WorldWideScience

Sample records for regional strain gage

  1. Internally Mounting Strain Gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, J. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Technique for mounting strain gages inside bolt or cylinder simultaneously inserts gage, attached dowel segment, and length of expandable tubing. Expandable tubing holds gage in place while adhesive cures, assuring even distribution of pressure on gage and area gaged.

  2. Development of high temperature strain gage, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuuki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Yukio; Kanai, Kenji; Yamaura, Yoshio

    1976-01-01

    Development and improvement of resistance wire type strain gages usable for experimental measurement of thermal strains generated at high temperature in various structures and equipments that consist of a Fast Breeder Reactor have been carried out, and various characteristics of the strain gages have been investigated. Based on the results obtained up to now, development and research of this time mainly aim to improve strain and fatigue characteristics. As the results, characteristics of strain gages with sensing elements of nichrome V are improved, specifically mechanical hysteresis is decreased, strain limit is increased, etc. Also, improvement is recognized in thermal output, and it becomes clear that dummy gages work effectively. However, a filling method of MgO and an inserting method of active-dummy elements are selected as primary objects to improve strain characteristics, and many hours are taken for these objects, so confirmations of characteristics of platinum-tungsten strain gages, strain sensing elements of which are troublesome to produce, have not been completely done, though the performance of the gages has been improved in several points. As to nichrome V strain gages, there is a fair prospect of obtaining ones, specifications of which are quite close to the goal, though problems in manufacturing technics remain for future. As to platinum-tungsten strain gages, it is expected that similar strain gages to nichrome V are obtainable by improvement in manufacturing of sensing elements. (auth.)

  3. Properties of strain gages at cryogenic temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Nobuo; Fujiyoshi, Toshimitsu.

    1978-01-01

    At the time of developing superconduction generators, the stress measurement for rotor parts is required to grasp the safety and performance of the rotor at cryogenic temperature, which is cooled with liquid helium. In case of carrying out the stress measurement with strain gages, the problems are as follows. The strain gages and lead wires are exposed to cryogenic temperature from 4 to 10 K and strong magnetic field of about 3T, and subjected to high centrifugal acceleration of about 500G. In order to establish the techniques of the stress measurement under such conditions, the adhesives and damp-proof coatings for strain gages and strain gages themselves in Japan and foreign countries were examined on the properties at cryogenic temperature. As for the properties of strain gages, mainly the apparent strain owing to temperature change was investigated, and the change of the gage factors was studies only at liquid nitrogen temperature. The stress measurement with strain gages at low temperature had been studied in detail down to liquid nitrogen temperature concerning LNG tanks. The experimental apparatus, the samples, the testing methods and the test results of cooling tests on adhesives and damp-proof coatings, and the temperature characteristics of strain gages are reported. The usable adhesives and coatings were found, and correction by accurate temperature measurement is required for apparent strain. (Kako, I.)

  4. Evaluation results of the 700 deg C Chinese strain gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobart, H. F.

    1984-01-01

    There is a continuing interest and need for resistance strain gages capable of making static strain measurements on components located in the hot section of gas turbine engines. A paper by Tsen-tai Wu describes the development and evaluation of high temperature gauges fabricated from specially developed Fe-Cr-Al-V-Ti-Y alloy wire. Several of these gages and a quantity of P12-2 ceramic adhesive were purchased for evaluation. Nine members of the aircraft turbine engine community were invited to participate in an evaluation of these gages. Each participant was sent one strain gage, a small amount of ceramic adhesive, instructions for mounting the gage on a test beam, and a set of suggestions for the experiment. Data on gage factor variation with temperature, apparent strain, and drift are discussed.

  5. Strain gage based determination of mixed mode SIFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, K. S. R. K.; Sarangi, H.; Chakraborty, D.

    2018-05-01

    Accurate determination of mixed mode stress intensity factors (SIFs) is essential in understanding and analysis of mixed mode fracture of engineering components. Only a few strain gage determination of mixed mode SIFs are reported in literatures and those also do not provide any prescription for radial locations of strain gages to ensure accuracy of measurement. The present investigation experimentally demonstrates the efficacy of a proposed methodology for the accurate determination of mixed mode I/II SIFs using strain gages. The proposed approach is based on the modified Dally and Berger's mixed mode technique. Using the proposed methodology appropriate gage locations (optimal locations) for a given configuration have also been suggested ensuring accurate determination of mixed mode SIFs. Experiments have been conducted by locating the gages at optimal and non-optimal locations to study the efficacy of the proposed approach. The experimental results from the present investigation show that highly accurate SIFs (0.064%) can be determined using the proposed approach if the gages are located at the suggested optimal locations. On the other hand, results also show the very high errors (212.22%) in measured SIFs possible if the gages are located at non-optimal locations. The present work thus clearly substantiates the importance of knowing the optimal locations of the strain gages apriori in accurate determination of SIFs.

  6. Theory and Practice of Shear/Stress Strain Gage Hygrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Fenner, Ralph L.

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical hygrometry has progressed during the last several decades from crude hygroscopes to state-of-the art strain-gage sensors. The strain-gage devices vary from different metallic beams to strain-gage sensors using cellulose crystallite elements, held in full shear restraint. This old technique is still in use but several companies are now actively pursuing development of MEMS miniaturized humidity sensors. These new sensors use polyimide thin film for water vapor adsorption and desorption. This paper will provide overview about modern humidity sensors.

  7. Evaluation test on stability of high temperature strain gage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Toshimi (Kyowa Electronic Instruments Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Ito, Haruhiko; Tanaka, Isao; Komori, Yoshihiro

    1983-08-01

    This report deals with the results on a stability test of high temperature strain gage which is utilized for development of the Stethoscope for OGL - 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Services (ab. SOCETS). The test has proved that the weldable strain gage (KHC - 20 - G5) exhibits excellent stability at 500/sup 0/C during 3000 to 4000 hours service and can be applied sufficiently to evaluate integrity of OGL - 1 high temperature pipings and others.

  8. Evaluation test on stability of high temperature strain gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshimi; Ito, Haruhiko; Tanaka, Isao; Komori, Yoshihiro.

    1983-01-01

    This report deals with the results on a stability test of high temperature strain gage which is utilized for development of the Stethoscope for OGL - 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Services (ab. SOCETS). The test has proved that the weldable strain gage (KHC - 20 - G5) exhibits excellent stability at 500 0 C during 3000 to 4000 hours service and can be applied sufficiently to evaluate integrity of OGL - 1 high temperature pipings and others. (author)

  9. Utilizing Photogrammetry and Strain Gage Measurement to Characterize Pressurization of an Inflatable Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Gerard D.; Selig, Molly; Litteken, Doug; Oliveras, Ovidio

    2012-01-01

    This paper documents the integration of a large hatch penetration into an inflatable module. This paper also documents the comparison of analytical load predictions with measured results utilizing strain measurement. Strain was measured by utilizing photogrammetric measurement and through measurement obtained from strain gages mounted to selected clevises that interface with the structural webbings. Bench testing showed good correlation between strain measurement obtained from an extensometer and photogrammetric measurement especially after the fabric has transitioned through the low load/high strain region of the curve. Test results for the full-scale torus showed mixed results in the lower load and thus lower strain regions. Overall strain, and thus load, measured by strain gages and photogrammetry tracked fairly well with analytical predictions. Methods and areas of improvements are discussed.

  10. Utilizing Photogrammetry and Strain Gage Measurement to Characterize Pressurization of Inflatable Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Anil

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on integrating a large hatch penetration into inflatable modules of various constructions. This paper also compares load predictions with test measurements. The strain was measured by utilizing photogrammetric methods and strain gages mounted to select clevises that interface with the structural webbings. Bench testing showed good correlation between strain data collected from an extensometer and photogrammetric measurements, even when the material transitioned from the low load to high load strain region of the curve. The full-scale torus design module showed mixed results as well in the lower load and high strain regions. After thorough analysis of photogrammetric measurements, strain gage measurements, and predicted load, the photogrammetric measurements seem to be off by a factor of two.

  11. A new strain gage method for measuring the contractile strain ratio of Zircaloy tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.K.; Sabol, G.P.

    1988-01-01

    An improved strain gage method for determining the contractile strain ratio (CSR) of Zircaloy tubing was developed. The new method consists of a number of load-unload cyclings at approximately 0.2% plastic strain interval. With this method the CSR of Zircaloy-4 tubing could be determined accurately because it was possible to separate the plastic strains from the elastic strain involvement. The CSR values determined by use of the new method were in good agreement with those calculated from conventional post-test manual measurements. The CSR of the tubing was found to decrease with the amount of deformation during testing because of uneven plastic flow in the gage section. A new technique of inscribing gage marks by use of a YAG laser is discussed. (orig.)

  12. Nickel--chromium strain gages for cryogenic stress analysis of superconducting structures in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Magnetoresistance measurements of strain gages were made. The magnitude and variation of the magnetoresistance of a large number of strain gages were measured for the following conditions: (1) dc magnetic fields up to 12 T, (2) three orthogonal field directions, (3) increasing and decreasing fields, (4) a wide range of strain levels, and (5) liquid helium temperature

  13. Nickel--chromium strain gages for cryogenic stress analysis of superconducting structures in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freynik, H.S. Jr.; Roach, D.R.; Deis, D.W.; Hirzel, D.G.

    1977-01-01

    Evaluation and calibration measurements were performed on commercial nickel-chromium metal-foil strain gages in a high-magnetic-field (12 T), liquid-helium (4.2 K) environment. The purpose was to fully characterize strain gages for use at cryogenic temperatures in high magnetic fields. In this study, the magnetoresistance of a number of strain gages was measured in three orthogonal directions at mechanical strain levels to 8900 μm/m. As a result, a unique calibration curve was defined for magnetoresistance strain errors that is independent of strain level and field direction to 12 T at 4.2 K. A current strain-gage application is the measurement of superconductor mechanical properties. These gages will soon be used in the stress analysis of superconducting fusion magnets during cooldown from ambient temperatures and during operation at 4.2 K with magnetic fields to 12 T

  14. Problems in use and security of measurement of high temperature strain gages at various temperature limits up to 10000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, K.

    1982-01-01

    The examples given show the quality and use of manufacturers' data for a series of behaviour criteria for strain gages in the high temperature region. These results should not only be regarded critically. The manufacturer must appreciate that the very costly programme of investigations on the users' side represents a product development for large parts for the manufacturer of the strain gauges. It would therefore be desirable if these considerations were to initiate investigations on the manufacturer's part, in order to clear up the problematic are of the use of strain gages in the high temperature field, in order to provide the customer with more reliable and better strain gage characteristics for very expensive high temperature strain measurements. (orig.) [de

  15. Methodology to measure strains at high temperatures using electrical strain gages with free filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanazio Filho, Nelson N.; Gomes, Paulo T. Vida; Scaldaferri, Denis H.B.; Silva, Luiz L. da; Rabello, Emerson G.; Mansur, Tanius R.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental methodology used for strains measuring at high temperatures is show in this work. In order to do the measurements, it was used electric strain gages with loose filaments attached to a stainless steel 304 beam with specific cements. The beam has triangular shape and a constant thickness, so the strain is the same along its length. Unless the beam surface be carefully prepared, the strain gage attachment is not efficient. The showed results are for temperatures ranging from 20 deg C to 300 deg C, but the experimental methodology could be used to measure strains at a temperature up to 900 deg C. Analytical calculations based on solid mechanics were used to verify the strain gage electrical installation and the measured strains. At a first moment, beam deformations as a temperature function were plotted. After that, beam deformations with different weighs were plotted as a temperature function. The results shown allowed concluding that the experimental methodology is trustable to measure strains at temperatures up to 300 deg C. (author)

  16. Investigation of factors affecting the calibration of strain gage based transducers (''Goodzeit gages'') for SSC magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, M.; Gilbertson, A.; Dougherty, M.

    1991-03-01

    These transducers are designed to measure stresses on SSC collared coils. They are individually calibrated with a bonded ten-stack of SSC inner coil cable by applying a known load and reading corresponding output from the gages. The transducer is supported by a notched ''backing plate'' that allows for bending of the gage beam during calibration or in use with an actual coil. Several factors affecting the calibration and use of the transducers are: the number of times a ''backing plate'' is used, the similarities or difficulties between bonded ten-stacks, and the differences between the ten-stacks and the coil they represent. The latter is probably the most important because a calibration curve is a model of how a transducer should react within a coil. If the model is wrong, the calibration curve is wrong. Information will be presented regarding differences in calibrations between Brookhaven National Labs (also calibrating these transducers) and Fermilab -- what caused these differences, the investigation into the differences between coils and ten-stacks and how they relate to transducer calibration, and some suggestions for future calibrations

  17. Improved Regression Analysis of Temperature-Dependent Strain-Gage Balance Calibration Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.

    2015-01-01

    An improved approach is discussed that may be used to directly include first and second order temperature effects in the load prediction algorithm of a wind tunnel strain-gage balance. The improved approach was designed for the Iterative Method that fits strain-gage outputs as a function of calibration loads and uses a load iteration scheme during the wind tunnel test to predict loads from measured gage outputs. The improved approach assumes that the strain-gage balance is at a constant uniform temperature when it is calibrated and used. First, the method introduces a new independent variable for the regression analysis of the balance calibration data. The new variable is designed as the difference between the uniform temperature of the balance and a global reference temperature. This reference temperature should be the primary calibration temperature of the balance so that, if needed, a tare load iteration can be performed. Then, two temperature{dependent terms are included in the regression models of the gage outputs. They are the temperature difference itself and the square of the temperature difference. Simulated temperature{dependent data obtained from Triumph Aerospace's 2013 calibration of NASA's ARC-30K five component semi{span balance is used to illustrate the application of the improved approach.

  18. Thermal expansion measurement of turbine and main steam piping by using strain gages in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Sang Soo; Chung, Jae Won; Bong, Suk Kun; Jun, Dong Ki; Kim, Yun Suk

    2000-01-01

    One of the domestic co-generation plants have undergone excessive vibration problems of turbine attributed to external force for years. The root cause of turbine vibration may be shaft alignment problem which sometimes is changed by thermal expansion and external force, even if turbine technicians perfectly performed it. To evaluate the alignment condition from plant start-up to full load, a strain measurement of turbine and main steam piping subjected to thermal loading is monitored by using strain gages. The strain gages are bonded on both bearing housing adjusting bolts and pipe stoppers which installed in the x-direction of left-side main steam piping near the turbine inlet in order to monitor closely the effect of turbine under thermal deformation of turbine casing and main steam piping during plant full load. Also in situ load of constant support hangers in main steam piping system is measured by strain gages and its results are used to rebalance the hanger rod load. Consequently, the experimental stress analysis by using strain gages turns out to be very useful tool to diagnose the trouble and failures of not only to stationary components but to rotating machinery in power plants

  19. A Dual-Range Strain Gage Weighing Transducer Employing Automatic Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger A. Arola

    1968-01-01

    Describes a dual-range strain gage transducer which has proven to be an excellent weight-sensing device for weighing trees and tree-length logs; discusses basic principals of the design and operation; and shows that a single transducer having two sensitivity ranges with automatic internal switching can sense weight with good repeatability and that one calibration curve...

  20. Suitability of Strain Gage Sensors for Integration into Smart Sport Equipment: A Golf Club Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umek, Anton; Zhang, Yuan; Tomažič, Sašo; Kos, Anton

    2017-04-21

    Wearable devices and smart sport equipment are being increasingly used in amateur and professional sports. Smart sport equipment employs various sensors for detecting its state and actions. The correct choice of the most appropriate sensor(s) is of paramount importance for efficient and successful operation of sport equipment. When integrated into the sport equipment, ideal sensors are unobstructive, and do not change the functionality of the equipment. The article focuses on experiments for identification and selection of sensors that are suitable for the integration into a golf club with the final goal of their use in real time biofeedback applications. We tested two orthogonally affixed strain gage (SG) sensors, a 3-axis accelerometer, and a 3-axis gyroscope. The strain gage sensors are calibrated and validated in the laboratory environment by a highly accurate Qualisys Track Manager (QTM) optical tracking system. Field test results show that different types of golf swing and improper movement in early phases of golf swing can be detected with strain gage sensors attached to the shaft of the golf club. Thus they are suitable for biofeedback applications to help golfers to learn repetitive golf swings. It is suggested that the use of strain gage sensors can improve the golf swing technical error detection accuracy and that strain gage sensors alone are enough for basic golf swing analysis. Our final goal is to be able to acquire and analyze as many parameters of a smart golf club in real time during the entire duration of the swing. This would give us the ability to design mobile and cloud biofeedback applications with terminal or concurrent feedback that will enable us to speed-up motor skill learning in golf.

  1. Evaluation of metal-foil strain gages for cryogenic application in magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freynik, H.S. Jr.; Roach, D.R.; Deis, D.W.; Hirzel, D.G.

    1977-01-01

    The requirement for the design and construction of large superconducting magnet systems for fusion research has raised a number of new questions regarding the properties of composite superconducting conductors. One of these, the effect of mechanical stress on the current-carrying capacity of Nb 3 Sn, is of major importance in determining the feasibility of constructing large magnets with this material. A typical experiment for determining such data involves the measurement of critical current versus magnetic field while the conductor is being mechanically strained to various degrees. Techniques are well developed for the current and field measurements, but much less so for the accurate measurement of strain at liquid-helium temperature in a high magnetic field. A study was made of commercial, metal-foil strain gages for use under these conditions. The information developed can also be applied to the use of strain gages as diagnostic tools in superconducting magnets

  2. Wireless Zigbee strain gage sensor system for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Abdi, Frank; Miraj, Rashid; Dang, Chau; Takahashi, Tatsuya; Sauer, Bruce

    2009-05-01

    A compact cell phone size radio frequency (ZigBee) wireless strain measurement sensor system to measure the structural strain deformation was developed. The developed system provides an accurate strain measurement data stream to the Internet for further Diagnostic and Prognostic (DPS) correlation. Existing methods of structural measurement by strain sensors (gauges) do not completely satisfy problems posed by continuous structural health monitoring. The need for efficient health monitoring methods with real-time requirements to bidirectional data flow from sensors and to a commanding device is becoming critical for keeping our daily life safety. The use of full-field strain measurement techniques could reduce costly experimental programs through better understanding of material behavior. Wireless sensor-network technology is a monitoring method that is estimated to grow rapidly providing potential for cost savings over traditional wired sensors. The many of currently available wireless monitoring methods have: the proactive and constant data rate character of the data streams rather than traditional reactive, event-driven data delivery; mostly static node placement on structures with limited number of nodes. Alpha STAR Electronics' wireless sensor network system, ASWN, addresses some of these deficiencies, making the system easier to operate. The ASWN strain measurement system utilizes off-the-shelf sensors, namely strain gauges, with an analog-to-digital converter/amplifier and ZigBee radio chips to keep cost lower. Strain data is captured by the sensor, converted to digital form and delivered to the ZigBee radio chip, which in turn broadcasts the information using wireless protocols to a Personal Data Assistant (PDA) or Laptop/Desktop computers. From here, data is forwarded to remote computers for higher-level analysis and feedback using traditional cellular and satellite communication or the Ethernet infrastructure. This system offers a compact size, lower cost

  3. Wind Tunnel Strain-Gage Balance Calibration Data Analysis Using a Weighted Least Squares Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.; Volden, T.

    2017-01-01

    A new approach is presented that uses a weighted least squares fit to analyze wind tunnel strain-gage balance calibration data. The weighted least squares fit is specifically designed to increase the influence of single-component loadings during the regression analysis. The weighted least squares fit also reduces the impact of calibration load schedule asymmetries on the predicted primary sensitivities of the balance gages. A weighting factor between zero and one is assigned to each calibration data point that depends on a simple count of its intentionally loaded load components or gages. The greater the number of a data point's intentionally loaded load components or gages is, the smaller its weighting factor becomes. The proposed approach is applicable to both the Iterative and Non-Iterative Methods that are used for the analysis of strain-gage balance calibration data in the aerospace testing community. The Iterative Method uses a reasonable estimate of the tare corrected load set as input for the determination of the weighting factors. The Non-Iterative Method, on the other hand, uses gage output differences relative to the natural zeros as input for the determination of the weighting factors. Machine calibration data of a six-component force balance is used to illustrate benefits of the proposed weighted least squares fit. In addition, a detailed derivation of the PRESS residuals associated with a weighted least squares fit is given in the appendices of the paper as this information could not be found in the literature. These PRESS residuals may be needed to evaluate the predictive capabilities of the final regression models that result from a weighted least squares fit of the balance calibration data.

  4. Evaluation test of high temperature strain gages used in a stethoscope for OGL-1 components in an elevated temperature service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshimi; Tanaka, Isao; Komori, Yoshihiro; Suzuki; Toshiaki.

    1982-01-01

    The stethoscope for OGL-1 components in a elevated temperature service (SOCETS) is a measuring system of evaluation integrity of structures for high temperature pipings during operations of Japan Material Testing Reactor. This paper is described about the results on fundamental performance on high temperature strain gages. From their test results that have been based on correlation of temperature-timestrain factors, it became clear that two weldable strain gages and a capacitance strain gage were available for strain measurements of OGL-1 components. (author)

  5. Evaluation test of high temperature strain gages used in a stethoscope for OGL-1 components in an elevated temperature service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Toshimi (Kyowa Electronic Inst. Co. Ltd. (Japan)); Tanaka, Isao; Komori, Yoshihiro; Suzuki; Toshiaki

    1982-08-01

    The stethoscope for OGL-1 components in a elevated temperature service (SOCETS) is a measuring system of evaluation integrity of structures for high temperature pipings during operations of Japan Material Testing Reactor. This paper is described about the results on fundamental performance on high temperature strain gages. From their test results that have been based on correlation of temperature-timestrain factors, it became clear that two weldable strain gages and a capacitance strain gage were available for strain measurements of OGL-1 components.

  6. Iterative Strain-Gage Balance Calibration Data Analysis for Extended Independent Variable Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Norbert Manfred

    2011-01-01

    A new method was developed that makes it possible to use an extended set of independent calibration variables for an iterative analysis of wind tunnel strain gage balance calibration data. The new method permits the application of the iterative analysis method whenever the total number of balance loads and other independent calibration variables is greater than the total number of measured strain gage outputs. Iteration equations used by the iterative analysis method have the limitation that the number of independent and dependent variables must match. The new method circumvents this limitation. It simply adds a missing dependent variable to the original data set by using an additional independent variable also as an additional dependent variable. Then, the desired solution of the regression analysis problem can be obtained that fits each gage output as a function of both the original and additional independent calibration variables. The final regression coefficients can be converted to data reduction matrix coefficients because the missing dependent variables were added to the data set without changing the regression analysis result for each gage output. Therefore, the new method still supports the application of the two load iteration equation choices that the iterative method traditionally uses for the prediction of balance loads during a wind tunnel test. An example is discussed in the paper that illustrates the application of the new method to a realistic simulation of temperature dependent calibration data set of a six component balance.

  7. Design of membrane pressure indicators with strain gages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberzettl, G.

    1979-01-01

    A special type of pressure indicators, more or less well known under the name of 'membrane pressure indicators' is dealt with. In principle, they consist of a pipe socket which is open at one end and sealed by the 'membrane' at the other end. In case of internal pressure from the open side, the membrane will begin to arch. This arch, which is proportional to the internal pressure, is measured by suitable methods. A special form of strain ganges, so-called 'membrane pressure roses' have turned out to be particularly suitable here. The article gives general guidelines for the construction of membrane pressure indicators. (orig./HT) [de

  8. Stress Measurement around a Circular Role in a Cantilever Beam under Bending Moment Using Strain Gage and Reflective Photoelasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Tae Hyun; Park, Tae Geun; Yang, Min Bok [Kunsan National University, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    It is necessary to study on the stress concentration experimentally, which is the main reason to avoid mechanical dilapidation and failure, when designing a mechanical structure. Stress concentration factor of a specimen of cantilever beam with a circular hole in the center was measured using both strain gage and photoelastic methods in this paper. In strain-gage measurement, three strain gages along the line near a hole of the specimen were installed and maximum strain was extrapolated from three measurements. In photoelastic measurement, two methods were employed. First, the Babinet-Soleil compensation method was used to measure the maximum strain. Secondly, photoelastic 4-step phase shilling method was applied to observe the strain distribution around the hole. Measurements obtained by different experiments were comparable within the range of experimental error

  9. Stress Measurement around a Circular Role in a Cantilever Beam under Bending Moment Using Strain Gage and Reflective Photoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Tae Hyun; Park, Tae Geun; Yang, Min Bok

    2006-01-01

    It is necessary to study on the stress concentration experimentally, which is the main reason to avoid mechanical dilapidation and failure, when designing a mechanical structure. Stress concentration factor of a specimen of cantilever beam with a circular hole in the center was measured using both strain gage and photoelastic methods in this paper. In strain-gage measurement, three strain gages along the line near a hole of the specimen were installed and maximum strain was extrapolated from three measurements. In photoelastic measurement, two methods were employed. First, the Babinet-Soleil compensation method was used to measure the maximum strain. Secondly, photoelastic 4-step phase shilling method was applied to observe the strain distribution around the hole. Measurements obtained by different experiments were comparable within the range of experimental error

  10. Strain-gage signal-conditioning system for use in the LCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.F.; Walstrom, P.L.

    1979-01-01

    A strain-gage signal-conditioning system, providing wide-band noise rejection and isolation from high voltages that occur during emergency coil discharges, has been developed and tested. The multichannel system combines double-shielded transformers, neutralizing networks, and bandpass filters (with commercial 3-kHz carrier amplifier modules to isolate the strain gages to 5000 V) eliminate thermoelectric effects, and provide a signal bandwidth of 200 Hz. Common-mode interference occurs primarily as a result of beat-note effects between the carrier and the superimposed noise at frequencies near the odd harmonics of the carrier. The common-mode rejection of the test circuit was measured to be 120 dB for noise at 2750 and 3250 Hz, 135 dB at 3 kHz, and 135 dB and better at the odd harmonics of 9 kHz and above. The system has been successfully used in strain measurements on the toroidal field coils of the ISX-B tokamak and will be used in the Large Coil Test Facility to monitor strains in the energized coil conductors

  11. Thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements at cryogenic temperature using the strain gage method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Huiming; Huang, Rongjin; Zhao, Yuqiang; Huang, Chuangjun; Guo, Shibin; Shan, Yi; Li, Laifeng

    2018-03-01

    Thermal expansion and magnetostriction, the strain responses of a material to temperature and a magnetic field, especially properties at low temperature, are extremely useful to study electronic and phononic properties, phase transitions, quantum criticality, and other interesting phenomena in cryogenic engineering and materials science. However, traditional dilatometers cannot provide magnetic field and ultra low temperature (<77 K) environment easily. This paper describes the design and test results of thermal expansion and magnetostriction at cryogenic temperature using the strain gage method based on a Physical Properties Measurements System (PPMS). The interfacing software and automation were developed using LabVIEW. The sample temperature range can be tuned continuously between 1.8 K and 400 K. With this PPMS-aided measuring system, we can observe temperature and magnetic field dependence of the linear thermal expansion of different solid materials easily and accurately.

  12. Indium tin oxide thin film strain gages for use at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qing

    A robust ceramic thin film strain gage based on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) has been developed for static and dynamic strain measurements in advanced propulsion systems at temperatures up to 1400°C. These thin film sensors are ideally suited for in-situ strain measurement in harsh environments such as those encountered in the hot sections of gas turbine engines. A novel self-compensation scheme was developed using thin film platinum resistors placed in series with the active strain element (ITO) to minimize the thermal effect of strain or apparent strain. A mathematical model as well as design rules were developed for the self-compensated circuitry using this approach and close agreement between the model and actual static strain results has been achieved. High frequency dynamic strain tests were performed at temperatures up to 500°C and at frequencies up to 2000Hz to simulate conditions that would be encountered during engine vibration fatigue. The results indicated that the sensors could survive extreme test conditions while maintaining sensitivity. A reversible change in sign of the piezoresistive response from -G to +G was observed in the vicinity of 950°C, suggesting that the change carrier responsible for conduction in the ITO gage had been converted from a net "n-carrier" to a net "p-carrier" semiconductor. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) of the ITO films suggested they experienced an interfacial reaction with the Al2O3 substrate at 1400°C. It is likely that oxygen uptake from the substrate is responsible for stabilizing the ITO films to elevated temperatures through the interfacial reaction. Thermo gravimetric analysis of ITO films on alumina at elevated temperatures showed no sublimation of ITO films at temperature up to 1400°C. The surface morphology of ITO films heated to 800, 1200 and 1400°C were also evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). A linear current-voltage (I--V) characteristic indicated that the contact interface

  13. Quantum dots as mineral- and matrix-specific strain gages for bone biomechanical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Peizhi; Xu, Jiadi; Morris, Michael; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Sahar, Nadder; Kohn, David

    2009-02-01

    We report the use of quantum dots (Qdots) as strain gages in the study of bone biomechanics using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We have developed solid state NMR sample cells for investigation of deformations of bone tissue components at loads up to several Mega Pascal. The size constraints of the NMR instrumentation limit the bone specimen diameter and length to be no greater than 2-3 mm and 30 mm respectively. Further, magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR experiments require the use of non-metallic apparatus that can be rotated at kilohertz rates. These experimental constraints preclude the use of standard biomechanical measurement systems. In this paper we explore the use of quantum dot center of gravity measurement as a strain gage technology consistent with the constraints of solid state NMR. We use Qdots that bind calcium (625 nm emission) and collagen (705 nm emission) for measurement of strain in these components. Compressive loads are applied to a specimen in a cell through a fine pitch screw turned with a mini-torque wrench. Displacement is measured as changes in the positions of arrays of quantum dots on the surface of a specimen. Arrays are created by spotting the specimen with dilute suspensions of Qdots. Mineral labeling is achieved with 705 nm carboxylated dots and matrix labeling with 565 nm quantum dots conjugated to collagen I antibodies. After each load increment the new positions of the quantum dots are measured by fluorescence microscopy. Changes in Qdot center of gravity as a function of applied load can be measured with submicron accuracy.

  14. Review of Trackside Monitoring Solutions: From Strain Gages to Optical Fibre Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Kouroussis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent research on structural monitoring in railway industry is proposed in this paper, with a special focus on stress-based solutions. After a brief analysis of the mechanical behaviour of ballasted railway tracks, an overview of the most common monitoring techniques is presented. A special attention is paid on strain gages and accelerometers for which the accurate mounting position on the track is requisite. These types of solution are then compared to another modern approach based on the use of optical fibres. Besides, an in-depth discussion is made on the evolution of numerical models that investigate the interaction between railway vehicles and tracks. These models are used to validate experimental devices and to predict the best location(s of the sensors. It is hoped that this review article will stimulate further research activities in this continuously expanding field.

  15. Flexible Riser Monitoring Using Hybrid Magnetic/Optical Strain Gage Techniques through RLS Adaptive Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pipa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible riser is a class of flexible pipes which is used to connect subsea pipelines to floating offshore installations, such as FPSOs (floating production/storage/off-loading unit and SS (semisubmersible platforms, in oil and gas production. Flexible risers are multilayered pipes typically comprising an inner flexible metal carcass surrounded by polymer layers and spiral wound steel ligaments, also referred to as armor wires. Since these armor wires are made of steel, their magnetic properties are sensitive to the stress they are subjected to. By measuring their magnetic properties in a nonintrusive manner, it is possible to compare the stress in the armor wires, thus allowing the identification of damaged ones. However, one encounters several sources of noise when measuring electromagnetic properties contactlessly, such as movement between specimen and probe, and magnetic noise. This paper describes the development of a new technique for automatic monitoring of armor layers of flexible risers. The proposed approach aims to minimize these current uncertainties by combining electromagnetic measurements with optical strain gage data through a recursive least squares (RLSs adaptive filter.

  16. Dynamic testing of POSI-SEAL motor-operated butterfly valves using strain gages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, M.C.; Chiou, D.

    1994-01-01

    Utilities operating nuclear power plants recognize that the correct functioning of all motor-operated valves, and particularly those in safety-related systems, is of paramount importance. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued Generic Letter 89-10 relative to this concern. Operability must be demonstrated under design-basis conditions. In order to demonstrate operability of motor-operated butterfly valves, the valve stem torque must be determined. The valve stem torque is a function of seat material, stem packing, stem bearing friction, and hydrodynamic lift and drag. The total valve operating hydrodynamic torque can be predicted using the valve manufacturer's data and the differential pressure. In order to validate the valve manufacturer's data, the actual total valve hydrodynamic torque is measured using strain gages mounted directly on the valve stem. This paper presents the results of comparing the predicted total valve operating hydrodynamic torque with the actual total valve operating hydrodynamic torque for six POSI-SEAL Class 150 high performance butterfly valves

  17. Strain Gage Load Calibration of the Wing Interface Fittings for the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flap Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric J.; Holguin, Andrew C.; Cruz, Josue; Lokos, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This is the presentation to follow conference paper of the same name. The adaptive compliant trailing edge (ACTE) flap experiment safety of flight requires that the flap to wing interface loads be sensed and monitored in real time to ensure that the wing structural load limits are not exceeded. This paper discusses the strain gage load calibration testing and load equation derivation methodology for the ACTE interface fittings. Both the left and right wing flap interfaces will be monitored and each contains four uniquely designed and instrumented flap interface fittings. The interface hardware design and instrumentation layout are discussed. Twenty one applied test load cases were developed using the predicted in-flight loads for the ACTE experiment.

  18. Standard test methods for performance characteristics of metallic bonded resistance strain gages

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 The purpose of this standard is to provide uniform test methods for the determination of strain gauge performance characteristics. Suggested testing equipment designs are included. 1.2 Test Methods E 251 describes methods and procedures for determining five strain gauge parameters: Section Part I—General Requirements 7 Part II—Resistance at a Reference Temperature 8 Part III—Gauge Factor at a Reference Temperature 9 Part IV—Temperature Coefficient of Gauge Factor\t10 Part V—Transverse Sensitivity\t11 Part VI—Thermal Output\t12 1.3 Strain gauges are very sensitive devices with essentially infinite resolution. Their response to strain, however, is low and great care must be exercised in their use. The performance characteristics identified by these test methods must be known to an acceptable accuracy to obtain meaningful results in field applications. 1.3.1 Strain gauge resistance is used to balance instrumentation circuits and to provide a reference value for measurements since all data are...

  19. Inexpensive Bolt-Load Gage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    "Built-in" gage determines whether large bolt or stud has been torqued to desired load and provides for continuous inspection to ensure proper load is being maintained. Gage detects longitudinal stress/strain bolt; requires no electronic or sonic test equipment.

  20. Design and construction of a strain gage compression load cell to measure rolling forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeffer, L.; Borchardt, I.G.; Carvalho, L.F.A.

    1978-05-01

    A complete detailed mechanical desion of a strain gauge compression load cell is presented. This cell was specialy designed to measure rolling forces at conventional duo or trio industrial roughing stands. The stands, in general, have little space (height) to adjust to the cells. Moreover the contact stands surfaces are very rough. Do to this facts, load cells of elastic cilindrical geometries are not recommended for accuracies better than 8%. This work describes the complete design and the construction of a circular (membrane) steel plate load cell. A prototype of 300 KN (approximately 30t) capacity, with 2% accuracies and with a height of 6 cm was constructed and tested. The design proposed is a general one and permits the construction of small load cells to measure any compression load [pt

  1. Direct measurements of wall shear stress by buried wire gages in a shock-wave boundary-layer interaction region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, V. S.; Rose, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed measurements of wall shear stress (skin friction) were made with specially developed buried wire gages in the interaction regions of a Mach 2.9 turbulent boundary layer with externally generated shocks. Separation and reattachment points inferred by these measurements support the findings of earlier experiments which used a surface oil flow technique and pitot profile measurements. The measurements further indicate that the boundary layer tends to attain significantly higher skin-friction values downstream of the interaction region as compared to upstream. Comparisons between measured wall shear stress and published results of some theoretical calculation schemes show that the general, but not detailed, behavior is predicted well by such schemes.

  2. Analysis of residual transverse stresses in a thick UD glass/polyester pultruded profile using hole drilling with strain gage and digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Onur; Baran, Ismet; Ersoy, Nuri; Akkerman, Remko

    2018-05-01

    Process induced stresses inherently exist in fiber reinforced polymer composites particularly in thick parts due to the presence of non-uniform cure, shrinkage and thermal expansion/contraction during manufacturing. In order to increase the reliability and the performance of the composite materials, process models are developed to predict the residual stress formation. The accuracy of the process models is dependent on the geometrical (micro to macro), material and process parameters as well as the numerical implementation. Therefore, in order to have reliable process modelling framework, there is a need for validation and if necessary calibration of the developed models. This study focuses on measurement of the transverse residual stresses in a relatively thick pultruded profile (20×20 mm) made of glass/polyester. Process-induced residual stresses in the middle of the profile are examined with different techniques which have never been applied for transverse residual stresses in thick unidirectional composites. Hole drilling method with strain gage and digital image correlation are employed. Strain values measured from measurements are used in a finite element model (FEM) to simulate the hole drilling process and predict the residual stress level. The measured released strain is found to be approximately 180 μm/m from the strain gage. The tensile residual stress at the core of the profile is estimated approximately as 7-10 MPa. Proposed methods and measured values in this study will enable validation and calibration of the process models based on the residual stresses.

  3. Streamflow Gaging Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  4. Regional Relations in Bankfull Channel Characteristics determined from flow measurements at selected stream-gaging stations in West Virginia, 1911-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Terence; Wiley, Jeffrey B.

    2004-01-01

    Three bankfull channel characteristics?cross-sectional area, width, and depth?were significantly correlated with drainage area in regression equations developed for two regions in West Virginia. Channel characteristics were determined from analysis of flow measurements made at 74 U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations at flows between 0.5 and 5.0 times bankfull flow between 1911 and 2002. Graphical and regression analysis were used to delineate an 'Eastern Region' and a 'Western Region,' which were separated by the boundary between the Appalachian Plateaus and Valley and Ridge Physiographic Provinces. Streams that drained parts of both provinces had channel characteristics typical of the Eastern Region, and were grouped with it. Standard error for the six regression equations, three for each region, ranged between 8.7 and 16 percent. Cross-sectional area and depth were greater relative to drainage area for the Western Region than they were for the Eastern Region. Regression equations were defined for streams draining between 46.5 and 1,619 square miles for the Eastern Region, and between 2.78 and 1,354 square miles for the Western Region. Stream-gaging stations with two or more cross sections where flow had been measured at flows between 0.5 and 5.0 times the 1.5-year flow showed poor replication of channel characteristics compared to the 95-percent confidence intervals of the regression, suggesting that within-reach variability for the stream-gaging stations may be substantial. A disproportionate number of the selected stream-gaging stations were on large (drainage area greater than 100 square miles) streams in the central highlands of West Virginia, and only one stream-gaging station that met data-quality criteria was available to represent the region within about 50 miles of the Ohio River north of Parkersburg, West Virginia. Many of the cross sections were at bridges, which can change channel shape. Although the data discussed in this report may not be

  5. Versatile radiation gaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    The attributes of computerized versatile radiation gaging systems are described. The gages are used to measure plating thicknesses and material characteristics that can be determined from radiation attenuation and/or x-ray fluorescence measurements

  6. GAGES-II: Geospatial Attributes of Gages for Evaluating Streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, James A.

    2011-01-01

    This dataset, termed "GAGES II", an acronym for Geospatial Attributes of Gages for Evaluating Streamflow, version II, provides geospatial data and classifications for 9,322 stream gages maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). It is an update to the original GAGES, which was published as a Data Paper on the journal Ecology's website (Falcone and others, 2010b) in 2010. The GAGES II dataset consists of gages which have had either 20+ complete years (not necessarily continuous) of discharge record since 1950, or are currently active, as of water year 2009, and whose watersheds lie within the United States, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. Reference gages were identified based on indicators that they were the least-disturbed watersheds within the framework of broad regions, based on 12 major ecoregions across the United States. Of the 9,322 total sites, 2,057 are classified as reference, and 7,265 as non-reference. Of the 2,057 reference sites, 1,633 have (through 2009) 20+ years of record since 1950. Some sites have very long flow records: a number of gages have been in continuous service since 1900 (at least), and have 110 years of complete record (1900-2009) to date. The geospatial data include several hundred watershed characteristics compiled from national data sources, including environmental features (e.g. climate – including historical precipitation, geology, soils, topography) and anthropogenic influences (e.g. land use, road density, presence of dams, canals, or power plants). The dataset also includes comments from local USGS Water Science Centers, based on Annual Data Reports, pertinent to hydrologic modifications and influences. The data posted also include watershed boundaries in GIS format. This overall dataset is different in nature to the USGS Hydro-Climatic Data Network (HCDN; Slack and Landwehr 1992), whose data evaluation ended with water year 1988. The HCDN identifies stream gages which at some point in their history had

  7. Accelerometer and strain gage evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Madsen, M.M.; Uncapher, W.L.; Stenberg, D.R.; Bronowski, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    This document describes the method developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to evaluate transducer used in the design certification testing of nuclear material shipping packages. This testing project was performed by SNL for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). This evaluation is based on the results of tests conducted to measure ruggedness, failure frequency, repeatability, and manufacturers' calibration data under both field and laboratory conditions. The results of these tests are provided and discussed. The transducer were selected for testing by surveying cask contractors and testing facilities. Important insights relating to operational characteristics of accelerometer types were gained during field testing. 11 refs., 105 figs., 16 tabs

  8. Vertical datum conversion process for the inland and coastal gage network located in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and South Atlantic-Gulf hydrologic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlund, Jr., Paul H.; Noll, Michael L.

    2017-03-07

    Datum conversions from the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 among inland and coastal gages throughout the hydrologic regions of New England, the Mid-Atlantic, and the South Atlantic-Gulf have implications among river and storm surge forecasting, general commerce, and water-control operations. The process of data conversions may involve the application of a recovered National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929–North American Vertical Datum of 1988 offset, a simplistic datum transformation using VDatum or VERTCON software, or a survey, depending on a gaging network datum evaluation, anticipated uncertainties for data use among the cooperative water community, and methods used to derive the conversion. Datum transformations from National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 to North American Vertical Datum of 1988 using VERTCON purport errors of ± 0.13 foot at the 95 percent confidence level among modeled points, claiming more consistency along the east coast. Survey methods involving differential and trigonometric leveling, along with observations using Global Navigation Satellite System technology, afford a variety of approaches to establish or perpetuate a datum during a survey. Uncertainties among leveling approaches are generally quality category and ≥0.1 foot for Level II or III quality categories (defined by the U.S. Geological Survey) by observation and review of experienced practice. The conversion process is initiated with an evaluation of the inland and coastal gage network datum, beginning with altitude datum components and the history of those components queried through the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Site Inventory database. Subsequent edits to the Groundwater Site Inventory database may be required and a consensus reached among the U.S. Geological Survey Water Science Centers to identify the outstanding workload categorized as in-office datum transformations or offset applications versus out

  9. SAF line pellet gaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedlovec, D.R.; Bowen, W.W.; Brown, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    Automated and remotely controlled pellet inspection operations will be utilized in the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line. A prototypic pellet gage was designed and tested to verify conformance to the functions and requirements for measurement of diameter, surface flaws and weight-per-unit length

  10. Towards the determination of deformation rates - pinch-and-swell structures as a natural and simulated paleo-strain rate gage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Max; Poulet, Thomas; Karrech, Ali; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Herwegh, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Layered rocks deformed under viscous deformation conditions frequently show boudinage, a phenomenon that results from differences in effective viscosity between the involved layers. In the case of continuous necking of a mechanically stiffer layer embedded in a weaker matrix, symmetric boudins are interpreted as the result of dominant visco-plastic deformation (Goscombe et al., 2004). However, information on the physical conditions, material properties and deformation processes are yet unknown. Natural samples deformed under low-grade (TAustin and Evans (2007) combined with the thermodynamic approach of Regenauer-Lieb and Yuen (2004). Depending on the dissipated energy, grain sizes in these domains vary substantially in space and time. While low strain rates (low stresses) in the swells favor grain growth and GSI dominated deformation, high strain rates in the pinches provoke dramatic grain size reduction with an increasing contribution of GSS as a function of decreasing grain size. The development of symmetric necks observed in nature thus seems to coincide with the transition from dislocation to diffusion creep dominated flow with continuous grain size reduction and growth from swell to neck at relatively high extensional strains. REFERENCES Austin, N. and Evans, B. (2007). Paleowattmeters: A scaling relation for dynamically recrystallized grain size. Geology, 35. Goscombe, B.D., Passchier, C.W. and Hand, M. (2004). Boudinage classification: End-member boudin types and modified boudin structures, Journal of Structural Geology, 26. Herwegh, M., Poulet, T., Karrech, A. and Regenauer-Lieb, K. (in press). From transient to steady state deformation and grain size: A thermodynamic approach using elasto-visco-plastic numerical modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research. Karrech, A., Regenauer-Lieb, K. and Poulet, T. (2011a). A Damaged visco-plasticity model for pressure and temperature sensitive geomaterials. Journal of Engineering Science 49. Regenauer-Lieb, K. and Yuen

  11. Regional strain variations in the human patellar tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Stephen J; Ritchings, Tim; Mohamed, Azlan S A

    2014-07-01

    Characteristics of localized tendon strain in vivo are largely unknown. The present study examines local tendon strain between the deep, middle, and surface structures at the proximal and distal aspects of the patellar tendon during ramped isometric contractions. Male subjects (age 28.0 ± 6.3 yr) were examined for patellar tendon excursion (anterior, midsection, and posterior) during ramped isometric voluntary contractions using real-time B-mode ultrasonography and dynamometry. Regional tendon excursion measurements were compared using an automated pixel tracking method. Strain was determined from the tendon delta length normalized to initial/resting segment length. Strain increased from 10% to 100% of force for all regions. Significantly greater mean strain was seen for the anterior proximal region compared to the posterior and mid layer of the tendon (7.5% ± 1.1% vs 3.7% ± 0.5% vs 5.5% ± 1.0%; P < 0.05). Similarly, the distal posterior region showed greater mean strain compared to the mid and anterior regions (7.9% ± 0.6% vs 5.0% ± 0.6% vs 5.4% ± 0.6%; P < 0.05). Relative changes in strain differences from 50% to 100% of force for the proximal region were greatest for the anterior to midline regions (4.6% ± 0.6% and 5.6% ± 0.6%, respectively) and those for the distal region were also greatest for the anterior to midline regions (4.4% ± 0.2% and 5.3% ± 0.2%, respectively). The largest mean strain for the proximal region was at the anterior layer (7.5% ± 1.1%) and that for the distal tendon region was at the posterior layer (7.9% ± 0.9%). This study shows significant regional differences in strain during ramped isometric contractions for the patellar tendon. Lower proximal strains in the posterior tendon compared to the anterior region may be associated with the suggestion of "stress shielding" as an etiological factor in insertional tendinopathy.

  12. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Šuranská

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were employed to differentiate among indigenous S. cerevisiae strains. This combination of the methods provides a rapid and relatively simple approach for identification of yeast of S. cerevisiae at strain level. In total, 120 isolates were identified and grouped by molecular approaches and 45 of the representative strains were tested for selected important oenological properties including ethanol, sulfur dioxide and osmotic stress tolerance, intensity of flocculation and desirable enzymatic activities. Their ability to produce and utilize acetic/malic acid was examined as well; in addition, H2S production as an undesirable property was screened. The oenological characteristics of indigenous isolates were compared to a commercially available S. cerevisiae BS6 strain, which is commonly used as the starter culture. Finally, some indigenous strains coming from organically treated grape berries were chosen for their promising oenological properties and these strains will be used as the starter culture, because application of a selected indigenous S. cerevisiae strain can enhance the regional character of the wines.

  13. Fiber Strain Measurement for Wide Region Quasidistributed Sensing by Optical Correlation Sensor with Region Separation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunjian Xu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The useful application of optical pulse correlation sensor for wide region quasidistributed fiber strain measurement is investigated. Using region separation techniques of wavelength multiplexing with FBGs and time multiplexing with intensity partial reflectors, the sensor measures the correlations between reference pulses and monitoring pulses from several cascadable selected sensing regions. This novel sensing system can select the regions and obtain the distributed strain information in any desired sensing region.

  14. Stage measurement at gaging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Vernon B.; Turnipseed, D. Phil

    2010-01-01

    Stream and reservoir stage are critical parameters in the computation of stream discharge and reservoir volume, respectively. In addition, a record of stream stage is useful in the design of structures that may be affected by stream elevation, as well as for the planning for various uses of flood plains. This report describes equipment and methodology for the observation, sensing, and recording of stage in streams and reservoirs. Although the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) still uses the traditional, basic stilling-well float system as a predominant gaging station, modern electronic stage sensors and water-level recorders are now commonly used. Bubble gages coupled with nonsubmersible pressure transducers eliminate the need for stilling wells. Submersible pressure transducers have become common in use for the measurement of stage in both rivers and lakes. Furthermore, noncontact methods, such as radar, acoustic, and laser methods of sensing water levels, are being developed and tested, and in the case of radar, are commonly used for the measurement of stage. This report describes commonly used gaging-station structures, as well as the design and operation of gaging stations. Almost all of the equipment and instruments described in this report will meet the accuracy standard set by the USGS Office of Surface Water (OSW) for the measurement of stage for most applications, which is ±0.01 foot (ft) or 0.2 percent of the effective stage. Several telemetry systems are used to transmit stage data from the gaging station to the office, although satellite telemetry has become the standard. These telemetry systems provide near real-time stage data, as well as other information that alerts the hydrographer to extreme or abnormal events, and instrument malfunctions.

  15. Gage for measuring coastal erosion and sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpini, T. D.; Moughon, W. C.

    1970-01-01

    Underwater sand height gage, which measures heights up to 12 inches, is comprised of two standard flush-diaphragm pressure transducers. Gage is very sensitive to buried water heights and is useful as a research tool in study of wet earth and landslide phenomena.

  16. Non-metallic gage for gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroki, Hideo.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns a non-metallic gage for detecting a gap which can not be seen from the out side such as a gap between a water pipe and fuel rods without damaging an objective material as to whether the gap is formed within a standard value or not. The gage is made of a synthetic resin, for example, polyacetal having such a hardness as not damaging the objective material and endurable to repeating flexure upon use. The gage comprises a short gage portion having a predetermined standard thickness and an flexible extended connection portion reduced in the thickness. Provision of the extended connection portion enables wide range flexure thereof such as ±60deg relative to insertion direction during insertion operation upon testing to solve a drawback in the prior art such as worry of breakage of the gage, thereby enabling to conduct inspection rapidly at high reliability. (N.H.)

  17. The effects of incomplete annealing on the temperature dependence of sheet resistance and gage factor in aluminum and phosphorus implanted silicon on sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisciotta, B. P.; Gross, C.

    1976-01-01

    Partial annealing of damage to the crystal lattice during ion implantation reduces the temperature coefficient of resistivity of ion-implanted silicon, while facilitating controlled doping. Reliance on this method for temperature compensation of the resistivity and strain-gage factor is discussed. Implantation conditions and annealing conditions are detailed. The gage factor and its temperature variation are not drastically affected by crystal damage for some crystal orientations. A model is proposed to account for the effects of electron damage on the temperature dependence of resistivity and on silicon piezoresistance. The results are applicable to the design of silicon-on-sapphire strain gages with high gage factors.

  18. Discharge measurements at gaging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, D. Phil; Sauer, Vernon B.

    2010-01-01

    The techniques and standards for making discharge measurements at streamflow gaging stations are described in this publication. The vertical axis rotating-element current meter, principally the Price current meter, has been traditionally used for most measurements of discharge; however, advancements in acoustic technology have led to important developments in the use of acoustic Doppler current profilers, acoustic Doppler velocimeters, and other emerging technologies for the measurement of discharge. These new instruments, based on acoustic Doppler theory, have the advantage of no moving parts, and in the case of the acoustic Doppler current profiler, quickly and easily provide three-dimensional stream-velocity profile data through much of the vertical water column. For much of the discussion of acoustic Doppler current profiler moving-boat methodology, the reader is referred to U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 3-A22 (Mueller and Wagner, 2009). Personal digital assistants (PDAs), electronic field notebooks, and other personal computers provide fast and efficient data-collection methods that are more error-free than traditional hand methods. The use of portable weirs and flumes, floats, volumetric tanks, indirect methods, and tracers in measuring discharge are briefly described.

  19. A self-strain feedback tuning-fork-shaped ionic polymer metal composite clamping actuator with soft matter elasticity-detecting capability for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guo-Hua; Huang, Wei-Lun

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a smart tuning-fork-shaped ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) clamping actuator for biomedical applications. The two fingers of the actuator, which perform the clamping motion, can be electrically controlled through a unique electrode design on the IPMC material. The generated displacement or strain of the fingers can be sensed using an integrated soft strain-gage sensor. The IPMC actuator and associated soft strain gage were fabricated using a micromachining technique. A 13.5×4×2 mm(3) actuator was shaped from Nafion solution and a selectively grown metal electrode formed the active region. The strain gage consisted of patterned copper foil and polyethylene as a substrate. The relationship between the strain gage voltage output and the displacement at the front end of the actuator's fingers was characterized. The equivalent Young's modulus, 13.65 MPa, of the soft-strain-gage-integrated IPMC finger was analyzed. The produced clamping force exhibited a linear increasing rate of 1.07 mN/s, based on a dc driving voltage of 7 V. Using the developed actuator to clamp soft matter and simultaneously acquire its Young's modulus was achieved. This demonstrated the feasibility of the palpation function and the potential use of the actuator in minimally invasive surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cross-Comparison of Leaching Strains Isolated from Two Different Regions: Chambishi and Dexing Copper Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Ngom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-comparison of six strains isolated from two different regions, Chambishi copper mine (Zambia, Africa and Dexing copper mine (China, Asia, was conducted to study the leaching efficiency of low grade copper ores. The strains belong to the three major species often encountered in bioleaching of copper sulfide ores under mesophilic conditions: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, and Leptospirillum ferriphilum. Prior to their study in bioleaching, the different strains were characterized and compared at physiological level. The results revealed that, except for copper tolerance, strains within species presented almost similar physiological traits with slight advantages of Chambishi strains. However, in terms of leaching efficiency, native strains always achieved higher cell density and greater iron and copper extraction rates than the foreign microorganisms. In addition, microbial community analysis revealed that the different mixed cultures shared almost the same profile, and At. ferrooxidans strains always outcompeted the other strains.

  1. Latin square three dimensional gage master

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lynn L.

    1982-01-01

    A gage master for coordinate measuring machines has an nxn array of objects distributed in the Z coordinate utilizing the concept of a Latin square experimental design. Using analysis of variance techniques, the invention may be used to identify sources of error in machine geometry and quantify machine accuracy.

  2. Low pressure gage type VM-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandea, I.; Curuia, M.; Culcer, M.

    2000-01-01

    High vacuum systems became an important element of many applied technologies, from gas analysers to rocket engines. An intelligent apparatus for pressure measurement in the range of 10 -3 - 10 -8 mbar, with incorporated INTEL 80C51 microcontroller is presented. Based on a Bayard-Alpert hot cathode gage, equally developed in our institute, the pressure gage allows the displaying of different operation parameters and also of the error codes for different kinds of malfunctioning, as for instance missing of grid voltage, grid-collector breakdown, pressure increasing above 10 -3 mbar. Its operation is based on a microcontroller assembly language program especially worked out and introduced in the central units EPROM memory. The gage characteristics for different gases are also introduced in an EPROM memory, and the type of the gas is selected by the operator from the front panel. One can select also from the front panel the pressure unit (mbar, torr, Pa). If a remote control is necessary, this can be done by means of a PC, with a program written in the LabVIEW graphical programming language. The pressure gage was tested and calibrated in relation with an EDWARDS vacuum measuring system and provided a good accuracy (better than 25%). Its field of application is both laboratory and industrial measurements. Its main features are: - supply voltage, 220 V ac / 50 Hz; - power consumption, 30 W; - gage's grid supply voltage, 160 V; grid current, 2 mA / p = 10 -5 ...10 -8 mbar and 0.2 mA / p = 10 -3 ...10 -5 mbar; - cathode heating current, max. 3 A; - measuring range, 10 -3 ...10 -8 mbar; - error of measurement, ±35%; - remote control, according to the RS232 standard; - size, 320 x 200 x 100 mm; - weight, 3.5 Kg. (authors)

  3. [Phylogenetic analysis of genomes of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated on the territory of Rostov region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshov, K V; Markelov, M L; Dedkov, V G; Vodop'ianov, A S; Kermanov, A V; Pisanov, R V; Kruglikov, V D; Mazrukho, A B; Maleev, V V; Shipulin, G A

    2013-01-01

    Determination of origin of 2 Vibrio cholerae strains isolated on the territory of Rostov region by using full genome sequencing data. Toxigenic strain 2011 EL- 301 V. cholerae 01 El Tor Inaba No. 301 (ctxAB+, tcpA+) and nontoxigenic strain V. cholerae O1 Ogawa P- 18785 (ctxAB-, tcpA+) were studied. Sequencing was carried out on the MiSeq platform. Phylogenetic analysis of the genomes obtained was carried out based on comparison of conservative part of the studied and 54 previously sequenced genomes. 2011EL-301 strain genome was presented by 164 contigs with an average coverage of 100, N50 parameter was 132 kb, for strain P- 18785 - 159 contigs with a coverage of69, N50 - 83 kb. The contigs obtained for strain 2011 EL-301 were deposited in DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases with access code AJFN02000000, for strain P-18785 - ANHS00000000. 716 protein-coding orthologous genes were detected. Based on phylogenetic analysis strain P- 18785 belongs to PG-1 subgroup (a group of predecessor strains of the 7th pandemic). Strain 2011EL-301 belongs to groups of strains of the 7th pandemic and is included into the cluster with later isolates that are associated with cases of cholera in South Africa and cases of import of cholera to the USA from Pakistan. The data obtained allows to establish phylogenetic connections with V cholerae strains isolated earlier.

  4. Improved nuclear gage development - phase i and ii. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, E.L.; Champion, F.C.; Castanon, D.R.; Chang, J.C.; Hannon, J.B.

    1976-09-01

    This report contains Phase I and II of an investigation covering the design and construction of a prototype nuclear-moisture-density backscatter gage. Gage development was based upon the analysis of several factors which affect gage performance. This research indicated that the prototype gage measurements are approximately equivalent to measurements obtained by a commercial transmission gage. The implication of this research finding concerns the qualification of the backscatter test method as a valid, reliable, and expedient procedure for determining in-situ soil conditions

  5. Sensitivity of hot-cathode ionization vacuum gages in several gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, R.

    1972-01-01

    Four hot-cathode ionization vacuum gages were calibrated in 12 gases. The relative sensitivities of these gages were compared to several gas properties. Ionization cross section was the physical property which correlated best with gage sensitivity. The effects of gage accelerating voltage and ionization-cross-section energy level were analyzed. Recommendations for predicting gage sensitivity according to gage type were made.

  6. Strain-encoding cardiovascular magnetic resonance for assessment of right-ventricular regional function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham M Roselle

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue tagging by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR is a comprehensive method for the assessment of cardiac regional function. However, imaging the right ventricle (RV using this technique is problematic due to the thin wall of the RV relative to tag spacing which limits assessment of regional function using conventional in-plane tagging. Hypothesis We hypothesize that the use of through-plane tags in the strain-encoding (SENC CMR technique would result in reproducible measurements of the RV regional function due to the high image quality and spatial resolution possible with SENC. Aim To test the intra- and inter-observer variabilities of RV peak systolic strain measurements with SENC CMR for assessment of RV regional function (systolic strain in healthy volunteers. Methods Healthy volunteers (n = 21 were imaged using SENC. A four-chamber view was acquired in a single breath-hold. Circumferential strain was measured during systole at six equidistant points along the RV free wall. Peak contraction is defined as the maximum value of circumferential strain averaged from the six points, and regional function is defined as the strain value at each point at the time of peak contraction. Results Mean values for peak circumferential strain (± standard deviation of the basal, mid, and apical regions of the RV free wall were -20.4 ± 2.9%, -18.8 ± 3.9%, and -16.5 ± 5.7%, Altman plots showed good intra- and inter-observer agreements with mean difference of 0.11% and 0.32% and limits of agreement of -4.038 to 4.174 and -4.903 to 5.836, respectively. Conclusion SENC CMR allows for rapid quantification of RV regional function with low intra- and inter-observer variabilities, which could permit accurate quantification of regional strain in patients with RV dysfunction.

  7. Role of Prion Replication in the Strain-dependent Brain Regional Distribution of Prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping Ping; Morales, Rodrigo; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Moreno-Gonzalez, Ines; Khan, Uffaf; Soto, Claudio

    2016-06-10

    One intriguing feature of prion diseases is their strain variation. Prion strains are differentiated by the clinical consequences they generate in the host, their biochemical properties, and their potential to infect other animal species. The selective targeting of these agents to specific brain structures have been extensively used to characterize prion strains. However, the molecular basis dictating strain-specific neurotropism are still elusive. In this study, isolated brain structures from animals infected with four hamster prion strains (HY, DY, 139H, and SSLOW) were analyzed for their content of protease-resistant PrP(Sc) Our data show that these strains have different profiles of PrP deposition along the brain. These patterns of accumulation, which were independent of regional PrP(C) production, were not reproduced by in vitro replication when different brain regions were used as substrate for the misfolding-amplification reaction. On the contrary, our results show that in vitro replication efficiency depended exclusively on the amount of PrP(C) present in each part of the brain. Our results suggest that the variable regional distribution of PrP(Sc) in distinct strains is not determined by differences on prion formation, but on other factors or cellular pathways. Our findings may contribute to understand the molecular mechanisms of prion pathogenesis and strain diversity. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Asia-Pacific region's oil demand growth strains refining capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The rapidly industrializing Asia-Pacific region has become a stand-alone economic force and the world's growth market for oil. Japan remains the region's premier economic powerhouse but no longer its only one. And Asia-Pacific economic fortunes have decoupled from the more-mature economies of Europe and the U.S. The East-West Center, Honolulu, in January projected Asia-Pacific average oil demand growth of 3.6%/year through 1999, nearly double what most economists expect for oil demand growth worldwide. Demand reached 14.5 million b/d in 1992, up 862,000 b/d from 1991. East-West Center analysts project demand of 16.4 million b/d in 1995 and 19.1 million b/d by 2000. Not all analysts expect such rapid growth for the region. Edward N. Krapels, president of Energy Security Analysis Inc., Washington, D.C., told a seminar in Houston during March that demand in Southeast Asia will grow at an average of 500,000 b/d/year. The paper discusses economic strength; regional demand; the pressure on refining; the shortfall seen; an opposing view from the Energy Security Analysis; and construction activity

  9. Design, analysis, and initial testing of a fiber-optic shear gage for three-dimensional, high-temperature flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Matthew W.

    This investigation concerns the design, analysis, and initial testing of a new, two-component wall shear gage for 3D, high-temperature flows. This gage is a direct-measuring, non-nulling design with a round head surrounded by a small gap. Two flexure wheels are used to allow small motions of the floating head. Fiber-optic displacement sensors measure how far the polished faces of counterweights on the wheels move in relation to a fixed housing as the primary measurement system. No viscous damping was required. The gage has both fiber-optic instrumentation and strain gages mounted on the flexures for validation of the newer fiber optics. The sensor is constructed of Haynes RTM 230RTM, a high-temperature nickel alloy. The gage housing is made of 316 stainless steel. All components of the gage in pure fiber-optic form can survive to a temperature of 1073 K. The bonding methods of the backup strain gages limit their maximum temperature to 473 K. The dynamic range of the gage is from 0--500 Pa (0--10g) and higher shears can be measured by changing the floating head size. Extensive use of finite element modeling was critical to the design and analysis of the gage. Static structural, modal, and thermal analyses were performed on the flexures using the ANSYS finite element package. Static finite element analysis predicted the response of the flexures to a given load, and static calibrations using a direct force method confirmed these results. Finite element modal analysis results were within 16.4% for the first mode and within 30% for the second mode when compared with the experimentally determined modes. Vibration characteristics of the gage were determined from experimental free vibration data after the gage was subjected to an impulse. Uncertainties in the finished geometry make this level of error acceptable. A transient thermal analysis examined the effects of a very high heat flux on the exposed head of the gage. The 100,000 W/m2 heat flux used in this analysis is

  10. GAGES: A stream gage database for evaluating natural and alteredflow conditions in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, James A.; Carlisle, Daren M.; Wolock, David M.; Meador, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Stream flow is a controlling element in the ecology of rivers and streams. Knowledge of the natural flow regime facilitates the assessment of whether specific hydrologic attributes have been altered by humans in a particular stream and the establishment of specific goals for stream-flow restoration. Because most streams are ungaged or have been altered by human influences, characterizing the natural flow regime is often only possible by estimating flow characteristics based on nearby stream gages of reference quality, i.e., gaged locations that are least disturbed by human influences. The ability to evaluate natural stream flow, that which is not altered by human activities, would be enhanced by the existence of a nationally consistent and up-to-date database of gages in relatively undisturbed watersheds.

  11. Testing of large prestressing tendon end anchorage regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.E.

    1976-01-01

    Tests were performed on concrete end anchorage regions for prestressing tendons with ultimate strengths of approximately 8,900 kN. One test structure simulated a full scale concrete containment buttress and the other two test specimens were concrete blocks. The behavior of the test structure and specimens, when subjected to loading, was monitored by strain gages and dial gages. The testing illustrated that all of the amounts of reinforcing tested should be acceptable for the end anchor zones of large tendons presently used in prestressed concrete containment structures. (author)

  12. Geodesy and contemporary strain in the Yucca Mountain region, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefer, W.R.; Coe, J.A.; Pezzopane, S.K.; Hunter, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    Geodetic surveys provide important information for estimating recent ground movement in support of seismotectonic investigations of the potential nuclear-waste storage site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Resurveys of established level lines document up to 22 millimeters of local subsidence related to the 1992 Little Skull Mountain earthquake, which is consistent with seismic data that show normal-slip rupture and with data from a regional trilateration network. Comparison of more recent surveys with a level line first established in 1907 suggests 3 to 13 centimeters of subsidence in the Crater Flat-Yucca Mountain structural depression that coincides with the Bare Mountain fault; small uplifts also were recorded near normal faults at Yucca Mountain. No significant deformation was recorded by a trilateration network over a 10-year period, except for coseismic deformation associated with the Little Skull Mountain earthquake, but meaningful results are limited by the short temporal period of that data set and the small rate of movement. Very long baseline interferometry that is capable of measuring direction and rates of deformation is likewise limited by a short history of observation, but rates of deformation between 8 and 13 millimeters per year across the basin and Range province are indicated by the available data

  13. [Antimicrobial resistance of Bartonella bacilliformis strains from regions endemic to bartonellosis in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Mujica, Giovanna; Flores-León, Diana

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility to chloramphenicol (CHL) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) in strains of Bartonella bacilliformis from areas that are endemic to Bartonellosis in Peru, through three laboratory methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility to CHL and CIP from 100 strains of Bartonella bacilliformis isolated in patients from the regions of Ancash, Cusco, Cajamarca, Lima and La Libertad were evaluated. Strains were evaluated by: disk diffusion, E-test and agar dilution. 26% of the strains of Bartonella bacilliformis evaluated were resistant to CIP and 1% to CHL. Similar patterns of antimicrobial sensitivity / resistance were obtained in all three methods. Bartonella bacilliformis strains circulating in Peru have high levels of in vitro resistance to CIP, so it is advisable to expand research on the use of drug treatment regimens of the Bartonellosis. The methods of E-test and disk diffusion were the most suitable for assessment in vitro of antimicrobial susceptibility of the microorganism.

  14. Cross-Comparison of Leaching Strains Isolated from Two Different Regions: Chambishi and Dexing Copper Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Ngom, Baba; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan

    2014-01-01

    A cross-comparison of six strains isolated from two different regions, Chambishi copper mine (Zambia, Africa) and Dexing copper mine (China, Asia), was conducted to study the leaching efficiency of low grade copper ores. The strains belong to the three major species often encountered in bioleaching of copper sulfide ores under mesophilic conditions: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, and Leptospirillum ferriphilum. Prior to their study in bioleaching, the different...

  15. Special Features of Strain Localization and Nanodipoles of Partial Disclinations in the Region of Elastic Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyumentsev, A. N.; Ditenberg, I. A.; Sukhanov, I. I.

    2018-02-01

    In the zones of strain localization in the region of elastic distortions and nanodipoles of partial disclinations representing the defects of elastically deformed medium, a theoretical analysis of the elastically stressed state and the energy of these defects, including the cases of their transformation into more complex ensembles of interrelated disclinations, is performed. Using the analytical results, the mechanisms of strain localization are discussed in the stages of nucleation and propagation of the bands of elastic and plastic strain localization formed in these zones (including the cases of nanocrystalline structure formation).

  16. INDUSTRIAL MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL OF SLURRIES USING RADIOISOTOPE GAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jr., H. L.

    1963-09-15

    Radioactivity gages are available in a variety of configurations to suit the problem of process measurement. The placement of any gage configuration must be selected carefully so that the process material flowing past the gage is representative of actual process conditions. The initial calibration of a gage is relatively simple but when the gage reading is compared with the existing manual sample measurement, confusion can result if the manual measurement is not basically accurate or subject to human error. Routine mechanical and electrical maintenance of the gage is relatively simple, because modern gages use solidstate circuitry with modular plug-in construction. Thus, routine maintenance of the gage is usually limited to restandardization to compensate for source decay. Two types of zero suppression are available, via. fixed and reductionwith-time. If reduction-with-time suppression is used the re-standardization period is about ten times longer than that required for fixed-zero suppression. Routine maintenance of the process piping and machinery is necessary to assure that a representative process material sample continues to flow through the gage. (auth)

  17. Does Regional Lung Strain Correlate With Regional Inflammation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome During Nonprotective Ventilation? An Experimental Porcine Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal, Jaime; Hurtado, Daniel; Villarroel, Nicolás; Bruhn, Alejandro; Bugedo, Guillermo; Amato, Marcelo Britto Passos; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Hedenstierna, Göran; Larsson, Anders; Borges, João Batista

    2018-06-01

    It is known that ventilator-induced lung injury causes increased pulmonary inflammation. It has been suggested that one of the underlying mechanisms may be strain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether lung regional strain correlates with regional inflammation in a porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Retrospective analysis of CT images and positron emission tomography images using [F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. University animal research laboratory. Seven piglets subjected to experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome and five ventilated controls. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was induced by repeated lung lavages, followed by 210 minutes of injurious mechanical ventilation using low positive end-expiratory pressures (mean, 4 cm H2O) and high inspiratory pressures (mean plateau pressure, 45 cm H2O). All animals were subsequently studied with CT scans acquired at end-expiration and end-inspiration, to obtain maps of volumetric strain (inspiratory volume - expiratory volume)/expiratory volume, and dynamic positron emission tomography imaging. Strain maps and positron emission tomography images were divided into 10 isogravitational horizontal regions-of-interest, from which spatial correlation was calculated for each animal. The acute respiratory distress syndrome model resulted in a decrease in respiratory system compliance (20.3 ± 3.4 to 14.0 ± 4.9 mL/cm H2O; p < 0.05) and oxygenation (PaO2/FIO2, 489 ± 80 to 92 ± 59; p < 0.05), whereas the control animals did not exhibit changes. In the acute respiratory distress syndrome group, strain maps showed a heterogeneous distribution with a greater concentration in the intermediate gravitational regions, which was similar to the distribution of [F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake observed in the positron emission tomography images, resulting in a positive spatial correlation between both variables (median R = 0.71 [0.02-0.84]; p < 0.05 in five of seven animals

  18. Isolation of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains from different sources in Izmir region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozcal, Elif; Uzel, Atac; Aydemir, Sohret; Skurnik, Mikael

    2015-11-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a foodborne pathogen that is very rarely encountered in Turkey. In this work, several human, porcine, and environmental samples collected from Izmir region in Turkey were examined for the presence of Y. enterocolitica using different cultivation and enrichment methods. A total of nine pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated; five strains from pig stool and manure samples and four strains from waste water samples. On the other hand, no Y. enterocolitica was isolated from human diarrheal stool samples (n = 102) and from 12 gulf, canal, municipal pool, and well water samples. Biochemical and serological characterization of the nine Y. enterocolitica strains revealed that they belonged to three different bioserotypes: 4/O:3, 2/O:9, and 2/O:5,27. All the strains were deemed pathogenic based on virulence factor-specific PCR analysis. Detection of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains from the pig and waste water samples from the Izmir region indicates that Y. enterocolitica is a potential risk for public health.

  19. Ecological survey of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from vineyards in the Vinho Verde Region of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Dorit; Alves, Hugo; Dequin, Sylvie; Casal, Margarida

    2005-01-01

    One thousand six hundred and twenty yeast isolates were obtained from 54 spontaneous fermentations performed from grapes collected in 18 sampling sites of three vineyards (Vinho Verde Wine Region in northwest Portugal) during the 2001-2003 harvest seasons. All isolates were analyzed by mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtDNA RFLP) and a pattern profile was verified for each isolate, resulting in a total of 297 different profiles, that all belonged to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The strains corresponding to seventeen profiles showed a wider temporal and geographical distribution, being characterized by a generalized pattern of sporadic presence, absence and reappearance. One strain (ACP10) showed a more regional distribution with a perennial behavior. In different fermentations ACP10 was either dominant or not, showing that the final outcome of fermentation was dependent on the specific composition of the yeast community in the must. Few of the grape samples collected before harvest initiated a spontaneous fermentation, compared to the samples collected after harvest, in a time frame of about 2 weeks. The associated strains were also much more diversified: 267 patterns among 1260 isolates compared to 30 patterns among 360 isolates in the post- and pre-harvest samples, respectively. Fermenting yeast populations have never been characterized before in this region and the present work reports the presence of commercial yeast strains used by the wineries. The present study aims at the development of strategies for the preservation of biodiversity and genetic resources as a basis for further strain development.

  20. How the Schmidt-Boelter gage really works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, C.T.; Nelson, C.G.

    1995-01-01

    The Schmidt-Boelter gage is but one version of a proven heat flux measurement concept generally referred to as the axial temperature gradient method. This gage has been used since the mid-1950's and has gained wide acceptance because the transducer provides a high-level, self-generating output signal directly proportional to the heat flux incident upon the sensing surface. Utilization of this transducer in aerospace measurements since the late 1970's has broadened the scope of application of the device, but has raised questions concerning the proper interpretation of the results. The principle of operation of the gage can correctly be divided into two distinct categories-the thermal and thermoelectric functions. The thermal response of the gage can be approximated by simple steady-state equations. But due to the number of different materials required in the construction of the gage, the transient temperature and heat conduction in gage members are more accurately characterized by finite-element thermal analysis techniques. Results of these analyses are presented in graphical format in the paper. Thermoelectric characteristics of the gage are accurately defined by basic principles of thermoelectric thermometry. Altogether, the analyses presented in this paper demonstrate how this transducer actually works. The conclusions presented herein may be different than opinions held by most casual users regarding gage operation. Results of limited laboratory experiments which support the analyses are described and presented

  1. Ball mounting fixture for a roundness gage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauler, Allen L.; Pasieka, Donald F.

    1983-01-01

    A ball mounting fixture for a roundness gage is disclosed. The fixture includes a pair of chuck assemblies oriented substantially transversely with respect to one another and mounted on a common base. Each chuck assembly preferably includes a rotary stage and a wobble plate affixed thereto. A ball chuck affixed to each wobble plate is operable to selectively support a ball to be measured for roundness, with the wobble plate permitting the ball chuck to be tilted to center the ball on the axis of rotation of the rotary stage. In a preferred embodiment, each chuck assembly includes a vacuum chuck operable to selectively support the ball to be measured for roundness. The mounting fixture enables a series of roundness measurements to be taken with a conventional rotating gagehead roundness instrument, which measurements can be utilized to determine the sphericity of the ball.

  2. Neutron moisture gaging of agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, S.; Janout, Z.; Kovacik, M.

    1987-01-01

    The design is described of a neutron moisture gage which consists of a measuring probe, neutron detector, small electronic recording device and a 241 Am-Be radionuclide source. The neutron detector consists of a surface barrier semiconductor silicon detector and a conversion layer of lithium fluoride. The detection of triton which is the reaction product of lithium with neutrons by the silicon detector is manifested as a voltage pulse. The detector has low sensitivity for fast neutrons and for gamma radiation and is suitable for determining moisture values in large volume samples. Verification and calibration measurements were carried out of chernozem, brown soil and podzolic soils in four series. The results are tabulated. Errors of measurement range between 0.8 to 1.0%. The precision of measurement could be improved by the calibration of the device for any type of soil. (E.S.). 4 tabs., 6 refs., 5 figs

  3. Surface strain rate colour map of the Tatra Mountains region (Slovakia based on GNSS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednárik Martin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The surface deformation of the Tatra Mountains region in Western Carpathians can nowadays be studied directly thanks to precise geodetic measurements using the GNSS. The strain or stress tensor field is, however, a rather complex “data structure” difficult to present legibly and with sufficient resolution in the form of a classical map. A novel and promising approach to the solution of this problem is coding the three principal strain or stress values into the three colour channels (red, green, blue of an RGB colour. In our previous study, the colour depended on the stress tensor shape descriptors. In the current study, the adapted colouring scheme uses a subset of shape descriptors common to stress and strain, which differ only in the scaling factor. In this manner, we generate the colour map of the surface strain rate field, where the colour of each grid point carries the information about the shape of the strain rate tensor at that point. The resulting strain rate colour map can be displayed simultaneously with the map of the faults or elevations and be easily checked for the data or interpolation method errors and incompatibility with the geophysical and geological expectations.

  4. Can regional strain and strain rate measurement be performed during both dobutamine and exercise echocardiography, and do regional deformation responses differ with different forms of stress testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidavicius, Giedrius; Kowalski, Miroslaw; Williams, R Ian; D'hooge, Jan; Di Salvo, Giovanni; Pierre-Justin, Gilbert; Claus, Piet; Rademakers, Frank; Herregods, Marie-Christine; Fraser, Alan G; Pierard, Luc A; Bijnens, Bart; Sutherland, George R

    2003-04-01

    Regional strain (epsilon) and strain rate (SR) measurement could be the optimal approach to quantifying stress echocardiography images. However, signal noise could preclude their use. Study aims Our aim was to compare the feasibility of regional peak systolic (p) velocity (Vel), pSR/epsilon measurement, and their normal responses during upright (group 1, n = 10) and supine (group 2, n = 10) bicycle exercise and (group 3, n = 10) dobutamine stress. For each type of stress study, pVel/pSR/epsilon data were acquired at baseline, low (100-120 bpm), and peak (140-160 bpm) heart rate (HR); and during recovery. During dobutamine pVel/pSR/epsilon were interpretable in >95% of segments at every stress stage, whereas in groups 1 and 2 pSR/epsilon responses were noninterpretable in >36% of segments (P pVel and SR values increased linearly and reached maximal value at peak HR (P pVel increased linearly, whereas pepsilon response was biphasic as a result of the reduced filling at higher HRs.

  5. Region-specific protein misfolding cyclic amplification reproduces brain tropism of prion strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privat, Nicolas; Levavasseur, Etienne; Yildirim, Serfildan; Hannaoui, Samia; Brandel, Jean-Philippe; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Béringue, Vincent; Seilhean, Danielle; Haïk, Stéphane

    2017-10-06

    Human prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are transmissible brain proteinopathies, characterized by the accumulation of a misfolded isoform of the host cellular prion protein (PrP) in the brain. According to the prion model, prions are defined as proteinaceous infectious particles composed solely of this abnormal isoform of PrP (PrP Sc ). Even in the absence of genetic material, various prion strains can be propagated in experimental models. They can be distinguished by the pattern of disease they produce and especially by the localization of PrP Sc deposits within the brain and the spongiform lesions they induce. The mechanisms involved in this strain-specific targeting of distinct brain regions still are a fundamental, unresolved question in prion research. To address this question, we exploited a prion conversion in vitro assay, protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA), by using experimental scrapie and human prion strains as seeds and specific brain regions from mice and humans as substrates. We show here that region-specific PMCA in part reproduces the specific brain targeting observed in experimental, acquired, and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases. Furthermore, we provide evidence that, in addition to cellular prion protein, other region- and species-specific molecular factors influence the strain-dependent prion conversion process. This important step toward understanding prion strain propagation in the human brain may impact research on the molecular factors involved in protein misfolding and the development of ultrasensitive methods for diagnosing prion disease. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Comparison of Ruska and Rosemont pressure gages (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvel, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that a 150,000 gallon tank was calibrated during the months of May and July of 1990. Six calibration runs were completed. Ruska and Rosemont pressure gages were installed to make in-tank liquid level measurements during the calibration process. A flow meter was used to measure the incremental volumes of water added to or removed from the tank. The Ruska and Rosemont gages were compared to determine the gage best suited for tank operation. One comparison criteria was the tolerance limits of error (LOE) for the predicted standardized in-tank volumes. For accountability purposes, the effects of the two gages on the LOE for the predicted inventory of U-235 were evaluated. The most important comparison criteria was the gage's contribution to the U-235 inventory LOE. The choice of which gage to use depends on the other measurement methods used for material accountability. The contributions to the inventory LOE were evaluated for two in-tank liquid level measurement methods, two concentration measurement methods, and one isotopic measurement method. The results indicate the Ruska pressure gage is best suited for tank operation only if the best concentration measurement method is used

  7. Regional analysis of potential polychlorinated biphenyl degrading bacterial strains from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Shuai

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, the chlorinated derivatives of biphenyl, are one of the most prevalent, highly toxic and persistent groups of contaminants in the environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the biodegradation of PCBs in northeastern (Heilongjiang Province, northern (Shanxi Province and eastern China (Shanghai municipality. From these areas, nine soil samples were screened for PCB-degrading bacteria using a functional complementarity method. The genomic 16S rDNA locus was amplified and the products were sequenced to identify the bacterial genera. Seven Pseudomonas strains were selected to compare the capacity of bacteria from different regions to degrade biphenyl by HPLC. Compared to the biphenyl content in controls of 100%, the biphenyl content went down to 3.7% for strain P9-324, 36.3% for P2-11, and 20.0% for the other five strains. These results indicate that a longer processing time led to more degradation of biphenyl. PCB-degrading bacterial strains are distributed differently in different regions of China.

  8. The role of GAGE cancer/testis antigen in metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten Frier; Terp, Mikkel Green; Hansen, Malene Bredahl

    2016-01-01

    with migratory and invasive properties and were found to be upregulated in cancer cells with metastasizing potential in a gastric cancer model. METHODS: We have addressed the direct role of GAGE proteins in supporting metastasis using an isogenic metastasis model of human cancer, consisting of 4 isogenic cell......) and moderately metastatic clones (LM3), stable downregulation of GAGE expression did not affect the ability of CL16 cells to establish primary tumors and form metastasis in the lungs of immunodeficient mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that GAGE proteins per se do not support metastasis and that further...

  9. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF DRUG RESISTANT STRAINS OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS IN OMSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pаsechnik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the investigation results of the specific epidemic situation on tuberculous infection in Omsk Region in 2006-2015 and molecular genetic features of M. tuberculosis strains with multiple drug resistance circulating in this region. Bacteriological, molecular genetic methods, VNTR-typing were used as well as descriptive techniques of the epidemiological process. Tuberculosis prevalence made 269.2 per 100,000 population. There is an increase in those with bacillary excretion among new cases of respiratory tuberculosis from 39.8% to 53.4%. Drug resistance was detected in 48.0% of new cases. Among drug resistance patterns, MDR made 57%, and extensive drug resistance (XDR increased from 2.5 to 7.0%. In 2015 prevalence of XDR tuberculosis made 8.9 per 100,000 population in Omsk Region. When performing VNTR-typing of 77 samples of M. tuberculosis DNA with MDR, 27 genetic types were identified. The population of MDR strain of M. tuberculosis is heterogeneous and presented by strains of various genetic families -Beijing, LAM, S,Haarlem,Uganda. The investigation showed that isolates ofBeijing family prevailed (76.6%.

  10. [Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain transmission caused by migratory processes in the Russian Federation (in case of populational migration from the Caucasian Region to Moscow and the Moscow Region)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreevskaia, S N; Chernousova, L N; Smirnova, T G; Larionova, E E; Kuz'min, A V

    2006-01-01

    The investigation was carried out on 134 M. tuberculosis isolated from 134 patients treated at the Central Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1) those who were natives of Moscow and the Moscow Region (MR patients); 2) those who were migrants to the Moscow Region from Azerbaijan, Daghestan, Chechnya, Ingushetia, Karachai-Cherkessia, North Ossetia (the Caucasian Region) (CR patients) who had fallen in the place of birth. Genotyping by the polymorphism of lengths of the restriction fragments containing the insertion sequence IS6110 revealed a genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis strains. The examined M. tuberculosis strains belonged to 13 genotypic families. The W and AI families were prevalent. The family W M. tuberculosis strains isolated from the Caucasians were highly clustered, as confirmed by the overwhelming predominance of the strain variant W148 (19.7%). The spectrum of the strain variants of the W family, and those of the AI family in particular, greatly differed in MR and CR patients. Only one strain variant AI12 occurring both in MR and CR patients was detected. A study of the transmission activity coefficient (TAC) of the families W and AI indicated that the transmission activity of W strains was significantly higher than that of M. tuberculosis strains of the AI family. A comparative analysis of the TAC of M. tuberculosis strains of the AI family demonstrated that the transmission activity of the strains of this family was identical no matter where a patient had fallen ill (1.59 and 1.41% in the Moscow and Caucasian Regions, respectively). Unlike M. tuberculosis strains of the AI family, the TAC of W strains isolated from the patients infected in the Moscow Region (28.17 and 19.05%, respectively), which suggests the more intensive transmission of the pathogen M. tuberculosis of the W family in the Caucasian Region.

  11. Three-dimensional regional strain analysis in porcine myocardial infarction: a 3T magnetic resonance tagging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleimanifard Sahar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies of mechanical strain anomalies in myocardial infarction (MI have been largely limited to analysis of one-dimensional (1D and two-dimensional (2D strain parameters. Advances in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR methods now permit a complete three-dimensional (3D interrogation of myocardial regional strain. The aim of this study was to investigate the incremental value of CMR-based 3D strain and to test the hypothesis that 3D strain is superior to 1D or 2D strain analysis in the assessment of viability using a porcine model of infarction. Methods Infarction was induced surgically in 20 farm pigs. Cine, late gadolinium enhancement, and CMR tagging images were acquired at 11 days before (baseline, and 11 days (early and 1 month (late after induction of infarct. Harmonic phase analysis was performed to measure circumferential, longitudinal, and radial strains in myocardial segments, which were defined based on the transmurality of delayed enhancement. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression models of strain parameters were created and analyzed to compare the overall diagnostic accuracy of 3D strain analysis with 1D and 2D analyses in identifying the infarct and its adjacent regions from healthy myocardium. Results 3D strain differed significantly in infarct, adjacent, and remote segments (p  Conclusions Cumulative 3D strain information accurately identifies infarcts and their neighboring regions from healthy myocardium. The 3D interrogation of myocardial contractility provides incremental diagnostic accuracy in delineating the dysfunctional and nonviable myocardium in comparison with 1D or 2D quantification of strain. The infarct neighboring regions are the major beneficiaries of the 3D assessment of regional strain.

  12. Vision system for dial gage torque wrench calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neelam; Doiron, Theodore D.; Sanghera, Paramjeet S.

    1993-11-01

    In this paper, we present the development of a fast and robust vision system which, in conjunction with the Dial Gage Calibration system developed by AKO Inc., will be used by the U.S. Army in calibrating dial gage torque wrenches. The vision system detects the change in the angular position of the dial pointer in a dial gage. The angular change is proportional to the applied torque. The input to the system is a sequence of images of the torque wrench dial gage taken at different dial pointer positions. The system then reports the angular difference between the different positions. The primary components of this vision system include modules for image acquisition, linear feature extraction and angle measurements. For each of these modules, several techniques were evaluated and the most applicable one was selected. This system has numerous other applications like vision systems to read and calibrate analog instruments.

  13. Effectiveness and competing capacity of native Rhizobium strains evaluated in IX Region soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos D, Leticia; Mendez A, Edith; Pino N, Ines

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes reaches its optimum when the host plants are nodulated by highly competitive and effective Rhizobium strains. With the purpose of assessing competition and nitrogen fixing capacity of native Rhizobium leguminosarum bio-var trifolii strains, a greenhouse test was carried out using white clover (Trifolium re-pens) and four kinds of soils, which represent the main agroecological areas of the IX Region. Eleven strains were evaluated, they were both native and collected and were streptomycin sulphate antibiotic resistant. A nitrogen and a nitrogen-less without inoculation testers were used as controls. All pots received a solution of ammonium sulphate marked with 10% 15 N a.e, equivalent to 10 kg ha -1 of N. Rye-grass was used as reference crop, cv. Nu-i. In general, the evaluated strains were very efficient. After three or four cuts they became the only source of nitrogen for the plants. They were also very competitive, getting to over 70% of root infection with regard to those present in soils. In Curacautin and Tolten soils, biological nitrogen fixation begins later than other soils evaluated, which is coincident with soils having a higher nitrogen content. Symbiosis occurs when the soil nitrogen content exhausts or diminishes. (author)

  14. Strain measurements during pressurized thermal shock experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarso Vida Gomes, P. de; Julio Ricardo Barreto Cruz; Tanius Rodrigues Mansur; Denis Henrique Bianchi Scaldaferri; Miguel Mattar Neto

    2005-01-01

    For the life extension of nuclear power plants, the residual life of most of their components must be evaluated along all their operating time. Concerning the reactor pressure vessel, the pressurized thermal shock (PTS) is a very important event to be considered. For better understanding the effects of this kind of event, tests are made. The approach described here consisted of building a simplified in-scale physical model of the reactor pressure vessel, submitting it to the actual operating temperature and pressure conditions and provoking a thermal shock by means of cold water flow in its external surface. To conduct such test, the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) has been conducting several studies related to PTS and has also built a laboratory that has made possible the simulation of the PTS loading conditions. Several cracks were produced in the external surface of the reactor pressure vessel model. Strain gages were fixed by means of electrical discharge welding over the cracks regions in both external and internal surfaces. The temperature was monitored in 10 points across the vessel wall. The internal pressure was manually controlled and monitored using a pressure transducer. Two PTS experiments were conducted and this paper presents the strain measurement procedures applied to the reactor pressure vessel model, during the PTS, using strain gages experimental methodology. (authors)

  15. Morphology and mycelial growth rate of Pleurotus spp. strains from the Mexican mixtec region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Mendoza, P.C.; del Toro, G. Valencia; Ramírez-Carrillo, R.; Robles-Martínez, F.; Yáñez-Fernández, J.; Garín-Aguilar, M.E.; Hernández, C.G.; Bravo-Villa, G.

    2014-01-01

    Two native Pleurotus spp. strains (white LB-050 and pale pink LB-051) were isolated from rotten tree trunks of cazahuate (Ipomoea murucoides) from the Mexican Mixtec Region. Both strains were chemically dedikaryotized to obtain their symmetrical monokaryotic components (neohaplonts). This was achieved employing homogenization time periods from 60 to 65 s, and 3 day incubation at 28 °C in a peptone-glucose solution (PGS). Pairing of compatible neohaplonts resulted in 56 hybrid strains which were classified into the four following hybrid types: (R1-nxB1-n, R1-nxB2-1, R2-nxB1-n and R2-nxB2-1). The mycelial growth of Pleurotus spp. monokaryotic and dikaryotic strains showed differences in texture (cottony or floccose), growth (scarce, regular or abundant), density (high, regular or low), and pigmentation (off-white, white or pale pink). To determine the rate and the amount of mycelium growth in malt extract agar at 28 °C, the diameter of the colony was measured every 24 h until the Petri dish was completely colonized. A linear model had the best fit to the mycelial growth kinetics. A direct relationship between mycelial morphology and growth rate was observed. Cottony mycelium presented significantly higher growth rates (p < 0.01) in comparison with floccose mycelium. Thus, mycelial morphology can be used as criterion to select which pairs must be used for optimizing compatible-mating studies. Hybrids resulting from cottony neohaplonts maintained the characteristically high growth rates of their parental strains with the hybrid R1-nxB1-n being faster than the latter. PMID:25477920

  16. Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Metschnikowia pulcherrima Strains from Douro Wine Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Barbosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Some non-Saccharomyces yeasts, including Metschnikowia pulcherrima, have been proposed as selected starters due to their contribution for the overall aroma and chemical profiles of wines. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the genetic and phenotypic diversity of Metschnikowia pulcherrima strains isolated from different locations of Douro Wine Region, and to explore their potential as co-adjuncts of S. cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation. For that purpose, a set of 64 M. pulcherrima isolates were used. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR fingerprinting with M13 primers demonstrated to be an efficient tool in intraspecific discrimination of M. pulcherrima strains. No significant associations were found between genotypic profiles and either geographical origin or winery. The isolates were screened for their stress resistance ability (ethanol, SO2, chitosan, copper, H2O2, and Grape Juice Medium, aroma-related activities (resistance to 5, 5′, 5′′-trifluor-d, l-leucine and cerulenin and β-glycosidase, β-lyase and sulfite-reductase activities as well as other relevant technological proprieties (protease activity and biogenic amines production. M. pulcherrima response to the different enological traits evaluated was greatly strain-dependent. The most discriminant features were the ability of the strains to grow in Grape-Juice Medium (GJM and sulfite-reductase, and their β-lyase and protease activities. The enological potential of a selected M. pulcherrima strain in mixed-culture with S. cerevisiae was also assessed in natural grape-juice of a local variety, under two nitrogen regimes. M. pulcherrima proved to be promising for future industrial application as a co-starter, lowering ethanol, acetic acid and, reported here for the first time, lowering hydrogen sulfide levels in the wines.

  17. Effect of Strain, Region, and Tissue Composition on Glucose Partitioning in Meniscus Fibrocartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, Kelsey L; Jackson, Alicia R

    2017-03-01

    A nearly avascular tissue, the knee meniscus relies on diffusive transport for nutritional supply to cells. Nutrient transport depends on solute partitioning in the tissue, which governs the amount of nutrients that can enter a tissue. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of mechanical strain, tissue region, and tissue composition on the partition coefficient of glucose in meniscus fibrocartilage. A simple partitioning experiment was employed to measure glucose partitioning in porcine meniscus tissues from two regions (horn and central), from both meniscal components (medial and lateral), and at three levels of compression (0%, 10%, and 20%). Partition coefficient values were correlated to strain level, water volume fraction, and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content of tissue specimens. Partition coefficient values ranged from 0.47 to 0.91 (n = 48). Results show that glucose partition coefficient is significantly (p < 0.001) affected by compression, decreasing with increasing strain. Furthermore, we did not find a statistically significant effect of tissue when comparing medial versus lateral (p = 0.181) or when comparing central and horn regions (p = 0.837). There were significant positive correlations between tissue water volume fraction and glucose partitioning for all groups. However, the correlation between GAG content and partitioning was only significant in the lateral horn group. Determining how glucose partitioning is affected by tissue composition and loading is necessary for understanding nutrient availability and related tissue health and/or degeneration. Therefore, this study is important for better understanding the transport and nutrition-related mechanisms of meniscal degeneration.

  18. Restriction of GAGE protein expression to subpopulations of cancer cells is independent of genotype and may limit the use of GAGE proteins as targets for cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, M F; Johansen, L E; Nielsen, O

    2006-01-01

    The GAGE cancer testis antigen gene family encodes products that can be recognized by autologous T cells, and GAGE proteins have been suggested as potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Analysis of GAGE expression in tumours has primarily been performed at the level of gene transcription, wh...

  19. Full wave field recording of the vertical strain at SAFOD from local, regional and teleseismic earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, W. L.; Karrenbach, M. H.; Zumberge, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The main borehole at the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) contains optical fibers cemented in place in between casing strings from the surface to just below the top of the basement. The fibers are under tension of approximately 1 N and are housed in a 0.9 mm diameter stainless steel tube. Earth strain is transmitted to the fiber by frictional contact with the tube wall. One fiber has been in use as a vertical strainmeter since 2005, measuring the total strain between 9 and 740 m by laser interferometry. In June 2017 we attached an OptaSense Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) system, model ODH3.1, to a second fiber that terminates at 864 m depth. The DAS laser interrogator measures the strain over a gauge length with a set spacing between gauge intervals. For this experiment we set the gauge length to 10 m with 1 m spacing between gauges. Including the surface run of the fiber, this gives us 936 channels measuring the vertical strain at a sample interval of 0.4 msec (2500 samples/s). Continuous recording of the string produces approximately 1 TB/day. During one month of data collection, we recorded local, regional and teleseismic earthquakes. With this recording geometry, the DAS system captures the full vertical wavefield between the basement interface and free surface, revealing direct, converted and refracted waves. Both P- and S- strain waves are clearly visible in the data, even for 10 km deep earthquakes located almost directly below the well (see figure). The incident and surface reflected wavefields can be separated by frequency-wavenumber filtering due to the large-aperture and fine spatial and temporal sampling. Up- and downgoing strain waves illuminate the subsurface within the sensor array's depth range. Accurate arrival time determinations of the initial arrival phase are possible due to consistent wave forms recorded at 1 m spatial intervals that can be used for fine-scale shallow velocity model estimation.

  20. Imaging space charge regions in Sm-doped ceria using electrochemical strain microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qian Nataly; Li, Jiangyu; Adler, Stuart B.

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline ceria exhibits a total conductivity several orders of magnitude higher than microcrystalline ceria in air at high temperature. The most widely accepted theory for this enhancement (based on fitting of conductivity data to various transport and kinetic models) is that relatively immobile positively charged defects and/or impurities accumulate at the grain boundary core, leading to a counterbalancing increase in the number of mobile electrons (small polarons) within a diffuse space charge region adjacent to each grain boundary. In an effort to validate this model, we have applied electrochemical strain microscopy to image the location and relative population of mobile electrons near grain boundaries in polycrystalline Sm-doped ceria in air at 20–200 °C. Our results show the first direct (spatially resolved) evidence that such a diffuse space charge region does exist in ceria, and is localized to both grain boundaries and the gas-exposed surface

  1. Imaging space charge regions in Sm-doped ceria using electrochemical strain microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qian Nataly; Li, Jiangyu, E-mail: jjli@uw.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Adler, Stuart B., E-mail: stuadler@uw.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-11-17

    Nanocrystalline ceria exhibits a total conductivity several orders of magnitude higher than microcrystalline ceria in air at high temperature. The most widely accepted theory for this enhancement (based on fitting of conductivity data to various transport and kinetic models) is that relatively immobile positively charged defects and/or impurities accumulate at the grain boundary core, leading to a counterbalancing increase in the number of mobile electrons (small polarons) within a diffuse space charge region adjacent to each grain boundary. In an effort to validate this model, we have applied electrochemical strain microscopy to image the location and relative population of mobile electrons near grain boundaries in polycrystalline Sm-doped ceria in air at 20–200 °C. Our results show the first direct (spatially resolved) evidence that such a diffuse space charge region does exist in ceria, and is localized to both grain boundaries and the gas-exposed surface.

  2. Electrical conductivity and ion diffusion in porcine meniscus: effects of strain, anisotropy, and tissue region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, Kelsey L; McMahan, Jeffrey B; Jackson, Alicia R

    2016-09-06

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of mechanical strain, anisotropy, and tissue region on electrical conductivity and ion diffusivity in meniscus fibrocartilage. A one-dimensional, 4-wire conductivity experiment was employed to measure the electrical conductivity in porcine meniscus tissues from two tissue regions (horn and central), for two tissue orientations (axial and circumferential), and for three levels of compressive strain (0%, 10%, and 20%). Conductivity values were then used to estimate the relative ion diffusivity in meniscus. The water volume fraction of tissue specimens was determined using a buoyancy method. A total of 135 meniscus samples were measured; electrical conductivity values ranged from 2.47mS/cm to 4.84mS/cm, while relative ion diffusivity was in the range of 0.235 to 0.409. Results show that electrical conductivity and ion diffusion are significantly anisotropic (pmeniscus fibrocartilage, which is essential in developing new strategies to treat and/or prevent tissue degeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The distribution of erythropoiesis over the various anatomical regions of the erythropoietic system in some inbred strains of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacha, J.; Hola, J.; Dungel, J.; Znojil, V.

    1982-10-01

    The extraction of /sup 59/Fe bound to the heme in the erythropoietic organs by means of acid ethylacetate was used to establish the proportion of erythropoiesis for which individual bones and the spleens of some inbred mouse strains are responsible. The proportion of splenic erythropoiesis differs from strain to strain, being in the range 9-42% of total erythropoiesis. In the strain BALB/c erythropoiesis is shifted in comparison with C57B1/10 strain towards the spine and away from the bones of the skull, the long bones of the limbs and the pelvis. Calculations of the erythroid cellularity and/or the intensity of erythropoiesis of the total bone marrow on the basis of a single bone should take into account both these interstrain differences in the participation of different regions and the possibility of various proportions of red and white blood cells and cells containing non-heme iron existing in different regions (bones).

  4. Quantification of carotid artery plaque stability with multiple region of interest based ultrasound strain indices and relationship with cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, N. H.; Varghese, T.; Mitchell, C. C.; Jackson, D. C.; Wilbrand, S. M.; Hermann, B. P.; Dempsey, R. J.

    2017-08-01

    Vulnerability and instability in carotid artery plaque has been assessed based on strain variations using noninvasive ultrasound imaging. We previously demonstrated that carotid plaques with higher strain indices in a region of interest (ROI) correlated to patients with lower cognition, probably due to cerebrovascular emboli arising from these unstable plaques. This work attempts to characterize the strain distribution throughout the entire plaque region instead of being restricted to a single localized ROI. Multiple ROIs are selected within the entire plaque region, based on thresholds determined by the maximum and average strains in the entire plaque, enabling generation of additional relevant strain indices. Ultrasound strain imaging of carotid plaques, was performed on 60 human patients using an 18L6 transducer coupled to a Siemens Acuson S2000 system to acquire radiofrequency data over several cardiac cycles. Patients also underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests under a protocol based on National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Canadian Stroke Network guidelines. Correlation of strain indices with composite cognitive index of executive function revealed a negative association relating high strain to poor cognition. Patients grouped into high and low cognition groups were then classified using these additional strain indices. One of our newer indices, namely the average L  -  1 norm with plaque (AL1NWP) presented with significantly improved correlation with executive function when compared to our previously reported maximum accumulated strain indices. An optimal combination of three of the new indices generated classifiers of patient cognition with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.880, 0.921 and 0.905 for all (n  =  60), symptomatic (n  =  33) and asymptomatic patients (n  =  27) whereas classifiers using maximum accumulated strain indices alone provided AUC values of 0.817, 0.815 and 0

  5. Measurement of aerosol concentration with a beta-ray gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzac, G. d'; Dubillot, J.

    1978-01-01

    Because dusts in suspension are a dangerous polluting agent, several methods have been used to monitor their concentration. Among these, the beta-ray gage enjoys a privileged position. The authors describe such a gage and discuss the conditions to be observed for it to be capable of giving results comparable to those obtained with manual gravimetric methods. The satisfactory results obtained led to standardization of the method and a whole range of instruments based on this principle are employed in pollution supervising networks and for continuously monitoring industrial emissions [fr

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis Strain Types Have Diversified Regionally and Globally with Evidence for Recombination across Geographic Divides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Smelov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. The Ct Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST scheme is effective in differentiating strain types (ST, deciphering transmission patterns and treatment failure, and identifying recombinant strains. Here, we analyzed 323 reference and clinical samples, including 58 samples from Russia, an area that has not previously been represented in Ct typing schemes, to expand our knowledge of the global diversification of Ct STs. The 323 samples resolved into 84 unique STs, a 3.23 higher typing resolution compared to the gold standard single locus ompA genotyping. Our MLST scheme showed a high discriminatory index, D, of 0.98 (95% CI 0.97–0.99 confirming the validity of this method for typing. Phylogenetic analyses revealed distinct branches for the phenotypic diseases of lymphogranuloma venereum, urethritis and cervicitis, and a sub-branch for ocular trachoma. Consistent with these findings, single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified that significantly correlated with each phenotype. While the overall number of unique STs per region was comparable across geographies, the number of STs was greater for Russia with a significantly higher ST/sample ratio of 0.45 (95% CI: 0.35–0.53 compared to Europe or the Americas (p < 0.009, which may reflect a higher level of sexual mixing with the introduction of STs from other regions and/or reassortment of alleles. Four STs were found to be significantly associated with a particular geographic region. ST23 [p = 0.032 (95% CI: 1–23], ST34 [p = 0.019 (95% CI: 1.1–25]; and ST19 [p = 0.001 (95% CI: 1.7–34.7] were significantly associated with Netherlands compared to Russia or the Americas, while ST 30 [p = 0.031 (95% CI: 1.1–17.8] was significantly associated with the Americas. ST19 was significantly associated with Netherlands and Russia compared with the Americans [p = 0.001 (95% CI: 1.7–34.7 and p = 0.006 (95

  7. Sequence analysis and typing of Saprolegnia strains isolated from freshwater fish from Southern Chinese regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siya Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Saprolegniasis, caused by Saprolegnia infection, is one of the most common diseases in freshwater fish. Our study aimed to determine the epidemiological characteristics of saprolegniasis in Chinese regions of high incidence. Saprolegnia were isolated and identified by morphological and molecular methods targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS ribosomal DNA (rDNA and building neighbor-joining (NJ and maximum parsimony (MP phylogenetic trees. The ITS sequences of eight isolated strains were compared with GenBank sequences and all strains fell into three clades: CLADE1 (02, LP, 04 and 14, CLADE2 (S1, and CLADE3 (CP, S2, L5 and the reference ATCC200013. Isolates 02 and LP shared 80% sequence similarity with S. diclina, S. longicaulis, S. ferax, S. mixta, and S. anomalies. Further, isolates 04 and 14 shared 80% similarity with S. bulbosa and S. oliviae. Finally, extremely high ITS sequence similarities were identified between isolates S1 and S. australis (100%; CP and S. hypogyna (96%; and S2, L5, ATCC200013 and S. salmonis (98%. This research provides insights into the identification, prevention and control of saprolegniasis pathogens and the potential development of effective drugs.

  8. Development and application of the variable focus laser leveling gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Kun; Ma Jinglong

    2005-01-01

    The variable focus laser leveling gage was developed. The performance and structure were introduced. The several alignments and tests in KrF laser angle multi-path optical system were accomplished with them. Its application in other optical equipment was discussed too. (author)

  9. Latin-square three-dimensional gage master

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.

    1981-05-12

    A gage master for coordinate measuring machines has an nxn array of objects distributed in the Z coordinate utilizing the concept of a Latin square experimental design. Using analysis of variance techniques, the invention may be used to identify sources of error in machine geometry and quantify machine accuracy.

  10. 49 CFR 213.110 - Gage restraint measurement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements specified in §§ 213.109 and 213.127. (5) If the PTLF becomes non-functional or is missing, the... and fastener requirements specified in §§ 213.109 and 213.127 provided that— (1) The track owner... the minimum design requirements of a GRMS vehicle which specify that— (1) Gage restraint shall be...

  11. Testing for moisture content in foods by neutron gaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helf, S.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron gaging was applied to the testing for moisture content in bulk powdered foods and in canned Army field rations. The technique is based on the moderation or thermalization of fast neutrons by hydrogenous matter and the measurement of thermal neutron intensity as a function of moisture content. A small californium-252 capsule, of approximate output 10 7 neutrons per second, was used as the source of fast neutrons. It is concluded that a fast neutron moderation technique is feasible for the nondestructive measurement or control of moisture or both in near-dry bulk powdered foods. Samples must be measured under identical geometric conditions, that is, uniform bulk density and volume using a standard metal container or cell. For canned or otherwise prepacked rations, measurement of moisture is interfered with by variations in fill weight among cans or packages of the same product. A gamma-ray attenuation gaging method proved to be of insufficient sensitivity to correct for fill weight variation and was further complicated by nonuniformity in can wall dimensions. Neutron gaging, however, appears to be quite useful for monitoring a standard packaged item for fill weight since the neutron signal is virtually unaffected by variations in container dimensions. The radiation dose imparted to a sample or package of food subjected to such a test is judged to pose no threat to humans from subsequent consumption of the food. An estimate is given for the cost range of a commercial neutron gage and of encapsulated radioisotopic neutron sources

  12. Development of piping strain sensor for stress evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahama, Tsunemichi; Nishimura, Kazuma; Ninomiya, Seiichiro; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Harada, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    In a small diameter piping, stresses are generated due to internal fluid or pump vibrations especially around the welding parts. Authors have successfully developed a pipe strain sensor which is able to measure such stresses. Unlike conventional methods using strain gages and adhesive bond, the sensor can measure the strain without putting adhesive bond on the piping surface. However, the strain sensor can provide measurements with a level of accuracy equivalent to that of conventional method using strain gages and adhesive bond. Accordingly, the strain sensor can significantly reduce the working time without any loss of the measurement accuracy. (author)

  13. Multidrug-Resistant Outbreak-Associated Salmonella Strains in Irrigation Water from the Metropolitan Region, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M C; Retamal, P; Rojas-Aedo, J F; Fernández, J; Fernández, A; Lapierre, L

    2017-06-01

    Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) is the main cause of foodborne diseases in the Chilean population. With the aim of characterizing the presence of S. enterica in bodies of water, samples from 40 sources were obtained, including rivers and irrigation canals used by agricultural farms in the most populated regions of Chile. As result, 35 S. enterica isolates belonging to several serotypes were detected, with the highest frequency represented by Typhimurium and Enteritidis. All strains showed phenotypic antimicrobial resistance, and most of them were multiresistant to critically important antimicrobials. In addition, the pulse-field gel electrophoresis analysis using XbaI and BlnI endonucleases showed that seven Salmonella isolates belonging to serotypes Typhimurium, Enteritidis and Infantis had identical pulsotypes to outbreak-associated clinical isolates detected in the Chilean population, suggesting a public health risk of water pollution in this region. Among sampling sites, the higher detection rates were observed in rural than urban and peri-urban areas, suggesting that the animal husbandry might contribute for environmental dispersion of this pathogen. Future efforts should address the characterization of cause-and-effect relationship between water contamination and foodborne disease, including the implementation of surveillance programmes to tackle potential risks for both human and animal populations. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Role of strained nano-regions in the formation of subgrains in CaCu3Ti4O12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Tsang-Tse; Wang, Yong-Huei; Kuo, Jui-Chao

    2011-07-01

    Single-phase CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) was synthesized by solid-state reaction. Electron backscatter diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were adopted to characterize the grain orientation, microstructure, and surface morphology of the CCTO samples with or without thermal etching. Bump strained nano-regions induced by the local compositional disorder at a nano-scale have been discovered, being the origin of the formation of subgrains in CCTO. The proposed mechanism for the formation of subgrains involves the formation of etched pits and subboundaries pertaining to the strained nano-regions rather than dislocation displacement. The dielectric response inside the grains of CCTO relevant to the strained nano-regions is also discussed.

  15. Polymer film strain gauges for measuring large elongations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratov, A. P.; Zueva, A. M.; Varakin, R. S.; Taranec, I. P.; Savenkova, I. A.

    2018-02-01

    The paper shows the possibility to print polymer strain gages, microstrip lines, coplanar waveguides, and other prints for avionics using printing technology and equipment. The methods of screen and inkjet printing have been complemented by three new operations of preparing print films for application of an electrically conductive ink layer. Such additional operations make it possible to enhance the conductive ink layer adhesion to the film and to manufacture strain gages for measuring large elongations.

  16. Characterization of Clostridium difficile Strains in British Columbia, Canada: A Shift from NAP1 Majority (2008 to Novel Strain Types (2013 in One Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha N. Jassem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Clostridium difficile is a major cause of gastrointestinal illness. Epidemic NAP1 strains contain toxins A and B, a deletion in repressor tcdC, and a binary toxin. Objectives. To determine the molecular epidemiology of C. difficile in British Columbia and compare between two time points in one region. Methods. C. difficile isolates from hospital and community laboratories (2008 and one Island Health hospital laboratory (2013 were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, PCR-ribotyping, toxin possession, tcdC genotype, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Results. In 2008, 42.7% of isolates had NAP1 designation. Hospital-collected isolates were associated with older patients and more NAP1 types. Unlike other isolates, most NAP1 isolates possessed binary toxin and a 19 bp loss in tcdC. All isolates were susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin. A 2013 follow-up revealed a 28.9% decrease in NAP1 isolates and 20.0% increase in isolates without NAP designation in one region. Then, community-associated cases were seen in younger patients, while NAP types were evenly distributed. Isolates without NAP designation did not cluster with a PFGE pattern or ribotype. Conclusions. Evaluation of C. difficile infections within British Columbia revealed demographic associations, epidemiological shifts, and characteristics of strain types. Continuous surveillance of C. difficile will enable detection of emerging strains.

  17. Prophage-Encoded Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A: Regulation of Production in Staphylococcus aureus Strains Representing Different Sea Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoleta Zeaki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the nature of the link between the staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA gene and the lifecycle of Siphoviridae bacteriophages, including the origin of strain variation regarding SEA production after prophage induction. Five strains representing three different genetic lines of the sea region were studied under optimal and prophage-induced growth conditions and the Siphoviridae lifecycle was followed through the phage replicative form copies and transcripts of the lysogenic repressor, cro. The role of SOS response on prophage induction was addressed through recA transcription in a recA-disruption mutant. Prophage induction was found to increase the abundance of the phage replicative form, the sea gene copies and transcripts and enhance SEA production. Sequence analysis of the sea regions revealed that observed strain variances were related to strain capacity for prophage induction, rather than sequence differences in the sea region. The impact of SOS response activation on the phage lifecycle was demonstrated by the absence of phage replicative form copies in the recA-disruption mutant after prophage induction. From this study it emerges that all aspects of SEA-producing strain, the Siphoviridae phage and the food environment must be considered when evaluating SEA-related hazards.

  18. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS STRAINS CIRCULATING IN THE URAL REGION, RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Umpeleva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Overall 178 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates recovered in 2009–2011 from newly diagnosed epidemiologically unlinked to TB patients in the Ural region of Russia have been studied. The absolute concentration method was used for drug susceptibility testing. Mutations katG, inhA and rpoB associated with resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin were detected by microchip technology («TB-Biochip». The isolates were genotyped by real-time PCR for the detection of Beijing/non-Beijing genotypes and 15-locus MIRU-VNTR typing according to «MIRU-VNTRplus» (http://www.miru-vntrplus.org. More than half (55.1% of 178 isolates belonged to the Beijing family, 58.7% of them were multiple drug resistant (MDR mostly due to rpoBSer531→Leu and katGSer315→Thr1 substitutions. Fifty VNTR profiles were found in 98 Beijing isolates; 57 of them grouped into 9 clusters. The largest VNTR cluster included 23 (23.5% Beijing isolates and 21 of them were MDR. The 80 non-Beijing isolates showed 64 distinct VNTR patterns which belonged to 6 genetic families: LAM, Ural, Haarlem, etc. Among LAM and Ural isolates 30.4% and 28.6% were MDR, respectively. The 5 of 7 MDR LAM isolates had specific mutation profile:  rpoBAsp516→Val substitution and mutations katGSer315→Thr1 and inhA_T15. The MDR Ural isolates showed the heterogeneity of mutations in rpoB gene compared to other genotypes. Taken together, these findings suggest the emergence and spread of MDR-TB in the Ural region which is characterized by circulation of MDR strains of different genotypes with the Beijing family genotype to be predominant.

  19. Relationship between fatigue life in the creep-fatigue region and stress-strain response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovits, A.; Nadiv, S.

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of mechanical tests and metallographic studies, strainrange partitioned lives were predicted by introducing stress-strain materials parameters into the Universal Slopes Equation. This was the result of correlating fatigue damage mechanisms and deformation mechanisms operating at elevated temperatures on the basis of observed mechanical and microstructural behavior. Correlation between high temperature fatigue and stress strain properties for nickel base superalloys and stainless steel substantiated the method. Parameters which must be evaluated for PP- and CC- life are the maximum stress achievable under entirely plastic and creep conditions respectively and corresponding inelastic strains, and the two more pairs of stress strain parameters must be ascertained.

  20. Skin-friction measurements with hot-wire gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdeville, R.; Juillen, J. C.; Cousteix, J.

    1983-11-01

    The development of two hot-wire gauges for implantation in wind-tunnel models and their application to the measurement of skin-friction phenomena are reported. The measurement principle is explained; the design and calibration of a single-wire gage containing a thermocouple for temperature determination (Cousteix and Juillen, 1982-1983) are summarized; and sample results for 2D and 3D flows with positive pressure gradients are shown. An advanced design employing a thin hot film deposited on an 80-micron-diameter quartz fiber extending into a 1-mm-sq 0.8-mm-deep cavity is characterized and demonstrated on a pulsed flow on a flat plate, Tollmien-Schlichting waves, and a turbulent boundary layer. Two cold-wire temperature sensors are added to this gage to permit detection of the skin of the skin friction in the separated flow over a cylinder.

  1. An internal duplication in the 5' noncoding region of strain H: a bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolated from pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gennip, van H.G.P.; Widjojoatmodjo, M.N.; Smit, de A.J.; Moormann, R.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    A pig pestivirus isolate, strain H, was characterized by using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and direct sequencing of the amplicons. A duplication of 74 nucleotides was found at the 5' terminus of the 5' noncoding (NC) region, which was also found in RNA isolates from tonsils from two other

  2. Sequence analysis of the its-2 region: a tool to identify strains of Scenedesmus (Chlorophyceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hannen, E.J.; Lürling, M.; Van Donk, E.

    2000-01-01

    The genetic distances between several strains of Senedesmus obliquus (Turp,) Kutz,, S, acutus Hortobagyi, and S, naegelii Chod. calculated from ITS-2 sequences were found to be smaller than the genetic distances within other strains of Scenedesmus-that is, in S, acuminatus (Lagerh,) Chod, and S,

  3. Analysis of the tensile behaviour of zircaloy-4 in the region of dynamic strain aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellaretti Filho, O.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of the tensile behavior of Zircaloy 4, centering around the influence of dynamic strain aging and strain rate history, is presented. This analysis is based on techniques introduced by Jaoul-Crussard and Reed-Hill. An attempt is also made to assess the experimental errors that influence these methods. (author)

  4. Critical strain region evaluation of self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, D L [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e I. M. y Q. I., Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Pizarro, J [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Galindo, P L [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Garcia, R [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e I. M. y Q. I., Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Trevisi, G [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parco delle Scienze 37a, 43100, Parma (Italy); Frigeri, P [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parco delle Scienze 37a, 43100, Parma (Italy); Nasi, L [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parco delle Scienze 37a, 43100, Parma (Italy); Franchi, S [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parco delle Scienze 37a, 43100, Parma (Italy); Molina, S I [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e I. M. y Q. I., Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2007-11-28

    A novel peak finding method to map the strain from high resolution transmission electron micrographs, known as the Peak Pairs method, has been applied to In(Ga)As/AlGaAs quantum dot (QD) samples, which present stacking faults emerging from the QD edges. Moreover, strain distribution has been simulated by the finite element method applying the elastic theory on a 3D QD model. The agreement existing between determined and simulated strain values reveals that these techniques are consistent enough to qualitatively characterize the strain distribution of nanostructured materials. The correct application of both methods allows the localization of critical strain zones in semiconductor QDs, predicting the nucleation of defects, and being a very useful tool for the design of semiconductor devices.

  5. Measurement of strains at high temperatures by means of electro-optics holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Bhat, G.; Vaitekunas, Jeffrey

    Electro-optics holographic-moire interferometry is used to measure strains at temperatures up to 1000 C. A description of the instrumentation developed to carry out the measurements is given. The data processing technique is also explained. Main problems encountered in recording patterns at high temperatures are analyzed and possible solutions are outlined. Optical results are compared with strain gage values obtained with instrumented specimens and with theoretical results. Very good agreement is found between optical, strain gage and theoretical results.

  6. Establishing a Multi-scale Stream Gaging Network in the Whitewater River Basin, Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, J.A.; Kean, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Investigating the routing of streamflow through a large drainage basin requires the determination of discharge at numerous locations in the channel network. Establishing a dense network of stream gages using conventional methods is both cost-prohibitive and functionally impractical for many research projects. We employ herein a previously tested, fluid-mechanically based model for generating rating curves to establish a stream gaging network in the Whitewater River basin in south-central Kansas. The model was developed for the type of channels typically found in this watershed, meaning that it is designed to handle deep, narrow geomorphically stable channels with irregular planforms, and can model overbank flow over a vegetated floodplain. We applied the model to ten previously ungaged stream reaches in the basin, ranging from third- to sixth-order channels. At each site, detailed field measurements of the channel and floodplain morphology, bed and bank roughness, and vegetation characteristics were used to quantify the roughness for a range of flow stages, from low flow to overbank flooding. Rating curves that relate stage to discharge were developed for all ten sites. Both fieldwork and modeling were completed in less than 2 years during an anomalously dry period in the region, which underscores an advantage of using theoretically based (as opposed to empirically based) discharge estimation techniques. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  7. Simple regional strain pattern analysis to predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Jons, Christian; Olsen, Niels T

    2012-01-01

    A classical strain pattern of early contraction in one wall and prestretching of the opposing wall followed by late contraction has previously been associated with left bundle branch block (LBBB) activation and short-term response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Aims of this study were...... to establish the long-term predictive value of an LBBB-related strain pattern and to identify changes in contraction patterns during short-term and long-term CRT....

  8. Near Net Manufacturing Using Thin Gage Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Jennifer; Potter, David; Holquin, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) and near net spin forming of FSW aluminumn blanks were investigated for large-scale pressure vessel applications. With a specific focus on very thin gage 2xxx and 7xxx aluminum alloys, the program concentrated on the following: the criteria used for material selection, a potential manufacturing flow, and the effectiveness and associated risks of near net spin forming. Discussion will include the mechanical properties of the friction stir welds and the parent material from before and after the spin forming process. This effort was performed under a NASA Space Exploration initiative focused on increasing the affordability, reliability and performance of pressure vessels larger than 10 ft. diameter.

  9. Spatiotemporal maps reveal regional differences in the effects on gut motility for Lactobacillus reuteri and rhamnosus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, R Y; Pasyk, M; Wang, B; Forsythe, P; Bienenstock, J; Mao, Y-K; Sharma, P; Stanisz, A M; Kunze, W A

    2013-03-01

    Commensal bacteria such as probiotics that are neuroactive acutely affect the amplitudes of intestinal migrating motor complexes (MMCs). What is lacking for an improved understanding of these motility effects are region specific measurements of velocity and frequency. We have combined intraluminal pressure recordings with spatiotemporal diameter maps to analyze more completely effects of different strains of beneficial bacteria on motility. Intraluminal peak pressure (PPr) was measured and video recordings made of mouse ex vivo jejunum and colon segments before and after intraluminal applications of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) or Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938). Migrating motor complex frequency and velocity were calculated. JB-1 decreased jejunal frequencies by 56% and 34% in colon. Jejunal velocities increased 171%, but decreased 31% in colon. Jejunal PPr decreased by 55% and in colon by 21%. DSM 17938 increased jejunal frequencies 63% and in colon 75%; jejunal velocity decreased 57%, but increased in colon 146%; jejunal PPr was reduced 26% and 12% in colon. TRAM-34 decreased frequency by 71% and increased velocity 200% for jejunum, but increased frequency 46% and velocity 50% for colon; PPr was decreased 59% for jejunum and 39% for colon. The results show that probiotics and other beneficial bacteria have strain and region-specific actions on gut motility that can be successfully discriminated using spatiotemporal mapping of diameter changes. Effects are not necessarily the same in colon and jejunum. Further research is needed on the detailed effects of the strains on enteric neuron currents for each gut region. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Molecular Strain Typing of Clinical Isolates, Trichophyton rubrum using Non Transcribed Spacer (NTS) Region as a Molecular Marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaraj, Vijayakumar; Vijayaraman, Rajyoganandh S; Elavarashi, Elangovan; Rangarajan, Sudha; Kindo, Anupma Jyoti

    2017-05-01

    Dermatophytes are a group of fungi which infect keratinized tissues and causes superficial mycoses in humans and animals. The group comprises of three major genera, Trichophyton , Microsporum and Epidermophyton . Among them Trichophyton rubrum is a predominant anthropophilic fungi which causes chronic infections. Although, the infection is superficial and treatable, reinfection/coinfection causes inflation in the treatment cost. Identifying the source and mode of transmission is essential to prevent its transmission. Accurate discrimination is required to understand the clinical (relapse or reinfection) and epidemiological implications of the genetic heterogeneity of this species. Polymorphism in the Non Transcribed Spacer (NTS) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clusters renders an effective way to discriminate strains among T. rubrum . To carry out the strain typing of the clinical isolates, Trichophyton rubrum using NTS as a molecular marker. Seventy T.rubrum clinical isolates obtained from April-2011-March 2013, from Sri Ramachandra Medical Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, were identified by conventional phenotypic methods and included in this prospective study. The isolates were then subjected to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) targeting two subrepeat elements (SREs), TRS-1 and TRS-2 of the NTS region. Strain-specific polymorphism was observed in both subrepeat loci. Total, nine different strains were obtained on combining both TRS-1 and TRS-2, SREs. The outcome has given a strong representation for using NTS region amplification in discriminating the T. rubrum clinical isolates. The method can be adapted as a tool for conducting epidemiology and population based study in T. rubrum infections. This will help in future exploration of the epidemiology of T. rubrum .

  11. Genotyping of Mycobacterium leprae strains from a region of high endemic leprosy prevalence in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavania, Mallika; Jadhav, Rupendra; Turankar, Ravindra P; Singh, Itu; Nigam, Astha; Sengupta, U

    2015-12-01

    Leprosy is still a major health problem in India which has the highest number of cases. Multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) have been proposed as tools of strain typing for tracking the transmission of leprosy. However, empirical data for a defined population from scale and duration were lacking for studying the transmission chain of leprosy. Seventy slit skin scrapings were collected from Purulia (West Bengal), Miraj (Maharashtra), Shahdara (Delhi), and Naini (UP) hospitals of The Leprosy Mission (TLM). SNP subtyping and MLVA on 10 VNTR loci were applied for the strain typing of Mycobacterium leprae. Along with the strain typing conventional epidemiological investigation was also performed to trace the transmission chain. In addition, phylogenetic analysis was done on variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) data sets using sequence type analysis and recombinational tests (START) software. START software performs analyses to aid in the investigation of bacterial population structure using multilocus sequence data. These analyses include data summary, lineage assignment, and tests for recombination and selection. Diversity was observed in the cross-sectional survey of isolates obtained from 70 patients. Similarity in fingerprinting profiles observed in specimens of cases from the same family or neighborhood locations indicated a possible common source of infection. The data suggest that these VNTRs including subtyping of SNPs can be used to study the sources and transmission chain in leprosy, which could be very important in monitoring of the disease dynamics in high endemic foci. The present study strongly indicates that multi-case families might constitute epidemic foci and the main source of M. leprae in villages, causing the predominant strain or cluster infection leading to the spread of leprosy in the community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Stress-Strain State of Recent Structures in the Northeastern Sector of the Russian Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaeva, L. P.; Imaev, V. S.; Mel'nikova, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    Complex research to determine the stress-strain state of the Earth's crust and the types of seismotectonic destruction for the northeastern sector of the Russian Arctic was conducted. The principles of regional ranking of neotectonic structures were developed according to the activity of geodynamic processes, and argumentation for their class differentiation is presented. The structural-tectonic position, the parameters of the deep structure, the system of active faults, and the tectonic stress fields, calculated on the basis of both tectonophysical analysis of discontinuous and folded late Cenozoic deformations and seismological data, were analyzed. This complex of investigations made it possible to determine the directions of the main axes of deformations of the stress-strain state of the Earth's crust and to reveal the regularity in the change of tectonic regimes.

  13. Genomic relationships of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 strains evaluated by ribotyping, sequence analysis of ribosomal intergenic regions, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fussing, V.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the genomic relationship among 112 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 strains obtained throughout Europe and North America. HindIII ribotyping of the strains resulted in five ribotypes of high similarity (87-98%). Sequence analysis of the riboso......The aim of the present study was to examine the genomic relationship among 112 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 strains obtained throughout Europe and North America. HindIII ribotyping of the strains resulted in five ribotypes of high similarity (87-98%). Sequence analysis...... of the ribosomal intergenic region of strains representing each ribotype and each country showed no differences. A common ribotype was further characterized by PFGE of 12 strains representing all countries. The resultant five PFGE patterns of European strains showed a similarity of more than 91%, to which the two...

  14. Effect of early postnatal exposure to valproate on neurobehavioral development and regional BDNF expression in two strains of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Kevin G; Pimentel, Tiare

    2017-05-01

    Valproate has been used for over 30years as a first-line treatment for epilepsy. In recent years, prenatal exposure to valproate has been associated with teratogenic effects, limiting its use in women that are pregnant or of childbearing age. However, despite its potential detrimental effects on development, valproate continues to be prescribed at high rates in pediatric populations in some countries. Animal models allow us to test hypotheses regarding the potential effects of postnatal valproate exposure on neurobehavioral development, as well as identify potential mechanisms mediating observed effects. Here, we tested the effect of early postnatal (P4-P11) valproate exposure (100mg/kg and 200mg/kg) on motor and affective development in two strains of mice, SVE129 and C57Bl/6N. We also assessed the effect of early valproate exposure on regional BDNF protein levels, a potential target of valproate, and mediator of neurodevelopmental outcomes. We found that early life valproate exposure led to significant motor impairments in both SVE129 and C57Bl/6N mice. Both lines of mice showed significant delays in weight gain, as well as impairments in the righting reflex (P7-8), wire hang (P17), open field (P12 and P21), and rotarod (P25 and P45) tasks. Interestingly, some of the early locomotor effects were strain- and dose-dependent. We observed no effects of valproate on early markers of anxiety-like behavior. Importantly, early life valproate exposure had significant effects on regional BDNF expression, leading to a near 50% decrease in BDNF levels in the cerebellum of both strains of mice, while not impacting hippocampal BDNF protein levels. These observations indicate that postnatal exposure to valproate may have significant, and region-specific effects, on neural and behavioral development, with specific consequences for cerebellar development and motor function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. CIVAC CV-01 type pressure gage for middle vacuum pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaru, Grigore; Aculai, Agustin

    1997-01-01

    The digital display pressure gage CIVAC CV-01 measures absolute pressures in vacuum range of 10 2 - 10 -3 mbar in any installation or equipment generating or using low pressures. It uses a transducer type PIRANI, model TR-02. It is a portable device, easy to exploit and handle. It is applied in research, chemistry, metallurgical industry, mechanical engineering. The system of coupling the transducer to the enclosure where the pressure is to be measured is of type ISO-PNEUROP with flange, collar and adjusting ring with a DN 25 ring gasket. The technical and functional features are: - Measuring error: ± 35% of real conventional value ; - Response time: 20 ms; - Number of measuring points: 1; - Output signal: 0 - 10 V d.c.; - Repeatability error: 5%; - Max weight: 1,600 Kg; Size: 91 x 117 x 187 mm. (authors)

  16. Operation of a nuclear test gage at low multiplications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, N.P.

    1977-01-01

    The Nuclear Test Gage (NTG) at the Savannah River Plant is a subcritical multiplying facility (low k) with H 2 O moderator and 2.54-cm-diameter fuel slugs of 5 wt percent 235 U in aluminum alloy at a 4.285-cm triangular pitch. The core of the facility is 61-cm long with a normal diameter of 27 cm. The NTG is used for quality control of reactor components, such as 235 U-Al fuel tubes, Li--Al target tubes, control and safety rods, and miscellaneous special irradiation elements. A component is tested by passing it through an axial test port 11.63 cm in diameter. The ion chamber response from the resultant change in neutron source multiplication is then compared with corresponding responses from known standards

  17. Soil moisture determination with Tesla NZK 203 neutron gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hally, J.

    1977-01-01

    Soil moisture was measured using the NZK 203 neutron probe manufactured by Tesla Premysleni. The individual measuring sites were spaced at a distance of 100 m. The NZK 203 set consists of a NPK 202 moisture gage and a NSK 301 scintillation detector and features the following specifications: moisture density measuring range 20 to 500 kg/m 3 , 241 Am-Be fast neutron source having a neutron flux of 7.5x10 4 n.sec -1 +-10%, operating temperature -10 to +45 degC. The measured counting rate was primarily affected by the statistical fluctuation of ionizing radiation and by instrument instability. In order that these effects should be limited each measurement was repeated 10 times with the optimum measurement time at an interval of 20 to 100 sec. The NZK 203 Tesla set was proven to be suitable for rapid and reproducible determination of moisture profiles. (J.P.)

  18. Evolutionary changes in the capsid P2 region of Australian strains of the norovirus GII.Pe_GII.4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggink, Leesa D; Moselen, Jean M; Roberts, Jason A; Marshall, John A

    2017-07-01

    The protruding (P) 2 region of the norovirus capsid is thought to include hypervariable sites involved in receptor binding. This study examines the changes that occurred in the P2 region of GII.Pe_GII.4 norovirus in the course of its evolution from a precursor phase (2008-2009), to an intermediate phase (2010) and finally to an epidemic phase (2012-2015). Twenty-two P2 region amino acid (aa) sequences (166 aa long) from all phases of the evolution of the virus were compared and the changes analysed.Results/key findings. Twenty sites in the P2 region underwent aa change and of these, 10 corresponded to previously proposed hypervariable sites and 10 to novel hypervariable sites. It was notable that aa changes at two sites, X and Y, only emerged as the epidemic phase progressed. 3D computer modelling of the P2 region indicated that neither X nor Y were in the uppermost 'crown', but further down in the 'neck' portion. The location of X and Y and the nature of aa change at Y suggest these sites were important in enhancing the structural integrity of the capsid, which in turn may have facilitated the longer term viability of the virus. The current study helps establish the validity of previously proposed hypervariable sites in the P2 region as well as indicating new ones. It also provides quantitative and qualitative data on how these sites changed over the evolutionary history of a particular norovirus strain.

  19. Geoscience Workforce Development at UNAVCO: Leveraging the NSF GAGE Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A. R.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Miller, M.

    2013-12-01

    Global economic development demands that the United States remain competitive in the STEM fields, and developing a forward-looking and well-trained geoscience workforce is imperative. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the geosciences will experience a growth of 19% by 2016. Fifty percent of the current geoscience workforce is within 10-15 years of retirement, and as a result, the U.S. is facing a gap between the supply of prepared geoscientists and the demand for well-trained labor. Barring aggressive intervention, the imbalance in the geoscience workforce will continue to grow, leaving the increased demand unmet. UNAVCO, Inc. is well situated to prepare undergraduate students for placement in geoscience technical positions and advanced graduate study. UNAVCO is a university-governed consortium facilitating research and education in the geosciences and in addition UNAVCO manages the NSF Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope (GAGE) facility. The GAGE facility supports many facets of geoscience research including instrumentation and infrastructure, data analysis, cyberinfrastructure, and broader impacts. UNAVCO supports the Research Experiences in the Solid Earth Sciences for Students (RESESS), an NSF-funded multiyear geoscience research internship, community support, and professional development program. The primary goal of the RESESS program is to increase the number of historically underrepresented students entering graduate school in the geosciences. RESESS has met with high success in the first 9 years of the program, as more than 75% of RESESS alumni are currently in Master's and PhD programs across the U.S. Building upon the successes of RESESS, UNAVCO is launching a comprehensive workforce development program that will network underrepresented groups in the geosciences to research and opportunities throughout the geosciences. This presentation will focus on the successes of the RESESS program and plans to expand on this success with broader

  20. Comparison of Antibacterial Activity of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Isolated from Two Different Kinds of Regional Cheeses from Poland: Oscypek and Korycinski Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Ołdak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oscypek and korycinski are traditional Polish cheeses, exclusively produced in Tatra and in Podlasie region, respectively, produced from raw, unpasteurized milk. The 29 Lactobacillus plantarum strains were isolated on MRS agar from 12 cheese samples and used as a material for study. The main purpose of the work was to assess the antimicrobial properties and recognition of selected strains for the unique antagonistic activity and preservation role in food. It has been found that the highest antimicrobial activity was observed in the case of L. monocytogenes strains; however, the level of that activity was different depending on the Lb. plantarum strain. Strains from oscypek produced broad spectrum, and a few strains isolated from korycinski cheese produced a narrow spectrum of antimicrobial compounds, other than organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, the antagonistic activity shown by Lb. plantarum strains is connected with the source from which a given strain was isolated. Strains isolated from oscypek cheese represented stronger activity against L. monocytogenes, whereas strains isolated from korycinski cheese were more active against E. coli. Strains Lb. plantarum Os13 and Kor14 could be considered as good candidates for protective cultures to extend durability of food products.

  1. Comparison of Antibacterial Activity of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Isolated from Two Different Kinds of Regional Cheeses from Poland: Oscypek and Korycinski Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ołdak, Aleksandra; Rzepkowska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Oscypek and korycinski are traditional Polish cheeses, exclusively produced in Tatra and in Podlasie region, respectively, produced from raw, unpasteurized milk. The 29 Lactobacillus plantarum strains were isolated on MRS agar from 12 cheese samples and used as a material for study. The main purpose of the work was to assess the antimicrobial properties and recognition of selected strains for the unique antagonistic activity and preservation role in food. It has been found that the highest antimicrobial activity was observed in the case of L. monocytogenes strains; however, the level of that activity was different depending on the Lb. plantarum strain. Strains from oscypek produced broad spectrum, and a few strains isolated from korycinski cheese produced a narrow spectrum of antimicrobial compounds, other than organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, the antagonistic activity shown by Lb. plantarum strains is connected with the source from which a given strain was isolated. Strains isolated from oscypek cheese represented stronger activity against L. monocytogenes, whereas strains isolated from korycinski cheese were more active against E. coli. Strains Lb. plantarum Os13 and Kor14 could be considered as good candidates for protective cultures to extend durability of food products. PMID:28626762

  2. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Flux Using Flush-Mounted Insert Temperature-Gradient Gages

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the measurement of the net heat flux normal to a surface using gages inserted flush with the surface. The geometry is the same as heat-flux gages covered by Test Method E 511, but the measurement principle is different. The gages covered by this standard all use a measurement of the temperature gradient normal to the surface to determine the heat that is exchanged to or from the surface. Although in a majority of cases the net heat flux is to the surface, the gages operate by the same principles for heat transfer in either direction. 1.2 This general test method is quite broad in its field of application, size and construction. Two different gage types that are commercially available are described in detail in later sections as examples. A summary of common heat-flux gages is given by Diller (1). Applications include both radiation and convection heat transfer. The gages used for aerospace applications are generally small (0.155 to 1.27 cm diameter), have a fast time response ...

  3. Differences in Virulence Markers between Helicobacter pylori Strains from Iraq and Those from Iran: Potential Importance of Regional Differences in H. pylori-Associated Disease▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Nawfal R.; Mohammadi, Marjan; Talebkhan, Yeganeh; Doraghi, Masoumeh; Letley, Darren P.; Muhammad, Merdan K.; Argent, Richard H.; Atherton, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma; the latter is common in Iran but not in Iraq. We hypothesized that more virulent H. pylori strains may be found in Iran than in Iraq and so compared established and newly described virulence factors in strains from these countries. We studied 59 unselected dyspeptic patients from Iran and 49 from Iraq. cagA was found in similar proportions of strains from both countries (76% in Iran versus 71% in Iraq) and was significantly associated with peptic ulcer disease in Iraq (P ≤ 0.01) but not in Iran. cagA alleles encoding four or more tyrosine phosphorylation motifs were found in 12% of the Iranian strains but none of the Iraqi strains (P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in the vacA signal-, middle-, or intermediate-region types between Iranian and Iraqi strains. Among the strains from Iran, vacA genotypes showed no specific peptic ulcer associations, but among the strains from Iraq, vacA i1 strains were associated with gastric ulcer (P ≤ 0.02), mimicking their previously demonstrated association with gastric cancer in Iran. dupA was found in similar proportions of Iranian and Iraqi strains (38% and 32%, respectively) and was associated with peptic ulceration in Iraqi patients (P ≤ 0.01) but not Iranian patients. H. pylori strains from Iraq and Iran possess virulence factors similar to those in Western countries. The presence of cagA with more phosphorylation motifs in Iranian strains may contribute to the higher incidence of gastric cancer. However, the association between strain virulence markers and disease in Iraq but not Iran suggests that other host and environmental factors may be more important in the disease-prone Iranian population. PMID:18353934

  4. Loss of lager specific genes and subtelomeric regions define two different Saccharomyces cerevisiae lineages for Saccharomyces pastorianus Group I and II strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monerawela, Chandre; James, Tharappel C; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Bond, Ursula

    2015-03-01

    Lager yeasts, Saccharomyces pastorianus, are interspecies hybrids between S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus and are classified into Group I and Group II clades. The genome of the Group II strain, Weihenstephan 34/70, contains eight so-called 'lager-specific' genes that are located in subtelomeric regions. We evaluated the origins of these genes through bioinformatic and PCR analyses of Saccharomyces genomes. We determined that four are of cerevisiae origin while four originate from S. eubayanus. The Group I yeasts contain all four S. eubayanus genes but individual strains contain only a subset of the cerevisiae genes. We identified S. cerevisiae strains that contain all four cerevisiae 'lager-specific' genes, and distinct patterns of loss of these genes in other strains. Analysis of the subtelomeric regions uncovered patterns of loss in different S. cerevisiae strains. We identify two classes of S. cerevisiae strains: ale yeasts (Foster O) and stout yeasts with patterns of 'lager-specific' genes and subtelomeric regions identical to Group I and II S. pastorianus yeasts, respectively. These findings lead us to propose that Group I and II S. pastorianus strains originate from separate hybridization events involving different S. cerevisiae lineages. Using the combined bioinformatic and PCR data, we describe a potential classification map for industrial yeasts. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  5. Genetic Diversity of Toxoplasma gondii Strains from Different Hosts and Geographical Regions by Sequence Analysis of GRA20 Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Hong-Rui; Huang, Si-Yang; Wang, Jin-Lei; Xu, Qian-Ming; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a eukaryotic parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa, which infects all warm-blood animals, including humans. In the present study, we examined sequence variation in dense granule 20 (GRA20) genes among T. gondii isolates collected from different hosts and geographical regions worldwide. The complete GRA20 genes were amplified from 16 T. gondii isolates using PCR, sequence were analyzed, and phylogenetic reconstruction was analyzed by maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods. The results showed that the complete GRA20 gene sequence was 1,586 bp in length among all the isolates used in this study, and the sequence variations in nucleotides were 0-7.9% among all strains. However, removing the type III strains (CTG, VEG), the sequence variations became very low, only 0-0.7%. These results indicated that the GRA20 sequence in type III was more divergence. Phylogenetic analysis of GRA20 sequences using MP and ML methods can differentiate 2 major clonal lineage types (type I and type III) into their respective clusters, indicating the GRA20 gene may represent a novel genetic marker for intraspecific phylogenetic analyses of T. gondii.

  6. Correlation between Left Ventricular Global and Regional Longitudinal Systolic Strain and Impaired Microcirculation in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løgstrup, Brian B; Høfsten, Dan Eik; Christophersen, Thomas Brøcher

    2012-01-01

    investigated if LRS and GLS imaging is superior to conventional measures of left ventricle (LV) function. Methods: In a consecutive population of first time AMI patients, who underwent successful revascularization, we performed comprehensive TTE. GLS and LRS were obtained from the three standard apical views...... elevation myocardial infarction. The GLS was -15.2 [-19.3;-10.1]% in the total population of 183 patients. Total wall motion score index (WMSI) in the population was 1.19 [1;1.5]. Eighty-five patients suffered from culprit lesion in left anterior descending artery (LAD). The CFR in these patients was 1......Objectives: We investigated the correlation between left ventricular global and regional longitudinal systolic strain (GLS and LRS) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessed by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in patients with a recent acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Furthermore, we...

  7. Analysis of regional deformation and strain accumulation data adjacent to the San Andreas fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to the understanding of crustal deformation was developed under this grant. This approach combined aspects of fractals, chaos, and self-organized criticality to provide a comprehensive theory for deformation on distributed faults. It is hypothesized that crustal deformation is an example of comminution: Deformation takes place on a fractal distribution of faults resulting in a fractal distribution of seismicity. Our primary effort under this grant was devoted to developing an understanding of distributed deformation in the continental crust. An initial effort was carried out on the fractal clustering of earthquakes in time. It was shown that earthquakes do not obey random Poisson statistics, but can be approximated in many cases by coupled, scale-invariant fractal statistics. We applied our approach to the statistics of earthquakes in the New Hebrides region of the southwest Pacific because of the very high level of seismicity there. This work was written up and published in the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. This approach was also applied to the statistics of the seismicity on the San Andreas fault system.

  8. United States Geological Survey discharge data from five example gages on intermittent streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data are mean daily discharge data at United States Geological Survey gages. Once column provides the date (mm/dd/yyyy) and the other column provides the mean...

  9. An introduction to NH-A neutron earth base moisture gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Huaian; Jiang Yulan; Yin Xilin; Yu Peiying; Luo Pinjie

    1988-01-01

    NH-A neutron earth base moisture gage is an accurate instrument which can measure earth moisture rapidly and non-destructively and display moisture results immediately. The deviation is estimated at ±0.012g/cm

  10. Portable neutron moisture gage for the moisture determination of structure parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnisch, M.

    1985-01-01

    For determining the moisture of structure parts during building or before repairing a portable neutron moisture gage consisting of a neutron probe and pulse analyzer has been developed. The measuring process, calibration, and prerequisites of application are briefly discussed

  11. High genetic diversity of equine infectious anaemia virus strains from Slovenia revealed upon phylogenetic analysis of the p15 gag gene region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, U; Malovrh, T

    2016-03-01

    The equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV), which belongs to the Retroviridae family, infects equids almost worldwide. Every year, sporadic EIAV cases are detected in Slovenia. To characterise the Slovenian EIAV strains in the p15 gag gene region phylogenetically in order to compare the Slovenian EIAV strains with EIAV strains from abroad, especially with the recently published European strains. Cross-sectional study using material derived from post mortem examination. In total, 29 EIAV serologically positive horses from 18 different farms were examined in this study. Primers were designed to amplify the p15 gag gene region. Amplicons of 28 PCRs were subjected to direct DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Altogether, 28 EIAV sequences were obtained from 17 different farms and were distributed between 4 separate monophyletic groups and 9 branches upon phylogenetic analysis. Among EIAV strains from abroad, the closest relatives to Slovenian EIAV strains were European EIAV strains from Italy. Phylogenetic analysis also showed that some animals from distantly located farms were most probably infected with the same EIAV strains, as well as animals from the same farm and animals from farms located in the same geographical region. This is the first report of such high genetic diversity of EIAV strains from one country. This led to speculation that there is a potential virus reservoir among the populations of riding horses, horses kept for pleasure and horses for meat production, with some farmers or horse-owners not following legislation, thus enabling the spread of infection with EIAV. The low sensitivity of the agar gel immunodiffusion test may also contribute to the spread of infection with EIAV, because some infected horses might have escaped detection. The results of the phylogenetic analysis also provide additional knowledge about the highly heterogeneous nature of the EIAV genome. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  12. Improving snow water equivalent simulations in an alpine basin using blended gage precipitation and snow pillow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, M.; Safeeq, M.; Conklin, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    Snowpack is a critical freshwater reservoir that sustains ecosystem, natural habitat, hydropower, agriculture, and urban water supply in many areas around the world. Accurate estimation of basin scale snow water equivalent (SWE), through both measurement and modeling, has been significantly recognized to improve regional water resource management. Recent advances in remote data acquisition techniques have improved snow measurements but our ability to model snowpack evolution is largely hampered by poor knowledge of inherently variable high-elevation precipitation patterns. For a variety of reasons, majority of the precipitation gages are located in low and mid-elevation range and function as drivers for basin scale hydrologic modeling. Here, we blend observed gage precipitation from low and mid-elevation with point observations of SWE from high-elevation snow pillow into a physically based snow evolution model (SnowModel) to better represent the basin-scale precipitation field and improve snow simulations. To do this, we constructed two scenarios that differed in only precipitation. In WTH scenario, we forced the SnowModel using spatially distributed gage precipitation data. In WTH+SP scenario, the model was forced with spatially distributed precipitation data derived from gage precipitation along with observed precipitation from snow pillows. Since snow pillows do not directly measure precipitation, we uses positive change in SWE as a proxy for precipitation. The SnowModel was implemented at daily time step and 100 m resolution for the Kings River Basin, USA over 2000-2014. Our results show an improvement in snow simulation under WTH+SP as compared to WTH scenario, which can be attributed to better representation in high-elevation precipitation patterns under WTH+SP. The average Nash Sutcliffe efficiency over all snow pillow and course sites was substantially higher for WTH+SP (0.77) than for WTH scenario (0.47). The maximum difference in observed and simulated

  13. Standard test method for determining residual stresses by the hole-drilling strain-gage method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 Residual Stress Determination: 1.1.1 This test method specifies a hole-drilling procedure for determining residual stress profiles near the surface of an isotropic linearly elastic material. The test method is applicable to residual stress profile determinations where in-plane stress gradients are small. The stresses may remain approximately constant with depth (“uniform” stresses) or they may vary significantly with depth (“non-uniform” stresses). The measured workpiece may be “thin” with thickness much less than the diameter of the drilled hole or “thick” with thickness much greater than the diameter of the drilled hole. Only uniform stress measurements are specified for thin workpieces, while both uniform and non-uniform stress measurements are specified for thick workpieces. 1.2 Stress Measurement Range: 1.2.1 The hole-drilling method can identify in-plane residual stresses near the measured surface of the workpiece material. The method gives localized measurements that indicate the...

  14. Development of Displacement Gages Exposed to Solid Rocket Motor Internal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, D. E.; Cook, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) has three non-vented segment-to-segment case field joints. These joints use an interference fit J-joint that is bonded at assembly with a Pressure Sensitive Adhesive (PSA) inboard of redundant O-ring seals. Full-scale motor and sub-scale test article experience has shown that the ability to preclude gas leakage past the J-joint is a function of PSA type, joint moisture from pre-assembly humidity exposure, and the magnitude of joint displacement during motor operation. To more accurately determine the axial displacements at the J-joints, two thermally durable displacement gages (one mechanical and one electrical) were designed and developed. The mechanical displacement gage concept was generated first as a non-electrical, self-contained gage to capture the maximum magnitude of the J-joint motion. When it became feasible, the electrical displacement gage concept was generated second as a real-time linear displacement gage. Both of these gages were refined in development testing that included hot internal solid rocket motor environments and simulated vibration environments. As a result of this gage development effort, joint motions have been measured in static fired RSRM J-joints where intentional venting was produced (Flight Support Motor #8, FSM-8) and nominal non-vented behavior occurred (FSM-9 and FSM-10). This data gives new insight into the nominal characteristics of the three case J-joint positions (forward, center and aft) and characteristics of some case J-joints that became vented during motor operation. The data supports previous structural model predictions. These gages will also be useful in evaluating J-joint motion differences in a five-segment Space Shuttle solid rocket motor.

  15. Design of Gages for Direct Skin Friction Measurements in Complex Turbulent Flows with Shock Impingement Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-07

    100 kW/m2 for 0.1 s. Along with the material change, an oil leak problem required a geometric change. Initially, we considered TIG welding or...shear and moment, is addressed through the design, development, and testing of the CF1 and CF2 gages. Chapter 3 presents the evolutionary process ...a shock. Chapter 4 examines the performance of each gage to the nominal load conditions. Through this process , objective 2 is met. The best

  16. Alloy synthesis using the mach stem region in an axial symmetric implosive shock: Understanding the pressure strain-temperature contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudhammer, Karl P.

    2004-01-01

    The Mach stem region in an axial symmetric shock implosion has generally been avoided in the dynamic consolidation of powders for a number of reasons. The prime reason being that the convergence of the shock waves in the cylindrical axis produce enormous pressures and concomitant temperatures that have melted tungsten. This shock wave convergence consequently results in a discontinuity in the hydro-code calculations. Dynamic deformation experiments on gold plated 304L stainless steel powders were undertaken. These experiments utilized pressures of 0.08 to 1.0 Mbar and contained a symmetric radial melt region along the central axis of the sample holder. To understand the role of deformation in a porous material, the pressure, and temperature as well as the deformation heat and associated defects must be accounted for. When the added heat of consolidation deformation exceeds the melt temperature of the 304 powders, a melt zone results that can consume large regions of the compact while still under the high-pressure pulse. As the shock wave traverses the sample and is removed in a momentum trap, its pressure/temperature are quenched. It is within this region that very high diffusion/alloying occurs and has been observed in the gold plated powders. Anomalous increases of gold diffusion into 304 stainless steel have been observed via optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and EDAX measurements. Values exceeding 1200 m/sec have been measured and correlated to the powder sizes, size distribution and packing density, concomitant with sample container strains ranging from 2.0% to 26%.

  17. The NS3 proteins of global strains of bluetongue virus evolve into regional topotypes through negative (purifying) selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasuriya, U B R; Nadler, S A; Wilson, W C; Pritchard, L I; Smythe, A B; Savini, G; Monaco, F; De Santis, P; Zhang, N; Tabachnick, W J; Maclachlan, N J

    2008-01-01

    Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the genes (S10) encoding the NS3 protein of 137 strains of bluetongue virus (BTV) from Africa, the Americas, Asia, Australia and the Mediterranean Basin showed limited variation. Common to all NS3 sequences were potential glycosylation sites at amino acid residues 63 and 150 and a cysteine at residue 137, whereas a cysteine at residue 181 was not conserved. The PPXY and PS/TAP late-domain motifs were conserved in all but three of the viruses. Phylogenetic analyses of these same sequences yielded two principal clades that grouped the viruses irrespective of their serotype or year of isolation (1900-2003). All viruses from Asia and Australia were grouped in one clade, whereas those from the other regions were present in both clades. Each clade segregated into distinct subclades that included viruses from single or multiple regions, and the S10 genes of some field viruses were identical to those of live-attenuated BTV vaccines. There was no evidence of positive selection on the S10 gene as assessed by reconstruction of ancestral codon states on the phylogeny, rather the functional constraints of the NS3 protein are expressed through substantial negative (purifying) selection.

  18. TEM sample preparation by femtosecond laser machining and ion milling for high-rate TEM straining experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, Thomas; Grapes, Michael D. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Zhang, Yong [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lorenzo, Nicholas; Ligda, Jonathan; Schuster, Brian [US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, MD 21005 (United States); Weihs, Timothy P. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    To model mechanical properties of metals at high strain rates, it is important to visualize and understand their deformation at the nanoscale. Unlike post mortem Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), which allows one to analyze defects within samples before or after deformation, in situ TEM is a powerful tool that enables imaging and recording of deformation and the associated defect motion during mechanical loading. Unfortunately, all current in situ TEM mechanical testing techniques are limited to quasi-static strain rates. In this context, we are developing a new test technique that utilizes a rapid straining stage and the Dynamic TEM (DTEM) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The new straining stage can load samples in tension at strain rates as high as 4×10{sup 3}/s using two piezoelectric actuators operating in bending while the DTEM at LLNL can image in movie mode with a time resolution as short as 70 ns. Given the piezoelectric actuators are limited in force, speed, and displacement, we have developed a method for fabricating TEM samples with small cross-sectional areas to increase the applied stresses and short gage lengths to raise the applied strain rates and to limit the areas of deformation. In this paper, we present our effort to fabricate such samples from bulk materials. The new sample preparation procedure combines femtosecond laser machining and ion milling to obtain 300 µm wide samples with control of both the size and location of the electron transparent area, as well as the gage cross-section and length. - Highlights: • Tensile straining TEM specimens made by femtosecond laser machining and ion milling. • Accurate positioning of the electron transparent area within a controlled gauge region. • Optimization of femtosecond laser and ion milling parameters. • Fast production of numerous samples with a highly repeatable geometry.

  19. Strain expansion-reduction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqersad, Javad; Bharadwaj, Kedar

    2018-02-01

    Validating numerical models are one of the main aspects of engineering design. However, correlating million degrees of freedom of numerical models to the few degrees of freedom of test models is challenging. Reduction/expansion approaches have been traditionally used to match these degrees of freedom. However, the conventional reduction/expansion approaches are only limited to displacement, velocity or acceleration data. While in many cases only strain data are accessible (e.g. when a structure is monitored using strain-gages), the conventional approaches are not capable of expanding strain data. To bridge this gap, the current paper outlines a reduction/expansion technique to reduce/expand strain data. In the proposed approach, strain mode shapes of a structure are extracted using the finite element method or the digital image correlation technique. The strain mode shapes are used to generate a transformation matrix that can expand the limited set of measurement data. The proposed approach can be used to correlate experimental and analytical strain data. Furthermore, the proposed technique can be used to expand real-time operating data for structural health monitoring (SHM). In order to verify the accuracy of the approach, the proposed technique was used to expand the limited set of real-time operating data in a numerical model of a cantilever beam subjected to various types of excitations. The proposed technique was also applied to expand real-time operating data measured using a few strain gages mounted to an aluminum beam. It was shown that the proposed approach can effectively expand the strain data at limited locations to accurately predict the strain at locations where no sensors were placed.

  20. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of global and regional magnetic resonance feature tracking derived strain parameters of the left and right ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Björn, E-mail: bjoernschmidt1989@gmx.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany); Dick, Anastasia, E-mail: anastasia-dick@web.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany); Treutlein, Melanie, E-mail: melanie-treutlein@web.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany); Schiller, Petra, E-mail: petra.schiller@uni-koeln.de [Institute of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Epidemiology, University of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany); Bunck, Alexander C., E-mail: alexander.bunck@uk-koeln.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany); Maintz, David, E-mail: david.maintz@uk-koeln.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany); Baeßler, Bettina, E-mail: bettina.baessler@uk-koeln.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Left and right ventricular CMR feature tracking is highly reproducible. • The only exception is radial strain and strain rate. • Sample size estimations are presented as a practical reference for future studies. - Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the reproducibility of regional and global strain and strain rate (SR) parameters of both ventricles and to determine sample sizes for all investigated strain and SR parameters in order to generate a practical reference for future studies. Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 20 healthy individuals and 20 patients with acute myocarditis. Cine sequences in three horizontal long axis views and a stack of short axis views covering the entire left and right ventricle (LV, RV) were retrospectively analysed using a dedicated feature tracking (FT) software algorithm (TOMTEC). For intra-observer analysis, one observer analysed CMR images of all patients and volunteers twice. For inter-observer analysis, three additional blinded observers analysed the same datasets once. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility were tested in all patients and controls using Bland-Altman analyses, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficients of variation. Results: Intra-observer reproducibility of global LV strain and SR parameters was excellent (range of ICCs: 0.81–1.00), the only exception being global radial SR with a poor reproducibility (ICC 0.23). On a regional level, basal and midventricular strain and SR parameters were more reproducible when compared to apical parameters. Inter-observer reproducibility of all LV parameters was slightly lower than intra-observer reproducibility, yet still good to excellent for all global and regional longitudinal and circumferential strain and SR parameters (range of ICCs: 0.66–0.93). Similar to the LV, all global RV longitudinal and circumferential strain and SR parameters showed an excellent reproducibility, (range of ICCs: 0.75–0

  1. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of global and regional magnetic resonance feature tracking derived strain parameters of the left and right ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Björn; Dick, Anastasia; Treutlein, Melanie; Schiller, Petra; Bunck, Alexander C.; Maintz, David; Baeßler, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Left and right ventricular CMR feature tracking is highly reproducible. • The only exception is radial strain and strain rate. • Sample size estimations are presented as a practical reference for future studies. - Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the reproducibility of regional and global strain and strain rate (SR) parameters of both ventricles and to determine sample sizes for all investigated strain and SR parameters in order to generate a practical reference for future studies. Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 20 healthy individuals and 20 patients with acute myocarditis. Cine sequences in three horizontal long axis views and a stack of short axis views covering the entire left and right ventricle (LV, RV) were retrospectively analysed using a dedicated feature tracking (FT) software algorithm (TOMTEC). For intra-observer analysis, one observer analysed CMR images of all patients and volunteers twice. For inter-observer analysis, three additional blinded observers analysed the same datasets once. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility were tested in all patients and controls using Bland-Altman analyses, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficients of variation. Results: Intra-observer reproducibility of global LV strain and SR parameters was excellent (range of ICCs: 0.81–1.00), the only exception being global radial SR with a poor reproducibility (ICC 0.23). On a regional level, basal and midventricular strain and SR parameters were more reproducible when compared to apical parameters. Inter-observer reproducibility of all LV parameters was slightly lower than intra-observer reproducibility, yet still good to excellent for all global and regional longitudinal and circumferential strain and SR parameters (range of ICCs: 0.66–0.93). Similar to the LV, all global RV longitudinal and circumferential strain and SR parameters showed an excellent reproducibility, (range of ICCs: 0.75–0

  2. The distribution of cagA and dupA genes in Helicobacter pylori strains in Kurdistan region, northern Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Azad M; Goreal, Amer; Hussein, Nawfal R; Abdullah, Shahla M; Hawrami, Khidir; Assafi, Mahde

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram negative bacteria that causes peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma. H pylori virulence factors, such as cagA and dupA, are important to study in populations as they contribute to disease risk. This study aimed to look at the distribution of the cagA and dupA genes in H pylori strains isolated from patients suffering from gastroduodenal diseases in Kurdistan region, Iraq. A cross-sectional study conducted between June 2011 and January 2012. Biopsies were collected from the Endoscopy Department in Duhok and Sulaimania hospitals, Kurdistan region, northern Iraq. Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy examination was performed and 4 gastric biopsies (2 from the antrum and 2 from the corpus) were obtained from 204 patients. H pylori positivity was examined by CLO test; then the association between disease status and virulence factors was assessed by polymerase chain reaction. 154 (75%) of our samples were found to be H pylori + by CLO test. Endoscopic diagnoses for those who were positive were as follows: peptic ulcer disease (PUD) including duodenal ulcer, 45; gastric ulcer, 23; and no ulcer (NPUD), 86. The overall prevalence rates of cagA and dupA were 72.7% and 18.8%, respectively. While a significant association between cagA and PUD was observed (P. ≤.017; OR=0.4; CI=0.18–0.85), no relationship between dupA and PUD could be seen. These data suggested that the presence of cagA may be a predictor of clinical outcome in Kurdistan region, northern Iraq.

  3. Proximal Region of the Gene Encoding Cytadherence-Related Protein Permits Molecular Typing of Mycoplasma genitalium Clinical Strains by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musatovova, Oxana; Herrera, Caleb; Baseman, Joel B.

    2006-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the PCR-amplified proximal region of the gene encoding cytadherence accessory protein P110 (MG192) revealed DNA sequence divergences among 54 Mycoplasma genitalium clinical strains isolated from the genitourinary tracts of women attending a sexually transmitted disease-related health clinic, plus one from the respiratory tract and one from synovial fluid. Seven of 56 (12.5%) strains exhibited RFLPs following digestion of the proximal region with restriction endonuclease MboI or RsaI, or both. No sequence variability was detected in the distal portion of the gene. PMID:16455921

  4. In Vivo Tibial Cartilage Strains in Regions of Cartilage-to-Cartilage Contact and Cartilage-to-Meniscus Contact in Response to Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Betty; Lad, Nimit K; Collins, Amber T; Ganapathy, Pramodh K; Utturkar, Gangadhar M; McNulty, Amy L; Spritzer, Charles E; Moorman, Claude T; Sutter, E Grant; Garrett, William E; DeFrate, Louis E

    2017-10-01

    There are currently limited human in vivo data characterizing the role of the meniscus in load distribution within the tibiofemoral joint. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to compare the strains experienced in regions of articular cartilage covered by the meniscus to regions of cartilage not covered by the meniscus. It was hypothesized that in response to walking, tibial cartilage covered by the meniscus would experience lower strains than uncovered tibial cartilage. Descriptive laboratory study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knees of 8 healthy volunteers was performed before and after walking on a treadmill. Using MRI-generated 3-dimensional models of the tibia, cartilage, and menisci, cartilage thickness was measured in 4 different regions based on meniscal coverage and compartment: covered medial, uncovered medial, covered lateral, and uncovered lateral. Strain was defined as the normalized change in cartilage thickness before and after activity. Within each compartment, covered cartilage before activity was significantly thinner than uncovered cartilage before activity ( P meniscus experiences lower strains than uncovered cartilage in the medial compartment. These findings provide important baseline information on the relationship between in vivo tibial compressive strain responses and meniscal coverage, which is critical to understanding normal meniscal function.

  5. Expression, purification and characterization of the cancer-germline antigen GAGE12I: a candidate for cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Besir, Hüseyin; Larsen, Martin R

    2010-01-01

    GAGE cancer-germline antigens are frequently expressed in a broad range of different cancers, while their expression in normal tissues is limited to the germ cells of the immune privileged organs, testis and ovary. GAGE proteins are immunogenic in humans, which make them promising targets...... for immunotherapy and candidates for cancer vaccines. Recombinant proteins may be superior to peptides as immunogens, since they have the potential to prime both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and are not dependent on patient HLA-type. We have developed a method for production of highly pure recombinant GAGE12I...... filtration and formaldehyde cross-linking indicated that GAGE12I forms tetramers. The purified recombinant GAGE12I represents a candidate molecule for vaccination of cancer patients and will form the basis for further structural analysis of GAGE proteins....

  6. Four-dimensional echocardiography area strain combined with exercise stress echocardiography to evaluate left ventricular regional systolic function in patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Peng, Long; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Yin, Li-Xue; Li, Chun-Mei; Wang, Yi; Rao, Li

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the diagnosis value of four-dimensional echocardiography area strain (AS) combined with exercise stress echocardiography to evaluate left ventricular regional systolic function in patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis. Based on treadmill exercise load status, two-dimensional conventional echocardiography and four-dimensional echocardiography area strain were performed on patients suspected coronary artery disease before coronary angiogram. Thirty patients (case group) with mild left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis (stenosis Four-dimensional echocardiography area strain combined with exercise stress echocardiography could sensitively find left ventricular regional systolic function abnormality in patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis, and locate stenosis coronary artery accordingly. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Identification and characterization of Lactococcus starter strains in milk-based traditional fermented products in the region of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Rahmati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was identification and investigation of technological attributes of Lactococcus starter strains from traditional dairy products collected from the countryside of Boroujerd in Iran. 33 samples were cultured on selective media M17 and typical colonies surveyed for morphological properties. Totally, 37 strains were isolated based on the diversity in cell morphology and identified using API galleries and carbohydrate fermentation includes 17 strains of Lactococcus lactis (45.96%, 12 strains of Lactococcus garvieae (32.43% and 8 strains of Lactococcusplantarum (21.62%. Strains were appraised for hydrolysis of L-arginine, casein and starch. Furthermore, strains were evaluated for the ability to grow at temperature 10 °C, 45 °C and presence of 4% and 6.5% NaCl, antibiotic sensitivity, acidification ability, proteolytic and lipolytic activities. Generally, 3 strains of Lc.garvieae (GYLC1, BWLC1, DCLC1 and 7 strains of Lc. lactis (GCLC4, GWLC2, GWLC3, SWLC1, SWLC3, BCLC5, DYLC1 exposed the highest levels of technological properties in order to use as starter cultures.

  8. Relationships between in vivo microdamage and the remarkable regional material and strain heterogeneity of cortical bone of adult deer, elk, sheep and horse calcanei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedros, John G; Sybrowsky, Christian L; Anderson, Wm Erick; Chow, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Natural loading of the calcanei of deer, elk, sheep and horses produces marked regional differences in prevalent/predominant strain modes: compression in the dorsal cortex, shear in medial–lateral cortices, and tension/shear in the plantar cortex. This consistent non-uniform strain distribution is useful for investigating mechanisms that mediate the development of the remarkable regional material variations of these bones (e.g. collagen orientation, mineralization, remodeling rates and secondary osteon morphotypes, size and population density). Regional differences in strain-mode-specific microdamage prevalence and/or morphology might evoke and sustain the remodeling that produces this material heterogeneity in accordance with local strain characteristics. Adult calcanei from 11 animals of each species (deer, elk, sheep and horses) were transversely sectioned and examined using light and confocal microscopy. With light microscopy, 20 linear microcracks were identified (deer: 10; elk: six; horse: four; sheep: none), and with confocal microscopy substantially more microdamage with typically non-linear morphology was identified (deer: 45; elk: 24; horse: 15; sheep: none). No clear regional patterns of strain-mode-specific microdamage were found in the three species with microdamage. In these species, the highest overall concentrations occurred in the plantar cortex. This might reflect increased susceptibility of microdamage in habitual tension/shear. Absence of detectable microdamage in sheep calcanei may represent the (presumably) relatively greater physical activity of deer, elk and horses. Absence of differences in microdamage prevalence/morphology between dorsal, medial and lateral cortices of these bones, and the general absence of spatial patterns of strain-mode-specific microdamage, might reflect the prior emergence of non-uniform osteon-mediated adaptations that reduce deleterious concentrations of microdamage by the adult stage of bone development. PMID

  9. An Effective Counterselection System for Listeria monocytogenes and Its Use To Characterize the Monocin Genomic Region of Strain 10403S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argov, Tal; Rabinovich, Lev; Sigal, Nadejda; Herskovits, Anat A

    2017-03-15

    Construction of Listeria monocytogenes mutants by allelic exchange has been laborious and time-consuming due to lack of proficient selection markers for the final recombination event, that is, a marker conveying substance sensitivity to the bacteria bearing it, enabling the exclusion of merodiploids and selection for plasmid loss. In order to address this issue, we engineered a counterselection marker based on a mutated phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase gene ( pheS* ). This mutation renders the phenylalanine-binding site of the enzyme more promiscuous and allows the binding of the toxic p -chloro-phenylalanine analog ( p -Cl-phe) as a substrate. When pheS* is introduced into L. monocytogenes and highly expressed under control of a constitutively active promoter, the bacteria become sensitive to p -Cl-phe supplemented in the medium. This enabled us to utilize pheS* as a negative selection marker and generate a novel, efficient suicide vector for allelic exchange in L. monocytogenes We used this vector to investigate the monocin genomic region in L. monocytogenes strain 10403S by constructing deletion mutants of the region. We have found this region to be active and to cause bacterial lysis upon mitomycin C treatment. The future applications of such an effective counterselection system, which does not require any background genomic alterations, are vast, as it can be modularly used in various selection systems (e.g., genetic screens). We expect this counterselection marker to be a valuable genetic tool in research on L. monocytogenes IMPORTANCE L. monocytogenes is an opportunistic intracellular pathogen and a widely studied model organism. An efficient counterselection marker is a long-standing need in Listeria research for improving the ability to design and perform various genetic manipulations and screening systems for different purposes. We report the construction and utilization of an efficient suicide vector for allelic exchange which can be conjugated, leaves no

  10. GAGE cancer-germline antigens bind DNA and are recruited to the nuclear envelope by Germ cell-less

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten; Rösner, Heike; Pedersen, Christina Bøg

    GAGE genes encode a highly similar, primate-specific protein family with unique primary structure and undefined roles in germ cells, various fetal cells and cancer cells. We report that GAGE proteins are intrinsically disordered proteins that provide novel interfaces between chromatin and the nuc......GAGE genes encode a highly similar, primate-specific protein family with unique primary structure and undefined roles in germ cells, various fetal cells and cancer cells. We report that GAGE proteins are intrinsically disordered proteins that provide novel interfaces between chromatin...... and the nuclear envelope. Structural analysis by NMR and CD spectroscopy showed GAGE proteins lack distinct secondary or tertiary structure and are therefore intrinsically disordered. In normal cells and cancer cells GAGE proteins localize predominantly in the nucleus; we found GAGE proteins formed stable......) at the nuclear envelope. Furthermore, exogenous and endogenous GAGE proteins were recruited to the nuclear envelope in GCL-overexpressing cells. Gene expression analysis and immunohistochemical staining suggest GAGE proteins and GCL interact physiologically in human cells that express both, including male germ...

  11. Strain measurement on a compact nuclear reactor steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaldaferri, Denis Henrique Bianchi; Gomes, Paulo de Tarso Vida; Mansur, Tanius Rodrigues; Pozzo, Renato del; Mola, Jairo

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the strain measurement procedures applied to a compact nuclear reactor steam generator, during a hydrostatic test, using strain gage technology. The test was divided in two steps: primary side test and secondary side test. In the primary side test twelve points for strain measurement using rectangular rosettes, three points (two external and one internal) for temperature measurement using special strain gages and one point for pressure measurement using a pressure transducer were monitored. In the secondary side test 18 points for strain measurement using rectangular rosettes, four points (two external and two internal) for temperature measurement using special strain gages and one point for pressure measurement using a pressure transducer were monitored. The measurement points on both internal and external pressurizer walls were established from pre-calculated stress distribution by means of numerical approach (finite elements modeling). Strain values using a quarter Wheatstone bridge circuit were obtained. Stress values, from experimental strain were determined, and to numerical calculation results were compared. (author)

  12. Outbreak of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor strain--La Huasteca Region, Mexico, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Quiñonez, Alberto; Hernández-Monroy, Irma; Montes-Colima, Norma; Moreno-Pérez, Asunción; Galicia-Nicolás, Adriana; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Carmona-Ramos, Concepción; Sánchez-Mendoza, Miroslava; Rodríguez-Martínez, José Cruz; Suárez-Idueta, Lorena; Jiménez-Corona, María Eugenia; Ruiz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo

    2014-06-27

    On September 2 and 6, 2013, Mexico's National System of Epidemiological Surveillance identified two cases of cholera in Mexico City. Rectal swab cultures from both patients were confirmed as toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and virulence gene amplification (ctxA, ctxB, zot, and ace) demonstrated that the strains were identical to one another but different from strains circulating in Mexico previously. The strains were indistinguishable from the strain that has caused outbreaks in Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Cuba. The strain was susceptible to doxycycline, had intermediate susceptibility to ampicillin and chloramphenicol, was less than fully susceptible to ciprofloxacin, and was resistant to furazolidone and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. An investigation failed to identify a common source of infection, additional cases, or any epidemiologic link between the cases. Both patients were treated with a single, 300-mg dose of doxycycline, and their symptoms resolved.

  13. Fast recovery strain measurements in a nuclear test environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, W.R.; Nauman, W.J.; Vollmer, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    The recovery of early-time (50 μs or less) strain gage data on structural response experiments in underground nuclear tests has been a continuing problem for experimenters at the Nevada Test Site. Strain measurement is one of the primary techniques used to obtain experimental data for model verification and correlation with predicted effects. Peak strains generally occur within 50 to 100 μs of the radiation exposure. Associated with the exposure is an intense electromagnetic impulse that produces potentials of kilovolts and currents of kiloamperes on the experimental structures. For successful operation, the transducer and associated recording system must recover from the initial noise overload and accurately track the strain response within about 50 μs of the nuclear detonation. A gaging and fielding technique and a recording system design that together accomplish these objectives are described. Areas discussed include: (1) noise source model; (2) experimental cassette design, gage application, grounding, and shielding; (3) cable design and shielding between gage and recorder; (4) recorder design including signal conditioner/amplifier, digital encoder, buffer memory, and uphole data transmission; and (5) samples of experimental data

  14. Hepatitis A virus strains circulating during 1997-2015 in Campania, a Southern Italy region with periodic outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Angela; Coppola, Nicola; Spada, Enea; Bruni, Roberto; Taffon, Stefania; Equestre, Michele; Marcantonio, Cinzia; Sagnelli, Caterina; Dell'Isola, Chiara; Tosone, Grazia; Mascolo, Silvia; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita

    2017-11-01

    In Italy, the incidence of hepatitis A has progressively declined over the last 30 years, though not homogeneously throughout the country. In Campania, Southern Italy, high annual incidence rates have been reported and several periodic outbreaks have occurred. To investigate the phylogenetic and epidemiologic relationships among HAV strains circulating in Campania over the period 1997-2015, 87 hepatitis A cases were investigated. The most frequent risk factor was the consumption of raw/undercooked shellfish (75/87, 86.2%). During 1997-2002 most viral strains were subtype IA (16/23, 70%); the phylogenetic pattern suggests that the incidence peaks observed in 2000-2001 had likely been caused by multiple strains. During a large 2004 outbreak, almost all viral variants were subtype IB (38/41, 93%); most of them (22/38, 58%) were recognized to be one of two main strains (differing for just a single nucleotide), the remaining sequences were strictly related variants. In 2014/2015, only IA strains were observed; two phylogenetically related but distinct strains were responsible, respectively, for a small cluster in 2014 and an outbreak in 2015. In each outbreak, several strains unrelated to those responsible for most cases were detected in a minority of patients, documenting a background of sporadic cases occurring even in the course of outbreaks; some of them proved to be identical to strains detected 11-14 years previously. Overall, the data suggest that several related and unrelated HAV strains have endemically circulated over the last 15 years in Campania, with some strains gaining epidemic transmission likely because of a local combination of multiple factors, including inadequate waste water purification and dietary habits. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Intervendor consistency and reproducibility of left ventricular 2D global and regional strain with two different high-end ultrasound systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiino, Kenji; Yamada, Akira; Ischenko, Matthew; Khandheria, Bijoy K; Hudaverdi, Mahala; Speranza, Vicki; Harten, Mary; Benjamin, Anthony; Hamilton-Craig, Christian R; Platts, David G; Burstow, Darryl J; Scalia, Gregory M; Chan, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to assess intervendor agreement of global (GLS) and regional longitudinal strain by vendor-specific software after EACVI/ASE Industry Task Force Standardization Initiatives for Deformation Imaging. Fifty-five patients underwent prospective dataset acquisitions on the same day by the same operator using two commercially available cardiac ultrasound systems (GE Vivid E9 and Philips iE33). GLS and regional peak longitudinal strain were analyzed offline using corresponding vendor-specific software (EchoPAC BT13 and QLAB version 10.3). Absolute mean GLS measurements were similar between the two vendors (GE -17.5 ± 5.2% vs. Philips -18.9 ± 5.1%, P = 0.15). There was excellent intervendor correlation of GLS by the same observer [r = 0.94, P limits of agreement (LOA) -4.8 to 2.2%). Intervendor comparison for regional longitudinal strain by coronary artery territories distribution were: LAD: r = 0.85, P < 0.0001; bias 0.5%, LOA -5.3 to 6.4%; RCA: r = 0.88, P < 0.0001; bias -2.4%, LOA -8.6 to 3.7%; LCX: r = 0.76, P < 0.0001; bias -5.3%, LOA -10.6 to 2.0%. Intervendor comparison for regional longitudinal strain by LV levels were: basal: r = 0.86, P < 0.0001; bias -3.6%, LOA -9.9 to 2.0%; mid: r = 0.90, P < 0.0001; bias -2.6%, LOA -7.8 to 2.6%; apical: r = 0.74; P < 0.0001; bias -1.3%, LOA -9.4 to 6.8%. Intervendor agreement in GLS and regional strain measurements have significantly improved after the EACVI/ASE Task Force Strain Standardization Initiatives. However, significant wide LOA still exist, especially for regional strain measurements, which remains relevant when considering vendor-specific software for serial measurements. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of the stream-gaging program in Maine; a prototype for nationwide implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Richard A.; Moss, M.E.; Smath, J.A.; Thomas, W.O.

    1984-01-01

    This report documents the results of a cost-effectiveness study of the stream-gaging program in Maine. Data uses and funding sources were identified for the 51 continuous stream gages currently being operated in Maine with a budget of $211,000. Three stream gages were identified as producing data no longer sufficiently needed to warrant continuing their operation. Operation of these stations should be discontinued. Data collected at three other stations were identified as having uses specific only to short-term studies; it is recommended that these stations be discontinued at the end of the data-collection phases of the studies. The remaining 45 stations should be maintained in the program for the foreseeable future. The current policy for operation of the 45-station program would require a budget of $180,300 per year. The average standard error of estimation of streamflow records is 17.7 percent. It was shown that this overall level of accuracy at the 45 sites could be maintained with a budget of approximately $170,000 if resources were redistributed among the gages. A minimum budget of $155,000 is required to operate the 45-gage program; a smaller budget would not permit proper service and maintenance of the gages and recorders. At the minimum budget, the average standard error is 25.1 percent. The maximum budget analyzed was $350,000, which resulted in an average standard error of 8.7 percent. Large parts of Maine's interior were identified as having sparse streamflow data. It was determined that this sparsity be remedied as funds become available.

  17. Behavior of porous beryllium under thermomechanical loading. Part 7. Calibration studies on the carbon piezoresistive gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horning, R.R.; Isbell, W.M.

    1975-01-01

    The calibrations, time responses, and Hugoniot for carbon piezoresistive gages from two manufacturers are presented. These gages exhibit a high sensitivity of about --20 percent resistance change per GPa at 0.5 GPa. Their equilibrium times, when tested in fused silica, exceed 0.6 μs below 0.5 GPa but improve at higher stresses and under better impedance matching conditions. They can be made of low atomic number materials, making them interesting candidates for studying the mechanical responses of materials to electron and x-ray deposition. (U.S.)

  18. Novel Bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus plantarum Strains and Their Differentiation by Sequence Analysis of 16S rDNA, 16S-23S and 23S-5S Intergenic Spacer Regions and Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Shojaei Moghadam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Six strains of bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus plantarum (TL1, RG11, RS5, UL4, RG14 and RI11 isolated from Malaysian foods were investigated for their structural bacteriocin genes. A new combination of plantaricin EF and plantaricin W bacteriocin structural genes was successfully amplified from all studied strains, suggesting that they were novel bacteriocin-producing L. plantarum strains. A four-base pair variable region was detected in the short 16S-23S intergenic spacer regions of the studied strains by a comparative analysis with 17 L. plantarum strains deposited in the GenBank, implying they were new genotypes. The studied L. plantarum strains were subsequently differentiated into four groups on the basis of the detected four-base pair variable region of the short 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. Further analysis of the DNA sequence of 23S-5S intergenic spacer region revealed only one type of 23S-5S intergenic spacer region present in the studied strains, indicating it was highly conserved among the studied L. plantarum strains. Three randomly amplified polymorphic DNA experiments using three different combinations of arbitrary primers successfully differentiated the studied L. plantarum strains from each other, confirming they were different strains. In conclusion, the studied L. plantarum strains were shown to be novel bacteriocin producers and high level of strain discrimination could be achieved with a combination of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and the analysis of the variable region of short 16S-23S intergenic spacer region present in L. plantarum strains.

  19. Membrane proximal external region of gp41 from HIV-1 strains HXB2 and JRFL has different sensitivity to alanine mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hyun Ah; Diaz-Rohrer, Barbara; Saminathan, Priyanka; Jacobs, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The transmembrane subunit (gp41) of the HIV envelope protein complex (Env) mediates the viral fusion step of HIV entry. The membrane-proximal external region (MPER), one of the functional domains of gp41, has been the focus of a great deal of research because it is a target for neutralizing antibodies. In this study, we examined 23 amino acid residues in MPER (660-683) in both a CXCR4 co-receptor utilizing strain (HXB2) and a CCR5 utilizing strain (JRFL) by alanine scanning mutagenesis. Despite the high degree of gp41 sequence conservation, the effects of alanine mutation in the MPER were different between the two strains. Most mutations in HXB2 had fusogenicity and protein expression levels not less than 50% of wild type in the case of cell-cell fusion. However, about thirty percent of the mutants in HXB2 showed a severe defect in fusogenicity in viral entry. Mutations in the MPER of strain JRFL had more dramatic effects than HXB2 in cell-cell fusion and viral entry. The fact that there are large differences in the effects of mutation between two strains suggests the potential for MPER interaction with non-conserved sequences such as the fusion peptide and/or other NHR domains as well as potential long-range structural effects on the conformational changes that occur with the Env complex during membrane fusion. PMID:25649507

  20. Variability in the precore and core promoter regions of HBV strains in Morocco: characterization and impact on liver disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchra Kitab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV is one of the most common human pathogens that cause aggressive hepatitis and advanced liver disease (AdLD, including liver cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma. The persistence of active HBV replication and liver damage after the loss of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg has been frequently associated with mutations in the pre-core (pre-C and core promoter (CP regions of HBV genome that abolish or reduce HBeAg expression. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of pre-C and CP mutations and their impact on the subsequent course of liver disease in Morocco. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cohort of 186 patients with HBeAg-negative chronic HBV infection was studied (81 inactive carriers, 69 with active chronic hepatitis, 36 with AdLD. Pre-C and CP mutations were analyzed by PCR-direct sequencing method. The pre-C stop codon G1896A mutation was the most frequent (83.9% and was associated with a lower risk of AdLD development (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.15-1.04; p = 0.04. HBV-DNA levels in patients with G1896A were not significantly different from the other patients carrying wild-type strains (p = 0.84. CP mutations C1653T, T1753V, A1762T/G1764A, and C1766T/T1768A were associated with higher HBV-DNA level and increased liver disease severity. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that older age (≥ 40 years, male sex, high viral load (>4.3 log(10 IU/mL and CP mutations C1653T, T1753V, A1762T/G1764A, and C1766T/T1768A were independent risk factors for AdLD development. Combination of these mutations was significantly associated with AdLD (OR, 7.52; 95% CI, 4.8-8; p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time the association of HBV viral load and CP mutations with the severity of liver disease in Moroccan HBV chronic carriers. The examination of CP mutations alone or in combination could be helpful for prediction of the clinical outcome.

  1. GAGE cancer-germline antigens are recruited to the nuclear envelope by germ cell-less (GCL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Rösner, Heike I; Pedersen, Christina B

    2012-01-01

    GAGE proteins are highly similar, primate-specific molecules with unique primary structure and undefined cellular roles. They are restricted to cells of the germ line in adult healthy individuals, but are broadly expressed in a wide range of cancers. In a yeast two-hybrid screen we identified the...... different dsDNA fragments, suggesting sequence-nonspecific binding. Dual association of GAGE family members with GCL at the nuclear envelope inner membrane in cells, and with dsDNA in vitro, implicate GAGE proteins in chromatin regulation in germ cells and cancer cells....... the metazoan transcriptional regulator, Germ cell-less (GCL), as an interaction partner of GAGE12I. GCL directly binds LEM-domain proteins (LAP2β, emerin, MAN1) at the nuclear envelope, and we found that GAGE proteins were recruited to the nuclear envelope inner membrane by GCL. Based on yeast two...

  2. Evaluating a slope-stability model for shallow rain-induced landslides using gage and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatheendradas, S.; Kirschbaum, D.; Baum, Rex L.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    Improving prediction of landslide early warning systems requires accurate estimation of the conditions that trigger slope failures. This study tested a slope-stability model for shallow rainfall-induced landslides by utilizing rainfall information from gauge and satellite records. We used the TRIGRS model (Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Regional Slope-stability analysis) for simulating the evolution of the factor of safety due to rainfall infiltration. Using a spatial subset of a well-characterized digital landscape from an earlier study, we considered shallow failure on a slope adjoining an urban transportation roadway near the Seattle area in Washington, USA.We ran the TRIGRS model using high-quality rain gage and satellite-based rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Preliminary results with parameterized soil depth values suggest that the steeper slope values in this spatial domain have factor of safety values that are extremely close to the failure limit within an extremely narrow range of values, providing multiple false alarms. When the soil depths were constrained using a back analysis procedure to ensure that slopes were stable under initial condtions, the model accurately predicted the timing and location of the landslide observation without false alarms over time for gage rain data. The TRMM satellite rainfall data did not show adequately retreived rainfall peak magnitudes and accumulation over the study period, and as a result failed to predict the landslide event. These preliminary results indicate that more accurate and higher-resolution rain data (e.g., the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission) are required to provide accurate and reliable landslide predictions in ungaged basins.

  3. Arrangement for correcting values measured by mass per unit area or thickness gages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volger, G.; Sandke, E.; Heinz, P.

    1985-01-01

    The described arrangement can be applied to gaged making use of beta radiation and of a protective screen for shielding the radiation source and the ionization chamber of the measuring instrument. It has been aimed at counterbalancing measuring inaccuracies caused by temperature fluctuations in the measuring slot

  4. Resting multilayer 2D speckle-tracking TTE for detection of ischemic segments confirmed by invasive FFR part-2, using post-systolic-strain-index and time from aortic-valve-closure to regional peak longitudinal-strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Koya; Funabashi, Nobusada; Nishi, Takeshi; Takahara, Masayuki; Fujimoto, Yoshihide; Kamata, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2016-08-15

    This study evaluated the post-systolic strain index (PSI), and the time interval between aortic valve closure (AVC) and regional peak longitudinal strain (PLS), measured by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), for detection of left ventricular (LV) myocardial ischemic segments confirmed by invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR). 39 stable patients (32 males; 65.8±11.9years) with 46 coronary arteries at ≥50% stenosis on invasive coronary angiography underwent 2D speckle tracking TTE (Vivid E9, GE Healthcare) and invasive FFR measurements. PSI, AVC and regional PLS in each LV segment were calculated. FFR ≤0.80 was detected in 27 LV segments. There were no significant differences between segments supplied by FFR ≤0.80 and FFR >0.80 vessels in either PSI or the time interval between AVC and regional PLS. To identify LV segments±FFR ≤0.80, the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves for PSI, and the time interval between AVC and regional PLS had areas under the curve (AUC) values of 0.58 and 0.57, respectively, with best cut-off points of 12% (sensitivity 70.4%, specificity 57.9%) and 88ms (sensitivity 70.4%, specificity 52.6%), respectively, but the AUCs were not statistically significant. In stable coronary artery disease patients with ≥50% coronary artery stenosis, measurement of PSI, and the time interval between AVC and regional PLS, on resting TTE, enabled the identification of LV segments with FFR ≤0.80 using each appropriate threshold for PSI, and the time interval between AVC and regional PLS, with reasonable diagnostic accuracy. However, the AUC values were not statistically significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Combined Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction and Digital Image Correlation Technique for Measurement of Austenite Transformation with Strain in TRIP-assisted Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poling, Whitney A.; Savic, Vesna; Hector, Louis G.; Sachdev, Anil K.; Hu, Xiaohua; Devaraj, Arun; Abu-Farha, Fadi

    2016-04-05

    The strain-induced, diffusionless shear transformation of retained austenite to martensite during straining of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels increases strain hardening and delays necking and fracture leading to exceptional ductility and strength, which are attractive for automotive applications. A novel technique that provides the retained austenite volume fraction variation with strain in TRIP-assisted steels with improved precision is presented. Digital images of the gauge section of tensile specimens were first recorded up to selected plastic strains with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) system. The austenite volume fraction was measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction from small squares cut from the gage section. Strain fields in the squares were then computed by localizing the strain measurement to the corresponding region of a given square during DIC post-processing of the images recorded during tensile testing. Results obtained for a QP980 steel are used to study the influence of initial volume fraction of austenite and the austenite transformation with strain on tensile mechanical behavior.

  6. Data acquisition from vacuum gage controlled by RS-232 standard using LabVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandea, Iulian; Culcer, Mihai; Steflea, Dumitru

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of connecting a microcontroller-based vacuum gage to a personal computer, using the RS-232 hardware standard and the software LabVIEW and his collection of virtual instruments from National Instruments. To solve the problem an instrument driver was created. This provided the customer with a perfect solution for the remote control and data acquisition from an Intel 80CXX microcontroller-based vacuum gage. The remote control making use of an IBM-PC was design and manufactured in our institute. In order to make it intelligent the device was provided with a microprocessor or a microcontroller. To fulfill the requirements a vacuum gage with an 80C31 microcontroller and two Bayard-Alpert ion gauges, for very low pressures (10 -3 to 10 -7 mbar) and low pressure (10 mbar to 10 -3 mbar) was built. Because this microcontroller has a built-in circuitry for a serial communication, we established a serial communication between the PC (Pentium -166 MHz) and the vacuum gage, according to the RS-232 hardware standard. Optimum selection of software development tools however, was not as straightforward. Most producers use the C/C ++ - language programming tool for developing instrument drivers for their intelligent devices. One of the advantages of C/C ++ is its speed, but the compilation and the high-level skill required for optimum programming do not fit well with some requirements, particularly those of versatility, upgradability and user friendliness. After careful evaluation of several options, a final decision was to develop a hybrid software package using two different software development tools: LabVIEW, and assembly language. We chose LabVIEW because it is dedicated to data acquisition and communications, containing libraries for data collection, analysis, presentation and storage. The assembly language for Intel 8051's microcontrollers family is used to write the firmware for the vacuum gage and arithmetic routines. (authors)

  7. Standard guide for high-temperature static strain measurement

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the selection and application of strain gages for the measurement of static strain up to and including the temperature range from 425 to 650°C (800 to 1200°F). This guide reflects some current state-of-the-art techniques in high temperature strain measurement, and will be expanded and updated as new technology develops. 1.2 This practice assumes that the user is familiar with the use of bonded strain gages and associated signal conditioning and instrumentation as discussed in Refs. (1) and (2). The strain measuring systems described are those that have proven effective in the temperature range of interest and were available at the time of issue of this practice. It is not the intent of this practice to limit the user to one of the gage types described nor is it the intent to specify the type of system to be used for a specific application. However, in using any strain measuring system including those described, the proposer must be able to demonstrate the capability of the proposed sy...

  8. Characterization of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from urine of nonhospitalized patients in the Zagreb region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Bedenić,

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To determine the prevalence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from urine of nonhospitalized patients during a three-year period, to determine their antibiotic susceptibility, investigate the transfer of ESBL genes with cotransfer of resistance and to characterize isolated beta-lactamases. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The double-disk test was used for ESBL detection. Transfer of resistance was performed by broth mating method and characterization of isolated beta-lactamases by polymerase chain reaction. Results The prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli was 1.5% and of K. pneumoniae 4.1% with its different distribution according to patients`age and gender. ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae showed high resistance rates to aminoglycosides, cotrimoxazole, nitrofurantoin and quinolones while ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, with exception of high aminoglycoside resistance, showed low resistance rates to other antibiotics. Successful conjugation of ESBL genes was obtained with 25% E. coli and 76.2% K. pneumoniae strains. Comparing to E. coli, K. pneumoniae strains showed higher rates of aminoglycosideand cotrimoxazole resistance cotransfer. Beta-lactamases of investigated strains belonged to TEM, SHV and CTX-M families.Conclusion The existence of multiple-resistant ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains was confirmed in observed outpatient population. ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates, in contrast toESBL-producing E. coli, showed higher resistance rates to non-beta-lactam antibiotics, probably caused by cotransfer of resistance genes located on the same plasmid as ESBL genes. It is important to monitor the prevalence of such strains and their possible spreading in the outpatient population of the Zagreb region

  9. Regional distribution of biogenic amines, amino acids and cholinergic markers in the CNS of the C57BL/6 strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, D; Marescau, B; Cremers, T; Mulder, J; Engelborghs, S; De Deyn, PP

    A reliable extrapolation of neurochemical alterations from a mouse model to human metabolic brain disease requires knowledge of neurotransmitter levels and related compounds in control mouse brain. C57BL/6 is a widely used background strain for knockout and transgenic mouse models. A prerequisite

  10. The influence of tidal straining and wind on suspended matter and phytoplankton distribution in the Rhine outflow region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joordens, J.C.A.; Souza, A.J.; Visser, Andre

    2001-01-01

    kinetic energy, TKE), the system was dominated by tidal straining that resulted in semi-diurnal oscillations in stratification. Phytoplankton was kept in resuspension at about 10-15 m depth. Subsequent strong wind and tidal mixing (high TKE) broke down stratification, enhanced horizontal gradients...

  11. Longitudinally Jointed Edge-wise Compression Honeycomb Composite Sandwich Coupon Testing and FE Analysis: Three Methods of Strain Measurement, and Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokh, Babak; AbdulRahim, Nur Aida; Segal, Ken; Fan, Terry; Jones, Justin; Hodges, Ken; Mashni, Noah; Garg, Naman; Sang, Alex; Gifford, Dawn; hide

    2013-01-01

    Three means (i.e., typical foil strain gages, fiber optic sensors, and a digital image correlation (DIC) system) were implemented to measure strains on the back and front surfaces of a longitudinally jointed curved test article subjected to edge-wise compression testing, at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, according to ASTM C364. The Pre-test finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted to assess ultimate failure load and predict strain distribution pattern throughout the test coupon. The predicted strain pattern contours were then utilized as guidelines for installing the strain measurement instrumentations. The strain gages and fiber optic sensors were bonded on the specimen at locations with nearly the same strain values, as close as possible to each other, so that, comparisons between the measured strains by strain gages and fiber optic sensors, as well as the DIC system are justified. The test article was loaded to failure (at approximately 38 kips), at the strain value of approximately 10,000mu epsilon As a part of this study, the validity of the measured strains by fiber optic sensors is examined against the strain gage and DIC data, and also will be compared with FEA predictions.

  12. Monitoring of prestressed concrete pressure vessels. 1. An overview of concrete embedment strain instrumentation and calibration test results for selected concrete embedment strain meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Hurtt, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    The report presents results of calibration tests on strain meters. The approach was divided into two phases: (1) an overview of meter performance criteria for PCPV applications and techniques for strain measurements in concrete and (2) procurement of commercially available gages and their evaluation to assess the reliability of manufacturer-supplied calibration factors. Calibration test results for gages embedded in 15.2-cm-diam by 54-cm cylindrical concrete specimens indicated that calibration factors should be determined (verified) by embedding samples of the gages in test specimens fabricated using a representative mix and that further research should be conducted on other measurement techniques based on inductance, capacitance, semiconductors, and fluidic principles

  13. An Experimental Technique for Developing Intermediate Strain Rates in Ductile Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    detecting small changes is resistance [45]. Figure 2.11 shows a basic strain gage Wheatstone bridge circuit where R1, R2, R3, and R4 are individual resistors ...all of the resistances of the resistors and the strain gage in the bridge circuit are equal such that, R = R1 = R2 = R3 = R4 and the bridge is...piezoelectric material [45]. Figure 2.13 [45] shows a piezo - electric accelerometer configured such that a mass is threaded onto a post above a

  14. Cost effective stream-gaging strategies for the Lower Colorado River basin; the Blythe field office operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Marshall E.; Gilroy, Edward J.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes the theoretical developments and illustrates the applications of techniques that recently have been assembled to analyze the cost-effectiveness of federally funded stream-gaging activities in support of the Colorado River compact and subsequent adjudications. The cost effectiveness of 19 stream gages in terms of minimizing the sum of the variances of the errors of estimation of annual mean discharge is explored by means of a sequential-search optimization scheme. The search is conducted over a set of decision variables that describes the number of times that each gaging route is traveled in a year. A gage route is defined as the most expeditious circuit that is made from a field office to visit one or more stream gages and return to the office. The error variance is defined as a function of the frequency of visits to a gage by using optimal estimation theory. Currently a minimum of 12 visits per year is made to any gage. By changing to a six-visit minimum, the same total error variance can be attained for the 19 stations with a budget of 10% less than the current one. Other strategies are also explored. (USGS)

  15. The Geographic Distribution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolates within three Italian Neighboring Winemaking Regions Reveals Strong Differences in Yeast Abundance, Genetic Diversity and Industrial Strain Dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Viel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the interest for natural fermentations has been re-evaluated in terms of increasing the wine terroir and managing more sustainable winemaking practices. Therefore, the level of yeast genetic variability and the abundance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae native populations in vineyard are becoming more and more crucial at both ecological and technological level. Among the factors that can influence the strain diversity, the commercial starter release that accidentally occur in the environment around the winery, has to be considered. In this study we led a wide scale investigation of S. cerevisiae genetic diversity and population structure in the vineyards of three neighboring winemaking regions of Protected Appellation of Origin, in North-East of Italy. Combining mtDNA RFLP and microsatellite markers analyses we evaluated 634 grape samples collected over 3 years. We could detect major differences in the presence of S. cerevisiae yeasts, according to the winemaking region. The population structures revealed specificities of yeast microbiota at vineyard scale, with a relative Appellation of Origin area homogeneity, and transition zones suggesting a geographic differentiation. Surprisingly, we found a widespread industrial yeast dissemination that was very high in the areas where the native yeast abundance was low. Although geographical distance is a key element involved in strain distribution, the high presence of industrial strains in vineyard reduced the differences between populations. This finding indicates that industrial yeast diffusion it is a real emergency and their presence strongly interferes with the natural yeast microbiota.

  16. Strain localization and fatigue crack initiation in ultrafine-grained copper in high- and giga-cycle region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunz, Ludvík; Lukáš, Petr; Navrátilová, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, JAN (2014), s. 202-208 ISSN 0142-1123 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/2001; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Fatigue crack initiation * Strain localization * Stability of ultrafine-grained structure * UFG Cu Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2014

  17. Transient Upper Crustal Tear Illuminated by the Chi Chi Earthquake: Results from Strain Inversions in the Luliao Region, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, E. A.; Lewis, J.; Byrne, T. B.; Crespi, J. M.; Rau, R.

    2010-12-01

    Modeling of earthquake focal mechanisms and coseismic GPS data from an area at the southern tip of the 1999 Chi Chi rupture suggests the existence of an evolving upper plate tear. The earthquakes occur in what we refer to as the Luliao seismic zone and define a steeply northeast-dipping tabular volume that extends from the surface to approximately 11 km. We find that the focal mechanisms from the six-month period following the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake yield best-fitting strain tensors that suggest the dominance of strike-slip faulting. Our strain inversions, using a micropolar continuum model, reveal orogen-perpendicular (NW-SE) minimum stretching (i.e., shortening) and orogen-parallel (NE-SW) maximum stretching. Additionally, our inversions indicate plane strain with positive, non-zero relative vorticity values, suggestive of counter-clockwise (map view) block rotations. Published coseismic GPS data provide additional evidence that this tabular volume of crust is the locus of strike-slip faulting accompanied by block rotation. Preliminary 2D strain inversions for GPS stations that span the inverted focal mechanisms reveal negative (counterclockwise) rotation values and principal strain axes that are generally consistent with our focal mechanism inversions. We interpret our findings to reflect an accommodation zone that is activated by differential westward expansion of the foreland fold and thrust belt. In particular, this zone separates an area of greater westward propagation near Taichung from an area of lesser propagation to the south near Chiayi. Differential expansion of the orogen appears to be influenced by an eastward pointing, lower-plate promontory south of the Sanyi-Puli seismic zone. Unlike the Luliao events, the Sanyi-Puli seismic zone extends from the near surface to approximately 30 km and we have interpreted it as a reactivated continental margin fracture zone inherited from South China Sea rifting. The lower-plate promontory is coincident with the

  18. Probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum strains from traditional butter made from camel milk in arid regions (Sahara of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem, Kaid Harche

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum strains previously isolated from the traditional butter made from camel milk (shmen were evaluated for some probiotic criteria. Among 38 strains investigated for bile resistance, 14 were tolerant to 2% oxgall with survival percentages ranging from 69 to 75%. Out of these, only 4 strains (L. plantarum SH5, SH12, SH24 and SH32 were sufficiently resistant to pH 2.0 for 2 to 6 h incubation periods. Only crude extracts of L. plantarum SH12 and L. plantarum SH24 were inhibitory against Lactococcus lactis B8, the strain used as indicator. The antibacterial activity of crude extracts was completely lost after treatment with α-chymotrypsin and proteinase K. L. plantarum SH12 and SH24 strains were susceptible to penicillin G, oxacillin, vancomycin and clindamycin, but resistant to tetracycline and kanamycin. These strains showed rapid acidification activity (0.921 and 1.075 mmol/l of lactic acid, respectively, a good proteolytic activity (5.45 and 3.49 mg/l tyrosine at 72 h, respectively and high survival percentage after freeze-drying. None of the strains produced polysaccharides or haemolysin in sheep blood.Se evalúan algunas características probióticas de cepas de Lactobacillus plantarum aisladas de la mantequilla tradicional elaborada a partir de leche de camello (shmen. De 38 cepas investigadas para resistencia biliar, 14 fueron tolerantes a un 2% oxgall con porcentajes de supervivencia entre 69 y 75%. De éstas, sólo 4 cepas (L. plantarum SH5, SH12, SH24 and SH32 fueron suficientemente resistentes a pH 2 con periodos de incubación entre 2 y 6 h. Únicamente los extractos crudos de L. plantarum SH12 y L. plantarum SH24 fueron inhibitorios frente a Lactococcus lactis B8, la cepa utilizada como indicador. La actividad antibacteriana de los extractos crudos se perdió completamente después de tratamiento con α-quimotripsina y proteinasa K. Las cepas SH12 y SH24 fueron susceptibles a la penicilina G, oxacilina

  19. Improving Streamflow Simulation in Gaged and Ungaged Areas Using a Multi-Model Synthesis Combined with Remotely-Sensed Data and Estimates of Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, J.; Hay, L.

    2015-12-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a National Hydrologic Model (NHM) to support coordinated, comprehensive and consistent hydrologic model development, and facilitate the application of hydrologic simulations within the conterminous United States (CONUS). More than 1,700 gaged watersheds across the CONUS were modeled to test the feasibility of improving streamflow simulations in gaged and ungaged watersheds by linking statistically- and physically-based hydrologic models with remotely-sensed data products (i.e. - snow water equivalent) and estimates of uncertainty. Initially, the physically-based models were calibrated to measured streamflow data to provide a baseline for comparison. As many stream reaches in the CONUS are either not gaged, or are substantially impacted by water use or flow regulation, ancillary information must be used to determine reasonable parameter estimations for streamflow simulations. In addition, not all ancillary datasets are appropriate for application to all parts of the CONUS (e.g. - snow water equivalent in the southeastern U.S., where snow is a rarity). As it is not expected that any one data product or model simulation will be sufficient for representing hydrologic behavior across the entire CONUS, a systematic evaluation of which data products improve simulations of streamflow for various regions across the CONUS was performed. The resulting portfolio of calibration strategies can be used to guide selection of an appropriate combination of simulated and measured information for model development and calibration at a given location of interest. In addition, these calibration strategies have been developed to be flexible so that new data products or simulated information can be assimilated. This analysis provides a foundation to understand how well models work when streamflow data is either not available or is limited and could be used to further inform hydrologic model parameter development for ungaged areas.

  20. New approach for calibration and interpretation of IRAD GAGE vibrating-wire stressmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, N.

    1986-05-01

    IRAD GAGE vibrating-wire stressmeters were installed in the Spent Fuel Facility at the Nevada Test Site to measure the change in in-situ stress during the Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C). This paper discusses the results of removing a cylindrical section of rock and gages as a unit through overcoring, and the subsequent post-test calibration of the stressmeters in the laboratory. The estimated in-situ stresses based on post test calibration data are quite consistent with those directly measured in nearby holes. The magnitude of stress change calculated from pre-test calibration data is generally much smaller than that estimated from post test calibration data. 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  1. The Effect of Modeling Qualities, Tones and Gages in Ceramic Supply Chains' Master Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel MUNDI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic production processes are characterized by providing quantities of the same finished goods that differ in qualities, tones and gages. This aspect becomes a problem for ceramic supply chains (SCs that should promise and serve customer orders with homogeneous quantities of the same finished good. In this paper a mathematical programming model for the cen-tralized master planning of ceramic SC is proposed. Inputs to the master plan include demand forecasts in terms of customer order classes based on their order size and splitting percentages of a lot into homogeneous sub-lots. Then, the master plan defines the size and loading of lots to production lines and their distribution with the aim of maximizing the number of customer orders fulfilled with homogeneous quantities in the most efficient manner for the SC. Finally, the effect of modeling qualities, tones and gages in master planning is assessed.

  2. HydroCloud: A Web Application for Exploring Stream Gage Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C. Roberge

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available HydroCloud (hydrocloud.org is a mobile-friendly web application for visually browsing hydrology data from multiple sources. Data providers such as the US Geological Survey (USGS and the German 'Wasserstraßen- und Schifffahrtsverwaltung des Bundes' (WSV currently serve stream discharge data from more than 10,000 stream gages around the world. HydroCloud allows users to plot these data while out in the field, while also providing contextual information such as the current NEXRAD weather imagery or descriptive information about the stream gage and its watershed. Additional features include a chat mechanism for contacting developers, and the use of local storage for saving data.   Funding Statement: This project was supported in part by a grant from the Towson University School of Emerging Technology.

  3. Application of the nuclear gages in dynamic sedimentology for the solid transport study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamdasni, Y.

    1994-02-01

    The problems caused by the solid particle transport in rivers, dams, harbors, estuaries and in navigation channels have considerable economical consequences. The technical difficulties met when trying to limit or manage these problems are very important because of lack of knowledge. The nuclear gages and the radioactive tracers can be the measurement and monitoring means which, associated to the conventional techniques, permit to develop strongly the knowledge in the solid transport field. This report gives the modes of solid transport and the problems caused by these transports and exposes the physical properties of the fine sediments and their behavior under the hydrodynamic effects. In the same way, it deals with the theory of the nuclear gages, often applied in dynamic sedimentology and gives some examples of their applications. 29 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs. (F.M.)

  4. Susceptibility of S. pneumoniae to various antibiotics among strains isolated from patients and healthy carriers in different regions of Brazil (1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rossi

    Full Text Available Resistance of microbes to commonly used antibiotics became a major concern at the end of the last century. Because Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common pathogen in respiratory infections, we conducted microbiological assessment of drug susceptibility patterns among strains collected from two different population groups: 1 adult and pediatric patients (375 isolates with different infections, and 2 healthy children in day care centers (< 5 years old; 350 isolates. High level resistance to penicillin was not identified in either group. Intermediate resistance levels were similar in both groups (adults: 9.9%; children: 9.2%. The Central West region of Brazil tended to have lower susceptibility of S.pneumoniae from infected adults and children to penicillin (81% vs. 93% in the South and 90% in the Southeast, tetracycline (64% vs. 80% and 76%, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (14% vs. 34%. Susceptibility was similar among strains from nasal cultures of healthy children tested in each of 4 regions of Brazil. All isolates were susceptible to cefaclor, cefotaxime and amoxacillin/clavulanate. This study, in two distinct populations, allowed characterization of local microbiological resistance patterns. This data is expected to be of use in guiding empiric therapy in the different regions of Brazil.

  5. Low Cost Stream Gaging through Analysis of Stage Height Using Digital Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mui, C. K.; Royem, A. A.; Walter, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    Through the middle of the twentieth century, the US was relatively rich in active streamflow gages. Over the past four decades, the number of gages has decreased by approximately 10% (approx. 20 gages a year) and it is likely this trend will continue for the foreseeable future. Not only are streaflow data valuable for water resources planning and management, but they are invaluable for assessing how land use and climate changes are impacting the environment. Affordable, easy-to-use systems need to be developed to enable a wider community to establish and maintain streamflow observation sites. Currently USGS-like gauges cost 30,000 to 50,000 to build and $6,000/year to maintain. We are developing a system that uses digital images in conjunction with MATLAB for image post processing that has the potential to both accurately and cost effectively monitor stream gauge. We explored several different staff gauge designs in conjunction with associated image processing code. The most robust design so far consists of a brightly colored metal staff gauge and and code that allows a point-and-click method for training the image processing code to correctly identify the staff. We ultimately envision a system in which users can upload their images via the Internet and post-processing is done on a remote server, which also collates data and metadata for open-access downloading.

  6. Lower-energy neutron sources for increasing the sensitivity of nuclear gages for measuring the water content of bulk materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    The sensitivity of a gage using a nuclear source for measuring the water content of bulk materials, such as plastic concrete, is increased by use of a lithium or fluorine neutron nuclear source. 3 figures

  7. High-resolution spatiotemporal strain mapping reveals non-uniform deformation in micropatterned elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, B.; Rehman, A.; Bayraktar, H.; Alaca, B. E.

    2017-04-01

    Micropatterns are generated on a vast selection of polymeric substrates for various applications ranging from stretchable electronics to cellular mechanobiological systems. When these patterned substrates are exposed to external loading, strain field is primarily affected by the presence of microfabricated structures and similarly by fabrication-related defects. The capturing of such nonhomogeneous strain fields is of utmost importance in cases where study of the mechanical behavior with a high spatial resolution is necessary. Image-based non-contact strain measurement techniques are favorable and have recently been extended to scanning tunneling microscope and scanning electron microscope images for the characterization of mechanical properties of metallic materials, e.g. steel and aluminum, at the microscale. A similar real-time analysis of strain heterogeneity in elastomers is yet to be achieved during the entire loading sequence. The available measurement methods for polymeric materials mostly depend on cross-head displacement or precalibrated strain values. Thus, they suffer either from the lack of any real-time analysis, spatiotemporal distribution or high resolution in addition to a combination of these factors. In this work, these challenges are addressed by integrating a tensile stretcher with an inverted optical microscope and developing a subpixel particle tracking algorithm. As a proof of concept, the patterns with a critical dimension of 200 µm are generated on polydimethylsiloxane substrates and strain distribution in the vicinity of the patterns is captured with a high spatiotemporal resolution. In the field of strain measurement, there is always a tradeoff between minimum measurable strain value and spatial resolution. Current noncontact techniques on elastomers can deliver a strain resolution of 0.001% over a minimum length of 5 cm. More importantly, inhomogeneities within this quite large region cannot be captured. The proposed technique can

  8. High-resolution spatiotemporal strain mapping reveals non-uniform deformation in micropatterned elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksoy, B; Alaca, B E; Rehman, A; Bayraktar, H

    2017-01-01

    Micropatterns are generated on a vast selection of polymeric substrates for various applications ranging from stretchable electronics to cellular mechanobiological systems. When these patterned substrates are exposed to external loading, strain field is primarily affected by the presence of microfabricated structures and similarly by fabrication-related defects. The capturing of such nonhomogeneous strain fields is of utmost importance in cases where study of the mechanical behavior with a high spatial resolution is necessary. Image-based non-contact strain measurement techniques are favorable and have recently been extended to scanning tunneling microscope and scanning electron microscope images for the characterization of mechanical properties of metallic materials, e.g. steel and aluminum, at the microscale. A similar real-time analysis of strain heterogeneity in elastomers is yet to be achieved during the entire loading sequence. The available measurement methods for polymeric materials mostly depend on cross-head displacement or precalibrated strain values. Thus, they suffer either from the lack of any real-time analysis, spatiotemporal distribution or high resolution in addition to a combination of these factors. In this work, these challenges are addressed by integrating a tensile stretcher with an inverted optical microscope and developing a subpixel particle tracking algorithm. As a proof of concept, the patterns with a critical dimension of 200 µ m are generated on polydimethylsiloxane substrates and strain distribution in the vicinity of the patterns is captured with a high spatiotemporal resolution. In the field of strain measurement, there is always a tradeoff between minimum measurable strain value and spatial resolution. Current noncontact techniques on elastomers can deliver a strain resolution of 0.001% over a minimum length of 5 cm. More importantly, inhomogeneities within this quite large region cannot be captured. The proposed technique can

  9. A geographically-restricted but prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain identified in the West Midlands Region of the UK between 1995 and 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason T Evans

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the identification of, and risk factors for, the single most prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain in the West Midlands region of the UK.Prospective 15-locus MIRU-VNTR genotyping of all M. tuberculosis isolates in the West Midlands between 2004 and 2008 was undertaken. Two retrospective epidemiological investigations were also undertaken using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis. The first study of all TB patients in the West Midlands between 2004 and 2008 identified a single prevalent strain in each of the study years (total 155/3,056 (5% isolates. This prevalent MIRU-VNTR profile (32333 2432515314 434443183 remained clustered after typing with an additional 9-loci MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping. The majority of these patients (122/155, 79% resided in three major cities located within a 40 km radius. From the apparent geographical restriction, we have named this the "Mercian" strain. A multivariate analysis of all TB patients in the West Midlands identified that infection with a Mercian strain was significantly associated with being UK-born (OR =  9.03, 95%CI = 4.56-17.87, p65 years old (OR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.09-0.67, p < 0.01. A second more detailed investigation analyzed a cohort of 82 patients resident in Wolverhampton between 2003 and 2006. A significant association with being born in the UK remained after a multivariate analysis (OR = 9.68, 95% CI = 2.00-46.78, p < 0.01 and excess alcohol intake and cannabis use (OR = 6.26, 95%CI = 1.45-27.02, p =  .01 were observed as social risk factors for infection.The continued consistent presence of the Mercian strain suggests ongoing community transmission. Whilst significant associations have been found, there may be other common risk factors yet to be identified. Future investigations should focus on targeting the relevant risk groups and elucidating the biological factors that mediate continued transmission of this strain.

  10. Assessment of regional systolic and diastolic myocardial function using tissue Doppler and strain imaging in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetboul, Valérie; Gouni, Vassiliki; Sampedrano, Carolina Carlos; Tissier, Renaud; Serres, François; Pouchelon, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) or strain (St) imaging could provide sensitive indices for early detection and treatment follow-up of canine dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Analysis of TDI and St features in dogs with overt DCM is a prerequisite before using these new criteria in prospective screenings of predisposed families or in clinical trials. Radial and longitudinal right and left myocardial motion, assessed by TDI and St variables, is altered in dogs with DCM. Case records for 26 dogs; 14 with DCM and 12 healthy controls of comparable age and weight were reviewed. A retrospective analysis was conducted of conventional echocardiography, 2-dimensional color TDI, and St imaging data. The DCM group was characterized by decreases in radial and longitudinal systolic velocity gradients of the left ventricular free wall (LVFW), radial and longitudinal absolute values of peak systolic St of the LVFW, and longitudinal systolic right ventricular (RV) velocities (all P canine DCM.

  11. Distinct repeat motifs at the C-terminal region of CagA of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from diseased patients and asymptomatic individuals in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay Santanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with Helicobacter pylori strains that express CagA is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric adenocarcinoma. The biological function of CagA depends on tyrosine phosphorylation by a cellular kinase. The phosphate acceptor tyrosine moiety is present within the EPIYA motif at the C-terminal region of the protein. This region is highly polymorphic due to variations in the number of EPIYA motifs and the polymorphism found in spacer regions among EPIYA motifs. The aim of this study was to analyze the polymorphism at the C-terminal end of CagA and to evaluate its association with the clinical status of the host in West Bengal, India. Results Seventy-seven H. pylori strains isolated from patients with various clinical statuses were used to characterize the C-ternimal polymorphic region of CagA. Our analysis showed that there is no correlation between the previously described CagA types and various disease outcomes in Indian context. Further analyses of different CagA structures revealed that the repeat units in the spacer sequences within the EPIYA motifs are actually more discrete than the previously proposed models of CagA variants. Conclusion Our analyses suggest that EPIYA motifs as well as the spacer sequence units are present as distinct insertions and deletions, which possibly have arisen from extensive recombination events. Moreover, we have identified several new CagA types, which could not be typed by the existing systems and therefore, we have proposed a new typing system. We hypothesize that a cagA gene encoding higher number EPIYA motifs may perhaps have arisen from cagA genes that encode lesser EPIYA motifs by acquisition of DNA segments through recombination events.

  12. Chemical and serologic definition of two unique D region-encoded molecules in the wild-derived mouse strain B10.GAA37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillehoj, E P; Walsh, W D; Potter, T; Lee, D R; Coligan, J E; Hansen, T H

    1984-12-01

    Detailed serologic and biochemical characterization of D region products of the wild-derived mouse strain B10.GAA37 (Dw16) were performed and compared with previous studies of the D region products of the H-2d,b, and q haplotypes. Serologic analysis revealed that the antigens encoded by the Dw16 region express a unique combination of specificities defined by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) with established activity for the Ld and Dd molecules. Two out of five anti-Ld-reactive mAb reacted with B10.GAA37 cells, whereas one of three anti-Dd mAb showed B10.GAA37 reactivity. Sequential immunoprecipitation of B10.GAA37 antigens demonstrated the existence of at least two antigenically distinct molecules (designated Dw16 and Lw16) encoded by genes associated with the Dw16 region. Peptide map comparisons of the Dw16 and Lw16 molecules defined multiple differences in their primary protein structure, suggesting they are products of separate genes. Structural comparisons of the Lw16 and Dw16 molecules with the Ld and Dd molecules implied a) that the Dw16 and Dd regions did not result from a recent evolutionary divergence of a common primordial haplotype, and b) that the Lw16 and Dw16 molecules are more structurally homologous to each other than the Ld and Dd molecules are. Comparison of these findings with our previous studies of antigens encoded by the D regions suggest that each of these haplotypes has unique properties in terms of the number of gene products expressed and/or the structural relatedness of products of the same region.

  13. Genetic variation in the 3’ untranslated region of dengue virus serotype 3 strains isolated from mosquitoes and humans in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Castro Márcia Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary Background Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral infection caused by one of the four dengue virus (DENV serotypes (DENV-1 to 4, replicate alternately on the mosquito vector and human host and are responsible for infections throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Brazil, the disease has become a major public health problem and the introduction of DENV-3 in 2000 in Rio de Janeiro (RJ was associated with severe dengue epidemics. The potential emergence of strains associated with severe disease highlights the need for the surveillance of DENV in human host and vectors. Methods Aiming to contribute for DENV phylogenetic and vector-virus-human host studies, we sequenced the entire genome of one DENV-3 isolated from naturally infected Aedes aegypti from RJ in 2001 and characterized the 3’ UTR from strains isolated from mosquitoes and humans. Mosquitoes were pooled and submitted to virus isolation in Ae. albopictus C6/36 cells and the infecting serotype was identified by immunofluorescence using type-specific monoclonal antibody. Sequence analysis was performed using BioEdit software, the multiple alignments were performed using CLUSTAL W and the phylogenetic analysis by MEGA 5, using the Neighbor-joining method. Secondary structure prediction was performed by using the MFOLD program. Results Exclusive substitutions and a substitution leading to a stop codon on the NS5 gene were observed in the DENV-3 isolated from a naturally infected Ae. aegypti and fully sequenced. As an 8- nucleotides deletion was observed within the 11- nucleotides (nts insertion on the variable region (VR from the 3′UTR in this isolate, we further sequenced other DENV-3 from both mosquitoes and humans. The majority of DENV-3 from RJ analyzed were characterized by the 11-nts insertion in the VR of the 3′UTR, despite the observation of strains carrying the 8-nts deletion. The latter presented similar secondary structures, however not all strains

  14. Displacement gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    This invention concerns a position indicator for detecting and indicating the position of a remotely placed component mobile about an axis, such as valves located inside vessels and pipelines under pressure physically inaccessible when the reactor is working. A light source is channelled and aligned on the spindle of the valve wheel. It reaches a fixed reflector secured to this spindle. The reflected light is received on a light collector of which each collector composed of a photodiode sends back the signal by optical fibre to the display area. The position of the wheel is therefore determined by the lighting of one of the optical fibres [fr

  15. Selection of 80 newly isolated autochthonous yeast strains from the Tikveš region of Macedonia and their impact on the quality of red wines produced from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Fidanka; Kostadinović Veličkovska, Sanja; Dimovska, Violeta; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Spasov, Hristo

    2017-02-01

    The main objectives of this study were to (i) isolate newly autochthonous yeast strains from the Tikveš region of Macedonia and (ii) test their impact on the quality of red wines from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties. The newly isolated yeast strains were obtained by spontaneous fermentation of grape must from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties collected from ten different micro-regions in Macedonia. The grapevines from both varieties grown in "Barovo" micro-region were the richest sources of yeast strains. In addition, the molecular identification and typing of strains were also carried out. The monomeric anthocyanins, polyphenolic content and other oenochemical characteristics of the wines were also compared with the wines from commercial yeast strain "SiHa". The Vranec wine from yeast strain F-8 and Cabernet Sauvignon wine from yeast strain F-20 had significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds than other wines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gage for gas flow measurement especially in gas-suction pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, K.; Stegmanns, W.

    1978-01-01

    The gage utilizes the differential pressure given by a differential pressure producer to generate, in a bypass, a partial gas flow measured by means of a direct-reading anemometer of windmill type. The partial gas flow is generated between pressure pick-up openings in the gas-suction pipe in front of a venturi insert and pressure pick-up openings at the bottleneck of the venturi insert. The reading of the anemometer is proportional to the main gas flow and independent of the variables of state and the properties of the gases to be measured. (RW) [de

  17. Doses of personnel employed in the manufacture of radioisotope thickness gages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostenetskij, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    Doses of the personnel of one of the plants manifacturing radioisotope thickness gages of different types are determined. Annual doses to the body protected by shielding screens are low and according to the data of individual dosimetry constitute 5x10 -3 -6x10 -3 J/kg (0.5-0.6 rem). A table of radiation doses to hands obtained during all kind of operations, is given. Measures for the further reduction of radiation doses of the personnel are suggested [ru

  18. New constraints on slip rates and locking depths of the San Andreas Fault System from Sentinel-1A InSAR and GAGE GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L. A.; Smith-Konter, B. R.; Higa, J. T.; Xu, X.; Tong, X.; Sandwell, D. T.

    2017-12-01

    After over a decade of operation, the EarthScope (GAGE) Facility has now accumulated a wealth of GPS and InSAR data, that when successfully integrated, make it possible to image the entire San Andreas Fault System (SAFS) with unprecedented spatial coverage and resolution. Resulting surface velocity and deformation time series products provide critical boundary conditions needed for improving our understanding of how faults are loaded across a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. Moreover, our understanding of how earthquake cycle deformation is influenced by fault zone strength and crust/mantle rheology is still developing. To further study these processes, we construct a new 4D earthquake cycle model of the SAFS representing the time-dependent 3D velocity field associated with interseismic strain accumulation, co-seismic slip, and postseismic viscoelastic relaxation. This high-resolution California statewide model, spanning the Cerro Prieto fault to the south to the Maacama fault to the north, is constructed on a 500 m spaced grid and comprises variable slip and locking depths along 42 major fault segments. Secular deep slip is prescribed from the base of the locked zone to the base of the elastic plate while episodic shallow slip is prescribed from the historical earthquake record and geologic recurrence intervals. Locking depths and slip rates for all 42 fault segments are constrained by the newest GAGE Facility geodetic observations; 3169 horizontal GPS velocity measurements, combined with over 53,000 line-of-sight (LOS) InSAR velocity observations from Sentinel-1A, are used in a weighted least-squares inversion. To assess slip rate and locking depth sensitivity of a heterogeneous rheology model, we also implement variations in crustal rigidity throughout the plate boundary, assuming a coarse representation of shear modulus variability ranging from 20-40 GPa throughout the (low rigidity) Salton Trough and Basin and Range and the (high rigidity) Central

  19. Hypervariable region 1 differentially impacts viability of hepatitis C virus strains of genotypes 1 to 6 and impairs virus neutralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentoe, Jannick; Jensen, Tanja B; Meuleman, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 envelope glycoprotein has been implicated in virus neutralization and persistence. We deleted HVR1 from JFH1-based HCV recombinants expressing Core/E1/E2/p7/NS2 of genotypes 1 to 6, previously found to grow efficiently in human hepatoma...... genetics studies revealed adaptive envelope mutations that rescued the infectivity of 1a(ΔHVR1), 1b(ΔHVR1), 2b(ΔHVR1), and 3a(ΔHVR1) recombinants. Thus, HVR1 might have distinct functional roles for different HCV isolates. Ultracentrifugation studies showed that deletion of HVR1 did not alter HCV RNA...... density distribution, whereas infectious particle density changed from a range of 1.0 to 1.1 g/ml to a single peak at ∼1.1 g/ml, suggesting that HVR1 was critical for low-density HCV particle infectivity. Using chronic-phase HCV patient sera, we found three distinct neutralization profiles...

  20. Hypervariable region 1 differentially impacts viability of hepatitis C virus strains of genotypes 1 to 6 and impairs virus neutralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentø, Jannick Cornelius; Jensen, Tanja Bertelsen; Meuleman, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 envelope glycoprotein has been implicated in virus neutralization and persistence. We deleted HVR1 from JFH1-based HCV recombinants expressing Core/E1/E2/p7/NS2 of genotypes 1 to 6, previously found to grow efficiently in human hepatoma...... genetics studies revealed adaptive envelope mutations that rescued the infectivity of 1a(¿HVR1), 1b(¿HVR1), 2b(¿HVR1), and 3a(¿HVR1) recombinants. Thus, HVR1 might have distinct functional roles for different HCV isolates. Ultracentrifugation studies showed that deletion of HVR1 did not alter HCV RNA...... density distribution, whereas infectious particle density changed from a range of 1.0 to 1.1 g/ml to a single peak at ~1.1 g/ml, suggesting that HVR1 was critical for low-density HCV particle infectivity. Using chronic-phase HCV patient sera, we found three distinct neutralization profiles...

  1. Structural region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Structural region. The two groups had 4 substitutions similar to Yawat strain. The Yawat strain had 5 unique mutations. 3 in the E2 region and 2 in the E1 region. The mutation, I702V (E2), though different from all the recent Indian and Reunion sequences was similar ...

  2. Optimization of protection and calibration of the moisture-density gages troxler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAKOTONDRAVANONA, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the implementation of the principle of optimization of the protection and calibration of moisture-density gages TROXLER. The main objectives are the application of radiation protection and the feasibility of a calibration laboratory design. The calibration of density and moisture may confirm the calibration of moisture-density gages TROXLER. The calibration of density consists of the assembly of measurements on three calibration blocks (magnesium, aluminium and magnesium/aluminium) built in the TRACKER. The value of density uncertainty is ±32 Kg.m -3 . The calibration of moisture is carried out on two calibration blocks (magnesium and magnesium/polyethylene)The value of moisture uncertainty is ±16 Kg.m -3 . The design of the laboratory returns to the dose limitation. The laboratory is designed mainly wall out of ordinary concrete, a good attenuator of the gamma radiations and neutron. For the design, the value of term source gamma is 25.77±0.20μSv.h -1 and the value of term source neutron is 7.88±0.35μSv.h -1 are used for the thickness of the walls. The importance of the design makes it possible to attenuate to the maximum doses and rates dose until the total absorption of the radiations. [fr

  3. Fermentation of Apple Juice with a Selected Yeast Strain Isolated from the Fermented Foods of Himalayan Regions and Its Organoleptic Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Kanwar, S. S.; Keshani,

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different fermented foods of Western Himalayas have been studied for strain level and functional diversity in our department. Among these 23 strains, 10 S. cerevisiae strains on the basis of variation in their brewing traits were selected to study their organoleptic effect at gene level by targeting ATF1 gene, which is responsible for ester synthesis during fermentation. Significant variation was observed in ATF1 gene sequences, sugg...

  4. An overview of the GAGE cancer/testis antigen family with the inclusion of newly identified members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, M F; Ditzel, H J

    2008-01-01

    . This review describes the structure and phylogeny of the GAGE family members and presents a revised nomenclature, which will enable a more clear distinction of genes and gene products. The GAGE gene locus at chromosome X p11.23 consists of at least 16 genes, each of which is located in one of an equal number...... of highly conserved tandem repeats, and more genes remain to be identified. These genes are likely the creation of unequal replication under positive selection after the divergence of primates from other mammals. The encoded products are predicted to be highly similar small acidic proteins involved in germ...

  5. Processing and Characterization of a Novel Distributed Strain Sensor Using Carbon Nanotube-Based Nonwoven Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Dai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of an innovative carbon nanotube-based non-woven composite sensor that can be tailored for strain sensing properties and potentially offers a reliable and cost-effective sensing option for structural health monitoring (SHM. This novel strain sensor is fabricated using a readily scalable process of coating Carbon nanotubes (CNT onto a nonwoven carrier fabric to form an electrically-isotropic conductive network. Epoxy is then infused into the CNT-modified fabric to form a free-standing nanocomposite strain sensor. By measuring the changes in the electrical properties of the sensing composite the deformation can be measured in real-time. The sensors are repeatable and linear up to 0.4% strain. Highest elastic strain gage factors of 1.9 and 4.0 have been achieved in the longitudinal and transverse direction, respectively. Although the longitudinal gage factor of the newly formed nanocomposite sensor is close to some metallic foil strain gages, the proposed sensing methodology offers spatial coverage, manufacturing customizability, distributed sensing capability as well as transverse sensitivity.

  6. Peri-Implant Strain in an In Vitro Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, Souheil; Vaidyanathan, Tritala K; Wadkar, Abhinav P; Quran, Firas A Al; Ehrenberg, David; Weiner, Saul

    2015-10-01

    An in vitro experimental model was designed and tested to determine the influence that peri-implant strain may have on the overall crestal bone. Strain gages were attached to polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) models containing a screw-type root form implant at sites 1 mm from the resin-implant interface. Three different types of crown superstructures (cemented, 1-screw [UCLA] and 2-screw abutment types) were tested. Loading (1 Hz, 200 N load) was performed using a MTS Mechanical Test System. The strain gage data were stored and organized in a computer for statistical treatment. Strains for all abutment types did not exceed the physiological range for modeling and remodeling of cancellous bone, 200-2500 με (microstrain). For approximately one-quarter of the trials, the strain values were less than 200 με the zone for bone atrophy. The mean microstrain obtained was 517.7 με. In conclusion, the peri-implant strain in this in vitro model did not exceed the physiologic range of bone remodeling under axial occlusal loading.

  7. Spiking Phineas Gage: a neurocomputational theory of cognitive-affective integration in decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagar, Brandon M; Thagard, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The authors present a neurological theory of how cognitive information and emotional information are integrated in the nucleus accumbens during effective decision making. They describe how the nucleus accumbens acts as a gateway to integrate cognitive information from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus with emotional information from the amygdala. The authors have modeled this integration by a network of spiking artificial neurons organized into separate areas and used this computational model to simulate 2 kinds of cognitive-affective integration. The model simulates successful performance by people with normal cognitive-affective integration. The model also simulates the historical case of Phineas Gage as well as subsequent patients whose ability to make decisions became impeded by damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

  8. Trypanosoma cruzi strains isolated from human, vector, and animal reservoir in the same endemic region in Mexico and typed as T. cruzi I, discrete typing unit 1 exhibit considerable biological diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Sánchez-Guillén

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, three strains of Trypanosoma cruzi were isolated at the same time and in the same endemic region in Mexico from a human patient with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (RyC-H; vector (Triatoma barberi (RyC-V; and rodent reservoir (Peromyscus peromyscus (RyC-R. The three strains were characterized by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, random amplified polymorphic DNA, and by pathological profiles in experimental animals (biodemes. Based on the analysis of genetic markers the three parasite strains were typed as belonging to T. cruzi I major group, discrete typing unit 1. The pathological profile of RyC-H and RyC-V strains indicated medium virulence and low mortality and, accordingly, the strains should be considered as belonging to biodeme Type III. On the other hand, the parasites from RyC-R strain induced more severe inflammatory processes and high mortality (> 40% and were considered as belonging to biodeme Type II. The relationship between genotypes and biological characteristics in T. cruzi strains is still debated and not clearly understood. An expert committee recommended in 1999 that Biodeme Type III would correspond to T. cruzi I group, whereas Biodeme Type II, to T. cruzi II group. Our findings suggest that, at least for Mexican isolates, this correlation does not stand and that biological characteristics such as pathogenicity and virulence could be determined by factors different from those identified in the genotypic characterization

  9. MAGE-A1, GAGE and NY-ESO-1 cancer/testis antigen expression during human gonadal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Kock, Kirsten; Nielsen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are expressed in several cancers and during normal adult male germ cell differentiation. Little is known about their role in fetal development of human germ cells. METHODS: We examined expression of the CTAs MAGE-A1, GAGE and NY-ESO-1 in fetal gonads...

  10. Standard practice for strain controlled thermomechanical fatigue testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the determination of thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) properties of materials under uniaxially loaded strain-controlled conditions. A “thermomechanical” fatigue cycle is here defined as a condition where uniform temperature and strain fields over the specimen gage section are simultaneously varied and independently controlled. This practice is intended to address TMF testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. While this practice is specific to strain-controlled testing, many sections will provide useful information for force-controlled or stress-controlled TMF testing. 1.2 This practice allows for any maximum and minimum values of temperature and mechanical strain, and temperature-mechanical strain phasing, with the restriction being that such parameters remain cyclically constant throughout the duration of the test. No restrictions are placed on en...

  11. Development of a chimeric Plasmodium berghei strain expressing the repeat region of the P. vivax circumsporozoite protein for in vivo evaluation of vaccine efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Diego A; Yadava, Anjali; Angov, Evelina; Maurizio, Paul L; Ockenhouse, Christian F; Zavala, Fidel

    2013-08-01

    The development of vaccine candidates against Plasmodium vivax-the most geographically widespread human malaria species-is challenged by technical difficulties, such as the lack of in vitro culture systems and availability of animal models. Chimeric rodent Plasmodium parasites are safe and useful tools for the preclinical evaluation of new vaccine formulations. We report the successful development and characterization of chimeric Plasmodium berghei parasites bearing the type I repeat region of P. vivax circumsporozoite protein (CSP). The P. berghei-P. vivax chimeric strain develops normally in mosquitoes and produces highly infectious sporozoites that produce patent infection in mice that are exposed to the bites of as few as 3 P. berghei-P. vivax-infected mosquitoes. Using this transgenic parasite, we demonstrate that monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against P. vivax CSP strongly inhibit parasite infection and thus support the notion that these antibodies play an important role in protective immunity. The chimeric parasites we developed represent a robust model for evaluating protective immune responses against P. vivax vaccines based on CSP.

  12. Rb-Sr dating of strain-induced mineral growth in two ductile shear zones in the western gneiss region of Nord-Troendelag, Central Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piasecki, M.A.; Cliff, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    In the Bjugn district of the northern part of the Western Gneiss Region, Nord-Troendelag, a basement gneiss-cover nappe boundary is marked by a thick zone of ductile shearing. In this zone a layer-parallel mylonitic fabric with related new mineral growth overprints and retrogresses a previous fabric associated with a granulite facies mineral assemblage. Related minor shear belts contain abundant new minerals and vein systems, including pegmatites, believed to represent strain-induced products formed at the time of the shearing movements. Central parts of two large muscovite books from such a pegmatite yielded Rb-Sr, Early to Middle Devonian ages of 389±6 Ma and 386±6 Ma, interpreted as indicating the approximate time of pegmatite formation and of the shearing. Small, matrix-size muscovite and biotite grains from the host mylonite gave ages of 378±6 Ma and 365±5 Ma, respectively, supposed to relate to post-shearing uplift and cooling

  13. Fermentation of Apple Juice with a Selected Yeast Strain Isolated from the Fermented Foods of Himalayan Regions and Its Organoleptic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, S S; Keshani

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different fermented foods of Western Himalayas have been studied for strain level and functional diversity in our department. Among these 23 strains, 10 S. cerevisiae strains on the basis of variation in their brewing traits were selected to study their organoleptic effect at gene level by targeting ATF1 gene, which is responsible for ester synthesis during fermentation. Significant variation was observed in ATF1 gene sequences, suggesting differences in aroma and flavor of their brewing products. Apple is a predominant fruit in Himachal Pradesh and apple cider is one of the most popular drinks all around the world hence, it was chosen for sensory evaluation of six selected yeast strains. Organoleptic studies and sensory analysis suggested Sc21 and Sc01 as best indigenous strains for soft and hard cider, respectively, indicating their potential in enriching the local products with enhanced quality.

  14. Genome Sequence of Thermotoga sp. Strain RQ2, a Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Isolated from a Geothermally Heated Region of the Seafloor near Ribeira Quente, the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, Kristen S.; DiPippo, Jonathan L.; Bruce, David C.; Detter, Christopher; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Shunsheng; Saunders, Elizabeth; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, James; Woyke, Tanja; Pitluck, Sam; Pennacchio, Len; Nolan, Matthew; Mikhailova, Natalia; Lykidis, Athanasios; Land, Miriam L.; Brettin, Thomas; Stetter, Karl O.; Nelson, Karen E.; Gogarten, J. Peter; Noll, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    Thermotoga sp. strain RQ2 is probably a strain of Thermotoga maritima. Its complete genome sequence allows for an examination of the extent and consequences of gene flow within Thermotoga species and strains. Thermotoga sp. RQ2 differs from T. maritima in its genes involved in myo-inositol metabolism. Its genome also encodes an apparent fructose phosphotransferase system (PTS) sugar transporter. This operon is also found in Thermotoga naphthophila strain RKU-10 but no other Thermotogales. These are the first reported PTS transporters in the Thermotogales. PMID:21952543

  15. Electro optical system to measure strains at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.

    1991-12-01

    The measurement of strains at temperatures of the order of 1000 C has become a very important field of research. Technological advances in areas such as the analysis of high speed aircraft structures and high efficiency thermal engines require operational temperatures of this order of magnitude. Current techniques for the measurement of strains, such as electrical strain gages, are at the limit of their useful range and new methods need to be developed. Optical techniques are very attractive in this type of application because of their noncontacting nature. Holography is of particular interest because a minimal preparation of the surfaces is required. Optoelectronics holography is specially suited for this type of application, from the point of view of industrial use. There are a number of technical problems that need to be overcome to measure strains using holographic interferometry at high temperatures. Some of these problems are discussed, and solutions are given. A specimen instrumented with high temperature strains gages is used to compare the results of both technologies.

  16. Variation of Shrinkage Strain within the Depth of Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hyun Jeong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The variation of shrinkage strain within beam depth was examined through four series of time-dependent laboratory experiments on unreinforced concrete beam specimens. Two types of beam specimens, horizontally cast and vertically cast, were tested; shrinkage variation was observed in the horizontally cast specimens. This indicated that the shrinkage variation within the beam depth was due to water bleeding and tamping during the placement of the fresh concrete. Shrinkage strains were measured within the beam depth by two types of strain gages, surface-attached and embedded. The shrinkage strain distribution within the beam depth showed a consistent tendency for the two types of gages. The test beams were cut into four sections after completion of the test, and the cutting planes were divided into four equal sub-areas to measure the aggregate concentration for each sub-area of the cutting plane. The aggregate concentration increased towards the bottom of the beam. The shrinkage strain distribution was estimated by Hobbs’ equation, which accounts for the change of aggregate volume concentration.

  17. Phase volume fractions and strain measurements in an ultrafine-grained NiTi shape-memory alloy during tensile loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.L.; Wagner, M.F.-X.; Frenzel, J.; Schmahl, W.W.; Eggeler, G.

    2010-01-01

    An ultrafine-grained pseudoelastic NiTi shape-memory alloy wire with 50.9 at.% Ni was examined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction during in situ uniaxial tensile loading (up to 1 GPa) and unloading. Both macroscopic stress-strain measurements and volume-averaged lattice strains are reported and discussed. The loading behavior is described in terms of elasto-plastic deformation of austenite, emergence of R phase, stress-induced martensitic transformation, and elasto-plastic deformation, grain reorientation and detwinning of martensite. The unloading behavior is described in terms of stress relaxation and reverse plasticity of martensite, reverse transformation of martensite to austenite due to stress relaxation, and stress relaxation of austenite. Microscopically, lattice strains in various crystallographic directions in the austenitic B2, martensitic R, and martensitic B19' phases are examined during loading and unloading. It is shown that the phase transformation occurs in a localized manner along the gage length at the plateau stress. Phase volume fractions and lattice strains in various crystallographic reflections in the austenite and martensite phases are examined over two transition regions between austenite and martensite, which have a width on the order of the wire diameter. Anisotropic effects observed in various crystallographic reflections of the austenitic phase are also discussed. The results contribute to a better understanding of the tensile loading behavior, both macroscopically and microscopically, of NiTi shape-memory alloys.

  18. Identification of 2nd chromosome region translocated onto the W chromosome by RFLP with EST-cDNA clones in the Gensei-kouken strains of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaramakurup Sreekumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In silkworms, sex-limited strains are either obtained spontaneously or induced by X-rays or gamma rays. When a fragment of an autosome carrying a dominant allele of those genes responsible for certain characters is translocated onto a W chromosome, the female of the successive generations will express these phenotypic characters and sex discrimination can be facilitated. Gensei-kouken strains are sex-limited strains of silkworms developed by irradiating the pupae with gamma rays, by which a portion of the second chromosome is translocated onto the W chromosome. In these improved strains, the females are yellow-blooded and spin yellow cocoons. By using the EST-cDNA clones mapped on the Z chromosome, we identified the sex according to the polymorphic banding pattern or intensity of the signals. Furthermore, by using the clones on the second chromosome, the region of the second chromosome translocated onto the W chromosome was also defined. In both the A95 and A 96 strains selected for the present study, only the mid-portion of the second chromosome was translocated. The differences in length of the fragments translocated in these strains are discussed.

  19. Masticatory-stress hypotheses and the supraorbital region of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylander, W L; Picq, P G; Johnson, K R

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to test various masticatory-stress hypotheses about the evolution and function of well-developed browridges of higher primates. This was done by measuring and analyzing patterns of in vivo bone strain recorded from three-element rosette strain gages bonded to the supraorbital region and to other portions of the bony face of Macaca fascicularis and Papio anubis during mastication and incision. The magnitude and direction of the principal strains recorded support Endo's hypothesis that the supraorbital region during mastication and incision is bent in the frontal plane (Endo, 1966). Our data do not, however, support his hypothesis that the supraorbital region is bent more during incision than during mastication. The data also demonstrate that overall levels of supraorbital strain are not larger in more prognathic subjects. Most importantly, the data indicate that the supraorbital region of nonhuman catarrhines is strained very little during mastication and incision. This indicates that there is much more supraorbital bone than is necessary both to counter masticatory loads and to provide an adequate safety factor to failure for these loads. This in turn suggests that the macaque and baboon browridges can be considerably reduced in size and still maintain these required structural characteristics. Thus, our experiments provide no support whatsoever for those hypotheses that directly link browridge morphology to masticatory stress (cf. Endo, 1966; Russell, 1983, 1985). A recent review of Endo's original work indicates that this latter statement is also true for humans (Picq and Hylander, 1989). We conclude, therefore, that there is no good reason to believe that enlarged browridges in living and/or fossil primates are structural adaptations to counter intense masticatory forces. The evolution of browridge morphology in primates is best explained on the basis of factors related to the position of the brain relative to the orbits (Moss and

  20. Isolation of a solventogenic Clostridium sp. strain: fermentation of glycerol to n-butanol, analysis of the bcs operon region and its potential regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitz, J C; Zverlov, V V; Pham, V T T; Stürzl, S; Schieder, D; Schwarz, W H

    2014-02-01

    A new solventogenic bacterium, strain GT6, was isolated from standing water sediment. 16S-rRNA gene analysis revealed that GT6 belongs to the heterogeneous Clostridium tetanomorphum group of bacteria exhibiting 99% sequence identity with C. tetanomorphum 4474(T). GT6 can utilize a wide range of carbohydrate substrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, xylose and glycerol to produce mainly n-butanol without any acetone. Additional products of GT6 metabolism were ethanol, butyric acid, acetic acid, and trace amounts of 1,3-propanediol. Medium and substrate composition, and culture conditions such as pH and temperature influenced product formation. The major fermentation product from glycerol was n-butanol with a final concentration of up to 11.5 g/L. 3% (v/v) glycerol lead to a total solvent concentration of 14 g/L within 72 h. Growth was not inhibited by glycerol concentrations as high as 15% (v/v). The solventogenesis genes crt, bcd, etfA/B and hbd composing the bcs (butyryl-CoA synthesis) operon of C. tetanomorphum GT6 were sequenced. They occur in a genomic arrangement identical to those in other solventogenic clostridia. Furthermore, the sequence of a potential regulator gene highly similar to that of the NADH-sensing Rex family of regulatory genes was found upstream of the bcs operon. Potential binding sites for Rex have been identified in the promoter region of the bcs operon of solvent producing clostridia as well as upstream of other genes involved in NADH oxidation. This indicates a fundamental role of Rex in the regulation of fermentation products in anaerobic, and especially in solventogenic bacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Differences in virulence markers between Helicobacter pylori strains from Iraq and those from Iran: potential importance of regional differences in H. pylori-associated disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Nawfal R; Mohammadi, Marjan; Talebkhan, Yeganeh; Doraghi, Masoumeh; Letley, Darren P; Muhammad, Merdan K; Argent, Richard H; Atherton, John C

    2008-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma; the latter is common in Iran but not in Iraq. We hypothesized that more virulent H. pylori strains may be found in Iran than in Iraq and so compared established and newly described virulence factors in strains from these countries. We studied 59 unselected dyspeptic patients from Iran and 49 from Iraq. cagA was found in similar proportions of strains from both countries (76% in Iran versus 71% in Iraq) and was significantly associated with peptic ulcer disease in Iraq (P dupA was found in similar proportions of Iranian and Iraqi strains (38% and 32%, respectively) and was associated with peptic ulceration in Iraqi patients (P strains from Iraq and Iran possess virulence factors similar to those in Western countries. The presence of cagA with more phosphorylation motifs in Iranian strains may contribute to the higher incidence of gastric cancer. However, the association between strain virulence markers and disease in Iraq but not Iran suggests that other host and environmental factors may be more important in the disease-prone Iranian population.

  2. Effect of Job Strain on Job Burnout, Mental Fatigue and Chronic Diseases among Civil Servants in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Suzhen; Xiaerfuding, Xiadiya; Ning, Li; Lian, Yulong; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Jiwen; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2017-01-01

    Job strain is a major concern in view of its effects among civil servants associated with job burnout, mental fatigue and chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the job strain level among civil servants and examine the effect of job strain on job burnout, mental fatigue and the resulting chronic diseases. A cross-sectional study with a representative sample consisting of 5000 civil servants was conducted from March to August 2014. Using a structured questionnaire, the job strain level, job burnout and mental fatigue were measured by using the Personal Strain Questionnaire (PSQ), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20), respectively. Overall, 33.8% of the civil servants were found to be afflicted with high and moderate job strain. The characteristics of most of the civil servants with a higher-job strain level were as follows: female, Uygur, lower educational level and job title rank, shorter working experience, married marital status, and lower income level. Civil servants suffering from chronic disease mainly had hypertension and coronary heart disease, which accounted for 18.5% of the diseases. Civil servants with a high-job strain level exhibited higher rates of burnout, mental fatigue scores and incidence of chronic diseases. There was a multiple linear regression model composed of three predictor variables in job burnout, which accounted for 45.0% of its occurrence: female gender, lower-income level, higher-job strain in civil servants, the greater the rate of job burnout was. Four factors—male gender, lower-job title rank, higher-job strain, shorter-job tenure of civil servants—explained 25.0% of the mental fatigue model. Binary logistic regression showed that intermediate-rank employees (OR = 0.442, 95% CI: 0.028–0.634; p job tenure of 10–20 years (OR = 0.632, 95% CI: 0.359–0.989; p job strain (OR = 0.657, 95% CI: 0.052–0.698; p job burnout scores and mental fatigue scores compared with

  3. Effect of Job Strain on Job Burnout, Mental Fatigue and Chronic Diseases among Civil Servants in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Suzhen; Xiaerfuding, Xiadiya; Ning, Li; Lian, Yulong; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Jiwen; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2017-08-03

    Job strain is a major concern in view of its effects among civil servants associated with job burnout, mental fatigue and chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the job strain level among civil servants and examine the effect of job strain on job burnout, mental fatigue and the resulting chronic diseases. A cross-sectional study with a representative sample consisting of 5000 civil servants was conducted from March to August 2014. Using a structured questionnaire, the job strain level, job burnout and mental fatigue were measured by using the Personal Strain Questionnaire (PSQ), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20), respectively. Overall, 33.8% of the civil servants were found to be afflicted with high and moderate job strain. The characteristics of most of the civil servants with a higher-job strain level were as follows: female, Uygur, lower educational level and job title rank, shorter working experience, married marital status, and lower income level. Civil servants suffering from chronic disease mainly had hypertension and coronary heart disease, which accounted for 18.5% of the diseases. Civil servants with a high-job strain level exhibited higher rates of burnout, mental fatigue scores and incidence of chronic diseases. There was a multiple linear regression model composed of three predictor variables in job burnout, which accounted for 45.0% of its occurrence: female gender, lower-income level, higher-job strain in civil servants, the greater the rate of job burnout was. Four factors-male gender, lower-job title rank, higher-job strain, shorter-job tenure of civil servants-explained 25.0% of the mental fatigue model. Binary logistic regression showed that intermediate-rank employees (OR = 0.442, 95% CI: 0.028-0.634; p civil servants with high-job burnout scores and mental fatigue scores compared with civil servants with lower scores (OR = 1.139, 95% CI: 1.012-3.198; OR = 1.697, 95% CI: 1

  4. Comparative Genome Analysis Between Aspergillus oryzae Strains Reveals Close Relationship Between Sites of Mutation Localization and Regions of Highly Divergent Genes among Aspergillus Species

    OpenAIRE

    Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Yamane, Noriko; Koyama, Yoshinori; Satou, Yuki; Kikuzato, Ikuya; Teruya, Morimi; Tsukahara, Masatoshi; Imada, Yumi; Wachi, Youji; Miwa, Yukino; Yano, Shuichi; Tamano, Koichi; Kawarabayasi, Yutaka; Fujimori, Kazuhiro E.

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae has been utilized for over 1000 years in Japan for the production of various traditional foods, and a large number of A. oryzae strains have been isolated and/or selected for the effective fermentation of food ingredients. Characteristics of genetic alterations among the strains used are of particular interest in studies of A. oryzae. Here, we have sequenced the whole genome of an industrial fungal isolate, A. oryzae RIB326, by using a next-generation sequencing system and ...

  5. Mehanical Properties of Electron Beam Welded Joints in Thick Gage CA6NM Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafan, Sheida; Wanjara, Priti; Gholipour, Javad; Champliaud, Henri; Mathieu, Louis

    2017-10-01

    Design of hydroelectric turbine components requires high integrity welds (without detectable volumetric defects) in heavy gage sections of stainless steel materials, such as ASTM A743 grade CA6NM—a low carbon 13% Cr-4% Ni martensitic stainless steel that is manufactured in cast form. In this work, 90-mm-thick plates of CA6NM were joined using a single-pass autogenous electron beam (EB) welding process and the mechanical properties were evaluated in the as-welded condition to characterize the performance of the joints. The static tensile properties that were evaluated in two directions—transverse and longitudinal to the EB weld seam—demonstrated conformance of the joints with the requirements of the ASME Section IX standard. The Charpy impact energies of the EB welds—measured at -18 °C on samples with V-notch roots located in the fusion and heat-affected zones—met the minimum requirements of 27 J specified in ASME Section VIII standard. In addition, bend tests that were conducted on the entire weld cross section displayed no discontinuities on the tension side of the bent joints. Hence, the developed EB welding process was demonstrated to render high-performance joints and promises key advantages for industrialization, such as cost savings through reductions in consumable material, production time and labor intensity.

  6. Tubular gage for a liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutter, E.; Tuma, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    Spring-loaded plungers are arranged about a housing for insertion into a polygonal tube, one plunger for each side of the tube. Each plunger has a locking cam and sliding wedge mechanism which can overcome the spring force associated with the plunger and lock it in any position. The wedges are operated by a rod movable axially in the housing. Several housings with their associated plungers can be stacked. The stack is lowered into the polygonal tube with all of the plungers locked in a fully inward position. When the stack is in the tube, each wedge is moved to release its locking cam, allowing each of the plungers to spring outward against an inner side of the tube. Each housing will thus gage the internal dimensions of the tube at its elevation. The plungers are locked in position, the entire stack is rotated to bring the plungers into the corners described by the intersections of the flat sides, and the stack is removed from the tube whereupon the dimensions across opposite locked plungers may be read by a micrometer

  7. Flight Test Results from the Rake Airflow Gage Experiment on the F-15B Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Michael A.; Ratnayake, Nalin A.

    2011-01-01

    The Rake Airflow Gage Experiment involves a flow-field survey rake that was flown on the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center using the Dryden F-15B research test bed airplane. The objective of this flight test was to ascertain the flow-field angularity, local Mach number profile, total pressure distortion, and dynamic pressure at the aerodynamic interface plane of the Channeled Centerbody Inlet Experiment. This new mixed-compression, supersonic inlet is planned for flight test in the near term. Knowledge of the flow-field characteristics at this location underneath the airplane is essential to flight test planning and computational modeling of the new inlet, anairplane, flying at a free-stream Mach number of 1.65 and a pressure altitude of 40,000 ft, would achieve the desired local Mach number for the future inlet flight test. Interface plane distortion levels of 2 percent and a local angle of attack of -2 deg were observed at this condition. Alternative flight conditions for future testing and an exploration of certain anomalous data also are provided.

  8. Ten years of real-time streamflow gaging of turkey creek - where we have been and where we are going

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Conrads; Devendra Amatya

    2016-01-01

    The Turkey Creek watershed is a third-order coastal plain stream system draining an area of approximately 5,240 hectares of the Francis Marion National Forest and located about 37 miles northwest of Charleston near Huger, South Carolina. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service maintained a streamflow gaging station on Turkey Creek from 1964 to 1981....

  9. Precipitation data for water years 1992 and 1993 from a network of nonrecording gages at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambos, D.S.; Flint, A.L.; Hevesi, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents precipitation data collected in a storage gage network at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, from October 1, 1991, to September 30, 1993. The measured values indicate total accumulated precipitation for specified time intervals approximately corresponding to separate storm events. Installation of a precipitation monitoring network was initiated in January 1990, and was continually expanded and upgraded throughout the period ending in September 1993. The final network included 3 different gage types for a total of 133 gages at 108 locations within the three drainages overlying the potential repository site. Measured precipitation indicated above average accumulations for water years 1992 and 1993 relative to the most recent estimate of 6.7 inches for long-term average annual precipitation over the area of the network. The total precipitation averaged over the network in 1992 was about 8.2 inches with a maximum of about 11.2 inches measured at borehole USW GA-1. The total precipitation averaged over the network in 1993 was about 10.3 inches with a maximum of about 12.1 inches at neutron-access borehole UE-25 UZN number-sign 4

  10. Quantitative circumferential strain analysis using adenosine triphosphate-stress/rest 3-T tagged magnetic resonance to evaluate regional contractile dysfunction in ischemic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Masashi, E-mail: m.nakamura1230@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Toon-city, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan); Kido, Tomoyuki [Department of Radiology, Saiseikai Matsuyama Hospital, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan); Kido, Teruhito; Tanabe, Yuki; Matsuda, Takuya; Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Miyagawa, Masao; Mochizuki, Teruhito [Department of Radiology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Toon-city, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Infarcted segments could be differentiated from non-ischemic and ischemic segments with high sensitivity and specificity under at rest conditions. • The time-to-peak circumferential strain values in infarcted segments were more significantly delayed than those in non-ischemic and ischemic segments. • Both circumferential strain and circumferential systolic strain rate values under ATP-stress conditions were significantly lower in ischemic segments than in non-ischemic segments. • Subtracting stress and rest circumferential strain had a higher diagnostic capability for ischemia relative to only utilizing rest or ATP-stress circumferential strain values. • A circumferential strain analysis using tagged MR can quantitatively assess contractile dysfunction in ischemic and infarcted myocardium. - Abstract: Purpose: We evaluated whether a quantitative circumferential strain (CS) analysis using adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-stress/rest 3-T tagged magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can depict myocardial ischemia as contractile dysfunction during stress in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). We evaluated whether it can differentiate between non-ischemia, myocardial ischemia, and infarction. We assessed its diagnostic performance in comparison with ATP-stress myocardial perfusion MR and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE)-MR imaging. Methods: In 38 patients suspected of having CAD, myocardial segments were categorized as non-ischemic (n = 485), ischemic (n = 74), or infarcted (n = 49) from the results of perfusion MR and LGE-MR. The peak negative CS value, peak circumferential systolic strain rate (CSR), and time-to-peak CS were measured in 16 segments. Results: A cutoff value of −12.0% for CS at rest allowed differentiation between infarcted and other segments with a sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 76%, accuracy of 76%, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.81. Additionally, a cutoff value of 477.3 ms for time-to-peak CS at rest

  11. Phylogeny of nodulation genes and symbiotic diversity of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. and A. seyal (Del.) Mesorhizobium strains from different regions of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoum, Niokhor; Galiana, Antoine; Le Roux, Christine; Kane, Aboubacry; Duponnois, Robin; Ndoye, Fatou; Fall, Dioumacor; Noba, Kandioura; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Diouf, Diégane

    2015-04-01

    Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal are small, deciduous legume trees, most highly valued for nitrogen fixation and for the production of gum arabic, a commodity of international trade since ancient times. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes represents the main natural input of atmospheric N2 into ecosystems which may ultimately benefit all organisms. We analyzed the nod and nif symbiotic genes and symbiotic properties of root-nodulating bacteria isolated from A. senegal and A. seyal in Senegal. The symbiotic genes of rhizobial strains from the two Acacia species were closed to those of Mesorhizobium plurifarium and grouped separately in the phylogenetic trees. Phylogeny of rhizobial nitrogen fixation gene nifH was similar to those of nodulation genes (nodA and nodC). All A. senegal rhizobial strains showed identical nodA, nodC, and nifH gene sequences. By contrast, A. seyal rhizobial strains exhibited different symbiotic gene sequences. Efficiency tests demonstrated that inoculation of both Acacia species significantly affected nodulation, total dry weight, acetylene reduction activity (ARA), and specific acetylene reduction activity (SARA) of plants. However, these cross-inoculation tests did not show any specificity of Mesorhizobium strains toward a given Acacia host species in terms of infectivity and efficiency as stated by principal component analysis (PCA). This study demonstrates that large-scale inoculation of A. senegal and A. seyal in the framework of reafforestation programs requires a preliminary step of rhizobial strain selection for both Acacia species.

  12. Comparison of NEXRAD multisensor precipitation estimates to rain gage observations in and near DuPage County, Illinois, 2002–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Ryan R.; Over, Thomas M.; Ortel, Terry W.

    2018-05-21

    In this report, precipitation data from 2002 to 2012 from the hourly gridded Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD)-based Multisensor Precipitation Estimate (MPE) precipitation product are compared to precipitation data from two rain gage networks—an automated tipping bucket network of 25 rain gages operated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and 51 rain gages from the volunteer-operated Community Collaborative Rain, Hail, and Snow (CoCoRaHS) network—in and near DuPage County, Illinois, at a daily time step to test for long-term differences in space, time, and distribution. The NEXRAD–MPE data that are used are from the fifty 2.5-mile grid cells overlying the rain gages from the other networks. Because of the challenges of measuring of frozen precipitation, the analysis period is separated between days with or without the chance of freezing conditions. The NEXRAD–MPE and tipping-bucket rain gage precipitation data are adjusted to account for undercatch by multiplying by a previously determined factor of 1.14. Under nonfreezing conditions, the three precipitation datasets are broadly similar in cumulative depth and distribution of daily values when the data are combined spatially across the networks. However, the NEXRAD–MPE data indicate a significant trend relative to both rain gage networks as a function of distance from the NEXRAD radar just south of the study area. During freezing conditions, of the USGS network rain gages only the heated gages were considered, and these gages indicate substantial mean undercatch of 50 and 61 percent compared to the NEXRAD–MPE and the CoCoRaHS gages, respectively. The heated USGS rain gages also indicate substantially lower quantile values during freezing conditions, except during the most extreme (highest) events. Because NEXRAD precipitation products are continually evolving, the report concludes with a discussion of recent changes in those products and their potential for improved precipitation estimation. An appendix

  13. Mapping the resistance-associated mobilome of a carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain reveals insights into factors shaping these regions and facilitates generation of a 'resistance-disarmed' model organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Dexi; Jiang, Xiaofei; Sheng, Zi-Ke; Ngmenterebo, David; Tai, Cui; Wang, Minggui; Deng, Zixin; Rajakumar, Kumar; Ou, Hong-Yu

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the landscape of the mobile genome, with a focus on antibiotic resistance-associated factors in carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. The mobile genome of the completely sequenced K. pneumoniae HS11286 strain (an ST11, carbapenem-resistant, near-pan-resistant, clinical isolate) was annotated in fine detail. The identified mobile genetic elements were mapped to the genetic contexts of resistance genes. The blaKPC-2 gene and a 26 kb region containing 12 clustered antibiotic resistance genes and one biocide resistance gene were deleted, and the MICs were determined again to ensure that antibiotic resistance had been lost. HS11286 contains six plasmids, 49 ISs, nine transposons, two separate In2-related integron remnants, two integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) and seven prophages. Sixteen plasmid-borne resistance genes were identified, 14 of which were found to be directly associated with Tn1721-, Tn3-, Tn5393-, In2-, ISCR2- and ISCR3-derived elements. IS26 appears to have actively moulded several of these genetic regions. The deletion of blaKPC-2, followed by the deletion of a 26 kb region containing 12 clustered antibiotic resistance genes, progressively decreased the spectrum and level of resistance exhibited by the resultant mutant strains. This study has reiterated the role of plasmids as bearers of the vast majority of resistance genes in this species and has provided valuable insights into the vital role played by ISs, transposons and integrons in shaping the resistance-coding regions in this important strain. The 'resistance-disarmed' K. pneumoniae ST11 strain generated in this study will offer a more benign and readily genetically modifiable model organism for future extensive functional studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. On the gain properties of “thin” elastically strained InGaAs/InGaAlAs quantum wells emitting in the near-infrared spectral region near 1550 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, I. I.; Karachinsky, L. Ya. [Connector Optics LLC (Russian Federation); Kolodeznyi, E. S.; Bougrov, V. E. [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (Russian Federation); Kurochkin, A. S.; Gladyshev, A. G.; Babichev, A. V. [Connector Optics LLC (Russian Federation); Gadzhiev, I. M.; Buyalo, M. S. [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (Russian Federation); Zadiranov, Yu. M.; Usikova, A. A., E-mail: anton@beam.ioffe.ru; Shernyakov, Yu. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Savelyev, A. V.; Nyapshaev, I. A. [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (Russian Federation); Egorov, A. Yu. [Connector Optics LLC (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    The results of experimental studies of the gain properties of “thin” (3.2 nm thick) elastically strained InGaAs/InGaAlAs quantum wells emitting in the near-infrared spectral region near 1550 nm are presented. The results of studying the threshold and gain characteristics of stripe laser diodes with active regions based on “thin” quantum wells with a lattice–substrate mismatch of +1.0% show that the quantum wells under study exhibit a high modal gain of 11 cm{sup –1} and a low transparency current density of 46 A/cm{sup 2} per quantum well.

  15. Internships and UNAVCO: Training the Future Geoscience Workforce Through the NSF GAGE Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A. R.; MacPherson-Krutsky, C. C.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Bartel, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Facilities are uniquely positioned to both serve a broad, national audience and provide unique workforce experience to students and recent graduates. Intentional efforts dedicated to broadening participation in the future geoscience workforce at the NSF GAGE (Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope) Facility operated by UNAVCO, are designed to meet the needs of the next generation of students and professionals. As a university-governed consortium facilitating research and education in the geosciences, UNAVCO is well-situated to both prepare students for geoscience technical careers and advanced research positions. Since 1998, UNAVCO has offered over 165 student assistant or intern positions including engineering, data services, education and outreach, and business support. UNAVCO offers three formal programs: the UNAVCO Student Internship Program (USIP), Research Experiences in Solid Earth Science for Students (RESESS), and the Geo-Launchpad (GLP) internship program. Interns range from community college students up through graduate students and recent Masters graduates. USIP interns gain real-world work experience in a professional setting, collaborate with teams toward a common mission, and contribute their knowledge, skills, and abilities to the UNAVCO community. RESESS interns conduct authentic research with a scientist in the Front Range area as well as participate in a structured professional development series. GLP students are in their first 2 years of higher education and work alongside UNAVCO technical staff gaining valuable work experience and insight into the logistics of supporting scientific research. UNAVCO's efforts in preparing the next generation of scientists largely focuses on increasing diversity in the geosciences, whether continuing academic studies or moving into the workforce. To date, well over half of our interns and student assistants come from backgrounds historically underrepresented in the geosciences. Over 80% of former interns

  16. Evaluation of flaA short variable region sequencing, multilocus sequence typing and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for discrimination between Campylobacter jejuni strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Bonnichsen, Lise; Larsson, Jonas T.

    2012-01-01

    and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were applied on a collection of 102 epidemiologically related and unrelated Campylobacter jejuni strains. Previous application of FTIR spectroscopy for subtyping of Campylobacter has been limited. A subset of isolates, initially discriminated by flaA SVR...

  17. Draft genome sequences of Escherichia coli O113:H21 strains recovered from a major produce-production region in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is a foodborne and waterborne pathogen and is responsible for outbreaks of human gastroenteritis. This report documents the draft genome sequences of seven O113:H21 strains recovered from livestock, wildlife, and soil samples collected in a major agricultural r...

  18. Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains isolated from Chinese freshwater fish contain a novel genomic island and possible regional-specific mobile genetic elements profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Meng; Nielsen, Tue K; Leisner, Jørgen J

    2016-01-01

    Two strains of Aeromonas salmonicida, YK and BG, were isolated from largemouth bronze gudgeon and northern whitefish in China, and identified as A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida based on phylogenetic analysis of vapA and 16S rRNA gene sequences. YK and BG originated from freshwater fish, one...

  19. Can deep seated gravitational slope deformations be activated by regional tectonic strain: First insights from displacement measurements in caves from the Eastern Alps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baron, I.; Plan, L.; Grasemann, B.; Mitrovic, I.; Lenhardt, W.; Hausmann, H.; Stemberk, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 259, APR 15 (2016), 81-89 ISSN 0169-555X Grant - others:Austrian Science Fund(AT) P25884-N29 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : tectonic strain * slope failure * earthquake Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.958, year: 2016

  20. Turning the tide or riding the waves? Impacts of antibiotic stewardship and infection control on MRSA strain dynamics in a Scottish region over 16 years: non-linear time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawes, Timothy; López-Lozano, José-María; Nebot, César; Macartney, Gillian; Subbarao-Sharma, Rashmi; Dare, Ceri R J; Edwards, Giles F S; Gould, Ian M

    2015-03-26

    To explore temporal associations between planned antibiotic stewardship and infection control interventions and the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Retrospective ecological study and time-series analysis integrating typing data from the Scottish MRSA reference laboratory. Regional hospital and primary care in a Scottish Health Board. General adult (N=1,051,993) or intensive care (18,235) admissions and primary care registrations (460,000 inhabitants) between January 1997 and December 2012. Hand-hygiene campaign; MRSA admission screening; antibiotic stewardship limiting use of macrolides and '4Cs' (cephalosporins, coamoxiclav, clindamycin and fluoroquinolones). Prevalence density of MRSA clonal complexes CC22, CC30 and CC5/Other in hospital (isolates/1000 occupied bed days, OBDs) and community (isolates/10,000 inhabitant-days). 67% of all clinical MRSA isolates (10,707/15,947) were typed. Regional MRSA population structure was dominated by hospital epidemic strains CC30, CC22 and CC45. Following declines in overall MRSA prevalence density, CC5 and other strains of community origin became increasingly important. Reductions in use of '4Cs' and macrolides anticipated declines in sublineages with higher levels of associated resistances. In multivariate time-series models (R(2)=0.63-0.94) introduction of the hand-hygiene campaign, reductions in mean length of stay (when >4 days) and bed occupancy (when >74 to 78%) predicted declines in CC22 and CC30, but not CC5/other strains. Lower importation pressures, expanded MRSA admission screening, and reductions in macrolide and third generation cephalosporin use (thresholds for association: 135-141, and 48-81 defined daily doses/1000 OBDs, respectively) were followed by declines in all clonal complexes. Strain-specific associations with fluoroquinolones and clindamycin reflected resistance phenotypes of clonal complexes. Infection control measures and changes in population

  1. Strain rate behavior of magnetorheological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminuk, Kenneth; Joshi, Vasant; Gump, Jared; Stoltz, Chad; Forbes, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Strain rate response of two Hydroxyl-terminated Polybutadiene/ Iron (HTPB/Fe) compositions under electromagnetic fields has been investigated using a Split Hopkinson Pressure bar arrangement equipped with aluminum bars. Two HTPB/Fe compositions were developed, the first without plasticizer and the second containing plasticizer. Samples were tested with and without the application of a 0.01 Tesla magnetic field. Strain gauge data taken from the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar has been used to determine the extent of change in mechanical properties by inducing a mild electromagnetic field onto each sample. Raw data from strain gages was processed using commercial software (Signo) and Excel spreadsheet. It is of particular interest to determine whether the mechanical properties of binder systems can be manipulated by adding ferrous or Magnetostrictive particulates. Data collected from the Split Hopkinson Pressure bar indicate changes in the Mechanical Stress-Strain curves and suggest that the impedance of a binder system can be altered by means of a magnetic field.

  2. Sleep monitoring sensor using flexible metal strain gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yeon Hwa; Kim, Jinyong; Kim, Kunnyun

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a sleep monitoring sensor based on a flexible metal strain gauge. As quality of life has improved, interest in sleep quality, and related products, has increased. In this study, unlike a conventional single sensor based on a piezoelectric material, a metal strain gauge-based array sensor based on polyimide and nickel chromium (NiCr) is applied to provide movement direction, respiration, and heartbeat data as well as contact-free use by the user during sleeping. Thin-film-type resistive strain gage sensors are fabricated through the conventional flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) process, which is very useful for commercialization. The measurement of movement direction and respiratory rate during sleep were evaluated, and the heart rate data were compared with concurrent electrocardiogram (ECG) data. An algorithm for analyzing sleep data was developed using MATLAB, and the error rate was 4.2% when compared with ECG for heart rate.

  3. Strain measurements of nuclear power plant steam generator antiseismic supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulichevsky, R.

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear power plants steam generators have different types of structural supports. One of these types are the antiseismic supports, which are intended to be under stress only if a seismic event takes place. Nevertheless, the antiseismic supports lugs, that are welded to the steam generator vessel, are subjected to thermal fatigue because of the temperature cycles related with the shut down and start up operations performed during the life of the nuclear power plant. In order to evaluate the stresses that the lugs are subjected to, several strain gages were welded on two supports lugs, positioned at two heights of one of the Embalse nuclear power plant steam generators. In this paper, the instrumentation used and the strain measurements obtained during two start up operations are presented. The influence of the plant start up operation parameters on the lugs strain evolution is also analyzed. (author) [es

  4. The application of a 3 dimensional image scanner to the strain measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazda, Taiji; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Michiaki; Nakano, Yasuo.

    1993-01-01

    A large strain measuring method for a laminated seismic isolation rubber, which will be introduced to reactor buildings of the Demonstration Fast Breeder Reactor (DFBR), was developed. With using strain gages, it is difficult to measure the large strain under the large displacement condition. With using the optical instruments, it is also impossible to measure the strain of a 3 dimensional object. We developed a new measuring method in which strain is calculated from a 3 dimensional deformation with using a 3 dimensional image scanner. This method is noncontact measuring method, and it can measure the strain of a 3 dimensional object under the large deformation. This work is one part of 'The Development of FBR Seismic Isolation system' operated by Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry. (author)

  5. Comparative Genome Analysis Between Aspergillus oryzae Strains Reveals Close Relationship Between Sites of Mutation Localization and Regions of Highly Divergent Genes among Aspergillus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Yamane, Noriko; Koyama, Yoshinori; Satou, Yuki; Kikuzato, Ikuya; Teruya, Morimi; Tsukahara, Masatoshi; Imada, Yumi; Wachi, Youji; Miwa, Yukino; Yano, Shuichi; Tamano, Koichi; Kawarabayasi, Yutaka; Fujimori, Kazuhiro E.; Machida, Masayuki; Hirano, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae has been utilized for over 1000 years in Japan for the production of various traditional foods, and a large number of A. oryzae strains have been isolated and/or selected for the effective fermentation of food ingredients. Characteristics of genetic alterations among the strains used are of particular interest in studies of A. oryzae. Here, we have sequenced the whole genome of an industrial fungal isolate, A. oryzae RIB326, by using a next-generation sequencing system and compared the data with those of A. oryzae RIB40, a wild-type strain sequenced in 2005. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutation pressure on the non-syntenic blocks (NSBs) of the genome, which were previously identified through comparative genomic analysis of A. oryzae, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus nidulans. We found that genes within the NSBs of RIB326 accumulate mutations more frequently than those within the SBs, regardless of their distance from the telomeres or of their expression level. Our findings suggest that the high mutation frequency of NSBs might contribute to maintaining the diversity of the A. oryzae genome. PMID:22912434

  6. Comparative genome analysis between Aspergillus oryzae strains reveals close relationship between sites of mutation localization and regions of highly divergent genes among Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Yamane, Noriko; Koyama, Yoshinori; Satou, Yuki; Kikuzato, Ikuya; Teruya, Morimi; Tsukahara, Masatoshi; Imada, Yumi; Wachi, Youji; Miwa, Yukino; Yano, Shuichi; Tamano, Koichi; Kawarabayasi, Yutaka; Fujimori, Kazuhiro E; Machida, Masayuki; Hirano, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Aspergillus oryzae has been utilized for over 1000 years in Japan for the production of various traditional foods, and a large number of A. oryzae strains have been isolated and/or selected for the effective fermentation of food ingredients. Characteristics of genetic alterations among the strains used are of particular interest in studies of A. oryzae. Here, we have sequenced the whole genome of an industrial fungal isolate, A. oryzae RIB326, by using a next-generation sequencing system and compared the data with those of A. oryzae RIB40, a wild-type strain sequenced in 2005. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutation pressure on the non-syntenic blocks (NSBs) of the genome, which were previously identified through comparative genomic analysis of A. oryzae, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus nidulans. We found that genes within the NSBs of RIB326 accumulate mutations more frequently than those within the SBs, regardless of their distance from the telomeres or of their expression level. Our findings suggest that the high mutation frequency of NSBs might contribute to maintaining the diversity of the A. oryzae genome.

  7. Force Reconstruction from Ejection Tests of Stores from Aircraft Used for Model Predictions and Missing/Bad Gages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Michael; Cap, Jerome S.; Starr, Michael J.; Urbina, Angel; Brink, Adam Ray

    2015-12-01

    One of the more severe environments for a store on an aircraft is during the ejection of the store. During this environment it is not possible to instrument all component responses, and it is also likely that some instruments may fail during the environment testing. This work provides a method for developing these responses from failed gages and uninstrumented locations. First, the forces observed by the store during the environment are reconstructed. A simple sampling method is used to reconstruct these forces given various parameters. Then, these forces are applied to a model to generate the component responses. Validation is performed on this methodology.

  8. Analysis of GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 cancer/testis antigen expression in early stage non-small cell lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Pøhl, Mette; Olsen, Karen E; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2013-01-01

    The unique expression pattern and immunogenic properties of cancer/testis antigens make them ideal targets for immunotherapy of cancer. The MAGE-A3 cancer/testis antigen is frequently expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and vaccination with MAGE-A3 in patients with MAGE-A3-positive NSCLC has shown promising results. However, little is known about the expression of other cancer/testis antigens in NSCLC. In the present study the expression of cancer/testis antigens GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 was investigated in patients with completely resected, early stage, primary NSCLC. Tumor biopsies from normal lung tissue and from a large cohort (n = 169) of NSCLC patients were examined for GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 protein expression by immunohistochemical analysis. The expression of these antigens was further matched to clinical and pathological features using univariate cox regression analysis. GAGE and NY-ESO-1 cancer/testis antigens were not expressed in normal lung tissue, while SP17 was expressed in ciliated lung epithelia. The frequency of GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 expression in NSCLC tumors were 26.0% (44/169), 11.8% (20/169) and 4.7% (8/169), respectively, and 33.1% (56/169) of the tumors expressed at least one of these antigens. In general, the expression of GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 was not significantly associated with a specific histotype (adenocarcinoma vs. squamous cell carcinoma), but high-level GAGE expression (>50%) was more frequent in squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.02). Furthermore, the frequency of GAGE expression was demonstrated to be significantly higher in stage II-IIIa than stage I NSCLC (17.0% vs. 35.8%; p = 0.02). Analysis of the relation between tumor expression of GAGE and NY-ESO-1 and survival endpoints revealed no significant associations. Our study demonstrates that GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 cancer/testis antigens are candidate targets for immunotherapy of NSCLC and further suggest that multi-antigen vaccines may be beneficial

  9. Application of carbon nanotubes flexible strain sensor in smart textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong CHENG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Smart textiles have not only the necessary functions of daily wear, but also the intelligence. The focus of the current textile materials research is the selection of flexible material. For flexible materials, carbon material is one of the ideal materials for preparing flexible strain gauges. The application of flexible strain sensor prepared by carbon nanotubes as a flexible material in smart textiles is the research content. The research status of carbon nanotubes flexible strain sensor is introduced from the aspects of the structure, properties and application. The characteristics and functions of flexible strain gages prepared with carbon nanotube fibers and carbon nanotube films as flexible materials are discussed in terms of selection, preparation method, performance test and application. At the same time, the advantages and disadvantages of the flexible strain sensor of carbon nanotubes are reviewed from the aspects of preparation difficulty, production cost and practical application effect. High sensitivity with high strain will be a key research direction for carbon nanotube flexible strain sensors.

  10. The strain-dependent spatial evolution of garnet in a high- P ductile shear zone from the Western Gneiss Region (Norway): a synchrotron X-ray microtomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macente, A. [School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, The King' s Building James Hutton Road Edinburgh EH9 3FE UK; Fusseis, F. [School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, The King' s Building James Hutton Road Edinburgh EH9 3FE UK; Menegon, L. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Plymouth University, Fitzroy Drake Circus Plymouth Devon PL4 8AA UK; Xianghui, X. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave Building 431-B003 Argonne IL USA; John, T. [Institut für Geologische Wissenschaften, Freie Universität Berlin, Malteserstr. 74-100 12249 Berlin Germany

    2017-03-27

    Reaction and deformation microfabrics provide key information to understand the thermodynamic and kinetic controls of tectono-metamorphic processes, however they are usually analysed in two dimensions, omitting important information regarding the third spatial dimension. We applied synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography to document the evolution of a pristine olivine gabbro into a deformed omphacite-garnet eclogite in four dimensions, where the 4th dimension is represented by the degree of strain. In the investigated samples, which cover a strain gradient into a shear zone from the Western Gneiss Region (Norway), we focused on the spatial transformation of garnet coronas into elongated clusters of garnets with increasing strain. Our microtomographic data allowed quantification of garnet volume, shape and spatial arrangement evolution with increasing strain. We combined microtomographic observations with light microscope- and backscatter electron images as well as electron microprobe- (EMPA) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis to correlate mineral composition and orientation data with the X-ray absorption signal of the same mineral grains. With increasing deformation, the garnet volume almost triples. In the low strain domain, garnets form a well interconnected large garnet aggregate that develops throughout the entire Page 1 of 52 sample. We also observed that garnet coronas in the gabbros never completely encapsulate olivine grains. In the most highly deformed eclogites, the oblate shapes of garnet clusters reflect a deformational origin of the microfabrics. We interpret the aligned garnet aggregates to direct synkinematic fluid flow and consequently influence the transport of dissolved chemical components. EBSD analyses reveal that garnet show a near-random crystal preferred orientation that testifies no evidence for crystal plasticity. There is, however evidence for minor fracturing, neo-nucleation and overgrowth. Microprobe chemical analysis

  11. Low-flow analysis and selected flow statistics representative of 1930-2002 for streamflow-gaging stations in or near West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.

    2006-01-01

    Five time periods between 1930 and 2002 are identified as having distinct patterns of annual minimum daily mean flows (minimum flows). Average minimum flows increased around 1970 at many streamflow-gaging stations in West Virginia. Before 1930, however, there might have been a period of minimum flows greater than any period identified between 1930 and 2002. The effects of climate variability are probably the principal causes of the differences among the five time periods. Comparisons of selected streamflow statistics are made between values computed for the five identified time periods and values computed for the 1930-2002 interval for 15 streamflow-gaging stations. The average difference between statistics computed for the five time periods and the 1930-2002 interval decreases with increasing magnitude of the low-flow statistic. The greatest individual-station absolute difference was 582.5 percent greater for the 7-day 10-year low flow computed for 1970-1979 compared to the value computed for 1930-2002. The hydrologically based low flows indicate approximately equal or smaller absolute differences than biologically based low flows. The average 1-day 3-year biologically based low flow (1B3) and 4-day 3-year biologically based low flow (4B3) are less than the average 1-day 10-year hydrologically based low flow (1Q10) and 7-day 10-year hydrologic-based low flow (7Q10) respectively, and range between 28.5 percent less and 13.6 percent greater. Seasonally, the average difference between low-flow statistics computed for the five time periods and 1930-2002 is not consistent between magnitudes of low-flow statistics, and the greatest difference is for the summer (July 1-September 30) and fall (October 1-December 31) for the same time period as the greatest difference determined in the annual analysis. The greatest average difference between 1B3 and 4B3 compared to 1Q10 and 7Q10, respectively, is in the spring (April 1-June 30), ranging between 11.6 and 102.3 percent

  12. Revised genomic consensus for the hypermethylated CpG island region of the human L1 transposon and integration sites of full length L1 elements from recombinant clones made using methylation-tolerant host strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crowther, P J; Doherty, J P; Linsenmeyer, M E

    1991-01-01

    preferentially from L1 members which have accumulated mutations that have removed sites of methylation. We present a revised consensus from the 5' presumptive control region of these elements. This revised consensus contains a consensus RNA polymerase III promoter which would permit the synthesis of transcripts......Efficient recovery of clones from the 5' end of the human L1 dispersed repetitive elements necessitates the use of deletion mcr- host strains since this region contains a CpG island which is hypermethylated in vivo. Clones recovered with conventional mcr+ hosts seem to have been derived...... from the 5' end of full length L1 elements. Such potential transcripts are likely to exhibit a high degree of secondary structure. In addition, we have determined the flanking sequences for 6 full length L1 elements. The majority of full length L1 clones show no convincing evidence for target site...

  13. Strain Measurement during Stress Rupture of Composite Over-Wrapped Pressure Vessel with Fiber Bragg Gratings Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Curtis E.; Grant, Joseph; Russell, Sam; Arnett, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    Fiber optic Bragg gratings were used to measure strain fields during Stress Rupture (SSM) test of Kevlar Composite Over-Wrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV). The sensors were embedded under the over-wrapped attached to the liner released from the Kevlar and attached to the Kevlar released from the liner. Additional sensors (foil gages and fiber bragg gratings) were surface mounted on the COPY liner.

  14. Strain Induced Adatom Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Kappus, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    A Born-Green-Yvon type model for adatom density correlations is combined with a model for adatom interactions mediated by the strain in elastic anisotropic substrates. The resulting nonlinear integral equation is solved numerically for coverages from zero to a limit given by stability constraints. W, Nb, Ta and Au surfaces are taken as examples to show the effects of different elastic anisotropy regions. Results of the calculation are shown by appropriate plots and discussed. A mapping to sup...

  15. Distinct GAGE and MAGE-A expression during early human development indicate specific roles in lineage differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten; Harkness, Linda; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Expression of cancer/testis-associated proteins (CTAs) has traditionally been considered to be restricted to germ cells in normal tissues and to different types of malignancies. We have evaluated the potential role of CTAs in early human development. METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry...... and RT-PCR, we investigated the expression of CTAs in differentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and in late embryos and early fetuses. RESULTS: We found that melanoma antigen A (MAGE-A) family members were expressed during differentiation of hESC to embryoid bodies and in teratomas, and overlapped...... with expression of the neuroectodermal markers beta-tubulin 3, Pax6 and nestin. A widespread expression of MAGE-A was also observed in neurons of the early developing central nervous system and peripheral nerves. G antigen (GAGE) expression was present in the early ectoderm of embryos, including cells...

  16. Footprints of phineas gage: Historical beginnings on the origins of brain and behavior and the birth of cerebral localizationism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskara P Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The intellectual revolution led by ancient Greek philosophers and physicians witnessed the extraordinary evolution of the birth of neuroscience from speculations of cardiocentrism (Aristotelism and encephalocentrism (Galenism. Later further development of neurosciences was hallmarked by the development of anatomic theories of phrenology by the German physician Franz Joseph Gall in 1796. Although phrenology was a pseudoscience, it was Gall who laid the foundations for the subsequent biologically based doctrine of brain behavior localization. The amazing story of Phineas Gage is a classic case in the nineteenth-century neurosciences literature that played a pivotal role in the concept of cerebral localizationism, a theory that moved beyond phrenology. This iconic case marked the historical beginnings of brain origins of human behavior and elucidated a link between brain trauma, prefrontal brain damage and personality change.

  17. Influence of the Testing Gage Length on the Strength, Young's Modulus and Weibull Modulus of Carbon Fibres and Glass Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Pardini

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fibres and glass fibres are reinforcements for advanced composites and the fiber strength is the most influential factor on the strength of the composites. They are essentially brittle and fail with very little reduction in cross section. Composites made with these fibres are characterized by a high strength/density ratio and their properties are intrisically related to their microstructure, i.e., amount and orientation of the fibres, surface treatment, among other factors. Processing parameters have an important role in the fibre mechanical behaviour (strength and modulus. Cracks, voids and impurities in the case of glass fibres and fibrillar misalignments in the case of carbon fibres are created during processing. Such inhomogeneities give rise to an appreciable scatter in properties. The most used statistical tool that deals with this characteristic variability in properties is the Weibull distribution. The present work investigates the influence of the testing gage length on the strength, Young's modulus and Weibull modulus of carbon fibres and glass fibres. The Young's modulus is calculated by two methods: (i ASTM D 3379M, and (ii interaction between testing equipment/specimen The first method resulted in a Young modulus of 183 GPa for carbon fibre, and 76 GPa for glass fibre. The second method gave a Young modulus of 250 GPa for carbon fibre and 50 GPa for glass fibre. These differences revelead differences on how the interaction specimen/testing machine can interfere in the Young modulus calculations. Weibull modulus can be a tool to evaluate the fibre's homogeneity in terms of properties and it is a good quality control parameter during processing. In the range of specimen gage length tested the Weibull modulus for carbon fibre is ~ 3.30 and for glass fibres is ~ 5.65, which indicates that for the batch of fibres tested, the glass fibre is more uniform in properties.

  18. Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Are Nearly Identical to Class I Genital Ulcer Strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharanesh Gangaiah

    Full Text Available Although cutaneous ulcers (CU in the tropics is frequently attributed to Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue, the causative agent of yaws, Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of CU in yaws-endemic regions of the South Pacific islands and Africa. H. ducreyi is generally susceptible to macrolides, but CU strains persist after mass drug administration of azithromycin for yaws or trachoma. H. ducreyi also causes genital ulcers (GU and was thought to be exclusively transmitted by microabrasions that occur during sex. In human volunteers, the GU strain 35000HP does not infect intact skin; wounds are required to initiate infection. These data led to several questions: Are CU strains a new variant of H. ducreyi or did they evolve from GU strains? Do CU strains contain additional genes that could allow them to infect intact skin? Are CU strains susceptible to azithromycin?To address these questions, we performed whole-genome sequencing and antibiotic susceptibility testing of 5 CU strains obtained from Samoa and Vanuatu and 9 archived class I and class II GU strains. Except for single nucleotide polymorphisms, the CU strains were genetically almost identical to the class I strain 35000HP and had no additional genetic content. Phylogenetic analysis showed that class I and class II strains formed two separate clusters and CU strains evolved from class I strains. Class I strains diverged from class II strains ~1.95 million years ago (mya and CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP ~0.18 mya. CU and GU strains evolved under similar selection pressures. Like 35000HP, the CU strains were highly susceptible to antibiotics, including azithromycin.These data suggest that CU strains are derivatives of class I strains that were not recognized until recently. These findings require confirmation by analysis of CU strains from other regions.

  19. Meningococcal serogroup B strain coverage of the multicomponent 4CMenB vaccine with corresponding regional distribution and clinical characteristics in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, 2007-08 and 2014-15: a qualitative and quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Sydel R; Newbold, Lynne; Slater, Stephanie; Stella, Maria; Moschioni, Monica; Lucidarme, Jay; De Paola, Rosita; Giuliani, Maria; Serino, Laura; Gray, Stephen J; Clark, Stephen A; Findlow, Jamie; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Ramsay, Mary E; Ladhani, Shamez N; Borrow, Ray

    2017-07-01

    The UK introduced 4CMenB-a multicomponent vaccine against serogroup B meningococcal disease-into the national infant immunisation programme in September, 2015. The Meningococcal Antigen Typing System (MATS) was used to estimate coverage by 4CMenB of invasive meningococcal group B isolates obtained during 2007-08 in England and Wales (MATS coverage). We aimed to repeat the MATS survey for invasive meningococcal group B isolates obtained during 2014-15, before 4CMenB introduction; compare strain coverage between 2007-08 and 2014-15; and investigate associations between MATS coverage, age, region, and disease outcomes. Invasive serogroup B meningococcal isolates from cases in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland during 2014-15 were assayed using MATS and compared with 2007-08 data. MATS coverage was assessed by geographical region and age group. Clinical characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes were assessed according to MATS coverage for 2014-15 English cases. In 2014-15, 165 of 251 (66%; 95% CI 52-80) meningococcal group B isolates were estimated by MATS to be covered by 4CMenB, compared with 391 of 535 (73%; 95% CI 57-87) in 2007-08. The proportion of MATS-positive isolates with one vaccine antigen increased from 23% (122 of 535) in 2007-08 to 31% (78 of 251) in 2014-15, whereas the proportion with more than one antigen fell from 50% (269 of 535) to 35% (87 of 251). This effect reflected changes in circulating strains, particularly ST-269 clonal complex strains. MATS coverage increased with age, varied by geographical region, and was associated with more severe disease. In 2014-15, two-thirds of meningococcal group B isolates were predicted to be covered by 4CMenB. Temporal changes in MATS coverage underscore the need for continued monitoring of antigen expression and diversity, particularly in countries with 4CMenB programmes. Public Health England, GlaxoSmithKline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of a single siRNA against a conserved region of NP gene strongly inhibits in vitro replication of different Influenza A virus strains of avian and swine origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppani, Elena; Bassi, Ivan; Dotti, Silvia; Lizier, Michela; Ferrari, Maura; Lucchini, Franco

    2015-08-01

    Influenza A virus is the principal agent responsible of the respiratory tract's infections in humans. Every year, highly pathogenic and infectious strains with new antigenic assets appear, making ineffective vaccines so far developed. The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) opened the way to the progress of new promising drugs against Influenza A virus and also to the introduction of disease resistance traits in genetically modified animals. In this paper, we show that Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) cassette, designed on a specific conserved region of the nucleoprotein (NP) viral genome, can strongly inhibit the viral replication of four viral strains sharing the target sequence, reducing the viral mRNA respectively to 2.5×10(-4), 7.5×10(-5), 1.7×10(-3), 1.9×10(-4) compared to the control, as assessed by real-time PCR. Moreover, we demonstrate that during the challenge with a viral strain bearing a single mismatch on the target sequence, although a weaker inhibition is observed, viral mRNA is still lowered down to 1.2×10(-3) folds in the shRNA-expressing clone compared to the control, indicating a broad potential use of this approach. In addition, we developed a highly predictive and fast screening test of siRNA sequences based on dual-luciferase assay, useful for the in vitro prediction of the potential effect of viral inhibition. In conclusion, these findings reveal new siRNA sequences able to inhibit Influenza A virus replication and provide a basis for the development of siRNAs as prophylaxis and therapy for influenza infection both in humans and animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Guidelines for using sensitivity analysis and auto-calibration tools for multi-gage or multi-step calibration in SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autocalibration of a water quality model such as SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) can be a powerful, labor-saving tool. When multi-gage or multi-pollutant calibration is desired, autocalibration is essential because the time involved in manual calibration becomes prohibitive. The ArcSWAT Interf...

  2. Streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana: Chapter E in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2016-04-05

    Chapter E of this Scientific Investigations Report documents results from a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality and the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, to provide an update of statewide streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana. Streamflow characteristics are presented for 408 streamflow-gaging stations in Montana and adjacent areas having 10 or more years of record. Data include the magnitude and probability of annual low and high streamflow, the magnitude and probability of low streamflow for three seasons (March–June, July–October, and November–February), streamflow duration statistics for monthly and annual periods, and mean streamflows for monthly and annual periods. Streamflow is considered to be regulated at streamflow-gaging stations where dams or other large-scale human modifications affect 20 percent or more of the contributing drainage basin. Separate streamflow characteristics are presented for the unregulated and regulated periods of record for streamflow-gaging stations with sufficient data.

  3. CalA, a Cyanobacterial AbrB Protein, Interacts with the Upstream Region of hypC and Acts as a Repressor of Its Transcription in the Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. Strain PCC 7120▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agervald, Åsa; Zhang, Xiaohui; Stensjö, Karin; Devine, Ellenor; Lindblad, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The filamentous, heterocystous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 may contain, depending on growth conditions, up to two hydrogenases directly involved in hydrogen metabolism. HypC is one out of at least seven auxiliary gene products required for synthesis of a functional hydrogenase, specifically involved in the maturation of the large subunit. In this study we present a protein, CalA (Alr0946 in the genome), belonging to the transcription regulator family AbrB, which in protein-DNA assays was found to interact with the upstream region of hypC. Transcriptional investigations showed that calA is cotranscribed with the downstream gene alr0947, which encodes a putative protease from the abortive infection superfamily, Abi. CalA was shown to interact specifically not only with the upstream region of hypC but also with its own upstream region, acting as a repressor on hypC. The bidirectional hydrogenase activity was significantly downregulated when CalA was overexpressed, demonstrating a correlation with the transcription factor, either direct or indirect. In silico studies showed that homologues to both CalA and Alr0947 are highly conserved proteins within cyanobacteria with very similar physical organizations of the corresponding structural genes. Possible functions of the cotranscribed downstream protein Alr0947 are presented. In addition, we present a three-dimensional (3D) model of the DNA binding domain of CalA and putative DNA binding mechanisms are discussed. PMID:20023111

  4. Film-based Sensors with Piezoresistive Molecular Conductors as Active Components Strain Damage and Thermal Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Laukhina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is addressed to the development of flexible all-organic bi layer (BL film-based sensors being capable of measuring strain as a well-defined electrical signal in a wide range of elongations and temperature. The purpose was achieved by covering polycarbonate films with the polycrystalline layer of a high piezoresistive organic molecular conductor. To determine restrictions for sensor applications, the effect of monoaxial strain on the resistance and texture of the sensing layers of BL films was studied. The experiments have shown that the maximum strain before fracture is about 1 %. A thermal regeneration of the sensing layer of the BL film-based sensors that were damaged by cyclic load is also described. These sensors are able to take the place of conventional metal-based strain and pressure gages in low cost innovative controlling and monitoring technologies.

  5. Strain Dependence of Photoluminescense of Individual Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Pavel N.; Leeuw, Tonya K.; Tsyboulski, Dmitri A.; Bachilo, Sergei M.; Weisman, Bruce; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated strain dependence of photoluminescense (PL) spectra of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Nanotubes were sparsely dispersed in a thin PMMA film applied to acrylic bar, and strained in both compression and extension by bending this bar in either direction in a homebuilt four-point bending rig. The average surface strain was measured with high accuracy by a resistive strain gage applied on top of the film. The near infrared imaging and spectroscopy were performed on the inverted microscope equipped with high numerical aperture reflective objective lens and InGaAs CCD cameras. PL was excited with a diode laser at either 658, 730 or 785 nm, linearly polarized in the direction of the strain. We were able to measure (n,m) types and orientation of individual nanotubes with respect to strain direction and strain dependence of their PL maxima. It was found that PL peak shifts with respect to the values measured in SDS micelles are a sum of three components. First, a small environmental shift due to difference in the dielectric constant of the surrounding media, that is constant and independent of the nanotube type. Second, shift due to isotropic compression of the film during drying. Third, shifts produced by the uniaxial loading of the film in the experiment. Second and third shifts follow expression based on the first-order expansion of the TB hamiltonian. Their magnitude is proportional to the nanotube chiral angle and strain, and direction is determined by the nanotube quantum number. PL strain dependence measured for a number of various nanotube types allows to estimate TB carbon-carbon transfer integral.

  6. Loss of genetic variability in a hatchery strain of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis revealed by sequence data of the mitochondrial DNA control region and microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sánchez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons of the levels of genetic variation within and between a hatchery F1 (FAR, n=116 of Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, and its wild donor population (ATL, n = 26, both native to the SW Atlantic coast of the Iberian peninsula, as well as between the wild donor population and a wild western Mediterranean sample (MED, n=18, were carried out by characterizing 412 base pairs of the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial DNA control region I, and six polymorphic microsatellite loci. FAR showed a substantial loss of genetic variability (haplotypic diversity, h=0.49±0.066; nucleotide diversity, π=0.006±0.004; private allelic richness, pAg=0.28 to its donor population ATL (h=0.69±0.114; π=0.009±0.006; pAg=1.21. Pairwise FST values of microsatellite data were highly significant (P < 0.0001 between FAR and ATL (0.053 and FAR and MED (0.055. The comparison of wild samples revealed higher values of genetic variability in MED than in ATL, but only with mtDNA CR-I sequence data (h=0.948±0.033; π=0.030±0.016. However, pairwise ΦST and FST values between ATL and MED were highly significant (P < 0.0001 with mtDNA CR-I (0.228 and with microsatellite data (0.095, respectively. While loss of genetic variability in FAR could be associated with the sampling error when the broodstock was established, the results of parental and sibship inference suggest that most of these losses can be attributed to a high variance in reproductive success among members of the broodstock, particularly among females.

  7. Strain induced adatom correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Wolfgang

    2012-12-01

    A Born-Green-Yvon type model for adatom density correlations is combined with a model for adatom interactions mediated by the strain in elastic anisotropic substrates. The resulting nonlinear integral equation is solved numerically for coverages from zero to a limit given by stability constraints. W, Nb, Ta and Au surfaces are taken as examples to show the effects of different elastic anisotropy regions. Results of the calculation are shown by appropriate plots and discussed. A mapping to superstructures is tried. Corresponding adatom configurations from Monte Carlo simulations are shown.

  8. Strain measurements by fiber Bragg grating sensors for in situ pile loading tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia; Straub, Tilmann; Naumann, Marcel; Borm, Günter; Lauerer, Robert; Beck, Christoph; Schwarz, Wolfgang

    2003-07-01

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network has been installed into a large diameter concrete pile on a real construction site. The intention was to monitor its deformation behavior during several quasi-static loading cycles. The skin friction between pile and subsoil affecting the ultimate bearing capacity of the pile as well as the settlement behavior of the structure under investigation has been derived from our measurements. A comparison between the results of the fiber Bragg grating sensors and conventional concrete strain gages (CSG) has shown excellent correspondence.

  9. Quantification of Internal Stress-Strain Fields in Human Tendon: Unraveling the Mechanisms that Underlie Regional Tendon Adaptations and Mal-Adaptations to Mechanical Loading and the Effectiveness of Therapeutic Eccentric Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganaris, Constantinos N.; Chatzistergos, Panagiotis; Reeves, Neil D.; Narici, Marco V.

    2017-01-01

    of the stress created by the exercise and is not only reliant upon the type of muscle contraction performed. To better understand the micromechanical behavior and regional adaptability/mal-adaptability of tendon tissue it is important to estimate its internal stress-strain fields. Recent relevant advancements in numerical techniques related to tendon loading are discussed. PMID:28293194

  10. Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from stray dog and coyote feces in a major leafy greens production region at the United States-Mexico border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele T Jay-Russell

    Full Text Available In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010-2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6% dog and 5 (4.9% coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2% dog and 33 (32% coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2% of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1% of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the

  11. Serological evaluation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in humans with high-risk professions living in enzootic regions of Isfahan province of Iran and genetic analysis of circulating strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinikar, Sadegh; Ghiasi, Seyed M; Naddaf, Saeed; Piazak, Norair; Moradi, Maryam; Razavi, Mohammad R; Afzali, Neda; Haeri, Ali; Mostafavizadeh, Kamyar; Ataei, Behrouz; Khalilifard-Brojeni, Mohammad; Husseini, Sayed M; Bouloy, Michele

    2012-09-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic viral disease that is asymptomatic in infected livestock, but causes a serious threat to humans with a mortality rate up to 50%. Although the CCHF virus (CCHFV) is often transmitted by ticks, livestock-to-human and human-to-human transmission also occurs. In the current study, we focused on CCHF in the province of Isfahan, located in the center of Iran and deemed to be the second most infected province. Human and livestock sera and resident ticks in the livestock are collected from different regions of the province and analyzed with specific IgG ELISA and RT-PCR tests. Overall, 12% and 12.7% of studied human and livestock populations were IgG positive, respectively. The genome of CCHFV was detected in 9% of ticks resident in livestock involved in this survey. The CCHFV isolates from infected ticks were genetically examined. Nucleotide sequence of the S-segment revealed that the different isolates were closely related to each other, with nucleotide sequence identities higher than 98%. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that a variant isolate clustered with the Iraq strain. This high proportion of IgG-positive sera and nearly high proportion of infected ticks increases the risk of CCHF outbreaks in the province and probably posits a great danger to other provinces.

  12. Factors affecting finite strain estimation in low-grade, low-strain clastic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Galán, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Alonso, Gabriel; Meere, Patrick A.; Mulchrone, Kieran F.

    2009-12-01

    The computer strain analysis methods SAPE, MRL and DTNNM have permitted the characterization of finite strain in two different regions with contrasting geodynamic scenarios; (1) the Talas Ala Tau (Tien Shan, Kyrgyzs Republic) and (2) the Somiedo Nappe and Narcea Antiform (Cantabrian to West Asturian-Leonese Zone boundary, Variscan Belt, NW of Iberia). The performed analyses have revealed low-strain values and the regional strain trend in both studied areas. This study also investigates the relationship between lithology (grain size and percentage of matrix) and strain estimates the two methodologies used. The results show that these methods are comparable and the absence of significant finite strain lithological control in rocks deformed under low metamorphic and low-strain conditions.

  13. Analysis of a new strain of Euphorbia mosaic virus with distinct replication specificity unveils a lineage of begomoviruses with short Rep sequences in the DNA-B intergenic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argüello-Astorga Gerardo R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Euphorbia mosaic virus (EuMV is a member of the SLCV clade, a lineage of New World begomoviruses that display distinctive features in their replication-associated protein (Rep and virion-strand replication origin. The first entirely characterized EuMV isolate is native from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; subsequently, EuMV was detected in weeds and pepper plants from another region of Mexico, and partial DNA-A sequences revealed significant differences in their putative replication specificity determinants with respect to EuMV-YP. This study was aimed to investigate the replication compatibility between two EuMV isolates from the same country. Results A new isolate of EuMV was obtained from pepper plants collected at Jalisco, Mexico. Full-length clones of both genomic components of EuMV-Jal were biolistically inoculated into plants of three different species, which developed symptoms indistinguishable from those induced by EuMV-YP. Pseudorecombination experiments with EuMV-Jal and EuMV-YP genomic components demonstrated that these viruses do not form infectious reassortants in Nicotiana benthamiana, presumably because of Rep-iteron incompatibility. Sequence analysis of the EuMV-Jal DNA-B intergenic region (IR led to the unexpected discovery of a 35-nt-long sequence that is identical to a segment of the rep gene in the cognate viral DNA-A. Similar short rep sequences ranging from 35- to 51-nt in length were identified in all EuMV isolates and in three distinct viruses from South America related to EuMV. These short rep sequences in the DNA-B IR are positioned downstream to a ~160-nt non-coding domain highly similar to the CP promoter of begomoviruses belonging to the SLCV clade. Conclusions EuMV strains are not compatible in replication, indicating that this begomovirus species probably is not a replicating lineage in nature. The genomic analysis of EuMV-Jal led to the discovery of a subgroup of SLCV clade viruses that contain in

  14. Expression of the marA, soxS, acrB and ramA genes related to the AcrAB/TolC efflux pump in Salmonella entérica strains with and without quinolone resistance-determining regions gyrA gene mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Gomes Ferrari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted in recent years to elucidate the structure, function and significance of AcrB, MarA, SoxS and RamA in Salmonella enterica. In this study, the relative quantification of acrB, soxS, marA and ramA genes expression was evaluated in 14 strains of S. enterica, with or without accompanying mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA gene, that were exposed to ciprofloxacin during the exponential growth phase. The presence of ciprofloxacin during the log phase of bacterial growth activated the genes marA, soxS, ramA and acrB in all S. enterica strains analyzed in this study. The highest expression levels for acrB were observed in strains with gyrA mutation, and marA showed the highest expression in the strains without mutation. Considering only the strains with ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration values 0.125 [1]g/mL (low susceptibility, with and without mutations in gyrA, the most expressed gene was marA. In this study, we observed that strains resistant to nalidixic acid may express genes associated with the efflux pump and the expression of the AcrAB-TolC pump genes seems to occur independently of mutations in gyrA.

  15. Expression of the marA, soxS, acrB and ramA genes related to the AcrAB/TolC efflux pump in Salmonella entérica strains with and without quinolone resistance-determining regions gyrA gene mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Gomes Ferrari

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted in recent years to elucidate the structure, function and significance of AcrB, MarA, SoxS and RamA in Salmonella enterica. In this study, the relative quantification of acrB, soxS, marA and ramA genes expression was evaluated in 14 strains of S. enterica, with or without accompanying mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA gene, that were exposed to ciprofloxacin during the exponential growth phase. The presence of ciprofloxacin during the log phase of bacterial growth activated the genes marA, soxS, ramA and acrB in all S. enterica strains analyzed in this study. The highest expression levels for acrB were observed in strains with gyrA mutation, and marA showed the highest expression in the strains without mutation. Considering only the strains with ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration values 0.125 [1]g/mL (low susceptibility, with and without mutations in gyrA, the most expressed gene was marA. In this study, we observed that strains resistant to nalidixic acid may express genes associated with the efflux pump and the expression of the AcrAB-TolC pump genes seems to occur independently of mutations in gyrA.

  16. Development of a fiber optic pavement subgrade strain measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Craig Emerson

    2000-11-01

    This dissertation describes the development of a fiber optic sensing system to measure strains within the soil subgrade of highway pavements resulting from traffic loads. The motivation to develop such a device include improvements to: (1)all phases of pavement design, (2)theoretical models used to predict pavement performance, and (3)pavement rehabilitation. The design of the sensing system encompasses selecting an appropriate transducer design as well as the development of optimal optical and demodulation systems. The first is spring based, which attempts to match its spring stiffness to that of the soil-data indicate it is not an optimal transducer design. The second transducer implements anchoring plates attached to two telescoping tubes which allows the soil to be compacted to a desired density between the plates to dictate the transducer's behavior. Both transducers include an extrinsic Fabry- Perot cavity to impose the soil strains onto a phase change of the optical signal propagating through the cavity. The optical system includes a low coherence source and allows phase modulation via path length stretching by adding a second interferometer in series with the transducer, resulting in a path matched differential interferometer. A digitally implemented synthetic heterodyne demodulator based on a four step phase stepping algorithm is used to obtain unambiguous soil strain information from the displacement of the Fabry-Perot cavity. The demodulator is calibrated and characterized by illuminating the transducer with a second long coherence source of different wavelength. The transducer using anchoring plates is embedded within cylindrical soil specimens of varying soil types and soil moisture contents. Loads are applied to the specimen and resulting strains are measured using the embedded fiber optic gage and LVDTs attached to the surface of the specimen. This experimental verification is substantiated using a finite element analysis to predict any differences

  17. Development of advanced strain diagnostic techniques for reactor environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Darryn D.; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Miller, Timothy J.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Urrea, David Anthony,; Parma, Edward J.,

    2013-02-01

    The following research is operated as a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative at Sandia National Laboratories. The long-term goals of the program include sophisticated diagnostics of advanced fuels testing for nuclear reactors for the Department of Energy (DOE) Gen IV program, with the future capability to provide real-time measurement of strain in fuel rod cladding during operation in situ at any research or power reactor in the United States. By quantifying the stress and strain in fuel rods, it is possible to significantly improve fuel rod design, and consequently, to improve the performance and lifetime of the cladding. During the past year of this program, two sets of experiments were performed: small-scale tests to ensure reliability of the gages, and reactor pulse experiments involving the most viable samples in the Annulated Core Research Reactor (ACRR), located onsite at Sandia. Strain measurement techniques that can provide useful data in the extreme environment of a nuclear reactor core are needed to characterize nuclear fuel rods. This report documents the progression of solutions to this issue that were explored for feasibility in FY12 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.

  18. Using strain gauges to record the course of brown coal briquetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrzesinski, B.; Borelowski, M.; Piwowarczyk, T.

    1977-01-01

    Process of brown coal briquetting is described. It is noted that measuring energy absorbed by coal during coal pressing is one of the most popular methods of evaluating coal ability to be briquetted. A review of measuring apparatus is presented. An electric dynamometer is described. It consists of press chamber and two moving punches with plates made of electrode carbon. The electric dynamometer uses the principle that under influence of changing pressure electric conductivity of the carbon plates also varies. Construction of the dynamometer is shown. Using a piezoelectric sensor is a more modern solution. Deformation of the punch is transferred to the crystal of a piezoelectric sensor, when the sensor is deformed electric current flows and after being amplified it is recorded by an oscillograph as change in pressure during briquetting. A measuring system developed by the Stanislaw Staszic University of Mining and Metallurgy is described. Four electric resistance wire strain gages are located at various points of the punch. During pressing the metal punch is deformed and this deformation is registered by strain gages as change in current voltage. A block scheme of the measuring system is given. It is stressed that the apparatus measures energy absorbed by coal during briquetting with a maximum error of 2%. It is suggested that the system can be successfully used under industrial conditions. (6 refs.) (In Polish)

  19. Pseudomagnetic fields and triaxial strain in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomagnetic fields, which can result from nonuniform strain distributions, have received much attention in graphene systems due to the possibility of mimicking real magnetic fields with magnitudes of greater than 100 T. We examine systems with such strains confined to finite regions ("pseudoma......Pseudomagnetic fields, which can result from nonuniform strain distributions, have received much attention in graphene systems due to the possibility of mimicking real magnetic fields with magnitudes of greater than 100 T. We examine systems with such strains confined to finite regions......-binding calculations of single pseudomagnetic dots in extended graphene sheets confirm these predictions, and are also used to study the effect of rotating the strain direction with respect to the underlying graphene lattice, and varying the size of the pseudomagnetic dot....

  20. Regional Calibration of SCS-CN L-THIA Model: Application for Ungauged Basins

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Ji-Hong; Lim, Kyoung; Engel, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Estimating surface runoff for ungauged watershed is an important issue. The Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) method developed from long-term experimental data is widely used to estimate surface runoff from gaged or ungauged watersheds. Many modelers have used the documented SCS-CN parameters without calibration, sometimes resulting in significant errors in estimating surface runoff. Several methods for regionalization of SCS-CN parameters were evaluated. The regionalization met...

  1. Decadal GPS Time Series and Velocity Fields Spanning the North American Continent and Beyond: New Data Products, Cyberinfrastructure and Case Studies from the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Other Regional Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D. A.; Herring, T.; Melbourne, T. I.; Murray, M. H.; Szeliga, W. M.; Floyd, M.; Puskas, C. M.; King, R. W.; Boler, F. M.; Meertens, C. M.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope (GAGE) Facility, operated by UNAVCO, provides a diverse suite of geodetic data, derived products and cyberinfrastructure services to support community Earth science research and education. GPS data and products including decadal station position time series and velocities are provided for 2000+ continuous GPS stations from the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and other networks distributed throughout the high Arctic, North America, and Caribbean regions. The position time series contain a multitude of signals in addition to the secular motions, including coseismic and postseismic displacements, interseismic strain accumulation, and transient signals associated with hydrologic and other processes. We present our latest velocity field solutions, new time series offset estimate products, and new time series examples associated with various phenomena. Position time series, and the signals they contain, are inherently dependent upon analysis parameters such as network scaling and reference frame realization. The estimation of scale changes for example, a common practice, has large impacts on vertical motion estimates. GAGE/PBO velocities and time series are currently provided in IGS (IGb08) and North America (NAM08, IGb08 rotated to a fixed North America Plate) reference frames. We are reprocessing all data (1996 to present) as part of the transition from IGb08 to IGS14 that began in 2017. New NAM14 and IGS14 data products are discussed. GAGE/PBO GPS data products are currently generated using onsite computing clusters. As part of an NSF funded EarthCube Building Blocks project called "Deploying MultiFacility Cyberinfrastructure in Commercial and Private Cloud-based Systems (GeoSciCloud)", we are investigating performance, cost, and efficiency differences between local computing resources and cloud based resources. Test environments include a commercial cloud provider (Amazon/AWS), NSF cloud-like infrastructures within

  2. Optical gain tuning within IR region in type-II In0.5Ga0.5As0.8P0.2/GaAs0.5Sb0.5 nano-scale heterostructure under external uniaxial strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. K.; Rathi, Amit; Riyaj, Md.; Bhardwaj, Garima; Alvi, P. A.

    2017-11-01

    Quaternary and ternary alloy semiconductors offer an extra degree of flexibility in terms of bandgap tuning. Modifications in the wave functions and alterations in optical transitions in quaternary and ternary QW (quantum well) heterostructures due to external uniaxial strain provide valuable insights on the characteristics of the heterostructure. This paper reports the optical gain in strained InGaAsP/GaAsSb type-II QW heterostructure (well width = 20 Å) under external uniaxial strain at room temperature (300 K). The entire heterostructure is supposed to be grown on InP substrate pseudomorphically. Band structure, wave functions, energy dispersion and momentum matrix elements of the heterostructure have been computed. 6 × 6 diagonalised k → ·p → Hamiltonian matrix of the system is evaluated and Luttinger-Kohn model has been applied for the band structure and wavefunction calculations. TE mode optical gain spectrum in the QW-heterostructure under uniaxial strain along [110] is calculated. Optical gain of the heterostructure as a function of 2D carrier density and temperature variation is investigated. The variation of the peak optical gain as a function of As and Sb fractions in InGaAsP as a barrier and GaAsSb as a well respectively is exhibited. For a charge carrier injection of 5 ×1012 /cm2 , the TE optical gain is 3952 cm-1 at room temperature under no external uniaxial strain. Significant increase in TE mode optical gain is observed under high external uniaxial strain (1, 5 and 10 GPa) along [110] within IR (Infrared region) region.

  3. Standard test method for linear-elastic plane-strain fracture toughness KIc of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of fracture toughness (KIc) of metallic materials under predominantly linear-elastic, plane-strain conditions using fatigue precracked specimens having a thickness of 1.6 mm (0.063 in.) or greater subjected to slowly, or in special (elective) cases rapidly, increasing crack-displacement force. Details of test apparatus, specimen configuration, and experimental procedure are given in the Annexes. Note 1—Plane-strain fracture toughness tests of thinner materials that are sufficiently brittle (see 7.1) can be made using other types of specimens (1). There is no standard test method for such thin materials. 1.2 This test method is divided into two parts. The first part gives general recommendations and requirements for KIc testing. The second part consists of Annexes that give specific information on displacement gage and loading fixture design, special requirements for individual specimen configurations, and detailed procedures for fatigue precracking. Additional a...

  4. High Strain Rate Testing of Welded DOP-26 Iridium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneibel, J. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, R. G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carmichael, C. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fox, E. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ulrich, G. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); George, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The iridium alloy DOP-26 is used to produce Clad Vent Set cups that protect the radioactive fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) which provide electric power for spacecraft and rovers. In a previous study, the tensile properties of DOP-26 were measured over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures and reported in ORNL/TM-2007/81. While that study established the properties of the base material, the fabrication of the heat sources requires welding, and the mechanical properties of welded DOP-26 have not been extensively characterized in the past. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the mechanical properties of DOP-26 specimens containing a transverse weld in the center of their gage sections. Tensile tests were performed at room temperature, 750, 900, and 1090°C and engineering strain rates of 1×10-3 and 10 s-1. Room temperature testing was performed in air, while testing at elevated temperatures was performed in a vacuum better than 1×10-4 Torr. The welded specimens had a significantly higher yield stress, by up to a factor of ~2, than the non-welded base material. The yield stress did not depend on the strain rate except at 1090°C, where it was slightly higher for the faster strain rate. The ultimate tensile stress, on the other hand, was significantly higher for the faster strain rate at temperatures of 750°C and above. At 750°C and above, the specimens deformed at 1×10-3 s-1 showed pronounced necking resulting sometimes in perfect chisel-edge fracture. The specimens deformed at 10 s-1 exhibited this fracture behavior only at the highest test temperature, 1090°C. Fracture occurred usually in the fusion zone of the weld and was, in most cases, primarily intergranular.

  5. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  6. Strain-Modulated Epitaxy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, April

    1999-01-01

    Strain-Modulated Epitaxy (SME) is a novel approach, invented at Georgia Tech, to utilize subsurface stressors to control strain and therefore material properties and growth kinetics in the material above the stressors...

  7. Hamstring strain - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulled hamstring muscle; Sprain - hamstring ... There are 3 levels of hamstring strains: Grade 1 -- mild muscle strain or pull Grade 2 -- partial muscle tear Grade 3 -- complete muscle tear Recovery time depends ...

  8. Variation in the strain anisotropy of Zircaloy with temperature and strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.; Worswick, D.

    1984-04-01

    Strain anisotropy was investigated at temperatures in the range 293 to 1117K in circular tensile specimens prepared from rolled Zircaloy-2 plate so that their tensile axes were parallel to and transverse to the rolling direction. The strain anisotropy factor for both types of specimen increased markedly in the high alpha phase region above 923K reaching a maximum at circa 1070K. Above this temperature in the alpha-plus-beta phase region the strain anisotropy decreased rapidly as the proportion of beta phase increased and was almost non-existent at 1173K. The strain anisotropy was markedly strain dependent, particularly in the high alpha phase region. The study was extended to Zircaloy-4 pressurized water reactor (PWR) 17 x 17 type fuel rod tubing specimens which were strained under biaxial conditions using cooling conditions which promoted uniform diametral strain over most of their lengths (circa 250 mm). In these circumstances the strain anisotropy is manifest by a reduction in length. Measurement of this change along with that in diameter and wall thickness produced data from which the strain anisotropy factor was calculated. The results, although influenced by additional factors discussed in the paper, were similar to those observed in the uniaxial Zircaloy-2 tensile tests. (author)

  9. Microhardness, strength and strain field characterization of self-reacting friction stir and plug welds of dissimilar aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Karla Renee

    the nugget region with the samples that were PWHT showing an increase of 58%. The welded joints were tested for ultimate strength. The testing variations included two specimen widths, two plug sizes (M3 and M5), room temperature and cryogenic testing, and post weld heat treated (PWHT) samples. Initial welds had an average ultimate strength of 370 MPa. There was a slight drop from initial weld strength to plug weld strength of approximately 13.8 MPa was observed with M3 plug strength approximately equal to M5 plug strength. The PWHT strengths at room temperature were slightly higher than non-PWHT of 13.8--20.7 MPa and PWHT strengths were equal to non-PWHT at cryogenic temperature. Non-PWHT had a cryogenic strength enhancement approximately 59.2 MPa and PWHT had a cryogenic strength enhancement of approximately 57.2 MPa in the M3 and M5 plugs. Within the subsets of data collected no major statistical significance in strength behavior was observed between the samples tested at room temperature or between the subsets tested at LN2. In almost all cases, failure occurred on the retreating side of the weld which corresponds to the softer material (AA2219-T87). Exceptions were characterized with flaws (weld defects) in the sample. In these cases, failure occurred on the advancing side, the side where flaws were detected. Ductile fracture was noted in most all samples. Digital image correlation using the ARAMIS system was used to define strain patterns in the weld joint. Strain accumulation was observed in the weld along the retreating side and around the plug. ARAMIS data in comparison to extensometer data shows a very reasonable comparison. The ARAMIS strain gage data showed the retreating side of the major diameter has a greater yield than the advancing side. This behavior is identical to the external electrical resistance strain gages.

  10. Mobilomics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menconi, Giulia; Battaglia, Giovanni; Grossi, Roberto; Pisanti, Nadia; Marangoni, Roberto

    2013-03-20

    Mobile Genetic Elements (MGEs) are selfish DNA integrated in the genomes. Their detection is mainly based on consensus-like searches by scanning the investigated genome against the sequence of an already identified MGE. Mobilomics aims at discovering all the MGEs in a genome and understanding their dynamic behavior: The data for this kind of investigation can be provided by comparative genomics of closely related organisms. The amount of data thus involved requires a strong computational effort, which should be alleviated. Our approach proposes to exploit the high similarity among homologous chromosomes of different strains of the same species, following a progressive comparative genomics philosophy. We introduce a software tool based on our new fast algorithm, called regender, which is able to identify the conserved regions between chromosomes. Our case study is represented by a unique recently available dataset of 39 different strains of S.cerevisiae, which regender is able to compare in few minutes. By exploring the non-conserved regions, where MGEs are mainly retrotransposons called Tys, and marking the candidate Tys based on their length, we are able to locate a priori and automatically all the already known Tys and map all the putative Tys in all the strains. The remaining putative mobile elements (PMEs) emerging from this intra-specific comparison are sharp markers of inter-specific evolution: indeed, many events of non-conservation among different yeast strains correspond to PMEs. A clustering based on the presence/absence of the candidate Tys in the strains suggests an evolutionary interconnection that is very similar to classic phylogenetic trees based on SNPs analysis, even though it is computed without using phylogenetic information. The case study indicates that the proposed methodology brings two major advantages: (a) it does not require any template sequence for the wanted MGEs and (b) it can be applied to infer MGEs also for low coverage genomes

  11. Mobilomics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mobile Genetic Elements (MGEs) are selfish DNA integrated in the genomes. Their detection is mainly based on consensus–like searches by scanning the investigated genome against the sequence of an already identified MGE. Mobilomics aims at discovering all the MGEs in a genome and understanding their dynamic behavior: The data for this kind of investigation can be provided by comparative genomics of closely related organisms. The amount of data thus involved requires a strong computational effort, which should be alleviated. Results Our approach proposes to exploit the high similarity among homologous chromosomes of different strains of the same species, following a progressive comparative genomics philosophy. We introduce a software tool based on our new fast algorithm, called regender, which is able to identify the conserved regions between chromosomes. Our case study is represented by a unique recently available dataset of 39 different strains of S.cerevisiae, which regender is able to compare in few minutes. By exploring the non–conserved regions, where MGEs are mainly retrotransposons called Tys, and marking the candidate Tys based on their length, we are able to locate a priori and automatically all the already known Tys and map all the putative Tys in all the strains. The remaining putative mobile elements (PMEs) emerging from this intra–specific comparison are sharp markers of inter–specific evolution: indeed, many events of non–conservation among different yeast strains correspond to PMEs. A clustering based on the presence/absence of the candidate Tys in the strains suggests an evolutionary interconnection that is very similar to classic phylogenetic trees based on SNPs analysis, even though it is computed without using phylogenetic information. Conclusions The case study indicates that the proposed methodology brings two major advantages: (a) it does not require any template sequence for the wanted MGEs and (b) it can be applied to

  12. Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Diverged from Both Class I and Class II Genital Ulcer Strains: Implications for Epidemiological Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharanesh Gangaiah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of cutaneous ulcers (CU in yaws-endemic regions of the tropics in the South Pacific, South East Asia and Africa. H. ducreyi was once thought only to cause the genital ulcer (GU disease chancroid; GU strains belong to 2 distinct classes, class I and class II. Using whole-genome sequencing of 4 CU strains from Samoa, 1 from Vanuatu and 1 from Papua New Guinea, we showed that CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP and that one CU strain expressed β-lactamase. Recently, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released the genomes of 11 additional CU strains from Vanuatu and Ghana; however, the evolutionary relationship of these CU strains to previously-characterized CU and GU strains is unknown.We performed phylogenetic analysis of 17 CU and 10 GU strains. Class I and class II GU strains formed two distinct clades. The class I strains formed two subclades, one containing 35000HP and HD183 and the other containing the remainder of the class I strains. Twelve of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class I 35000HP subclade, while 2 CU strains formed a subclone under the other class I subclade. Unexpectedly, 3 of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class II clade. Phylogenetic analysis of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA sequences yielded a tree similar to that of whole-genome phylogenetic tree.CU strains diverged from multiple lineages within both class I and class II GU strains. Multilocus sequence typing of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA could be reliably used for epidemiological investigation of CU and GU strains. As class II strains grow relatively poorly and are relatively more susceptible to vancomycin than class I strains, these findings have implications for methods to recover CU strains. Comparison of contemporary CU and GU isolates would help clarify the relationship between these entities.

  13. Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Diverged from Both Class I and Class II Genital Ulcer Strains: Implications for Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Spinola, Stanley M

    2016-12-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of cutaneous ulcers (CU) in yaws-endemic regions of the tropics in the South Pacific, South East Asia and Africa. H. ducreyi was once thought only to cause the genital ulcer (GU) disease chancroid; GU strains belong to 2 distinct classes, class I and class II. Using whole-genome sequencing of 4 CU strains from Samoa, 1 from Vanuatu and 1 from Papua New Guinea, we showed that CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP and that one CU strain expressed β-lactamase. Recently, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released the genomes of 11 additional CU strains from Vanuatu and Ghana; however, the evolutionary relationship of these CU strains to previously-characterized CU and GU strains is unknown. We performed phylogenetic analysis of 17 CU and 10 GU strains. Class I and class II GU strains formed two distinct clades. The class I strains formed two subclades, one containing 35000HP and HD183 and the other containing the remainder of the class I strains. Twelve of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class I 35000HP subclade, while 2 CU strains formed a subclone under the other class I subclade. Unexpectedly, 3 of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class II clade. Phylogenetic analysis of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA sequences yielded a tree similar to that of whole-genome phylogenetic tree. CU strains diverged from multiple lineages within both class I and class II GU strains. Multilocus sequence typing of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA could be reliably used for epidemiological investigation of CU and GU strains. As class II strains grow relatively poorly and are relatively more susceptible to vancomycin than class I strains, these findings have implications for methods to recover CU strains. Comparison of contemporary CU and GU isolates would help clarify the relationship between these entities.

  14. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the strain gauge comprises two reinforcement members positioned on the carrier layer at opposite ends of the measurement grid in the axial direction....... The reinforcement members are each placed within a certain axial distance to the measurement grid with the axial distance being equal to or smaller than a factor times the grid spacing. The invention further relates to a multi-axial strain gauge such as a bi-axial strain gauge or a strain gauge rosette where each...... of the strain gauges comprises reinforcement members. The invention further relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  15. Characterization of high-strain rate mechanical behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy using 3D digital image correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanli; Xu, Hanbing; Erdman, Donald L.; Starbuck, Michael J.; Simunovic, Srdjan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Characterization of the material mechanical behavior at sub-Hopkinson regime (0.1 to 1 000 s{sup -1}) is very challenging due to instrumentation limitations and the complexity of data analysis involved in dynamic loading. In this study, AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet specimens are tested using a custom designed servo-hydraulic machine in tension at nominal strain rates up to 1 000 s{sup -1}. In order to resolve strain measurement artifacts, the specimen displacement is measured using 3D Digital Image correlation instead from actuator motion. The total strain is measured up to {approx} 30%, which is far beyond the measurable range of electric resistance strain gages. Stresses are calculated based on the elastic strains in the tab of a standard dog-bone shaped specimen. Using this technique, the stresses measured for strain rates of 100 s{sup -1} and lower show little or no noise comparing to load cell signals. When the strain rates are higher than 250 s{sup -1}, the noises and oscillations in the stress measurements are significantly decreased from {approx} 250 to 50 MPa. Overall, it is found that there are no significant differences in the elongation, although the material exhibits slight work hardening when the strain rate is increased from 1 to 100 s{sup -1}. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Average Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  17. Annual Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  18. Rat Strain Ontology: structured controlled vocabulary designed to facilitate access to strain data at RGD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Rajni; Munzenmaier, Diane H; Worthey, Elizabeth A; Dwinell, Melinda R; Shimoyama, Mary; Jacob, Howard J

    2013-11-22

    The Rat Genome Database (RGD) ( http://rgd.mcw.edu/) is the premier site for comprehensive data on the different strains of the laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus). The strain data are collected from various publications, direct submissions from individual researchers, and rat providers worldwide. Rat strain, substrain designation and nomenclature follow the Guidelines for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains, instituted by the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. While symbols and names aid in identifying strains correctly, the flat nature of this information prohibits easy search and retrieval, as well as other data mining functions. In order to improve these functionalities, particularly in ontology-based tools, the Rat Strain Ontology (RS) was developed. The Rat Strain Ontology (RS) reflects the breeding history, parental background, and genetic manipulation of rat strains. This controlled vocabulary organizes strains by type: inbred, outbred, chromosome altered, congenic, mutant and so on. In addition, under the chromosome altered category, strains are organized by chromosome, and further by type of manipulations, such as mutant or congenic. This allows users to easily retrieve strains of interest with modifications in specific genomic regions. The ontology was developed using the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontology (OBO) file format, and is organized on the Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) structure. Rat Strain Ontology IDs are included as part of the strain report (RS: ######). As rat researchers are often unaware of the number of substrains or altered strains within a breeding line, this vocabulary now provides an easy way to retrieve all substrains and accompanying information. Its usefulness is particularly evident in tools such as the PhenoMiner at RGD, where users can now easily retrieve phenotype measurement data for related strains, strains with similar backgrounds or those with similar introgressed regions. This

  19. Ductile Damage Evolution and Strain Path Dependency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasan, C. C.; Hoefnagels, J. M. P.; Peerlings, R. H. J.; Geers, M. G. D.; ten Horn, C. H. L. J.; Vegter, H.

    2007-01-01

    Forming limit diagrams are commonly used in sheet metal industry to define the safe forming regions. These diagrams are built to define the necking strains of sheet metals. However, with the rise in the popularity of advance high strength steels, ductile fracture through damage evolution has also emerged as an important parameter in the determination of limit strains. In this work, damage evolution in two different steels used in the automotive industry is examined to observe the relationship between damage evolution and the strain path that is followed during the forming operation

  20. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  1. Crowdsourcing Stream Stage in Data Scarce Regions: Applications of CrowdHydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, C.; Fienen, M. N.

    2013-12-01

    Crowdsourced data collection using citizen scientists and mobile phones is a promising way to collect supplemental information in data scarce or remote regions. The research presented here explore the possibilities and pitfalls of crowdsourcing hydrologic data via mobile phone text messaging through the example of CrowdHydrology, a distributed network of over 40 stream gages in four states. Signage at the CrowdHydrology gages ask citizen scientists to answer to a simple question via text message: 'What is the water height?'. While these data in no way replace more traditional measurements of stream stage, they do provide low cost supplemental measurements in data scarce regions. Results demonstrate the accuracy of crowdsourced data and provide insight for successful future crowdsourced data collection efforts. A less recognized benefit is that even in data rich areas, crowdsourced data collection is a cost-effective way to perform quality assurance on more sophisticated, and costly, data collection efforts.

  2. Strain measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 10 contributions are concerned with selected areas of application, such as strain measurements in wood, rubber/metal compounds, sets of strain measurements on buildings, reinforced concrete structures without gaps, pipes buried in the ground and measurements of pressure fluctuations. To increase the availability and safety of plant, stress analyses were made on gas turbine rotors with HT-DMS or capacitive HT-DMS (high temperature strain measurements). (DG) [de

  3. Strained Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf B. Wehrspohn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent progress in the field of strained silicon photonics is presented. The application of strain to waveguide and photonic crystal structures can be used to alter the linear and nonlinear optical properties of these devices. Here, methods for the fabrication of strained devices are summarized and recent examples of linear and nonlinear optical devices are discussed. Furthermore, the relation between strain and the enhancement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility is investigated, which may enable the construction of optically active photonic devices made of silicon.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of Hungarian goose parvovirus isolates and vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatár-Kis, Tímea; Mató, Tamás; Markos, Béla; Palya, Vilmos

    2004-08-01

    Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used to analyse goose parvovirus field isolates and vaccine strains. Two fragments of the genome were amplified. Fragment "A" represents a region of VP3 gene, while fragment "B" represents a region upstream of the VP3 gene, encompassing part of the VP1 gene. In the region of fragment "A" the deduced amino acid sequence of the strains was identical, therefore differentiation among strains could be done only at the nucleotide level, which resulted in the formation of three groups: Hungarian, West-European and Asian strains. In the region of fragment "B", separation of groups could be done by both nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence level. The nucleotide sequences resulted in the same groups as for fragment "A" but with a different clustering pattern among the Hungarian strains. Within the "Hungarian" group most of the recent field isolates fell into one cluster, very closely related or identical to each other, indicating a very slow evolutionary change. The attenuated strains and field isolates from 1979/80 formed a separate cluster. When vaccine strains and field isolates were compared, two specific amino acid differences were found that can be considered as possible markers for vaccinal strains. Sequence analysis of fragment "B" seems to be a suitable method for differentiation of attenuated vaccine strains from virulent strains. Copyright 2004 Houghton Trust Ltd

  5. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for selected streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North basin, North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Dressler, Valerie M.

    2002-01-01

    The quantity and quality of current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are concerns of people who reside within the basin. Additional water resources are needed because of recent growth in population, industry, and agriculture. How the management of current and future water-resources will impact water quality within the basin is a critical issue. Water-quality data, particularly for surface-water sources, will help water-resources managers make decisions about current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for 43 streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are presented in this report. Statistical summaries include sample size, maximum, minimum, mean, and values for the 95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, and 5th percentiles.

  6. Two BASIC computer programs for the determination of in situ stresses using the CSIRO hollow inclusion stress cell and the USBM borehole deformation gage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W.K.

    1982-01-01

    The mathematical method of determining in-situ stresses by overcoring, using either the U.S. Bureau of Mines Borehole Deformation Gage or the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Hollow Inclusion Stress Cell, is summarized, and data reduction programs for each type of instrument, written in BASIC, are presented. The BASIC programs offer several advantages over previously available FORTRAN programs. They can be executed on a desk-top microcomputer at or near the field site, allowing the investigator to assess the quality of the data and make decisions on the need for additional testing while the crew is still in the field. Also, data input is much simpler than with currently available FORTRAN programs; either English or SI units can be used; and standard deviations of the principal stresses are computed as well as those of the geographic components.

  7. Clonal study of avian Escherichia coli strains by fliC conserved-DNA-sequence regions analysis Estudo clonal de Escherichia coli aviário por análise de seqüências de DNA conservadas do gene fliC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Amabile de Campos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The clonal relationship among avian Escherichia coli strains and their genetic proximity with human pathogenic E. coli, Salmonela enterica, Yersinia enterocolitica and Proteus mirabilis, was determined by the DNA sequencing of the conserved 5' and 3'regions fliC gene (flagellin encoded gene. Among 30 commensal avian E. coli strains and 49 pathogenic avian E. coli strains (APEC, 24 commensal and 39 APEC strains harbored fliC gene with fragments size varying from 670bp to 1,900bp. The comparative analysis of these regions allowed the construction of a dendrogram of similarity possessing two main clusters: one compounded mainly by APEC strains and by H-antigens from human E. coli, and another one compounded by commensal avian E. coli strains, S. enterica, and by other H-antigens from human E. coli. Overall, this work demonstrated that fliC conserved regions may be associated with pathogenic clones of APEC strains, and also shows a great similarity among APEC and H-antigens of E. coli strains isolated from humans. These data, can add evidence that APEC strains can exhibit a zoonotic risk.A relação clonal entre linhagens de Escherichia coli de origem aviária e sua proximidade genética com E. coli patogênica para humanos, Salmonella enterica, Yersinia enterocolitica e Proteus mirabilis foi determinada através da utilização das seqüências conservadas 5' e 3' do gene fliC (responsável pela codificação da flagelina. Entre as 30 linhagens comensais de E. coli aviária e as 49 linhagens patogênicas de E. coli para aves (APEC, 24 linhagens comensais e 39 APEC apresentaram o gene fliC, que foi encontrado em tamanhos que variam de 670pb a 1900pb. Um dendrograma representando similaridade genética foi obtido a partir do seqüenciamento das regiões 5' e 3' conservadas do gene fliC das linhagens de E. coli de origem aviária, das seqüências dos antígenos H de E. coli de origem humana, de S. enterica, Y. enterocolitica e de P. mirabilis. A an

  8. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid (101) positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the measurement grid comprises a number of measurement grid sections placed side by side with gaps in between, and a number of end loops (106) interconnecting...... relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  9. Heat-flux gage measurements on a flat plate at a Mach number of 4.6 in the VSD high speed wind tunnel, a feasibility test (LA28). [wind tunnel tests of measuring instruments for boundary layer flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of employing thin-film heat-flux gages was studied as a method of defining boundary layer characteristics at supersonic speeds in a high speed blowdown wind tunnel. Flow visualization techniques (using oil) were employed. Tabulated data (computer printouts), a test facility description, and photographs of test equipment are given.

  10. Magnitude, frequency, and trends of floods at gaged and ungaged sites in Washington, based on data through water year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Tecca, Alison E.

    2016-09-20

    An investigation into the magnitude and frequency of floods in Washington State computed the annual exceedance probability (AEP) statistics for 648 U.S. Geological Survey unregulated streamgages in and near the borders of Washington using the recorded annual peak flows through water year 2014. This is an updated report from a previous report published in 1998 that used annual peak flows through the water year 1996. New in this report, a regional skew coefficient was developed for the Pacific Northwest region that includes areas in Oregon, Washington, Idaho and western Montana within the Columbia River drainage basin south of the United States-Canada border, the coastal areas of Oregon and western Washington, and watersheds draining into Puget Sound, Washington. The skew coefficient is an important term in the Log Pearson Type III equation used to define the distribution of the log-transformed annual peaks. The Expected Moments Algorithm was used to fit historical and censored peak-flow data to the log Pearson Type III distribution. A Multiple Grubb-Beck test was employed to censor low outliers of annual peak flows to improve on the frequency distribution. This investigation also includes a section on observed trends in annual peak flows that showed significant trends (p-value Multivariate regression analysis with measured basin characteristics and the AEP statistics at long-term, unregulated, and un-urbanized (defined as drainage basins with less than 5 percent impervious land cover for this investigation) streamgages within Washington and some in Idaho and Oregon that are near the Washington border was used to develop equations to estimate AEP statistics at ungaged basins. Washington was divided into four regions to improve the accuracy of the regression equations; a set of equations for eight selected AEPs and for each region were constructed. Selected AEP statistics included the annual peak flows that equaled or exceeded 50, 20, 10, 4, 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.2 percent

  11. Strain induced optical properties of BaReO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumavat, Sandip R.; Kansara, Shivam; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Sonvane, Yogesh

    2018-05-01

    Here, we have performed strain induce optical properties of BaReO3 by using density functional theory (DFT). We noticed that after applying intrinsic and extrinsic strain to the BaReO3, it shows the metallic behavior. We also studied optical properties, which show good activity in the ultraviolet region. The results show that after applying intrinsic and extrinsic strain to BaReO3 the absorption peaks are shifted towards the high UV region of the spectrum. Thus, we concluded that, BaReO3 material with extrinsic strain can be useful for high frequency UV device and optoelectronic devices.

  12. Strain characterization of FinFETs using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleli, B.; Hemert, T. van; Hueting, R.J.E.; Wolters, R.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Metal induced strain in the channel region of silicon (Si) fin-field effect transistor (FinFET) devices has been characterized using Raman spectroscopy. The strain originates from the difference in thermal expansion coefficient of Si and titanium-nitride. The Raman map of the device region is used to determine strain in the channel after preparing the device with the focused ion beam milling. Using the Raman peak shift relative to that of relaxed Si, compressive strain values up to – 0.88% have been obtained for a 5 nm wide silicon fin. The strain is found to increase with reducing fin width though it scales less than previously reported results from holographic interferometry. In addition, finite-element method (FEM) simulations have been utilized to analyze the amount of strain generated after thermal processing. It is shown that obtained FEM simulated strain values are in good agreement with the calculated strain values obtained from Raman spectroscopy. - Highlights: ► Strain is characterized in nanoscale devices with Raman spectroscopy. ► There is a fin width dependence of the originated strain. ► Strain levels obtained from this technique is in correlation with device simulations

  13. 3D printed high performance strain sensors for high temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Taibur; Moser, Russell; Zbib, Hussein M.; Ramana, C. V.; Panat, Rahul

    2018-01-01

    Realization of high temperature physical measurement sensors, which are needed in many of the current and emerging technologies, is challenging due to the degradation of their electrical stability by drift currents, material oxidation, thermal strain, and creep. In this paper, for the first time, we demonstrate that 3D printed sensors show a metamaterial-like behavior, resulting in superior performance such as high sensitivity, low thermal strain, and enhanced thermal stability. The sensors were fabricated using silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs), using an advanced Aerosol Jet based additive printing method followed by thermal sintering. The sensors were tested under cyclic strain up to a temperature of 500 °C and showed a gauge factor of 3.15 ± 0.086, which is about 57% higher than that of those available commercially. The sensor thermal strain was also an order of magnitude lower than that of commercial gages for operation up to a temperature of 500 °C. An analytical model was developed to account for the enhanced performance of such printed sensors based on enhanced lateral contraction of the NP films due to the porosity, a behavior akin to cellular metamaterials. The results demonstrate the potential of 3D printing technology as a pathway to realize highly stable and high-performance sensors for high temperature applications.

  14. Three-Axis Distributed Fiber Optic Strain Measurement in 3D Woven Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, Matt; Klute, Sandra; Lally, Evan M.; Froggatt, Mark E.; Lowry, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancements in composite materials technologies have broken further from traditional designs and require advanced instrumentation and analysis capabilities. Success or failure is highly dependent on design analysis and manufacturing processes. By monitoring smart structures throughout manufacturing and service life, residual and operational stresses can be assessed and structural integrity maintained. Composite smart structures can be manufactured by integrating fiber optic sensors into existing composite materials processes such as ply layup, filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. In this work optical fiber was integrated into 3D woven composite parts at a commercial woven products manufacturing facility. The fiber was then used to monitor the structures during a VARTM manufacturing process, and subsequent static and dynamic testing. Low cost telecommunications-grade optical fiber acts as the sensor using a high resolution commercial Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR) system providing distributed strain measurement at spatial resolutions as low as 2mm. Strain measurements using the optical fiber sensors are correlated to resistive strain gage measurements during static structural loading. Keywords: fiber optic, distributed strain sensing, Rayleigh scatter, optical frequency domain reflectometry

  15. STRAIN-CONTROLLED BIAXIAL TENSION OF NATURAL RUBBER: NEW EXPERIMENTAL DATA

    KAUST Repository

    Pancheri, Francesco Q.

    2014-03-01

    We present a new experimental method and provide data showing the response of 40A natural rubber in uniaxial, pure shear, and biaxial tension. Real-time biaxial strain control allows for independent and automatic variation of the velocity of extension and retraction of each actuator to maintain the preselected deformation rate within the gage area of the specimen. Wealso focus on the Valanis-Landel hypothesis that is used to verify and validate the consistency of the data.Weuse a threeterm Ogden model to derive stress-stretch relations to validate the experimental data. The material model parameters are determined using the primary loading path in uniaxial and equibiaxial tension. Excellent agreement is found when the model is used to predict the response in biaxial tension for different maximum in-plane stretches. The application of the Valanis-Landel hypothesis also results in excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction.

  16. Running Title: Strained Yoghurts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2012-09-27

    Sep 27, 2012 ... ever, the traditional method of producing strained yoghurt ... Food market studies have the essential function of providing ..... Communication No: 2001/21. ... fermented foods and beverages of Turkey. Crit. Rev. Food. Sci. Nutr.

  17. Effects of strain on Goos-Hänchen shifts of monolayer phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaihui; Cheng, Fang

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the Goos-Hänchen(GH) shift for ballistic electrons (i) reflected from a step-like inhomogeneity of strain, and (ii) transmitted through a monolayer phosphoresce junction consisting of a positive strained region and two normal regions (or a normal region and two negative strained regions). Refraction occurs at the interface between the unstrained/positive-strain(negative-strain/unstrained), in analogy with optical refraction. The critical angle is different for different strengths and directions of the strains. The critical angles for electrons tunneling through unstrained/positive-strain junction can even decrease to zero when the positive strain exceeds a critical value. For the monolayer phosphorene junction consisting of a positive strain region and two normal regions (or a normal region and two negative strain regions), we find that the GH shifts resonantly depends on the middle region width. The resonant values and the plus-minus sign of the displacement can be controlled by the incident angle, incident energy and the strain. These properties will be useful for the applications in phosphorene-based electronic devices.

  18. Ductile damage evolution and strain path dependency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tasan, C.C.; Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Peerlings, R.H.J.; Geers, M.G.D.; Horn, ten C.H.L.J.; Vegter, H.; Cueto, E.; Chinesta, F.

    2007-01-01

    Forming limit diagrams are commonly used in sheet metal industry to define the safe forming regions. These diagrams are built to define the necking strains of sheet metals. However, with the rise in the popularity of advance high strength steels, ductile fracture through damage evolution has also

  19. Flexible piezotronic strain sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Gu, Yudong; Fei, Peng; Mai, Wenjie; Gao, Yifan; Yang, Rusen; Bao, Gang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2008-09-01

    Strain sensors based on individual ZnO piezoelectric fine-wires (PFWs; nanowires, microwires) have been fabricated by a simple, reliable, and cost-effective technique. The electromechanical sensor device consists of a single electrically connected PFW that is placed on the outer surface of a flexible polystyrene (PS) substrate and bonded at its two ends. The entire device is fully packaged by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin layer. The PFW has Schottky contacts at its two ends but with distinctly different barrier heights. The I- V characteristic is highly sensitive to strain mainly due to the change in Schottky barrier height (SBH), which scales linear with strain. The change in SBH is suggested owing to the strain induced band structure change and piezoelectric effect. The experimental data can be well-described by the thermionic emission-diffusion model. A gauge factor of as high as 1250 has been demonstrated, which is 25% higher than the best gauge factor demonstrated for carbon nanotubes. The strain sensor developed here has applications in strain and stress measurements in cell biology, biomedical sciences, MEMS devices, structure monitoring, and more.

  20. Aislamiento y caracterización de cepas de rizobios aisladas de diferentes leguminosas en la región de Cascajal, Villa Clara Isolation and characterization of rhizobia strains isolated from different legumes in the Cascajal region, Villa Clara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Guianeya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se aislaron 19 cepas de rizobio a partir de los nódulos de las leguminosas Canavalia ensiformis, Stylosanthes guianensis, Centrosema molle, Pueraria phaseoloides y Macroptilium atropurpureum, con el objetivo de obtener inoculantes efectivos para dichos cultivos en suelos ácidos. Para la caracterización de los aislados bacterianos se estudiaron sus características micromorfológicas, tintoriales y culturales, así como algunas respuestas fisiológico-bioquímicas, tales como la excreción de ácido o base al medio de cultivo y el ensayo de la cetolactasa. Se hizo un ensayo de nodulación in vitro con cada una de las leguminosas para determinar la efectividad de los aislados. De acuerdo con las características culturales, la tasa de crecimiento en medio LMA y la producción de ácido o base, los aislados obtenidos pudieran pertenecer a los géneros Bradyrhizobium y Rhizobium y/o Sinorhizobium. La prueba de la cetolactasa permitió conocer que ninguno de los aislados en estudio pertenece al género Agrobacterium. El ensayo con plantas inoculadas mostró que todas las cepas aisladas fueron efectivas en la nodulación, ya que nodularon en las leguminosas probadas. Se concluye que de las cepas aisladas 11 pudieran pertenecer al género Bradyrhizobium, mientras que las ocho restantes comparten características similares con los géneros Rhizobium y/o Sinorhizobium; todos los aislados fueron efectivos en la nodulación y pueden considerarse cepas promisorias para la obtención de inoculantes para las leguminosas forrajeras en estudio.Nineteen rhizobium strains were isolated from the nodules of the legumes Canavalia ensiformis, Stylosanthes guianensis, Centrosema molle, Pueraria phaseoloides and Macroptilium atropurpureum, with the objective of obtaining effective inoculants for such crops in acid soils. For the characterization of the bacterial isolates, their micromorphological, staining and cultural characteristics were studied, as well as some

  1. Differentiation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and ribosomal intergenic regions, and development of a species specific oligonucleotide for in situ detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fussing, Vivian; Paster, Bruce J.; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    1998-01-01

    . The larger RIS's were different between the 3 species tested. The sequence of the 16S ribosomal gene was determined for 8 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. These sequences showed only minor base differences, indicating a close genetic relatedness of these serotypes within the species. An oligonucleotide DNA...... probe designed from the 16S rRNA gene sequence of A. pleuropneumoniae was specific for all strains of the target species and did not cross react with A. lignieresii, the closest known relative of A. pleuropneumoniae. This species-specific DNA probe labeled with fluorescein was used for in situ......The aims of this study were to characterize and determine intraspecies and interspecies relatedness of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to Actinobacillus lignieresii and Actinobacillus suis by sequence analysis of the ribosomal operon and to find a species-specific area for in situ detection of A...

  2. Application of AFINCH as a tool for evaluating the effects of streamflow-gaging-network size and composition on the accuracy and precision of streamflow estimates at ungaged locations in the southeast Lake Michigan hydrologic subregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltun, G.F.; Holtschlag, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Bootstrapping techniques employing random subsampling were used with the AFINCH (Analysis of Flows In Networks of CHannels) model to gain insights into the effects of variation in streamflow-gaging-network size and composition on the accuracy and precision of streamflow estimates at ungaged locations in the 0405 (Southeast Lake Michigan) hydrologic subregion. AFINCH uses stepwise-regression techniques to estimate monthly water yields from catchments based on geospatial-climate and land-cover data in combination with available streamflow and water-use data. Calculations are performed on a hydrologic-subregion scale for each catchment and stream reach contained in a National Hydrography Dataset Plus (NHDPlus) subregion. Water yields from contributing catchments are multiplied by catchment areas and resulting flow values are accumulated to compute streamflows in stream reaches which are referred to as flow lines. AFINCH imposes constraints on water yields to ensure that observed streamflows are conserved at gaged locations.  Data from the 0405 hydrologic subregion (referred to as Southeast Lake Michigan) were used for the analyses. Daily streamflow data were measured in the subregion for 1 or more years at a total of 75 streamflow-gaging stations during the analysis period which spanned water years 1971–2003. The number of streamflow gages in operation each year during the analysis period ranged from 42 to 56 and averaged 47. Six sets (one set for each censoring level), each composed of 30 random subsets of the 75 streamflow gages, were created by censoring (removing) approximately 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 75 percent of the streamflow gages (the actual percentage of operating streamflow gages censored for each set varied from year to year, and within the year from subset to subset, but averaged approximately the indicated percentages).Streamflow estimates for six flow lines each were aggregated by censoring level, and results were analyzed to assess (a) how the

  3. Design of a sediment-monitoring gaging network on ephemeral tributaries of the Colorado River in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Ronald E.; Topping, David J.; Anderson, Robert S.; Hancock, Gregory S.; Melis, Theodore S.

    2014-01-01

    Management of sediment in rivers downstream from dams requires knowledge of both the sediment supply and downstream sediment transport. In some dam-regulated rivers, the amount of sediment supplied by easily measured major tributaries may overwhelm the amount of sediment supplied by the more difficult to measure lesser tributaries. In this first class of rivers, managers need only know the amount of sediment supplied by these major tributaries. However, in other regulated rivers, the cumulative amount of sediment supplied by the lesser tributaries may approach the total supplied by the major tributaries. The Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon has been hypothesized to be one such river. If this is correct, then management of sediment in the Colorado River in the part of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area downstream from the dam and in Grand Canyon National Park may require knowledge of the sediment supply from all tributaries. Although two major tributaries, the Paria and Little Colorado Rivers, are well documented as the largest two suppliers of sediment to the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, the contributions of sediment supplied by the ephemeral lesser tributaries of the Colorado River in the lowermost Glen Canyon, and Marble and Grand Canyons are much less constrained. Previous studies have estimated amounts of sediment supplied by these tributaries ranging from very little to almost as much as the amount supplied by the Paria River. Because none of these previous studies relied on direct measurement of sediment transport in any of the ephemeral tributaries in Glen, Marble, or Grand Canyons, there may be significant errors in the magnitudes of sediment supplies estimated during these studies. To reduce the uncertainty in the sediment supply by better constraining the sediment yield of the ephemeral lesser tributaries, the U.S. Geological Survey Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center established eight sediment-monitoring gaging

  4. Mechanical properties of graphene nanoribbons under uniaxial tensile strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Kazufumi; Yamanaka, Ayaka; Okada, Susumu

    2018-03-01

    Based on the density functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation, we investigated the mechanical properties of graphene nanoribbons in terms of their edge shape under a uniaxial tensile strain. The nanoribbons with armchair and zigzag edges retain their structure under a large tensile strain, while the nanoribbons with chiral edges are fragile against the tensile strain compared with those with armchair and zigzag edges. The fracture started at the cove region, which corresponds to the border between the zigzag and armchair edges for the nanoribbons with chiral edges. For the nanoribbons with armchair edges, the fracture started at one of the cove regions at the edges. In contrast, the fracture started at the inner region of the nanoribbons with zigzag edges. The bond elongation under the tensile strain depends on the mutual arrangement of covalent bonds with respect to the strain direction.

  5. Different distribution patterns of ten virulence genes in Legionella reference strains and strains isolated from environmental water and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiao-Yong; Hu, Chao-Hui; Zhu, Qing-Yi

    2016-04-01

    Virulence genes are distinct regions of DNA which are present in the genome of pathogenic bacteria and absent in nonpathogenic strains of the same or related species. Virulence genes are frequently associated with bacterial pathogenicity in genus Legionella. In the present study, an assay was performed to detect ten virulence genes, including iraA, iraB, lvrA, lvrB, lvhD, cpxR, cpxA, dotA, icmC and icmD in different pathogenicity islands of 47 Legionella reference strains, 235 environmental strains isolated from water, and 4 clinical strains isolated from the lung tissue of pneumonia patients. The distribution frequencies of these genes in reference or/and environmental L. pneumophila strains were much higher than those in reference non-L. pneumophila or/and environmental non-L. pneumophila strains, respectively. L. pneumophila clinical strains also maintained higher frequencies of these genes compared to four other types of Legionella strains. Distribution frequencies of these genes in reference L. pneumophila strains were similar to those in environmental L. pneumophila strains. In contrast, environmental non-L. pneumophila maintained higher frequencies of these genes compared to those found in reference non-L. pneumophila strains. This study illustrates the association of virulence genes with Legionella pathogenicity and reveals the possible virulence evolution of non-L. pneumophia strains isolated from environmental water.

  6. Simulation of daily streamflows at gaged and ungaged locations within the Cedar River Basin, Iowa, using a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Daniel E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, conducted a study to examine techniques for estimation of daily streamflows using hydrological models and statistical methods. This report focuses on the use of a hydrologic model, the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, to estimate daily streamflows at gaged and ungaged locations. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System is a modular, physically based, distributed-parameter modeling system developed to evaluate the impacts of various combinations of precipitation, climate, and land use on surface-water runoff and general basin hydrology. The Cedar River Basin was selected to construct a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model that simulates the period from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2010. The calibration period was from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2004, and the validation periods were from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2010 and January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010. A Geographic Information System tool was used to delineate the Cedar River Basin and subbasins for the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model and to derive parameters based on the physical geographical features. Calibration of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model was completed using a U.S. Geological Survey calibration software tool. The main objective of the calibration was to match the daily streamflow simulated by the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model with streamflow measured at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gages. The Cedar River Basin daily streamflow model performed with a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency ranged from 0.82 to 0.33 during the calibration period, and a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency ranged from 0.77 to -0.04 during the validation period. The Cedar River Basin model is meeting the criteria of greater than 0.50 Nash-Sutcliffe and is a good fit for streamflow conditions for the calibration period at all but one location, Austin, Minnesota

  7. Global and local characteristics of an autogenous single pass electron beam weld in thick gage UNS S41500 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarafan, S., E-mail: Sheida.Sarafan.1@ens.etsmtl.ca [École de Technologie Supérieure, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C 1K3 (Canada); National Research Council Canada, Aerospace, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 2B2 (Canada); Wanjara, P., E-mail: priti.wanjara@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada, Aerospace, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 2B2 (Canada); Gholipour, J., E-mail: Javad.gholipour@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada, Aerospace, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3T 2B2 (Canada); Champliaud, H., E-mail: henri.champliaud@etsmtl.ca [École de Technologie Supérieure, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C 1K3 (Canada)

    2016-06-01

    Electron beam welding of UNS S41500, a low carbon martensitic stainless steel utilized in hydroelectric turbine manufacturing, was investigated by applying a single pass autogenous process to penetrate a section thickness of 72 mm without preheating. In the as-welded and post-weld heat treated conditions, the evolution in microhardness and microstructure across the weldments, as well as the global and local tensile properties, were evaluated. In the as-welded condition, assessment of the microhardness and the associated microstructure across the welds led to the identification of six regions, including the fusion zone, four heat affected zones and the base metal; each of these regions consisted of different phase constituents, such as tempered martensite, untempered martensite, delta ferrite and retained austenite. Post-weld heat treatment, undertaken to temper the untempered martensite in the as-welded microstructure, was effective in homogenizing the hardness across the weldment. The mechanical response of the welds, determined through tensile testing at room temperature with an automated non-contact three-dimensional deformation measurement system, indicated that the global tensile properties in the as-welded and post-weld heat treated conditions met the acceptance criteria in the ASME Section IX standard. Also, evaluation of the local tensile properties in the fusion and heat affected zones of the as-welded samples allowed a more comprehensive understanding of the strength and ductility associated with the different microstructures in the “composite” nature of the weldment. Fractographic analysis demonstrated dimpled features on the tensile fracture surfaces and failure was associated with debonding between the martensitic matrix and the secondary phases (such as delta ferrite and retained austenite) that resulted in the formation, growth and coalescence of voids into a macroscale crack.

  8. Specific DNA Binding of a Potential Transcriptional Regulator, Inosine 5′-Monophosphate Dehydrogenase-Related Protein VII, to the Promoter Region of a Methyl Coenzyme M Reductase I-Encoding Operon Retrieved from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus Strain ΔH▿

    OpenAIRE

    Shinzato, Naoya; Enoki, Miho; Sato, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Kohei; Matsui, Toru; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    Two methyl coenzyme M reductases (MCRs) encoded by the mcr and mrt operons of the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus ΔH are expressed in response to H2 availability. In the present study, cis elements and trans-acting factors responsible for the gene expression of MCRs were investigated by using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and affinity particle purification. A survey of their operator regions by EMSA with protein extracts from mrt-expressing cul...

  9. Specific DNA binding of a potential transcriptional regulator, inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase-related protein VII, to the promoter region of a methyl coenzyme m reductase I-encoding operon retrieved from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus strain DeltaH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Naoya; Enoki, Miho; Sato, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Kohei; Matsui, Toru; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2008-10-01

    Two methyl coenzyme M reductases (MCRs) encoded by the mcr and mrt operons of the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus DeltaH are expressed in response to H(2) availability. In the present study, cis elements and trans-acting factors responsible for the gene expression of MCRs were investigated by using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and affinity particle purification. A survey of their operator regions by EMSA with protein extracts from mrt-expressing cultures restricted them to 46- and 41-bp-long mcr and mrt upstream regions, respectively. Affinity particle purification of DNA-binding proteins conjugated with putative operator regions resulted in the retrieval of a protein attributed to IMP dehydrogenase-related protein VII (IMPDH VII). IMPDH VII is predicted to have a winged helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif and two cystathionine beta-synthase domains, and it has been suspected to be an energy-sensing module. EMSA with oligonucleotide probes with unusual sequences showed that the binding site of IMPDH VII mostly overlaps the factor B-responsible element-TATA box of the mcr operon. The results presented here suggest that IMPDH VII encoded by MTH126 is a plausible candidate for the transcriptional regulator of the mcr operon in this methanogen.

  10. Variation in the strain anisotropy of Zircaloy with temperature and strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.; Worswick, D.

    1984-01-01

    The strong crystallographic texture which is developed during the fabrication of zirconium-based alloys causes pronounced anisotropy in their mechanical properties, particularly deformation. The tendency for circular-section tension specimens with a high concentration of basal poles in one direction to become elliptical when deformed in tension has been used in this study to provide quantitative data on the effects of both strain and temperature on strain anisotropy. Tension tests were carried out over a temperature range of 293 to 1193 K on specimens machined from Zircaloy-2 plate. The strain anisotropy was found to increase markedly at temperatures over 923 K, reaching a maximum in the region of 1070 K. The strain anisotropy increased with increasing strain in this temperature region. The study was extended to Zircaloy-4 pressurized-water reactor fuel cladding by carrying out tube swelling tests and evaluating the axial deformation produced. Although scatter in the test results was higher than that exhibited in the tension tests, the general trend in the data was similar. The effects of the strain anisotropy observed are discussed in relation to the effects of temperature on the ductility of Zircaloy fuel cladding tubes during postulated largebreak loss-of-coolant accidents

  11. Peak-flow frequency analyses and results based on data through water year 2011 for selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana: Chapter C in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-04-05

    Chapter C of this Scientific Investigations Report documents results from a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Transportation and the Montana Department of Natural Resources, to provide an update of statewide peak-flow frequency analyses and results for Montana. The purpose of this report chapter is to present peak-flow frequency analyses and results for 725 streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana based on data through water year 2011. The 725 streamflow-gaging stations included in this study represent nearly all streamflowgaging stations in Montana (plus some from adjacent states or Canadian Provinces) that have at least 10 years of peak-flow records through water year 2011. For 29 of the 725 streamflow-gaging stations, peak-flow frequency analyses and results are reported for both unregulated and regulated conditions. Thus, peak-flow frequency analyses and results are reported for a total of 754 analyses. Estimates of peak-flow magnitudes for 66.7-, 50-, 42.9-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities are reported. These annual exceedance probabilities correspond to 1.5-, 2-, 2.33-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals.

  12. Finite element analysis of fatigue crack closure under plane strain state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hak Joo; Kang, Jae Youn; Song, Ji Ho

    2004-01-01

    An elastic-plastic finite element analysis of fatigue crack closure is performed for plane strain conditions. The stabilization behavior of crack opening level and the effect of mesh size on the crack opening stress are investigated. In order to obtain a stabilized crack opening level for plane strain conditions, the crack must be advanced through approximately four times the initial monotonic plastic zone. The crack opening load tends to increase with the decrease of mesh size. The mesh size nearly equal to the theoretical plane strain cyclic plastic zone size may provide reasonable numerical results comparable with experimental crack opening data. The crack opening behavior is influenced by the crack growth increment and discontinuous opening behavior is observed. A procedure to predict the most appropriate mesh size for different stress ratio is suggested. Crack opening loads predicted by the FE analysis based on the procedure suggested resulted in good agreement with experimental ones within the error of 5 %. Effect of the distance behind the crack tip on the crack opening load determined by the ASTM compliance offset method based on the load-displacement relation and by the rotational offset method based on the load-differential displacement relation is investigated. Optimal gage location and method to determine the crack opening load is suggested

  13. Strains and Sprains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lot of pressure on a muscle or you push it too far, such as when lifting a heavy object. Strains may be more likely to happen if you haven't warmed up first to get blood circulating to the muscles. They're also common for someone returning to a sport after the off-season. That first time playing ...

  14. Oceanographic data collected from Hammond Tide Gage by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 2005-06-24 to 2013-02-08 (NCEI Accession 0162194)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162194 contains navigational and physical data collected at Hammond Tide Gage, a fixed station in the Columbia River estuary - Washington/Oregon....

  15. Isolation of Microsporum gypseum in soil samples from different geographical regions of Brazil, evaluation of the extracellular proteolytic enzymes activities (keratinase and elastase and molecular sequencing of selected strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Cintra Giudice

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of Microsporum gypseum was conducted in soil samples in different geographical regions of Brazil. The isolation of dermatophyte from soil samples was performed by hair baiting technique and the species were identified by morphology studies. We analyzed 692 soil samples and the recuperating rate was 19.2%. The activities of keratinase and elastase were quantitatively performed in 138 samples. The sequencing of the ITS region of rDNA was performed in representatives samples. M. gypseum isolates showed significant quantitative differences in the expression of both keratinase and elastase, but no significant correlation was observed between these enzymes. The sequencing of the representative samples revealed the presence of two teleomorphic species of M. gypseum (Arthroderma gypseum and A. incurvatum. The enzymatic activities may play an important role in the pathogenicity and a probable adaptation of this fungus to the animal parasitism. Using the phenotypical and molecular analysis, the Microsporum identification and their teleomorphic states will provide a useful and reliable identification system.

  16. Strain-induced internal fibrillation in looped aramid filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauw, Brian Richard; Vigild, Martin Etchells; Mortensen, Kell

    2010-01-01

    in the scattering pattern is observed. One model capable of describing the intensity is a model of stacked cylinders. These cylinders could be part of the fibrillar structure present in the PPTA fibres, which consist of cylinder- to tape-like objects, the presence of which is supported by SEM images. One...... hypothetical physical interpretation presented here for the appearance of a regular internal structure is the occurrence of fibrillar separation in regions undergoing axially compressive strain, and the appearance of strain relief/slip planes between packs of fibrils in regions undergoing tensile strain...

  17. Strain effect on the phase diagram of Ba-122

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Kazumasa [IFW Dresden (Germany); Nagoya University (Japan); Grinenko, Vadim; Kurth, Fritz; Efremov, Dmitriy; Drechsler, Stefan-Ludwig; Engelmann, Jan; Aswartham, Saicharan; Wurmehl, Sabine; Moench, Ingolf; Huehne, Ruben [IFW Dresden (Germany); Langer, Marco; Erbe, Manuela; Haenisch, Jens; Holzapfel, Bernhard [IFW Dresden (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Ichinose, Ataru; Tsukada, Ichiro [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Nagasaka (Japan); Ahrens, Eike [TU Dresden (Germany); Ikuta, Hiroshi [Nagoya University (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    Thin films offer a possibility for tuning superconducting (SC) properties without external pressure or chemical doping. In-plane strain controls the Neel temperature of the antiferromagnetic (AF) transition and the SC transition temperature or even induce superconductivity in the parent compound. We studied the electronic and magnetic properties of Co, Ru, and P doped Ba-122 thin films in different strain states. We have found that the strain shifts nearly rigidly the whole phase diagram including the AF region and the SC dome in the direction of higher or lower substitution levels depending on the direction of strain (i.e. compressive or tensile). In particular, we found that the strain affects the band structure similarly as Co doping despite that the crystal structure changes differently. As a result tensile or compressive strain acts as additional el or h doping, respectively.

  18. Dynamic strains for earthquake source characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Andrew J.; Crowell, Brendan W

    2017-01-01

    Strainmeters measure elastodynamic deformation associated with earthquakes over a broad frequency band, with detection characteristics that complement traditional instrumentation, but they are commonly used to study slow transient deformation along active faults and at subduction zones, for example. Here, we analyze dynamic strains at Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) borehole strainmeters (BSM) associated with 146 local and regional earthquakes from 2004–2014, with magnitudes from M 4.5 to 7.2. We find that peak values in seismic strain can be predicted from a general regression against distance and magnitude, with improvements in accuracy gained by accounting for biases associated with site–station effects and source–path effects, the latter exhibiting the strongest influence on the regression coefficients. To account for the influence of these biases in a general way, we include crustal‐type classifications from the CRUST1.0 global velocity model, which demonstrates that high‐frequency strain data from the PBO BSM network carry information on crustal structure and fault mechanics: earthquakes nucleating offshore on the Blanco fracture zone, for example, generate consistently lower dynamic strains than earthquakes around the Sierra Nevada microplate and in the Salton trough. Finally, we test our dynamic strain prediction equations on the 2011 M 9 Tohoku‐Oki earthquake, specifically continuous strain records derived from triangulation of 137 high‐rate Global Navigation Satellite System Earth Observation Network stations in Japan. Moment magnitudes inferred from these data and the strain model are in agreement when Global Positioning System subnetworks are unaffected by spatial aliasing.

  19. Simple, Low-Cost Detection of Candida parapsilosis Complex Isolates and Molecular Fingerprinting of Candida orthopsilosis Strains in Kuwait by ITS Region Sequencing and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadzadeh, Mohammad; Ahmad, Suhail; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F; Al-Sweih, Noura; Khan, Ziauddin

    2015-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis has now emerged as the second or third most important cause of healthcare-associated Candida infections. Molecular studies have shown that phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates represent a complex of three species, namely, C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Lodderomyces elongisporus is another species phenotypically closely related to the C. parapsilosis-complex. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, low cost multiplex (m) PCR assay for species-specific identification of C. parapsilosis complex isolates and to study genetic relatedness of C. orthopsilosis isolates in Kuwait. Species-specific amplicons from C. parapsilosis (171 bp), C. orthopsilosis (109 bp), C. metapsilosis (217 bp) and L. elongisporus (258 bp) were obtained in mPCR. Clinical isolates identified as C. parapsilosis (n = 380) by Vitek2 in Kuwait and an international collection of 27 C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates previously characterized by rDNA sequencing were analyzed to evaluate mPCR. Species-specific PCR and DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA were performed to validate the results of mPCR. Fingerprinting of 19 clinical C. orthopsilosis isolates (including 4 isolates from a previous study) was performed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. Phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates (n = 380) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (n = 361), C. orthopsilosis (n = 15), C. metapsilosis (n = 1) and L. elongisporus (n = 3) by mPCR. The mPCR also accurately detected all epidemiologically unrelated C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates. The 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates obtained from 16 patients were divided into 3 haplotypes based on ITS region sequence data. Seven distinct genotypes were identified among the 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates by AFLP including a dominant genotype (AFLP1) comprising 11 isolates recovered from 10 patients. A

  20. Genetic homogeneity of Clostridium botulinum type A1 strains with unique toxin gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Brian H; Luquez, Carolina; McCroskey, Loretta M; Joseph, Lavin A; Jacobson, Mark J; Johnson, Eric A; Maslanka, Susan E; Andreadis, Joanne D

    2008-07-01

    A group of five clonally related Clostridium botulinum type A strains isolated from different sources over a period of nearly 40 years harbored several conserved genetic properties. These strains contained a variant bont/A1 with five nucleotide polymorphisms compared to the gene in C. botulinum strain ATCC 3502. The strains also had a common toxin gene cluster composition (ha-/orfX+) similar to that associated with bont/A in type A strains containing an unexpressed bont/B [termed A(B) strains]. However, bont/B was not identified in the strains examined. Comparative genomic hybridization demonstrated identical genomic content among the strains relative to C. botulinum strain ATCC 3502. In addition, microarray data demonstrated the absence of several genes flanking the toxin gene cluster among the ha-/orfX+ A1 strains, suggesting the presence of genomic rearrangements with respect to this region compared to the C. botulinum ATCC 3502 strain. All five strains were shown to have identical flaA variable region nucleotide sequences. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of the strains were indistinguishable when digested with SmaI, and a shift in the size of at least one band was observed in a single strain when digested with XhoI. These results demonstrate surprising genomic homogeneity among a cluster of unique C. botulinum type A strains of diverse origin.

  1. Strain concentration at structural discontinuities and its quantification by elastic follow-up parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Naoto; Takasho, Hideki

    1998-12-01

    Elevated temperature structural design codes pay attention to strain concentration at structural discontinuities due to creep and plasticity, since it causes to enlarge creep-fatigue damage of material. One of the difficulties to predict strain concentration is its dependency on loading, constitutive equations, and relaxation time. This study investigated fundamental mechanism of strain concentration and its main factors. It was clarified that strain concentration was caused from strain redistribution between elastic and inelastic regions, which can be quantified by the elastic follow-up parameter. As a function of inelastic strain, the elastic follow-up parameter can describe variation of strain concentration during incremental loading and relaxation process, caused by transition of strain distribution from peak strain concentration to secondary stress redistribution. Structures have their own elastic follow-up characteristics as a function of inelastic strain, which is insensitive to constitutive equations. It means that application of inelastic analysis is not difficult to obtain elastic follow-up characteristics. (author)

  2. Strains in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, Donato; Felice, Fernando de; Geralico, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The definition of relative accelerations and strains among a set of comoving particles is studied in connection with the geometric properties of the frame adapted to a 'fiducial observer'. We find that a relativistically complete and correct definition of strains must take into account the transport law of the chosen spatial triad along the observer's congruence. We use special congruences of (accelerated) test particles in some familiar spacetimes to elucidate such a point. The celebrated idea of Szekeres' compass of inertia, arising when studying geodesic deviation among a set of free-falling particles, is here generalized to the case of accelerated particles. In doing so we have naturally contributed to the theory of relativistic gravity gradiometer. Moreover, our analysis was made in an observer-dependent form, a fact that would be very useful when thinking about general relativistic tests on space stations orbiting compact objects like black holes and also in other interesting gravitational situations

  3. Taxonomic and Strain-Specific Identification of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 within the Lactobacillus casei Group▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudeyras, Sophie; Marchandin, Hélène; Fajon, Céline; Forestier, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Lactobacilli are lactic acid bacteria that are widespread in the environment, including the human diet and gastrointestinal tract. Some Lactobacillus strains are regarded as probiotics because they exhibit beneficial health effects on their host. In this study, the long-used probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 was characterized at a molecular level and compared with seven reference strains from the Lactobacillus casei group. Analysis of rrn operon sequences confirmed that L. rhamnosus 35 indeed belongs to the L. rhamnosus species, and both temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis and ribotyping showed that it is closer to the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (also known as L. rhamnosus GG) than to the species type strain. In addition, L. casei ATCC 334 gathered in a coherent cluster with L. paracasei type strains, unlike L. casei ATCC 393, which was closer to L. zeae; this is evidence of the lack of relatedness between the two L. casei strains. Further characterization of the eight strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis repetitive DNA element-based PCR identified distinct patterns for each strain, whereas two isolates of L. rhamnosus 35 sampled 40 years apart could not be distinguished. By subtractive hybridization using the L. rhamnosus GG genome as a driver, we were able to isolate five L. rhamnosus 35-specific sequences, including two phage-related ones. The primer pairs designed to amplify these five regions allowed us to develop rapid and highly specific PCR-based identification methods for the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus 35. PMID:18326671

  4. Ratchetting strain prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noban, Mohammad; Jahed, Hamid

    2007-01-01

    A time-efficient method for predicting ratchetting strain is proposed. The ratchetting strain at any cycle is determined by finding the ratchetting rate at only a few cycles. This determination is done by first defining the trajectory of the origin of stress in the deviatoric stress space and then incorporating this moving origin into a cyclic plasticity model. It is shown that at the beginning of the loading, the starting point of this trajectory coincides with the initial stress origin and approaches the mean stress, displaying a power-law relationship with the number of loading cycles. The method of obtaining this trajectory from a standard uniaxial asymmetric cyclic loading is presented. Ratchetting rates are calculated with the help of this trajectory and through the use of a constitutive cyclic plasticity model which incorporates deviatoric stresses and back stresses that are measured with respect to this moving frame. The proposed model is used to predict the ratchetting strain of two types of steels under single- and multi-step loadings. Results obtained agree well with the available experimental measurements

  5. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  6. Left ventricular strain and its pattern estimated from cine CMR and validation with DENSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Hao; Luo, Xiaoyu; Allan, Andrew; McComb, Christie; Berry, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of local strain provides insight into the biomechanical significance of viable myocardium. We attempted to estimate myocardial strain from cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) images by using a b-spline deformable image registration method. Three healthy volunteers and 41 patients with either recent or chronic myocardial infarction (MI) were studied at 1.5 Tesla with both cine and DENSE CMR. Regional circumferential and radial left ventricular strains were estimated from cine and DENSE acquisitions. In all healthy volunteers, there was no difference for peak circumferential strain (− 0.18 ± 0.04 versus − 0.18 ± 0.03, p = 0.76) between cine and DENSE CMR, however peak radial strain was overestimated from cine (0.84 ± 0.37 versus 0.49 ± 0.2, p < 0.01). In the patient study, the peak strain patterns predicted by cine were similar to the patterns from DENSE, including the strain evolution related to recovery time and strain patterns related to MI scar extent. Furthermore, cine-derived strain disclosed different strain patterns in MI and non-MI regions, and regions with transmural and non-transmural MI as DENSE. Although there were large variations with radial strain measurements from cine CMR images, useful circumferential strain information can be obtained from routine clinical CMR imaging. Cine strain analysis has potential to improve the diagnostic yield from routine CMR imaging in clinical practice. (paper)

  7. Studies on Drosophila radiosensitive strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varentsova, E.P.; Zakharov, I.A.

    1976-01-01

    45 of radiosensitive strains of Drosophila melanogaster were isolated by Curly/Lobe technique after EMS treatment of Livadia population males. The lethality of non-Curly late larvae after gamma-irradiation (4000r) characterized radiosensitivity strains. Most of them exhibited higher frequency of the spontaneous dominant lethals (up to 69%). The males of 6 strains were semi-sterile. 5 of these strains exhibited higher frequency of X-chromosome non-disjunction

  8. Genetic characterization of L-Zagreb mumps vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, Jelena; Gulija, Tanja Kosutic; Forcic, Dubravko; Baricevic, Marijana; Jug, Renata; Mesko-Prejac, Majda; Mazuran, Renata

    2005-04-01

    Eleven mumps vaccine strains, all containing live attenuated virus, have been used throughout the world. Although L-Zagreb mumps vaccine has been licensed since 1972, only its partial nucleotide sequence was previously determined (accession numbers , and ). Therefore, we sequenced the entire genome of L-Zagreb vaccine strain (Institute of Immunology Inc., Zagreb, Croatia). In order to investigate the genetic stability of the vaccine, sequences of both L-Zagreb master seed and currently produced vaccine batch were determined and no difference between them was observed. A phylogenetic analysis based on SH gene sequence has shown that L-Zagreb strain does not belong to any of established mumps genotypes and that it is most similar to old, laboratory preserved European strains (1950s-1970s). L-Zagreb nucleotide and deduced protein sequences were compared with other mumps virus sequences obtained from the GenBank. Emphasis was put on functionally important protein regions and known antigenic epitopes. The extensive comparisons of nucleotide and deduced protein sequences between L-Zagreb vaccine strain and other previously determined mumps virus sequences have shown that while the functional regions of HN, V, and L proteins are well conserved among various mumps strains, there can be a substantial amino acid difference in antigenic epitopes of all proteins and in functional regions of F protein. No molecular pattern was identified that can be used as a distinction marker between virulent and attenuated strains.

  9. Pressure gages for aggressive media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolenko, V.L.; Levchuk, N.F.; Nikolaev, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The device for measuring the pressure in agressive media, designed using the K140UD1B and K140UD8A integrated microelectronic circuits is described. The device sensitivity in conjunction with the membrane zero-indicator constitutes 10 Pa, in case of automated counterpressure control by magnetic valves it is equal to 50 Pa per one device scale mark

  10. "Fuel Gage" for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Gas-emmission and time-integrated-current measurements indicate battery charge state. Tests indicate possibility of monitoring state of charge of lead/acid batteries at any stage in charging cycle by measuring charging current and either gas evolution or electrode potential. Data then processed by microcomputer. Uses include cell voltage, cell pressure, cell temperature and rate of gas recombination on catalyst.

  11. Strain actuated aeroelastic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Kenneth B.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on strain actuated aeroelastic control are presented. Topics covered include: structural and aerodynamic modeling; control law design methodology; system block diagram; adaptive wing test article; bench-top experiments; bench-top disturbance rejection: open and closed loop response; bench-top disturbance rejection: state cost versus control cost; wind tunnel experiments; wind tunnel gust alleviation: open and closed loop response at 60 mph; wind tunnel gust alleviation: state cost versus control cost at 60 mph; wind tunnel command following: open and closed loop error at 60 mph; wind tunnel flutter suppression: open loop flutter speed; and wind tunnel flutter suppression: closed loop state cost curves.

  12. Two-phase behavior in strained thin films of hole-doped manganites

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Amlan; Rajeswari, M.; Srivastava, R. C.; Li, Y. H.; Venkatesan, T.; Greene, R. L.; Millis, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    We present a study of the effect of biaxial strain on the electrical and magnetic properties of thin films of manganites. We observe that manganite films grown under biaxial compressive strain exhibit island growth morphology which leads to a non-uniform distribution of the strain. Transport and magnetic properties of these films suggest the coexistence of two different phases, a metallic ferromagnet and an insulating antiferromagnet. We suggest that the high strain regions are insulating whi...

  13. Left ventricular strain and its pattern estimated from cine CMR and validation with DENSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hao; Allan, Andrew; McComb, Christie; Luo, Xiaoyu; Berry, Colin

    2014-07-07

    Measurement of local strain provides insight into the biomechanical significance of viable myocardium. We attempted to estimate myocardial strain from cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) images by using a b-spline deformable image registration method. Three healthy volunteers and 41 patients with either recent or chronic myocardial infarction (MI) were studied at 1.5 Tesla with both cine and DENSE CMR. Regional circumferential and radial left ventricular strains were estimated from cine and DENSE acquisitions. In all healthy volunteers, there was no difference for peak circumferential strain (- 0.18 ± 0.04 versus - 0.18 ± 0.03, p = 0.76) between cine and DENSE CMR, however peak radial strain was overestimated from cine (0.84 ± 0.37 versus 0.49 ± 0.2, p cine were similar to the patterns from DENSE, including the strain evolution related to recovery time and strain patterns related to MI scar extent. Furthermore, cine-derived strain disclosed different strain patterns in MI and non-MI regions, and regions with transmural and non-transmural MI as DENSE. Although there were large variations with radial strain measurements from cine CMR images, useful circumferential strain information can be obtained from routine clinical CMR imaging. Cine strain analysis has potential to improve the diagnostic yield from routine CMR imaging in clinical practice.

  14. Ultrasensitive, Stretchable Strain Sensors Based on Fragmented Carbon Nanotube Papers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian

    2017-01-17

    The development of strain sensors featuring both ultra high sensitivity and high stretchability is still a challenge. We demonstrate that strain sensors based on fragmented single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) paper embedded in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) can sustain their sensitivity even at very high strain levels (with a gauge factor of over 10(7) at 50% strain). This record sensitivity is ascribed to the low initial electrical resistance (5-28 Omega) of the SWCNT paper and the wide change in resistance (up to 10(6) Omega) governed by the percolated network of SWCNT in the cracked region. The sensor response remains nearly unchanged after 10 000 strain cycles at 20% proving the robustness of this technology. This fragmentation based sensing system brings opportunities to engineer highly sensitive stretchable sensors.

  15. Colony Dimorphism in Bradyrhizobium Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester-Bradley, Rosemary; Thornton, Philip; Jones, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Ten isolates of Bradyrhizobium spp. which form two colony types were studied; the isolates originated from a range of legume species. The two colony types differed in the amount of gum formed or size or both, depending on the strain. Whole 7-day-old colonies of each type were subcultured to determine the proportion of cells which had changed to the other type. An iterative computerized procedure was used to determine the rate of switching per generation between the two types and to predict proportions reached at equilibrium for each strain. The predicted proportions of the wetter (more gummy) or larger colony type at equilibrium differed significantly between strains, ranging from 0.9999 (strain CIAT 2383) to 0.0216 (strain CIAT 2469), because some strains switched faster from dry to wet (or small to large) and others switched faster from wet to dry (or large to small). Predicted equilibrium was reached after about 140 generations in strain USDA 76. In all but one strain (CIAT 3030) the growth rate of the wetter colony type was greater than or similar to that of the drier type. The mean difference in generation time between the two colony types was 0.37 h. Doubling times calculated for either colony type after 7 days of growth on the agar surface ranged from 6.0 to 7.3 h. The formation of two persistent colony types by one strain (clonal or colony dimorphism) may be a common phenomenon among Bradyrhizobium strains. Images PMID:16347599

  16. Examination of Direct Discharge Measurement Data and Historic Daily Data for Selected Gages on the Middle Mississippi River, 1861-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    An examination of data from two continuous stage and discharge streamgages and one continuous stage-only gage on the Middle Mississippi River was made to determine stage-discharge relation changes through time and to investigate cause-and-effect mechanisms through evaluation of hydraulic geometry, channel elevation and water-surface elevation data. Data from discrete, direct measurements at the streamgages at St. Louis, Missouri, and Chester, Illinois, during the period of operation by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1933 to 2008 were examined for changes with time. Daily stage values from the streamgages at St. Louis (1861-2008) and Chester (1891-2008) and the stage-only gage at Cape Girardeau, Missouri (1896-2008), throughout the historic period of record also were examined for changes with time. Stage and discharge from measurements and stage-discharge relations at the streamgages at St. Louis and Chester indicate that stage for a given discharge has changed with time at both locations. An apparent increase in stage for a given discharge at increased flows (greater than flood stage) likely is caused by the raising of levees on the flood plains, and a decrease in stage for a given discharge at low flows (less than one-half flood stage) likely is caused by a combination of dikes in the channel that deepen the channel thalweg at the end of the dikes, and reduced sediment flux into the Middle Mississippi River. Since the 1960s at St. Louis, Missouri, the stage-discharge relations indicated no change or a decrease in stage for a given discharge for all discharges, whereas at Chester, Illinois, the stage-discharge relations indicate increasing stage for a given discharge above bankfull because of sediment infilling of the overflow channel. Top width and average velocity from measurements at a given discharge for the streamgage at St. Louis, Missouri, were relatively constant through time, with the only substantial change in top width resulting from the change in

  17. Analysis of flood-magnitude and flood-frequency data for streamflow-gaging stations in the Delaware and North Branch Susquehanna River Basins in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Mark A.; Stuckey, Marla H.

    2007-01-01

    The Delaware and North Branch Susquehanna River Basins in Pennsylvania experienced severe flooding as a result of intense rainfall during June 2006. The height of the flood waters on the rivers and tributaries approached or exceeded the peak of record at many locations. Updated flood-magnitude and flood-frequency data for streamflow-gaging stations on tributaries in the Delaware and North Branch Susquehanna River Basins were analyzed using data through the 2006 water year to determine if there were any major differences in the flood-discharge data. Flood frequencies for return intervals of 2, 5, 10, 50, 100, and 500 years (Q2, Q5, Q10, Q50, Q100, and Q500) were determined from annual maximum series (AMS) data from continuous-record gaging stations (stations) and were compared to flood discharges obtained from previously published Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) and to flood frequencies using partial-duration series (PDS) data. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to determine any statistically significant differences between flood frequencies computed from updated AMS station data and those obtained from FIS. Percentage differences between flood frequencies computed from updated AMS station data and those obtained from FIS also were determined for the 10, 50, 100, and 500 return intervals. A Mann-Kendall trend test was performed to determine statistically significant trends in the updated AMS peak-flow data for the period of record at the 41 stations. In addition to AMS station data, PDS data were used to determine flood-frequency discharges. The AMS and PDS flood-frequency data were compared to determine any differences between the two data sets. An analysis also was performed on AMS-derived flood frequencies for four stations to evaluate the possible effects of flood-control reservoirs on peak flows. Additionally, flood frequencies for three stations were evaluated to determine possible effects of urbanization on peak flows. The results of the Wilcoxon signed

  18. Differential stress transcriptome landscape of historic and recently emerged hypervirulent strains of Clostridium difficile strains determined using RNA-seq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Scaria

    Full Text Available C. difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea in North America and Europe. Genomes of individual strains of C. difficile are highly divergent. To determine how divergent strains respond to environmental changes, the transcriptomes of two historic and two recently isolated hypervirulent strains were analyzed following nutrient shift and osmotic shock. Illumina based RNA-seq was used to sequence these transcriptomes. Our results reveal that although C. difficile strains contain a large number of shared and strain specific genes, the majority of the differentially expressed genes were core genes. We also detected a number of transcriptionally active regions that were not part of the primary genome annotation. Some of these are likely to be small regulatory RNAs.

  19. Evaluation of strain-rate sensitivity of ion-irradiated austenitic steel using strain-rate jump nanoindentation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasada, Ryuta, E-mail: r-kasada@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University Gokasho, Uji 611-0011, Kyoto (Japan); Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University Gokasho, Uji 611-0011, Kyoto (Japan); Hamaguchi, Dai; Ando, Masami; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We examined strain-rate jump nanoindentation on ion-irradiated stainless steel. • We observed irradiation hardening of the ion-irradiated stainless steel. • We found that strain-rate sensitivity parameter was slightly decreased after the ion-irradiation. - Abstract: The present study investigated strain-rate sensitivity (SRS) of a single crystal Fe–15Cr–20Ni austenitic steel before and after 10.5 MeV Fe{sup 3+} ion-irradiation up to 10 dpa at 300 °C using a strain-rate jump (SRJ) nanoindentation test. It was found that the SRJ nanoindentation test is suitable for evaluating the SRS at strain-rates from 0.001 to 0.2 s{sup −1}. Indentation size effect was observed for depth dependence of nanoindentation hardness but not the SRS. The ion-irradiation increased the hardness at the shallow depth region but decreased the SRS slightly.

  20. Strain-based fracture assessment of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsoe, Erlend; Oestby, Erling; Nyhus, Baard [SINTEF, Trondheim (Norway); Skallerud, Bjoern; Holthe, Kjell [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Berg, Espen [LINKftr AS, Trondheim (Norway)

    2009-12-19

    The oil and gas industry moves into harsher regions and faces challenges with i.e. deep water, arctic conditions and seismic regions. Consequently, ensuring the integrity of pipelines becomes more challenging, and potential large deformation scenarios that can be attributed to the above mentioned areas have lead to a current strong focus on strain-based fracture assessment methods for pipelines. However, no widely established methods exist today. In this paper specific challenges related to development of such methods are discussed. Keywords are biaxial loading, crack driving force relations, ductile tearing resistance, and definition of strain capacity. The effect of the different features will be illustrated with both experimental and numerical simulation results. Experimental results presented will cover both large- and small-scale testing. A highly efficient and accurate line-spring based numerical fracture assessment method will be presented. A simplified scheme for a strain-based fracture assessment method will also be briefly outlined, and the extension of this method to also include partial safety factors is discussed. (author)

  1. Integrated strain array for cellular mechanobiology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C S; Sim, J Y; Baechtold, P; Chung, C; Borghi, N; Pruitt, B L; Gonzalez, A

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an integrated strain array for cell culture enabling high-throughput mechano-transduction studies. Biocompatible cell culture chambers were integrated with an acrylic pneumatic compartment and microprocessor-based control system. Each element of the array consists of a deformable membrane supported by a cylindrical pillar within a well. For user-prescribed waveforms, the annular region of the deformable membrane is pulled into the well around the pillar under vacuum, causing the pillar-supported region with cultured cells to be stretched biaxially. The optically clear device and pillar-based mechanism of operation enables imaging on standard laboratory microscopes. Straightforward fabrication utilizes off-the-shelf components, soft lithography techniques in polydimethylsiloxane and laser ablation of acrylic sheets. Proof of compatibility with basic biological assays and standard imaging equipment were accomplished by straining C2C12 skeletal myoblasts on the device for 6 h. At higher strains, cells and actin stress fibers realign with a circumferential preference

  2. Detecting strain in birefringent materials using spectral polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Harold R. (Inventor); Ragucci, Anthony J. (Inventor); Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor); Huebschman, Michael L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method, computer program product and system for analyzing multispectral images from a plurality of regions of birefringent material, such as a polymer film, using polarized light and a corresponding polar analyzer to identify differential strain in the birefringent material. For example, the birefringement material may be low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinylidene chloride, polyester, nylon, or cellophane film. Optionally, the method includes generating a real-time quantitative strain map.

  3. Characteristics of the repair - deficient mutants 1435 plague microbe strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temiralieva, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    Repair-deficient mutants 1435 A uvr - hcr - , 1435-17 uvr - hcr + and 1435-35 lon have been obtained from 1435 plague microbe strain, isolated from a large gerbil living in the Central Asian desert region. The mutants have the same cultural-morphological and enzymatic characteristics, the same need in growth factors and similar virulence determinants as the original strain, but they do not cause death of the experimental animals

  4. Strain screen and haplotype association mapping of wheel running in inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, J Timothy; Leamy, Larry; Pomp, Daniel; Turner, Michael J; Fodor, Anthony A; Knab, Amy; Bowen, Robert S; Ferguson, David; Moore-Harrison, Trudy; Hamilton, Alicia

    2010-09-01

    Previous genetic association studies of physical activity, in both animal and human models, have been limited in number of subjects and genetically homozygous strains used as well as number of genomic markers available for analysis. Expansion of the available mouse physical activity strain screens and the recently published dense single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map of the mouse genome (approximately 8.3 million SNPs) and associated statistical methods allowed us to construct a more generalizable map of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with physical activity. Specifically, we measured wheel running activity in male and female mice (average age 9 wk) in 41 inbred strains and used activity data from 38 of these strains in a haplotype association mapping analysis to determine QTL associated with activity. As seen previously, there was a large range of activity patterns among the strains, with the highest and lowest strains differing significantly in daily distance run (27.4-fold), duration of activity (23.6-fold), and speed (2.9-fold). On a daily basis, female mice ran further (24%), longer (13%), and faster (11%). Twelve QTL were identified, with three (on Chr. 12, 18, and 19) in both male and female mice, five specific to males, and four specific to females. Eight of the 12 QTL, including the 3 general QTL found for both sexes, fell into intergenic areas. The results of this study further support the findings of a moderate to high heritability of physical activity and add general genomic areas applicable to a large number of mouse strains that can be further mined for candidate genes associated with regulation of physical activity. Additionally, results suggest that potential genetic mechanisms arising from traditional noncoding regions of the genome may be involved in regulation of physical activity.

  5. Mumps Hoshino and Torii vaccine strains were distinguished from circulating wild strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Akihito; Yamaji, Yoshiaki; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2013-06-01

    Aseptic meningitis and acute parotitis have been observed after mumps vaccination. Mumps outbreaks have been reported in Japan because of low vaccine coverage, and molecular differentiation is required to determine whether these cases are vaccine associated. RT-nested PCR was performed in the small hydrophobic gene region, and viruses were differentiated by restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. A total of 584 nucleotides were amplified. The PCR product of the Hoshino strain was cut into two fragments (313 and 271 nucleotides) by MfeI; that of the Torii strain was digested with EcoT22I, resulting in 332- and 252-nucleotide fragments. Both strains were genotype B and had an XbaI site, resulting in two fragments: 299 and 285 nucleotides. Current circulating wild types were cut only by XbaI or MfeI. However, the MfeI site of the wild types was different from that of the Hoshino strain, resulting in 451- and 133-nucleotide fragments. Using three restriction enzymes, two mumps vaccine strains were distinguished from wild types, and this separation was applied to the identification of vaccine-related adverse events.

  6. Strain Pattern in Supercooled Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Bernd; Fritschi, Sebastian; Hajnal, David; Klix, Christian; Keim, Peter; Fuchs, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    Investigations of strain correlations at the glass transition reveal unexpected phenomena. The shear strain fluctuations show an Eshelby-strain pattern [˜cos (4 θ ) /r2 ], characteristic of elastic response, even in liquids, at long times. We address this using a mode-coupling theory for the strain fluctuations in supercooled liquids and data from both video microscopy of a two-dimensional colloidal glass former and simulations of Brownian hard disks. We show that the long-ranged and long-lived strain signatures follow a scaling law valid close to the glass transition. For large enough viscosities, the Eshelby-strain pattern is visible even on time scales longer than the structural relaxation time τ and after the shear modulus has relaxed to zero.

  7. Cardiac biplane strain imaging: initial in vivo experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, R. G. P.; Nillesen, M. M.; Verrijp, C. N.; Singh, S. K.; Lammens, M. M. Y.; van der Laak, J. A. W. M.; van Wetten, H. B.; Thijssen, J. M.; Kapusta, L.; de Korte, C. L.

    2010-02-01

    In this study, first we propose a biplane strain imaging method using a commercial ultrasound system, yielding estimation of the strain in three orthogonal directions. Secondly, an animal model of a child's heart was introduced that is suitable to simulate congenital heart disease and was used to test the method in vivo. The proposed approach can serve as a framework to monitor the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. A 2D strain estimation technique using radio frequency (RF) ultrasound data was applied. Biplane image acquisition was performed at a relatively low frame rate (dogs with an aortic stenosis. Initial results reveal the feasibility of measuring large radial, circumferential and longitudinal cumulative strain (up to 70%) at a frame rate of 100 Hz. Mean radial strain curves of a manually segmented region-of-interest in the infero-lateral wall show excellent correlation between the measured strain curves acquired in two perpendicular planes. Furthermore, the results show the feasibility and reproducibility of assessing radial, circumferential and longitudinal strains simultaneously. In this preliminary study, three beagles developed an elevated pressure gradient over the aortic valve (Δp: 100-200 mmHg) and myocardial hypertrophy. One dog did not develop any sign of hypertrophy (Δp = 20 mmHg). Initial strain (rate) results showed that the maximum strain (rate) decreased with increasing valvular stenosis (-50%), which is in accordance with previous studies. Histological findings corroborated these results and showed an increase in fibrotic tissue for the hearts with larger pressure gradients (100, 200 mmHg), as well as lower strain and strain rate values.

  8. Cardiac biplane strain imaging: initial in vivo experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopata, R G P; Nillesen, M M; Thijssen, J M; De Korte, C L [Clinical Physics Laboratory, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Verrijp, C N; Lammens, M M Y; Van der Laak, J A W M [Department of Pathology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Singh, S K; Van Wetten, H B [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kapusta, L [Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: R.Lopata@cukz.umcn.nl

    2010-02-21

    In this study, first we propose a biplane strain imaging method using a commercial ultrasound system, yielding estimation of the strain in three orthogonal directions. Secondly, an animal model of a child's heart was introduced that is suitable to simulate congenital heart disease and was used to test the method in vivo. The proposed approach can serve as a framework to monitor the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. A 2D strain estimation technique using radio frequency (RF) ultrasound data was applied. Biplane image acquisition was performed at a relatively low frame rate (<100 Hz) using a commercial platform with an RF interface. For testing the method in vivo, biplane image sequences of the heart were recorded during the cardiac cycle in four dogs with an aortic stenosis. Initial results reveal the feasibility of measuring large radial, circumferential and longitudinal cumulative strain (up to 70%) at a frame rate of 100 Hz. Mean radial strain curves of a manually segmented region-of-interest in the infero-lateral wall show excellent correlation between the measured strain curves acquired in two perpendicular planes. Furthermore, the results show the feasibility and reproducibility of assessing radial, circumferential and longitudinal strains simultaneously. In this preliminary study, three beagles developed an elevated pressure gradient over the aortic valve ({delta}p: 100-200 mmHg) and myocardial hypertrophy. One dog did not develop any sign of hypertrophy ({delta}p = 20 mmHg). Initial strain (rate) results showed that the maximum strain (rate) decreased with increasing valvular stenosis (-50%), which is in accordance with previous studies. Histological findings corroborated these results and showed an increase in fibrotic tissue for the hearts with larger pressure gradients (100, 200 mmHg), as well as lower strain and strain rate values.

  9. Cardiac biplane strain imaging: initial in vivo experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopata, R G P; Nillesen, M M; Thijssen, J M; De Korte, C L; Verrijp, C N; Lammens, M M Y; Van der Laak, J A W M; Singh, S K; Van Wetten, H B; Kapusta, L

    2010-01-01

    In this study, first we propose a biplane strain imaging method using a commercial ultrasound system, yielding estimation of the strain in three orthogonal directions. Secondly, an animal model of a child's heart was introduced that is suitable to simulate congenital heart disease and was used to test the method in vivo. The proposed approach can serve as a framework to monitor the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. A 2D strain estimation technique using radio frequency (RF) ultrasound data was applied. Biplane image acquisition was performed at a relatively low frame rate (<100 Hz) using a commercial platform with an RF interface. For testing the method in vivo, biplane image sequences of the heart were recorded during the cardiac cycle in four dogs with an aortic stenosis. Initial results reveal the feasibility of measuring large radial, circumferential and longitudinal cumulative strain (up to 70%) at a frame rate of 100 Hz. Mean radial strain curves of a manually segmented region-of-interest in the infero-lateral wall show excellent correlation between the measured strain curves acquired in two perpendicular planes. Furthermore, the results show the feasibility and reproducibility of assessing radial, circumferential and longitudinal strains simultaneously. In this preliminary study, three beagles developed an elevated pressure gradient over the aortic valve (Δp: 100-200 mmHg) and myocardial hypertrophy. One dog did not develop any sign of hypertrophy (Δp = 20 mmHg). Initial strain (rate) results showed that the maximum strain (rate) decreased with increasing valvular stenosis (-50%), which is in accordance with previous studies. Histological findings corroborated these results and showed an increase in fibrotic tissue for the hearts with larger pressure gradients (100, 200 mmHg), as well as lower strain and strain rate values.

  10. Strain bidimensional na cardiopatia de Takotsubo Two-dimensional strain in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bellini G. Gomes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este relato apresenta o seguimento tardio de um caso de cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo com boa evolução clínica e melhora da função sistólica global ventricular esquerda. Contudo, observou-se persistência de significativa disfunção sistólica regional longitudinal que foi avaliada por meio de nova técnica ecocardiográfica (speckle tracking, com as medidas do strain (S e strain rate (SR correspondentes. Ressaltamos a importância desse novo método para o acompanhamento dessa cardiopatia, pois permite identificar os pacientes que persistem com disfunção sistólica e que possivelmente serão beneficiados com a manutenção da terapêutica clínica.This report presents the late follow-up of a case of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy with good clinical outcome and improved left ventricular global systolic function. However, there was persistence of significant regional longitudinal systolic dysfunction evaluated using a new echocardiographic technique (speckle tracking, with corresponding measures of strain (S and strain rate (SR. We emphasize the importance of this new method to monitoring this cardiomyopathy, since it identifies patients with persistent systolic dysfunction who will possibly benefit from maintenance of clinical therapy

  11. Electronic transport in torsional strained Weyl semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Garrido, Rodrigo; Muñoz, Enrique

    2018-05-01

    In a recent paper (Muñoz and Soto-Garrido 2017 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 29 445302) we have studied the effects of mechanical strain and magnetic field on the electronic transport properties in graphene. In this article we extended our work to Weyl semimetals (WSM). We show that although the WSM are 3D materials, most of the analysis done for graphene (2D material) can be carried out. In particular, we studied the electronic transport through a cylindrical region submitted to torsional strain and external magnetic field. We provide exact analytical expressions for the scattering cross section and the transmitted electronic current. In addition, we show the node-polarization effect on the current and propose a recipe to measure the torsion angle from transmission experiments.

  12. Hydrogen production from microbial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Caroline S; Rey, Federico E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention is directed to a method of screening microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. This method involves inoculating one or more microbes in a sample containing cell culture medium to form an inoculated culture medium. The inoculated culture medium is then incubated under hydrogen producing conditions. Once incubating causes the inoculated culture medium to produce hydrogen, microbes in the culture medium are identified as candidate microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. Methods of producing hydrogen using one or more of the microbial strains identified as well as the hydrogen producing strains themselves are also disclosed.

  13. Asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Nielsen, E.M.; Klemm, Per

    2006-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect millions of people each year. Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in humans. Persons affected by ABU may carry a particular E. coli strain for extended periods of time without any symptoms. In contrast...... to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) that cause symptomatic UTI, very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the urinary tract. Here, we have investigated the growth characteristics in human urine as well as adhesin repertoire of nine ABU strains; the ability of ABU strains to compete...

  14. Himalayan Strain Accumulation 100 ka Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, J. M.; Murphy, M. A.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Crustal scale fault systems and tectonostratigraphic units in the Himalaya can be traced for 2500 km along strike. However regional studies have shown that there is variability in the location and rate of strain accumulation which appears to be driven by Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) geometry and convergence obliquity. GPS illuminates the modern interseismic strain rate and the historical record of great earthquakes elucidates variations in strain accumulation over 103 years. To connect these patterns with the 106 year structural and thermochronometric geologic record we examine normalized river channel steepness (ksn), a proxy for rock uplift rate, which develops over 104 - 105 years. Here we present a ksn map of the Himalaya and compare it with bedrock geology, precipitation, the historic earthquake record, GPS, seismicity, and seismotectonic models. Our map shows significant along strike changes in the magnitude of channel steepness, the areal extent of swaths of high ksn channels, and their location with respect to the range front. Differences include the juxtaposition of two narrow (30 - 40 km) range parallel belts of high ksn in west Nepal and Bhutan coincident with MHT duplexes and belts of microseismcity, with a single broad (70 km) swath of high ksn and microseismicity in central and eastern Nepal. Separating west and central Nepal a band of low ksn crosses the range coincident with the West Nepal Fault (WNF) and the lowest rate of microseismicity in Nepal. To the west the orogen is obliquely convergent and has less high ksn channels, while the orthogonally convergent region to the east contains the highest concentration of oversteepened channels in the Himalaya supporting the idea that the WNF is a strain partitioning boundary. The syntaxes are characterized by locally high channel steepness surrounded by low to moderate ksn channels consistent with the hypothesis that rapid exhumation within the syntaxes is sustained by an influx of lower crust.

  15. The effect of strain rate on the viscoplastic behavior of isotactic polypropylene at finite strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozdov, Aleksey D.; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville

    2002-01-01

    prior to testing. A constitutive model is developed for the viscoplastic behavior of isotactic polypropylene at finite strains. A semicrystalline polymer is treated as equivalent heterogeneous network of chains bridged by permanent junctions (physical cross-links and entanglements). The network...... is thought of as an ensemble of meso-regions connected with each other by links (lamellar blocks). In the sub-yield region of deformations, junctions between chains in meso-domains slide with respect to their reference positions (which reflects sliding of nodes in the amorphous phase and fine slip...... responses of non-annealed and annealed specimens: (i) necking of samples not subjected to thermal treatment precedes coarse slip and fragmentation of lamellar blocks, whereas cold-drawing of annealed specimens up to a longitudinal strain of 80% does not induce spatial heterogeneity of their deformation; (ii...

  16. An exponential scaling law for the strain dependence of the Nb3Sn critical current density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordini, B; Alknes, P; Bottura, L; Rossi, L; Valentinis, D

    2013-01-01

    The critical current density of the Nb 3 Sn superconductor is strongly dependent on the strain applied to the material. In order to investigate this dependence, it is a common practice to measure the critical current of Nb 3 Sn strands for different values of applied axial strain. In the literature, several models have been proposed to describe these experimental data in the reversible strain region. All these models are capable of fitting the measurement results in the strain region where data are collected, but tend to predict unphysical trends outside the range of data, and especially for large strain values. In this paper we present a model of a new strain function, together with the results obtained by applying the new scaling law on relevant datasets. The data analyzed consisted of the critical current measurements at 4.2 K that were carried out under applied axial strain at Durham University and the University of Geneva on different strand types. With respect to the previous models proposed, the new scaling function does not present problems at large strain values, has a lower number of fitting parameters (only two instead of three or four), and is very stable, so that, starting from few experimental points, it can estimate quite accurately the strand behavior in a strain region where there are no data. A relationship is shown between the proposed strain function and the elastic strain energy, and an analogy is drawn with the exponential form of the McMillan equation for the critical temperature. (paper)

  17. Studies of Shear Band Velocity Using Spatially and Temporally Resolved Measurements of Strain During Quasistatic Compression of Bulk Metallic Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, W J; Samale, M; Hufnagel, T; LeBlanc, M; Florando, J

    2009-06-15

    We have made measurements of the temporal and spatial features of the evolution of strain during the serrated flow of Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} bulk metallic glass tested under quasistatic, room temperature, uniaxial compression. Strain and load data were acquired at rates of up to 400 kHz using strain gages affixed to all four sides of the specimen and a piezoelectric load cell located near the specimen. Calculation of the displacement rate requires an assumption about the nature of the shear displacement. If one assumes that the entire shear plane displaces simultaneously, the displacement rate is approximately 0.002 m/s. If instead one assumes that the displacement occurs as a localized propagating front, the velocity of the front is approximately 2.8 m/s. In either case, the velocity is orders of magnitude less than the shear wave speed ({approx}2000 m/s). The significance of these measurements for estimates of heating in shear bands is discussed.

  18. TL transgenic mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, Y.; Matsudaira, Y.; Hasegawa, H.; Tamaki, H.; Takahashi, T.; Morita, A.; Kasai, K.

    1993-01-01

    As a result of abnormal development of the thymus of these mice, TCR αβ lineage of the T cell differentiation is disturbed and cells belonging to the TCR γδ CD4 - CD8 - double negative (DN) lineage become preponderant. The γδ DN cells migrate into peripheral lymphoid organs and constitute nearly 50% of peripheral T cells. Immune function of the transgenic mice is severely impaired, indicating that the γδ cells are incapable of participating in these reactions. Molecular and serological analyses of T-cell lymphomas reveal that they belong to the γδ lineage. Tg.Tla a -3-1 mice should be useful in defining the role of TL in normal and abnormal T cell differentiation as well as in the development of T-cell lymphomas, and further they should facilitate studies on the differentiation and function of γδ T cells. We isolated T3 b -TL gene from B6 mice and constructed a chimeric gene in which T3 b -TL is driven by the promoter of H-2K b . With the chimeric gene, two transgenic mouse strains, Tg. Con.3-1 and -2 have been derived in C3H background. Both strains express TL antigen in various tissues including skin. The skin graft of transgenic mice on C3H and (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice were rejected. In the mice which rejected the grafts, CD8 + TCRαβ cytotoxic T cells (CTL) against TL antigens were recognized. The recognition of TL by CTL did not require the antigen presentation by H-2 molecules. The results indicated that TL antigen in the skin becomes a transplantation antigen and behaves like a typical allogeneic MHC class I antigen. The facts that (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice rejected the skin expressing T3 b -TL antigen and induced CTL that killed TL + lymphomas of B6 origin revealed that TL antigen encoded by T3 b -TL is recognized as non-self in B6 mice. Experiments are now extended to analyze immune responses to TL antigen expressed on autochthonous T cell lymphomas. (J.P.N.)

  19. An atomistic investigation of the effect of strain on frictional properties of suspended graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingshun Bai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We performed molecular dynamics (MD simulations of a diamond probe scanned on a suspended graphene to reveal the effect of strain on the frictional properties of suspended graphene. The graphene was subjected to some certain strain along the scanning direction. We compared the friction coefficient obtained from different normal loads and strain. The results show that the friction coefficient can be decreased about one order of magnitude with the increase of the strain. And that can be a result of the decreased asymmetry of the contact region which is caused by strain. The synthetic effect of potential energy and the fluctuation of contact region were found to be the main reason accounting for the fluctuation of the friction force. The strain can reduce the fluctuation of the contact region and improve the stability of friction.

  20. RAPD Analysis and Antibiotic Susceptibility for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains Isolated from Different Locations in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The routine identification of mycobacterial strains isolated from patients in different locations in Egypt was confirmed by specific DNA fragment amplification. The susceptibilities of 72 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains against the four antibiotics used in tuberculosis treatment (Isoniazid, INH; Rifampicin, Rif; Streptomycin, St and Ethambutol, E were examined. Our results indicated that, multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB represents about 19.5% of the tested strains, whereas sensitive strains represented 26.4%. The genetic polymorphism of the tested strains was examined using RAPD analysis. Six selected strains represent the different antibiotic susceptibility groups were examined using RAPD fingerprinting. No difference between the strains was recorded using the RFLP analysis of amplified specific fragment. The discrimination power of RAPD analysis was inadequate to clarify the genetic correlation between the tested strains. MDR-TB was approximately double time in 2008 compared with the value in 2007. Most of the new MDRTB was correlated with resident dense population regions.

  1. Characterization of Bacillus subtilis strains in Thua nao, a traditional fermented soybean food in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inatsu, Y; Nakamura, N; Yuriko, Y; Fushimi, T; Watanasiritum, L; Kawamoto, S

    2006-09-01

    To clarify the diversity of Bacillus subtilis strains in Thua nao that produce high concentrations of products useful in food manufacturing and in health-promoting compounds. Production of amylase, protease, subtilisin NAT (nattokinase), and gamma-polyglutamic acid (PGA) by the Bacillus subtilis strains in Thua nao was measured. Productivity of protease NAT by these strains tended to be higher than by Japanese commercial natto-producing strains. Molecular diversity of isolated strains was analysed via randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR fingerprinting. The strains were divided into 19 types, including a type with the same pattern as a Japanese natto-producing strain. B. subtilis strains that could be a resource for effective production of protease, amylase, subtilisin NAT, or PGA were evident in Thua nao produced in various regions in northern Thailand. This study clearly demonstrated the value of Thua nao as a potential resource of food-processing enzymes and health-promoting compounds.

  2. Nutritionally fastidious Ruminococct $ flovefociens : strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    than those obtained in a medium containing rumen fluid. Growth of all strains was remarkably uniform. Where the same inoculum was used, differences in the qualitative com- position of the medium usually had little effect on growth. In contrast, the R. f/avefaciens strains were much more variable in their growth responses.

  3. Haldane model under nonuniform strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yen-Hung; Castro, Eduardo V.; Cazalilla, Miguel A.

    2017-10-01

    We study the Haldane model under strain using a tight-binding approach, and compare the obtained results with the continuum-limit approximation. As in graphene, nonuniform strain leads to a time-reversal preserving pseudomagnetic field that induces (pseudo-)Landau levels. Unlike a real magnetic field, strain lifts the degeneracy of the zeroth pseudo-Landau levels at different valleys. Moreover, for the zigzag edge under uniaxial strain, strain removes the degeneracy within the pseudo-Landau levels by inducing a tilt in their energy dispersion. The latter arises from next-to-leading order corrections to the continuum-limit Hamiltonian, which are absent for a real magnetic field. We show that, for the lowest pseudo-Landau levels in the Haldane model, the dominant contribution to the tilt is different from graphene. In addition, although strain does not strongly modify the dispersion of the edge states, their interplay with the pseudo-Landau levels is different for the armchair and zigzag ribbons. Finally, we study the effect of strain in the band structure of the Haldane model at the critical point of the topological transition, thus shedding light on the interplay between nontrivial topology and strain in quantum anomalous Hall systems.

  4. Pin clad strains in Phenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Languille, A.

    1979-07-01

    The Phenix reactor has operated for 4 years in a satisfactory manner. The first 2 sub-assembly loadings contained pins clad in solution treated 316. The principal pin strains are: diametral strain (swelling and irradiation creep), ovality and spiral bending of the pin (interaction of wire and pin cluster and wrapper). A pin cluster irradiated to a dose of 80 dpa F reached a pin diameter strain of 5%. This strain is principally due to swelling (low fission gas pressure). The principal parameters governing the swelling are instantaneous dose, time and temperature for a given type of pin cladding. Other types of steel are or will be irradiated in Phenix. In particular, cold-worked titanium stabilised 316 steel should contribute towards a reduction in the pin clad strains and increase the target burn-up in this reactor. (author)

  5. Regions Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Masciarelli, Francesca; Prencipe, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    capital at the regional level, with a large-scale data set of the innovative activities of a representative sample of 2,413 Italian manufacturing firms from 21 regions, and controlling for a large set of firm and regional characteristics, we find that being located in a region characterized by a high...

  6. Genomic diversity of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi-Peng; Cheng, Ruo-Lin; Xi, Yu; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2013-07-01

    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a baculovirus that selectively infects the domestic silkworm. In this study, six BmNPV strains were compared at the whole genome level. We found that the number of bro genes and the composition of the homologous regions (hrs) are the two primary areas of divergence within these genomes. When we compared the ORFs of these BmNPV variants, we noticed a high degree of sequence divergence in the ORFs that are not baculovirus core genes. This result is consistent with the results derived from phylogenetic trees and evolutionary pressure analyses of these ORFs, indicating that ORFs that are not core genes likely play important roles in the evolution of BmNPV strains. The evolutionary relationships of these BmNPV strains might be explained by their geographic origins or those of their hosts. In addition, the total number of hr palindromes seems to affect viral DNA replication in Bm5 cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Differences in 5-HT2A and mGlu2 Receptor Expression Levels and Repressive Epigenetic Modifications at the 5-HT2A Promoter Region in the Roman Low- (RLA-I) and High- (RHA-I) Avoidance Rat Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Luna; Moreno, Jose L; de la Fuente Revenga, Mario

    2018-01-01

    The serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) and metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptors regulate each other and are associated with schizophrenia. The Roman high- (RHA-I) and the Roman low- (RLA-I) avoidance rat strains present well-differentiated behavioral profiles, with the RHA-I strain emerging as a putativ...

  8. [Use of ITS and ISSR markers in the molecular characterisation of Pleurotus djamor hybrid strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Doroteo, Leticia; Zárate Segura, Paola Berenice; Villanueva Arce, Ramón; Yáñez Fernández, Jorge; Garín Aguilar, María Eugenia; Guadarrama Mendoza, Paula Cecilia; Valencia Del Toro, Gustavo

    Molecular characterisation of wild type Pleurotus species is important for germplasm conservation and its further use for genetic improvement. No molecular studies have been performed with monokaryons used for producing hybrid strains, either with the reconstituted strains obtained by pairing those monokaryons. The molecular characterisation of parental dikaryons, hybrid, and reconstituted strains as well as monokaryotic strains, is therefore of utmost importance. To carry out the molecular identification of Pleurotus djamor strains, i.e. dikaryotic wild type strains, hybrid strains, and the monokaryotic strains used for the hybrid formation. Five wild type strains of P. djamor from different states in Mexico were collected and molecularly identified by sequencing the ITS1-5.8-ITS2 region using ITS1 and ITS4 universal oligonucleotides. Four hybrid strains were obtained by pairing neohaplonts of two wild type strains selected. Six ISSR markers were used for the molecular characterisation of monokaryotic and dikaryotic strains. Using the ITS markers, an amplified product of 700bp was obtained in five wild type strains, with a 99-100% similarity with P. djamor. A total of 95 fragments were obtained using the ISSR markers, with 99% of polymorphism. Wild type strains were identified as P. djamor, and were clearly grouped with Mexican strains from other states of Mexico. ISSR markers allowed the generation of polymorphic bands in monokaryotic and dikaryotic strains, splitting both types of strains. The high degree of polymorphism indicates the genetic diversity of P. djamor, an advantage in mushroom production and in the improving of the species. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jakob M.

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... of the cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  10. Strain fluctuations and elastic constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, M.; Rahman, A.

    1982-03-01

    It is shown that the elastic strain fluctuations are a direct measure of elastic compliances in a general anisotropic medium; depending on the ensemble in which the fluctuation is measured either the isothermal or the adiabatic compliances are obtained. These fluctuations can now be calculated in a constant enthalpy and pressure, and hence, constant entropy, ensemble due to recent develpments in the molecular dynamics techniques. A calculation for a Ni single crystal under uniform uniaxial 100 tensile or compressive load is presented as an illustration of the relationships derived between various strain fluctuations and the elastic modulii. The Born stability criteria and the behavior of strain fluctuations are shown to be related.

  11. Strain accumulation in quasicrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, F.; Ronchetti, M.; Elser, V.

    1988-01-01

    We study the relaxation of 2D quasicrystalline elastic networks when their constituent bonds are perturbed homogeneously. Whereas ideal, quasiperiodic networks are stable against such perturbations, we find significant accumulations of strain in a class of disordered networks generated by a growth process. The grown networks are characterized by root mean square phason fluctuations which grow linearly with system size. The strain accumulation we observe in these networks also grows linearly with system size. Finally, we find a dependence of strain accumulation on cooling rate

  12. Canthaxanthin production with modified Mucor circinelloides strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Tamás; Csernetics, Arpád; Nagy, Gábor; Bencsik, Ottó; Iturriaga, Enrique A; Eslava, Arturo P; Vágvölgyi, Csaba

    2013-06-01

    Canthaxanthin is a natural diketo derivative of β-carotene primarily used by the food and feed industries. Mucor circinelloides is a β-carotene-accumulating zygomycete fungus and one of the model organisms to study the carotenoid biosynthesis in fungi. In this study, the β-carotene ketolase gene (crtW) of the marine bacterium Paracoccus sp. N81106 fused with fungal promoter and terminator regions was integrated into the M. circinelloides genome to construct stable canthaxanthin-producing strains. Different transformation methods including polyethylene glycol-mediated transformation with linear DNA fragments, restriction enzyme-mediated integration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation were tested to integrate the crtW gene into the Mucor genome. Mitotic stability, site of integration and copy number of the transferred genes were analysed in the transformants, and several stable strains containing the crtW gene in high copy number were isolated. Carotenoid composition of selected transformants and effect of culturing conditions, such as temperature, carbon sources and application of certain additives in the culturing media, on their carotenoid content were analysed. Canthaxanthin-producing transformants were able to survive at higher growth temperature than the untransformed strain, maybe due to the effect of canthaxanthin on the membrane fluidity and integrity. With the application of glucose, trehalose, dihydroxyacetone and L-aspartic acid as sole carbon sources in minimal medium, the crtW-expressing M. circinelloides strain, MS12+pCA8lf/1, produced more than 200 μg/g (dry mass) of canthaxanthin.

  13. Rapid discrimination of strain-dependent fermentation characteristics among Lactobacillus strains by NMR-based metabolomics of fermented vegetable juice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Tomita

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the applicability of NMR-based metabolomics to discriminate strain-dependent fermentation characteristics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, which are important microorganisms for fermented food production. To evaluate the discrimination capability, six type strains of Lactobacillus species and six additional L. brevis strains were used focusing on i the difference between homo- and hetero-lactic fermentative species and ii strain-dependent characteristics within L. brevis. Based on the differences in the metabolite profiles of fermented vegetable juices, non-targeted principal component analysis (PCA clearly separated the samples into those inoculated with homo- and hetero-lactic fermentative species. The separation was primarily explained by the different levels of dominant metabolites (lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol. Orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis, based on a regions-of-interest (ROIs approach, revealed the contribution of low-abundance metabolites: acetoin, phenyllactic acid, p-hydroxyphenyllactic acid, glycerophosphocholine, and succinic acid for homolactic fermentation; and ornithine, tyramine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA for heterolactic fermentation. Furthermore, ROIs-based PCA of seven L. brevis strains separated their strain-dependent fermentation characteristics primarily based on their ability to utilize sucrose and citric acid, and convert glutamic acid and tyrosine into GABA and tyramine, respectively. In conclusion, NMR metabolomics successfully discriminated the fermentation characteristics of the tested strains and provided further information on metabolites responsible for these characteristics, which may impact the taste, aroma, and functional properties of fermented foods.

  14. Strain-based failure criteria for steel containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanous, F.; Greimann, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    The Containment Integrity Division of the Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has been conducting a program to evaluate the performance of containment buildings with internal pressure. Sandia has suggested that in the absence of leakage past penetrations, containment buildings will fail by rupturing after large plastic strains are developed up to ultimate strain of the material. This paper represents a portion of work conducted at Ames Laboratory for Sandia, the objective of which was to identify fabrication details that may affect the performance of a containment building. Construction drawings for nine steel containment buildings were surveyed, and several significant strain concentration regions were identified by using recommendations from Sandia and Section NE-3217 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. These following regions were identified as: eccentricities in stiffener patterns around penetrations, eccentricities in containment shell middle surface, flat plate covers used on spare penetrations, containment base connection details, and containment heads. Examples of each of these regions were analyzed by the finite-element method, by simplified equations or both. In the case of middle surface eccentricities, the strains were found to be self-limiting. Even though flat plates have primary strains, they are typically designed so as not to control. Bolts in the base connection have primary strains and may control. The circumferential compressive strains introduced at the knuckle during buckling of the containment head grow as the pressure increases, but are somewhat restricted by the meridional tension. Finally, three analysis techniques and their associated failure criteria for the analysis of containment strength are introduced. (orig.)

  15. Identification of novel conserved functional motifs across most Influenza A viral strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Azab Iman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza A virus poses a continuous threat to global public health. Design of novel universal drugs and vaccine requires a careful analysis of different strains of Influenza A viral genome from diverse hosts and subtypes. We performed a systematic in silico analysis of Influenza A viral segments of all available Influenza A viral strains and subtypes and grouped them based on host, subtype, and years isolated, and through multiple sequence alignments we extrapolated conserved regions, motifs, and accessible regions for functional mapping and annotation. Results Across all species and strains 87 highly conserved regions (conservation percentage > = 90% and 19 functional motifs (conservation percentage = 100% were found in PB2, PB1, PA, NP, M, and NS segments. The conservation percentage of these segments ranged between 94 - 98% in human strains (the most conserved, 85 - 93% in swine strains (the most variable, and 91 - 94% in avian strains. The most conserved segment was different in each host (PB1 for human strains, NS for avian strains, and M for swine strains. Target accessibility prediction yielded 324 accessible regions, with a single stranded probability > 0.5, of which 78 coincided with conserved regions. Some of the interesting annotations in these regions included sites for protein-protein interactions, the RNA binding groove, and the proton ion channel. Conclusions The influenza virus has evolved to adapt to its host through variations in the GC content and conservation percentage of the conserved regions. Nineteen universal conserved functional motifs were discovered, of which some were accessible regions with interesting biological functions. These regions will serve as a foundation for universal drug targets as well as universal vaccine design.

  16. Regional development and regional policy

    OpenAIRE

    Šabić, Dejan; Vujadinović, Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Economic polarization is a process that is present at global, national and regional level. Economic activity is extremely spatially concentrated. Cities and developed regions use the agglomeration effect to attract labor and capital, thus achieving more favorable economic conditions than the agrarian region. Scientific research and European experiences over the past decades have contributed to the discrepancy among theorists about the causes and consequences of regional inequalities. Regional...

  17. Vibrio cholerae classical biotype strains reveal distinct signatures in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Munirul; Islam, M Tarequl; Rashed, Shah Manzur; Johura, Fatema-tuz; Bhuiyan, Nurul A; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales, Rosario; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Watanabe, Haruo; Hasan, Nur-A; Colwell, Rita R; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2012-07-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 classical (CL) biotype caused the fifth and sixth pandemics, and probably the earlier cholera pandemics, before the El Tor (ET) biotype initiated the seventh pandemic in Asia in the 1970s by completely displacing the CL biotype. Although the CL biotype was thought to be extinct in Asia and although it had never been reported from Latin America, V. cholerae CL and ET biotypes, including a hybrid ET, were found associated with areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1991 and 1997. In this study, CL biotype strains isolated from areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1983 and 1997 were characterized in terms of major phenotypic and genetic traits and compared with CL biotype strains isolated in Bangladesh between 1962 and 1989. According to sero- and biotyping data, all V. cholerae strains tested had the major phenotypic and genotypic characteristics specific for the CL biotype. Antibiograms revealed the majority of the Bangladeshi strains to be resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, furazolidone, ampicillin, and gentamicin, while the Mexican strains were sensitive to all of these drugs, as well as to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of NotI-digested genomic DNA revealed characteristic banding patterns for all of the CL biotype strains although the Mexican strains differed from the Bangladeshi strains in 1 to 2 DNA bands. The difference was subtle but consistent, as confirmed by the subclustering patterns in the PFGE-based dendrogram, and can serve as a regional signature, suggesting the pre-1991 existence and evolution of the CL biotype strains in the Americas, independent from Asia.

  18. 3D Strain Modelling of Tear Fault Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Vietor, T.

    2005-12-01

    Tear faults can be described as vertical discontinuities, with near fault parallel displacements terminating on some sort of shallow detachment. As such, they are difficult to study in "cross section" i.e. 2 dimensions as is often the case for fold-thrust systems. Hence, little attempt has been made to model the evolution of strain around tear faults and the processes of strain localisation in such structures due to the necessity of describing these systems in 3 dimensions and the problems this poses for both numerical and analogue modelling. Field studies suggest that strain in such regions can be distributed across broad zones on minor tear systems, which are often not easily mappable. Such strain is probably assumed to be due to distributed strain and to displacement gradients which are themselves necessary for the initiation of the tear itself. We present a numerical study of the effects of a sharp, basal discontinutiy parallel to the transport direction in a shortening wedge of material. The discontinuity is represented by two adjacent basal surfaces with strongly contrasting (0.5 and 0.05) friction coefficient. The material is modelled using PFC3D distinct element software for simulating granular material, whose properties are chosen to simulate upper crustal, sedimentary rock. The model geometry is a rectangular bounding box, 2km x 1km, and 0.35-0.5km deep, with a single, driving wall of constant velocity. We show the evolution of strain in the model in horizontal and vertical sections, and interpret strain localization as showing the spontaneous development of tear fault like features. The strain field in the model is asymmetrical, rotated towards the strong side of the model. Strain increments seem to oscillate in time, suggesting achievement of a steady state. We also note that our model cannot be treated as a critical wedge, since the 3rd dimension and the lateral variations of strength rule out this type of 2D approximation.

  19. Genome sequencing and analysis of BCG vaccine strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine against tuberculosis (TB has been available for more than 75 years, one third of the world's population is still infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and approximately 2 million people die of TB every year. To reduce this immense TB burden, a clearer understanding of the functional genes underlying the action of BCG and the development of new vaccines are urgently needed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Comparative genomic analysis of 19 M. tuberculosis complex strains showed that BCG strains underwent repeated human manipulation, had higher region of deletion rates than those of natural M. tuberculosis strains, and lost several essential components such as T-cell epitopes. A total of 188 BCG strain T-cell epitopes were lost to various degrees. The non-virulent BCG Tokyo strain, which has the largest number of T-cell epitopes (359, lost 124. Here we propose that BCG strain protection variability results from different epitopes. This study is the first to present BCG as a model organism for genetics research. BCG strains have a very well-documented history and now detailed genome information. Genome comparison revealed the selection process of BCG strains under human manipulation (1908-1966. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed the cause of BCG vaccine strain protection variability at the genome level and supported the hypothesis that the restoration of lost BCG Tokyo epitopes is a useful future vaccine development strategy. Furthermore, these detailed BCG vaccine genome investigation results will be useful in microbial genetics, microbial engineering and other research fields.

  20. Strain localisation in granular media

    OpenAIRE

    Desrues , Jacques

    1984-01-01

    This study is devoted to strain localisation in Granular materials. Both experimental and theoretical results have been obtained.The first part of the thesis is a review of the methods and theories about rupture in sols mechanics and more generally, in solid mechanics. The classical framework of Shear Band analysis is presented, and the main results available for different classes of materials are discussed.The second part describes an experimental study of strain localisation in sand specime...

  1. Microstructure-grain orientation relationship in coarse grain nickel cold-rolled to large strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.S.; Godfrey, A.; Hansen, N.; Xie, J.X.; Liu, Q.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between crystallographic orientation and the deformation microstructure formed during cold-rolling to high strains (up to ε vM = 4.5) has been investigated. The starting material was Ni (99.96% purity) with a coarse initial average grain size (approximately 500 μm). Microstructural characterization was carried out using a combination of electron channeling contrast imaging and electron back-scatter diffraction orientation mapping. An orientation dependence of the deformation microstructure was observed even at the highest strain examined. A large increase in the average boundary misorientation is found at strains above ε vM = 1.8 for regions with the {1 1 2} and {1 2 3} orientations. This increase accompanies the structural transition from a medium strain microstructure to a high strain lamellar microstructure. In contrast, the average misorientation in regions of {1 1 0} orientation increases only slowly even up to the highest strain examined

  2. Strain mediated adatom stripe morphologies on Cu<111> simulated

    OpenAIRE

    Kappus, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Substrate strain mediated adatom configurations on Cu surfaces have been simulated in a coverage range up to nearly 1 monolayer. Interacting adatoms occupy positions on a triangular lattice in two dimensions. The elastic interaction is taken from earlier calculations, short range effects are added for comparison. Dependent on the coverage different morphologies are observed: Superlattices of single adatoms in the 0.04 ML region, ordered adatom clusters in the 0.1 ML region, elongated islands ...

  3. Molecular studies on some soil-Streptomyces strains of western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... Random amplified polymorphic of DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis of the DNA extracted from seven Streptomyces strains of western region, KSA was the aim of this study. Partial sequence of 16S rRNA gene of Streptomyces polychromogenes was also attempted. Results show that.

  4. Technique for measurements of plane waves of uniaxial strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The measurement of plane waves in uniaxial strain, in which large surface areas are loaded and the measurements are restricted to a central region that is not influenced by lateral boundaries, is discussed. Measuring techniques are covered and instruments are discussed

  5. Taxonomy of Streptomyces strains isolated from rhizospheres of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxonomy of Streptomyces strains isolated from rhizospheres of various plant species grown in Taif region, KSA, having antagonistic activities against some microbial tissue ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Keywords: Taxonomy, Streptomyces, microbial tissue culture contaminants, antagonistic activities, 16S rRNA

  6. Molecular studies on some soil- Streptomyces strains of western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random amplified polymorphic of DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis of the DNA extracted from seven Streptomyces strains of western region, KSA was the aim of this study. Partial sequence of 16S rRNA gene of Streptomyces polychromogenes was also attempted. Results show that a total number of ...

  7. Genetic diversity and classification of 51 strains of silkworm Bombyx ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... silkworm (Gamo 1983; Chatterjee and Data, 1992). As sericultural regions of the world have different climatic conditions, physiological diversification has also been influenced by agro-climatic factors. Thus, given geographic isolation and limited cultural exchange, some strains may have acquired similar ...

  8. A novel type of VP4 carried by a porcine rotavirus strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liprandi, Ferdinando; Gerder, Marlene; Bastidas, Zoleida; Lopez, Jose A.; Pujol, Flor H.; Ludert, Juan E.; Joelsson, Daniel B.; Ciarlet, Max

    2003-01-01

    The gene encoding the VP8* trypsin-cleavage product of the VP4 protein of porcine rotavirus strain A34 was sequenced, and the predicted amino acid (aa) sequence was compared to the homologous region of all known P genotypes. The aa sequence of the VP8* of strain A34 shared low identity, ranging from 39% (bovine strain B223, P8[11]) to 76% (human strain 69M, P4[10]), with the homologous sequences of representative strains of the remaining 21 P genotypes. Phylogenetic relationships showed that the VP8* of strain A34 shares a common evolutionary lineage with those of human 69M (P4[10]) and equine H-2 (P4[12]) strains. Hyperimmune sera raised to strain A34 and to a genetic reassortant strain containing the VP4 gene from strain A34, both with high homologous neutralization titer via VP4, failed to neutralize strains representative of 15 different P genotypes. These results indicate that strain A34 should be considered as prototype of a new P genotype and serotype (P14[23]) and provide further evidence for the vast genetic and antigenic diversity of group A rotaviruses

  9. Intraspecific variability of Steinernema feltiae strains from Cemoro Lawang, eastern Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, T; Mulawarman, M; Waeyenberge, L; Moens, M; Viaene, N; Ehlers, R U

    2010-01-01

    Four strains of Steinernema feltiae from Eastern Java, Indonesia were characterized based on morphometric, morphological and molecular data. In addition, their virulence against last instar Tenebrio molitor and heat tolerance was tested. Infective juvenile have a mean body length ranging from 749 to 792 microm. The maximum sequence difference among the four strains was 7 bp (8.8%) in the ITS and 2 bp (0.3%) in D2D3 regions of the rDNA. All the strains are not reproductively isolated and can reproduce with European strain S. feltiae Owiplant. The lowest LC50 was observed for strain SCM (373) and the highest for S. feltiae strain Owiplant (458) IJs/40 T. molitor. All four strains showed relatively better mean heat tolerance when compared with S. feltiae Owiplant, both in adapted and non-adapted heat tolerance experiments.

  10. Bandgap-customizable germanium using lithographically determined biaxial tensile strain for silicon-compatible optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhdeo, David S; Nam, Donguk; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Brongersma, Mark L; Saraswat, Krishna C

    2015-06-29

    Strain engineering has proven to be vital for germanium-based photonics, in particular light emission. However, applying a large permanent biaxial tensile strain to germanium has been a challenge. We present a simple, CMOS-compatible technique to conveniently induce a large, spatially homogenous strain in circular structures patterned within germanium nanomembranes. Our technique works by concentrating and amplifying a pre-existing small strain into a circular region. Biaxial tensile strains as large as 1.11% are observed by Raman spectroscopy and are further confirmed by photoluminescence measurements, which show enhanced and redshifted light emission from the strained germanium. Our technique allows the amount of biaxial strain to be customized lithographically, allowing the bandgaps of different germanium structures to be independently customized in a single mask process.

  11. Variation in genotype and higher virulence of a strain of Sporothrix schenckii causing disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenying; Liu, Xiaoming; Lv, Xuelian; Lin, Jingrong

    2011-12-01

    Sporotrichosis is usually a localized, lymphocutaneous disease, but its disseminated type was rarely reported. The main objective of this study was to identify specific DNA sequence variation and virulence of a strain of Sporothrix schenckii isolated from the lesion of disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis. We confirmed this strain to be S. schenckii by(®) tubulin and chitin synthase gene sequence analysis in addition to the routine mycological and partial ITS and NTS sequencing. We found a 10-bp deletion in the ribosomal NTS region of this strain, in reference to the sequence of control strains isolated from fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis. After inoculated into immunosuppressed mice, this strain caused more extensive system involvement and showed stronger virulence than the control strain isolated from a fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis. Our study thus suggests that different clinical manifestation of sporotrichosis may be associated with variation in genotype and virulence of the strain, independent of effects due to the immune status of the host.

  12. Large area strain analysis using scanning transmission electron microscopy across multiple images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oni, A. A.; Sang, X.; LeBeau, J. M.; Raju, S. V.; Saxena, S.; Dumpala, S.; Broderick, S.; Rajan, K.; Kumar, A.; Sinnott, S.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we apply revolving scanning transmission electron microscopy to measure lattice strain across a sample using a single reference area. To do so, we remove image distortion introduced by sample drift, which usually restricts strain analysis to a single image. Overcoming this challenge, we show that it is possible to use strain reference areas elsewhere in the sample, thereby enabling reliable strain mapping across large areas. As a prototypical example, we determine the strain present within the microstructure of a Ni-based superalloy directly from atom column positions as well as geometric phase analysis. While maintaining atomic resolution, we quantify strain within nanoscale regions and demonstrate that large, unit-cell level strain fluctuations are present within the intermetallic phase

  13. Stress overshoot in stress-strain curves of Zr65Al10Ni10Cu15 metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Y.; Shibata, T.; Inoue, A.; Masumoto, T.

    1997-01-01

    The essential features of the stress overshoot in the stress-strain curves of Zr 65 Al 10 Ni 10 Cu 15 (at.%) metallic glass that has a wide supercooled liquid region were revealed. The stress overshoot was dependent on temperature, strain rate, and stress relaxation. During the stretch, a change in strain rate gave rise to stress overshoot or undershoot which was sensitive to the variable quantities in the strain rate. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  14. Dynamical x-ray diffraction studies of interfacial strain in superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, J.M.; Chu, S.N.G.; Hamm, R.A.; Panish, M.B.; Ritter, D.; Mancrander, A.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on dynamical X-ray diffraction studies that have been carried out for lattice-matched InGaAs/InP superlattices grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) techniques. The (400) X-ray satellite pattern, which is predominantly affected by the strain modulation, was analyzed. The strain and thickness of the actual layers including the presence of strained interfacial regions were determined

  15. Genetic diversity and molecular characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from winemaking environments

    OpenAIRE

    Schuller, Dorit Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Ciências The principal aim of the present work is to assess the genetic diversity of fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains found in vineyards belonging to the Vinho Verde Region in order to create a strain collection representing the region’s biodiversity wealth as a basis for future strain selection and improvement programs. Validation of molecular techniques for accurate genotyping is an indispensable prerequisite for biogeographical surveys. Molecular ty...

  16. Genomic Changes in an Attenuated ZB Strain of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype Asia1 and Comparison with Its Virulent Parental Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiguo Xin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular basis of attenuation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV serotype Asia1 ZB strain remains unknown. To understand the genetic changes of attenuation, we compared the entire genomes of three different rabbit-passaged attenuated ZB strains (ZB/CHA/58(att, ZBRF168, and ZBRF188 and their virulent parental strains (ZBCF22 and YNBS/58. The results showed that attenuation may be brought about by 28 common amino acid substitutions in the coding region, with one nucleotide point mutation in the 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR and another one in the 3′-UTR. In addition, a total of 21 nucleotides silent mutations had been found after attenuation. These substitutions, alone or in combination, may be responsible for the attenuated phenotype of the ZB strain in cattle. This will contribute to elucidation of attenuating molecular basis of the FMDV ZB strain.

  17. From conventional sensors to fibre optic sensors for strain and force measurements in biomechanics applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roriz, Paulo; Carvalho, Lídia; Frazão, Orlando; Santos, José Luís; Simões, José António

    2014-04-11

    In vivo measurement, not only in animals but also in humans, is a demanding task and is the ultimate goal in experimental biomechanics. For that purpose, measurements in vivo must be performed, under physiological conditions, to obtain a database and contribute for the development of analytical models, used to describe human biomechanics. The knowledge and control of the mechanisms involved in biomechanics will allow the optimization of the performance in different topics like in clinical procedures and rehabilitation, medical devices and sports, among others. Strain gages were first applied to bone in a live animal in 40's and in 80's for the first time were applied fibre optic sensors to perform in vivo measurements of Achilles tendon forces in man. Fibre optic sensors proven to have advantages compare to conventional sensors and a great potential for biomechanical and biomedical applications. Compared to them, they are smaller, easier to implement, minimally invasive, with lower risk of infection, highly accurate, well correlated, inexpensive and multiplexable. The aim of this review article is to give an overview about the evolution of the experimental techniques applied in biomechanics, from conventional to fibre optic sensors. In the next sections the most relevant contributions of these sensors, for strain and force in biomechanical applications, will be presented. Emphasis was given to report of in vivo experiments and clinical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular characterization of a novel Muscovy duck parvovirus isolate: evidence of recombination between classical MDPV and goose parvovirus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianye; Ling, Jueyi; Wang, Zhixian; Huang, Yu; Zhu, Jianzhong; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2017-11-09

    Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) and Goose parvovirus (GPV) are important etiological agents for Muscovy duck parvoviral disease and Derzsy's disease, respectively; both of which can cause substantial economic losses in waterfowl industry. In contrast to GPV, the complete genomic sequence data of MDPV isolates are still limited and their phylogenetic relationships largely remain unknown. In this study, the entire genome of a pathogenic MDPV strain ZW, which was isolated from a deceased Muscovy duckling in 2006 in China, was cloned, sequenced, and compared with that of other classical MDPV and GPV strains. The genome of strain ZW comprises of 5071 nucleotides; this genome was shorter than that of the pathogenic MDPV strain YY (5075 nt). All the four deleted nucleotides produced in strain ZW are located at the base-pairing positions in the palindromic stem of inverted terminal repeats (ITR) without influencing the formation of a hairpin structure. Recombination analysis revealed that strain ZW originated from genetic recombination between the classical MDPV and GPV strain. The YY strain of MDPV acts as the major parent, whereas the virulent strains YZ99-6 and B and the vaccine strain SYG61v of GPV act as the minor parents in varying degrees. Two recombination sites were detected in strain ZW, with the small recombination site surrounding the P9 promoter, and the large recombination site situated in the middle of the VP3 gene. The SYG61V strain is a vaccine strain used for preventing goose parvoviral disease. This strain was found to be solely involved in the recombination event detected in the P9 promoter region. Phylogenetic analyses between strain ZW and other classical strains of MDPV and GPV were performed. The results supported the in silico recombination analysis conclusion. MDPV Strain ZW is a novel recombinant parvovirus, and the bulk of its genome originates from the classical MDPV strain. Two virulent strains and a vaccine strain of GPV were involved in the

  19. Strain typing with IS200 fingerprints in Salmonella abortusovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiaffino, A; Beuzón, C R; Uzzau, S; Leori, G; Cappuccinelli, P; Casadesús, J; Rubino, S

    1996-07-01

    A collection of Salmonella abortusovis isolates was examined for the presence of insertion element IS200. All proved to contain three or four copies of the element. One IS200 hybridization band of approximately 9 kb was found in all isolates, indicating that all S. abortusovis strains carry an IS200 element in similar or identical locations; this band can be potentially useful for serovar identification. S. abortusovis collection isolates from distinct geographic areas were highly polymorphic, suggesting that IS200 fingerprints might provide information on the geographic origin of S. abortusovis strains. Isolates obtained from the same geographic area (the island of Sardinia, Italy) were less polymorphic: all shared three constant IS200 hybridization bands, indicating that they derive from a single ancestor. Most strains analyzed contained an additional copy of IS200 in the variable region of the virulence plasmid. Certain Sardinian flocks proved to be infected by only one S. abortusovis strain, while others harbored two strains. Strain typing with IS200 fingerprints proved to be more reliable than plasmid analysis, because the latter yielded a high degree of polymorphism, even among isolates from the same flock.

  20. Methods for predicting isochronous stress-strain curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyoshige, Masanori; Shimizu, Shigeki; Satoh, Keisuke.

    1976-01-01

    Isochronous stress-strain curves show the relation between stress and total strain at a certain temperature with time as a parameter, and they are drawn up from the creep test results at various stress levels at a definite temperature. The concept regarding the isochronous stress-strain curves was proposed by McVetty in 1930s, and has been used for the design of aero-engines. Recently the high temperature characteristics of materials are shown as the isochronous stress-strain curves in the design guide for the nuclear energy equipments and structures used in high temperature creep region. It is prescribed that these curves are used as the criteria for determining design stress intensity or the data for analyzing the superposed effects of creep and fatigue. In case of the isochronous stress-strain curves used for the design of nuclear energy equipments with very long service life, it is impractical to determine the curves directly from the results of long time creep test, accordingly the method of predicting long time stress-strain curves from short time creep test results must be established. The method proposed by the authors, for which the creep constitution equations taking the first and second creep stages into account are used, and the method using Larson-Miller parameter were studied, and it was found that both methods were reliable for the prediction. (Kako, I.)

  1. Spoilage potential of brettanomyces bruxellensis strains isolated from Italian wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzon, Raffaele; Larcher, Roberto; Guarcello, Rosa; Francesca, Nicola; Settanni, Luca; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2018-03-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis is an important wine spoilage agent. In this study a population of Brettanomyces strains isolated from Italian wines was thoroughly investigated to evaluate adaptability to wine conditions and spoilage potential. The presumptive isolates of Brettanomyces were identified at species level with 26S rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific PCR, and subsequently subjected to analysis of intra-species variability through the study of intron splice sites (ISS-PCR). Although, some strains were tracked in wines from different regions, extensive genetic biodiversity was observed within the B. bruxellensis population investigated. All strains were evaluated for their growth ability in the presence of ethanol, high sugar content, low pH, different temperatures and sulphur dioxide, using optical density and flow cytometry measurement. The ability of yeasts to produce ethyl phenols in red wines with different chemical compositions was evaluated by means of high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The results highlighted wide variability in B. bruxellensis in response to wine limiting factors and in terms of the accumulation of ethyl phenols. As regards this last aspect, the differences found among strains were closely related to chemical composition of wine and strain resistance to environmental stress factors, making a priori evaluation of risk of wine alteration quite difficult. These results suggest that strategies for the control of Brettanomyces should be tailored on the basis of strain distribution and wine characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Innovative Structural Materials and Sections with Strain Hardening Cementitious Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Vikram

    The motivation of this work is based on development of new construction products with strain hardening cementitious composites (SHCC) geared towards sustainable residential applications. The proposed research has three main objectives: automation of existing manufacturing systems for SHCC laminates; multi-level characterization of mechanical properties of fiber, matrix, interface and composites phases using servo-hydraulic and digital image correlation techniques. Structural behavior of these systems were predicted using ductility based design procedures using classical laminate theory and structural mechanics. SHCC sections are made up of thin sections of matrix with Portland cement based binder and fine aggregates impregnating continuous one-dimensional fibers in individual or bundle form or two/three dimensional woven, bonded or knitted textiles. Traditional fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) use random dispersed chopped fibers in the matrix at a low volume fractions, typically 1-2% to avoid to avoid fiber agglomeration and balling. In conventional FRC, fracture localization occurs immediately after the first crack, resulting in only minor improvement in toughness and tensile strength. However in SHCC systems, distribution of cracking throughout the specimen is facilitated by the fiber bridging mechanism. Influence of material properties of yarn, composition, geometry and weave patterns of textile in the behavior of laminated SHCC skin composites were investigated. Contribution of the cementitious matrix in the early age and long-term performance of laminated composites was studied with supplementary cementitious materials such as fly ash, silica fume, and wollastonite. A closed form model with classical laminate theory and ply discount method, coupled with a damage evolution model was utilized to simulate the non-linear tensile response of these composite materials. A constitutive material model developed earlier in the group was utilized to characterize and

  3. Penicillin-resistant viridans streptococci have obtained altered penicillin-binding protein genes from penicillin-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Dowson, C G; Hutchison, A; Woodford, N; Johnson, A P; George, R C; Spratt, B G

    1990-01-01

    Penicillin-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae possess altered forms of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) with decreased affinity for penicillin. The PBP2B genes of these strains have a mosaic structure, consisting of regions that are very similar to those in penicillin-sensitive strains, alternating with regions that are highly diverged. Penicillin-resistant strains of viridans groups streptococci (e.g., S. sanguis and S. oralis) that produce altered PBPs have also been reported. ...

  4. Job strain and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjollund, Niels Henrik I; Bonde, Jens Peter E; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Giwercman, Aleksander; Olsen, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Job strain, defined as high job demands and low job control, has not previously been explored as a possible determinant of male fertility. We collected prospective data on job strain among men, and describe the associations with semen quality and probability of conceiving a clinical pregnancy during a menstrual cycle. Danish couples (N = 399) who were trying to become pregnant for the first time were followed for up to 6 menstrual periods. All men collected semen samples, and a blood sample was drawn from both partners. Job demand and job control were measured by a self-administered questionnaire at entry, and in each cycle the participants recorded changes in job control or job demand during the previous 30 days. In adjusted analyses, no associations were found between any semen characteristic or sexual hormones and any job strain variable. The odds for pregnancy were not associated with job strain. Psychologic job strain encountered in normal jobs in Denmark does not seem to affect male reproductive function.

  5. Engineering Strain for Improved III-Nitride Optoelectronic Device Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Broeck, Dennis Marnix

    Due to growing environmental and economic concerns, renewable energy generation and high-efficiency lighting are becoming even more important in the scientific community. III-Nitride devices have been essential in production of high-brightness light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and are now entering the photovoltaic (PV) realm as the technology advances. InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well LEDs emitting in the blue/green region have emerged as promising candidates for next-generation lighting technologies. Due to the large lattice mismatch between InN and GaN, large electric fields exist within the quantum well layers and result in low rates of radiative recombination, especially for the green spectral region. This is commonly referred to as the "green gap" and results in poor external quantum efficiencies for light-emitting diodes and laser diodes. In order to mitigate the compressive stress of InGaN QWs, a novel growth technique is developed in order to grown thick, strain-relaxed In yGa1-yN templates for 0.08 structure, "semibulk" InGaN templates were achieved with vastly superior crystal and optical properties than bulk InGaN films. These semibulk InGaN templates were then utilized as new templates for multiple quantum well active layers, effectively reducing the compressive strain in the InGaN wells due to the larger lattice constant of the InGaN template with respect to a GaN template. A zero-stress balance method was used in order to realize a strain-balanced multiple quantum well structure, which again showed improved optical characteristics when compared to fully-strain active regions. The semibulk InGaN template was then implemented into "strain-compensated" LED structures, where light emission was achieved with very little leakage current. Discussion of these strain-compensated devices compared to conventional LEDs is detailed.

  6. Crack tip stress and strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, D.

    1975-01-01

    The study of potential energy variations in a loaded elastic solid containing a crack leads to determination of the crack driving force G. Generalization of this concept to cases other than linear elasticity leads to definition of the integral J. In a linear solid, the crack tip stress field is characterized by a single parameter: the stress-intensity factor K. When the crack tip plastic zone size is confined to the elastic singularity J=G, it is possible to establish relationship between these parameters and plastic strain (and in particular the crack tip opening displacement delta). The stress increases because of the triaxiality effect. This overload rises with increasing strain hardening. When the plastic zone size expands, using certain hypotheses, delta can be calculated. The plastic strain intensity is exclusively dependent on parameter J [fr

  7. Development of new strains and related SCAR markers for an edible mushroom, Hypsizygus marmoreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Y; Park, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Jia; Kim, Jong-Kuk; Ro, Hyeon-Su

    2012-02-01

    New fast-growing and less bitter varieties of Hypsizygus marmoreus were developed by crossing monokaryotic mycelia from a commercial strain (Hm1-1) and a wild strain (Hm3-10). Six of the better tasting new strains with a shorter cultivation period were selected from 400 crosses in a large-scale cultivation experiment. We attempted to develop sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers to identify the new strain from other commercial strains. For the SCAR markers, we conducted molecular genetic analysis on a wild strain and the eight most cultivated H. marmoreus strains collected from various areas in East Asia by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. Ten unique DNA bands for a commercial Hm1-1 strain and the Hm3-10 strain were extracted and their sequences were determined. Primer sets were designed based on the determined sequences. PCR reactions with the primer sets revealed that four primer sets successfully discriminated the new strains from other commercial strains and are thus suitable for commercial purposes. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Growth, delayed fluorescence and pigment composition of four Prorocentrum minimum strains growing at two salinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJA BERDEN-ZRIMEC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prorocentrum minimum is a potentially harmful and widely distributed marine dinoflagellate. Several P. minimum strains have already been studied, showing phylogenetical relations of strains isolated from the same geographical regions. Similarity among the strains was further examined on the basis of their physiology. Pigment composition and concentration, as well as delayed fluorescence (DF decay kinetics and intensity, were measured in four P. minimum strains isolated from the Baltic and Adriatic Seas. The strains were grown at two salinities characteristic of the Baltic (8 PSU and North Adriatic Seas (32 PSU. Strain differences in DF decay kinetics and growth did not always follow their genetic relations. While two strains showed similarities to the previously described strains from the Baltic and Adriatic Seas in DF parameters, the other two strains seemed to be specific. The differences among strains isolated from the same sea could stem from adaptations to conditions in the specific habitats. Cluster analysis based on the ratio of individual carotenoid pigments concentrations to the chlorophyll a concentration or to total carotenoids were not conclusive in showing relations among the strains. Among the measured pigments, only peridinin concentration depended on salinity in all st

  9. Management of digital eye strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles-Brennan, Chantal; Sulley, Anna; Young, Graeme

    2018-05-23

    Digital eye strain, an emerging public health issue, is a condition characterised by visual disturbance and/or ocular discomfort related to the use of digital devices and resulting from a range of stresses on the ocular environment. This review aims to provide an overview of the extensive literature on digital eye strain research with particular reference to the clinical management of symptoms. As many as 90 per cent of digital device users experience symptoms of digital eye strain. Many studies suggest that the following factors are associated with digital eye strain: uncorrected refractive error (including presbyopia), accommodative and vergence anomalies, altered blinking pattern (reduced rate and incomplete blinking), excessive exposure to intense light, closer working distance, and smaller font size. Since a symptom may be caused by one or more factors, a holistic approach should be adopted. The following management strategies have been suggested: (i) appropriate correction of refractive error, including astigmatism and presbyopia; (ii) management of vergence anomalies, with the aim of inducing or leaving a small amount of heterophoria (~1.5 Δ Exo); (iii) blinking exercise/training to maintain normal blinking pattern; (iv) use of lubricating eye drops (artificial tears) to help alleviate dry eye-related symptoms; (v) contact lenses with enhanced comfort, particularly at end-of-day and in challenging environments; (vi) prescription of colour filters in all vision correction options, especially blue light-absorbing filters; and (vii) management of accommodative anomalies. Prevention is the main strategy for management of digital eye strain, which involves: (i) ensuring an ergonomic work environment and practice (through patient education and the implementation of ergonomic workplace policies); and (ii) visual examination and eye care to treat visual disorders. Special consideration is needed for people at a high risk of digital eye strain, such as computer

  10. Taxonomy of oxalotrophic Methylobacterium strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nurettin; Kato, Yuko; Yilmaz, Ferah

    2008-10-01

    Most of the oxalotrophic bacteria are facultative methylotrophs and play important ecological roles in soil fertility and cycling of elements. This study gives a detailed picture of the taxonomy and diversity of these bacteria and provides new information about the taxonomical variability within the genus Methylobacterium. Twelve mesophilic, pink-pigmented, and facultatively methylotrophic oxalate-oxidizing strains were included in this work that had been previously isolated from the soil and some plant tissues by the potassium oxalate enrichment method. The isolates were characterized using biochemical tests, cellular lipid profiles, spectral characteristics of carotenoid pigments, G+C content of the DNA, and 16S rDNA sequencing. The taxonomic similarities among the strains were analyzed using the simple matching ( S SM) and Jaccard ( S J) coefficients, and the UPGMA clustering algorithm. The phylogenetic position of the strains was inferred by the neighbor-joining method on the basis of the 16S rDNA sequences. All isolates were Gram-negative, facultatively methylotrophic, oxidase and catalase positive, and required no growth factors. Based on the results of numerical taxonomy, the strains formed four closely related clusters sharing ≥85% similarity. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences demonstrated that oxalotrophic, pink-pigmented, and facultatively methylotrophic strains could be identified as members of the genus Methylobacterium. Except for M. variabile and M. aquaticum, all of the Methylobacterium type strains tested had the ability of oxalate utilization. Our results indicate that the capability of oxalate utilization seems to be an uncommon trait and could be used as a valuable taxonomic criterion for differentiation of Methylobacterium species.

  11. Estimating flood magnitude and frequency at gaged and ungaged sites on streams in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada, based on data through water year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet H.; Barth, Nancy A.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Ourso, Robert T.

    2016-03-16

    Estimates of the magnitude and frequency of floods are needed across Alaska for engineering design of transportation and water-conveyance structures, flood-insurance studies, flood-plain management, and other water-resource purposes. This report updates methods for estimating flood magnitude and frequency in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada. Annual peak-flow data through water year 2012 were compiled from 387 streamgages on unregulated streams with at least 10 years of record. Flood-frequency estimates were computed for each streamgage using the Expected Moments Algorithm to fit a Pearson Type III distribution to the logarithms of annual peak flows. A multiple Grubbs-Beck test was used to identify potentially influential low floods in the time series of peak flows for censoring in the flood frequency analysis.For two new regional skew areas, flood-frequency estimates using station skew were computed for stations with at least 25 years of record for use in a Bayesian least-squares regression analysis to determine a regional skew value. The consideration of basin characteristics as explanatory variables for regional skew resulted in improvements in precision too small to warrant the additional model complexity, and a constant model was adopted. Regional Skew Area 1 in eastern-central Alaska had a regional skew of 0.54 and an average variance of prediction of 0.45, corresponding to an effective record length of 22 years. Regional Skew Area 2, encompassing coastal areas bordering the Gulf of Alaska, had a regional skew of 0.18 and an average variance of prediction of 0.12, corresponding to an effective record length of 59 years. Station flood-frequency estimates for study sites in regional skew areas were then recomputed using a weighted skew incorporating the station skew and regional skew. In a new regional skew exclusion area outside the regional skew areas, the density of long-record streamgages was too sparse for regional analysis and station skew was used

  12. Point Locations of 849 Continuous Record Streamflow Gages Used to Estmate Annual and Average Values of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  13. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  14. Strain, Stress and Seismicity pattern in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlié, Nicolas; Woessner, Jochen; Villiger, Arturo; Deichmann, Nicholas; Rothacher, Markus; Giardini, Domenico; Geiger, Alain

    2013-04-01

    Switzerland lies across one of the most complex plate boundary in the world. With a 100 Ma of deformation history, and a wide diversity of deformation mechanism, it is an ideal place to study the link(s) between small strain rates measured at the surface and stress dissipated at depth. The link is of genuine interest for seismic hazard assessment as it provides an independent estimate for moment release within the seismogenic volume. We use geodetic (GPS velocities, shortening axes, strain maps) and seismic (anisotropy, P-axes, focal mechanisms) datasets in order to assess whether the stress accumulated at depth due to the continental collision reflects the deformation rates measured at the surface and correlates with the seismic activity as well as the stress directions deduced from earthquake focal mechanisms throughout the area - or not. While the deformation amplitudes of the area are small (less than 10-7 yr-1) in some areas of Switzerland, we can relate long- and short-term features of the tectonic processes occurring over the last 10+ Ma. Preliminary results suggest that while deformation rates measured by GPS are large in the Ticino compared to the Valais region - its seismic activity rate is lower. This implies other processes might play important roles in the generation of seismicity.

  15. Noncontacting-optical-strain device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    Noncontacting-strain-measuring gauge and extensometer remotely measures the mechanical displacement along the entire length of a test specimen. Measurement is accomplished by continuous scanning of a reflected light from reflective bench markings or stripes previously affixed to the specimen.

  16. Job strain and tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...... strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults....

  17. Strain effects in oxide superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, H.; Kuroda, T.; Sekine, H.; Yuyama, M.; Itoh, K.

    1991-01-01

    Strain sensitivities of superconducting properties are critical to high magnetic field applications of superconductors, since critical temperature, T c , upper critical field, H c2 , and critical current (density), I c (J c ), are all degraded under strains. Oxide superconductors so far known are all very fragile, thus requiring to be fabricated in the form of composite. In the case of practical metallic superconductors, such as Nb 3 Sn and V 3 Ga, the so-called bronze method has been developed where these superconducting intermetallics are enveloped in a ductile metallic sheath. Recently, a fabrication method similar to the bronze method has been developed for the Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x superconductors using Ag tubes as sheath. In the present study mono- and multicore BiPbSrCaCuO tape conductors were prepared by means of this Ag-sheath composite method, and examined in terms of strain sensitivity by measuring their T c and I c (J c ) under bending or tensile strains. (orig.)

  18. Earthquake potential in California-Nevada implied by correlation of strain rate and seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuehua; Petersen, Mark D.; Shen, Zheng-Kang

    2018-01-01

    Rock mechanics studies and dynamic earthquake simulations show that patterns of seismicity evolve with time through (1) accumulation phase, (2) localization phase, and (3) rupture phase. We observe a similar pattern of changes in seismicity during the past century across California and Nevada. To quantify these changes, we correlate GPS strain rates with seismicity. Earthquakes of M > 6.5 are collocated with regions of highest strain rates. By contrast, smaller magnitude earthquakes of M ≥ 4 show clear spatiotemporal changes. From 1933 to the late 1980s, earthquakes of M ≥ 4 were more diffused and broadly distributed in both high and low strain rate regions (accumulation phase). From the late 1980s to 2016, earthquakes were more concentrated within the high strain rate areas focused on the major fault strands (localization phase). In the same time period, the rate of M > 6.5 events also increased significantly in the high strain rate areas. The strong correlation between current strain rate and the later period of seismicity indicates that seismicity is closely related to the strain rate. The spatial patterns suggest that before the late 1980s, the strain rate field was also broadly distributed because of the stress shadows from previous large earthquakes. As the deformation field evolved out of the shadow in the late 1980s, strain has refocused on the major fault systems and we are entering a period of increased risk for large earthquakes in California.

  19. Comparative genomic and functional analysis of 100 Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains and their comparison with strain GG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François P Douillard

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a lactic acid bacterium that is found in a large variety of ecological habitats, including artisanal and industrial dairy products, the oral cavity, intestinal tract or vagina. To gain insights into the genetic complexity and ecological versatility of the species L. rhamnosus, we examined the genomes and phenotypes of 100 L. rhamnosus strains isolated from diverse sources. The genomes of 100 L. rhamnosus strains were mapped onto the L. rhamnosus GG reference genome. These strains were phenotypically characterized for a wide range of metabolic, antagonistic, signalling and functional properties. Phylogenomic analysis showed multiple groupings of the species that could partly be associated with their ecological niches. We identified 17 highly variable regions that encode functions related to lifestyle, i.e. carbohydrate transport and metabolism, production of mucus-binding pili, bile salt resistance, prophages and CRISPR adaptive immunity. Integration of the phenotypic and genomic data revealed that some L. rhamnosus strains possibly resided in multiple niches, illustrating the dynamics of bacterial habitats. The present study showed two distinctive geno-phenotypes in the L. rhamnosus species. The geno-phenotype A suggests an adaptation to stable nutrient-rich niches, i.e. milk-derivative products, reflected by the alteration or loss of biological functions associated with antimicrobial activity spectrum, stress resistance, adaptability and fitness to a distinctive range of habitats. In contrast, the geno-phenotype B displays adequate traits to a variable environment, such as the intestinal tract, in terms of nutrient resources, bacterial population density and host effects.

  20. Comparative Genomic and Functional Analysis of 100 Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains and Their Comparison with Strain GG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietilä, Taija E.; Järvinen, Hanna M.; Messing, Marcel; Randazzo, Cinzia L.; Paulin, Lars; Laine, Pia; Ritari, Jarmo; Caggia, Cinzia; Lähteinen, Tanja; Brouns, Stan J. J.; Satokari, Reetta; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a lactic acid bacterium that is found in a large variety of ecological habitats, including artisanal and industrial dairy products, the oral cavity, intestinal tract or vagina. To gain insights into the genetic complexity and ecological versatility of the species L. rhamnosus, we examined the genomes and phenotypes of 100 L. rhamnosus strains isolated from diverse sources. The genomes of 100 L. rhamnosus strains were mapped onto the L. rhamnosus GG reference genome. These strains were phenotypically characterized for a wide range of metabolic, antagonistic, signalling and functional properties. Phylogenomic analysis showed multiple groupings of the species that could partly be associated with their ecological niches. We identified 17 highly variable regions that encode functions related to lifestyle, i.e. carbohydrate transport and metabolism, production of mucus-binding pili, bile salt resistance, prophages and CRISPR adaptive immunity. Integration of the phenotypic and genomic data revealed that some L. rhamnosus strains possibly resided in multiple niches, illustrating the dynamics of bacterial habitats. The present study showed two distinctive geno-phenotypes in the L. rhamnosus species. The geno-phenotype A suggests an adaptation to stable nutrient-rich niches, i.e. milk-derivative products, reflected by the alteration or loss of biological functions associated with antimicrobial activity spectrum, stress resistance, adaptability and fitness to a distinctive range of habitats. In contrast, the geno-phenotype B displays adequate traits to a variable environment, such as the intestinal tract, in terms of nutrient resources, bacterial population density and host effects. PMID:23966868

  1. Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT of strains from Turkey and Cyprus reveals a novel monophyletic L. donovani sensu lato group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Gouzelou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New foci of human CL caused by strains of the Leishmania donovani (L. donovani complex have been recently described in Cyprus and the Çukurova region in Turkey (L. infantum situated 150 km north of Cyprus. Cypriot strains were typed by Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE using the Montpellier (MON system as L. donovani zymodeme MON-37. However, multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT has shown that this zymodeme is paraphyletic; composed of distantly related genetic subgroups of different geographical origin. Consequently the origin of the Cypriot strains remained enigmatic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Cypriot strains were compared with a set of Turkish isolates obtained from a CL patient and sand fly vectors in south-east Turkey (Çukurova region; CUK strains and from a VL patient in the south-west (Kuşadasi; EP59 strain. These Turkish strains were initially analyzed using the K26-PCR assay that discriminates MON-1 strains by their amplicon size. In line with previous DNA-based data, the strains were inferred to the L. donovani complex and characterized as non MON-1. For these strains MLEE typing revealed two novel zymodemes; L. donovani MON-309 (CUK strains and MON-308 (EP59. A population genetic analysis of the Turkish isolates was performed using 14 hyper-variable microsatellite loci. The genotypic profiles of 68 previously analyzed L. donovani complex strains from major endemic regions were included for comparison. Population structures were inferred by combination of bayesian model-based and distance-based approaches. MLMT placed the Turkish and Cypriot strains in a subclade of a newly discovered, genetically distinct L. infantum monophyletic group, suggesting that the Cypriot strains may originate from Turkey. CONCLUSION: The discovery of a genetically distinct L. infantum monophyletic group in the south-eastern Mediterranean stresses the importance of species genetic characterization towards better understanding

  2. Characterization of Multifunctional Carbon Nanotube Yarns: In-situ Strain Sensing and Composite Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Christian David

    together during twisting. For CNT yarns, this level is referred to as packs since the title "bundle" has already been widely used as the grouping of individual CNTs. The utilization of conventional textile mechanics is supported by the congruent stress strain curves of cotton/wool yarns and CNT yarns. With this new perspective, sources of strength losses can be identified and, in most cases, quantified. Deterministic and statistical textile models are used to enumerate three top-level parameters which affect the yarn's strength. This approach offers guidance for future work to be done in the field of CNT yarns, including the growth of raw CNT forests, the spinning procedures involved, and any post-processing steps that may arise that can mitigate these losses that are extremely degrading to the CNT yarn mechanical strength. The strength of the yarn is a direct reflection of the quality of the yarn's structure. These morphological properties across the nano, meso, and macro scales have an effect on other physical properties such as electromechanical sensitivity. Improving the strength will also improve the yarn's ability to serve as a strain gage. Coupled with its appealing size, these yarns will be an effective in-situ embedded strain sensor. In conclusion, high quality CNT yarns with minimized strength losses show promise for structural health monitoring of advanced materials and structures since they can be both strongly reinforcing and electromechanically sensitive.

  3. Soft tissue strain measurement using an optical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Siew Lok; Tay, Cho Jui; Goh, Cho Hong James

    2008-11-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) is a non-contact optical technique that allows the full-field estimation of strains on a surface under an applied deformation. In this project, the application of an optimized DIC technique is applied, which can achieve efficiency and accuracy in the measurement of two-dimensional deformation fields in soft tissue. This technique relies on matching the random patterns recorded in images to directly obtain surface displacements and to get displacement gradients from which the strain field can be determined. Digital image correlation is a well developed technique that has numerous and varied engineering applications, including the application in soft and hard tissue biomechanics. Chicken drumstick ligaments were harvested and used during the experiments. The surface of the ligament was speckled with black paint to allow for correlation to be done. Results show that the stress-strain curve exhibits a bi-linear behavior i.e. a "toe region" and a "linear elastic region". The Young's modulus obtained for the toe region is about 92 MPa and the modulus for the linear elastic region is about 230 MPa. The results are within the values for mammalian anterior cruciate ligaments of 150-300 MPa.

  4. Effect of Strain Rate on Microscopic Deformation Behavior of High-density Polyethylene under Uniaxial Stretching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kida Takumitsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic deformation behaviors such as the load sharing and the molecular orientation of high-density polyethylene under uniaxial stretching at various strain rates were investigated by using in-situ Raman spectroscopy. The chains within crystalline phase began to orient toward the stretching direction beyond the yielding region and the orientation behavior was not affected by the strain rate. While the stretching stress along the crystalline chains was also not affected by the strain rate, the peak shifts of the Raman bands at 1130, 1418, 1440 and 1460 cm-1, which are sensitive to the interchain interactions obviously, depended on the strain rate; the higher strain rates lead to the stronger stretching stress or negative pressure on the crystalline and amorphous chains. These effects of the strain rate on the microscopic deformation was associated with the cavitation and the void formation leading to the release of the internal pressure.

  5. OSM-Classic : An optical imaging technique for accurately determining strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Daniel R.; Ayranci, Cagri; Nobes, David S.

    OSM-Classic is a program designed in MATLAB® to provide a method of accurately determining strain in a test sample using an optical imaging technique. Measuring strain for the mechanical characterization of materials is most commonly performed with extensometers, LVDT (linear variable differential transistors), and strain gauges; however, these strain measurement methods suffer from their fragile nature and it is not particularly easy to attach these devices to the material for testing. To alleviate these potential problems, an optical approach that does not require contact with the specimen can be implemented to measure the strain. OSM-Classic is a software that interrogates a series of images to determine elongation in a test sample and hence, strain of the specimen. It was designed to provide a graphical user interface that includes image processing with a dynamic region of interest. Additionally, the stain is calculated directly while providing active feedback during the processing.

  6. Deformation-strain field in Sichuan and its surrounding areas based on GPS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchao Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The strain rate in Sichuan and its surrounding areas, and the activity rate and strain rate in two block boundary fault zones were calculated according to the block movement parameters estimated using the station speed obtained from regional GPS station observation data in these areas for 2009–2011 and GPS continuous station data for 2011–2013. The movement field characteristics in these areas were analyzed with the Sichuan Basin as the reference. Results show that the principal strain rate and maximum shear strain rate of the Bayan Har block were the largest, followed by those of the Sichuan–Yunnan block and Sichuan Basin. The deep normal strain rate in the Longmenshan fault zone was compressive and large over the study period. The normal strain rate in the Xianshuihe fault zone was tensile.

  7. A NEW STRAIN OF TRANSMISSIBLE LEUCEMIA IN FOWLS (STRAIN H).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellermann, V

    1921-03-31

    1. A new strain of fowl leucosis has been transmitted through twelve generations of fowls. 2. An increase in virulence was observed during its passage. This was shown in a shortening of the interval between inoculation and death. The increase in virulence does not affect the number of successful inoculations, which remains approximately constant in from 20 to 40 per cent of the birds employed. 3. As with former strains, the disease manifests itself in various forms; i.e., myeloid and intravascular lymphoid types. A single lymphatic case was observed. 4. In several intravascular cases a diminution in the hemolytic power of the serum was established. This phenomenon was absent in a number of myeloid cases. 5. Active immunization cannot be produced by means of the subcutaneous injection of virulent material. 6. The finding of previous experiments that the virus is filterable has been confirmed. 7. The inoculation of human leucemic material into fowls gave negative results.

  8. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus strains in Hungarian maize fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebők, Flóra; Dobolyi, Csaba; Zágoni, Dóra; Risa, Anita; Krifaton, Csilla; Hartman, Mátyás; Cserháti, Mátyás; Szoboszlay, Sándor; Kriszt, Balázs

    2016-12-01

    Due to the climate change, aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species and strains have appeared in several European countries, contaminating different agricultural commodities with aflatoxin. Our aim was to screen the presence of aflatoxigenic fungi in maize fields throughout the seven geographic regions of Hungary. Fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated in the ratio of 26.9% and 42.3% from soil and maize samples in 2013, and these ratios decreased to 16.1% and 34.7% in 2014. Based on morphological characteristics and the sequence analysis of the partial calmodulin gene, all isolates proved to be Aspergillus flavus, except four strains, which were identified as Aspergillus parasiticus. About half of the A. flavus strains and all the A. parasiticus strains were able to synthesize aflatoxins. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus strains were isolated from all the seven regions of Hungary. A. parasiticus strains were found in the soil of the regions Southern Great Plain and Southern Transdanubia and in a maize sample of the region Western Transdanubia. In spite of the fact that aflatoxins have rarely been detected in feeds and foods in Hungary, aflatoxigenic A. flavus and A. parasiticus strains are present in the maize culture throughout Hungary posing a potential threat to food safety.

  9. Closely-related Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu stricto) strains exhibit similar fitness in single infections and asymmetric competition in multiple infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynkiewicz, Evelyn C; Brown, Julia; Tufts, Danielle M; Huang, Ching-I; Kampen, Helge; Bent, Stephen J; Fish, Durland; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A

    2017-02-06

    Wild hosts are commonly co-infected with complex, genetically diverse, pathogen communities. Competition is expected between genetically or ecologically similar pathogen strains which may influence patterns of coexistence. However, there is little data on how specific strains of these diverse pathogen species interact within the host and how this impacts pathogen persistence in nature. Ticks are the most common disease vector in temperate regions with Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, being the most common vector-borne pathogen in North America. Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogen of high public health concern and there is significant variation in infection phenotype between strains, which influences predictions of pathogen dynamics and spread. In a laboratory experiment, we investigated whether two closely-related strains of B. burgdorferi (sensu stricto) showed similar transmission phenotypes, how the transmission of these strains changed when a host was infected with one strain, re-infected with the same strain, or co-infected with two strains. Ixodes scapularis, the black-legged tick, nymphs were used to sequentially infect laboratory-bred Peromyscus leucopus, white-footed mice, with one strain only, homologous infection with the same stain, or heterologous infection with both strains. We used the results of this laboratory experiment to simulate long-term persistence and maintenance of each strain in a simple simulation model. Strain LG734 was more competitive than BL206, showing no difference in transmission between the heterologous infection groups and single-infection controls, while strain BL206 transmission was significantly reduced when strain LG734 infected first. The results of the model show that this asymmetry in competition could lead to extinction of strain BL206 unless there was a tick-to-host transmission advantage to this less competitive strain. This asymmetric competitive interaction suggests that strain identity and

  10. Comparison of caregiver strain in Parkinson's disease between Yamagata, Japan, and Maryland, The United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanji, Haruko; Koyama, Shingo; Wada, Manabu; Kawanami, Toru; Kurita, Keiji; Tamiya, Gen; Saito, Naohiro; Suzuki, Kyoko; Kato, Takeo; Anderson, Karen E; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Fishman, Paul S; Reich, Stephen G; Weiner, William J; Shulman, Lisa M

    2013-06-01

    Japan and the United States (US) have different cultures of caregiving including differences in family structure and social programs that may influence caregiver strain. Differences in caregiver strain between regions in Japan and in the US have not been investigated in patient-spouse dyads in PD. To compare caregiver strain in spouses of PD patients between Yamagata, Japan and Maryland, US. Correlations between caregiver strain and patient/spousal variables are also examined. In Yamagata and Maryland, spouses of patients with PD completed questionnaires assessing caregiver strain. Patients and spouses completed scales assessing mental health, and medical co-morbidity. PD severity and disability were assessed with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living Scale. Results in the two regions were compared with Chi-square and Student's t-tests. Relationships between caregiver strain and patient/spousal variables were analyzed with univariate correlations and multivariate regression. 178 Spouse-patient pairs were assessed. The level of caregiver strain in PD did not differ between Yamagata, Japan and Maryland, US despite differences in demographics and social support programs in the two regions. Yamagata spouses reported physical, time and financial constraints, while Maryland spouses reported more emotional distress. In both regions, spousal depression was a significant contributor to caregiver strain. Different approaches to reduce caregiver strain will likely be necessary in Yamagata and Maryland since the contributing factors to caregiver strain are influenced by differences in culture and social supports in each country. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Actual light deflections in regions of crack tips and their influence on measurements in photomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Friedrich W.; Pindera, Jerzy T.; Wen, Baicheng

    Crack-tip photomechanics procedures are based on certain simplifying assumptions that are seldom discussed. In a recent paper the theoretical bases of the shadow optical methods of caustics have been analysed and tested using the results obtained by three analytical-experimental procedures, namely classical strain gage techniques, isodynes, and strain-gradient index method. It has been concluded that the straing-radient index method appears to be a suitable tool for analysis of stress states near crack tips and notches and, in particular, for testing the predictive power of the pertinent singular solutions of the linear elastic fracture mechanics and the ranges of their applicability. In the present paper, a more detailed analysis of all results obtained in light deflection experiments allows to quantify the contribution of both involved effects and to determine the distortion of the faces of the investigated plates along their crack planes. The ability of the strain-gradient light bending method to analyse some features of the three-dimensional stress-state is reported. Finally, the presented experimental evidence allows to draw conclusions related to limits of applicability of certain photomechanical measurements near crack tips. An extensive summary of this paper is published in the Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Photomechanics and Speckle Metrology, Vol. 1554A, part of SPIE's 1991 International Symposium on Optical Applied Science and Engineering, 22-26 July 1991, San Diego, CA, USA. 1

  12. Quantitative analysis of left ventricular strain using cardiac computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buss, Sebastian J., E-mail: sebastian.buss@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schulz, Felix; Mereles, Derliz [Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Hosch, Waldemar [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Galuschky, Christian; Schummers, Georg; Stapf, Daniel [TomTec Imaging Systems GmbH, Munich (Germany); Hofmann, Nina; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Hardt, Stefan E. [Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Katus, Hugo A.; Korosoglou, Grigorios [Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Objectives: To investigate whether cardiac computed tomography (CCT) can determine left ventricular (LV) radial, circumferential and longitudinal myocardial deformation in comparison to two-dimensional echocardiography in patients with congestive heart failure. Background: Echocardiography allows for accurate assessment of strain with high temporal resolution. A reduced strain is associated with a poor prognosis in cardiomyopathies. However, strain imaging is limited in patients with poor echogenic windows, so that, in selected cases, tomographic imaging techniques may be preferable for the evaluation of myocardial deformation. Methods: Consecutive patients (n = 27) with congestive heart failure who underwent a clinically indicated ECG-gated contrast-enhanced 64-slice dual-source CCT for the evaluation of the cardiac veins prior to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) were included. All patients underwent additional echocardiography. LV radial, circumferential and longitudinal strain and strain rates were analyzed in identical midventricular short axis, 4-, 2- and 3-chamber views for both modalities using the same prototype software algorithm (feature tracking). Time for analysis was assessed for both modalities. Results: Close correlations were observed for both techniques regarding global strain (r = 0.93, r = 0.87 and r = 0.84 for radial, circumferential and longitudinal strain, respectively, p < 0.001 for all). Similar trends were observed for regional radial, longitudinal and circumferential strain (r = 0.88, r = 0.84 and r = 0.94, respectively, p < 0.001 for all). The number of non-diagnostic myocardial segments was significantly higher with echocardiography than with CCT (9.6% versus 1.9%, p < 0.001). In addition, the required time for complete quantitative strain analysis was significantly shorter for CCT compared to echocardiography (877 ± 119 s per patient versus 1105 ± 258 s per patient, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Quantitative assessment of LV strain

  13. A robust SNP barcode for typing Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains

    KAUST Repository

    Coll, Francesc

    2014-09-01

    Strain-specific genomic diversity in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is an important factor in pathogenesis that may affect virulence, transmissibility, host response and emergence of drug resistance. Several systems have been proposed to classify MTBC strains into distinct lineages and families. Here, we investigate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as robust (stable) markers of genetic variation for phylogenetic analysis. We identify ∼92k SNP across a global collection of 1,601 genomes. The SNP-based phylogeny is consistent with the gold-standard regions of difference (RD) classification system. Of the ∼7k strain-specific SNPs identified, 62 markers are proposed to discriminate known circulating strains. This SNP-based barcode is the first to cover all main lineages, and classifies a greater number of sublineages than current alternatives. It may be used to classify clinical isolates to evaluate tools to control the disease, including therapeutics and vaccines whose effectiveness may vary by strain type. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  14. Use of Ti plasmid DNA probes for determining tumorigenicity of agrobacterium strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, T.J.; Norelli, J.L.; Katz, B.H.; Bishop, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    Probes consisting of T-DNA genes from the Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens were used for determining tumorigenicity of strains. Two 32 P-labeled probes hybridized with 28 of 28 tumorigenic strains of the pathogen but not with 20 of 22 nontumorigenic strains. One probe, pTHE17, consists of all but the far left portion of the T-DNA of strain C58. Probe SmaI7 consists of SmaI fragment 7 of pTiC58, including onc genes 1, 4, and 6a and most of 2. Another probe, pAL4044, consisting of the vir region of strain Ach-5, hybridized with several nontumorigenic as well as tumorigenic strains. Colony hybridizations were done with 28 tumorigenic and 22 nontumorigenic Agrobacterium strains. About 10 6 CFU of the different tumorigenic strains were detectable with this method. Southern analyses confirmed the presence or absence of Ti plasmids in strains for which tumorigenicity was questioned. Colony hybridization with the T-DNA probes provides a rapid and sensitive means for determining the tumorigenic nature of Agrobacterium strains

  15. Measurement of stress-strain behaviour of human hair fibres using optical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Kwon, H J

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have presented stress-strain relationship of human hair, but most of them have been based on an engineering stress-strain curve, which is not a true representation of stress-strain behaviour. In this study, a more accurate 'true' stress-strain curve of human hair was determined by applying optical techniques to the images of the hair deformed under tension. This was achieved by applying digital image cross-correlation (DIC) to 10× magnified images of hair fibres taken under increasing tension to estimate the strain increments. True strain was calculated by summation of the strain increments according to the theoretical definition of 'true' strain. The variation in diameter with the increase in longitudinal elongation was also measured from the 40× magnified images to estimate the Poisson's ratio and true stress. By combining the true strain and the true stress, a true stress-strain curve could be determined, which demonstrated much higher stress values than the conventional engineering stress-strain curve at the same degree of deformation. Four regions were identified in the true stress-strain relationship and empirical constitutive equations were proposed for each region. Theoretical analysis on the necking condition using the constitutive equations provided the insight into the failure mechanism of human hair. This analysis indicated that local thinning caused by necking does not occur in the hair fibres, but, rather, relatively uniform deformation takes place until final failure (fracture) eventually occurs. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  16. Inverse Funnel Effect of Excitons in Strained Black Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo San-Jose

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the effects of strain on the properties and dynamics of Wannier excitons in monolayer (phosphorene and few-layer black phosphorus (BP, a promising two-dimensional material for optoelectronic applications due to its high mobility, mechanical strength, and strain-tunable direct band gap. We compare the results to the case of molybdenum disulphide (MoS_{2} monolayers. We find that the so-called funnel effect, i.e., the possibility of controlling exciton motion by means of inhomogeneous strains, is much stronger in few-layer BP than in MoS_{2} monolayers and, crucially, is of opposite sign. Instead of excitons accumulating isotropically around regions of high tensile strain like in MoS_{2}, excitons in BP are pushed away from said regions. This inverse funnel effect is moreover highly anisotropic, with much larger funnel distances along the armchair crystallographic direction, leading to a directional focusing of exciton flow. A strong inverse funnel effect could enable simpler designs of funnel solar cells and offer new possibilities for the manipulation and harvesting of light.

  17. Computational strain gradient crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    A numerical method for viscous strain gradient crystal plasticity theory is presented, which incorporates both energetic and dissipative gradient effects. The underlying minimum principles are discussed as well as convergence properties of the proposed finite element procedure. Three problems...... of plane crystal plasticity are studied: pure shear of a single crystal between rigid platens as well as plastic deformation around cylindrical voids in hexagonal close packed and face centered cubic crystals. Effective in-plane constitutive slip parameters for plane strain deformation of specifically...... oriented face centered cubic crystals are developed in terms of the crystallographic slip parameters. The effect on geometrically necessary dislocation structures introduced by plastic deformation is investigated as a function of the ratio of void radius to plasticity length scale....

  18. Internal-strain effect on the valence band of strained silicon and its correlation with the bond angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaoka, Takeshi, E-mail: inaoka@phys.u-ryukyu.ac.jp; Yanagisawa, Susumu; Kadekawa, Yukihiro [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan)

    2014-02-14

    By means of the first-principles density-functional theory, we investigate the effect of relative atom displacement in the crystal unit cell, namely, internal strain on the valence-band dispersion of strained silicon, and find close correlation of this effect with variation in the specific bond angles due to internal strain. We consider the [111] ([110]) band dispersion for (111) ((110)) biaxial tensility and [111] ([110]) uniaxial compression, because remarkably small values of hole effective mass m* can be obtained in this dispersion. Under the practical condition of no normal stress, biaxial tensility (uniaxial compression) involves additional normal compression (tensility) and internal strain. With an increase in the internal-strain parameter, the energy separation between the highest and second-highest valence bands becomes strikingly larger, and the highest band with conspicuously small m* extends remarkably down to a lower energy region, until it intersects or becomes admixed with the second band. This is closely correlated with the change in the specific bond angles, and this change can reasonably explain the above enlargement of the band separation.

  19. Full-length genomic analysis of korean porcine sapelovirus strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Son, Kyu-Yeol; Kim, Deok-Song; Kwon, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    the typical picornavirus genome organization; 5'untranslated region (UTR)-L-VP4-VP2-VP3-VP1-2A-2B-2C-3A-3B-3C-3D-3'UTR. Three distinct cis-active RNA elements, the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) in the 5'UTR, a cis-replication element (CRE) in the 2C coding region and 3'UTR were identified...... and their structures were predicted. Interestingly, the structural features of the CRE and 3'UTR were different between PSV strains. The availability of these first complete genome sequences for PSV strains will facilitate future investigations of the molecular pathogenesis and evolutionary characteristics of PSV....

  20. A mathematical formulation for large strain analysis of geologic continua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, A.B.; Vakili, J.E.; Hume, H.R.

    1987-12-01

    A solution method is presented for finite-deformation analysis of geologic materials. The principle of virtual work is used to state the equations of equilibrium in a weak form. These equations are linearized about the last-established equilibrium configuration. A material constitutive relationship between the Green-Naghdi stress rate and the rate-of-deformation tensor is used to obtain the current stresses. The finite-element governing equations are expressed in a form suitable for an iterative solution strategy. The obtained gradient matrix contains the effects of both material and geometric nonlinearities. The primary application area of this formulation is the analysis of long-term deformation response of the region adjoining the mining shafts and the waste emplacement rooms within a nuclear waste repository. In this region, the strains are expected to be large, and the infinitesimal strain analysis would introduce inaccuracies in the solution. 19 refs., 6 figs

  1. Strain-Detecting Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Terryl A. (Inventor); Smith, Stephen W. (Inventor); Piascik, Robert S. (Inventor); Horne, Michael R. (Inventor); Messick, Peter L. (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor); Glaessgen, Edward H. (Inventor); Hailer, Benjamin T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A composite material includes a structural material and a shape-memory alloy embedded in the structural material. The shape-memory alloy changes crystallographic phase from austenite to martensite in response to a predefined critical macroscopic average strain of the composite material. In a second embodiment, the composite material includes a plurality of particles of a ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy embedded in the structural material. The ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy changes crystallographic phase from austenite to martensite and changes magnetic phase in response to the predefined critical macroscopic average strain of the composite material. A method of forming a composite material for sensing the predefined critical macroscopic average strain includes providing the shape-memory alloy having an austenite crystallographic phase, changing a size and shape of the shape-memory alloy to thereby form a plurality of particles, and combining the structural material and the particles at a temperature of from about 100-700.degree. C. to form the composite material.

  2. Geographic Variation in Sexual Attraction of Spodoptera frugiperda Corn- and Rice-Strain Males to Pheromone Lures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unbehend, Melanie; Hänniger, Sabine; Vásquez, Gissella M.; Juárez, María Laura; Reisig, Dominic; McNeil, Jeremy N.; Meagher, Robert L.; Jenkins, David A.; Heckel, David G.; Groot, Astrid T.

    2014-01-01

    The corn- and rice-strains of Spodoptera frugiperda exhibit several genetic and behavioral differences and appear to be undergoing ecological speciation in sympatry. Previous studies reported conflicting results when investigating male attraction to pheromone lures in different regions, but this could have been due to inter-strain and/or geographic differences. Therefore, we investigated whether corn- and rice-strain males differed in their response to different synthetic pheromone blends in different regions in North America, the Caribbean and South America. All trapped males were strain-typed by two strain-specific mitochondrial DNA markers. In the first experiment, we found a nearly similar response of corn- and rice-strain males to two different 4-component blends, resembling the corn- and rice-strain female blend we previously described from females in Florida. This response showed some geographic variation in fields in Canada, North Carolina, Florida, Puerto Rico, and South America (Peru, Argentina). In dose-response experiments with the critical secondary sex pheromone component (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12:OAc), we found some strain-specific differences in male attraction. While the response to Z7-12:OAc varied geographically in the corn-strain, rice-strain males showed almost no variation. We also found that the minor compound (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:OAc) did not increase attraction of both strains in Florida and of corn-strain males in Peru. In a fourth experiment, where we added the stereo-isomer of the critical sex pheromone component, (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate, to the major pheromone component (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc), we found that this compound was attractive to males in North Carolina, but not to males in Peru. Overall, our results suggest that both strains show rather geographic than strain-specific differences in their response to pheromone lures, and that regional sexual communication differences might cause geographic

  3. [Agrobacterium rubi strains from blueberry plants are highly diverse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamovich, Eliana; López, Ana C; Alippi, Adriana M

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of a collection of Agrobacterium rubi strains isolated from blueberries from different regions of Argentina was studied by conventional microbiological tests and molecular techniques. Results from biochemical and physiological reactions, as well as from rep-PCR and RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified 23S rDNA showed high phenotypic and genotypic intraspecific variation. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutrient content of sorghum beer strainings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum beer strainings were analysed for starch, protein, fat, crude fibre, ash, minerals and ... The importance of minerals in animal nutrition has been recognized for many ..... strainings is probably due to yeast activity during fermentation ...

  5. Yeast strains and methods of use thereof

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, Matthew Robert; Gardner, Richard Clague; Anfang, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to yeast strains and, in particular, to yeast stains for use in fermentation processes. The invention also relates to methods of fermentation using the yeast strains of the invention either alone or in combination with other yeast strains. The invention thither relates to methods for the selection of yeast strains suitable for fermentation cultures by screening for various metabolic products and the use of specific nutrient sources.

  6. Development of Industrial Yeast Platform Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergdahl, Basti; Dato, Laura; Förster, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Most of the current metabolic engineering projects are carried out using laboratory strains as the starting host. Although such strains are easily manipulated genetically, their robustness does not always meet the requirements set by industrial fermentation conditions. In such conditions, the cells...... screening of the 36 industrial and laboratory yeast strains. In addition, progress in the development of molecular biology methods for generating the new strains will be presented....

  7. STRAINED OFF BREAST MILK: PRO AND CONTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.L. Lukoyanova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The questions of feeding of children with strained off breast milk are discussed in this article. Author presents medical indications to such type of feeding, peculiarities and rules of storage of strained off milk. There is a brief literature review on the influence of different factors on the composition of strained off breast milk.Key words: strained milk, breast feeding, pasteurization, freezing.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:70-73

  8. Comparison of the live attenuated yellow fever vaccine 17D-204 strain to its virulent parental strain Asibi by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Andrew; Tesh, Robert B; Wood, Thomas G; Widen, Steven G; Ryman, Kate D; Barrett, Alan D T

    2014-02-01

    The first comparison of a live RNA viral vaccine strain to its wild-type parental strain by deep sequencing is presented using as a model the yellow fever virus (YFV) live vaccine strain 17D-204 and its wild-type parental strain, Asibi. The YFV 17D-204 vaccine genome was compared to that of the parental strain Asibi by massively parallel methods. Variability was compared on multiple scales of the viral genomes. A modeled exploration of small-frequency variants was performed to reconstruct plausible regions of mutational plasticity. Overt quasispecies diversity is a feature of the parental strain, whereas the live vaccine strain lacks diversity according to multiple independent measurements. A lack of attenuating mutations in the Asibi population relative to that of 17D-204 was observed, demonstrating that the vaccine strain was derived by discrete mutation of Asibi and not by selection of genomes in the wild-type population. Relative quasispecies structure is a plausible correlate of attenuation for live viral vaccines. Analyses such as these of attenuated viruses improve our understanding of the molecular basis of vaccine attenuation and provide critical information on the stability of live vaccines and the risk of reversion to virulence.

  9. Comparative genomics of Helicobacter pylori strains of China associated with different clinical outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhai You

    Full Text Available In this study, a whole-genome CombiMatrix Custom oligonucleotide tiling microarray with 90,000 probes covering six sequenced Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori genomes was designed. This microarray was used to compare the genomic profiles of eight unsequenced strains isolated from patients with different gastroduodenal diseases in Heilongjiang province of China. Since significant genomic variation was found among these strains, an additional 76 H. pylori strains associated with different clinical outcomes were isolated from various provinces of China. These strains were tested by polymerase chain reaction to demonstrate this distinction. We identified several highly variable regions in strains associated with gastritis, gastric ulceration, and gastric cancer. These regions are associated with genes involved in the bacterial type I, type II, and type III R-M systems. They were also associated with the virB gene, which lies on the well-studied cag pathogenic island. While previous studies have reported on the diverse genetic characterization of this pathogenic island, in this study, we find that it is conserved in all strains tested by microarray. Moreover, a number of genes involved in the type IV secretion system, which is related to horizontal DNA transfer between H. pylori strains, were identified in the comparative analysis of the strain-specific genes. These findings may provide insight into new biomarkers for the prediction of gastric diseases.

  10. AMHARA REGION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the contribution of school curriculum committee in facilitating and coordinating ... schools of Amhara Region' ln undertaking the study the descriptive survey method was used. .... pupil and the teacher are available. ... prepared for each level and grade has ..... the principals have the opinion that the.

  11. Atlantic Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elands, B.H.M.; Bell, S.; Blok, J.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 2 explores recreation and tourism practices in forest areas in the Atlantic region, which refers to the geographical area close to the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic countries described in this section are Belgium (Flanders and Wallonia), Denmark, Iceland, Ireland, the

  12. Strain gradient effects in surface roughening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik; Fleck, N.A.

    2007-01-01

    evidence for strain gradient effects. Numerical analyses of a bicrystal undergoing in-plane tensile deformation are also studied using a strain gradient crystal plasticity theory and also by using a strain gradient plasticity theory for an isotropic solid. Both theories include an internal material length...

  13. Engineering piezoresistivity using biaxially strained silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Richter, Jacob; Brandbyge, Mads

    2008-01-01

    of the piezocoefficient on temperature and dopant density is altered qualitatively for strained silicon. In particular, we find that a vanishing temperature coefficient may result for silicon with grown-in biaxial tensile strain. These results suggest that strained silicon may be used to engineer the iezoresistivity...

  14. drug resistant strains of Salmonella enterica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The aqueous extract of Thonningia sanguinea can provide an alternative therapy for the treatment of salmonellosis, mainly for typhoid fever caused by MDR strains of S. Typhi.The extract also inhibits S.Hadar a MDR emerging strain in Ivory Coast. Keywords: Thonningia sanguinea; Salmonella, MDR strains, ...

  15. Strain path dependency in metal plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viatkina, E.M.; Brekelmans, W.A.M.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2003-01-01

    A change in strain path has a significant effect on the mechanical response of metals. Strain path change effects physically originate from a complex microstructure evolution. This paper deals with the contribution of cell structure evolution to the strain path change effect. The material with cells

  16. Stress and strain measurements in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askegaard, V.

    1978-01-01

    A design basis is given for stress- and strain cells to be used in a solid either externally loaded or with a stressfree strain field (for example shrinkage). A stress- and a strain cell has been designed for use in granular materials. Calibration tests show either good or reasonably good correspondance with calculated values. (orig.) [de

  17. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2000-01-01

    pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  18. Strain engineering of van der Waals heterostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Paul A.; Mulder, Jefta; Momand, Jamo; Kooi, Bart J.

    2018-01-01

    Modifying the strain state of solids allows control over a plethora of functional properties. The weak interlayer bonding in van der Waals (vdWaals) materials such as graphene, hBN, MoS2, and Bi2Te3 might seem to exclude strain engineering, since strain would immediately relax at the vdWaals

  19. Diversity of Geotrichum candidum strains isolated from traditional cheesemaking fabrications in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellino, N; Beuvier, E; Grappin, R; Guéguen, M; Benson, D R

    2001-10-01

    The diversity of French fungus-ripened cheeses is due partly to the succession of fungi that colonize the cheese during ripening. Geotrichum candidum appears in the early stages of ripening on soft cheeses such as Camembert and semihard cheeses such as St. Nectaire and Reblochon. Its lipases and proteases promote flavor development, and its aminopeptidases reduce bitterness imparted by low-molecular-weight peptides in cheese. We assessed the genetic diversity of G. candidum strains by using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR correlated with phenotypic tests for carbon assimilation and salt tolerance. Strains were isolated from milk, curd, and cheese collected in seven major cheesemaking regions of France. Sixty-four isolates were characterized. We found high genetic diversity of G. candidum even within the same cheesemaking regions. Strains did not group according to region. All of the strains from the Haute-Savoie were able to assimilate lactate as the sole source of carbon, while lactate assimilation varied among strains from the Auvergne. Strains varied in D-mannitol assimilation, and none used citrate as the sole source of carbon. Yeast-like colony morphology predominated in Reblochon, while all of the strains isolated from St. Nectaire were filamentous. The RAPD-PCR technique readily differentiated Geotrichum fragrans isolated from milk and curd in a St. Nectaire cheesemaking facility. This study reveals an enormous diversity of G. candidum that has been empirically selected through the centuries by the cheesemakers of France.

  20. Visualization of bonding at an inclusion boundary using axial-shear strain elastography: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thitaikumar, Arun; Krouskop, Thomas A; Garra, Brian S; Ophir, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography produces strain images of compliant tissues under quasi-static compression. In axial-shear strain elastography, the local axial-shear strain resulting from application of quasi-static axial compression to an inhomogeneous material is imaged. The overall hypothesis of this work is that the pattern of axial-shear strain distribution around the inclusion/background interface is completely determined by the bonding at the interface after normalization for inclusion size and applied strain levels, and that it is feasible to extract certain features from the axial-shear strain elastograms to quantify this pattern. The mechanical model used in this study consisted of a single stiff circular inclusion embedded in a homogeneous softer background. First, we performed a parametric study using finite-element analysis (FEA) (no ultrasound involved) to identify possible features that quantify the pattern of axial-shear strain distribution around an inclusion/background interface. Next, the ability to extract these features from axial-shear strain elastograms, estimated from simulated pre- and post-compression noisy RF data, was investigated. Further, the feasibility of extracting these features from in vivo breast data of benign and malignant tumors was also investigated. It is shown using the FEA study that the pattern of axial-shear strain distribution is determined by the degree of bonding at the inclusion/background interface. The results suggest the feasibility of using normalized features that capture the region of positive and negative axial-shear strain area to quantify the pattern of the axial-shear strain distribution. The simulation results showed that it was feasible to extract the features, as identified in the FEA study, from axial-shear strain elastograms. However, an effort must be made to obtain axial-shear strain elastograms with the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR asse ) possible, without compromising the resolution. The in vivo