther, A.; Chung, S. H.; Lamb, B. K.; VanReken, T. M.

    2014-03-01

    Exposure to bioaerosol allergens such as pollen can cause exacerbations of allergenic airway disease (AAD) in sensitive populations, and thus cause serious public health problems. Assessing these health impacts by linking the airborne pollen levels, concentrations of respirable allergenic material, and human allergenic response under current and future climate conditions is a key step toward developing preventive and adaptive actions. To that end, a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework was developed that treats allergenic pollens as non-reactive tracers within the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF/CMAQ) modeling system. The Simulator of the Timing and Magnitude of Pollen Season (STaMPS) model was used to generate a daily pollen pool that can then be emitted into the atmosphere by wind. The STaMPS is driven by species-specific meteorological (temperature and/or precipitation) threshold conditions and is designed to be flexible with respect to its representation of vegetation species and plant functional types (PFTs). The hourly pollen emission flux was parameterized by considering the pollen pool, friction velocity, and wind threshold values. The dry deposition velocity of each species of pollen was estimated based on pollen grain size and density. An evaluation of the pollen modeling framework was conducted for southern California (USA) for the period from March to June 2010. This period coincided with observations by the University of Southern California's Children's Health Study (CHS), which included O3, PM2.5, and pollen count, as well as measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in study participants. Two nesting domains with horizontal resolutions of 12 and 4 km were constructed, and six representative allergenic pollen genera were included: birch tree, walnut tree, mulberry tree, olive tree, oak tree, and brome grasses. Under the current parameterization scheme, the modeling framework tends to

  6. Stratigraphic landscape analysis, thermochronology and the episodic development of elevated, passive continental margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green, Paul F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The continental margin of West Greenland is similar in many respects to other elevated, passive continental margins (EPCMs around the world. These margins are characterised by extensive regions of low relief at elevations of 1–2 kilometres above sea level sloping gently inland, with a much steeper, oceanward decline, often termed a 'Great Escarpment', terminating at a coastal plain. Recent studies, based on integration of geological, geomorphological and thermochronological evidence, have shown that the high topography of West Greenland was formed by differential uplift and dissection of an Oligo-Miocene peneplain since the late Miocene, many millions of years after continental break-up between Greenland and North America. In contrast, many studies of other EPCMs have proposed a different style of development in which the high plateaux and the steep, oceanward decline are regarded as a direct result of rifting and continental separation. Some studies assume that the elevated regions have remained high since break-up, with the high topography continuously renewed by isostasy. Others identify the elevated plains as remnants of pre-rift landscapes. Key to understanding the development of the West Greenland margin is a new approach to the study of landforms, stratigraphic landscape analysis, in which the low-relief, high-elevation plateaux at EPCMs are interpreted as uplifted peneplains: low-relief surfaces of large extent, cutting across bedrock of different age and resistance, and originally graded to sea level. Identification of different generations of peneplain (re-exposed and epigene from regional mapping, combined with geological constraints and thermochronology, allows definition of the evolution leading to the formation of the modern-day topography. This approach is founded particularly on results from the South Swedish Dome, which document former sea levels as base levels for the formation of peneplains. These results support the view

  7. Savannah River Region: Transition between the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zullo, V.A.; Harris, W.B.; Price, V. [eds.

    1990-12-31

    The focus of the this conference of Coastal Plains geologists was on the Savannah River region of Georgia and South Carolina, and particularly on the geology of the US Department of Energy`s 300 square mile Savannah River Site (SRS) in western South Carolina. Current geological studies indicate that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section in the Savannah River region is transitional between that of the Gulf Coastal Plain to the southwest and that of the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the northeast. With the transitional aspect of the region as its theme, the first session was devoted to overviews of Cretaceous and Paleogene geology in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Succeeding presentations and resulting discussions dealt with more specific problems in structural, lithostratigraphic, hydrological, biostratigraphic, and cyclostratigraphic analysis, and of correlation to standard stratigraphic frameworks. For these conference proceedings, individual papers have been processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  8. Development of visibility forecasting modeling framework for the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia using Canada's Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Rita; Teakles, Andrew; Baik, Jonathan; Vingarzan, Roxanne; Jones, Keith

    2018-05-01

    Visibility degradation, one of the most noticeable indicators of poor air quality, can occur despite relatively low levels of particulate matter when the risk to human health is low. The availability of timely and reliable visibility forecasts can provide a more comprehensive understanding of the anticipated air quality conditions to better inform local jurisdictions and the public. This paper describes the development of a visibility forecasting modeling framework, which leverages the existing air quality and meteorological forecasts from Canada's operational Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System (RAQDPS) for the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia. A baseline model (GM-IMPROVE) was constructed using the revised IMPROVE algorithm based on unprocessed forecasts from the RAQDPS. Three additional prototypes (UMOS-HYB, GM-MLR, GM-RF) were also developed and assessed for forecast performance of up to 48 hr lead time during various air quality and meteorological conditions. Forecast performance was assessed by examining their ability to provide both numerical and categorical forecasts in the form of 1-hr total extinction and Visual Air Quality Ratings (VAQR), respectively. While GM-IMPROVE generally overestimated extinction more than twofold, it had skill in forecasting the relative species contribution to visibility impairment, including ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate. Both statistical prototypes, GM-MLR and GM-RF, performed well in forecasting 1-hr extinction during daylight hours, with correlation coefficients (R) ranging from 0.59 to 0.77. UMOS-HYB, a prototype based on postprocessed air quality forecasts without additional statistical modeling, provided reasonable forecasts during most daylight hours. In terms of categorical forecasts, the best prototype was approximately 75 to 87% correct, when forecasting for a condensed three-category VAQR. A case study, focusing on a poor visual air quality yet low Air Quality Health Index episode

  9. The Pleistocene Eastern Equatorial Pacific: Insights from a New Carnegie Platform Stratigraphic Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwizd, S.; Lea, D. W.

    2016-12-01

    Renewed interest in a classic Eastern Equatorial Pacific paleoceanographic site at 3° 35.85' S, 83° 57.79' W, previous site of cores V19-29 and TR163-31, prompted a re-coring in 2009 using the recently developed CDH giant piston coring system on cruise KNR195-5. Giant piston core CDH-36 (3225 m depth, 42.61 m length) nearly triples the length of previous cores at this site. When spliced together with companion multicore MC-34A (0.36 m length), these two cores generate continuous stratigraphy throughout most of the middle Pleistocene, and include recognized stratigraphic tie points ash layer "L" (Ninkovich and Shackleton, 1975) and the extinction of pink G. ruber. A new age model utilizing Bayesian analysis of 17 N. dutertrei radiocarbon dates in MC-34A and the top 3.4 m of CDH-36, and alignment of a new CDH-36 δ18O record with the LR04 benthic stack (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005), demonstrates that this new "Carnegie Platform" (CP) record extends from 0 to 720 ka (MIS 18), tripling the timescale of previous studies, with an average sedimentation rate of 7 cm/kyr. The CP C. wuellerstorfi δ18O and δ13C records reveal strong consistencies in timing and extent of glacial and interglacial episodes with previously studied regional records. Coarse fraction percentage (%CF) ([coarse fraction/bulk dry sample] * 100) is also evaluated throughout the CP core in order to qualitatively assess dissolution cycles. The CP %CF dataset primarily records Pleistocene dissolution cycles, yet exhibits variability representative of potential local bathymetric and hydrographic effects. The timing of %CF cyclicity is consistent with processes which affect basin-wide calcium carbonate dissolution cycles, including changes in terrestrial carbon input to the oceans and changes in water mass ventilation (Shackleton, 1977; Toggweiler et al., 2006; Sexton and Barker, 2012). Establishing the stratigraphy of the CP record provides the first step towards a more thorough and extended analysis of

  10. Proposed spatial framework to develop land use in an environmentally-sensitive area: Case study, El-Daba'a region, Egypt Part I: Ecological value assessment using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jenaid, S.S.; Mohammed, W.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the ecological characteristics of El-Daba'a area in Egypt using GIS as a first step for the development of an environmental management plan for the area. The absence of environmental planning in the process of land use development may cause many significant negative impacts on biodiversity, ecological value and the general environmental conditions and the therefore reducing such negative impacts will improve land use development. The first part of sequel of two papers, which is a part of a sustainable land use development research program, aims at designing a spatial framework to improve land use planning and development in an environmental context. The research program deals with the problem of land use planning and development in an arid coastal area under environmentally sensitive conditions. The study area is El-Daba'a region, located in the northwestern coast of Egypt, which can be described as a wild area. The approach used in this paper consists of studying the spatial ecological characteristics of El-Daba'a region using different spatial data including maps and land sat remote sensing data. These data are used to create a series of superimposed informative layers managed by a geographic information system (GIS) to describe the spatial ecological characteristics of the study area. The developed GIS allow decision makers to handle large amounts of information simultaneously such as geology, geomorphology, land cover, wild life and many other different information layers. The system is designed to help decision makers to organize, relate, analyze and visualize the ecological data and information in the study area. The developed GIS system might be used to determine the probable effects of building a nuclear power station on the ecosystem. (author)

  11. Management of spent fuel from research reactors - Brazilian progress report (within the framework of Regional Project IAEA-RLA-4/018)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, A.J.; Silva, J.E.R.

    2005-01-01

    There are four research reactors in Brazil. For three of them, because of the low reactor power and low burn-up of the fuel, except for the concern about ageing, spent fuel storage is not a problem. However for one of the reactors, more specifically IEA-R1 research reactor, the storage of spent fuel is a major concern, because, according to the proposed operation schedule for the reactor, unless an action is taken, by the year 2009 there will be no more racks available to store its spent fuel. This paper gives a brief description of the type and amount of fuel elements utilized in each one of the Brazilian research reactors, with a short discussion about the storage capacity at each installation. It also gives a description of the activities developed by Brazilian engineers and researchers during the period between 2001 and 2004, within the framework of regional project 'RLA-4/018-Management of Spent Fuel from Research Reactors'. As a conclusion, we can say that the advances of the project, and the integration promoted among the engineers and researchers of the participant countries were of fundamental importance for Brazilian researchers and engineers to understand the problems related to the storage of spent fuel, and to make a clear definition about the most suitable alternatives for interim storage of the spent fuel from IEAR1 research reactor. (author)

  12. Results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey and implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmanova, Gulnoza; Mokdad, Ali H

    2013-12-01

    We used Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data collected over time to monitor articles of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) in WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). The GYTS is a school-based survey, conducted in 23 countries in WHO EMR countries from 1999-2008. The prevalence of current smokeless tobacco use was high compared to cigarette use in all countries. In general, the following changes were observed between baseline and repeated surveys: in five countries fewer youth supported a ban on smoking in public places. In four countries more youth saw actors smoking on TV and were exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS) outside of home. Fewer youth were offered free cigarettes in ten countries; in eight countries youth saw less advertisement on TV; in seven countries youth had fewer items with a tobacco logo, discussed more reasons for smoking and dangers of smoking, and were less exposed to SHS at home; in six countries youth saw less advertisement at sports events. The GYTS data can be used for monitoring, evaluation of national tobacco control plans and defining future directions for tobacco control. Copyright © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Spatial Decision Support System Framework for the Evaluation of Biomass Energy Production Locations: Case Study in the Regional Unit of Drama, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Ioannou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable Energy Sources are expected to play a very important role in energy production in the following years. They constitute an energy production methodology which, if properly enabled, can ensure energy sufficiency as well as the protection of the environment. Energy production from biomass in particular is a very common method, which exploits a variety of resources (wood and wood waste, agricultural crops and their by-products after cultivation, animal wastes, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW and food processing wastes for the production of energy. This paper presents a Spatial Decision Support System, which enables managers to locate the most suitable areas for biomass power plant installation. For doing this, fuzzy logic and fuzzy membership functions are used for the creation of criteria layers and suitability maps. In this paper, we use a Multicriteria Decision Analysis methodology (Analytical Hierarchy Process combined with fuzzy system elements for the determination of the weight coefficients of the participating criteria. Then, based on the combination of fuzzy logic and theAnalytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, a final proposal is created thatdivides the area into four categories regarding their suitability forsupporting a biomass energy production power plant. For the two optimal locations, the biomass is also calculated.The framework is applied to theRegional Unit of Drama, which is situated in Northern Greece and is very well known for the area’s forest and agricultural production.

  14. Selected stratigraphic data for drill holes located in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site. Rev. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drellack, S.L. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    Stratigraphic data are presented in tabular form for 72 holes drilled in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, between 1950 and 1993. Three pairs of data presentations are included for each hole: depth to formation tops, formation thicknesses, and formation elevations are presented in both field (English) and metric units. Also included for each hole, where available, are various construction data (hole depth, hole diameter, surface location coordinates) and certain information of hydrogeologic significance (depth to water level, top of zeolitization). The event name is given for holes associated with a particular nuclear test. An extensive set of footnotes is included, which indicates data sources and provides other information. The body of the report describes the stratigraphic setting of Frenchman Flat, gives drill-hole naming conventions and database terminology, and provides other background and reference material

  15. Stratigraphic and tectonic revision of Cerro Olivo Complex located of Southeastern of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masquelin, E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a stratigraphic and tectonic revision of Cerro Olivo Complex, located in the Southeastern part of the Uruguayan Predevonian Shield. This informal lithostratigraphic unit constitutes the country rock for the emplacement of late-orogenic granitoids, during Neoproterozoic to Cambrian times. This unit groups all the lithodemes affected by deformation and metamorphism. Recent studies indicate the presence of straight gneisses of quartzo-feldspathic composition in the coast of Maldonado Department. These rocks were interpreted as the result of intense deformation in high temperature. These tectonites base a new stratigraphic insight for the complex. They allow their lithotypes to be organized by petrotectonic features, being a function of PT conditions for every last strain process [es

  16. The evolution of the Global Burden of Disease framework for disease, injury and risk factor quantification: developing the evidence base for national, regional and global public health action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Alan D

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reliable, comparable information about the main causes of disease and injury in populations, and how these are changing, is a critical input for debates about priorities in the health sector. Traditional sources of information about the descriptive epidemiology of diseases, injuries and risk factors are generally incomplete, fragmented and of uncertain reliability and comparability. Lack of a standardized measurement framework to permit comparisons across diseases and injuries, as well as risk factors, and failure to systematically evaluate data quality have impeded comparative analyses of the true public health importance of various conditions and risk factors. As a consequence the impact of major conditions and hazards on population health has been poorly appreciated, often leading to a lack of public health investment. Global disease and risk factor quantification improved dramatically in the early 1990s with the completion of the first Global Burden of Disease Study. For the first time, the comparative importance of over 100 diseases and injuries, and ten major risk factors, for global and regional health status could be assessed using a common metric (Disability-Adjusted Life Years which simultaneously accounted for both premature mortality and the prevalence, duration and severity of the non-fatal consequences of disease and injury. As a consequence, mental health conditions and injuries, for which non-fatal outcomes are of particular significance, were identified as being among the leading causes of disease/injury burden worldwide, with clear implications for policy, particularly prevention. A major achievement of the Study was the complete global descriptive epidemiology, including incidence, prevalence and mortality, by age, sex and Region, of over 100 diseases and injuries. National applications, further methodological research and an increase in data availability have led to improved national, regional and global estimates

  17. Revised Cretaceous and Tertiary stratigraphic nomenclature in the Colville Basin, Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, Charles G.; Houseknecht, David W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    A revised stratigraphic nomenclature is proposed for Cretaceous and Tertiary geologic units of the central and western North Slope of Alaska. This revised nomenclature is a simplified and broadly applicable scheme suitable for a suite of digital geologic quadrangle maps being prepared jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys and Division of Oil and Gas. This revised nomenclature scheme is a simplification of a complex stratigraphic terminology that developed piecemeal during five decades of geologic investigations of the North Slope. It is based on helicopter-supported geologic field investigations incorporating information from high-resolution aerial photography, satellite imagery, paleontology, reflection seismic records, and sequence stratigraphic concepts. This revised nomenclature proposes the abandonment of the Colville Group; demotion of the Nanushuk Group to formation status; abandonment of six formations (Kukpowruk, Tuktu, Grandstand, Corwin, Chandler, and Ninuluk); revision of four formations (Sagavanirktok, Prince Creek, Schrader Bluff, and Seabee); elevation of the Tuluvak Tongue of the Prince Creek Formation to formation status; revision of two members (Franklin Bluffs Member and Sagwon Member of the Sagavanirktok Formation); abandonment of eight members or tongues (Kogosukruk, Rogers Creek, Barrow Trail, Sentinel Hill, Ayiyak, Shale Wall, Niakogon, and Killik); and definition of one new member (White Hills Member of the Sagavanirktok Formation).

  18. A method of reconstructing complex stratigraphic surfaces with multitype fault constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shi-Wu; Jia, Yu; Yao, Xing-Miao; Liu, Zhi-Ning

    2017-06-01

    The construction of complex stratigraphic surfaces is widely employed in many fields, such as petroleum exploration, geological modeling, and geological structure analysis. It also serves as an important foundation for data visualization and visual analysis in these fields. The existing surface construction methods have several deficiencies and face various difficulties, such as the presence of multitype faults and roughness of resulting surfaces. In this paper, a surface modeling method that uses geometric partial differential equations (PDEs) is introduced for the construction of stratigraphic surfaces. It effectively solves the problem of surface roughness caused by the irregularity of stratigraphic data distribution. To cope with the presence of multitype complex faults, a two-way projection algorithm between threedimensional space and a two-dimensional plane is proposed. Using this algorithm, a unified method based on geometric PDEs is developed for dealing with multitype faults. Moreover, the corresponding geometric PDE is derived, and an algorithm based on an evolutionary solution is developed. The algorithm proposed for constructing spatial surfaces with real data verifies its computational efficiency and its ability to handle irregular data distribution. In particular, it can reconstruct faulty surfaces, especially those with overthrust faults.

  19. TU-H-CAMPUS-JeP2-03: Machine-Learning-Based Delineation Framework of GTV Regions of Solid and Ground Glass Opacity Lung Tumors at Datasets of Planning CT and PET/CT Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikushima, K; Arimura, H; Jin, Z; Yabuuchi, H; Sasaki, T; Honda, H; Sasaki, M [Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Fukuoka (Japan); Kuwazuru, J [Saiseikai Fukuoka General Hospital, Fukuoka, Fukuoka (Japan); Shioyama, Y [Saga Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Tosu, Tosu, Saga (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In radiation treatment planning, delineation of gross tumor volume (GTV) is very important, because the GTVs affect the accuracies of radiation therapy procedure. To assist radiation oncologists in the delineation of GTV regions while treatment planning for lung cancer, we have proposed a machine-learning-based delineation framework of GTV regions of solid and ground glass opacity (GGO) lung tumors following by optimum contour selection (OCS) method. Methods: Our basic idea was to feed voxel-based image features around GTV contours determined by radiation oncologists into a machine learning classifier in the training step, after which the classifier produced the degree of GTV for each voxel in the testing step. Ten data sets of planning CT and PET/CT images were selected for this study. The support vector machine (SVM), which learned voxel-based features which include voxel value and magnitudes of image gradient vector that obtained from each voxel in the planning CT and PET/CT images, extracted initial GTV regions. The final GTV regions were determined using the OCS method that was able to select a global optimum object contour based on multiple active delineations with a level set method around the GTV. To evaluate the results of proposed framework for ten cases (solid:6, GGO:4), we used the three-dimensional Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), which denoted the degree of region similarity between the GTVs delineated by radiation oncologists and the proposed framework. Results: The proposed method achieved an average three-dimensional DSC of 0.81 for ten lung cancer patients, while a standardized uptake value-based method segmented GTV regions with the DSC of 0.43. The average DSCs for solid and GGO were 0.84 and 0.76, respectively, obtained by the proposed framework. Conclusion: The proposed framework with the support vector machine may be useful for assisting radiation oncologists in delineating solid and GGO lung tumors.

  20. Sediment Evaluation Framework for the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sediment Evaluation Framework provides a regional framework for assessment, characterization and management of sediments in the Pacific Northwest to determine suitability for unconfined in-water disposal.

  1. Diurnal variations of wildfire emissions in Europe: analysis of the MODIS and SEVIRI measurements in the framework of the regional scale air pollution modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, Igor B.; Beekmann, Matthias; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Shudyaev, Anton A.; Yurova, Alla; Kuznetsova, Irina N.

    2013-04-01

    Wildfires episodically provide a major contribution to air pollution in many regions of the world. For example, the extreme air pollution level and strongly reduced visibility were observed in the Central European region of Russia during the intensive wildfire events in summer of 2010. Such episodes provide a strong impetus for further developments in air pollution modeling, aimed at improving the ability of chemistry transport models to simulate and predict evolution of atmospheric composition affected by wildfires. The main goals of our study are (1) to investigate the diurnal cycles of air pollutant emissions from wildfires in several European regions, taking into account the fire radiative power (FRP) satellite measurements for different vegetation land cover types and (2) to examine the possibilities of improving air pollution simulations by assimilating the diurnal variability of the FRP measurements performed by the polar orbiting (MODIS) and geostationary (SEVIRI) satellite instruments into a chemistry transport model. These goals are addressed for the case of wildfires occurred in summer 2010. The analysis of both the MODIS and SEVIRI data indicate that air pollutant emissions from wildfires in Europe in summer 2010 were typically much larger during daytime than during nighttime. The important exception is intensive fires around Moscow, featuring an almost "flat" diurnal cycle. These findings confirm the similar results reported earlier [1] but also extend them by attributing the flat diurnal cycle only to forest fires and by examining a hypothetical association of the "abnormal" diurnal cycle of FRP with peat fires. The derived diurnal variations of wildfire emissions have been used in the framework of the modeling system employed in our previous studies of the atmospheric effects of the 2010 Russian wildfires [2, 3]. The numerical experiments reveal that while the character of the diurnal variation of wildfire emissions has a rather small impact on the

  2. Assessing Urban Sustainability Using a Multi-Scale, Theme-Based Indicator Framework: A Case Study of the Yangtze River Delta Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban sustainability is a great concern worldwide. However, how to evaluate urban sustainability is still a big challenge because sustainable development is multifaceted and scale dependent, which demands various assessment methods and indicators that often do not reach a consensus. In this study, we assessed urban sustainability of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD, China during 2000–2014 at two spatial scales (corresponding to the administrative levels of province and prefecture. A theme-based indicator framework, cluster analysis and Mann–Kendall test were used for urban sustainability assessment. Our results showed that the overall (OS, social (SS, and economic sustainability (EcS scores for two provinces and sixteen prefectural cities increased from 2000 to 2014 in general, but the environmental sustainability (EnS scores decreased over time. According to the performance of SS, EnS and EcS at the prefectural level, three distinct city clusters were identified: Cluster 1 with high SS and EcS but low EnS; Cluster 2 with low SS and EcS but high EnS; and Cluster 3 with moderate SS, EnS and EcS. The three sustainability dimensions—society, environment and economy—all changed over time and differed among cities at the two administrative levels. Our results implied that, according to the “strong sustainability” perspective, the cities of the YRD became less sustainable or unsustainable because the social and economic progresses were at the expense of the environment. The level of urban sustainability was lower at the provincial level than the prefectural level, implying that the problems of unsustainability are even greater at the provincial level than the prefectural level in the YRD region.

  3. Estimating North American N2O emissions and the N fertilizer yield fraction using the Carbon Tracker-Lagrange regional inversion framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevison, C. D.; Andrews, A. E.; Thoning, K. W.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Sweeney, C.; Saikawa, E.; Miller, S. M.; Benmergui, J. S.; Fischer, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    North American nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions of 1.5 ± 0.2 Tg N/yr over 2008-2013 are estimated using the Carbon Tracker-Lagrange (CT-L) regional inversion framework. The estimated N2O emissions are largely consistent with the EDGAR global inventory and with the results of global atmospheric inversions, but offer more spatial and temporal detail and improved uncertainty quantification over North America. Emissions are strongest from the Midwestern corn/soybean belt, which accounts for about one fourth of the total North American N2O source. The emissions are maximum in spring/early summer, consistent with a nitrogen fertilizer-driven source, but also show a late winter spike suggestive of freeze-thaw effects. Interannual variability in emissions across the primary months of fertilizer application is positively correlated to mean soil moisture and precipitation. The inversion results, in combination with gridded N fertilizer datasets, are used to estimate the fraction of synthetic N fertilizer that is released as N2O. The estimated N2O flux from the Midwestern corn/soybean belt and the more northerly U.S./Canadian wheat belt corresponds to 3.6-4.5% and 1.4-3.5%, respectively, of total synthetic + organic N fertilizer applied to those regions. Consideration of additional N inputs from soybean N2 fixation reduces the N2O yield from the Midwestern corn/soybean belt to 2-2.6% of total N inputs. Figure 1. Posterior N2O flux integrated over the central Midwestern Corn/Soybean belt (38° to 43°N, 102° to 80°W, in grids where 5% or more of land area was planted in corn and/or soybean). Cases 1 (red) and 2 (blue) are defined based on different covariance matrix parameters, representing alternative scenarios of tighter prior/looser model-data mismatch and looser prior/tighter model-data mismatch. Both cases use a standard prior derived from a coarser resolution global inversion. Triangles show the approximate day when soil temperature climbs above 0°C and drops below 10

  4. Early evolution of the southern margin of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina: Tectono-stratigraphic implications for rift evolution and exploration of hydrocarbon plays

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, Leandro; Bilmes, Andrés; Franzese, Juan R.; Veiga, Gonzalo D.; Hernández, Mariano; Muravchik, Martín

    2015-12-01

    Long-lived rift basins are characterized by a complex structural and tectonic evolution. They present significant lateral and vertical stratigraphic variations that determine diverse basin-patterns at different timing, scale and location. These issues cause difficulties to establish facies models, correlations and stratal stacking patterns of the fault-related stratigraphy, specially when exploration of hydrocarbon plays proceeds on the subsurface of a basin. The present case study corresponds to the rift-successions of the Neuquén Basin. This basin formed in response to continental extension that took place at the western margin of Gondwana during the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic. A tectono-stratigraphic analysis of the initial successions of the southern part of the Neuquén Basin was carried out. Three syn-rift sequences were determined. These syn-rift sequences were located in different extensional depocentres during the rifting phases. The specific periods of rifting show distinctly different structural and stratigraphic styles: from non-volcanic to volcanic successions and/or from continental to marine sedimentation. The results were compared with surface and subsurface interpretations performed for other depocentres of the basin, devising an integrated rifting scheme for the whole basin. The more accepted tectono-stratigraphic scheme that assumes the deposits of the first marine transgression (Cuyo Cycle) as indicative of the onset of a post-rift phase is reconsidered. In the southern part of the basin, the marine deposits (lower Cuyo Cycle) were integrated into the syn-rift phase, implying the existence of different tectonic signatures for Cuyo Cycle along the basin. The rift climax becomes younger from north to south along the basin. The post-rift initiation followed the diachronic ending of the main syn-rift phase throughout the Neuquén Basin. Thus, initiation of the post-rift stage started in the north and proceeded towards the south, constituting a

  5. Stratigraphic framework of sediment-starved sand ridges on a mixed siliciclastic/carbonate inner shelf; west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J.H.; Harrison, S.E.; Locker, S.D.; Hine, A.C.; Twichell, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    Seismic reflection profiles and vibracores have revealed that an inner shelf, sand-ridge field has developed over the past few thousand years situated on an elevated, broad bedrock terrace. This terrace extends seaward of a major headland associated with the modern barrier-island coastline of west-central Florida. The overall geologic setting is a low-energy, sediment-starved, mixed siliciclastic/carbonate inner continental shelf supporting a thin sedimentary veneer. This veneer is arranged in a series of subparallel, shore-oblique, and to a minor extent, shore-parallel sand ridges. Seven major facies are present beneath the ridges, including a basal Neogene limestone gravel facies and a blue-green clay facies indicative of dominantly authigenic sedimentation. A major sequence boundary separates these older units from Holocene age, organic-rich mud facies (marsh), which grades upward into a muddy sand facies (lagoon or shallow open shelf/seagrass meadows). Cores reveal that the muddy shelf facies is either in sharp contact or grades upward into a shelly sand facies (ravinement or sudden termination of seagrass meadows). The shelly sand facies grades upward to a mixed siliciclastic/carbonate facies, which forms the sand ridges themselves. This mixed siliciclastic/carbonate facies differs from the sediment on the beach and shoreface, suggesting insignificant sediment exchange between the offshore ridges and the modern coastline. Additionally, the lack of early Holocene, pre-ridge facies in the troughs between the ridges suggests that the ridges themselves do not migrate laterally extensively. Radiocarbon dating has indicated that these sand ridges can form relatively quickly (???1.3 ka) on relatively low-energy inner shelves once open-marine conditions are available, and that frequent, high-energy, storm-dominated conditions are not necessarily required. We suggest that the two inner shelf depositional models presented (open-shelf vs. migrating barrier-island) may have co-existed spatially and/or temporally to explain the distribution of facies and vertical facies contacts. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Stratigraphic and structural relationships between Meso-Cenozoic Lagonegro basin and coeval carbonate platforms in southern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescatore, Tullio; Renda, Pietro; Schiattarella, Marcello; Tramutoli, Mariano

    1999-12-01

    Lucanian segment — are shown by means of both regional and detailed geological cross-sections. The Lagonegro units constantly underlie the carbonate units originating from detachment and thrusting of the western platform and overlie the eastern (i.e. Apulian) platform. The Lagonegro units show a strong lateral variability of map-scale structures. Dome-and-basin folds are in fact largely observable in the Lucanian Apennine. Further, the belt is widely affected by Plio-Quaternary strike-slip and extensional faults. Yet, excluding the brittle deformation due to Quaternary faulting, the complexity of structural styles seems to result from the Neogene refolding of more ancient structures produced by Oligo-Miocene intraplate deformation. This hypothesis is supported by two independent lines of evidence: the first is the recognition of unconformities between the lower Miocene Numidian sandstone and the underlying Lagonegro successions, at least in the southwestern sectors; the second is that the internal (i.e. western) platform remains undeformed until the early Miocene. Both stratigraphic and structural data suggest an external position of the Meso-Cenozoic Lagonegro basin with regard to the coeval Apenninic platform.

  7. High resolution spectroscopic mapping imaging applied in situ to multilayer structures for stratigraphic identification of painted art objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis, Georgios Th.

    2016-04-01

    The development of non-destructive techniques is a reality in the field of conservation science. These techniques are usually not so accurate, as the analytical micro-sampling techniques, however, the proper development of soft-computing techniques can improve their accuracy. In this work, we propose a real-time fast acquisition spectroscopic mapping imaging system that operates from the ultraviolet to mid infrared (UV/Vis/nIR/mIR) area of the electromagnetic spectrum and it is supported by a set of soft-computing methods to identify the materials that exist in a stratigraphic structure of paint layers. Particularly, the system acquires spectra in diffuse-reflectance mode, scanning in a Region-Of-Interest (ROI), and having wavelength range from 200 up to 5000 nm. Also, a fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm, i.e., the particular soft-computing algorithm, produces the mapping images. The evaluation of the method was tested on a byzantine painted icon.

  8. STRATIGRAPHIC EVOLUTION, PALEOENVIRONMENTS AND HYDROCARBON POTENTIALS OF THE BENUE/DAHOMEY BASINS, NIGERIAN AND POTIGUAR/CEARA BASINS, NE BRAZIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akande, S.O; Adekeye, O.A.; Oj, O.J; Erdtmann, B.D.; Koutsokous, E.I.

    2004-01-01

    The stratigraphy, facies relationship and paleoenvironment of selected West African and the Brazillian rift basins permit the recognition of at least two major petroleum systems apart from the prolific Niger Delta petroleum system. The Lower Cretaceous fluivio-lacustrine petroleum system and Upper Cretaceous to Lower Tertiary, marine dominated petroleum system. Our combined studies of the stratigraphic, structural framework, paleoenvironment and time-space relationships of the petroleum systems in the Benue/Dahomey and the Potiguar/Ceara basins indicated that rifting and subsequent drifting during the opening of the South Atlantic controlled subsidence, sediment deposition and facies associations in individual basins. Whereas in the Potiguar/Ceara basins, the best developed source rocks are within the Neomacin-Aptian fluvio- lacustrine sequence of the Pendencia and Alagamar Formations which generated reserved hydrocarbon in the Acu Formation, empirical evidence for this petroleum system in the contiguous Benue/Dahomey basins are only based on the geochemical characteristics of the lower parts of the Bima Formation and the Abeokuta Group. In contrast, the Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary marine petroleum system, which is constrained by poor development of reservoirs in the Potiguar/Ceara basin is productive in the Benue/Dahomey basins where source rocks, reservoir and sealing facies occur at this interval. Considering the recent hydrocarbon discoveries of the East Niger basin, the Doba (southern Chad), the Muglad basin (southern Sudan) sourced from the fluvio-lacustrine rift sequences, we suggest that this petroleum system needs more detailed exploration and has some potentials in the Benue/Dahomey frontier basins

  9. Stratigraphic condensation of marine transgressive records: Origin of major shell deposits in the Miocene of Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, S.M. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Cyclic stratigraphic sequences in shallow marine records are commonly charaterized by a condensed transgressive lag at the base of thicker, shallowing-upward facies. The standard actualistic model for these thin fossiliferous lags, by which most of the shelf is starved owing to coastal trapping of sediment and fossils are suspected of being reworked because of the association with an erosional ravinement, is contradicted by detailed stratigraphic and taphonomic analysis of Miocene examples in the Maryland coastal plain. The complex internal stratigraphies of the shell deposits and the mixture of soft- and shell-bottom faunas indicate condensation under a regime of dynamic bypassing rather than complete sediment starvation; bypassed fine sediments accumulated in deeper water environments below storm wavebase. Deeper, even more basinward parts of the shelf were starved of all sediment size fractions and accumulated shell-poor, bone-rich condensed deposits that lie mid-cycle (bracketing the time of maximum water depth). The base-of-cycle shell deposits and mid-cycle bone bed differ not only in composition and in environment and dynamics of condensation, but also in chronostratigraphic value: the onlapping shell deposits must be diachronous to some degree, whereas the mid-cycle bone bed approximates an isochronous marker for correlation. Thus, in some settings at least, transgressive shelves present a spatial mosaic of condensational and depositional regimes. Regardless of origin, all condensed intervals can time-average assemblages and telescope biostratigraphic datums. They otherwise differ widely, however, in paleontologic attributes and are characterized by highly variable and complex stratigraphic anatomies.

  10. Morphodynamics and stratigraphic architecture of shelf-edge deltas subject to constant vs. dynamic environmental forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    When deltas dock at the edge of continental margins they generally construct thick stratigraphic intervals and activate channelized continental slope systems. Deposits of shelf-edge deltas have the capacity to store detailed paleo-environmental records, given their location in the source to sink system. However, present day highstand sea-level conditions have pushed most deltaic systems well inbound of their shelf-edges, making it difficult to study their space-time dynamics and resulting stratigraphic products. Several competing theories describe how deltas and their downslope environments respond to sea-level cycles of varying magnitude and periodicity. We explore these hypotheses in a physical experiment where the topographic evolution of a coupled delta and downdip slope system was monitored at high temporal and spatial resolution. The experiment had three stages. In the first stage a delta aggraded at the shelf-edge under constant water and sediment supply, in addition to a constant generation of accommodation through a sea-level rise. In the second stage the sediment transport system responded to low magnitude and high frequency sea-level cycles. Finally, in the third stage the transport system responded to a high magnitude and long period sea-level cycle. In each stage, fine sediment from the input grain size distribution and dissolved salt in the input water supply promoted plunging hyperpycnal flows. Specifically, we compare the mean and temporal variability of the sediment delivered to the slope system between stages. In addition, we compare stratigraphic architecture and sediment sizes delivered to the slope system in each stage. These results are used to improve inversion of slope deposits for paleo-environmental forcings.

  11. Neogene and Quaternary geology of a stratigraphic test hole on Horn Island, Mississippi Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohn, Gregory S.; Brewster-Wingard, G. Lynn; Cronin, Thomas M.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Gibson, Thomas G.; Rubin, Meyer; Willard, Debra A.

    1996-01-01

    During April and May, 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) drilled a 510-ft-deep, continuously cored, stratigraphic test hole on Horn Island, Mississippi Sound, as part of a field study of the Neogene and Quaternary geology of the Mississippi coastal area. The USGS drilled two new holes at the Horn Island site. The first hole was continuously cored to a depth of 510 ft; coring stopped at this depth due to mechanical problems. To facilitate geophysical logging, an unsampled second hole was drilled to a depth of 519 ft at the same location.

  12. Full 3-D stratigraphic inversion with a priori information: a powerful way to optimize data integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grizon, L.; Leger, M.; Dequirez, P.Y.; Dumont, F.; Richard, V.

    1998-12-31

    Integration between seismic and geological data is crucial to ensure that a reservoir study is accurate and reliable. To reach this goal, there is used a post-stack stratigraphic inversion with a priori information. The global cost-function combines two types of constraints. One is relevant to seismic amplitudes, and the other to an a priori impedance model. This paper presents this flexible and interpretative inversion to determine acoustic impedances constrained by seismic data, log data and geologic information. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  13. 3D stratigraphic forward modelling of Shu'aiba Platform stratigraphy in the Bu Hasa Field, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Lokier, S. W.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the results of three dimensional sequence stratigraphic forward modelling of the Aptian age Shu'aiba Formation from Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE). The Shu'aiba Formation lies within the uppermost part of the Lower Cretaceous Thamama Group and forms one of the most prolific hydrocarbon reservoir intervals of the Middle East with production dating back to the 1960's. The Shu'aiba Formation developed as a series of laterally-extensive shallow-water carbonate platforms in an epeiric sea that extended over the northern margin of the African-Arabian Plate. This shallow sea was bounded by the Arabian Shield to the west and the passive margin with the Neo-Tethys Ocean towards the north and east (Droste, 2010). The exposed Arabian Shield acted as a source of siliciclastic sediments to westernmost regions, however, more offshore areas were dominated by shallow-water carbonate deposition. Carbonate production was variously dominated by Lithocodium-Baccinella, orbitolinid foraminifera and rudist bivalves depending on local conditions. While there have been numerous studies of this important stratigraphic interval (for examples see van Buchem et al., 2010), there has been little attempt to simulate the sequence stratigraphic development of the formation. During the present study modelling was undertaken utilising the CARBONATE-3D stratigraphic forward modelling software (Warrlich et al., 2008; Warrlich et al., 2002)) thus allowing for the control of a diverse range of internal and external parameters on carbonate sequence development. This study focuses on platform development in the onshore Bu Hasa Field - the first giant oilfield to produce from the Shu'aiba Formation in Abu Dhabi. The carbonates of the Bu Hasa field were deposited on the southwest slope of the intra-shelf Bab Basin, siliciclastic content is minor. Initially these carbonates were algal dominated with rudist mounds becoming increasingly important over time (Alsharhan, 1987

  14. Three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model for use with a steady-state numerical ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional flow system, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belcher, W.R.; Faunt, C.C.; D'Agnese, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Department of Energy and other Federal, State, and local agencies, is evaluating the hydrogeologic characteristics of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. The ground-water flow system covers and area of about 100,000 square kilometers from latitude 35 degrees to 38 degrees 15 minutes North to longitude 115 degrees to 118 degrees West, with the flow system proper comprising about 45,000 square kilometers. The Death Valley regional ground-water flow system is one of the larger flow systems within the Southwestern United States and includes in its boundaries the Nevada Test Site, Yucca Mountain, and much of Death Valley. Part of this study includes the construction of a three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model to serve as the foundation for the development of a steady-state regional ground-water flow model. The digital framework model provides a computer-based description of the geometry and composition of the hydro geologic units that control regional flow. The framework model of the region was constructed by merging two previous framework models constructed for the Yucca Mountain Project and the Environmental Restoration Program Underground Test Area studies at the Nevada Test Site. The hydrologic characteristics of the region result from a currently arid climate and complex geology. Interbasinal regional ground-water flow occurs through a thick carbonate-rock sequence of Paleozoic age, a locally thick volcanic-rock sequence of Tertiary age, and basin-fill alluvium of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Throughout the system, deep and shallow ground-water flow may be controlled by extensive and pervasive regional and local faults and fractures. The framework model was constructed using data from several sources to define the geometry of the regional hydrogeologic units. These data sources include (1) a 1:250,000-scale hydrogeologic-map compilation of the region; (2) regional-scale geologic cross

  15. A three-dimensional stratigraphic model for aggrading submarine channels based on laboratory experiments, numerical modeling, and sediment cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, A. B.; Komatsu, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Paola, C.

    2017-12-01

    Turbidity currents deliver clastic sediment from continental margins to the deep ocean, and are the main driver of landscape and stratigraphic evolution in many low-relief, submarine environments. The sedimentary architecture of turbidites—including the spatial organization of coarse and fine sediments—is closely related to the aggradation, scour, and lateral shifting of channels. Seismic stratigraphy indicates that submarine, meandering channels often aggrade rapidly relative to lateral shifting, and develop channel sand bodies with high vertical connectivity. In comparison, the stratigraphic architecture developed by submarine, braided is relatively uncertain. We present a new stratigraphic model for submarine braided channels that integrates predictions from laboratory experiments and flow modeling with constraints from sediment cores. In the laboratory experiments, a saline density current developed subaqueous channels in plastic sediment. The channels aggraded to form a deposit with a vertical scale of approximately five channel depths. We collected topography data during aggradation to (1) establish relative stratigraphic age, and (2) estimate the sorting patterns of a hypothetical grain size distribution. We applied a numerical flow model to each topographic surface and used modeled flow depth as a proxy for relative grain size. We then conditioned the resulting stratigraphic model to observed grain size distributions using sediment core data from the Nankai Trough, offshore Japan. Using this stratigraphic model, we establish new, quantitative predictions for the two- and three-dimensional connectivity of coarse sediment as a function of fine-sediment fraction. Using this case study as an example, we will highlight outstanding challenges in relating the evolution of low-relief landscapes to the stratigraphic record.

  16. Burial and exhumation history of southern Sweden estimated from apatite fission-track data, stratigraphic landform analysis and the geological record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japsen, Peter; Green, Paul F.; Lidmar-Bergström, Karna; Bonow, Johan M.; Erlström, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    We present new apatite fission-track analysis (AFTA) data from 87 samples of basement and sediment from southern Sweden, including samples from a 1.7 km deep borehole. The new AFTA data allow us to confirm the development of the South Swedish Dome as inferred from stratigraphic landform analysis (e.g. Lidmar-Bergström et al., 2013) and also to define the timing and magnitude of the events of burial and exhumation that shaped this prominent feature. Southern Sweden underwent a complex Palaeozoic - early Triassic history of burial and exhumation, but after a mid-Triassic event of uplift and exhumation, rocks on the Sub-Cambrian Peneplain cooled from palaeotemperatures ≥100°C. This event, that also affected southern Norway, West and East Greenland, marks an important phase in the breakup of Pangea. A second, regional phase of cooling and exhumation affected the area in the mid-Jurassic and eventually lead to stripping of the basement along the western and southern flanks of the South Swedish Dome prior to Late Cretaceous subsidence and burial and thus to formation of the sub-Cretaceous hilly relief. This event affected much of NW Europe as well as West and East Greenland, and it is coeval with the initial opening of the central Atlantic. A third, regional phase of cooling and exhumation from palaeotemperatures of 50-60°C took place in the Miocene and lead to the formation of the South Småland Peneplain. This phase affected southern Scandinavia but has no counterpart in Greenland. A final uplift phase that raised the South Småland Peneplain to its present elevation and lead to re-exposure of sub-Cretaceous hilly relief is not resolved in the AFTA data. The results underline the importance of epeirogenic movements (both uplift and subsidence) in regions that are often considered as stable cratons (cf. Green et al., 2013). Green, P.F., Lidmar-Bergström, K., Japsen, P., Bonow, J.M., Chalmers, J.A., 2013. Stratigraphic landscape analysis, thermochronology and the

  17. PHP frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Srša, Aljaž

    2016-01-01

    The thesis presents one of the four most popular PHP web frameworks: Laravel, Symfony, CodeIgniter and CakePHP. These frameworks are compared with each other according to the four criteria, which can help with the selection of a framework. These criteria are size of the community, quality of official support, comprehensibility of framework’s documentation and implementation of functionalities in individual frameworks, which are automatic code generation, routing, object-relational mapping and...

  18. Geochemical evaluation of a shale stratigraphic profile from Paraiba Valley (Tremembe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, M.R.B.; Cardoso, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    The sedimentary core ranges 0-35m depth and covers three types of bituminous shales, intercalated by two layers of sterile clay. A systematic geochemical study of samples of most stratigraphic layers was undertaken for the first time in this work, including elemental analysis (C, H), carbonate content, type of organic matter, infrared spectrometry and molecular characterization of organic extracts (hight-resolution) gas chromatography, mass spectrometry). No consistent correlation between lithology and amount/type of organic matter was observed, contrary to literature data, pointing out the paper shale strata as richest in organic matter. Molecular stratigraphy of the core presented similar n-alkane profiles generally maximizing at n-C 27 attesting to a small variation in input along the sedimentary section. Characterization of the branched/cyclic hydrocarbons evidenced a continental input to the sediment, as revealed by the presence, in several layers, of isometric des-A-fernenes, presumed products of diagenesis of arborinone. A microbial input was also evidenced through the general occurrence of hopanoids, trace amounts of steroidal skeletons as well as atomic H/C ratios ca. 2. The sharp variations in biomarker profiles with depth showed great potential as correlation markers in a detailed stratigraphic study of the basin, as a valuable supplement to traditional lithological parameters. (author) [pt

  19. Genetic and stratigraphic significance of the Upper Devonian Frasnian Z Marker, west-central Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendte, J. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Stoakes, F. [Stoakes Consulting Group Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Bosman, M. [Canadian Hunter Exploration Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Bernstein, L. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-12-01

    The stratigraphic model from the west-central Alberta basin was provided. It defined the Z Marker as a distinctive and widespread wireline log marker within the thick Frasnian Ireton shale basin succession. The marker represents an interval of condensed sedimentation and corresponds to an abrupt change from a calcareous signature below to an argillaceous character above. Toward the shelf, in the West Pembina area, the Z Marker correlates to a level within a conformable succession of nodular lime wackestones and corresponds to the base of a depositional cycle near the middle of the Lobstick member of the Nisku Formation. Further shelfward, the Z Marker continues as a well-defined log marker until the Nisku shelf margin. The stratigraphic significance of the Z Marker in delineating various oil bearing formations in Alberta were explained in great detail. The correct recognition and correlation of this marker was claimed to permit an understanding of basin evolution beyond that discernable from the existing lithostratigraphic nomenclature alone. 17 refs., 13 figs.

  20. The use of handheld radiometry for the identification of stratigraphic characteristics of Paraiba Basin units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Ebenezer Moreno de; Villar, Heldio Pereira; Lima, Ricardo de Andrade; Lima Filho, Mario

    2000-01-01

    A study on the use of radiometric techniques for the identification of stratigraphic characteristics of Paraiba Basin units was carried out with handheld instrumentation. The area chosen ran from north Pernambuco to south Paraiba. The presence of radioactive material had been previously determined. For this work a portable scintillometer was fixed to the door of a vehicle, on the outside, with the probe directed downwards. Background radiation was measured as 40 cps (counts per second). The scintillometer has an alarm which sounds whenever the measured count rate rises above a pre-established figure, 100 cps in the present case. Monitoring then proceeded manually. In sites where the count rate was much higher than 100 cps, the probe was lowered to the soil surface. Local coordinates were obtained by GPS. Therefore, an isoradioactivity map of the area could be drawn. The comparison between this map and local geological charts showed significant correlation between observed count rates and geologic formations. Low count rates were indicative of the Barreiras formation, whereas the highest rates were obtained for the Gramame formation (with urano-phosphatic lythotypes). It is concluded that handheld radiometry is a useful tool in geological charting, is special in areas where stratigraphic units have been masked by environmental changes and human activities. (author)

  1. Applying and improving a sedimentary facies model for exploration of stratigraphic traps in the Austrian Molasse basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinsch, R.; Kofler, N. [Rohoel-Aufsuchungs AG (RAG), Vienna (Austria); Hubbard, S. [Calgary Univ., Calgary (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    2007-09-13

    In the Molasse foreland basin of Upper Austria gas is produced from deep-water sandstones and conglomerates of the Puchkirchen and basal Hall formations (Oligocene-Lower Miocene). The basin is mature, with >750 wells drilled by RAG to date. An extensive 3-D seismic reflection dataset that covers much of the paleo-basin foredeep has been acquired in the study area over the last 15 years. Seismic stratigraphic analysis has revealed that deepwater sedimentation in the basin was dominated by a channel belt up to 5 km wide that transported sediment derived from the Central and Eastern Alps eastward along the basin axis (Linzer, 2001; de Ruig, 2003). Based on these findings, a detailed sedimentary facies model has been developed, outlining several distinct depositional elements that reveal numerous possible stratigraphic trap types (de Ruig and Hubbard, 2006). This depositional model is currently being applied and tested in exploration and refined by ongoing research. Channel abandonment and migration are important processes that resulted in stratigraphic configurations consisting of coarse-grained sandstones and conglomerates overlain by channel and overbank mudstones. This represents ideal reservoir architecture, including porous reservoir facies sealed by impermeable deposits. Additional stratigraphic trapping conditions can result from special spatial arrangements of depositional elements, for example a sandstone-filled tributary channel that is sealed by an overlying mudstone-filled abandonment channel. Recognizing and further improving such stratigraphic trapping configurations are important for future exploration in Upper Austria, where most of the structural traps have been drilled. (orig.)

  2. An interpretation of the tectonostratigraphic framework of the Murray Basin region of southeastern Australia, based on an examination of airborne magnetic patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. M.; Tucker, D. H.; Anfiloff, V.

    1988-11-01

    New pixel map representations of regional total magnetic intensity data reveal previously unknown characteristics of the basement concealed beneath thin Cainozoic sediments of the Murray Basin in southeastern Australia. Interpretations of magnetic patterns in terms of structural features allow a revised interpretation of the nature of the tectonostratigraphic framework underlying and flanking the basin. The magnetic data indicate that arcuate or curvilinear structural trends under the Murray Basin do not conform with those of the exposed Lachlan Fold Belt to the east and suggest that the basement concealed beneath the basin, together with that exposed in the Victorian Highlands to the south, forms a distinct composite tectonostratigraphic terrane. Beneath the southwestern Murray Basin ?Proterozoic-Lower Cambrian metasediments of the Padthaway Ridge of the Kanmantoo Fold Belt display a northwesterly trending structural grain and a previously unsuspected continuity of structural trend with Adelaidean-Cambrian rocks of the Mount Lofty Ranges to the west. In the south, Cambrian volcanics of the Black Range and Stavely greenstone belts have similar magnetic response and appear to be components of a single elongate and strongly magnetic domain which extends to the northwest for at least 400 km (Stavely Belt). To the north a similar but entirely concealed northeasterly trending magnetic domain can also be interpreted as volcanics (Lake Wintlow Belt). Together these two magnetic domains appear to form an arcuate zone of volcanics, with a concave-to-the-east configuration, located at a possible suture between the Lachlan and Kanmantoo Fold Belts beneath the western Murray Basin. In the south the magnetic imagery indicates that metasediments of the ?Cambro-Ordovician Stawell Belt produce magnetic patterns distinct from those produced by the metasediments of the adjacent Ordovician Bendigo Belt, which can itself be subdivided into a number of areas of distinct magnetic

  3. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Vogt

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M and O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in

  4. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Vogt

    2004-08-26

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M&O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in the

  5. The high-resolution stratigraphic architecture and evolution of the Burdigalian carbonate-silici-clastic sedimentary systems on the Mut Basin, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassant, Ph

    1999-06-01

    The subject of this doctorate study are the Lower Miocene (Burdigalian) carbonate systems in the Mut basin, in south central Turkey. This area is chosen because it presents extraordinary large (seismic) scale 3D outcrops showing depositional geometries. In addition, these carbonates are considered as good outcrop analogues for time equivalent carbonate buildups in the Far East, that are oil and gas bearing. The carbonates were deposited in a complex relict topography, following a tectonically active phase in the Oligocene. During the Burdigalian transgression shallow platform carbonates were deposited in a variety of settings, locally accompanied by some silici-clastic input. Observations on the strata geometries and the facies were combined into a high resolution sequence stratigraphic framework controlled by bio-stratigraphy. With the help of relative sea level curves constructed for the three studied sites, a basin-wide correlation scheme is proposed. This chronostratigraphic framework permits the recognition of condensation and omission surfaces in the basinal and platform settings, to identify basin-wide variations in sedimentation pattern, and to evaluate the relative influence of tectonism, eustatism and the environment. The exceptional quality of the outcrops with its variety of environments, and its location at the Tethys margin, make this a good candidate for a reference model for Burdigalian reef and platform architectures. Examples of a quantitative approach of the geometries of potential carbonate reservoir bodies are given in the annex. The data-files are incorporated in the carbonate reservoir body database CARABAS. (author)

  6. The ANDRILL programme: a new multinational initiative to investigate Antarctica's climatic and tectonic history from stratigraphic drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, T.; Andrill Steering Committee

    2003-04-01

    ANDRILL is a multinational initiative to investigate Antarctica’s role in Cenozoic-Recent (65 million years ago to the present) climatic, glacial and tectonic change through the recovery of stratigraphic records from and around the Antarctic margin. The ANDRILL programme was initially conceived and promoted by scientists who led the successful Cape Roberts Project (CRP) and other interested parties. A key motivation of ANDRILL is that the role of the Antarctic cryosphere (ice sheets, ice shelves and sea ice) in the climate system is complex and very poorly understood. While, high-quality sedimentary archives of past ice sheet behaviour have recently be-come available from projects such as the Cape Roberts Project and the Ocean Drilling Program (Leg 188, Prydz Bay), unfortunately they are too few in number to allow a comprehensive understanding of the continents influence on global climate. ANDRILL will address this issue through drilling a targeted portfolio of sites initially in the McMurdo Sound region. Here the dynamic behaviour of the East and West Antarctic ice sheets, and the Ross Ice Shelf have left their signature in the thick Cenozoic sedimentary fills of the West Antarctic Rift system and flexural moat basins. The ANDRILL McMurdo Sound Portfolio, is an 8 to 9 year programme spanning from 2001 to 2010 of which geophysical and site survey scientific investigations are nearing completion and the drilling phase will soon begin. An ANDRILL consortium has been established comprising five countries : USA, Italy, Germany, UK and NZ. This paper will present the scientific objectives of the programme, discuss the current status and future plans.

  7. Characteristics of Chinese petroleum geology. Geological features and exploration cases of stratigraphic, foreland and deep formation traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Chengzao [PetroChina Company Limited, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-01

    The first book of this subject in the recent 10 years. ''Characteristics of Chinese Petroleum Geology: Geological Features and Exploration Cases of Stratigraphic, Foreland and Deep Formation Traps'' systematically presents the progress made in petroleum geology in China and highlights the latest advances and achievements in oil/gas exploration and research, especially in stratigraphic, foreland and deep formation traps. The book is intended for researchers, practitioners and students working in petroleum geology, and is also an authoritative reference work for foreign petroleum exploration experts who want to learn more about this field in China.

  8. Late-Holocene vegetation dynamics in response to a changing climate and anthropogenic influences - Insights from stratigraphic records and subfossil trees from southeast Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, Johannes; Stančikaitė, Miglė; Miras, Yannick; Corona, Christophe; Gryguc, Gražyna; Gedminienė, Laura; Mažeika, Jonas; Stoffel, Markus

    2018-04-01

    To increase our understanding of long-term climate dynamics and its effects on different ecosystems, palaeoclimatic and long-term botanical reconstructions need to be improved, in particular in underutilized geographical regions. In this study, vegetation, (hydro)climate, and land-use changes were documented at two southeast Lithuanian peatland complexes - Čepkeliai and Rieznyčia - for the Late-Holocene period. The documentation was based on a combination of pollen, plant macrofossils, peat stratigraphic records, and subfossil trees. Our results cover the last two millennia and reveal the existence of moist conditions in Southern Lithuania between 300 and 500 CE and from 950 to 1850 CE. Conversely, changes towards warmer and/or dryer conditions have been recorded in 100, 600, and 750 CE, and since the 1850s. Significant differences with other Baltic proxies prevent deriving a complete and precise long-term reconstruction of past hydroclimatic variability at the regional scale. Yet, our results provide an important cornerstone for an improved understanding of regional climate change, i.e. in a region for which only (i) few detailed palaeobotanical studies exist and which has, in addition, been considered as (ii) an ecologically sensitive region at the interface between the temperate and boreal bioclimatic zones.

  9. SERA Scenarios of Early Market Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Introductions: Modeling Framework, Regional Markets, and Station Clustering; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M.

    2015-03-23

    This presentation provides an overview of the Scenario Evaluation and Regionalization Analysis (SERA) model, describes the methodology for developing scenarios for hydrogen infrastructure development, outlines an example "Hydrogen Success" scenario, and discusses detailed scenario metrics for a particular case study region, the Northeast Corridor.

  10. Radioisotope investigations on the stratigraphic distribution of poly/methyl methacrylate/grafted onto leather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrucha, K.; Kroh, J.

    1984-01-01

    Investigations on the stratigraphic distribution of poly/methyl methacrylate/ in leather follow our earlier experiments on radiation grafting of vinyl monomers in situ. Polymer distribution was determined for pigskins and cattlehides tanned with basic sulphates of chromium/III/. 14 C-labelled methyl methacrylate was used in present experiments. Precision slicing technique was employed to cut consecutive slices parallel to the grain surface of the radiation modified leather. Quantative analysis of polymer distribution in leather was based on radioactivity measurements. Each layer was burned in Oxymat apparatus and resulting 14 CO 2 was analysed by liquid scintillation method. On the basis of radioactivity measurements and visual observations with light microscope conclusion on desirable distribution of polymer was reached. In the midcorium part of leather polymer is evenly distributed and its content is much higher than for outer layers next to surface and flesh. Mechanism of relevant processes as well as formation and role played by peroxide compounds is discussed

  11. Radioisotope investigations on the stratigraphic distribution of poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted onto leather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrucha, K.; Kroh, J.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations on the stratigraphic distribution of poly(methyl methacrylate) in leather follow our earlier experiments on radiation grafting of vinyl monomers in situ. Polymer distribution was determined for pigskins and cattlehides tanned with basic sulphates of chromium (III). 14 C-labelled methyl methacrylate was used in present experiments. Precision slicing technique was employed to cut consecutive slices parallel to the grain surface of the radiation modified leather. Quantitative analysis of polymer distribution in leather was based on radioactivity measurements. Each layer was burned in Oxymat apparatus and resulting 14 CO 2 was analysed by liquid scintillation method. On the basis of radioactivity measurements and visual observations with light microscope conclusion on desirable distribution of polymer was reached. In the midcorium part of leather polymer is evenly distributed and its content is much higher than for outer layers next to surface and flesh. Mechanism of relevant processes as well as formation and role played by peroxide compounds are discussed. (author)

  12. Seismic stratigraphic architecture of the Disko Bay trough-mouth fan system, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Julia C.; Knutz, Paul C.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial and temporal changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet on the continental shelf bordering Baffin Bay remain poorly constrained. Then as now, fast-flowing ice streams and outlet glaciers have played a key role for the mass balance and stability of polar ice sheets. Despite their significance for Greenland Ice Sheet dynamics and evolution, our understanding of their long-term behaviour is limited. The central West Greenland margin is characterized by a broad continental shelf where a series of troughs extend from fjords to the shelf margin, acting as focal points for trough-mouth fan (TMF) accummulations. The sea-ward bulging morphology and abrupt shelf-break of these major depositional systems is generated by prograding depocentres that formed during glacial maxima when ice streams reached the shelf edge, delivering large amounts of subglacial sediment onto the continental slope (Ó Cofaigh et al., 2013). The aim of this study is to unravel the seismic stratigraphic architecture and depositional processes of the Disko Bay TMF, aerially the largest single sedimentary system in West Greenland, using 2D and 3D seismic reflection data, seabed bathymetry and stratigraphic information from exploration well Hellefisk-1. The south-west Disko Bay is intersected by a deep, narrow trough, Egedesminde Dyb, which extends towards the southwest and links to the shallower and broader cross-shelf Disko Trough (maximum water depths of > 1000 m and a trough length of c. 370 km). Another trough-like depression (trough length of c. 120 km) in the northern part of the TMF, indicating a previous position of the ice stream, can be distinguished on the seabed topographic map and the seismic images. The Disko Bay TMF itself extends from the shelf edge down to the abyssal plain (abyssal floor depths of 2000 m) of the southern Baffin Bay. Based on seismic stratigraphic configurations relating to reflection terminations, erosive patterns and seismic facies (Mitchum et al., 1977), the TMF

  13. Structural, stratigraphic and hydrodynamic analysis of the Paleozoic section of central New York State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willette, P.D.

    1979-01-01

    A structural, stratigraphic and hydrodynamic analysis of 12 formations in central New York State between longitudes 75 30' and 78 30' is presented in the form of structure, isopach and potentiometric-fluid flow maps. Information used in the study was obtained from 2804 wells drilled for gas and oil. New concepts, approaches or reinterpretations of ideas presented in previous studies include: evidence of Taconic orogenic features as far west as Rochester, structural control of Trenton gas fields, a new interpretation of Oriskany erosional features and Onondaga reef trends, and structurally controlled fluid-flow patterns. Because fluid flow is toward the water supply of major population centers and because of the likelihood of drilling for natural gas in the area, the Salina Formation in central New York State is not a good site for a high level radioactive waste repository

  14. Controlling factors of stratigraphic occurrences of fine-grained turbidites: Examples from the Japanese waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, K.

    2017-12-01

    Fine-grained turbidite has been used for subaqueous paleoseismology, and has been recognized from shallow- to deep-water environments around the Japanese islands. Stratigraphic occurrence of fine-grained turbidites in the deepest Beppu Bay, south Japan, with its water depth of 75 m suggest clear influence of sea-level changes. Turbidite frequency was high during the post glacial sea-level rising and last 2.7 ka, and was low during the Holocene maximum sea-level highstand (5.3-2.7 ka). Retreat and progress of coastal delta front of the nearby river might affect the sediment supply to the deepest basin. On the other hand, fine-grained turbidites found in the forearc basins ( 3500 and 4500 m in water depths) and trench floor ( 6000 m in water depth) along the southern Ryukyu arc have no clear relation with sea-level changes. Sediment and bathymetric characteristics suggest that origin of these fine-grained turbidites is Taiwan. Remarkable tectonic uplift of Taiwanese coast with small mountainous rivers and narrow shelf may produce the continuous supply of fine-grained turbidites in this area. The Japan Trench floor composes of a series of small basins reflecting subducting horst-graben structure of the Pacific Plate. Each small basin acts as a natural sediment trap receiving the earthquake-induced turbidity currents. Thick fine-grained turbidites are also occurred in the small basins in the Japan Trench floor ( 7500 m in water depth). These are most likely induced by huge earthquakes along the Japan Trench. Thus, their stratigraphic occurrences might have close relation with recurrence of huge earthquakes in the past.

  15. The necessity and application of stratigraphic borings in hydrogeologic site assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciacca, J.

    1991-01-01

    The siting and placement of monitoring wells is one of the most critical elements in hydrogeologic assessments of contaminated sites. Monitoring wells are placed to collect hydraulic and chemical concentration data to: (1) determine potential groundwater flow paths and rates: (2) analyze the nature and extent of chemical constituents in groundwater; and (3) estimate contaminant fate and transport. In many instances monitoring wells provide inappropriate or erroneous hydraulic data, do not provide coverage of potential high permeability flow pathways (such as channel sands) or may themselves create (through improper construction) a vertical conduit for contaminant flow from low permeability to high permeability units. This problem is commonly due to installing monitoring wells before conducting essential stratigraphic analysis and formulating a depositional model for the site area. This paper presents case examples where stratigraphic borings were drilled and logged in the vicinity of proposed well locations to effectively design and install the monitoring well network. The borings were continuously sampled or geophysically logged to provide a vertical profile of the borehole. In addition, the geophysical logs provided curve signatures which allowed interpretation of depositional facies. These data were used to interpret subsurface stratigraphy and effectively position monitoring wells that achieve the above objectives and prevent problems associated with faulty well positioning. This method may cost more initially. However, these initial costs are cheaper than long-term project expenses for abandoning improperly completed wells. subsequently installing supplemental monitoring wells or modifying poorly designed treatment systems which resulted from improper or insufficient data generated from the initial monitoring network

  16. Stratigraphical sequence and geochronology of the volcanic rock series in caifang basin, south jiangxi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xunsheng; Wu Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    The late Mesozoic volcanic rocks in Jiangxi constitute two volcanic belts: the northern is Xiajiang-Guangfeng volcanic belt, the volcanic rocks series belong to one volcano cycle and named Wuyi group which is subdivided into three formations (Shuangfengling formation, Ehuling formation and Shixi formation); the southern is Sannan-Xunwu volcanic belt, the volcanic rocks series in Caifang basin which locates on Sannan-Xunwu volcanic belt also belong to only one volcano cycle. It can be subdivided into two lithology and lithofacies units (upper and lower): the lower unit consists of sedimentary rocks and associated with a subordinate amount of volcanic rocks, it belongs to erupt-deposit facies which is the product of early volcanic stage; the upper unit is mostly composed of volcanic rocks, it belongs to erupt facies that is the volcanic eruption product. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age of rhyolite? which locates at the top of the upper unit is 130.79 ± 0.73) Ma. According to the new International Stratigraphic Chart, the boundary of Jurassic and Cretaceous is (145.4 ± 4.0) Ma, so the age shows that the geologic period of Caifang volcanic rocks series is early Early Cretaceous epoch. On the basis of lithological correlation, lithofacies and stratigraphic horizon analysis, the volcanic rock series in Caifang basin fall under Wuyi group, and the lower unit could be incorporated into Shuangfengling formation, the upper unit could be incorporated into Ehuling formation. The subdivision of sequence and the determination of geochronology of the volcanic rock series in Caifang basin provide some references for the study of the late Mesozoic volcanic rocks series of the Sannan-Xunwu volcanic belt. (authors)

  17. The evolution of a subaqueous delta in the Anthropocene: A stratigraphic investigation of the Brazos River delta, TX USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Joseph A.; Dellapenna, Timothy M.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, deltas are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic activities. As a result, deltas now evolve through the combined effects of natural and human-induced processes occurring throughout the fluvial-deltaic system. The Brazos River delta, located along the Texas coast in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, and its watershed have been impacted by direct and indirect human activities since the late 19th century. This provides an opportunity to investigate how such alterations have shaped the evolution of a delta in the Anthropocene, a time when humans are drivers of geological change. Historic alteration to the delta and watershed include extensive agricultural activity, jetty construction at the mouth in the late 1890s, mouth diversion ~10 km to the southwest in 1929, and reservoir construction throughout the early and mid 20th Century. Three subaerial deltaic geometries provided the framework to connect subaerial deltaic responses, to the anthropogenic alterations, to the resulting stratigraphic characteristics observed in the subaqueous delta. This study utilized high-resolution geophysical data (swath bathymetry, side scan sonar, CHIRP subbottom profiling) on the subaqueous delta to investigate the subaqueous delta stratigraphy and infer the processes that shaped the deltaic record over time. The results showed distinct areas across the subaqueous delta that were dominated by erosion and deposition. Erosional areas corresponded to earlier growth phase depocenters being exposed at the surface, while the depositional areas corresponded to areas with the most recent growth phase depocenter overlying the earlier depocenters. These results highlight that the subaqueous depocenter has migrated westward over time, consistent with the observed changes to the subaerial delta. Additionally, the data showed that evidence for these past growth phases and depocenters may be preserved within the subaqueous delta, even after subaerial portions of the delta returned to pre

  18. Baseline analysis of the existing capacities and needs for capacity building for Marine Strategy Framework Directive implementation in the Celtic Seas sub-region.

    OpenAIRE

    Twomey, Sarah; O'Mahony, Cathal

    2013-01-01

    This report evaluates the existing situation in the Celtic Seas sub-region and determines the current state of preparedness for transboundary management of marine ecosystems and MSFD implementation. Recommendations for capacity building are provided through the analysis of the existing conflicts and potential synergies between relevant policies, institutions and information resources for MSFD implementation across the region. This report strives to empower stakeholders through the provision o...

  19. Implementing and evaluating a regional strategy to improve testing rates in VA patients at risk for HIV, utilizing the QUERI process as a guiding framework: QUERI Series

    OpenAIRE

    Goetz, MB; Bowman, C; Hoang, T; Anaya, H; Osborn, T; Gifford, AL; Asch, SM

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background We describe how we used the framework of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) to develop a program to improve rates of diagnostic testing for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This venture was prompted by the observation by the CDC that 25% of HIV-infected patients do not know their diagnosis – a point of substantial importance to the VA, which is the largest provider of HIV care in the United States. Methods Fo...

  20. THE MIDDLE TO UPPER PALEOLITHIC SEQUENCE OF BURAN-KAYA III (CRIMEA, UKRAINE) : NEW STRATIGRAPHIC, PALEOENVIRONMENTAL, AND CHRONOLOGICAL RESULTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pean, Stephane; Puaud, Simon; Crepin, Laurent; Prat, Sandrine; Quiles, Anita; van der Plicht, Johannes; Valladas, Helene; Stuart, Anthony J.; Drucker, Dorothee G.; Patou-Mathis, Marylene; Lanoe, Francois; Yanevich, Aleksandr; Hatté, C.; Jull, A.J.T.

    2013-01-01

    Buran-Kaya III is a rockshelter located in Crimea (Ukraine). It provides an exceptional stratigraphic sequence extending from the Middle Paleolithic to the Neolithic. Nine Paleolithic layers have been attributed to the Streletskaya or eastern Szeletian, Micoquian, Aurignacian, Gravettian, and

  1. Reanalysis of the Indian summer monsoon: four dimensional data assimilation of AIRS retrievals in a regional data assimilation and modeling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attada, Raju; Parekh, Anant; Chowdary, J. S.; Gnanaseelan, C.

    2018-04-01

    This work is the first attempt to produce a multi-year downscaled regional reanalysis of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) operational analyses and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) version 5 temperature and moisture retrievals in a regional model. Reanalysis of nine monsoon seasons (2003-2011) are produced in two parallel setups. The first set of experiments simply downscale the original NCEP operational analyses, whilst the second one assimilates the AIRS temperature and moisture profiles. The results show better representation of the key monsoon features such as low level jet, tropical easterly jet, subtropical westerly jet, monsoon trough and the spatial pattern of precipitation when AIRS profiles are assimilated (compared to those without AIRS data assimilation). The distribution of temperature, moisture and meridional gradients of dynamical and thermodynamical fields over the monsoon region are better represented in the reanalysis that assimilates AIRS profiles. The change induced by AIRS data on the moist and thermodynamic conditions results in more realistic rendering of the vertical shear associated with the monsoon, which in turn leads to a proper moisture transport and the moist convective feedback. This feedback benefits the representation of the regional monsoon characteristics, the monsoon dynamics and the moist convective processes on the seasonal time scale. This study emphasizes the use of AIRS soundings for downscaling of ISM representation in a regional reanalysis.

  2. Reanalysis of the Indian summer monsoon: four dimensional data assimilation of AIRS retrievals in a regional data assimilation and modeling framework

    KAUST Repository

    Attada, Raju

    2017-07-04

    This work is the first attempt to produce a multi-year downscaled regional reanalysis of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) operational analyses and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) version 5 temperature and moisture retrievals in a regional model. Reanalysis of nine monsoon seasons (2003–2011) are produced in two parallel setups. The first set of experiments simply downscale the original NCEP operational analyses, whilst the second one assimilates the AIRS temperature and moisture profiles. The results show better representation of the key monsoon features such as low level jet, tropical easterly jet, subtropical westerly jet, monsoon trough and the spatial pattern of precipitation when AIRS profiles are assimilated (compared to those without AIRS data assimilation). The distribution of temperature, moisture and meridional gradients of dynamical and thermodynamical fields over the monsoon region are better represented in the reanalysis that assimilates AIRS profiles. The change induced by AIRS data on the moist and thermodynamic conditions results in more realistic rendering of the vertical shear associated with the monsoon, which in turn leads to a proper moisture transport and the moist convective feedback. This feedback benefits the representation of the regional monsoon characteristics, the monsoon dynamics and the moist convective processes on the seasonal time scale. This study emphasizes the use of AIRS soundings for downscaling of ISM representation in a regional reanalysis.

  3. The integration of environmental geology methods and concepts within the framework of a regional administration; the case of the Comunidad Valenciana, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurenheimer, C.

    The process of transfer of jurisdictions on environmental matters from the central administration to an autonomous regional government is described. The main approaches taken by different autonomous regions in Spain, to deal with the problems of setting up an environmental administrative organization are also briefly commented here. Finally, the specific structure of the environmental administration in the Comunidad Valenciana and the main guidelines of its environmental policies are explained. It is concluded that earth science can provide a very useful basis for the drafting of these policies in the region, because of the specific nature of the problems to be dealt with, related mainly to water management, soil conservation, land occupation, natural hazards and preservation of natural areas.

  4. Topographic Growth, the Development of Rivers and Implications for the Marine Stratigraphic Record in SE Asia (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clift, P. D.; Zheng, H.

    2013-12-01

    that are unrelated to either of the local tectonics or regional climate change. Only the Pearl River appears to be unaffected by the evolving topography. Provenance in its offshore basins indicates a constant source in southern China, albeit one that expands gradually inland after the rifting of the South China Sea, but without any major capture events on the scale seen in other Asian river systems. Presently the origin of the Mekong is the most enigmatic, because the marine stratigraphic record suggests its initiation during the late Miocene, at least in the present position.

  5. The implementation of the Common Assessment Framework in the assessment of administrative and efficiency of nursing service in General Hospital of island region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Efkarpidis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Common Assessment Framework (CAF is an easy to use tool of Total Quality Management (TQM which is available to the public sector organizations in Europe. The Common Assessment Framework applied every two years providing a self-assessment framework to organizations, conceptually similar with the European Foundation Quality Management, taking into account their differences. It is common for all public organizations ensuring the comparability of results between similar services. Objective: To measure the existing administrative and operational level of Nursing Service in General Hospital. Methodology: The study was authorized by the General Manager of the Hospital. We followed the steps of the procedure provided the Implementation Guide of the CAF and used the questionnaire of the Guide. The sample consisted of 32 employees (Self-Assessment Group of all categories in a total of 101 employees. The analysis was performed with the Excel program. Results: The results of the evaluation were initiated between two rating scales based on the average (50 points a of the scale with grades from 31 to 50 (below average indicating the relative satisfaction for some activity and the moderate level of efficiency and effectiveness, and b of the scale with grades from 51 to 70 (above average indicating satisfaction for some activity and the good level of efficiency and effectiveness. The rating on the nine criteria of the CAF were: 1 Leadership (57.36, 2 Strategy – Planning (44.1, 3 Human Resource Management (50.07, 4 Partnerships – Resources (41,18, 5 Process Management – Changes (30.04, 6 Results for the Citizen (49.17, 7 Results for the Human Resources (42.13, 8 Results in Society (53, 97, 9 Main results (53,78. Conclusions: Τhe Nursing Service of the General Hospital was evaluated for its administration as well as the organizational performance by staff and citizens, based on the CAF. Seventy two weak points were spoted needing

  6. Salt tectonics and sequence-stratigraphic history of minibasins near the Sigsbee Escarpment, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Patricia

    The focus of this research is to understand the stratigraphic and structural evolution of lower-slope minibasins in the Gulf of Mexico by examining the influence of salt tectonics on sediment transport systems and deep-water facies architecture. Results showed that gravitational subsidence and shortening can cause variations in the relief of salt massifs on opposing sides of a minibasin. These bathymetric variations, combined with changes in sedimentation rates through time, affected not only the distribution of deep-water facies inside the minibasins, but also influenced the evolution of sediment transport systems between minibasins. In order to understand the evolution of salt massifs, this dissertation presents a new approach to evaluate qualitatively the rate of relative massif uplift based on depoaxis shifts and channel geometries identified in minibasins surrounded by mobile salt. From these results it was established that compression was long-lived, and that extension only dominated during late intervals. Stratigraphic analyses showed that there is a strong cyclicity in deep-water facies stacking patterns within lower-slope minibasins, related primarily to cyclical changes in sedimentation rates. A typical sequence starts with a period of slow sedimentation associated with drape facies above each sequence boundary. Then, towards the middle and final stages of the sequence, sedimentation rates increase and turbidity flows fill the minibasin. Previous studies describe processes of fill-and-spill for two adjacent minibasins in the upper and middle slope. However, these models fail to adequately explain fill-and-spill processes in lower slope minibasins surrounded by mobile salt. In particular, they do not consider the effect of variations in bathymetric relief of the intervening massif, nor do they examine multidirectional connections between proximal and distal minibasins. A new dynamic-salt fill-and-spill model is proposed in this dissertation in order to

  7. Sequence stratigraphic interpretation of parts of Anambra Basin, Nigeria using geophysical well logs and biostratigraphic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anakwuba, E. K.; Ajaegwu, N. E.; Ejeke, C. F.; Onyekwelu, C. U.; Chinwuko, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    The Anambra basin constitutes the southeastern lower portion of the Benue Trough, which is a large structural depression that is divided into lower, middle and upper parts; and is one of the least studied inland sedimentary basins in Nigeria. Sequence stratigraphic interpretation had been carried out in parts of the Anambra Basin using data from three wells (Alo-1 Igbariam-1 and Ajire-1). Geophysical well logs and biostratigraphic data were integrated in order to identify key bounding surfaces, subdivide the sediment packages, correlate sand continuity and interpret the environment of deposition in the fields. Biostratigraphic interpretation, using foraminifera and plankton population and diversity, reveals five maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) in the fields. Five sequence boundaries (SB) were also identified using the well log analysis. Four 3rd order genetic sequences bounded by maximum flooding surfaces (MFS-1 to MFS-6) were identified in the areas; four complete sequences and one incomplete sequence were identified in both Alo-1 and Igbariam-1 wells while Ajire-1 has an no complete sequence. The identified system tracts delineated comprises Lowstand Systems Tracts (progradational to aggradational to retrogradational packages), Transgressive Systems Tracts (retrogradational packages) and Highstand Systems Tracts (aggradational to progradational packages) in each well. The sand continuity across the fields reveal sands S1 to S5 where S1 is present in Ajire-1 well and Igbariam-1 well but not in Alo-1 well. The sands S4 to S5 run across the three fields at different depths. The formations penetrated by the wells starting from the base are; Nkporo Formation (Campanian), Mamu Formation (Late Campanian to Early Maastrichtian), Ajali Sandstone (Maastrichtian), Nsukka Formation (Late Maastrichtian to Early Palaeocene), Imo Formation (Palaeocene) and Nanka Sand (Eocene). The environments of deposition revealed are from coastal to bathyal. The sands of lowstand system

  8. Variations in petrophysical properties of shales along a stratigraphic section in the Whitby mudstone (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhoorn, Auke; Houben, Maartje; Lie-A-Fat, Joella; Ravestein, Thomas; Drury, Martyn

    2015-04-01

    In unconventional tough gas reservoirs (e.g. tight sandstones or shales) the presence of fractures, either naturally formed or hydraulically induced, is almost always a prerequisite for hydrocarbon productivity to be economically viable. One of the formations classified so far as a potential interesting formation for shale gas exploration in the Netherlands is the Lower Jurassic Posidonia Shale Formation (PSF). However data of the Posidonia Shale Formation is scarce so far and samples are hard to come by, especially on the variability and heterogeneity of the petrophysical parameters of this shale little is known. Therefore research and sample collection is conducted on a time and depositional analogue of the PSF: the Whitby Mudstone Formation (WMF) in the United Kingdom. A large number of samples along a ~7m stratigraphic section of the Whitby Mudstone Formation have been collected and analysed. Standard petrophysical properties such as porosity and matrix densities are quantified for a number of samples throughout the section, as well as mineral composition analysis based on XRD/XRF and SEM analyses. Seismic velocity measurements are also conducted at multiple heights in the section and in multiple directions to elaborate on anisotropy of the material. Attenuation anisotropy is incorporated as well as Thomsen's parameters combined with elastic parameters, e.g. Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, to quantify the elastic anisotropy. Furthermore rock mechanical experiments are conducted to determine the elastic constants, rock strength, fracture characteristics, brittleness index, fraccability and rock mechanical anisotropy across the stratigraphic section of the Whitby mudstone formation. Results show that the WMF is highly anisotropic and it exhibits an anisotropy on the large limit of anisotropy reported for US gas shales. The high anisotropy of the Whitby shales has an even larger control on the formation of the fracture network. Furthermore, most petrophysical

  9. Stratigraphic architecture of bedrock reference section, Victoria Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Lauren A.; Grotzinger, John P.; Hayes, Alex G.; Rubin, David M.; Squyres, Steve W.; Bell, James F.; Herkenhoff, Ken E.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has investigated bedrock outcrops exposed in several craters at Meridiani Planum, Mars, in an effort to better understand the role of surface processes in its geologic history. Opportunity has recently completed its observations of Victoria crater, which is 750 m in diameter and exposes cliffs up to ~15 m high. The plains surrounding Victoria crater are ~10 m higher in elevation than those surrounding the previously explored Endurance crater, indicating that the Victoria crater exposes a stratigraphically higher section than does the Endurance crater; however, Victoria strata overlap in elevation with the rocks exposed at the Erebus crater. Victoria crater has a well-developed geomorphic pattern of promontories and embayments that define the crater wall and that reveal thick bedsets (3–7m) of large-scale cross-bedding, interpreted as fossil eolian dunes. Opportunity was able to drive into the crater at Duck Bay, located on the western margin of Victoria crater. Data from the Microscopic Imager and Panoramic Camera reveal details about the structures, textures, and depositional and diagenetic events that influenced the Victoria bedrock. A lithostratigraphic subdivision of bedrock units was enabled by the presence of a light-toned band that lines much of the upper rim of the crater. In ascending order, three stratigraphic units are named Lyell, Smith, and Steno; Smith is the light-toned band. In the Reference Section exposed along the ingress path at Duck Bay, Smith is interpreted to represent a zone of diagenetic recrystallization; however, its upper contact also coincides with a primary erosional surface. Elsewhere in the crater the diagenetic band crosscuts the physical stratigraphy. Correlation with strata present at nearby promontory Cape Verde indicates that there is an erosional surface at the base of the cliff face that corresponds to the erosional contact below Steno. The erosional contact at the base of Cape Verde

  10. [Challenges to decentralization and local participation within the health rights protection framework: Experience of the SUSALUD Northern Macro-regional Intendance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebaza-Iparraguirre, Henry; Vela-López, Miguel; Villegas-Ortega, José; Lozada-Urbano, Michelle; Munares-García, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    In Peru, health protection rights and the National Health Authority (SUSALUD) coexist with the aim to ensure that every Peruvian may exercise his/her rights. According to the L.D. (Spanish: Decreto legislativo) N° 1158, strategies must be deployed to ensure effective decentralization and ensure compliance with user rights. As a result, the Northern Macro-regional Intendance (IMRN) was created, with headquarters in the city of Chiclayo, and a coverage area including Lambayeque, Tumbes, Piura, Cajamarca, La Libertad, and Amazonas. The northern macro-region promotes information dissemination, coordination, and local participation in health activities, with an emphasis on handling complaints and claims as well as implementation and operation support of user boards (JUS). After 6 months, implementation of the IMRN experience is undergoing consolidation.

  11. Recovery Act: 'Carbonsheds' as a Framework for Optimizing United States Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Pipeline Transport on a Regional to National Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratson, Lincoln

    2012-11-30

    Carbonsheds are regions in which the estimated cost of transporting CO{sub 2} from any (plant) location in the region to the storage site it encompasses is cheaper than piping the CO{sub 2} to a storage site outside the region. We use carbonsheds to analyze the cost of transport and storage of CO{sub 2} in deploying CCS on land and offshore of the continental U.S. We find that onshore the average cost of transport and storage within carbonsheds is roughly $10/t when sources cooperate to reduce transport costs, with the costs increasing as storage options are depleted over time. Offshore transport and storage costs by comparison are found to be roughly twice as expensive but t may still be attractive because of easier access to property rights for sub-seafloor storage as well as a simpler regulatory system, and possibly lower MMV requirements, at least in the deep-ocean where pressures and temperatures would keep the CO{sub 2} negatively buoyant. Agent-based modeling of CCS deployment within carbonsheds under various policy scenarios suggests that the most cost-effective strategy at this point in time is to focus detailed geology characterization of storage potential on only the largest onshore reservoirs where the potential for mitigating emissions is greatest and the cost of storage appears that it will be among the cheapest.

  12. Sedimentary facies analysis of the Mesozoic clastic rocks in Southern Peru (Tacna, 18°S): Towards a paleoenvironmental Redefinition and stratigraphic Reorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alván, Aldo; Jacay, Javier; Caracciolo, Luca; Sánchez, Elvis; Trinidad, Inés

    2018-07-01

    The Mesozoic rocks of southern Peru comprise a Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous sedimentary sequence deposited during a time interval of approximately 34 Myr. In Tacna, these rocks are detrital and constitute the Yura Group (Callovian to Tithonian) and the Hualhuani Formation (Berriasian). Basing on robust interpretation of facies and petrographic analysis, we reconstruct the depositional settings of such units and provide a refined stratigraphic framework. Accordingly, nine types of sedimentary facies and six architectural elements are defined. They preserve the record of a progradational fluvial system, in which two styless regulated the dispersion of sediments: (i) a high-to moderate-sinuosity meandering setting (Yura Group), and a later (ii) incipient braided setting (Hualhuani Formation). The Yura Group (Callovian-Tithonian) represents the onset of floodplain deposits and lateral accretion of point-bar deposits sited on a semi-flat topography. Nonetheless, the progradational sequence was affected by at least two rapid marine ingressions occurred during Middle Callovian and Tithonian times. Such marine ingressions reveal the proximity of a shallow marine setting and incipient carbonate deposition. In response to increase in topographic gradient, the Hualhuani Formation (Berriasian) deposited as extensive multistory sandy channels. The mineralogy of the Mesozoic sediments suggests sediment supplies and intense recycling from a craton interior (i.e. Amazon Craton and/or plutonic sources) located eastward of the study area.

  13. Cenozoic Structural and Stratigraphic Evolution of the Ulukışla and Sivas Basins (Central and Eastern Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürer, Derya; Darin, Michael H.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Umhoefer, Paul J.

    2017-04-01

    Because subduction is a destructive process, the surface record of subduction-dominated systems is naturally incomplete. Sedimentary basins may hold the most complete record of processes related to subduction, accretion, collision, and ocean closure, and thus provide key information for understanding the kinematic evolution of orogens. In central and eastern Anatolia, the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene stratigraphic record of the Ulukışla and Sivas basins supports the hypothesis that these once formed a contiguous basin. Importantly, their age and geographic positions relative to their very similar basement units and ahead of the Arabian indenter provide a critical record of pre-, syn- and post-collisional processes in the Anatolian Orogen. The Ulukışla-Sivas basin was dissected and translated along the major left-lateral Ecemiş fault zone. Since then, the basins on either side of the fault evolved independently, with considerably more plate convergence accommodated to the east in the Sivas region (eastern Anatolia) than in the Ulukışla region (central Anatolia). This led to the deformation of marine sediments and underlying ophiolites and structural growth of the Sivas Fold-and-Thrust Belt (SSFTB) since latest Eocene time, which played a major role in marine basin isolation and disconnection, along with a regionally important transition to continental conditions with evaporite deposition starting in the early Oligocene. We use geologic mapping, fault kinematic analysis, paleomagnetism, apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology to characterize the architecture, deformation style, and structural evolution of the region. In the Ulukışla basin, dominantly E-W trending normal faults became folded or inverted due to N-S contraction since the Lutetian (middle Eocene). This was accompanied by significant counter-clockwise rotations, and post-Lutetian burial of the Niǧde Massif along the transpressional Ecemiş fault zone. Since Miocene

  14. Monogenetic origin of Ubehebe Crater maar volcano, Death Valley, California: Paleomagnetic and stratigraphic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Duane E.; Cyr, Andy; Fierstein, Judy; Hildreth, Wes

    2018-04-01

    Paleomagnetic data for samples collected from outcrops of basaltic spatter at the Ubehebe Crater cluster, Death Valley National Park, California, record a single direction of remanent magnetization indicating that these materials were emplaced during a short duration, monogenetic eruption sequence 2100 years ago. This conclusion is supported by geochemical data encompassing a narrow range of oxide variation, by detailed stratigraphic studies of conformable phreatomagmatic tephra deposits showing no evidence of erosion between layers, by draping of sharp rimmed craters by later tephra falls, and by oxidation of later tephra layers by the remaining heat of earlier spatter. This model is also supported through a reinterpretation and recalculation of the published 10Be age results (Sasnett et al., 2012) from an innovative and bold exposure-age study on very young materials. Their conclusion of multiple and protracted eruptions at Ubehebe Crater cluster is here modified through the understanding that some of their quartz-bearing clasts inherited 10Be from previous exposure on the fan surface (too old), and that other clasts were only exposed at the surface by wind and/or water erosion centuries after their eruption (too young). Ubehebe Crater cluster is a well preserved example of young monogenetic maar type volcanism protected within a National Park, and it represents neither a protracted eruption sequence as previously thought, nor a continuing volcanic hazard near its location.

  15. CORRELATIONS OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY BETWEEN STRATIGRAPHIC UNITS IN THE BROADER AREA OF ZAGREB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miron Kovačić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conductivity (KTV of geological formations is one of the parameters responsible for the propagation of the heat under the earth surface. During geothermal investigations in the broader area of the Croatian capital of Zagreb the thermal conductivity was measured on the rock samples from the surface and the boreholes. The results of the measurements are presented in this work and used as a basis for calculations of the thermal conductivity of distinct geological formations within the investigated area. It was found out that the values of the thermal conductivity of the rocks in the investigated area vary greatly. The measurements are within the well known scope for certain rock types. The thermal conductivity of the rocks from the Tertiary units corresponds with the average values being typical for such kind of rocks, while the basement carbonate rocks are characterized by the values being by 1 W/K-1m-1 higher than the average. After comparing the thermal conductivity of the stratigraphic units in the broader area of Zagreb it has been established that the values of the thermal conductivity of geological formations in the investigated area are also very different, and that they generally rise with their age. The relative relationships show that the Quaternary, Pliocene and Tertiary sedimentary rocks act as thermal insulators, while Triassic rocks behave as the heat conductor (the paper is published in Croatian.

  16. Stratigraphical analysis of the neoproterozoic sedimentary sequences of the Sao Francisco Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Mariela; Lemos, Valesca Brasil

    2007-01-01

    A stratigraphic analysis was performed under the principles of Sequence Stratigraphy on the neoproterozoic sedimentary sequences of the Sao Francisco Basin (Central Brazil). Three periods of deposition separated by unconformities were recognized in the Sao Francisco Megasequence: (1) Sequences 1 and 2, a cryogenian glaciogenic sequence, followed by a distal scarp carbonate ramp, developed during stable conditions, (2) Sequence 3, a Upper Cryogenian stack homoclinal ramps with mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation, deposited under a progressive influence of compressional stresses of the Brasiliano Cycle, (3) Sequence 4, a Lower Ediacaran shallow platform dominated by siliciclastic sedimentation of molassic nature, the erosion product of the nearby uplifted thrust sheets. Each of the carbonate-bearing sequences presents a distinct δ 13 C isotopic signature. The superposition to the global curve for carbon isotopic variation allowed the recognition of a major depositional hiatus between the Paranoa and Sao Francisco Megasequences, and suggested that the glacial diamictite deposition (Jequitai Formation) took place most probably around 800 Ma. This constrains the Sao Francisco Megasequence deposition to the interval between 800 and 600 Ma (the known ages of the Brasiliano Orogeny defines the upper limit). A minor depositional hiatus (700.680 Ma) was also identified separating sequences 2 and 3. Isotopic analyses suggest that from then on, more restricted environmental conditions were established in the basin, probably associated with a first order global event, which prevailed throughout deposition of the Sequence 3. (author)

  17. The Neo-Alagoas in the Ceara, Araripe and Potiguar basins (Brazil): stratigraphic and paleoecologycal caracterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, A.T.; Appi, C.J.; Soldan, A.L.; Cerqueira, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The stratigraphic analysis of the Alagoas Stage (local stage) in Ceara Basin allows the investigated interval to be divided into two parts, with distictive tectono-sedimentary and paleobiological features. The lower part shows non-marine environmental character and the upper part, informally named Aptian-Albian transition, contains marine organisms in certain levels. These records would represent the first phases of a primitive equatorial Atlantic Ocean in the area. The Trairi Beds at the top of the continental section were deposited in an environmental complex which includes a marginal sabkha, reflecting cyclical conditions of extreme aridity or humidity. Similar events have ocurred in the Potiguar Basin with the Ponta do Tubarao Beds and in Araripe Basin with the deposition of thinny calcareous and shale layers, here informally named ''Batateria Beds''. These environmental conditions provided an excellent setting for preservation of organic matter due to cyclical anoxic processes. The observation that the organic extracts from shales of all these strata are similar supports the hypothesis of correspondence of these events. (author) [pt

  18. Stratigraphic imaging of sub-basalt sediments using waveform tomography of wide-angle seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sain, K.; Gao, F.; Pratt, G.; Zelt, C. A.

    2003-12-01

    The oil industry is interested in imaging the fine structures of sedimentary formations masked below basalt flows for commercial exploration of hydrocarbons. Seismic exploration of sediments hidden below high-velocity basalt cover is a difficult problem because near-vertical reflection data are contaminated with multiples, converted waves and scattering noise generated by interbeds, breccia and vesicles within the basalt. The noise becomes less prominent as the source-receiver offset increases, and the signals carrying sub-surface information stand out at the wide-angle range. The tomography of first arrival traveltime data can provide little information about the underlying low-velocity sediments. Traveltime inversion of wide-angle seismic data including both first arrivals and identifiable wide-angle reflected phases has been an important tool in the delineation of the large-scale velocity structure of sub-basalt sediments, although it lacks the small-scale velocity details. Here we apply 2-D full-waveform inversion ("waveform tomography") to wide-angle seismic data with a view to extracting the small-scale stratigraphic features of sedimentary formations. Results from both synthetic data, generated for a realistic earth model, and field dataset from the basalt covered Saurashtra peninsula, India, will be presented. This approach has potential to delineate thin sedimentary layers hidden below thick basalt cover also, and may serve as a powerful tool to image sedimentary basins, where they are covered by high-velocity materials like basalts, salts, carbonates, etc. in various parts of the world.

  19. Stratigraphic response of salt marshes to slow rates of sea-level change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J.; Bell, T.

    2006-12-01

    Conventional models of salt-marsh development show an idealized spatial relationship between salt-marsh floral and foraminiferal zones, where the landward margin of the marsh gradually migrates inland in response to sea-level rise. This model predicts that transgression will result in persistent and possibly expanded salt marshes at the surface, depending on a variety of factors including sediment supply, hydrologic conditions, tidal range, and rate of sea-level rise. However, in areas with abundant sediment supply and slow rates of sea- level rise, the extent of back-barrier salt marshes may decline over time as the barrier-spits mature. Sea level around the northeast coast of Newfoundland is rising at a very slow rate during the late Holocene (flora. These transitions are interpreted to reflect the progradation of the spit, decreased tidal exchange in the back-barrier, and increased influence of freshwater streams discharging into the back-barrier setting. Decreased marine influence on the back-barrier environment leads to a floral and faunal shift associated with a regressive stratigraphy in an area experiencing sea-level rise. For studies of Holocene sea-level change requiring salt-marsh stratigraphic records, it is necessary to account for changing micro-environments to locate sites appropriate for study; salt marshes may play an important role in defining the record, but may not exist at the surface to guide investigation.

  20. Stratigraphic structure of the B1 Tertiary tectonostratigraphic unit in eastern Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomir Jelen

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available High inconsistency and incoherence in the stratigraphy of the Slovenian upper Paleogene and lower Miocene have remained unsolved in the past 150 years. To solve the problem, we tried to rigorously conduct the authentic Galilei’s scientific method. Steps of logical and empirical verification confirmed the existence of the posited B1 Tertiary tectonostratigraphic unit, and a general chronostratigraphic model of new positional relationships of lithologic units resulted from rather good biochronostratigraphic resolution achieved by nannoplankton and planktonic foraminifera biostratigraphy. The application of principles of newly developed fields in science helped us to avoid errors in transmission of messages (to reduce noise from the source (rock to the concept formation,which had been done previously. This in turn has strongly reduced inconsistency andincoherence (high information entropy = uncertainty. The released amount of information enabled us to answer also questions that reached beyond the original difficulty, e.g.: is the tectonostratigraphic structure of eastern Slovenia a manifestation of plate tectonics processes, and of which ones, are theories of continental escape in the Alps and associated dissection and offset of the formerly uniform Slovenian-Hungarian Paleogene basin tenableor not, are then there in the B1 stratigraphic equivalents of the Hungarian Paleogene basin formations, where are the important Eocene / Oligocene, Paleogene / Neogene, Rupelian / Chattian and Kiscellian / Egerian boundaries in Slovenia, and is there acontinuation of the B1 in Croatia and in the Mid-Hungarian tectonic zone?

  1. Stratigraphic and morphologic signatures of continental shelves, IGC 2016, Cape Town: an introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A. N.; Cooper, J. A. G.

    2018-02-01

    This special issue of Geo-Marine Letters comprises seven contributions to the session "Stratigraphic and morphologic signatures of continental shelves" of the 35th International Geological Congress held in Cape Town (Republic of South Africa) on 27 August-4 September 2016. There is an additional article not presented at the conference but falling into the same general theme. The guest editors are A.N. Green and J.A.G. Cooper. The eight articles address several contemporary themes in continental shelf geology. They include the role of antecedent conditioning on the development of shelf stratigraphy and geomorphology; erosion of submerged shorelines and their preservation during (stepped) postglacial sea-level rise; the role of glacial processes (e.g. iceberg scouring during ice-sheet retreat); and the utility of archival data in addressing contemporary issues such as Holocene climate change and global oceanographic circulation systems. The continental shelf holds important information for understanding past and present global circulation and earth-ice-atmosphere interactions including sea-level change. It is hoped that these themes will spur further research that is slowly coming to the fore in several new and innovative mapping and exploration programmes emerging from an increasing number of coastal nations.

  2. Ages of subsurface stratigraphic intervals in the Quaternary of Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, B. J.; Tracey, J.I.; Goter, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    Drill cores of Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, reveal six stratigraphic intervals, numbered in downward sequence, which represent vertical coral growth during Quaternary interglaciations. Radiocarbon dates indicate that the Holocene sea transgressed the emergent reef platform by about 8000 yr B.P. The reef grew rapidly upward (about 5 to 10 mm/yr) until about 6500 yr B.P. Afterward vertical growth slowed to about 0.5 mm/yr, then lateral development became dominant during the last several thousand years. The second interval is dated at 131,000 ?? 3000 yr B.P. by uranium series. This unit correlates with oxygen-isotope substage 5e and with terrace VIIa of Huon Peninsula, New Guinea, and of Main Reef-2 terrace at Atauro Island. The third interval is not dated because corals were recrystallized and it is tentatively correlated with either oxygen-isotope stages 7 or 9. The age of the fourth interval is estimated at 454,000 ?? 100,000 yr B.P. from measured 234U 238U activity ratios. This unit is correlated with either oxygen-isotope stage 9, 11, or 13. ?? 1985.

  3. Late Quaternary Stratigraphic Architecture of the Santee River Delta, South Carolina, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, J. H.; Hanebuth, T. J. J.

    2017-12-01

    paleochannel-fill successions contained within a framework of regionally extensive, erosional bounding surfaces. Ongoing work focuses on continued data acquisition and integration of inshore and offshore data sets into a coherent model for the Holocene evolution of the Santee Delta.

  4. Study of Λ-production in target fragmentation region from rhorho interactions at 360 GeV/c in the triple regge framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Ganguli, S.N.; Malhotra, P.K.; Raghavan, R.; Bailly, J.L.; Herquet, P.; Bruyant, F.; Caso, C.; Hrubec, J.; Marin, J.C.; Montanet, L.; Chiba, Y.; Epp, B.; Girtler, P.; Fontanelli, F.; Squarcia, S.; Trevisan, U.; Gemesy, T.; Pinter, G.; Matsumoto, S.; Mittra, I.S.; Singh, J.B.; Takahashi, K.; Tikhonova, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    A study of Λ production has been made in the target fragmentation region from pp interactions at 360 GeV/c. The triple Regge analysis of the double differential distribution d 2 N/d(M 2 /s)dt led to an estimate of the kaon trajectory intercept as approx.=-0.6. Comparison of the double and single inclusive distributions supports the idea of Pomeron factorization. The charged multiplicities and moments from virtual 'K + 'p interactions have been studied as a function of M, the c.m. energy of the virtual 'K + 'p system. The results agree reasonably well with the on shell K + p data. (orig.)

  5. Technical-economic study of the implementation of small pellet units in the Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur region. Phases 1 and 2: Frame-working of the regional sector, explanation of possible fabrication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-09-01

    A first part of this report proposes an analysis of the existing supply, demand and competition for the wood pellet production sector. More precisely, it proposes a brief analysis of the European pellet market and of its operation, a study of the individual PACA market (pellet market, actors, market price and evolutions in the region), and a competitive analysis. The second part reports the study of mobilisable resources. It proposes a resource analysis (potential resource identification, analysis of the regional wood sector production, other resource usages, mobilisable resources), a market and resource synthesis, an overview of possible processes (with or without drying), and a discussion of criteria to be taken into account. The third part reports a technical-economic study for the implementation of small wood pellet production units in the region. It addresses the different possible processes, compares them in terms of social and environmental assessments, and in terms of global feasibility. It also proposes a decision-making tool which comprises criteria to be taken into account and elements of thought related to regional policy

  6. Java online monitoring framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronan, M.; Kirkby, D.; Johnson, A.S.; Groot, D. de

    1997-10-01

    An online monitoring framework has been written in the Java Language Environment to develop applications for monitoring special purpose detectors during commissioning of the PEP-II Interaction Region. PEP-II machine parameters and signals from several of the commissioning detectors are logged through VxWorks/EPICS and displayed by Java display applications. Remote clients are able to monitor the machine and detector performance using graphical displays and analysis histogram packages. In this paper, the design and implementation of the object-oriented Java framework is described. Illustrations of data acquisition, display and histograming applications are also given

  7. Using Outcrop Exposures on the Road to Yellowknife Bay to Build a Stratigraphic Column, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, K. M.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Sumner, D.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Milliken, R. E.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Gupta, S.; Williams, R. M. E.; Kah, L. C.; Lewis, K. W.

    2013-01-01

    Since landing in Gale Crater on August 5, 2012, the Curiosity rover has driven 450 m east, descending approximately 15 m in elevation from the Bradbury landing site to Yellowknife Bay. Outcrop exposure along this drive has been discontinuous, but isolated outcrops may represent windows into underlying inplace stratigraphy. This study presents an inventory of outcrops targeted by Curiosity (Figs. 1-2), grouped by lithological properties observed in Mastcam and Navcam imagery. Outcrop locations are placed in a stratigraphic context using orbital imagery and first principles of stratigraphy. The stratigraphic models presented here represent an essential first step in understanding the relative age relationships of lithological units encountered at the Curiosity landing site. Such observations will provide crucial context for assessing habitability potential of ancient Gale crater environments and organic matter preservation.

  8. Evaluation of regional-scale water level simulations using various river routing schemes within a hydrometeorological modelling framework for the preparation of the SWOT mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfliger, V.; Martin, E.; Boone, A. A.; Habets, F.; David, C. H.; Garambois, P. A.; Roux, H.; Ricci, S. M.; Thévenin, A.; Berthon, L.; Biancamaria, S.

    2014-12-01

    The ability of a regional hydrometeorological model to simulate water depth is assessed in order to prepare for the SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean Topography) mission that will observe free surface water elevations for rivers having a width larger than 50/100 m. The Garonne river (56 000 km2, in south-western France) has been selected owing to the availability of operational gauges, and the fact that different modeling platforms, the hydrometeorological model SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU and several fine scale hydraulic models, have been extensively evaluated over two reaches of the river. Several routing schemes, ranging from the simple Muskingum method to time-variable parameter kinematic and diffusive waves schemes with time varying parameters, are tested using predetermined hydraulic parameters. The results show that the variable flow velocity scheme is advantageous for discharge computations when compared to the original Muskingum routing method. Additionally, comparisons between water level computations and in situ observations led to root mean square errors of 50-60 cm for the improved Muskingum method and 40-50 cm for the kinematic-diffusive wave method, in the downstream Garonne river. The error is larger than the anticipated SWOT resolution, showing the potential of the mission to improve knowledge of the continental water cycle. Discharge computations are also shown to be comparable to those obtained with high-resolution hydraulic models over two reaches. However, due to the high variability of river parameters (e.g. slope and river width), a robust averaging method is needed to compare the hydraulic model outputs and the regional model. Sensitivity tests are finally performed in order to have a better understanding of the mechanisms which control the key hydrological processes. The results give valuable information about the linearity, Gaussianity and symetry of the model, in order to prepare the assimilation of river heights in the model.

  9. Evaluating a Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter snow cover data assimilation method to estimate SWE within a high-resolution hydrologic modeling framework across Western US mountainous regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaida, C. M.; Andreadis, K.; Reager, J. T., II; Famiglietti, J. S.; Levoe, S.

    2017-12-01

    Accurately estimating how much snow water equivalent (SWE) is stored in mountainous regions characterized by complex terrain and snowmelt-driven hydrologic cycles is not only greatly desirable, but also a big challenge. Mountain snowpack exhibits high spatial variability across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales due to a multitude of physical and climatic factors, making it difficult to observe or estimate in its entirety. Combing remotely sensed data and high resolution hydrologic modeling through data assimilation (DA) has the potential to provide a spatially and temporally continuous SWE dataset at horizontal scales that capture sub-grid snow spatial variability and are also relevant to stakeholders such as water resource managers. Here, we present the evaluation of a new snow DA approach that uses a Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) in tandem with the Variable Infiltration Capacity macro-scale hydrologic model across the Western United States, at a daily temporal resolution, and a horizontal resolution of 1.75 km x 1.75 km. The LETKF is chosen for its relative simplicity, ease of implementation, and computational efficiency and scalability. The modeling/DA system assimilates daily MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain Size (MODSCAG) fractional snow cover over, and has been developed to efficiently calculate SWE estimates over extended periods of time and covering large regional-scale areas at relatively high spatial resolution, ultimately producing a snow reanalysis-type dataset. Here we focus on the assessment of SWE produced by the DA scheme over several basins in California's Sierra Nevada Mountain range where Airborne Snow Observatory data is available, during the last five water years (2013-2017), which include both one of the driest and one of the wettest years. Comparison against such a spatially distributed SWE observational product provides a greater understanding of the model's ability to estimate SWE and SWE spatial variability

  10. Implementing and evaluating a regional strategy to improve testing rates in VA patients at risk for HIV, utilizing the QUERI process as a guiding framework: QUERI Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Matthew B; Bowman, Candice; Hoang, Tuyen; Anaya, Henry; Osborn, Teresa; Gifford, Allen L; Asch, Steven M

    2008-03-19

    We describe how we used the framework of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) to develop a program to improve rates of diagnostic testing for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This venture was prompted by the observation by the CDC that 25% of HIV-infected patients do not know their diagnosis - a point of substantial importance to the VA, which is the largest provider of HIV care in the United States. Following the QUERI steps (or process), we evaluated: 1) whether undiagnosed HIV infection is a high-risk, high-volume clinical issue within the VA, 2) whether there are evidence-based recommendations for HIV testing, 3) whether there are gaps in the performance of VA HIV testing, and 4) the barriers and facilitators to improving current practice in the VA.Based on our findings, we developed and initiated a QUERI step 4/phase 1 pilot project using the precepts of the Chronic Care Model. Our improvement strategy relies upon electronic clinical reminders to provide decision support; audit/feedback as a clinical information system, and appropriate changes in delivery system design. These activities are complemented by academic detailing and social marketing interventions to achieve provider activation. Our preliminary formative evaluation indicates the need to ensure leadership and team buy-in, address facility-specific barriers, refine the reminder, and address factors that contribute to inter-clinic variances in HIV testing rates. Preliminary unadjusted data from the first seven months of our program show 3-5 fold increases in the proportion of at-risk patients who are offered HIV testing at the VA sites (stations) where the pilot project has been undertaken; no change was seen at control stations. This project demonstrates the early success of the application of the QUERI process to the development of a program to improve HIV testing rates. Preliminary unadjusted results show that the coordinated use of

  11. Implementing and evaluating a regional strategy to improve testing rates in VA patients at risk for HIV, utilizing the QUERI process as a guiding framework: QUERI Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborn Teresa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe how we used the framework of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI to develop a program to improve rates of diagnostic testing for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. This venture was prompted by the observation by the CDC that 25% of HIV-infected patients do not know their diagnosis – a point of substantial importance to the VA, which is the largest provider of HIV care in the United States. Methods Following the QUERI steps (or process, we evaluated: 1 whether undiagnosed HIV infection is a high-risk, high-volume clinical issue within the VA, 2 whether there are evidence-based recommendations for HIV testing, 3 whether there are gaps in the performance of VA HIV testing, and 4 the barriers and facilitators to improving current practice in the VA. Based on our findings, we developed and initiated a QUERI step 4/phase 1 pilot project using the precepts of the Chronic Care Model. Our improvement strategy relies upon electronic clinical reminders to provide decision support; audit/feedback as a clinical information system, and appropriate changes in delivery system design. These activities are complemented by academic detailing and social marketing interventions to achieve provider activation. Results Our preliminary formative evaluation indicates the need to ensure leadership and team buy-in, address facility-specific barriers, refine the reminder, and address factors that contribute to inter-clinic variances in HIV testing rates. Preliminary unadjusted data from the first seven months of our program show 3–5 fold increases in the proportion of at-risk patients who are offered HIV testing at the VA sites (stations where the pilot project has been undertaken; no change was seen at control stations. Discussion This project demonstrates the early success of the application of the QUERI process to the development of a program to improve HIV testing rates

  12. Hydrogeologic framework of the middle San Pedro watershed, southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Jesse; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Pool, D.R.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Parker, John T.; Macy, J.P.; Thomas, Blakemore

    2010-01-01

    Water managers in rural Arizona are under increasing pressure to provide sustainable supplies of water despite rapid population growth and demands for environmental protection. This report describes the results of a study of the hydrogeologic framework of the middle San Pedro watershed. The components of this report include: (1) a description of the geologic setting and depositional history of basin fill sediments that form the primary aquifer system, (2) updated bedrock altitudes underlying basin fill sediments calculated using a subsurface density model of gravity data, (3) delineation of hydrogeologic units in the basin fill using lithologic descriptions in driller's logs and models of airborne electrical resistivity data, (4) a digital three-dimensional (3D) hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) that represents spatial extents and thicknesses of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs), and (5) description of the hydrologic properties of the HGUs. The lithologic interpretations based on geophysical data and unit thickness and extent of the HGUs included in the HFM define potential configurations of hydraulic zones and parameters that can be incorporated in groundwater-flow models. The hydrogeologic framework comprises permeable and impermeable stratigraphic units: (1) bedrock, (2) sedimentary rocks predating basin-and-range deformation, (3) lower basin fill, (4) upper basin fill, and (5) stream alluvium. The bedrock unit includes Proterozoic to Cretaceous crystalline rocks, sedimentary rocks, and limestone that are relatively impermeable and poor aquifers, except for saturated portions of limestone. The pre-basin-and-range sediments underlie the lower basin fill but are relatively impermeable owing to cementation. However, they may be an important water-bearing unit where fractured. Alluvium of the lower basin fill, the main water-bearing unit, was deposited in the structural trough between the uplifted ridges of bedrock and (or) pre-basin-and-range sediments. Alluvium of

  13. Geochemistry of Precambrian sedimentary rocks used to solve stratigraphical problems: An example from the Neoproterozoic Volta basin, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalsbeek, F.; Frei, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The Neoproterozoic Volta basin of Ghana (not, vert, similar115,000 km2; depth up to 5–7 km) consists of flat-lying sedimentary rocks, mainly sandstones that unconformably overlie the crystalline basement of the West-African craton. The stratigraphical column has been subdivided into three main...... and Obosum Groups is used to solve one of the outstanding controversies regarding the stratigraphy of the Volta basin....

  14. Spectral and stratigraphic mapping of hydrated minerals associated with interior layered deposits near the southern wall of Melas Chasma, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Goudge, Timothy A.; Catalano, Jeffrey G.; Wang, Alian

    2018-03-01

    Orbital remote sensing data acquired from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), in conjunction with other datasets, are used to perform detailed spectral and stratigraphic analyses over a portion of south Melas Chasma, Mars. The Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer (DISORT) model is used to retrieve atmospherically corrected single scattering albedos from CRISM I/F data for mineral identification. A sequence of interbedded poly- and monohydrated sulfates associated with interior layered deposits (ILDs) is identified and mapped. Analyses from laboratory experiments and spectral unmixing of CRISM hyperspectral data support the hypothesis of precipitation and dehydration of multiple inputs of complex Mg-Ca-Fe-SO4-Cl brines. In this scenario, the early precipitated Mg sulfates could dehydrate into monohydrated sulfate due to catalytic effects, and the later-precipitated Mg sulfates from the late-stage "clean" brine could terminate their dehydration at mid-degree of hydration to form a polyhydrated sulfate layer due to depletion of the catalytic species (e.g., Ca, Fe, and Cl). Distinct jarosite-bearing units are identified stratigraphically above the hydrated sulfate deposits. These are hypothesized to have formed either by oxidation of a fluid containing Fe(II) and SO4, or by leaching of soluble phases from precursor intermixed jarosite-Mg sulfate units that may have formed during the later stages of deposition of the hydrated sulfate sequence. Results from stratigraphic analysis of the ILDs show that the layers have a consistent northward dip towards the interior of the Melas Chasma basin, a mean dip angle of ∼6°, and neighboring strata that are approximately parallel. These strata are interpreted as initially sub-horizontal layers of a subaqueous, sedimentary evaporite deposits that underwent post-depositional tilting from slumping into the Melas Chasma basin. The interbedded hydrated sulfate

  15. Stratigraphic dictionary of the mesozoic and cenozoic deposits of the western Siberian lowland. Stratigraficheskii slovar' mezozoiskikh i kainozoiskikh otlozhenii zapadno-Sibirskoi nizmennosti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostovtseva, N N

    1978-01-01

    The dictionary contains 655 descriptions of stratigraphic subdivisions (series, suites, subsuites, layers, packets, horizons, strata) of Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary, Neogene, and Quaternary deposits of the western Siberian lowland. Also presented are maps indicating the demarcation limits of all of the adopted stratigraphic subdivisions (Appendices 1 to 14), and correlative stratigraphic diagrams (Appendices 15 to 21). The dictionary may be of use as a reference manual for geologists of all fields of specialization, particularly for those working in western Siberia. 202 references, 21 figures.

  16. The stratigraphic record of Khawr Al Maqta, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokier, S. W.; Herrmann, S.

    2012-04-01

    Well-constrained modern depositional analogues are vital to the development of accurate geological reservoir models. The development of realistic hydrocarbon reservoir models requires the application of high-precision, well-constrained outcrop and sub-surface data sets with accurately-documented facies geometries and depositional sequence architectures. The Abu Dhabi coastline provides the best modern analogue for the study of ramp-style carbonate depositional facies akin to those observed in the sub-surface reservoirs of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). However, all previous studies have relied on temporally limited surface datasets. This study employed thirty five shallow subsurface cores spanning the width of the Khawr Al Maqta - the narrow shallow tidal channel that separates Abu Dhabi Island from the mainland. The cores were taken over a transect measuring 1.2 km in length by 50 m wide thus providing a high-resolution record of sub-surface facies geometries in a stratigraphically complex setting. Geometries in these Pleistocene to Holocene facies are complex with interdigitating, laterally heterogeneous carbonate, siliciclastic and evaporite units represented throughout the area of the study. Carbonate facies range from molluscan rudstones to marls and are all indicative of deposition in a shallow, relatively low energy marine setting akin to that seen in the environs of Abu Dhabi Island today. Texturally mature quartz sands occur as thin lenses and as thin cross bedded or laminated horizons up to twenty five centimetres thick. Glauconitic mudstones are common and locally exhibit evidence of rootlets and desiccation cracks. Evaporites are present in the form of gypsum occurring as isolated crystals and nodules or as massive chicken-wire units in excess of three metres thick. All of these textures are consistent with evaporite development in the shallow subsurface. Early, shallow-burial diagenesis has been important. Bioclasts are pervasively leached throughout

  17. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of Espirito Santo Basin - Brazil; Evolucao tectono-estratigrafica da Bacia do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Eric Zagotto; Fernandes, Flavio L.; Lobato, Gustavo; Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem de Bacias (LAB2M); Petersohn, Eliane [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper documents the analysis of seismic data of the Espirito Santo basin obtained during the project realized through partnership between COPPE/UFRJ/Lab2M with the Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP) during 2006 and 2007. The major objective of the seismic data interpretation in the project was to define the main structural and stratigraphic features in order to build a sedimentation model and a tectonic-stratigraphic evolution model of the Espirito Santo basin. Thus, the sedimentary package has been divided into eight genetic units (UN), grouped into five third order stratigraphic sequences, namely: UN-B, represented by siliciclastics rocks of the rift stage and evaporitic sag-rift stage, deposited during the Aptian; UN-C, which represents the carbonatic rocks deposited in a marine environment, and siliciclastics rocks located in the proximal portions during the Albian; and UN-D, represented by sediments, composed mainly by pelites, deposited in between the Cenomanian and Recent, and includes the Eocene volcanic event, which one changed the sedimentation pattern of the basin. (author)

  18. Fine reservoir structure modeling based upon 3D visualized stratigraphic correlation between horizontal wells: methodology and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenghua, Ou; Chaochun, Li; Siyuan, Huang; Sheng, James J.; Yuan, Xu

    2017-12-01

    As the platform-based horizontal well production mode has been widely applied in petroleum industry, building a reliable fine reservoir structure model by using horizontal well stratigraphic correlation has become very important. Horizontal wells usually extend between the upper and bottom boundaries of the target formation, with limited penetration points. Using these limited penetration points to conduct well deviation correction means the formation depth information obtained is not accurate, which makes it hard to build a fine structure model. In order to solve this problem, a method of fine reservoir structure modeling, based on 3D visualized stratigraphic correlation among horizontal wells, is proposed. This method can increase the accuracy when estimating the depth of the penetration points, and can also effectively predict the top and bottom interfaces in the horizontal penetrating section. Moreover, this method will greatly increase not only the number of points of depth data available, but also the accuracy of these data, which achieves the goal of building a reliable fine reservoir structure model by using the stratigraphic correlation among horizontal wells. Using this method, four 3D fine structure layer models have been successfully built of a specimen shale gas field with platform-based horizontal well production mode. The shale gas field is located to the east of Sichuan Basin, China; the successful application of the method has proven its feasibility and reliability.

  19. 3D seismic investigation of the structural and stratigraphic characteristics of the Pagasa Wedge, Southwest Palawan Basin, Philippines, and their tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilao, Kimberly A.; Morley, Christopher K.; Aurelio, Mario A.

    2018-04-01

    The Pagasa Wedge is a poorly imaged deepwater orogenic wedge that has been variously interpreted as representing an accretionary prism, a former accretionary prism modified by thrusting onto a thinned continental margin, and a gravity-driven fold-thrust belt. This study, using 2D and 3D seismic data, together with well information indicates that at least the external part of the wedge is dominantly composed of mass transport complexes, capped by syn-kinematic sediments that have thrusts and normal faults superimposed upon them. Drilling shows that despite stratigraphic repetition of Eocene Middle Miocene units, there is stratigraphic omission of Oligocene and Early Miocene units. This absence suggests that mass transport processes have introduced the Eocene section into the wedge rather than tectonic thrusting. The accretionary prism stage (Oligocene) of the Central Palawan Ophiolite history appears to be marked by predominantly north-vergent deformation. The Deep Regional Unconformity (∼17 Ma) likely indicates the approximate time when obduction ceased in Palawan. The Pagasa Wedge is a late-stage product of the convergence history that was active in its final phase sometime above the top of the Nido Limestone (∼16 Ma) and the base of the Tabon Limestone in the Aboabo-A1X well (∼9 Ma). The top of the wedge is traditionally associated with the Middle Miocene Unconformity (MMU), However the presence of multiple unconformities, diachronous formation tops, local tectonic unconformities and regional diachronous events (e.g. migrating forebulges) all suggest simply giving a single age (or assigning a single unconformity, such as the MMU as defining the top of the Pagasa Wedge is inappropriate. The overall NE-SW trend of the wedge, and the dominant NW transport of structures within the wedge diverge from the more northerly transport direction determined from outcrops in Palawan, and also from the Nido Limestone in the SW part of the Pagasa Wedge. Possibly this NW

  20. A Stratigraphic Pollen Record from a Late Pleistocene Cypress Forest, Northern Gulf of Mexico Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, A.; Harley, G. L.; DeLong, K. L.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Gonzalez Rodriguez, S. M.; Truong, J. T.; Obelcz, J.; Caporaso, A.

    2017-12-01

    Stratigraphic pollen analysis was performed on a layer of preserved peat found near the bottom of a 4.75m vibracore taken in 18m of water off the coast of Orange Beach, Alabama. The core was taken from a site where the remains of a previously buried bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) forest was discovered after wave action, likely from Hurricane Ivan in 2004, scoured and removed the overlying Holocene/late Pleistocene sand sheet. Many of the cypress stumps found at the site are still in growth position, and rooted in the preserved terrestrial soils below. Radiocarbon dating of the peat recovered in core DF1 suggests that the sediment is likely Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3), or earlier. We hypothesize that the site was quickly buried and preserved by floodplain aggradation associated with sea-level rise that occurred near the end of MIS 3. This rare find provides an opportunity to study in situ fossil pollen from a glacial refugium in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Pollen results from the lowermost sections within the peat layer show an assemblage consistent with a bald cypress/tupelo gum (Nyssa aquatica) backwater. This is eventually replaced by a more open, possibly brackish, environment, dominated by grasses (Poaceae) and sedges (Cyperaceae). During this change however, there is a brief but very interesting period where the pollen assemblage is likely analogous to the modern day Atlantic Coastal Plain Blackwater Levee/Bar Forests of North and South Carolina. In this modern assemblage, as well as the core samples, birch (Betula), oak (Quercus) and bald cypress are the dominant taxa, along with a strong presence of alder (Alnus), grasses and sedges. We hypothesize that these bar forests formed on areas of higher ground, which resulted from floodplain aggradation that accompanied sea level rise at the end of MIS 3.

  1. THE BALNEARY RESOURCE, A GENERATOR OF BUILT HERITAGE. THE STRATIGRAPHIC FEATURES OF HERCULANE BATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SPÂNU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The balneary resource, a generator of built heritage. The stratigraphic features of Herculane Baths. The exploitation of natural resources, regardless of type, usually consists of two phases: firstly, the development of exploitation processes and secondly the development of exploitation structures – elements or built structures intended for the processing of the concerned natural resources. Many such structures have been declared architectural heritage monuments due to their historical, documentary, representative and aesthetical value, examples being numerous and varied. Water is the main resource that dictates the occurrence and development of human settlements and creates various typologies that derive from the accessibility, exploitation methods, and adaptation to the conditions and characteristics of the resource. With a peculiar evolution in terms of the dynamics of the binomial composed of natural resource and architectural heritage resource, mineral resources (especially balneal waters fall in a distinct category: although mainly utilitarian in function, they have also cultural, aesthetic and even religious purposes. Besides their curative properties, spa mineral waters can be used as is, in many cases directly from the source, this being the explanation why they have generated such great and continuous interest - forming today a highly stratified built heritage background. Keeping in mind the sustainable development for a medium or a long period of time, an analysis of the interrelations between the balneal natural resource and the deriving architectural heritage is necessary. The purpose of such analysis is determining the limitations of exploitation and identifying the optimal means of safeguarding both elements, the natural water resource and the anthropogenic one, for a more rational territory management.

  2. Stratigraphic charcoal analysis on petrographic thin sections: Application to fire history in northwestern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James S.

    1988-07-01

    Results of stratigraphic charcoal analysis from thin sections of varved lake sediments have been compared with fire scars on red pine trees in northwestern Minnesota to determine if charcoal data accurately reflect fire regimes. Pollen and opaque-spherule analyses were completed from a short core to confirm that laminations were annual over the last 350 yr. A good correspondence was found between fossil-charcoal and fire-scar data. Individual fires could be identified as specific peaks in the charcoal curves, and times of reduced fire frequency were reflected in the charcoal data. Charcoal was absent during the fire-suppression era from 1920 A.D. to the present. Distinct charcoal maxima from 1864 to 1920 occurred at times of fire within the lake catchment. Fire was less frequent during the 19th century, and charcoal was substantially less abundant. Fire was frequent from 1760 to 1815, and charcoal was abundant continuously. Fire scars and fossil charcoal indicate that fires did not occur during 1730-1750 and 1670-1700. Several fires occurred from 1640 to 1670 and 1700 to 1730. Charcoal counted from pollen preparations in the area generally do not show this changing fire regime. Simulated "sampling" of the thin-section data in a fashion comparable to pollen-slide methods suggests that sampling alone is not sufficient to account for differences between the two methods. Integrating annual charcoal values in this fashion still produced much higher resolution than the pollen-slide method, and the postfire suppression decline of charcoal characteristic of my method (but not of pollen slides) is still evident. Consideration of the differences in size of fragments counted by the two methods is necessary to explain charcoal representation in lake sediments.

  3. Preliminary stratigraphic and petrologic characterization of core samples from USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, A.C.; Carroll, P.R.

    1981-11-01

    Tuffs of the Nevada Test Site are currently under investigation to determine their potential for long-term storage of radioactive waste. As part of this program, hole USW-G1 was drilled to a depth of 6000 ft below the surface, in the central part of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Petrographic study of the USW-G1 core is presented in this report and shows the tuffs (which generally were variably welded ash flows) are partly recrystallized to a variety of secondary minerals. The important alteration products are zeolites (heulandite, clinoptilolite, mordenite and analcime), smectite clays with minor interstratified illite, albite, micas, potassium feldspar, and various forms of silica. Iijima's zeolite zones I through IV of burial metamorphism can be recognized in the core. Zeolites are first observed at about the 1300-ft depth, and the high-temperature boundary of zeolite stability in this core occurs at about 4350 ft. Analcime persists, either metastably or as a retrograde mineral, deeper in the core. The oxidation state of Fe-Ti oxide minerals, through most of the core, increases as the degree of welding decreases, but towards the bottom of the hole, reducing conditions generally prevail. Four stratigraphic units transected by the core may be potentially favorable sites for a waste repository. These four units, in order of increasing depth in the core, are (1) the lower cooling unit of the Topopah Spring Member, (2) cooling unit II of the Bullfrog Member, (3) the upper part of the Tram tuff, and (4) the Lithic-rich tuff

  4. Sequence stratigraphic analysis and the origins of Tertiary brown coal lithotypes, Latrobe Valley, Gippsland Basin, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdgate, G R; Kershaw, A P; Sluiter, I R.K. [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1995-11-01

    Sequence analysis methods have been applied to the onshore Gippsland Basin and to the Latrobe Valley Group coal measures. In the east of the Latrobe Valley evidence for marine transgressions into the coal measures are recorded in most of the interseam sediment splits by the presence of contained foraminifer and dinoflagellates. To the west these splits pinch out into continuous coal. However, they can be followed westwards as enhanced organic sulphur levels along sharply defined boundaries between light coal lithotypes below and dark coal lithotypes above. The dark lithotype immediately overlying each of these boundaries contains the highest sulphur value and warmer climate pollen assemblages. Colorimeter and lithotype logging supports an upwards lightening cyclicity to coal colour at 12-20 m intervals through the approx. 100 m thick seams, with cycle boundaries defined at sharp planar to undulating surfaces. The lightening upward lithotype cycles together with their unique boundary conditions are interpreted as parasequences and parasequence boundaries respectively. Each major coal seam can comprise up to five parasequences and is interpreted to represent deposition during an outbuilding high stand systems tract at one of several maximum periods of Tertiary coastal onlap. Stratigraphic correlation of the sequence boundaries identified in the coal measures to the internationally dated marine Seaspray Group, provides a basis for chronostratigraphic correlation of the coal successions to the coastal onlap charts of Haq et al (1989). It appears that each major seam is confined to high standards of third order eustatic cycles. It follows that the lithotype cycles that comprise each seam are related to fourth order eustatic cycles. 49 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Preliminary stratigraphic and petrologic characterization of core samples from USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, A.C.; Carroll, P.R. (eds.)

    1981-11-01

    Tuffs of the Nevada Test Site are currently under investigation to determine their potential for long-term storage of radioactive waste. As part of this program, hole USW-G1 was drilled to a depth of 6000 ft below the surface, in the central part of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Petrographic study of the USW-G1 core is presented in this report and shows the tuffs (which generally were variably welded ash flows) are partly recrystallized to a variety of secondary minerals. The important alteration products are zeolites (heulandite, clinoptilolite, mordenite and analcime), smectite clays with minor interstratified illite, albite, micas, potassium feldspar, and various forms of silica. Iijima`s zeolite zones I through IV of burial metamorphism can be recognized in the core. Zeolites are first observed at about the 1300-ft depth, and the high-temperature boundary of zeolite stability in this core occurs at about 4350 ft. Analcime persists, either metastably or as a retrograde mineral, deeper in the core. The oxidation state of Fe-Ti oxide minerals, through most of the core, increases as the degree of welding decreases, but towards the bottom of the hole, reducing conditions generally prevail. Four stratigraphic units transected by the core may be potentially favorable sites for a waste repository. These four units, in order of increasing depth in the core, are (1) the lower cooling unit of the Topopah Spring Member, (2) cooling unit II of the Bullfrog Member, (3) the upper part of the Tram tuff, and (4) the Lithic-rich tuff.

  6. Reconstructing ancient river dynamics from the stratigraphic record: can lessons from the past inform our future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, E. A.; Chamberlin, E.; Baisden, T.

    2014-12-01

    The richness of the deep-time record and its potential for revealing important characteristics of ancient fluvial landscapes has been demonstrated time and again, including compelling examples of rivers altering their behavior in response to changes in vegetation patterns or abrupt shifts in water and sediment discharge. At present, reconstructions of ancient river and floodplain dynamics are commonly qualitative, and when quantitative metrics are used, it is often for comparison among ancient deposits. Without being able to reconstruct, more comprehensively, important aspects of ancient river and floodplains dynamics, this information has only anecdotal relevance for evaluating and managing present-day landscapes. While methods for reconstructing hydrodynamic and morphodynamic aspects of ancient rivers and floodplains are useful, uncertainties associated with these snapshots complicate the ability to translate observations from geologic to engineering scales, thereby limiting the utility of insight from Earth's past in decision-making and development of sustainable landscape-management practices for modern fluvial landscapes. Here, we explore the degree to which paleomorphodynamic reconstructions from ancient channel and floodplain deposits can be used to make specific, quantitative inferences about ancient river dynamics. We compare a suite of paleoenvironmental measurements from a variety of ancient fluvial deposits (including reconstructions of paleoflow depth, paleoslope, paleo-channel mobility, the caliber of paleo-sediment load, and paleo-floodplain heterogeneity) in an effort to evaluate sampling and empirical uncertainties associated with these methods and identify promising avenues for developing more detailed landscape reconstructions. This work is aimed at helping to develop strategies for extracting practicable information from the stratigraphic record that is relevant for sustainably managing and predicting changes in today's environments.

  7. Correlating carbon and oxygen isotope events in early to middle Miocene shallow marine carbonates in the Mediterranean region using orbitally tuned chemostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Gerald; Piller, Werner E.; Reuter, Markus; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2015-04-01

    During the Miocene prominent oxygen isotope events (Mi-events) reflect major changes in glaciation, while carbonate isotope maxima (CM-events) reflect changes in organic carbon burial, particularly during the Monterey carbon isotope excursion. However, despite their importance to the global climate history they have never been recorded in shallow marine carbonate successions. The Decontra section on the Maiella Platform (central Apennines, Italy), however, allows to resolve them for the first time in such a setting during the early to middle Miocene. The present study improves the stratigraphic resolution of parts of the Decontra section via orbital tuning of high-resolution gamma ray (GR) and magnetic susceptibility data to the 405 kyr eccentricity metronome. The tuning allows, within the established biostratigraphic, sequence stratigraphic, and isotope stratigraphic frameworks, a precise correlation of the Decontra section with pelagic records of the Mediterranean region, as well as the global paleoclimatic record and the global sea level curve. Spectral series analyses of GR data further indicate that the 405 kyr orbital cycle is particularly well preserved during the Monterey Event. Since GR is a direct proxy for authigenic uranium precipitation during increased burial of organic carbon in the Decontra section, it follows the same long-term orbital pacing as observed in the carbon isotope records. The 405 kyr GR beat is thus correlated with the carbon isotope maxima observed during the Monterey Event. Finally, the Mi-events can now be recognized in the δ18O record and coincide with plankton-rich, siliceous, or phosphatic horizons in the lithology of the section.

  8. Spatial analysis of instream nitrogen loads and factors controlling nitrogen delivery to streams in the southeastern United States using spatially referenced regression on watershed attributes (SPARROW) and regional classification frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoos, Anne B.; McMahon, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how nitrogen transport across the landscape varies with landscape characteristics is important for developing sound nitrogen management policies. We used a spatially referenced regression analysis (SPARROW) to examine landscape characteristics influencing delivery of nitrogen from sources in a watershed to stream channels. Modelled landscape delivery ratio varies widely (by a factor of 4) among watersheds in the southeastern United States—higher in the western part (Tennessee, Alabama, and Mississippi) than in the eastern part, and the average value for the region is lower compared to other parts of the nation. When we model landscape delivery ratio as a continuous function of local-scale landscape characteristics, we estimate a spatial pattern that varies as a function of soil and climate characteristics but exhibits spatial structure in residuals (observed load minus predicted load). The spatial pattern of modelled landscape delivery ratio and the spatial pattern of residuals coincide spatially with Level III ecoregions and also with hydrologic landscape regions. Subsequent incorporation into the model of these frameworks as regional scale variables improves estimation of landscape delivery ratio, evidenced by reduced spatial bias in residuals, and suggests that cross-scale processes affect nitrogen attenuation on the landscape. The model-fitted coefficient values are logically consistent with the hypothesis that broad-scale classifications of hydrologic response help to explain differential rates of nitrogen attenuation, controlling for local-scale landscape characteristics. Negative model coefficients for hydrologic landscape regions where the primary flow path is shallow ground water suggest that a lower fraction of nitrogen mass will be delivered to streams; this relation is reversed for regions where the primary flow path is overland flow.

  9. The marine isotope stage 1-5 cryptotephra record of Tenaghi Philippon, Greece: Towards a detailed tephrostratigraphic framework for the Eastern Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Sabine; Hardiman, Mark J.; Staff, Richard A.; Koutsodendris, Andreas; Appelt, Oona; Blockley, Simon P. E.; Lowe, J. John; Manning, Christina J.; Ottolini, Luisa; Schmitt, Axel K.; Smith, Victoria C.; Tomlinson, Emma L.; Vakhrameeva, Polina; Knipping, Maria; Kotthoff, Ulrich; Milner, Alice M.; Müller, Ulrich C.; Christanis, Kimon; Kalaitzidis, Stavros; Tzedakis, Polychronis C.; Schmiedl, Gerhard; Pross, Jörg

    2018-04-01

    The iconic climate archive of Tenaghi Philippon (TP), NE Greece, allows the study of short-term palaeoclimatic and environmental change throughout the past 1.3 Ma. To provide high-quality age control for detailed palaeoclimate reconstructions based on the TP archive, (crypto)tephra studies of a peat core 'TP-2005' have been carried out for the 0-130 ka interval. The results show that the TP basin is ideally positioned to receive tephra fall from both the Italian and Aegean Arc volcanic provinces. Two visible tephra layers, the Santorini Cape Riva/Y-2 (c. 22 ka) and the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI)/Y-5 (c. 39.8 ka) tephras, and six primary cryptotephra layers, namely the early Holocene E1 tephra from the Aeolian Islands (c. 8.3 ka), the Campanian Y-3 (c. 29 ka) and X-6 tephras (c. 109.5 ka), as well as counterpart tephras TM-18-1d (c. 40.4 ka), TM-23-11 (c. 92.4 ka) and TM-33-1a (c. 116.7 ka) from the Lago Grande di Monticchio sequence (southern Italy), were identified along with repeatedly redeposited Y-2 and CI tephra material. Bayesian modelling of the ages of seven of the primary tephra layers, 60 radiocarbon measurements and 20 palynological control points have been applied to markedly improve the chronology of the TP archive. This revised chronology constrains the age of tephra TM-18-1d to 40.90-41.66 cal ka BP (95.4% range). Several tephra layers identified in the TP record form important isochrons for correlating this archive with other terrestrial (e.g., Lago Grande di Monticchio, Sulmona Basin and Lake Ohrid) and marine (e.g., Adriatic Sea core PRAD 1-2 and Aegean Sea core LC21) palaeoclimate records in the Mediterranean region.

  10. Evaluation of the Consistency among In Situ and Remote Sensing Measurements of CO2 over North America using the CarbonTracker-Lagrange Regional Inverse Modeling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, A. E.; Trudeau, M.; Hu, L.; Thoning, K. W.; Shiga, Y. P.; Michalak, A. M.; Benmergui, J. S.; Mountain, M. E.; Nehrkorn, T.; O'Dell, C.; Jacobson, A. R.; Miller, J.; Sweeney, C.; Chen, H.; Ploeger, F.; Tans, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    CarbonTracker-Lagrange (CT-L) is a regional inverse modeling system for estimating CO2 fluxes with rigorous uncertainty quantification. CT-L uses footprints from the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model driven by high-resolution (10 to 30 km) meteorological fields from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We have computed a library of footprints corresponding to in situ and remote sensing measurements of CO2 over North America for 2007-2015. GOSAT and OCO-2 XCO2 retrievals are simulated using a suite of CT-L terrestrial ecosystem flux estimates that have been optimized with respect to in situ atmospheric CO2 measurements along with fossil fuel fluxes from emissions inventories. A vertical profile of STILT-WRF footprints was constructed corresponding to each simulated satellite retrieval, and CO2 profiles are generated by convolving the footprints with fluxes and attaching initial values advected from the domain boundaries. The stratospheric contribution to XCO2 has been estimated using 4-dimensional CO2 fields from the NOAA CarbonTracker model (version CT2016) and from the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS), after scaling the model fields to match data from the NOAA AirCore surface-to-stratosphere air sampling system. Tropospheric lateral boundary conditions are from CT2016 and from an empirical boundary value product derived from aircraft and marine boundary layer data. The averaging kernel and a priori CO2 profile are taken into account for direct comparisons with retrievals. We have focused on North America due to the relatively dense in situ measurements available with the aim of developing strategies for combined assimilation of in situ and remote sensing data. We will consider the extent to which interannual variability in terrestrial fluxes is manifest in the real and simulated satellite retrievals, and we will investigate possible systematic biases in the satellite retrievals and in the model.

  11. SRBreak: A read-depth and split-read framework to identify breakpoints of different events inside simple copy-number variable regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOANG T NGUYEN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Copy-number variation (CNV has been associated with increased risk of complex diseases. High throughput sequencing (HTS technologies facilitate the detection of copy-number variable regions (CNVRs and their breakpoints. This helps in understanding genome structures of genomes as well as their evolution process. Various approaches have been proposed for detecting CNV breakpoints, but currently it is still challenging for tools based on a single analysis method to identify breakpoints of CNVs. It has been shown, however, that pipelines which integrate multiple approaches are able to report more reliable breakpoints. Here, based on HTS data, we have developed a pipeline to identify approximate breakpoints (±10 bp relating to different ancestral events within a specific CNVR. The pipeline combines read-depth and split-read information to infer breakpoints, using information from multiple samples to allow an imputation approach to be taken. The main steps involve using a normal mixture model to cluster samples into different groups, followed by simple kernel-based approaches to maximise information obtained from read-depth and split-read approaches, after which common breakpoints of groups are inferred. The pipeline uses split-read information directly from CIGAR strings of BAM files, without using a re-alignment step. On simulated data sets, it was able to report breakpoints for very low-coverage samples including those for which only single-end reads were available. When applied to three loci from existing human resequencing data sets (NEGR1, LCE3, IRGM the pipeline obtained good concordance with results from the 1000 Genomes Project (92%, 100% and 82%, respectively.The package is available at https://github.com/hoangtn/SRBreak, and also as a docker-based application at https://registry.hub.docker.com/u/hoangtn/srbreak/.

  12. Stratigraphic constraints on the timing and emplacement of the Alika 2 giant Hawaiian submarine landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, Gary M.; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio; Cremer, Maximilian D.; Smith, John R.; Resig, Johanna; Sherman, Clark; Torresan, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Previous work has found evidence for giant tsunami waves that impacted the coasts of Lanai, Molokai and other southern Hawaiian Islands, tentatively dated at 100 + and 200 + ka by U-series methods on uplifted coral clasts. Seafloor imaging and related work off Hawaii Island has suggested the Alika phase 2 debris avalanche as the source of the ~ 100 ka "giant wave deposits", although its precise age has been elusive. More recently, a basaltic sand bed in ODP site 842 (~ 300 km west of Hawaii) estimated at 100 ?? 20 ka has been suggested to correlate with this or another large Hawaiian landslide. Our approach to the timing and linkage of giant submarine landslides and paleo-tsunami deposits is a detailed stratigraphic survey of pelagic deposits proximal to the landslide feature, beginning with a suite of seven piston, gravity and box cores collected in the vicinity of the Alika 2 slide. We used U-series dating techniques, including excess 230Th and 210Pb profiling, high-resolution paleomagnetic stratigraphy, including continuous, U-channel analysis, δ18O stratigraphy, visual and X-ray sediment lithology, and the petrology and geochemistry of the included turbidites and ash layers. Minimum ages for the Alika phase 2a slide from detailed investigation of two of the cores are 112 ± 15 ka and 125 ± 24 ka (2σ) based on excess 230Th dating. A less precise age for the Alika phase 1 and/or South Kona slide is 242 ± 80 ka (2σ), consistent with previous geological estimates. Oxygen isotope analyses of entrained planktonic foraminifera better constrain the Alika phase 2a maximum age at 127 ± 5 ka, which corresponds to the beginning of the stage 5e interglacial period. It is proposed that triggering of these giant landslides may be related to climate change when wetter periods increase the possibility of groundwater intrusion and consequent phreatomagmatic eruptions of shallow magma chambers. Our study indicates the contemporaneity of the Alika giant submarine landslides

  13. Stratigraphic, Granulometric and Geochemical Studies of a Major Plinian Eruption on Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. L.; Daly, G.; Killingsworth, N.; Deuerling, K.; Schneider, S.; Fryxell, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    The island of Dominica, located in the center of the Lesser Antilles island arc has witnessed, probably within the last 100,000 years, three large volume Plinian eruptions. One of these, associated with the Morne Diablotins center, forms the Grande Savane pyroclastic flow fan, that extends off shore as a distinctive submarine feature for a distance of at least 14 km. Stratigraphical studies of road cuts and well-exposed sea cliffs indicate the fan is composed of an older unit composed of reworked deposits at the base followed by at least four sequences, based on the presence of paleosols, of block and ash flow deposits. The upper unit of block and ash flows is overlain, with no evidence of an intervening paleosol, by a sequence of ignimbrites and pumiceous surges (representing the Plinian eruption). There is no evidence of an initial Plinian fall deposit, so the lowest bed in the succession is an ignimbrite with a highly irregular base that cuts into the underlying block and ash flow deposits, the upper parts of which are colored red due to thermal effects. This lowest ignimbrite is welded (minimum porosity of 15%) throughout its thickness (maximum thickness of greater than 21 m), although a few outcrops near the margins show a thin (20-30 cm) non-welded but lithified zone beneath the welded zone. The remainder of the sequence is composed of lithified ignimbrite that can be subdivided into three units separated by pumiceous surge layers. The ignimbrite succession is overlain, with no obvious break, by a thin fall deposit containing accretionary lapilli and gas cavities, followed by three pumiceous surge deposits (lower and upper show planar stratification and the middle surge shows massive bedding); towards the north the upper two surge deposits are separated by thin pumiceous lapilli fall and ash fall deposits. This surge sequence extends laterally outside of the main area of ignimbrite deposition. The pumice clasts from the ignimbrites are andesitic in

  14. Sequence stratigraphic analysis of Cenomanian greenhouse palaeosols: A case study from southern Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Augusto N.; Veiga, Gonzalo D.; Poiré, Daniel G.

    2012-10-01

    proximal fluvial floodplains, respectively. The palaeosol succession for the Mata Amarilla Formation can be analysed within a sequence stratigraphic scheme considering changes in depositional environments in relation to accommodation/supply conditions. The results contrast with classical models, mainly in that the palaeosols of the Mata Amarilla Formation are relatively well-developed throughout the whole sequence, including transgressive periods of relatively high aggradation rate. Also, even when during regressive episodes, when a thick palaeosol succession that marks the sequence boundary is developed in the classical models, the lack of incised valleys in this succession led to the preservation of thick palaeosol successions during lowstand conditions. The vertical and lateral palaeosol distribution identified in the Mata Amarilla Formation could be eventually extrapolated to other sequences deposited during climate optimums.

  15. Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Coring operations, core sedimentology, and lithostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, K.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T.

    2011-01-01

    In February 2007, BP Exploration (Alaska), the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Geological Survey completed the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well (Mount Elbert well) in the Milne Point Unit on the Alaska North Slope. The program achieved its primary goals of validating the pre-drill estimates of gas hydrate occurrence and thickness based on 3-D seismic interpretations and wireline log correlations and collecting a comprehensive suite of logging, coring, and pressure testing data. The upper section of the Mount Elbert well was drilled through the base of ice-bearing permafrost to a casing point of 594??m (1950??ft), approximately 15??m (50??ft) above the top of the targeted reservoir interval. The lower portion of the well was continuously cored from 606??m (1987??ft) to 760??m (2494??ft) and drilled to a total depth of 914??m. Ice-bearing permafrost extends to a depth of roughly 536??m and the base of gas hydrate stability is interpreted to extend to a depth of 870??m. Coring through the targeted gas hydrate bearing reservoirs was completed using a wireline-retrievable system. The coring program achieved 85% recovery of 7.6??cm (3??in) diameter core through 154??m (504??ft) of the hole. An onsite team processed the cores, collecting and preserving approximately 250 sub-samples for analyses of pore water geochemistry, microbiology, gas chemistry, petrophysical analysis, and thermal and physical properties. Eleven samples were immediately transferred to either methane-charged pressure vessels or liquid nitrogen for future study of the preserved gas hydrate. Additional offsite sampling, analyses, and detailed description of the cores were also conducted. Based on this work, one lithostratigraphic unit with eight subunits was identified across the cored interval. Subunits II and Va comprise the majority of the reservoir facies and are dominantly very fine to fine, moderately sorted, quartz, feldspar, and lithic fragment-bearing to

  16. Deciphering Depositional Signals in the Bed-Scale Stratigraphic Record of Submarine Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Z.; Covault, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine channels are important conduits of sediment transfer from rivers and shallow-marine settings into the deep sea. As such, the stratigraphic record of submarine-channel systems can store signals of past climate- and other environmental changes in their upstream sediment-source areas. This record is highly fragmented as channels are primarily locations of sediment bypass; channelized turbidity currents are likely to leave a more complete record in areas away from and above the thalweg. However, the link between the thick-bedded axial channel deposits that record a small number of flows and the much larger number of thin-bedded turbidites forming terrace- and levee deposits is poorly understood. We have developed a relatively simple two-dimensional model that, given a number of input flow parameters (mean velocity, grain size, duration of deposition, flow thickness), predicts the thickness and composition of the turbidite that is left behind in the channel and in the overbank areas. The model is based on a Rouse-type suspended sediment concentration profile and the Garcia-Parker entrainment function. In the vertical direction, turbidites tend to rapidly become thinner and finer-grained with height above thalweg, due to decreasing concentration. High near-thalweg concentrations result in thick axial beds. However, an increase in flow velocity can result in high entrainment and no deposition at the bottom of the channel, yet a thin layer of sand and mud is still deposited higher up on the channel bank. If channel thalwegs are largely in a bypass condition, relatively minor velocity fluctuations result in a few occasionally preserved thick beds in the axis, and numerous thin turbidites - and a more complete record - on the channel banks. We use near-seafloor data from the Niger Delta slope and an optimization algorithm to show how our model can be used to invert for likely flow parameters and match the bed thickness and grain size of 100 turbidites observed in a

  17. Stratigraphic architecture of hydromagmatic volcanoes that have undergone vent migration: a review of Korean case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Y.

    2011-12-01

    prominent or subtle, commonly laterally extensive truncation surfaces or stratigraphic discontinuities. Careful documentation of these surfaces and discontinuities thus appears vital to proper interpretation of eruption history, morphologic evolution, and even deep-seated magmatic processes of a hydromagmatic volcano. In this respect, the technique known as 'allostratigraphy' appears useful in mapping, correlation, and interpretation of many hydrovolcanic edifices and sequences.

  18. Refining the timing of the MIS 5e signal, West Caicos, Bristish West Indies:implications for paleoclimatic interpretation of the stratigraphic record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerans, C.; Zahm, C.; Bachtel, S.; Hearty, P.; Cheng, H.

    2017-12-01

    The progressive refinement of the Last Interglacial (LIG) tropical carbonate record has focused attention on the dramatically abrupt and episodic nature of this critical approximate 12 ka time window. From initial carbonate platform flooding at 133 ka to rapid sea level fall and exposure at 118 ka, the majority of present-day Bahamian and Caribbean strata were produced in a remarkably similar pattern extending from Bermuda and the Bahamas through the Cayman Islands, Yucatan, and south to the Dominican Republic. The position of coral reefs and oolitic sands of the LIG to a first order fit the global insolation-driven climate warming signal. Less well accepted/resolved is the existence of two distinct SL peaks with an intervening sea level fall implying a non-orbitally forced climate shift during this broader highstand. West Caicos, a 10 x 5 km leeward island on the Caicos Platform is an excellent example of LIG carbonate stratigraphic complexity. We collected sub-meter-resolution whole-island airborn LIDAR and decimeter-resolution UAV-constructed DEM's of the western and southern coastal outcrops to serve as a base for decimeter-scale mapping of the MIS 11, 7?, 5e, and Holocene units of the island, with particular focus on the continuous 8.4 km west coast outcrop of the MIS 5e. Seventy-five AAR relative age assignments from ooid separates, pinned by 16 U/Th dates from corals coming from MIS stage 11, lower MIS 5e, and upper MIS 5e reefs helped establish the age model for the Pleistocene-Holocene stratigraphy. The lower MIS 5e reef system averages 128 ka with an onset age of 133 ka. Upper MIS 5e corals ranges from 123 ka to 116 ka, bracketing the intra-MIS 5e sea-level fall between to approximately 125 ka. The intra-MIS 5e fall is a distinct erosional unconformity across 5 km of continuous outcrop, truncating the upper 2.5 m of lower 5e reef. The complexity of MIS 5e record on West Caicos and in the Northern Atlantic and Caribbean platforms regionally provides

  19. Structural and stratigraphic constraints on tsunamigenic rupture along the frontal Sunda megathrust from MegaTera bathymetric and seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, K. E.; Qin, Y.; Villanueva-Robles, F.; Hananto, N.; Leclerc, F.; Singh, S. C.; Tapponnier, P.; Sieh, K.; Wei, S.; Carton, H. D.; Permana, H.; Avianto, P.; Nugroho, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    The joint EOS/IPG/LIPI 2015 MegaTera expedition collected high-resolution seismic reflection profiles and bathymetric data across the Sunda trench, updip of the Mw7.7, 2010 Mentawai tsunami-earthquake rupture patch. These data reveal rapid lateral variations in both the stratigraphic level of the frontal Sunda megathrust and the vergence of frontal ramp faults. The stratigraphic depth of the megathrust at the deformation front correlates with ramp-thrust vergence and with changes in the basal friction angle inferred by critical-taper wedge theory. Where ramp thrusts verge uniformly seaward and have an average dip of 30°, the megathrust decollement resides atop a high-amplitude reflector that marks the inferred top of pelagic sediments. Where ramp thrusts are bi-vergent (similar throw on both landward- and seaward-vergent faults) and have an average dip of 42°, the decollement is higher, within the incoming clastic sequence, above a seismically transparent unit inferred to represent distal fan muds. Where ramp thrusts are uniformly landward vergent, the decollement sits directly on top of the oceanic crust that forms the bathymetrically prominent, subducting Investigator Ridge. The two, separate regions of large tsunamigenic ground-surface uplift during the 2010 tsunami earthquake that have been inferred from joint inversions of seismic, GPS, and tsunami data (e.g. Yue et al., 2014; Satake et al., 2013) correspond to the areas of frontal bi-vergence in the MegaTera data. We propose that enhanced surface uplift and tsunamigenesis during this event occurred when rupture propagated onto areas where the decollement sits directly above the basal muds of the incoming clastic sequence. Thus we hypothesize that frontal bi-vergence may mark areas of enhanced tsunami hazard posed by small magnitude, shallow megathrust ruptures that propagate to the trench. [Yue, H. et al., 2014, Rupture process of the…, JGR 119 doi:10.1002/2014JB011082; Satake, K. et al., 2013, Tsunami

  20. Coupling Geophysical, Geotechnical and Stratigraphic Data to Interpret the Genesis of Mega-Scale-Glacial-Lineations on the Yermak Plateau, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Regan, M. A.; Jakobsson, M.; Kirchner, N.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Hogan, K.

    2010-12-01

    The recent collection and analysis of multi-beam bathymetry data has revealed Mega-Scale Glacial Lineations (MSGL) in up to 600 m present water depth on the Yermak Plateau (Dowdeswell et al., 2010; Jakobsson et al., 2010). This evidence for large-scale ice grounding in the region supports previous interpretations from side-scan sonar, high-resolution subbottom and multi-channel seismic data. Detailed integration with regional subbottom data illustrates that the formation of the MSGL occurred in the late Quaternary, around MIS6. This event is distinct from a middle Quaternary ice grounding in the same region, that was first recognized by the transition into heavily overconsolidated sediments at ~20 mbsf at Ocean Drilling Program Site 910. While the middle Quaternary ice grounding left an easily recognizable imprint on the geotechnical properties of the sediments, the imprint from the late Quaternary event is far subtler, and not formerly recognized by analysis of sediments from Site 910. Furthermore, stratigraphic information indicates that neither event was associated with significant erosion, implying that the observed stress state of the sediments arose from ice-loading. Coupled with the orientation of the late Quaternary MSGL, the available evidence argues against an active ice-stream being responsible for their formation, and that they were more likely formed by a very large tabular iceberg traversing the ridge. This lends considerable support to the argument that MSGL-like features are not exclusively associated with fast flowing ice-streams. References Jakobsson, M., et al., An Arctic Ocean iceshelf during MIS 6 constrained by new geophysical and geological data. Quaternary Science Reviews (2010), doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.03.015. Dowdeswell, J. A., et al., High-resolution geophysical observations of the Yermak Plateau and northern Svalbard margin: implications for ice-sheet grounding and deep-keeled icebergs. Quaternary Science Reviews (2010), doi:10

  1. Stratigraphic and structural compartmentalization observed within a model turbidite reservoir, Pennsylvanian Upper Jackfork Formation, Hollywood Quarry, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slatt, R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, D. [Arco International Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (United States); Stone, C. [Arkansas Geological Commission, Little Rock, AR (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Hollywood Quarry is a 600 x 375 x 150 ft. (200 x 125 x 50m) excavation which provides a window into lower Pennsylvanian Jackfork Formation turbidite stratal architecture along the crest of a faulted anticlinal fold. A variety of turbidite facies are present, including: (a) lenticular, channelized sandstones, pebbly sandstones, and conglomerates within shale, (b) laterally continuous, interbedded thin sandstones and shales, and (c) thicker, laterally continuous shales. The sandstone and shale layers we broken by several strike-slip and reverse faults, with vertical displacements of up to several feet. This combination of facies and structural elements has resulted in a highly compartmentalized stratigraphic interval, both horizontally and vertically, along the anticlinal flexure. The quarry can be considered analogous to a scaled-down turbidite reservoir. Outcrop gamma-ray logs, measured sections, a fault map, and cross sections provide a database which is analogous to what would be available for a subsurface reservoir. Thus, the quarry provides an ideal outdoor geologic and engineering {open_quote}workshop{close_quote} venue for visualizing the potential complexities of a combination structural-stratigraphic (turbidite) reservoir. Since all forms of compartmentalization are readily visible in the quarry, problems related to management of compartmentalized reservoirs can be discussed and analyzed first-hand while standing in the quarry, within this {open_quote}model reservoir{close_quotes}. These problems include: (a) the high degree of stratigraphic and structural complexity that may be encountered, even at close well spacings, (b) uncertainty in well log correlations and log-shape interpretations, (c) variations in volumetric calculations as a function of amount of data available, and (d) potential production problems associated with specific {open_quote}field{close_quote} development plans.

  2. A gene-based high-resolution comparative radiation hybrid map as a framework for genome sequence assembly of a bovine chromosome 6 region associated with QTL for growth, body composition, and milk performance traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Pascal

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of different quantitative trait loci (QTL for various phenotypic traits, including milk production, functional, and conformation traits in dairy cattle as well as growth and body composition traits in meat cattle, have been mapped consistently in the middle region of bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6. Dense genetic and physical maps and, ultimately, a fully annotated genome sequence as well as their mutual connections are required to efficiently identify genes and gene variants responsible for genetic variation of phenotypic traits. A comprehensive high-resolution gene-rich map linking densely spaced bovine markers and genes to the annotated human genome sequence is required as a framework to facilitate this approach for the region on BTA6 carrying the QTL. Results Therefore, we constructed a high-resolution radiation hybrid (RH map for the QTL containing chromosomal region of BTA6. This new RH map with a total of 234 loci including 115 genes and ESTs displays a substantial increase in loci density compared to existing physical BTA6 maps. Screening the available bovine genome sequence resources, a total of 73 loci could be assigned to sequence contigs, which were already identified as specific for BTA6. For 43 loci, corresponding sequence contigs, which were not yet placed on the bovine genome assembly, were identified. In addition, the improved potential of this high-resolution RH map for BTA6 with respect to comparative mapping was demonstrated. Mapping a large number of genes on BTA6 and cross-referencing them with map locations in corresponding syntenic multi-species chromosome segments (human, mouse, rat, dog, chicken achieved a refined accurate alignment of conserved segments and evolutionary breakpoints across the species included. Conclusion The gene-anchored high-resolution RH map (1 locus/300 kb for the targeted region of BTA6 presented here will provide a valuable platform to guide high-quality assembling and

  3. Quartz Ti-center in ESR dating of Xigeda formation in Sichuanand contrast with magnetic stratigraphic profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ping; Li Jianping; Liu Chunru; Han Fei; Gao Lu; Wang Jiancun

    2011-01-01

    Xigeda formation is a famous fluvial-lacustrine sedimentation formed in late cenozoic in southwest China, distributed in the valley of Dadu River, Anning River, Chin-sha River etc. The age of Xigeda formation,ranges between 4.18 and 1.78 Ma BP, depending on the magnetic stratigraphy research of the stratigraphic section. Quartz Ti-center in ESR dating of sand samples from several typical sections of Xigeda formation in Sichuan shows that they are sediments in mid-pleistocene. Comparing the ESR ages and mainly normal polarity, Xigeda formation can be confirmed in Brunhes epoch according to magnetic stratigraphy. (authors)

  4. New seismic attributes and methodology for automated stratigraphic, structural, and reservoir analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randen, Trygve; Reymond, Benoit; Sjulstad, Hans Ivar; Soenneland, Lars

    1999-12-31

    Seismic stratigraphy represents an attractive framework for interpretation of 3-D data. This presentation is an introduction to a set of primitives that will enable guided interpretation of seismic signals in the framework of seismic stratigraphy. A method capable of automatic detection of terminations is proposed. The new procedure can be run on the entire seismic volume or it may be restricted to a limited time interval and detects terminations in an unguided manner without prior interpretation. The density of terminations can be computed. The procedure may alternatively be guided by pre-existing interpretation, e.g. detecting terminations onto an interpreted horizon. In such a case, the density of terminations will be a new surface attribute. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  5. New seismic attributes and methodology for automated stratigraphic, structural, and reservoir analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randen, Trygve; Reymond, Benoit; Sjulstad, Hans Ivar; Soenneland, Lars

    1998-12-31

    Seismic stratigraphy represents an attractive framework for interpretation of 3-D data. This presentation is an introduction to a set of primitives that will enable guided interpretation of seismic signals in the framework of seismic stratigraphy. A method capable of automatic detection of terminations is proposed. The new procedure can be run on the entire seismic volume or it may be restricted to a limited time interval and detects terminations in an unguided manner without prior interpretation. The density of terminations can be computed. The procedure may alternatively be guided by pre-existing interpretation, e.g. detecting terminations onto an interpreted horizon. In such a case, the density of terminations will be a new surface attribute. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Stratigraphic and microfossil evidence for hydroclimate changes over the middle to late Holocene in the northern Bahamas from an inland saline lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hengstum, P. J.; Maale, G. E.; Donnelly, J. P.; Onac, B. P.; Sullivan, R.; Winkler, T. S.; Albury, N. A.

    2016-12-01

    No Man's Land is one of the largest inland lakes on the Little Bahama Bank in the northern Bahamas, so its paleoenvironmental history may provide insight into how the regional hydroclimate developed over the Holocene. In its modern state, the site is shallow (aquatic invertebrates (e.g., ostracodes, foraminifera, aquatic mollusks) indicate that the site was a terrestrial ecosystem. However, the site transitioned into a subaqueous freshwater environment at 6400 Cal yrs BP, and the site became a palustrine-lacustrine setting thereafter until 4200 Cal yrs BP. During this time, widespread palustrine-lacustrine carbonate deposition and the appearance of freshwater to low mesohaline microfossils indicates that the lake's salinity was likely oligohaline (charophytes, ostracodes: Candona annae, Cypridopsis vidua, foraminifera: Helenina davescottensis, mollusks: Planorbis, Hydrobia). A salinity increase at 4200 Cal yrs BP is inferred from the appearance of the ostracode Cyprideis americana that typically prefers salinities exceeding 10 psu, and deposition of laminated microbial mats. Thereafter, an organic- rich, algal sapropel unit accumulated that was devoid of any microfossils or mollusks. This unit suggests that the lake hosted a stratified water column, where surface waters supported phytoplankton primary productivity and corrosive or anoxic bottom water conditions either hampered microfossil growth or precluded their preservation. The transition to the modern environment ( 20 psu) at 2600 cal yrs BP is characterized by diversification of brackish ostracodes (Aurila floridana, Dolerocypria inopinata, and Hemicyprideis setipunctata), foraminifera (Elphidium spp., Ammonia beccarii, Triloculina oblonga) and mollusks (Anomalocardia, Cerithidea). Over the middle to late Holocene, it appears that the stratigraphic development and salinity changes in No Man's Land has been driven by groundwater-level rise in response to Holocene sea-level rise, the regional delivery of fresh

  7. A unique fossil record from neptunian sills: the world's most extreme example of stratigraphic condensation (Jurassic, western Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Jobst

    2017-06-01

    Neptunian sills at Rocca Busambra, a fragment of the Trapanese/Saccense Domain in western Sicily, host the most abundant ammonite and gastropod fauna which has ever been recorded from the Jurassic of the western Tethys. The fauna is dominated by parautochthonous organisms which were swept into the sills by gentle transport. Ammonites are characterized by perfect preservation and small size, a feature which is due to the predominance of microconchs but also of stunting. The most complete sill is 0.7 m thick and could be separated into 17 levels which range in age from the early Toarcian into the late Kimmeridgian, thus representing the most extreme case of palaeontologically and depositionally documented stratigraphic condensation in Earth history. The unique feature of the Rocca Busambra sills is due to the interaction of three processes: extreme stratigraphic condensation on the sea floor, weak tectonic fracturing of the host rock and repeated reopening on top of already existing sills. Contrasting percentages of gastropods in individual levels reflect sea-level oscillations which correspond to long known low- and highstands during the Jurassic of the western Tethys. Comparisons with other ammonite-bearing sill faunas reveal several similarities, but represent only short-timed phases of tectonic pulses and deposition.

  8. Geomorphologic, stratigraphic and sedimentologic evidences of tectonic activity in Sone-Ganga alluvial tract in Middle Ganga Plain, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Sudarsan; Saha, Dipankar

    2014-08-01

    The basement of the Ganga basin in the Himalayan foreland is criss-crossed by several faults, dividing the basin into several sub-blocks forming horsts, grabens, or half-grabens. Tectonic perturbations along basement faults have affected the fluvial regime and extent of sediment fill in different parts of the basin during Late Quaternary. The East Patna Fault (EPF) and the West Patna Fault (WPF), located in Sone-Ganga alluvial tract in the southern marginal parts of Middle Ganga Plain (MGP), have remained tectonically active. The EPF particularly has acted significantly and influenced in evolving the geomorphological landscape and the stratigraphic architecture of the area. The block bounded by the two faults has earlier been considered as a single entity, constituting a half-graben. The present investigation (by morpho-stratigraphic and sedimentologic means) has revealed the existence of yet another fault within the half-graben, referred to as Bishunpur-Khagaul Fault (BKF). Many of the long profile morphological characters (e.g., knick-zone, low width-depth ratio) of the Sone River at its lower reaches can be ascribed to local structural deformation along BKF. These basement faults in MGP lie parallel to each other in NE-SW direction.

  9. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  10. Heavy mineral delineation of the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene stratigraphic sections at the Savannah River Site, Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathcart, E.M.; Sargent, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina consists of a fluvial-deltaic and shallow marine complex of unconsolidated sediments overlying the crystalline basement rocks of the North American continent. Because of the lateral and vertical variability of these sediments, stratigraphic boundaries have been difficult to distinguish. Portions of the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and eocene stratigraphic sections from cores recovered during the construction of two monitoring wells at the Savannah River Site were studied to determine if heavy mineral suites could be utilized to distinguish boundaries. The stratigraphic sections include: the Late Cretaceous Middendorf, Black Creek, and Steel Creek Formations, the Paleocene Snapp Formation, the late Paleocene-Early Eocene Fourmile Branch Formation, and the Early Eocene Congaree formation. In previous studies composite samples were taken over 2.5 ft. intervals along the cores and processed using a heavy liquid for heavy mineral recovery. During this study, heavy mineral distributions were determined by binocular microscope and the mineral identifications confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis of hand-picked samples. The heavy mineral concentration data and grain size data were then compared to the stratigraphic boundary positions determined by other workers using more classical methods. These comparisons were used to establish the utility of this method for delineating the stratigraphic boundaries in the area of study

  11. ZEND FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupasc Adrian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present Zend Architecture, which is an open source technology for developing web applications and services, based on object-oriented components, and the Model-View-Controller architectural pattern, also known as MVC, which is the fundament of this architecture. The MVC presentation emphasises its main characteristics, such as facilitating the components reuse by dividing the application into distinct interconnected modules, tasks distribution in the process of developing an application, the MVC life cycle and also the essential features of the components in which it separates the application: model, view, controller. The controller coordinates the models and views and it’s responsible with manipulating the user events through the corresponding actions. The model contains application rules, respectively the scripts that implement the database manipulation. The third component, the view represents the controllers interface with the user or the way it displays the response to the event triggered by the user. Another aspect treated in this paper consists in highlighting the Zend architecture advantages and disadvantages. Among the framework advantages, we can enumerate good code organization, due to its delimitation into three sections, presentation, logic and data access, and dividing the code into components, which facilitates the code reuse and testing. Other advantages are the open-source license and the support for multiple database systems. The main disadvantages are represented by its size and complexity, that makes it hard to understand for a beginner programmer, the resources it needs etc. The last section of the paper presents a comparison between Zend and other PHP architectures, like Symphony, CakePHP and CodeIgniter, which includes their essential features and points out their similarities and differences, based on the unique functions that set them apart from others. The main thing that distinguishes ZF from the

  12. Ordovician and Silurian Phi Kappa and Trail Creek formations, Pioneer Mountains, central Idaho; stratigraphic and structural revisions, and new data on graptolite faunas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dover, James H.; Berry, William B.N.; Ross, Reuben James

    1980-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping in the northern Pioneer Mountains combined with the identification of graptolites from 116 new collections indicate that the Ordovician and Silurian Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations occur in a series of thrust-bounded slices within a broad zone of imbricate thrust faulting. Though confirming a deformational style first reported in a 1963 study by Michael Churkin, our data suggest that the complexity and regional extent of the thrust zone were not previously recognized. Most previously published sections of the Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations were measured across unrecognized thrust faults and therefore include not only structural repetitions of graptolitic Ordovician and Silurian rocks but also other tectonically juxtaposed lithostratigraphic units of diverse ages as well. Because of this discovery, the need to reconsider the stratigraphic validity of these formations and their lithology, nomenclature, structural distribution, facies relations, and graptolite faunas has arisen. The Phi Kappa Formation in most thrust slices has internal stratigraphic continuity despite the intensity of deformation to which it was subjected. As revised herein, the Phi Kappa Formation is restricted to a structurally repeated succession of predominantly black, carbonaceous, graptolitic argillite and shale. Some limy, light-gray-weathering shale occurs in the middle part of the section, and fine-grained locally pebbly quartzite is present at the base. The basal quartzite is here named the Basin Gulch Quartzite Member of the Phi Kappa. The Phi Kappa redefined on a lithologic basis represents the span of Ordovician time from W. B. N. Berry's graptolite zones 2-4 through 15 and also includes approximately 17 m of lithologically identical shale of Early and Middle Silurian age at the top. The lower contact of the formation as revised is tectonic. The Phi Kappa is gradationally overlain by the Trail Creek Formation as restricted herein. Most of the coarser

  13. Characterizing Structural and Stratigraphic Heterogeneities in a Faulted Aquifer Using Pump Tests with an Array of Westbay Multilevel Monitoring Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.; Zhurina, E. N.

    2001-12-01

    We are developing and assessing field testing and analysis methodologies for quantitative characterization of aquifer heterogenities using data measured in an array of multilevel monitoring wells (MLW) during pumping and recovery well tests. We have developed a unique field laboratory to determine the permeability field in a 20m by 40m by 70m volume in the fault partitioned, siliciclastic Hickory aquifer system in central Texas. The site incorporates both stratigraphic variations and a normal fault system that partially offsets the aquifer and impedes cross-fault flow. We constructed a high-resolution geologic model of the site based upon 1050 m of core and a suite of geophysical logs from eleven, closely spaced (3-10m), continuously cored boreholes to depths of 125 m. Westbay multilevel monitoring systems installed in eight holes provide 94 hydraulically isolated measurement zones and 25 injection zones. A good geologic model is critical to proper installation of the MLW. Packers are positioned at all significant fault piercements and selected, laterally extensive, clay-rich strata. Packers in adjacent MLW bracket selected hydrostratigraphic intervals. Pump tests utilized two, uncased, fully penetrating irrigation wells that straddle the fault system and are in close proximity (7 to 65 m) to the MLW. Pumping and recovery transient pressure histories were measured in 85 zones using pressure transducers with a resolution of 55 Pa (0.008 psi). The hydraulic response is that of an anisotropic, unconfined aquifer. The transient pressure histories vary significantly from zone to zone in a single MLW as well as between adjacent MLW. Derivative plots are especially useful for differentiating details of pressure histories. Based on the geologic model, the derivative curve of a zone reflects its absolute vertical position, vertical stratigraphic position, and proximity to either a fault or significant stratigraphic heterogeneity. Additional forward modeling is needed to

  14. Stratigraphic distribution, taphonomy and paleoenvironments of Spinicaudata in the Triassic and Jurassic of the Paraná Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenisch, Alan Gregory; Lehn, Ilana; Gallego, Oscar Florencio; Monferran, Mateo Daniel; Horodyski, Rodrigo Scalise; Faccini, Ubiratan Ferrucio

    2017-12-01

    Due to the chitino-phosphatic nature of Spinicaudata conchostracan exoskeletons, their carapaces exhibit a low preservational potential compared to other bivalve groups. However, the recent studies point towards the increased tolerance of the carapace against the physical processes. Due to this peculiar characteristic, conchostracan carapace have been utilized as precise temporal markers in estimating stratigraphic and taphonomic parameters. The same characteristic also makes the spinicaudatans useful in evaluating the depositional processes and environments. The present work aims at providing a paleoenvironmental and stratigraphic analysis of conchostracans (Spinicaudata) from the Triassic-Jurassic of the Paraná Basin (Santa Maria and Caturrita formations) in terms of the sedimentary facies analysis, depositional system characterization, and analysis of the taphonomic signatures of the fossiliferous horizons within these formations. The results from the taphonomic study delineates the presence of 4 distinct fossil assemblages based on the causative mechanism and fundamental characteristics of the fossil concentrations: two taphonomic assemblages in the laminated mudstone beds deposited from the decanting fine-grained sediments in floodplains; the sandstone beds with plane parallel laminations and dune- and ripple-cross-stratifications deposited from the flooding-related overflow in the floodplains; and the association of laminated mudstone and massive sandstone beds deposited as the river mouth bars. The results show that the taphonomic signatures, e.g., closed valves, may indicate the various patterns of autochthony and allochthony. In the fine-grained floodplain assemblages, the high degree of preservation can be attributed to autochthony in the conchostracans, whereas the preservational condition of floodplain sandstone sheet and mouth bar assemblages point toward parautochthony and even allochthony. Therefore, the preservational quality of conchostracan

  15. A MATLAB®-based program for 3D visualization of stratigraphic setting and subsidence evolution of sedimentary basins: example application to the Vienna Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Novotny, Johannes; Wagreich, Michael

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, 3D visualization of sedimentary basins has become increasingly popular. Stratigraphic and structural mapping is highly important to understand the internal setting of sedimentary basins. And subsequent subsidence analysis provides significant insights for basin evolution. This study focused on developing a simple and user-friendly program which allows geologists to analyze and model sedimentary basin data. The developed program is aimed at stratigraphic and subsidence modelling of sedimentary basins from wells or stratigraphic profile data. This program is mainly based on two numerical methods; surface interpolation and subsidence analysis. For surface visualization four different interpolation techniques (Linear, Natural, Cubic Spline, and Thin-Plate Spline) are provided in this program. The subsidence analysis consists of decompaction and backstripping techniques. The numerical methods are computed in MATLAB® which is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment used extensively in academic, research, and industrial fields. This program consists of five main processing steps; 1) setup (study area and stratigraphic units), 2) loading of well data, 3) stratigraphic modelling (depth distribution and isopach plots), 4) subsidence parameter input, and 5) subsidence modelling (subsided depth and subsidence rate plots). The graphical user interface intuitively guides users through all process stages and provides tools to analyse and export the results. Interpolation and subsidence results are cached to minimize redundant computations and improve the interactivity of the program. All 2D and 3D visualizations are created by using MATLAB plotting functions, which enables users to fine-tune the visualization results using the full range of available plot options in MATLAB. All functions of this program are illustrated with a case study of Miocene sediments in the Vienna Basin. The basin is an ideal place to test this program, because sufficient data is

  16. Stratigraphic Stacking of Deepmarine Channel Levee Turbidites: Scales of Cyclicity and their Origin. Examples from the Laingsburg Fm. (Karoo, South Africa) and the Rosario Fm. (Baja, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, I. A.; Hodgson, D.

    2009-12-01

    Thinning upwards of the turbidite beds that form deepmarine channel levees is a common motif reported from modern and recent levees on the seafloor, from subsurface examples, and from outcropping ancient examples. Because levees are thought to be built by deposition from turbidity currents superelevated over their channel form, the volume and style of overbank deposition are controlled primarily by the relationship between levee height (i.e., thalweg to crest) and flow thickness, determining the amount of overspill. Thus stratigraphic variability of turbidite thickness is explained by some change in either or both of those factors, which may arise autocyclicly or allocyclicly. Variation in the ratio of intra-channel and extra-channel deposition can be an autocyclic stratigraphic response, e.g., in bypass dominated systems, thalweg aggradation may be retarded with respect to levee aggradation, hence as levee relief increases, flows become more confined and, given a relatively narrow range of flow sizes, the volume of overbank flow and deposit thickness decrease with stratigraphic height. However, the same stratigraphic response of the levee may occur due to allocyclic flow magnitude variation, i.e., through decreasing flow magnitude. In both the autocyclic and allocyclic case the stratigraphic response of the levee may be one of thinning upwards, even if the overall system response may be one of progradation (autocyclic bypassing case) or retrogradation (allocyclic decreasing flow magnitude case), with entirely different connotations for sequence stratigraphic interpretation. Here we report examples of different scales of bed thickness cyclicity (both thickening and thinning upward cycles superimposed by smaller scale cycles) within levees of the Rosario Formation, Baja California, Mexico, and from the Laingsburg Formation, Karoo, South Africa, and, together with published examples, discuss criteria for the recognition, and drivers of, autocyclic and allocyclic bed

  17. Stratigraphic and structural controls on groundwater flow in an outcropping fossil fan delta: the case of Sant Llorenç del Munt range (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglés, Marc; Folch, Albert; Oms, Oriol; Maestro, Eudald; Mas-Pla, Josep

    2017-12-01

    Hydrogeological models of mountain regions present the opportunity to understand the role of geological factors on groundwater resources. The effects of sedimentary facies and fracture distribution on groundwater flow and resource exploitation are studied in the ancient fan delta of Sant Llorenç de Munt (central Catalonia, Spain) by integrating geological field observations (using sequence stratigraphy methods) and hydrogeological data (pumping tests, hydrochemistry and environmental isotopes). A comprehensive analysis of data portrays the massif as a single unit, constituted by different compartments determined by specific layers and sets of fractures. Two distinct flow systems—local and regional—are identified based on pumping test analysis as well as hydrochemical and isotopic data. Drawdown curves derived from pumping tests indicate that the behavior of the saturated layers, whose main porosity is given by the fracture network, corresponds to a confined aquifer. Pumping tests also reflect a double porosity within the system and the occurrence of impervious boundaries that support a compartmentalized model for the whole aquifer system. Hydrochemical data and associated spatial evolution show the result of water-rock interaction along the flow lines. Concentration of magnesium, derived from dolomite dissolution, is a tracer of the flow-path along distinct stratigraphic units. Water stable isotopes indicate that evaporation (near a 5% loss) occurs in a thick unsaturated zone within the massif before infiltration reaches the water table. The hydrogeological analysis of this outcropping system provides a methodology for the conceptualization of groundwater flow in similar buried systems where logging and hydrogeological information are scarce.

  18. Facies architecture and stratigraphic evolution of aeolian dune and interdune deposits, Permian Caldeirão Member (Santa Brígida Formation), Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Fábio Herbert; Scherer, Claiton Marlon dos Santos; Kuchle, Juliano

    2016-05-01

    The Permian Caldeirão Member (Santa Brígida Formation), located in the Tucano Central Basin, northeast region of Brazil, is characterized by a sandstone succession of aeolian origin that comprises the preserved deposits of dunes and interdunes. Grainflow and translatent wind-ripple strata, and frequent presence of reactivation surface, compose the cross-bedding of crescent aeolian dune deposits. The aeolian cross-strata show a mean dip toward the ENE. In places, interlayered with dune cross-beds, occur interdune units composed of facies indicative of dry, damp and wet condition of the substrate, suggesting spatial and/or temporal variations in the moisture content of the interdune accumulation surface. The presence of NNW current ripple cross-lamination in wet interdune areas indicates streamflows confined to interdune corridors and oriented perpendicular to aeolian transport direction. Lenses of damp and wet interdune strata exhibit mainly interdigitated and transitional relationships with the toe-sets of overlying aeolian dune units in sections parallel to aeolian transport, indicating that dune migration was contemporaneous with accumulation in adjacent interdunes. Lateral variations in the preserved thickness of the interdune units and the associated rare occurrence of abrupt and erosive contacts between interdune and overlying dune sets, suggest temporal variations in the angle of dune and interdune climb that may be related to high-frequency changes in water table position. Four stratigraphic intervals in the Caldeirão Member can be identified, two intervals showing cross-bedding of aeolian dunes without wet interdune areas and two intervals exhibiting aeolian dunes separated by wet interdune areas, marking the transition between dry aeolian systems (Intervals I and III) and wet aeolian systems (Intervals II and IV). The temporal alternations between dry and wet aeolian systems reflect changes in the availability of dry sand and/or the rate in the water

  19. Review and protection possibilities of some trans-border (East Serbia-West Bulgaria stratigraphic/palaeontological geosites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Velimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stratigraphic/palaeontological geosites of Stara Planina Mountain in east Serbia are well developed in the area of Serbian/Bulgarian state border, where with this occassion, three sections of exeptional geological and scientific interest are selected: Jelovica, Rosomač and Senokos. These geosites represent the important localities for study of Triassic and Jurassic terrigene-carbonate deposits, for which the scientific value from the domains of palaeontology, stratigraphy and sedimentology is widely known. The aim of this work is to represent the main scientific arguments for inventory and protection of detached transborder geological sites that are unique according to their composition and content.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176008

  20. Atom and pre-history: the geological framework of fossil man in the light of dating and isotopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskovsky, J.C.; Gibert, E.

    1994-01-01

    The discovery of natural radioactivity and the applications of nuclear physics to the study of sediments and sediment content, allow for the delimitation of the chrono-stratigraphic and paleoclimatic framework of fossil Man. This chronology is based on the development of continental glacial phenomena and is specified through comparison with various methods: paleomagnetic inversion, the variation of oxygen isotopic composition of marine biogenic carbonates and the dating methods. Pleistocene and Holocene era are reviewed. (authors). 9 figs., 90 refs

  1. Social and environmental impact of volcaniclastic flows related to 472 AD eruption at Vesuvius from stratigraphic and geoarcheological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vito, Mauro A.; de Vita, Sandro; Rucco, Ilaria; Bini, Monica; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Aurino, Paola; Cesarano, Mario; Ebanista, Carlo; Rosi, Mauro; Ricciardi, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing number of evidences in the surrounding plain of Somma-Vesuvius volcano which indicate that along with primary volcanic processes (i.e. fallout, pyroclastic density currents) the syn-eruptive and post-eruptive volcaniclastic remobilization has severely impacted the ancient civilizations, which flourished in the area. This represents an important starting point for understanding the future hazard related to a potential (and not remote) renewal of volcanic activity of the Campaniana volcanoes. We present geoarcheological and stratigraphic data obtained from the analysis of more than 160 sections in the Campanian plain showing the widespread impact of volcaniclastic debris flows and floods originated from the rapid remobilization of the products of the AD 472 eruption of Somma-Vesuvius, both on the environment and on the human landscape. This eruption was one of the two sub-Plinian historical events of Somma Vesuvius. This event largely impacted the northern and eastern territory surrounding the volcano with deposition of a complex sequence of pyroclastic-fallout and -current deposits. These sequences were variably affected by syn- and post-eruptive mobilization both along the Somma-Vesuvius slopes and the Apennine valleys with the emplacement of thick mud- and debris-flows which strongly modified the preexisting paleogeography of the Plain with irretrievable damages to the agricultural and urban landscape. The multidisciplinary approach to the study of the sequences permitted to reconstruct the palaeoenvironment before the eruption and the timing of the emplacement of both pyroclastic and volcanoclastic deposits. The preexisting landscape was characterized by intense human occupation, although showing strong evidences of degradation and abandonment due to the progressive decline of the Roman Empire. The impact of volcaniclastic flows continued for decades after the eruption as highlighted in the studied sequences by stratigraphic and archaeologic

  2. Stratigraphic And Lithofacies Study Of Distal Rain-Triggered Lahars: The Case Of West Coast Of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulas, M.; Chunga, K.; Peña Carpio, E.; Falquez Torres, D. A.; Alcivar, R., Sr.; Lopez Coronel, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The central zone of the coast of Ecuador at the north of Manabí Province, on the area comprised between Salango and Jama communities, is characterized by the presence of whitish to grey, centimeters to meters thick, consolidated to loose distal ash deposits. Recent archeological studies on Valdivia (3500 BC) and Manteña (800-1500 AC - Harris et al. 2004) civilizations remains link this deposits with the intense eruptive phases that afflicted Ecuador 700-900 years ago (Usselman, 2006). Stratigraphic evidences and bibliographic datations of paleosols (Estrada, 1962; Mothes and Hall, 2008), allowed to estimate that these deposits are linked with the 800 BP eruption of Quilotoa and the following eruptions of Cotopaxi. According to the Smith and Lowe classification (1991), the deposits outcropping on the coast (located at a distance greater than 160 km from the volcanic vents), varied from whitish to grey, loose to weakly consolidated, massive to weakly stratified, centimeters to meters thick, coarse to fine ash matrix layers (diluite streamflow facies) to massive, large angular to sub-rounded siltitic blocks-rich and coarse to medium ash matrix deposits (debris flow facies). These types of lithofacies are associated to a rain-triggered lahar (De Belizal et al., 2013). The presence in some stratigraphic sections of sharp contacts, laminated layers of very fine ash, and also cm-thick sand and silt layers between the ash beds of the same deposits permit to understand that the different pulses were generated in short periods and after a long period. Structures like water pipes imply that the lahar went into the sea (Schneider, 2004), and allow the reconstruction of the paleotopographic condition during the emplacement of these deposits. This study focuses on the characterization of these types of deposits, permit to understand the kind of risk that may affect the towns located on the coast of Ecuador after VEI 4 to 6 eruptions on short time and within years.

  3. The Cretaceous-Paleogene transition and Chicxulub impact ejecta in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico: Paleoenvironments, sequence stratigraphic setting and target lithologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Peter

    2003-07-01

    The Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-P) transition is characterized by a period of mass extinctions, the Chicxulub impact event, sea-level changes, and considerable climate changes (e.g., cooling). The Gulf of Mexico region is a key area for addressing these issues, specifically because of the proximity to the large Chicxulub impact structure in southern Mexico, and because of its shallow shelf areas throughout the Maastrichtian to Danian period. This study presents the results of a multidisciplinary investigation of Chicxulub impact ejecta and marine sediments from the K-P transition in the western Gulf of Mexico. Sedimentological, mineralogical, and geochemical aspects of K-P sections and cores from northeastern Mexico, Texas, and Alabama have been by studied with focus on Chicxulub ejecta, long- or short-term facies change, and sequence stratigraphic setting. CHICXULUB EJECTA: The Chicxulub ejecta (or impact spherule) deposits from northeastern Mexico and Texas revealed an unexpected complex and localized ejecta composition. Fe-Mg-rich chlorite- as well as Si-Al-K-rich glass-spherules are the predominant silicic ejecta components in northeastern Mexico, whereas in Texas, spherules of Mg-rich smectite compositions were encountered. Spherules contain Fe-Ti-K-rich schlieren, Fe-Mg-rich globules, and rare µm-sized metallic and sulfidic Ni-Co-(Ir-?) rich inclusions. This composition provides evidence for a distinct range of target rocks of mafic to intermediate composition, presumably situated in the northwestern sector of the Chicxulub impact structure, in addition to the possibility of contamination by meteoritic material. The absence of spinels and the ubiquitous presence of hematite and goethite points to high oxygen fugacity during the impact process. Besides these silicic phases, the most prominent ejecta component is carbonate.! Carbonate is found in ejecta deposits as unshocked clasts, accretionary lapilli-like grains, melt globules (often with quenching textures

  4. Stratigraphic and compositional complexities of the late Quaternary Lethe tephra in South-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, J.R.; Ager, T.A.; Reger, R.D.; Pinney, D.S.; Kaufman, D.S.

    2008-01-01

    Recently discovered Lethe tephra has been proposed as a latest Pleistocene marker bed in Bristol Bay lowland NE to the Cook Inlet region, Alaska, on the basis of correlations involving a single "Lethe average" glass composition. Type deposits in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, however, are chemically heterogeneous-individual lapilli as well as aggregate ash deposits have glass compositions that range from the average mode to much higher SiO2 and K2O. Moreover, a lake-sediment core from the Cook Inlet region contains one ash deposit similar to "Lethe average" and other, closely underlying deposits that resemble a mixture of the average mode and high-Si high-K mode of proximal deposits. Synthesis of previously published radiocarbon ages indicates a major eruption mainly of "Lethe average" mode about 13,000 14C yr BP. As many as six deposits in the Cook Inlet region-five chiefly "Lethe average" mode-range from about 13,000 to 15-16,000 14C yr BP, and an early Holocene deposit in the Bristol Bay lowland extends the minimum age range of Lethe tephra throughout this region to 8000 14C yr BP. Because of the appearance of "Lethe average" composition in multiple deposits spanning thousands of years, we urge caution when using a Lethe-like composition as a basis for inferring a latest Pleistocene age of a tephra deposit in south-central Alaska. Linear variation plots suggest that magma mixing caused the Lethe heterogeneity; multiple magmas were involved as well in other large pyroclastic eruptions such as Katmai (Alaska) and Rotorua (New Zealand). Lethe is an example of a heterogeneous tephra that may be better compared with other tephras by use of plots of individual analytical points rather than by calculating similarity coefficients based on edited data. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  5. Reevaluation of the Piermont-Frontenac allochthon in the Upper Connecticut Valley: Restoration of a coherent Boundary Mountains–Bronson Hill stratigraphic sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Douglas W.; Tucker, Robert D.; Amelin, Yuri

    2013-01-01

    The regional extent and mode and time of emplacement of the Piermont-Frontenac allochthon in the Boundary Mountains–Bronson Hill anticlinorium of the Upper Connecticut Valley, New Hampshire–Vermont, are controversial. Moench and coworkers beginning in the 1980s proposed that much of the autochthonous pre–Middle Ordovician section of the anticlinorium was a large allochthon of Silurian to Early Devonian rocks correlated to those near Rangeley, Maine. This ∼200-km-long allochthon was postulated to have been transported westward in the latest Silurian to Early Devonian as a soft-sediment gravity slide on a hypothesized Foster Hill fault. New mapping and U-Pb geochronology do not support this interpretation. The undisputed Rangeley sequence in the Bean Brook slice is different from the disputed sequence in the proposed larger Piermont-Frontenac allochthon, and field evidence for the Foster Hill fault is lacking. At the type locality on Foster Hill, the postulated “fault” is a stratigraphic contact within the Ordovician Ammonoosuc Volcanics. The proposed Foster Hill fault would place the Piermont-Frontenac allochthon over the inverted limb of the Cornish(?) nappe, which includes the Emsian Littleton Formation, thus limiting the alleged submarine slide to post-Emsian time. Mafic dikes of the 419 Ma Comerford Intrusive Complex intrude previously folded strata attributed to the larger Piermont-Frontenac allochthon as well as the autochthonous Albee Formation and Ammonoosuc Volcanics. The Lost Nation pluton intruded and produced hornfels in previously deformed Albee strata. Zircons from an apophysis of the pluton in the hornfels have a thermal ionization mass spectrometry 207Pb/206Pb age of 444.1 ± 2.1 Ma. Tonalite near Bath, New Hampshire, has a zircon sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe 206Pb/238U age of 492.5 ± 7.8 Ma. The tonalite intrudes the Albee Formation, formerly interpreted as the Silurian Perry Mountain Formation of the proposed allochthon

  6. Development of a shelf margin delta due to uplift of Munkagrunnur Ridge at the margin of Faroe-Shetland Basin: a seismic sequence stratigraphic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Òlavsdóttir, Jana; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Andersen, Moretn S

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade several 3D digital reflection seismic datasets have been acquired in the Faroese sector of the Faroe-Shetland Basin which allow detailed seismic interpretation and mapping of parts of the area. This study presents mapping and seismic sequence stratigraphic interpretation of...

  7. Carnian bauxite horizon on the Kopitov grič near Borovnica (Slovenia – is there a »forgotten« stratigraphic gap in its footwall?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomir Celarc

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Beds underlying the Carnian bauxite on the Kopitov gri~ (Slovenia are by the author’s opinion not Carnian (Cordevolian, but Ladinian age. The considerable stratigraphical gap is presented between Carnian clastic rocks and underlying limestones and dolomites. Bauxite is result of the weathering during the emersion.

  8. Palaeolithic/Mesolithic stratigraphic sequences at Údolí samoty and Janova zátoka rock shelters (Northern Bohemia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří; Novák, J.; Novák, Martin; Sázelová, S.; Demek, J.; Hladilová, Š.; Peša, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 4 (2013), s. 469-488 ISSN 0342-734X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08169S Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Pleistocene/Holocene boundary * Northern Bohemia * stratigraphic sequences * rock shelters * environment Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  9. Stratigraphic and structural configuration of the Navajo (Jurassic) through Ouray (Mississippian-Devonian) formations in the vicinity of Davis and Lavender Canyons, southeastern Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCleary, J.R.; Romie, J.E.

    1986-04-01

    This study developed a three-dimensional computer model of stratigraphic and structural relationships within a 3497-km 2 (1350-mi 2 ) study area centered on the proposed site for a high-level nuclear waste repository in southeastern Utah. The model consists of a sequence of internally reconciled isopach and structure contour maps horizontally registered and stored in stratigraphic order. This model can be used to display cross sections, perspective block diagrams, or fence diagrams at any orientation; estimate depth of formation contacts and thicknesses for any new stratigraphic or hydrologic boreholes; facilitate ground-water modeling studies; and evaluate the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the study area. This study also includes limited evaluations of aquifer continuity in the Elephant Canyon and Honaker Trail Formations, and of salt dissolution and flowage features as interpreted from geophysical logs. The study identified a long history of movement in the fault system in the north-central part of the study area and a major salt flowage feature in the northeastern part. It describes the Elephant Canyon Formation aquifer as laterally limited, the Honaker Trail Formation aquifer as fairly continuous over the area, and Beef Basin in the southern part of the area as a probable dissolution feature. It also concludes that the Shay-Bridger Jack-Salt Creek Graben system is apparently a vertically continuous feature between the basement and ground surface. No stratigraphic or structural discontinuities were detected in the vicinity of Davis Canyon that appear to be detrimental to the siting of a waste repository

  10. A synthesis of the Jurassic system in the southern Rocky Mountain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, F.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter includes important stratigraphic revisions and nomenclatural changes made especially in the Colorado Plateau region in recent years. For the purpose of the discussion, these rocks are divided into six divisions. The stratigraphy and depositional environments of the rocks are discussed, along with the economic resources of these rocks which include uranium and hydrocarbons

  11. Dewatering a gasification zone in the Dnieper region for underground coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedenko, M V

    1957-01-01

    The processes for draining brown coal open-pit mines are described. Experience with water inflow in open-pit mines of the Dnieper region and stratigraphic cross section and hydrogeological conditions in the area of the planned gasification installation are discussed. Expedient draining by boreholes is described, and arrangement of boreholes and filters is shown. Cost data are presented.

  12. 3D stratigraphic modeling of the Congo turbidite system since 210 ka: an investigation of factors controlling sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Dimitri; Picot, Marie; Marsset, Tania; Droz, Laurence; Rabineau, Marina; Granjeon, Didier; Molliex, Stéphane

    2017-04-01

    The geometry and internal functioning of turbidite systems are relatively well-constrained today. However, the respective role of autogenic (topographic compensation, dynamics of turbidity currents…) and allogenic factors (tectonics, sea-level, climate) governing their architectural evolution is still under debate. The geometry of the Quaternary Congo Fan is characterized by successive sedimentary prograding/retrograding cycles bounded by upfan avulsions, reflecting a periodic control of sedimentation (Picot et al., 2016). Multi-proxy studies revealed a strong interplay between autogenic control and climate forcing as evidenced by changes in fluvial sediment supplies consistent with arid and humid periods in the Congo River Basin. In the light of these results, the aim of this study is to investigate the relative impact of internal and external forcing factors controlling, both in time and space, the formation and evolution of depocenters of the Congo Deep-Sea Fan since 210 ka. This work represents the first attempt to model in 3D the stratigraphic architecture of the Congo turbidite system using DionisosFlow (IFP-EN), a diffusion process-based software. It allows the simulation of sediment transport and the 3D geometry reproduction of sedimentary units based on physical processes such as sea level changes, tectonics, sediment supply and transport. According to the modeling results, the role of topographic compensation in the deep-sea fan geometry is secondary compared to climate changes in the drainage basin. It appears that a periodic variation of sediment discharge and water flow is necessary to simulate the timing and volume of prograding/retrograding sedimentary cycles and more particularly the upfan avulsion events. The best-fit simulations show that the overriding factor for such changes corresponds to the expansion of the vegetation cover in the catchment basin associated to the Milankovitch cycle of precession which controlled the West African Monsoon

  13. Outer Continental Shelf Stratigraphic Development and Sand Resource Potential: Integration of New and Legacy Geologic Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M.; Harris, S.; Luciano, K. E.; Alexander, C. R., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Following the impact of Hurricane Sandy on the U.S. Atlantic coast in 2012 the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), in cooperation with state partners, instituted several regional offshore resource studies for the near outer continental shelf (OCS) on the US East Coast. This study focuses on a portion of this region, offshore of South Carolina and Georgia, with a primary goal of identifying beach renourishment sands and wind-tower placement locations, and creating a conceptual model of the evolution of the shelf in these areas. New and previously collected data are being used to identify sediment distribution patterns, paleolandscapes, sand resources for beach renourishment projects, and feasible locations for offshore wind installations. New chirp subbottom profiler data ( 1000 km), sidescan sonar data ( 7900km2), magnetometer data ( 1700 km), and multibeam bathymetry data ( 430km2) have been processed and interpreted at the University of Charleston using SonarWiz7, QPS-Qimera and QPS-Fledermaus software suites. Areas of focus for the Atlantic Sand Assessment Program (ASAP) data collection along the SC and GA coast are located within the 3 to 8 nautical mile (nm) OCS offshore of (North to South) Little River, Cape Romain, Folly Beach, Hilton Head, Wassaw, Ossabaw, Jekyll, St. Simons, and Cumberland islands. Ravinement, pre-Holocene, and other seismic surfaces, along with internal geometries, were mapped in these distinctly different tidal and wave regimes. Holocene sediment thickness gradually increases to the south with several sediment wedges in excess of 40 meters thickness. Where mapped, subsurface paleochannels/valleys were identified and analyzed for their orientation and complexity, as well as their size and distribution. These paleochannels are more numerous and increasingly complex in the southern survey areas. The channels are possibly related to transgressive channeling, Pleistocene low-stand river channeling, and braided stream formation during

  14. Improving artificial breeding of cattle in Africa. Guidelines and recommendations. A manual prepared under the framework of an IAEA technical cooperation regional AFRA project on increasing and improving milk and meat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the African Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA), with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a technical cooperation project entitled Improving and Increasing Milk and Meat Production. The objectives of this project were to be achieved by (a) assessing the performance of existing artificial insemination (AI) programmes for small-scale dairy farmers and identifying constraints; (b) formulating and assisting in the implementation of remedial measures including appropriate strategies; (c) establishing sustainable routine non-pregnancy diagnosis (N-PD) and related services to farmers; and (d) harmonizing managerial and field practices and sharing of expertise within the region. The radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measurement of progesterone in milk and blood of cattle and use of the computer database AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application) are important components of an integrated approach to these activities. The project commenced in 1999 and, in addition to other national and regional activities, two meetings were held specifically to address objective (d) above: - Task Force Meeting on Training of Artificial Insemination (AI) Technicians, Field Assessment of Fertility and Database Management, November 1999 in Pretoria, South Africa. - Task Force Meeting to Harmonize Procedures for Selection and Management of AI Bulls and Use of Semen Technology in African Countries, May 2001 in Arusha, Tanzania. The meeting in Tanzania provided a comprehensive overview of the current practices being adopted for selection and management of AI bulls and use of semen technology in five African countries, and compared these with international practices. It also provided an opportunity for participants to discuss technical issues related to provision of improved breeding services to

  15. Geologic framework, regional aquifer properties (1940s-2009), and spring, creek, and seep properties (2009-10) of the upper San Mateo Creek Basin near Mount Taylor, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Jeff B.; Sprague, Jesse E.; Durall, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, examined the geologic framework, regional aquifer properties, and spring, creek, and seep properties of the upper San Mateo Creek Basin near Mount Taylor, which contains areas proposed for exploratory drilling and possible uranium mining on U.S. Forest Service land. The geologic structure of the region was formed from uplift of the Zuni Mountains during the Laramide Orogeny and the Neogene volcanism associated with the Mount Taylor Volcanic Field. Within this structural context, numerous aquifers are present in various Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary formations and the Quaternary alluvium. The distribution of the aquifers is spatially variable because of the dip of the formations and erosion that produced the current landscape configuration where older formations have been exhumed closer to the Zuni Mountains. Many of the alluvial deposits and formations that contain groundwater likely are hydraulically connected because of the solid-matrix properties, such as substantive porosity, but shale layers such as those found in the Mancos Formation and Chinle Group likely restrict vertical flow. Existing water-level data indicate topologically downgradient flow in the Quaternary alluvium and indiscernible general flow patterns in the lower aquifers. According to previously published material and the geologic structure of the aquifers, the flow direction in the lower aquifers likely is in the opposite direction compared to the alluvium aquifer. Groundwater within the Chinle Group is known to be confined, which may allow upward migration of water into the Morrison Formation; however, confining layers within the Chinle Group likely retard upward leakage. Groundwater was sodium-bicarbonate/sulfate dominant or mixed cation-mixed anion with some calcium/bicarbonate water in the study area. The presence of the reduction/oxidation-sensitive elements iron and manganese in groundwater indicates reducing

  16. Uniquely Acquired Vintage Seismic Reflection Data Reveal the Stratigraphic and Tectonic History of the Montana Disturbed Belt, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speece, M. A.; Link, C. A.; Stickney, M.

    2011-12-01

    techniques including linear noise suppression of the air wave and ground roll, refraction statics, and prestack migration. Reprocessing of these data using state-of-the-art seismic reflection processing techniques will provide a detailed picture of the stratigraphy and tectonic framework for this region. Moreover, extended correlations of the Vibroseis records to Moho depths might reveal new insights on crustal thickness and provide a framework for understanding crustal thickening during the Laramide Orogeny as well as later Cenozoic extension.

  17. Possible extrinsic controls on the Ordovician radiation: Stratigraphic evidence from the Great Basin, western USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droser, M.L. (Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences); Fortey, R.A. (Natural History Museum, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Palaeontology)

    1993-04-01

    The Ordovician radiation has been previously examined by looking at 1/analyses of patterns of diversification within small clades, 2/analyses of large databases to elucidate large-scale paleoecological patterns such as increased tiering and onshore-offshore shifts associated with this radiation. In order to resolve the relationships between these two scales of analysis there is critical need to examine in detail the paleoecology and possible biofacies shifts associated with the Ordovician radiation. The authors have examined the base of the Whiterock Series (Lower-Middle Ordovician) in the Great Basin as it represents one of the most complete records of the Ordovician radiation on the North American continent. Detailed field evidence suggests that the base of the Whiterock does not represent a simple faunal turnover but corresponds with the first occurrences in the region of groups that come to dominate the rest of the Paleozoic. Among the trilobites, this includes the lichides, calymenids, proetides, and phacopides. Similar patterns are found among the dominate Paleozoic bivalve, cephalopod, brachiopod and graptolite clades. Global correlation of this time interval suggests that this pattern of first broad geographic occurrences is not unique to North America. This boundary corresponds with a globally recognized sea level lowstand. In the Great Basin, significant facies shifts are present in shallow and deep water settings. While extrinsic controls are commonly reserved for extinctions, these data suggest that extrinsic factors may have been significant in the timing of the Paleozoic fauna rose to dominance.

  18. Basic hypabissal, gondwanic magmatism: a new contribution for tecto no-stratigraphic terranes recognition in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, J.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of having sufficient structural, geochronologic and geochemical data about the dykes and sills of Cuaro formation and the Corral de Piedra dyke swarm allowed to suggest the nature of the Mantle source and the injection process of each filonian set. Three units injected in the Gondwana continent were recognized: not outcropping Cuaro formation, at Piedra Alta Terrane; outcropping Cuaro Fm. in the Nico Perez Terrane, and the Corral de Piedra dyke swarm in the Cuchilla Dionisio terrane It was found different behavior in several important parameters in each one of them: mantelic source , melting percentage and crustal contamination. It may be concluded that Mantle nature and crust thickness and composition are different in each block, what supports. the idea that continental socle was constructed by amalgamation of different units of allocton provenence. When heat loss became difficult by the mega-continent consolidation, each fragment acted of different way. This represents a very strong argument favoring terrane Cuchilla Dionisio alloctony leaned to 525 Ma as regional geological mapping indicated

  19. The ``Problem of the quaternary'' and the taxonomic rank of the late cenozoic in the international stratigraphic scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubakov, V. A.

    2011-02-01

    An international scientific conflict has arisen around the International Stratigraphic Scale, the main document that regulates the rules of reading of geological records and, hence, concerns all Earth sciences. The matter of debate is the geological time scale of 2004, developed by the International Commission on Stratigraphy, where the Quaternary system was abandoned. This ICS decision triggered a protest among Quaternary geologists, members of INQUA, and became the subject of much controversy. This article provides a comprehensive analysis of the Quaternary problem and proposes a reasonable scientific solution that may be appropriate for both parties. The subject of Late Cenozoic geology is discussed: glaciations, human evolution, and recent deposits. In contrast to Charles Lyell's definition of the Plio-Pleistocene according to the percentage of modern mollusk species, it is defined here as a blanket formation, which is correlative to the topography and consists of mapped stratogens hosting fossils of modern biogeocenoses. Features of the description of the Plio-Pleistocene in terms of gravitational orbital tuning are considered. Four paleogeographic phases of modern environment evolution are recognized and ranked as stages: (1) The Messinian evolutionary explosion involved the appearance of many biogeocenoses and the bipedal walking of our extinct ancestors armed with sticks. It was a consequence of the Early Greenland (7.6 Ma BP) and Patagonian (6.7 Ma BP) hyperglaciations. (2) The Zanclean age is marked by climatic and hydrological but not evolutionary boundaries. (3) The appearance of the Villafranchian animal assemblage and Australopithecus, who used stones as weapon: 4.0-3.6 Ma BP. Orogeny and isolation of the Arctic Ocean changed the global climate dramatically. (4) The sexual revolution became the third evolutionary jump: the appearance of the first woman, "Eve", and the genus Homo with her: 1.9 Ma BP. According to the current view, the Plio

  20. GeoFramework: A Modeling Framework for Solid Earth Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnis, M.; Aivazis, M.; Tromp, J.; Tan, E.; Thoutireddy, P.; Liu, Q.; Choi, E.; Dicaprio, C.; Chen, M.; Simons, M.; Quenette, S.; Appelbe, B.; Aagaard, B.; Williams, C.; Lavier, L.; Moresi, L.; Law, H.

    2003-12-01

    As data sets in geophysics become larger and of greater relevance to other earth science disciplines, and as earth science becomes more interdisciplinary in general, modeling tools are being driven in new directions. There is now a greater need to link modeling codes to one another, link modeling codes to multiple datasets, and to make modeling software available to non modeling specialists. Coupled with rapid progress in computer hardware (including the computational speed afforded by massively parallel computers), progress in numerical algorithms, and the introduction of software frameworks, these lofty goals of merging software in geophysics are now possible. The GeoFramework project, a collaboration between computer scientists and geoscientists, is a response to these needs and opportunities. GeoFramework is based on and extends Pyre, a Python-based modeling framework, recently developed to link solid (Lagrangian) and fluid (Eulerian) models, as well as mesh generators, visualization packages, and databases, with one another for engineering applications. The utility and generality of Pyre as a general purpose framework in science is now being recognized. Besides its use in engineering and geophysics, it is also being used in particle physics and astronomy. Geology and geophysics impose their own unique requirements on software frameworks which are not generally available in existing frameworks and so there is a need for research in this area. One of the special requirements is the way Lagrangian and Eulerian codes will need to be linked in time and space within a plate tectonics context. GeoFramework has grown beyond its initial goal of linking a limited number of exiting codes together. The following codes are now being reengineered within the context of Pyre: Tecton, 3-D FE Visco-elastic code for lithospheric relaxation; CitComS, a code for spherical mantle convection; SpecFEM3D, a SEM code for global and regional seismic waves; eqsim, a FE code for dynamic

  1. Hydrogeologic and stratigraphic data pertinent to uranium mining, Cheyenne Basin, Colorado. Information series 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkham, R.M.; O'Leary, W.; Warner, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Recoverable low-grade uranium deposits occur in the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills Sandstone and Laramie Formation in the Cheyenne Basin, Colorado. One of these deposits, the Grover deposit, has been test mined on a pilot scale using in-situ solution-mining techniques. A second deposit, the Keota deposit, is currently being licensed and will produce about 500,000 lb/yr (227,000 kg/yr) of yellowcake also using in-situ solution-mining techniques. Other uranium deposits exist in this area and will also probably be solution mined, although open-pit mining may possibly be employed at a few locations in the Cheyenne Basin. One of the principal environmental impacts of this uranium-mining activity is the potential effect on ground-water quality and quantity. In order to fully assess potential ground-water impacts, regulatory agencies and mine planners and operators must be familiar with regional geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the basin. The Oligocene White River Group and Upper Cretaceous Laramie Formation, Fox Hills Sandstone, and Pierre Shale contain important aquifers which supply water for domestic, stock-watering, irrigation, and municipal purposes in the study area. Should uranium mining seriously impact shallower aquifers, the upper Pierre and lower Fox Hills aquifers may become important sources of water. Water samples collected and analyzed from over 100 wells during this investigation provide baseline water-quality data for much of the study area. These analyses indicate water quality is highly variable not only between aquifers, but also within a particular aquifer. Many of the wells yield water that exceeds US Public Health drinking water standards for pH, TDS, sulfate, manganese, iron and selenium. Uranium, molybdenum, and vanadium concentrations are also high in many of these wells. 8 figures

  2. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Jurassic lithostratigraphy and stratigraphic development onshore and offshore Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelsen, Olaf

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A complete updated and revised lithostratigraphic scheme for the Jurassic succession of the onshore and offshore Danish areas is presented together with an overview of the geological evolution. The lithostratigraphies of Bornholm, the Danish Basin and the Danish Central Graben are described in ascending order, and a number of new units are defined. On Bornholm, the Lower-Middle Jurassic coal-bearing clays and sands that overlie the Lower Pliensbachian Hasle Formation are referred to the new Sorthat Formation (Lower Jurassic and the revised Bagå Formation (Middle Jurassic. In the southern Danish Central Graben, the Middle Jurassic succession formerly referred to the Lower Graben Sand Formation is now included in the revised Bryne Formation. The Lulu Formation is erected to include the uppermost part of the Middle Jurassic succession, previously referred to the Bryne Formation in the northern Danish Central Graben. The Upper Jurassic Heno Formation is subdivided into two new members, the Gert Member (lower and the Ravn Member (upper. The organic-rich part of the upper Farsund Formation, the former informal `hot unit', is established formally as the Bo Member. Dominantly shallow marine and paralic deposition in the Late Triassic was succeeded by widespread deposition of offshore marine clays in the Early Jurassic. On Bornholm, coastal and paralic sedimentation prevailed. During maximum transgression in the Early Toarcian, sedimentation of organic-rich offshore clays took place in the Danish area. This depositional phase was terminated by a regional erosional event in early Middle Jurassic time, caused by uplift of the central North Sea area, including the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. In the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone to the east, where slow subsidence continued, marine sandy sediments were deposited in response to the uplift. Uplift of the central North Sea area was followed by fault-controlled subsidence accompanied by fluvial and floodplain deposition

  3. High-resolution sequence stratigraphic correlation of the braided river and vertical distribution characteristics of sand body-Take upper member of saihan formation of lower cretaceous in Bayanwula deposit, for instance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Mingjian; Peng Yunbiao; Yang Jianxin; Shen Kefeng

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the high-resolution sequence stratigraphy of which reference surface is base level cycle get rapid development. Its biggest advantage is the ability to apply to the continental sedimentary basins controlled by multiple factors, especially applied to the thin layer contrast of the paleochannel sandstone type uranium reservoir. This paper, by using drill core and logging data, has made the high resolution sequence stratigraphy studies on braided river uranium reservoir of Upper Member of Saihan Formation of Lower Cretaceous (Kls2) in Bayanwula deposit and identified the base level cycle interface. The study interval is divided into one long-term cycle and seven mid-term base level cycle, and high-resolution time stratigraphic framework of the deposit is established. Depth analysis is taken for the relationship between the braided river sand body and base level cycles. And the position, distribution, and genesis in vertical of the braided river sand body are discussed in detail. Ore body is mainly hosted in edge of braided bar sand body, which formed in the low accommodation space, and braided channel and the braided bar interchange. So uranium enriched in the mid-term base level cycle MSC2-MSC5 in the study area. (authors)

  4. New insights into the stratigraphic, paleogeographic and tectonic evolution and petroleum potential of Kerkennah Islands, Eastern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfessi, Maroua

    2017-01-01

    This work presents general insights into the stratigraphic and paleogeographic evolution as well as the structural architecture and the petroleum potential of Kerkennah Islands, located in the Eastern Tunisia Foreland, from Cenomanian to Pliocene times. Available data from twenty wells mostly drilled in Cercina and Chergui fields are used to establish three lithostratigraphic correlations as well as isopach and isobath maps in order to point out thickness and depth variations of different geological formations present within our study area; in addition to a synthetic log and isoporosity map of the main carbonate reservoir (the nummulites enriched Reineche Member). The integrated geological study reveals relatively condensed but generally continuous sedimentation and a rugged substrate with horsts, grabens and tilted blocks due to the initiation and the individualization of Kerkennah arch throughout the studied geological times. Furthermore, a relationship was highlighted between the evolution of our study zone and those of Sirt basin, Western Mediterranean Sea and Pelagian troughs; this relationship is due to the outstanding location of Kerkennah Islands. The main Bou Dabbous source rock is thicker and more mature within the central-east of the Gulf of Gabes indicating therefore the southeast charge of Reineche reservoir which shows NW-SE trending tilted block system surrounded by normal faults representing the hydrocarbon migration pathways. Besides, the thick Oligo-Miocene formations deposited during the collapse of the Pelagian block caused the maturation of the Ypresian source rock, while the Pliocene unconformity allowed basin inversion and hydrocarbon migration.

  5. Inversion aided systems for stratigraphic models; Systemes d'aide a l'inversion des modeles stratigraphiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobranszky, G.

    2005-12-15

    Stratigraphic modeling aims at rebuilding the history of the sedimentary basins by simulating the processes of erosion, transport and deposit of sediments using physical models. The objective is to determine the location of the bed-rocks likely to contain the organic matter, the location of the porous rocks that could trap the hydrocarbons during their migration and the location of the impermeable rocks likely to seal the reservoir. The model considered within this thesis is based on a multi-lithological diffusive transport model and applies to large scales of time and space. Due to the complexity of the phenomena and scales considered, none of the model parameters is directly measurable. Therefore it is essential to inverse them. The standard approach, which consists in inverting all the parameters by minimizing a cost function using a gradient method, proved very sensitive to the choice of the parameterization, to the weights given to the various terms of the cost function (hearing on data of very diverse nature) and to the numerical noise. These observations led us to give up this method and to carry out the in-version step by step by decoupling the parameters. This decoupling is not obtained by fixing the parameters but by making several assumptions on the model resulting in a range of reduced but relevant models. In this thesis, we show how these models enable us to inverse all the parameters in a robust and interactive way. (author)

  6. Hydrodynamism, crude oil distribution and geochemistry of the stratigraphic column in a transect of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallango, O.; Escandon, M.; Alberdi, M. (Intevep, S.A. Caracas (Venezuela)); Parnaud, F.; Pascual, J.C. (Beicip, Rueil Malmaison (France))

    1992-01-01

    The hydrocarbon accumulation history in a transect of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin is closely related to the generation and migration process as a consequence of the stratigraphic, structural and tectonic evolution of the basin during the Cretaceous and Cenozoic times. Thermal maturity assessment based on kinetic parameters using the appropriate software indicates that the generation of oil from the marine facies of the Querecual and San Antonio source rocks in the northern part of the basin took place during early Paleocene to early Miocene times prior to the start of thrusting, while the second and third phase occurred during middle Miocene to recent times in zones beneath the principal thrust in the Maturing area. The third phase of oil generation is associated with the latter thrusts which are out of sequence. Taking into consideration the development of the oil and gas kitchen through time, the hydrodynamism, the characteristics and distribution of the hydrocarbons, the migration of oil and gas have been outlined. The major differences observed among the oils, are due to maturity and post-accumulation processes such as oil mixing and biodegradation. A wide range of thermal maturity was observed in the oils, which is mainly due to the thermal stress experienced by the source rock. Association of light crudes with meteoric waters have been observed, as well as heavy to extra-heavy crudes with connate waters at greater depth. These unusual associations of crudes and formation waters are related to the hydrodynamical regime in the basin.

  7. Characteristics of the gravel size and potassium in the Ejin Alluvial Fan from remote sensing images and stratigraphic section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lu; Guo, Huadong; Wang, Qinjun

    2014-01-01

    The Ejin Alluvial Fan (EAF), located in the north-west of China, is an important recorder of both paleoclimatic and tectonic information of the north margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Remote sensing technics, including optical and microwave sensors, have been the key spatial observation tools to extract the surface information related to the paleoenvironment. In this paper, the gravel size and chemical element potassium K distributions of the EAF were obtained from RadarSat-2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data and LandSat TM optical data, respectively. In addition, the stratigraphic section of the EAF was established and the corresponding geological information in the vertical direction with different periods was obtained. Combining the geological survey information and surface distribution information, it can be concluded as follows. 1) The EAF covers an area of above 30,000 km 2 and may be the largest arid and semi-arid alluvial fan in the world based on the remote sensing survey. 2) Some surface parameters which are related to the paleoenvironmental change can be obtained from remote sensing data, such as the gravel size and potassium K parameters. 3) The forming process of the EAF and the corresponding environments will be understood deeply, combining the paleoenvironmental related parameters derived from remote sensing data and the geologic survey data

  8. Stratigraphic, Structural and Petrophysical Evaluation of borehole images obtained in oil based mud environment from Clastics of Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunyemi, T.

    2003-01-01

    With the advent of oil-base and synthetic muds, drilling risks are substantially reduced and efficiency dramatically increased, but the benefits of borehole imaging devices were lost as it presents a 'brick-wall' and difficult environment that precludes the use of conventional water- base mud microresistivity imaging devices. The introduction of Oil Base Imager tools offers a solution to the situation and even brings additional values. Borehole images integrated with high resolution Magnetic Resonnance data and other open hole logs has been evaluated for stratigraphic, structural and petrophysical applications as well as computing high-resolution sand count. Examples will be discussed in this paper. The sequence studied is clastics with intercalated sand/shale sequences typical of Niger Delta. The use of oil based mud images and open-hole log data helped to further classify the sequence into depositional environments. Generally speaking high-resolution image data presents opportunity for accurate results especially in intercalated sand/shale sequence compare to standard open hole logs. Individual pad resistivity response offer a very high resolution measurement that was used to drive the net pay sand count analysis. This approach has been proven to be helpful in completion decision, providing accurate reservoir parameters for well/field economics and development

  9. Diversity and Distribution of Archaea Community along a Stratigraphic Permafrost Profile from Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiping Wei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accompanying the thawing permafrost expected to result from the climate change, microbial decomposition of the massive amounts of frozen organic carbon stored in permafrost is a potential emission source of greenhouse gases, possibly leading to positive feedbacks to the greenhouse effect. In this study, the community composition of archaea in stratigraphic soils from an alpine permafrost of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was investigated. Phylogenic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed that the community was predominantly constituted by Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. The active layer contained a proportion of Crenarchaeota at 51.2%, with the proportion of Euryarchaeota at 48.8%, whereas the permafrost contained 41.2% Crenarchaeota and 58.8% Euryarchaeota, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. OTU1 and OTU11, affiliated to Group 1.3b/MCG-A within Crenarchaeota and the unclassified group within Euryarchaeota, respectively, were widely distributed in all sediment layers. However, OTU5 affiliated to Group 1.3b/MCG-A was primarily distributed in the active layers. Sequence analysis of the DGGE bands from the 16S rRNAs of methanogenic archaea showed that the majority of methanogens belonged to Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales affiliated to Euryarchaeota and the uncultured ZC-I cluster affiliated to Methanosarcinales distributed in all the depths along the permafrost profile, which indicated a dominant group of methanogens occurring in the cold ecosystems.

  10. Earlier (late Pliocene) first appearance of the Caribbean reef-building coral Acropora palmata: Stratigraphic and evolutionary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Donald F.; Budd, Ann F.; Borne, Pamela F.

    1997-10-01

    An integrated stratigraphic study of reefal deposits on the Caribbean side of the Isthmus of Panama (Limon, Costa Rica) has discovered a significantly earlier first appearance of the major reef-building coral Acropora palmata. A. palmata is here reported from the early late Pliocene, constrained in age to within the Gauss chron (ca. 3.6 2.6 Ma). This coral was previously thought to have originated in the earliest Pleistocene and has subsequently been used as a Quaternary marker throughout the Caribbean and the Bahamas. An earlier appearance in the southern Caribbean implies a diachronous first appearance datum relative to the northern Caribbean. This older age also places A. palmata well within the transition phase of a Pliocene (4 1 Ma) faunal turnover that was marked by widespread extinction and origination of Caribbean coral species. An early late Pliocene origination is coincident with formation of the Isthmus, climate reorganization, and frequent sea-level changes associated with onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciations. The rapid growth and accumulation rates that characterize A. palmata may therefore be adaptive to these fluctuating environmental conditions, enabling its success during the subsequent Pleistocene glacial cycles.

  11. Interpretation of wireline geophysical logs. ERDA No. 9 stratigraphic test borehole, DOE WIPP Site, Eddy County, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griswold, G.B.; McWhirter, V.C.

    1981-02-01

    A stratigraphic core hole known as ERDA No. 9 was drilled at the approximate center of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site located east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The hole was continuously cored from 1090 to 2887 feet, the total depth of the hole. A suite of 20 wireline geophysical logs were made under open hole conditions over the cored interval. Recording in the field was by analog strip charts. The records were subsequently digitized at 0.5 foot intervals with the data placed on magnetic tape. A simple computer program was devised to interpret rock type and calculate elastic properties based on the digital data. All of the data is available in convenient digital form, and additional computer-assisted analysis is now possible to describe the detailed stratigraphy of the evaporites penetrated in ERDA No. 9. The analysis performed thus far is in excellent agreement with physical examination of the core. The main advantage of correlating the wireline geophysical logs with core is to provide a better basis for using wireline logs to describe rock conditions either in future holes drilled by the simpler rotary method or where core has been lost in cored holes

  12. Microfacies models and sequence stratigraphic architecture of the Oligocene–Miocene Qom Formation, south of Qom City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Amirshahkarami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Oligocene–Miocene Qom Formation has different depositional models in the Central Iran, Sanandaj–Sirjan and Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc provinces in Iran. The Kahak section of the Qom Formation in the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc has been studied, in order to determinate its microfacies, depositional model and sequence stratigraphy. The textural analysis and faunal assemblages reveal ten microfacies. These microfacies are indicative of five depositional settings of open marine, patch reef, lagoon, tidal flat and beach of the inner and middle ramp. On the basis of the vertical succession architecture of depositional system tracts, four third-order sequences have been recognized in the Oligocene–Miocene Kahak succession of Qom Formation. Based on the correlation charts, the transgression of the Qom Sea started from the southeast and continued gradually towards the north. This resulted in widespread northward development of the lagoon paleoenvironment in the Aquitanian-Burdigalian stages. Also, the sequence stratigraphic model of the Oligocene–Miocene Qom Formation has an architecture similar to those that have developed from Oligocene–Miocene global sea level changes.

  13. Stratigraphic architecture of back-filled incised-valley systems: Pennsylvanian-Permian lower Cutler beds, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Oliver J. W.; Mountney, Nigel P.

    2013-12-01

    The Pennsylvanian to Permian lower Cutler beds collectively form the lowermost stratigraphic unit of the Cutler Group in the Paradox Basin, southeast Utah. The lower Cutler beds represent a tripartite succession comprising lithofacies assemblages of aeolian, fluvial and shallow-marine origin, in near equal proportion. The succession results from a series of transgressive-regressive cycles, driven by repeated episodes of climatic variation and linked changes in relative sea-level. Relative sea-level changes created a number of incised-valleys, each forming through fluvial incision during lowered base-level. Aeolian dominance during periods of relative sea-level lowstand aids incised-valley identification as the erosive bounding surface juxtaposes incised-valley infill against stacked aeolian faces. Relative sea-level rises resulted in back-flooding of the incised-valleys and their infill via shallow-marine and estuarine processes. Back-flooded valleys generated marine embayments within which additional local accommodation was exploited. Back-filling is characterised by a distinctive suite of lithofacies arranged into a lowermost, basal fill of fluvial channel and floodplain architectural elements, passing upwards into barform elements with indicators of tidal influence, including inclined heterolithic strata and reactivation surfaces. The incised-valley fills are capped by laterally extensive and continuous marine limestone elements that record the drowning of the valleys and, ultimately, flooding and accumulation across surrounding interfluves (transgressive surface). Limestone elements are characterised by an open-marine fauna and represent the preserved expression of maximum transgression.

  14. Programming Entity Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Get a thorough introduction to ADO.NET Entity Framework 4 -- Microsoft's core framework for modeling and interacting with data in .NET applications. The second edition of this acclaimed guide provides a hands-on tour of the framework latest version in Visual Studio 2010 and .NET Framework 4. Not only will you learn how to use EF4 in a variety of applications, you'll also gain a deep understanding of its architecture and APIs. Written by Julia Lerman, the leading independent authority on the framework, Programming Entity Framework covers it all -- from the Entity Data Model and Object Service

  15. Aeolian sedimentary processes at the Bagnold Dunes, Mars: Implications for modern dune dynamics and sedimentary structures in the aeolian stratigraphic record of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Ryan C.; Bridges, Nathan T.; Sullivan, Rob; Lapotre, Mathieu G. A.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Lamb, Mike P.; Rubin, David M.; Lewis, Kevin W.; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2016-04-01

    Wind-blown sand dunes are ubiquitous on the surface of Mars and are a recognized component of the martian stratigraphic record. Our current knowledge of the aeolian sedimentary processes that determine dune morphology, drive dune dynamics, and create aeolian cross-stratification are based upon orbital studies of ripple and dune morphodynamics, rover observations of stratification on Mars, Earth analogs, and experimental and theoretical studies of sand movement under Martian conditions. In-situ observations of sand dunes (informally called the Bagnold Dunes) by Curiosity Rover in Gale Crater, Mars provide the first opportunity to make observations of dunes from the grain-to-dune scale thereby filling the gap in knowledge between theory and orbital observations and refining our understanding of the martian aeolian stratigraphic record. We use the suite of cameras on Curiosity, including Navigation Camera (Navcam), Mast Camera (Mastcam) and Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), to make observations of the Bagnold Dunes. Measurements of sedimentary structures are made where stereo images are available. Observations indicate that structures generated by gravity-driven processes on the dune lee slopes, such as grainflow and grainfall, are similar to the suite of aeolian sedimentary structures observed on Earth and should be present and recognizable in Mars' aeolian stratigraphic record. Structures formed by traction-driven processes deviate significantly from those found on Earth. The dune hosts centimeter-scale wind ripples and large, meter-scale ripples, which are not found on Earth. The large ripples migrate across the depositional, lee slopes of the dune, which implies that these structures should be present in Mars' stratigraphic record and may appear similar to compound-dune stratification.The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover Team is acknowledged for their support of this work.

  16. The Application of Seismic Attributes and Wheeler Transformations for the Geomorphological Interpretation of Stratigraphic Surfaces: A Case Study of the F3 Block, Dutch Offshore Sector, North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Afifi Ishak; Md. Aminul Islam; Mohamed Ragab Shalaby; Nurul Hasan

    2018-01-01

    This study was carried out in the Pliocene interval of the southern North Sea F3 Block in the Netherlands. This research paper demonstrates how an integrated interpretation of geological information using seismic attributes, sequence stratigraphic interpretation and Wheeler transformation methods allow for the accurate interpretation of the depositional environment of a basin, as well as locating seismic geomorphological features. The methodology adopted here is to generate a 3D dip-steered H...

  17. The role of sediment supply in large-scale stratigraphic architecture of ancient Gilbert-type deltas (Pliocene Siena-Radicofani Basin, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Ivan; Ambrosetti, Elisa; Sandrelli, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    Aggradation, progradation and retrogradation are the main patterns that define the large-scale architecture of Gilbert-type deltas. These patterns are governed by the ratio between the variation in accommodation space and sediment supply experienced during delta growth. Sediment supply variations are difficult to estimate in ancient settings; hence, it is rarely possible to assess its significance in the large-scale stratigraphic architecture of Gilbert-type deltas. This paper presents a stratigraphic analysis of a Pliocene deltaic complex composed of two coeval and narrowly spaced deltaic branches. The two branches recorded the same tectonic- and climate-induced accommodation space variations. As a result, this deltaic complex represents a natural laboratory for testing the effects of sediment supply variations on the stratigraphic architecture of Gilbert-type deltas. The field data suggest that a sediment supply which is able to counteract the accommodation generated over time promotes the aggradational/progradational attitude of Gilbert-type deltas, as well as the development of thick foreset deposits. By contrast, if the sediment supply is not sufficient for counterbalancing the generated accommodation, an aggradational/retrogradational stratigraphic architecture is promoted. In this case, the deltaic system is forced to withdraw during the different phases of generation of accommodation, with the subsequent flooding of previously deposited sub-horizontal topset deposits (i.e., the delta plain). The subsequent deltaic progradation occurs above these deposits and, consequently, the available space for foresets growth is limited to the water depth between the base-level and the older delta plain. This leads to the vertical stacking of relatively thin deltaic deposits with an overall aggradatational/retrogradational attitude.

  18. Punctuated Sediment Input into Small Subpolar Ocean Basins During Heinrich Events and Preservation in the Stratigraphic Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, R.

    2006-12-01

    generated from fresh-water discharges into the sea that can produce reversed buoyancy, as is well known from experiments. When the flows have traveled long enough, their tops will have lost enough sediment by settling such that their density decreases below that of the ambient seawater causing the current tops to lift up. The turbid fresh-water clouds buoyantly rise out of the turbidity current to a level of equal density, presumably the pycnocline, where they spread out laterally, even up-current, and generate interflows that deposit graded layers. The process is slow enough to allow incorporation into the graded layers of debris melting out of drifting icebergs. The observed lofted depositional facies is exclusively found in Heinrich layers. The most likely candidates for the parent currents from which lofting occurred were the sandy flows that formed the sand abyssal plain. Through this stratigraphic relationship the lofted facies ties the main pulses of Late Pleistocene sediment supply in the Labrador Basin to Heinrich events. Dating of pelagic interlayers during future ocean drilling may provide the proof that packages of sand turbidites underlying the abyssal plain are correlated to individual Heinrich events. The correlation may thus be documented in the stratigraphic record. Similar situations may exist in the Bering Sea or along the Maury Channel System in North Atlantic.

  19. Institutional Frameworks for Management of Epizoonotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The Eastern Africa region is a hot-spot for epidemics of emerging zoonotic diseases ('epizoonotics'). However, the region's capacity for response to epidemics of zoonotic origin has not been documented. This paper presents a multi-country situational analysis on the institutional frameworks for management of ...

  20. Prehistoric floods on the Tennessee River—Assessing the use of stratigraphic records of past floods for improved flood-frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Tessa M.; O'Connor, Jim E.

    2017-06-14

    Stratigraphic analysis, coupled with geochronologic techniques, indicates that a rich history of large Tennessee River floods is preserved in the Tennessee River Gorge area. Deposits of flood sediment from the 1867 peak discharge of record (460,000 cubic feet per second at Chattanooga, Tennessee) are preserved at many locations throughout the study area at sites with flood-sediment accumulation. Small exposures at two boulder overhangs reveal evidence of three to four other floods similar in size, or larger, than the 1867 flood in the last 3,000 years—one possibly as much or more than 50 percent larger. Records of floods also are preserved in stratigraphic sections at the mouth of the gorge at Williams Island and near Eaves Ferry, about 70 river miles upstream of the gorge. These stratigraphic records may extend as far back as about 9,000 years ago, giving a long history of Tennessee River floods. Although more evidence is needed to confirm these findings, a more in-depth comprehensive paleoflood study is feasible for the Tennessee River.

  1. Status of image analysis methods to delineate stratigraphic position in the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, K.; Broxton, D.E.; Spaw, J.

    1989-10-01

    The Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff is an ash-flow cooling unit that is the candidate host rock for a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The repository workings will be mostly confined to the member's rhyolitic portion, which is chemically homogenous but texturally variable. This report describes the status of work to develop a useful internal stratigraphy for the rhyolitic portion of the member; our approach is to use an image analysis technique to map textural variations within the member as a function of stratigraphic height. Fifteen petrographic thin sections of Topopah Spring rhyolitic tuff were studied in each of two drill holes (USW GU-3 and USW G-4). Digital color images were collected in transmitted light for two scenes 1 cm on a side for each thin section. Objects within a scene were classified by color, and measurements of area, elongation, and roughness were determined for each object. Summary statistics were compiled for all measurements for each color component within a scene, and each variable was statistically examined for correlations with stratigraphic position. Our initial studies using image analysis have not yet produced a useful method for determining stratigraphic position within the Topopah Spring Member. Simplifications made in this preliminary application of image analysis may be largely responsible for these negative results. The technique deserves further investigation, and more detailed analysis of existing data is recommended. 9 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Early Permian transgressive-regressive cycles: Sequence stratigraphic reappraisal of the coal-bearing Barakar Formation, Raniganj Basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Biplab; Bhattacharjee, Joyeeta; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip; Banerjee, Sudipto; Adhikari, Kalyan

    2018-03-01

    The present research is an attempt to assess the Barakar Formation of the Raniganj Gondwana Basin, India, in the frame of fluvio-marine (estuarine) depositional systems using sequence stratigraphic elements. Analysis of predominant facies associations signify deposition in three sub-environments: (i) a river-dominated bay-head delta zone in the inner estuary, with transition from braided fluvial channels (FA-B1) to tide-affected meandering fluvial channels and flood plains (FA-B2) in the basal part of the succession; (ii) a mixed energy central basin zone, which consists of transitional fluvio-tidal channels (FA-B2), tidal flats, associated with tidal channels and bars (FA-B3) in the middle-upper part of the succession; and (iii) a wave-dominated outer estuary (coastal) zone (FA-B4 with FA-B3) in the upper part of the succession. Stacked progradational (P1, P2)-retrogradational (R1, R2) successions attest to one major base level fluctuation, leading to distinct transgressive-regressive (T-R) cycles with development of initial falling stage systems tract (FSST), followed by lowstand systems tract (LST) and successive transgressive systems tracts (TST-1 and TST-2). Shift in the depositional regime from regressive to transgressive estuarine system in the early Permian Barakar Formation is attributed to change in accommodation space caused by mutual interactions of (i) base level fluctuations in response to climatic amelioration and (ii) basinal tectonisms (exhumation/sagging) related to post-glacial isostatic adjustments in the riftogenic Gondwana basins.

  3. THE TYRRHENIAN SECTION OF SAN GIOVANNI DI SINIS (SARDINIA:STRATIGRAPHIC RECORD OF AN IRREGULAR SINGLE HIGH STAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIANO LECCA

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A new analysis of the most representative Upper Pleistocene (Tyrrhenian, MIS 5e section of San Giovanni di Sinis (Oristano, Sardinia has provided a more detailed genetic stratigraphy of a low wave energy beach and temperate lagoon up to emerged peri-lagoonal facies deposits. These peri-lagoonal facies contain remains of fossil vertebrates, which, though few and fragmentary, bear witness to an at least temporary freshwater palaeoenvironment and the presence of deers and terrapins. Besides, the stratigraphy of this outcrop shows shoreface-backshore sandstones overlaying an erosion surface cut on the vertebrate-bearing layers. Facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy of the succession have provided support to a new eustatic interpretation significance. In fact, there appears to be evidence of one irregular single eustatic highstand, rather than two eustatic peaks as previously believed. The facies evolution and the local stratigraphic disconformities are interpreted as being associated with a lateral shift of the depositional environment within the same system formed during the MIS 5e sea level variations. As sea water level continued to rise so an erosional unconformity, caused by wave ravinement, formed between the low wave energy beach-lagoon sequence and the successive wave dominated beach facies sequence. This interpretation is supported by comparison with other sections of the Tyrrhenian in western Sardinia. The maximum sea level attained during the Tyrrhenian stage is a clear indication of a warm-temperate climate which can be correlated to the well known orbital interglacial configuration when the eustatic signal of Greenland's ice sheet melting occurred. SHORT NOTES

  4. Depositional features and stratigraphic sections in granitic plutons: implications for the emplacement and crystallization of granitic magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, R. A.; Collins, W. J.

    1998-09-01

    Many granitic plutons contain sheet-like masses of dioritic to gabbroic rocks or swarms of mafic to intermediate enclaves which represent the input of higher temperature, more mafic magma during crystallization of the granitic plutons. Small-scale structures associated with these bodies (e.g. load-cast and compaction features, silicic pipes extending from granitic layers into adjacent gabbroic sheets) indicate that the sheets and enclave swarms were deposited on a floor of the magma chamber (on granitic crystal mush and beneath crystal-poor magma) while the mafic magma was incompletely crystallized. These structures indicate 'way up', typically toward the interior of the intrusions, and appear to indicate that packages of mafic sheets and enclave concentrations in these plutons are a record of sequential deposition. Hence, these plutons preserve a stratigraphic history of events involved in the construction (filling, replenishment) and crystallization of the magma chamber. The distinctive features of these depositional portions of plutons allow them to be distinguished from sheeted intrusions, which usually preserve mutual intrusive contacts and 'dike-sill' relations of different magma types. The considerable thickness of material that can be interpreted as depositional, and the evidence for replenishment, suggest that magma chamber volumes at any one time were probably much less than the final size of the pluton. Thus, magma chambers may be constructed much more slowly than presently envisaged. The present steep attitudes of these structures in many plutons may have developed gradually as the floor of the chamber (along with the underlying solidified granite and country rock) sank during continuing episodes of magma chamber replenishment. These internal magmatic structures support recent suggestions that the room problem for granites could be largely accommodated by downward movement of country rock beneath the magma chamber.

  5. La Galite Archipelago (Tunisia, North Africa): Stratigraphic and petrographic revision and insights for geodynamic evolution of the Maghrebian Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belayouni, Habib; Brunelli, Daniele; Clocchiatti, Roberto; Di Staso, Angelida; El Hassani, Iz-Eddine El Amrani; Guerrera, Francesco; Kassaa, Samia; Ouazaa, Nejia Laridhi; Martín, Manuel Martín; Serrano, Francisco; Tramontana, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The location of the La Galite Archipelago on the Internal/External Zones of the Maghrebian Chain holds strong interest for the reconstruction of the geodynamic evolution of the Mesomediterranean Microplate-Africa Plate Boundary Zone. New stratigraphic and petrographic data on sedimentary successions intruded upon by plutonic rocks enabled a better definition of the palaeogeographic and palaeotectonic evolutionary model of the area during the early-middle Miocene. The lower Miocene sedimentary units ( La Galite Flysch and Numidian-like Flysch) belong to the Mauritanian (internal) and Massylian (external) sub-Domains of the Maghrebian Chain, respectively. These deposits are related to a typical syn-orogenic deposition in the Maghrebian Flysch Basin Domain, successively backthrusted above the internal units. The backthrusting age is post-Burdigalian (probably Langhian-Serravallian) and the compressional phase represents the last stage in the building of the accretionary wedge of the Maghrebian orogen. These flysch units may be co-relatable to the similar well-known formations along the Maghrebian and Betic Chains. The emplacement of potassic peraluminous magmatism, caused local metamorphism in the Late Serravallian-Early Tortonian (14-10 Ma), after the last compressional phase (backthrusting), during an extensional tectonic event. This extensional phase is probably due to the opening of a slab break-off in the deep subduction system. La Galite Archipelago represents a portion of the Maghrebian Flysch Basin tectonically emplaced above the southern margin of the "Mesomediterranean Microplate" which separated the Piemontese-Ligurian Ocean from a southern oceanic branch of the Tethys (i.e. the Maghrebian Flysch Basin). The possible presence of an imbricate thrust system between La Galite Archipelago and northern Tunisia may be useful to exclude the petroleum exploration from the deformed sectors of the offshore area considered.

  6. Improving the Hydro-stratigraphic Model of the Oxnard Forebay, Ventura County, California, using Transient Electromagnetic Surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quady, Maura Colleen

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the hydro-stratigraphy of an area, drilling and well logs provide high resolution electrical resistivity data, albeit for limited areas (points). The expense of drilling indirectly leads to sparse data and it is necessary to assume lateral homogeneity between wells when creating stratigraphic maps. Unfortunately, this assumption may not apply to areas in complex depositional and tectonically active settings. The goal of this study is to fill in data gaps between wells in a groundwater basin in order to better characterize the hydro-stratigraphy under existing and potential sites for managed aquifer recharge. Basins in the southern California study area have been used for decades to recharge surface water to an upper aquifer system; this work also addresses whether the local hydro-stratigraphy favors surface infiltration as a means to recharge water to the lower aquifer system. Here, soundings of transient electromagnetism (TEM), a surface geophysical method, are correlated with nearby down-hole resistivity and lithology well logs for grain size interpretations of the subsurface in unsaturated conditions. Grain size is used as a proxy for permeability (hydraulic conductivity), with resistivity contrasts highlighting variations in the media, which would affect groundwater flow in both vertical and horizontal directions. Results suggest a nearly horizontal, extensive, low permeability layer exists in the area and only a few noted locations are favorable for surface -to-lower aquifer system recharge. Furthermore, zones of higher permeability deeper than the upper aquifer system are discontinuous and isolated among lower permeability zones. However, the TEM profiles show areas where lower permeability zones are thin, and where alternatives to surface percolation methods could be explored. In addition, the survey adds information about the transition between the upper and lower aquifer systems, and adds detail to the topography of the base of freshwater

  7. Late Miocene ignimbrites at the southern Puna-northern Sierras Pampeanas border (˜27°S): Stratigraphic correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-López, Carolina; Guzmán, Silvina; Barrios, Fabiola

    2015-10-01

    New field observations and petrographic and geochemical data of pyroclastic deposits exposed along the Las Papas valley (border between southern Puna and northern Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina) and further north, lead us to propose a new stratigraphic correlation and classification of the late Miocene volcanism in this area. We redefine the Las Papas, Las Juntas, Aguada Alumbrera and Rosada ignimbrites and define the Agua Caliente and Del Medio ignimbrites. The whole set of ignimbrites are rhyolites and less frequently dacites of calc-alkaline affinity. In the present contribution we divide ignimbrites into the Agua Negra and Rincón groups, based mainly on their geochemical signature. The Agua Negra Group is formed by the Las Papas and Las Juntas ignimbrites, indurated and welded, lithic-rich, with crystal-poor pumices and crystal-rich matrix. The Rincón Group comprises the Agua Caliente, Aguada Alumbrera, Rosada and Del Medio ignimbrites, with variable welding degrees, lithic and crystal content. The greater enrichment of crystals in the matrix in comparison with the crystal content in pumices indicates significant elutriation during flow transport and thus volume estimations are to be considered lower bounds for the actual erupted volume. The total minimum estimated volume for the ignimbrites of the Agua Negra and Rincón groups is 2.8 km3 (2.3 km3 DRE). Field relationships and new analytical data indicate that the different acid ignimbrites that crop out in this small area are related to at least two different magma chambers. The widespread Quaternary volcanism in this area covers the older deposits, thus making it difficult to recognize the volcanic centers that produced these late Miocene ignimbrites.

  8. A review of the geologic sections and the faunal assemblages of Aurelian Mammal Age of Latium (Italy) in the light of a new chronostratigraphic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, F.; Nomade, S.; Pereira, A.; Petronio, C.; Salari, L.; Sottili, G.; Bahain, J.-J.; Boschian, G.; Di Stefano, G.; Falguères, C.; Florindo, F.; Gaeta, M.; Giaccio, B.; Masotta, M.

    2018-02-01

    The Aurelian Mammal Age for peninsular Italy was introduced on the basis of faunal assemblages mainly recovered at sites along the Via Aurelia west of Rome. These sites exposed a set of sedimentary deposits currently attributed to the Aurelia and to the Vitinia Formations correlated with MIS 9 and MIS 7, respectively. In the present paper we reconstruct the geologic-stratigraphic setting in the western sector of Rome within the wider context of glacio-eustatically controlled, geochronologically constrained aggradational successions defined for this region. We present a chronostratigraphic study based on dedicated field surveys, that, combined with five new 40Ar/39Ar ages and eighteen trace-element and EMP glass analyses of volcanic products, allow us to revise age and correlation with the Marine Isotopic Stages for 10 sites out of 12 previously attributed to the Aurelia Formation and the Torre in Pietra Faunal Unit. In particular, we demonstrate a MIS 13/MIS 11 age for several sections along the Via Aurelia between Malagrotta and Castel di Guido. Based on this new geochronological framework, the first occurrences of Canis lupus and Vulpes vulpes in Italy are antedated to MIS 11, within the Fontana Ranuccio Faunal Unit of the Galerian Mammal Age, consistent with the wider European context. This contribution is intended as the groundwork for a revision of the Middle Pleistocene Mammal Ages of the Italian peninsula, according to the improved chronostratigraphy of the geologic sections hosting the faunal assemblages.

  9. Programming Entity Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Programming Entity Framework is a thorough introduction to Microsoft's new core framework for modeling and interacting with data in .NET applications. This highly-acclaimed book not only gives experienced developers a hands-on tour of the Entity Framework and explains its use in a variety of applications, it also provides a deep understanding of its architecture and APIs -- knowledge that will be extremely valuable as you shift to the Entity Framework version in .NET Framework 4.0 and Visual Studio 2010. From the Entity Data Model (EDM) and Object Services to EntityClient and the Metadata Work

  10. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus Gherman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional development policy is a policy of investment for economic development by supporting competitiveness, increasing the standards of living, improving the quality of life, creating new jobs. Regions and regional development policy occupies in recent decades an increasingly important position in the list of the economic and social factors being found on the agendas of governments, both central and local authorities, of political groups and civil society. Regional development and regional development policy in Romania are present both in the economic reform and in social one. Development Regions from Romania are set up in 1998 by Law number 151 and supported by their own institutional framework. The applicability of regional development in Romania must take into account the fundamental elements of the possibilities of Regional Development, meaning the major indicators of reference for measuring the level of disparities, GDP per capita and unemployment.

  11. Geologic framework studies of South Carolina's Long Bay from Little River Inlet to Winyah Bay, 1999-2003: geospatial data release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, W.E.; Denny, J.F.; Schwab, W.C.; Gayes, P.T.; Morton, R.; Driscoll, N.W.

    2007-01-01

    The northern South Carolina coast is a heavily developed region that supports a thriving tourism industry, large local populations and extensive infrastructure (Figure 1). The economic stability of the region is closely tied to the health of its beaches: primarily in providing support for local tourism and protection from storm events. Despite relatively low long-term shoreline erosion rates, and the implied stability of the beaches, the economic impact of storm events to coastal communities has been costly. For example, Hurricane Hugo made landfall on the central South Carolina coast in 1989. High winds and storm surge inflicted roughly $6 billion in property loss and damages, and Hugo remains the costliest storm event in South Carolina history. Localized erosion, commonly occurring around tidal inlets and erosion "hot spots", has also proved costly. Construction and maintenance of hard structures and beach nourishment, designed to mitigate the effects of erosion, have become annual or multi-annual expenditures. Providing a better understanding of the physical processes controlling coastal erosion and shoreline change will allow for more effective management of coastal resources. In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium (SCSGC), began a study to investigate inner continental shelf and shoreface processes. The objectives of the USGS/SCSGC cooperative program are: 1) to provide a regional synthesis of the shallow geologic framework underlying the shoreface and inner continental shelf, and to define its role in coastal evolution and modern beach behavior; 2) to identify and model the physical processes affecting coastal ocean circulation and sediment transport, and to define their role in shaping the modern shoreline; and 3) to identify sediment sources and transport pathways in order to develop a regional sediment budget. This report contains the geospatial data used to define the geologic framework

  12. Stratigraphic reconstruction of two debris avalanche deposits at Colima Volcano (Mexico): Insights into pre-failure conditions and climate influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roverato, M.; Capra, L.; Sulpizio, R.; Norini, G.

    2011-10-01

    Throughout its history, Colima Volcano has experienced numerous partial edifice collapses with associated emplacement of debris avalanche deposits of contrasting volume, morphology and texture. A detailed stratigraphic study in the south-eastern sector of the volcano allowed the recognition of two debris avalanche deposits, named San Marcos (> 28,000 cal yr BP, V = ~ 1.3 km 3) and Tonila (15,000-16,000 cal yr BP, V = ~ 1 km 3 ). This work sheds light on the pre-failure conditions of the volcano based primarily on a detailed textural study of debris avalanche deposits and their associated pyroclastic and volcaniclastic successions. Furthermore, we show how the climate at the time of the Tonila collapse influenced the failure mechanisms. The > 28,000 cal yr BP San Marcos collapse was promoted by edifice steep flanks and ongoing tectonic and volcanotectonic deformation, and was followed by a magmatic eruption that emplaced pyroclastic flow deposits. In contrast, the Tonila failure occurred just after the Last Glacial Maximum (22,000-18,000 cal BP) and, in addition to the typical debris avalanche textural characteristics (angular to sub-angular clasts, coarse matrix, jigsaw fit) it shows a hybrid facies characterized by debris avalanche blocks embedded in a finer, homogenous and partially cemented matrix, a texture more characteristic of debris flow deposits. The Tonila debris avalanche is directly overlain by a 7-m thick hydromagmatic pyroclastic succession. Massive debris flow deposits, often more than 10 m thick and containing large amounts of tree trunk logs, represent the top unit in the succession. Fluvial deposits also occur throughout all successions; these represent periods of highly localized stream reworking. All these lines of evidence point to the presence of water in the edifice prior to the Tonila failure, suggesting it may have been a weakening factor. The Tonila failure appears to represent an anomalous event related to the particular climatic

  13. Timing of the Toarcian Ocean Anoxic Event (Early Jurassic) from correlation of astronomically forced global stratigraphic sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Hinnov, L. A.; Hesselbo, S. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) in the Early Jurassic Period is associated with a major negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE), mass extinction, marine transgression and global warming. The Toarcian OAE is thought to have been caused by flood basalt magmatism, and may have been a trigger for mass extinction. However, these proposed causes of the Toarcian OAE and associated biotic crisis are not adequately resolved by a precise chronology. The duration of the Toarcian OAE has been estimated to be anywhere from ~0.12 to ~0.9 Myr, most recently 0.74 to 3.26 Myr from U-Pb dating. The CIE associated with the Toarcian OAE has a similar pattern at numerous localities, and there is evidence for astronomical forcing of marine carbon isotopes. Here we estimate a duration of ~625 kyr for the main negative CIE, ~860 kyr for the polymorphum zone and >1.58 Myr for the levisoni zone based on 405-kyr astronomical eccentricity tuning of the marine section at Peniche (Portugal). This 405-kyr tuned series provides a ~2.5 Myr continuous high-resolution chronology through the Early Toarcian. There are 6, or possibly 7 short eccentricity cycles in the main CIE interval at Peniche. To confirm this astronomically based estimate, we analyzed five other sections at Yorkshire (UK), Dotternhausen (Germany), Valdorbia (Italy), Mechowo (Poland) and Serrucho, Neuquén (Argentina), from marine and terrestrial carbon isotopic series. These six stratigraphic sections from Early Jurassic western Tethys and eastern Panthalassa record the Toarcian OAE with ~6 prominent carbon isotope cycles in the CIE that provide us a 600 ± 100 kyr duration. The Peniche 405 kyr-tuned series indicates that the pre- and post-CIE intervals experienced strong precession-eccentricity-forced climate change, whereas the CIE interval is marked by dominant obliquity forcing. These dramatic and abrupt changes in astronomical response in the carbon isotopes point to fundamental shifting in the Early Toarcian

  14. Stratigraphic distribution of veins in the Murray and Stimson formations, Gale crater, Mars: Implications for ancient groundwater circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachon, M.; Sumner, D. Y.; Borges, S. R.; Stack, K.; Stein, N.; Watkins, J. A.; Banham, S.; Rivera-Hernandez, F.; Wiens, R. C.; l'Haridon, J.; Rapin, W.; Kronyak, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Since landing at Gale crater, Mars, in August 2012, the Curiosity rover has driven through more than 300m of stratigraphy. From the first to the most recent sedimentary rocks explored, light-toned veins have been observed cutting the host-rock and were interpreted as diagenetic features emplaced by hydraulic fracturing. Chemical and mineralogical analyses show they consist of Ca-sulfate. Here we report on the veins' distribution within two geological formations explored more recently by the rover: (a) the Murray Formation that consists mainly of fine-grained laminated rocks that have been interpreted as having been deposited in a former lacustrine environment [1], and (b) the Stimson Formation, which lies unconformably above the Murray, and consists of cross bedded sandstones interpreted as being deposited in a aeolian environment [2]. We have performed a systematic observation of the veins within the MastCam images, from the base of the Murray (Sol 750) up to Sol 1515 [3], described their main geometrical characteristics (e.g. orientation to laminae, relative density, branching). Five veins facies were defined based on veins' geometrical properties, abundance, and host-rock grain size. The distribution of veins facies was placed within the broader stratigraphic context. The distribution of veins within the Murray and Stimson Formations shows strong rheological controls. In the Murray, light-toned veins are present from the basal part of the section up to the most recently explored exposures. Several dense vein outcrops are associated with local variations in host-rock type, suggesting rheological control of fluid circulation. In Stimson sandstones, light-toned veins are also present though much rarer, again possibly due to rheological properties. The light-toned veins represent post depositional fluid circulation, occurring after accumulation of the lacustrine Murray rocks; at least some veins formed after Murray's burial, erosion, and the deposition and

  15. A Framework for Photovoltaic and Thermosiphon Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Guidoni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pessimistic forecasts are growing in the Brazilian energy scenario demanding the use of renewable sources of energy such as the solar one. As metropolitan regions have become more populous, private and public companies have developed new technologies based on renewable energy sources. In order to supply such demand, new computer techniques have to be developed. This paper presents a framework to assist the developer to model new components and simulate solar energy applications. By applying the framework concepts, such as source code reuse, one can create a complete environment to evaluate solar energy data. The framework supports software development and tool implementation to be used in photovoltaic and thermosiphon processes.

  16. Frameworks in CS1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2002-01-01

    point for introducing graphical user interface frameworks such as Java Swing and AWT as the students are not overwhelmed by all the details of such frameworks right away but given a conceptual road-map and practical experience that allow them to cope with the complexity.......In this paper we argue that introducing object-oriented frameworks as subject already in the CS1 curriculum is important if we are to train the programmers of tomorrow to become just as much software reusers as software producers. We present a simple, graphical, framework that we have successfully...... used to introduce the principles of object-oriented frameworks to students at the introductory programming level. Our framework, while simple, introduces central abstractions such as inversion of control, event-driven programming, and variability points/hot-spots. This has provided a good starting...

  17. Quality Attribute Techniques Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Yin Kia; Zhu, Liming; Staples, Mark

    The quality of software is achieved during its development. Development teams use various techniques to investigate, evaluate and control potential quality problems in their systems. These “Quality Attribute Techniques” target specific product qualities such as safety or security. This paper proposes a framework to capture important characteristics of these techniques. The framework is intended to support process tailoring, by facilitating the selection of techniques for inclusion into process models that target specific product qualities. We use risk management as a theory to accommodate techniques for many product qualities and lifecycle phases. Safety techniques have motivated the framework, and safety and performance techniques have been used to evaluate the framework. The evaluation demonstrates the ability of quality risk management to cover the development lifecycle and to accommodate two different product qualities. We identify advantages and limitations of the framework, and discuss future research on the framework.

  18. Hydrological simulation in the Mediterranean region with SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU. Improvement of the physics of the model and evaluation of the risk within the framework of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pere, Quintana Segui

    2008-12-01

    The SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU model is assessed and its physics are improved. The SAFRAN meteorological analysis is first validated in detail. The surface model ISBA is then modified to better describe the hydraulic conductivity in the soil. A strategy of calibration is defined and applied at the scale of France. The improved model is then used to assess the impacts of climate change in the Mediterranean region. A regional climate model is down-scaled by two different methods. The study shows that the uncertainties related to the down-scaling are important. Uncertainty related to the impact model is smaller, but must be taken into account for the extremes. In this region, the extremes of river flows, and sometimes the means, will increase during the first half of the twenty-first century. At the end of the century, the scenario indicates a decline of the average of river flows and the extremes will remain stable, leading to increased variability. (author)

  19. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico-stratigraphic hierarchy and cycle stacking facies distribution, and interwell-scale heterogeneity: Grayburg Formation, New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnaby, R.J.; Ward, W.B.; Jennings, J.W. Jr.

    1997-06-01

    The Grayburg Formation (middle Guadalupian) is a major producing interval in the Permian Basin and has yielded more than 2.5 billion barrels of oil in West Texas. Grayburg reservoirs have produced, on average, less than 30 percent of their original oil in place and are undergoing secondary and tertiary recovery. Efficient design of such enhanced recovery programs dictates improved geological models to better understand and predict reservoir heterogeneity imposed by depositional and diagenetic controls. The Grayburg records mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation on shallow-water platforms that rimmed the Delaware and Midland Basins. Grayburg outcrops in the Guadalupe and Brokeoff Mountains region on the northwest margin of the Delaware Basin present an opportunity to construct a detailed, three-dimensional image of the stratigraphic and facies architecture. This model can be applied towards improved description and characterization of heterogeneity in analogous Grayburg reservoirs. Four orders of stratigraphic hierarchy are recognized in the Grayburg Formation. The Grayburg represents a long-term composite sequence composed of four high-frequency sequences (HFS 1-4). Each HFS contains several composite cycles comprising two or more cycles that define intermediate-scale transgressive-regressive successions. Cycles are the smallest scale upward-shoaling vertical facies successions that can be recognized and correlated across various facies tracts. Cycles thus form the basis for establishing the detailed chronostratigraphic correlations needed to delineate facies heterogeneity.

  20. JT Bachman Leadership Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    DAHLGREN DIVISION NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE CENTER Dahlgren, Virginia 22448-5100 NSWCDD/MP-17/300 JT BACHMAN LEADERSHIP FRAMEWORK...REPORT TYPE Miscellaneous Publication 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 27 Sept 2016 – 08 June 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE JT BACHMAN LEADERSHIP FRAMEWORK...distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This document describes the leadership framework of a civil servant following

  1. Frameworks in CS1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we argue that introducing object-oriented frameworks as subject already in the CS1 curriculum is important if we are to train the programmers of tomorrow to become just as much software reusers as software producers. We present a simple, graphical, framework that we have successfull...... point for introducing graphical user interface frameworks such as Java Swing and AWT as the students are not overwhelmed by all the details of such frameworks right away but given a conceptual road-map and practical experience that allow them to cope with the complexity....

  2. Frameworks in CS1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2002-01-01

    point for introducing graphical user interface frameworks such as Java Swing and AWT as the students are not overwhelmed by all the details of such frameworks right away but given a conceptual road-map and practical experience that allow them to cope with the complexity.......In this paper we argue that introducing object-oriented frameworks as subject already in the CS1 curriculum is important if we are to train the programmers of tomorrow to become just as much software reusers as software producers. We present a simple, graphical, framework that we have successfully...

  3. Recent flood lavas in the Elysium region of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plescia, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    A volcanic origin is presently suggested for the Cerberus Formation region of smooth plains in the southeastern Elysium region of Mars, on the basis of its surface morphology, lobate edges, vents, and an embayment relation of the unit with adjacent, older units. The low viscosity lavas that filled a topographic depression in southeastern Elysium subsequently flowed into western Amazonic Planitia via channels formed by an earlier fluvial episode. A young, upper Amazonian dating is indicated by crater frequencies and stratigraphic relations, implying that large-scale eruptions of low-viscosity lava were still possible late in Martian history. 34 refs

  4. Mio-Pliocene to Pleistocene paleotopographic evolution of Brittany (France) from a sequence stratigraphic analysis: relative influence of tectonics and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, N.; Bourquin, S.; Guillocheau, F.; Dabard, M.-P.; Bonnet, S.; Courville, P.; Estéoule-Choux, J.; Stepanoff, F.

    2004-01-01

    The Mio-Pliocene in Western Europe is a period of major climatic and tectonic change with important topographic consequences. The aim of this paper is to reconstruct these topographic changes (based on sedimentological analysis and sequence stratigraphy) for the Armorican Massif (western France) and to discuss their significance. The Mio-Pliocene sands of the Armorican Massif (Red Sands) are mainly preserved in paleovalleys and are characterized by extensive fluvial sheetflood deposits with low-preservation and by-pass facies. This sedimentological study shows that the Red Sands correspond to three main sedimentary environments: fluvial (alluvial fan, low-sinuosity rivers and braided rivers), estuarine and some rare open marine deposits (marine bioclastic sands: "faluns" of French authors). Two orders of sequences have been correlated across Brittany with one or two minor A/ S cycles comprised within the retrogradational trend of a major cycle. The unconformity at the base of the lower cycle is more marked than the unconformity observed at the top, which corresponds to a re-incision of the paleovalley network. A comparison of the results of the sequence stratigraphy analysis with eustatic variations and tectonic events during the Mio-Pliocene allows (1) to discuss their influence on the evolution of the Armorican Massif and (2) to compare the stratigraphic record with other west-European basins. The unconformity observed at the base of the first minor cycle may be attributed to Serravallian-Tortonian tectonic activity and/or eustatic fall, and the unconformity of the second minor cycle may be attributed to Late Tortonian-Early Messinian tectonic activity. The earlier unconformity is coeval with the development of a "smooth" paleovalley network compared to the jagged present-day relief. A single episode of Mio-Pliocene deformation recorded in Brittany may be dated as Zanclean, thus explaining the lack of the maximum flooding surface except in isolated areas. From

  5. Storm-related sedimentation influenced by coastal configuration in the stratigraphic record of a tectonically active shelf (Upper Pleistocene Le Castella terrace, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalin, Ronald; Massari, Francesco

    2018-03-01

    Analysis of patterns of coastal circulation and sediment dispersal is an essential step for the study of controlling factors influencing the long-term dynamics of coastal systems. Modern settings offer the possibility to monitor relevant parameters over relatively short time spans. However, geological examples complement this perspective by providing a time-averaged record where longer trends and stratigraphically significant processes can be evaluated. This study investigates the shallow marine deposits of Le Castella terrace (Upper Pleistocene, southern Italy) to document how patterns of circulation influenced by coastline configuration can affect the preserved millennial-scale depositional record of a progradational shoreline system. The regressive portion of the Le Castella terrace deposits, developed during a relative sea-level highstand and falling stage, consists of a progradational wedge mainly composed of redistributed skeletal particles of a coeval shallow water carbonate factory. Preservation of the morphology of the paleocoastline and abundant current-related sedimentary structures allow reconstruction of the predominant sediment dispersal dynamics responsible for the formation of this sedimentary wedge. Facies and paleocurrent analysis indicate offshore and alongshore sediment transport modes, consistent with coastal circulation driven by storms normally incident to the shoreline and a sharp change in coastline orientation. This coastal inflection influenced circulation patterns causing flow separation and eddy formation in the lee of the curved coastline. Syndepositional tectonic deformation also affected the architecture of the preserved deposits, controlling the nucleation and development of a clinostratified body and determining localized lateral stratigraphic variability. This study illustrates how transient but recurrent circulation patterns associated with changes in coastal orientation and related to high-energy storm events can leave a

  6. Milankovitch cyclicity in modern continental margins: stratigraphic cycles in terrigenous shelf settings; El registro de la ciclicidad de Milankovitch en margenes continentales actuales: ciclos estratigraficos en plataformas terrigenas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, F. J.; Ridente, D.

    2013-06-01

    We present a synthesis of the sedimentary responses to Late Quaternary Milankovitch-type sea-level cycles (100 and 20 kyr periodicities) as a basis for our investigations into the patterns and concepts of composite sequences in shallow-shelf settings. We describe the record of both 100 and 20 kyr cycles as documented worldwide and discuss the pattern of composite cyclicity mainly on the basis of previously published data from the Adriatic Sea and Gulf of Cadiz margins. Cycles of 100 kyr are those most frequently documented in Quaternary margins; they occur in the form of unconformity-bounded depositional sequences dominated by fairly uniform pro gradational-regressive units and more variable, though less well developed, transgressive deposits. Sequence boundaries correspond to prominent polygenic (regressive-transgressive) erosional surfaces that bear witness to considerable transgressive reworking of the original sub-aerial unconformity. Although the progradational units making up the greater part of these sequences have usually been interpreted as a record of a falling sea-level stage, recent evidence is pointing towards a more complex stratigraphic picture, including a distinction between relative highstand and lowstand deposits. The 20-kyr stratigraphic motifs show greater variation compared to that displayed by the more common 100-kyr sequences, particularly in the basic structure of systems tracts and the nature of bounding surfaces. The two case studies described here, the Adriatic Sea and Gulf of Cadiz margins, highlight the fact that, concomitantly with an increase in frequencies of cycles and sequences, sediment supply and the dynamics of their dispersal significantly affected the stratigraphic response to the main controlling factor, which was sea-level, thus determining the variety of expression in the 20 kyr cycles. (Author)

  7. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Clayton

    2000-12-19

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural feature