Sample records for regional security agreements

  1. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nonproliferation and Arms Control Analysis Dept.


    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations. Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  2. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L.


    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities: (1) the demilitarization of the Sinai region between Israel and Egypt in the 1970s; (2) the 1991 quadripartite agreement for monitoring nuclear facilities among Brazil, Argentina, The Argentine-Brazilian Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency; and (3) a bilateral Open Skies agreement between Hungary and Romania in 1991. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations.Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  3. Enhancing regional security agreements through cooperative monitoring

    Pregenzer, A.L.


    This paper proposes that strengthening regional capabilities for formulating and implementing arms control and confidence-building measures is a tangible method of enhancing regional security. It discusses the importance of developing a regional infrastructure for arms control and confidence building and elucidates the role of technology in facilitating regional arms control and confidence-building agreements. In addition, it identifies numerous applications for regional cooperative monitoring in the areas of arms control, resource management, international commerce and disaster response. The Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories, whose aim is to help individual countries and regions acquire the tools they need to develop their own solutions to regional problems, is discussed briefly. The paper ends with recommendations for establishing regional cooperative monitoring centers.


    Agnieszka Sapa


    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to identify certain relationships between international trade and food security with special emphasis on regional trade agreements. The study was conducted on the basis of domestic and foreign sources of literature. Unresolved problem of food insecurity indicate not only identification of the source of this state , but also ways to improve the food situation in the world. One of the factors that improve directly and indirectly food security level is international trade. Limited capability for performing trade liberalization at the global level means that the way of improving access to food is regionalism. However, taking full advantage of regional trade agreements to solve the problem of food insecurity must be accompanied by elimination or reduction the non-tariff barriers, that still exist.

  5. African Regional Integration: Implications for Food Security

    Dijk, van M.


    This report looks at the African regional trade, regional integration agreements (RIAs) and the implications for food security. An overview is presented on the present state of African regional integration and the determinants of regional trade in agriculture and food commodities. In particular the

  6. Engineering security agreements against external insider threat

    Franqueira, Virginia Nunes Leal; Cleeff, van André; Eck, van Pascal; Wieringa, Roel


    Companies are increasingly engaging in complex inter-organisational networks of business and trading part- ners, service and managed security providers to run their operations. Therefore, it is now common to outsource critical business processes and to completely move IT resources to the custody of

  7. German Energy Security and Its Implications on Regional Security


    SECURITY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON REGIONAL SECURITY by Philemon Sakamoto December 2016 Thesis Advisor: Robert E. Looney Second Reader...DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GERMAN ENERGY SECURITY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON REGIONAL SECURITY 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...and overall regional security and stability. Using a liberal framework, it illustrates how policies established to improve energy security may act

  8. Anticollusion Attack Noninteractive Security Hierarchical Key Agreement Scheme in WHMS

    Kefei Mao


    Full Text Available Wireless Health Monitoring Systems (WHMS have potential to change the way of health care and bring numbers of benefits to patients, physicians, hospitals, and society. However, there are crucial barriers not only to transmit the biometric information but also to protect the privacy and security of the patients’ information. The key agreement between two entities is an essential cryptography operation to clear the barriers. In particular, the noninteractive hierarchical key agreement scheme becomes an attractive direction in WHMS because each sensor node or gateway has limited resources and power. Recently, a noninteractive hierarchical key agreement scheme has been proposed by Kim for WHMS. However, we show that Kim’s cryptographic scheme is vulnerable to the collusion attack if the physicians can be corrupted. Obviously, it is a more practical security condition. Therefore, we proposed an improved key agreement scheme against the attack. Security proof, security analysis, and experimental results demonstrate that our proposed scheme gains enhanced security and more efficiency than Kim’s previous scheme while inheriting its qualities of one-round communication and security properties.

  9. Exploring hubness in Regional Trade Agreements

    Vaal, A. de


    In the plethora of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) some countries take in a more central position than others in the sense that some countries are much more engaged with other countries through RTAs. Furthermore, the position of some countries is that of a hub: they have (many) trade

  10. A dynamic,secure,and efficient group key agreement protocol

    ZHENG Shihui; WANG Shaohui; ZHANG Guoyan


    The key challenge of dynamic peer communication is how to realize secure and efficient group key management.A two rounds key agreement protocol for dynamic peer group (DPG) is proposed in this paper.The protocol,which was obtained by combining the E1Gamal encryption scheme with the E1Gamal signature scheme,is efficient and simple.The protocol is proven secure against passive attack by using indistinguishable method.Moreover,both perfect forward secrecy (PFS) and key independence (KI) were achieved.Because the protocol is based on the broadcast channel,it is also suitable for key agreement in wireless communications,especially in ad-hoc networks.

  11. Evolving Regional Security in the Andean Region


    security forces or judicial systems reduces the effectiveness of regional cooperation. Past efforts to achieve consensus among the Andean states have...Trimestre 2001. Nuñez, Joseph. Una Arquitectura para la Seguridad del Siglo XXI par alas Américas: Cooperación Multilateral, Paz y Poder Flexible

  12. Authenticated Key Agreement with Rekeying for Secured Body Sensor Networks

    Kyngn Jung Kim


    Full Text Available Many medical systems are currently equipped with a large number of tiny, non-invasive sensors, located on, or close to, the patient’s body for health monitoring purposes. These groupings of sensors constitute a body sensor network (BSN. Key management is a fundamental service for medical BSN security. It provides and manages the cryptographic keys to enable essential security features such as confidentiality, integrity and authentication. Achieving key agreement in BSNs is a difficult task. Many key agreement schemes lack sensor addition, revocation, and rekeying properties, which are very important. Our proposed protocol circumvents these shortcomings by providing node rekeying properties, as well as node addition and revocation. It proposes a key distribution protocol based on public key cryptography—the RSA (Rivest, Shamir and Adleman algorithm, and the DHECC (Diffie-Hellman Elliptic Curve Cryptography algorithm. The proposed protocol does not trust individual sensors, and partially trusts the base station (hospital. Instead of loading full pair-wise keys into each node, after installation our protocol establishes pair-wise keys between nodes according to a specific routing algorithm. In this case, each node doesn’t have to share a key with all of its neighbors, only those involved in the routing path; this plays a key role in increasing the resiliency against node capture attacks and the network storage efficiency. Finally we evaluate our algorithm from the BSN security viewpoint and evaluate its performance in comparison with other proposals.

  13. Polar Coding for Secure Transmission and Key Agreement

    Koyluoglu, O Ozan


    Wyner's work on wiretap channels and the recent works on information theoretic security are based on random codes. Achieving information theoretical security with practical coding schemes is of definite interest. In this note, the attempt is to overcome this elusive task by employing the polar coding technique of Ar{\\i}kan. It is shown that polar codes achieve non-trivial perfect secrecy rates for binary-input degraded wiretap channels while enjoying their low encoding-decoding complexity. In the special case of symmetric main and eavesdropper channels, this coding technique achieves the secrecy capacity. Next, fading erasure wiretap channels are considered and a secret key agreement scheme is proposed, which requires only the statistical knowledge of the eavesdropper channel state information (CSI). The enabling factor is the creation of advantage over Eve, by blindly using the proposed scheme over each fading block, which is then exploited with privacy amplification techniques to generate secret keys.

  14. Leveraging Trade Agreements to Meet U.S. Security Aims


    examines President Barack Obama’s strategic “pivot to Asia,” and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade ageement to reveal how trade agreements...Gernwny.”3 In a 1950 letter to West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, Schuman proposed the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community. In...the coal and steel industries that supported the two states’ armament production. These industries were located in the coal- rich Saar-Ruhr region

  15. Thailand in Regional and Bilateral Free Trade Agreements

    Rattanaphan, Chalakorn


    The Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) and the bilateral Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) have increasingly been a new wave of international trade around the world. The countries who seek to establish these agreements, be regionally or bilaterally, realize that the trade agreements are in fact tools to increase trade with their trading partners, to extend and expand their foreign markets, as well as to encourage foreign investments but the overall goal is to strengthen economic tie with the trading...

  16. ASEAN and Thailand's regional security cooperation

    Kanpachai, Saisak


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established in 1967 by the integration of the Southeast Asian non communist states. Common security concerns in the region made the cooperation possible among them in the first place. Established mainly because of security reasons, ASEAN at present has only loose regional security cooperation. On the other hand, it provides close regional economic cooperation. Distrust among ASEAN ...

  17. NAFTA and Farm Subsidies: A Recipe for Poor Regional Security


    reengage NAFTA . A renegotiation of NAFTA may cause more problems with our other trade agreement partner, Canada . For instance, renegotiating NAFTA may...FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NAFTA & Farm Subsidies: A Recipe for Poor Regional Security...ABSTRACT The North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ) and U.S. farm subsidies are a recipe for Mexican agribusiness failure. Removing farm subsidies

  18. An Asian Regional Architecture for Energy Security

    Xia Liping


    @@ Introduction Non-traditional security issues such as energy security have been becoming more and more important in Asia and worldwide in recent years.It is increasingly difficult for a single country to guarantee its energy security in the globalized world of today.Asian countries have made some progress in bilateral and multilateral dialogues to promote cooperation and coordination in the energy field.However, they are still far from establishing a regional architecture of energy security.The Asian countries must therefore make greater efforts to realize a regional mechanism of energy cooperation.In the future, there should be a multi-level(regional, sub-regional, and trans-regional, and bilateral),multi-channel, and multi-model Asian regional architecture of energy security.

  19. Economic costs and payoffs of bilateral/regional trade agreements

    Vollrath, Thomas L.; Hallahan, Charles B.


    The rapid increase in the number of bilateral and regional free-trade agreements since 1995 is a striking development. The proliferation of these agreements has raised questions among academicians and policymakers about whether they have, in fact, opened markets, created trade, promoted economic growth, and/or distorted trade. This study uses panel data from the 1975-2005 period and the gravity framework to identify the influence of bilateral/regional free-trade agreements on bilateral trade ...

  20. Securing non-volatile memory regions

    Faraboschi, Paolo; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy; Muralimanohar, Naveen


    Methods, apparatus and articles of manufacture to secure non-volatile memory regions are disclosed. An example method disclosed herein comprises associating a first key pair and a second key pair different than the first key pair with a process, using the first key pair to secure a first region of a non-volatile memory for the process, and using the second key pair to secure a second region of the non-volatile memory for the same process, the second region being different than the first region.

  1. Self-enforcing regional vaccination agreements.

    Klepac, Petra; Megiddo, Itamar; Grenfell, Bryan T; Laxminarayan, Ramanan


    In a highly interconnected world, immunizing infections are a transboundary problem, and their control and elimination require international cooperation and coordination. In the absence of a global or regional body that can impose a universal vaccination strategy, each individual country sets its own strategy. Mobility of populations across borders can promote free-riding, because a country can benefit from the vaccination efforts of its neighbours, which can result in vaccination coverage lower than the global optimum. Here we explore whether voluntary coalitions that reward countries that join by cooperatively increasing vaccination coverage can solve this problem. We use dynamic epidemiological models embedded in a game-theoretic framework in order to identify conditions in which coalitions are self-enforcing and therefore stable, and thus successful at promoting a cooperative vaccination strategy. We find that countries can achieve significantly greater vaccination coverage at a lower cost by forming coalitions than when acting independently, provided a coalition has the tools to deter free-riding. Furthermore, when economically or epidemiologically asymmetric countries form coalitions, realized coverage is regionally more consistent than in the absence of coalitions.

  2. 20 CFR 703.304 - Filing of Agreement and Undertaking; deposit of security.


    ... the amount fixed by the Office, or deposit negotiable securities under §§ 703.306 and 703.307 in that... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of Agreement and Undertaking; deposit... REGULATIONS Authorization of Self-Insurers § 703.304 Filing of Agreement and Undertaking; deposit of security...

  3. 48 CFR 53.303-DD-441 - Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement. 53.303-DD-441 Section 53.303-DD-441 Federal Acquisition Regulations...-DD-441 Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement. EC01MY91.163 EC01MY91.164...

  4. Korean reunification : the implications for regional security

    Chang, Man-Chul


    Korean reunification is one of the most critical issues of the post- Cold War era, not only for the Korean peninsula, but also for regional security. This study analyzes Korean reunification in the context of Northeast Asian and Northern Pacific regional security. A systemic framework is utilized as an analytical tool to examine the motivations of states with interests in the region. The study concludes that an incremental functional approach would be the most efficient and effective way to a...

  5. Improvement of McCullagh-Barreto key agreement with KCI-security

    WANG Xiao-fen; DONG Qing-kuan; ZHOU Yu; XIAO Guo-zhen


    McCullagh-Barreto key agreement protocol and its variant achieve perfect forward security and key generation center (KGC) forward security, but provide no resistance to key compromise impersonation attack (KCI attack). In this paper, we give a formal treatment of key compromise impersonation (KCI) attack and define the security notion against it. Then an variant of McCullagh-Barreto protocol is presented with only one more Hash operation. The improved protocol preserves perfect forward security and KGC forward security, and furthermore is proved to be secure against KCI attack under k-Gap-BCAA1 assumption.

  6. Cooperative monitoring and its role in regional security

    Biringer, K.; Olsen, J.; Lincoln, R.; Wehling, F. [and others


    Cooperative monitoring systems can play an important part in promoting the implementation of regional cooperative security agreements. These agreements advance the national security interests of the United States in a post Cold War environment. Regional issues as widely varying as nuclear nonproliferation, trade and environmental pollution can be the source of tensions which may escalate to armed conflict which could have global implications. The Office of National Security Policy Analysis at the US Department of Energy (DOE) has an interest in seeking ways to promote regional cooperation that can reduce the threats posed by regional conflict. DOE technologies and technical expertise can contribute to developing solutions to a wide variety of these international problems. Much of this DOE expertise has been developed in support of the US nuclear weapons and arms control missions. It is now being made available to other agencies and foreign governments in their search for regional security and cooperation. This report presents two examples of interest to DOE in which monitoring technologies could be employed to promote cooperation through experimentation. The two scenarios include nuclear transparency in Northeast Asia and environmental restoration in the Black Sea. Both offer the potential for the use of technology to promote regional cooperation. The issues associated with both of these monitoring applications are presented along with examples of appropriate monitoring technologies, potential experiments and potential DOE contributions to the scenarios.

  7. The Paris Agreement on Climate Change: Agriculture and Food Security

    Verschuuren, Jonathan


    Climate change has a profound impact on agriculture and on food security. At the same time agriculture contributes to climate change to a considerable extent. Fortunately there is also much to gain since the agricultural sector holds significant climate change mitigation potential through reductions

  8. Security of a key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps

    Han Song [Curtin University of Technology, G.P.O. Box U1987 Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)], E-mail:


    Kacorev et al. proposed new public key encryption scheme using chaotic maps. Subsequently, Bergamo et al. has broken Kacorev and Tasev's encryption scheme and then applied the attack on a key agreement protocol based on Kacorev et al.'s system. In order to address Bergamo et al.' attack, Xiao et al. proposed a novel key agreement protocol. In this paper, we will present two attacks on Xiao et al.'s key agreement protocol using chaotic maps. Our new attack method is different from the one that Bergamo et al. developed. The proposed attacks work in a way that an adversary can prevent the user and the server from establishing a shared session key even though the adversary cannot get any private information from the user and the server's communications.

  9. 49 CFR 387.411 - Qualifications as a self-insurer and other securities or agreements.


    ... Policies of Insurance for Freight Forwarders § 387.411 Qualifications as a self-insurer and other securities or agreements. (a) Self-insurer. The FMCSA will approve the application of a freight fowarder to...




    Full Text Available Regional and sub-regional groups having an integrative character appeared after the war and they aimed at harmonizing their economic policies, and, at the same time, they ensured, in accordance with the agreed degree of integration, free turnover of goods, products, services, capitals and labor force. By setting up these international economic organizations, the states of the world and especially developing countries wanted to improve their efforts for a sustained economic growth, to counteract the effects of the unequal external affairs and to eliminate underdevelopment. Some of the regional agreements that represent the new regionalism have been motivated politically and they were stimulated by the conviction that good agreements do not necessarily stand for good neighbors. Such agreements consolidate good diplomatic practices and their objective is to reduce the inevitable confrontation that may appear as a result of com

  11. 20 CFR 703.205 - Filing of Agreement and Undertaking; deposit of security.


    ...— (1) Deposit with the Branch indemnity bonds or letters of credit in the amount fixed by the Office... and payable from the proceeds of the deposited security; (b) Give security in the amount fixed in the... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of Agreement and Undertaking; deposit...

  12. Wide Area Security Region Final Report

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Lu, Shuai; Guo, Xinxin; Gronquist, James; Du, Pengwei; Nguyen, Tony B.; Burns, J. W.


    This report develops innovative and efficient methodologies and practical procedures to determine the wide-area security region of a power system, which take into consideration all types of system constraints including thermal, voltage, voltage stability, transient and potentially oscillatory stability limits in the system. The approach expands the idea of transmission system nomograms to a multidimensional case, involving multiple system limits and parameters such as transmission path constraints, zonal generation or load, etc., considered concurrently. The security region boundary is represented using its piecewise approximation with the help of linear inequalities (so called hyperplanes) in a multi-dimensional space, consisting of system parameters that are critical for security analyses. The goal of this approximation is to find a minimum set of hyperplanes that describe the boundary with a given accuracy. Methodologies are also developed to use the security hyperplanes, pre-calculated offline, to determine system security margins in real-time system operations, to identify weak elements in the system, and to calculate key contributing factors and sensitivities to determine the best system controls in real time and to assist in developing remedial actions and transmission system enhancements offline . A prototype program that automates the simulation procedures used to build the set of security hyperplanes has also been developed. The program makes it convenient to update the set of security hyperplanes necessitated by changes in system configurations. A prototype operational tool that uses the security hyperplanes to assess security margins and to calculate optimal control directions in real time has been built to demonstrate the project success. Numerical simulations have been conducted using the full-size Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system model, and they clearly demonstrated the feasibility and the effectiveness of the developed

  13. Understanding security failures of two authentication and key agreement schemes for telecare medicine information systems.

    Mishra, Dheerendra


    Smart card based authentication and key agreement schemes for telecare medicine information systems (TMIS) enable doctors, nurses, patients and health visitors to use smart cards for secure login to medical information systems. In recent years, several authentication and key agreement schemes have been proposed to present secure and efficient solution for TMIS. Most of the existing authentication schemes for TMIS have either higher computation overhead or are vulnerable to attacks. To reduce the computational overhead and enhance the security, Lee recently proposed an authentication and key agreement scheme using chaotic maps for TMIS. Xu et al. also proposed a password based authentication and key agreement scheme for TMIS using elliptic curve cryptography. Both the schemes provide better efficiency from the conventional public key cryptography based schemes. These schemes are important as they present an efficient solution for TMIS. We analyze the security of both Lee's scheme and Xu et al.'s schemes. Unfortunately, we identify that both the schemes are vulnerable to denial of service attack. To understand the security failures of these cryptographic schemes which are the key of patching existing schemes and designing future schemes, we demonstrate the security loopholes of Lee's scheme and Xu et al.'s scheme in this paper.

  14. Arms Industries: New Suppliers and Regional Security


    Paulo for providing me with valuable in- formation and insights about Brazil’s defense industries. Likewise, the faculty and staff at Escuela Superior...region and beyond. For example, Argentina has exhibited a national security interest in Bolivia. In pursuing its aims, Argentina has supplied La Paz

  15. Perfect forward secure identity-based authenticated key agreement protocol in the escrow mode

    WANG ShengBao; CAO ZhenFu; CHENG ZhaoHui; CHOO Kim-KwangRaymond


    The majority of existing escrowable identity-based key agreement protocols only provide partial forward secrecy. Such protocols are, arguably, not suitable for many real-word applications, as the latter tends to require a stronger sense of forward secrecy-perfect forward secrecy. In this paper, we propose an efficient perfect forward-secure identity-based key agreement protocol in the escrow mode. We prove the security of our protocol in the random oracle model, assuming the intractability of the Gap Bilinear Diffie-Hellman (GBDH) problem.

  16. Efficient and Security Enhanced Anonymous Authentication with Key Agreement Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Jung, Jaewook; Moon, Jongho; Lee, Donghoon; Won, Dongho


    At present, users can utilize an authenticated key agreement protocol in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) to securely obtain desired information, and numerous studies have investigated authentication techniques to construct efficient, robust WSNs. Chang et al. recently presented an authenticated key agreement mechanism for WSNs and claimed that their authentication mechanism can both prevent various types of attacks, as well as preserve security properties. However, we have discovered that Chang et al’s method possesses some security weaknesses. First, their mechanism cannot guarantee protection against a password guessing attack, user impersonation attack or session key compromise. Second, the mechanism results in a high load on the gateway node because the gateway node should always maintain the verifier tables. Third, there is no session key verification process in the authentication phase. To this end, we describe how the previously-stated weaknesses occur and propose a security-enhanced version for WSNs. We present a detailed analysis of the security and performance of our authenticated key agreement mechanism, which not only enhances security compared to that of related schemes, but also takes efficiency into consideration. PMID:28335572

  17. SecSLA: A Proactive and Secure Service Level Agreement Framework for Cloud Services

    Fahad F. Alruwaili


    Full Text Available Cloud customers migrate to cloud services to reduce the operational costs of information technology (IT and increase organization efficiency. However, ensuring cloud security is very challenging. As a consequence, cloud service providers find it difficult to persuade customers to acquire their services due to security concerns. In terms of outsourcing applications, software, and/or infrastructure services to the cloud, customers are concerned about the availability, integrity, privacy, and legality of the hosted service. In this paper, a secure service level agreement (SecSLA framework is proposed to alleviate these concerns and provide security control assurance to cloud customers. The framework is proactive in detecting violations of SecSLA parameters based on a cloud security operations center as a service (SOCaaS. In addition, a trusted third party can use this framework to audit and monitor SecSLA compliance.

  18. 12 CFR 725.20 - Repayment, security and credit reporting agreements; other terms and conditions.


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repayment, security and credit reporting agreements; other terms and conditions. 725.20 Section 725.20 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL...

  19. Regional Security Governance in the Sino-U.S. Relations

    Fan; Jishe


    In the past 10 years,China’s comprehensive strength has markedly increased,having given China greater capacity to participate in global governance,especially regional security governance.Taking into consideration the future probability of the significantly increasing Sino-U.S.interaction in the field of regional security,this article mainly discusses capability of China’s participation in regional security governance and the areas of regional security governance in which China and

  20. A Provable Secure ID-Based Explicit Authenticated Key Agreement Protocol Without Random Oracles

    Hai-Bo Tian; Willy Susilo; Yang Ming; Yu-Min Wang


    In this paper, we present an identity-based explicit authenticated key agreement protocol that is provably secure without random oracles. The protocol employs a new method to isolate a session key from key confirmation keys so that there is no direct usage of hash functions in the protocol. The protocol is proved secure without random oracles in a variant of Bellare and Rogaway style model, an exception to current proof method in this style model in the ID-based setting. We believe that this key isolation method is novel and can be further studied for constructing more efficient protocols.




    Full Text Available Using smart cards, remote user authentication and key agreement can be simplified, flexible, and efficient for creating a secure distributed computers environment. Addition to user authenticationand key distribution, it is very useful for providing identity privacy for users. In this paper, we propose novel multi server authentication and key agreement schemes with user protection in network security. We first propose a single-server scheme and then apply this scheme to a multi-server environment. The main meritsinclude: (1 The privacy of users can be ensured; (2 a user canfreely choose his own password; (3 the computation and communication cost is very low; (4 servers and users can authenticate each other; (5 it generates a session key agreed by the server and the user; (6 our proposed schemes are Nonce-based schemes which does not have aserious time synchronization problem.

  2. On the Security of a Two-Factor Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme for Telecare Medicine Information Systems.

    Arshad, Hamed; Teymoori, Vahid; Nikooghadam, Morteza; Abbassi, Hassan


    Telecare medicine information systems (TMISs) aim to deliver appropriate healthcare services in an efficient and secure manner to patients. A secure mechanism for authentication and key agreement is required to provide proper security in these systems. Recently, Bin Muhaya demonstrated some security weaknesses of Zhu's authentication and key agreement scheme and proposed a security enhanced authentication and key agreement scheme for TMISs. However, we show that Bin Muhaya's scheme is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attacks and does not provide perfect forward secrecy. Furthermore, in order to overcome the mentioned weaknesses, we propose a new two-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme using the elliptic curve cryptosystem. Security and performance analyses demonstrate that the proposed scheme not only overcomes the weaknesses of Bin Muhaya's scheme, but also is about 2.73 times faster than Bin Muhaya's scheme.

  3. EC Visa Facilitation and Readmission Agreements: Implementing a New EU Security Approach in the Neighbourhood

    Trauner, Florian; Kruse, Imke


    With the Eastern Enlargement successfully completed, the EU is searching for a proper balance between internal security and external stabilisation that is acceplable to all sides. This paper focuses on an EU foreign policy instrument that is a case in point for this struggle: EC visa facilitation and readmission agreements. By looking at the EU's strategy on visa facilitation and readmission, this paper aims to offer a first systematic analysis of the objectives, substance and political impli...

  4. Service Level Agreements as a Service - Towards Security Risks Aware SLA Management


    Cloud computing has matured to become a valuable on demand alternative to traditional ownership models for the provisioning of services, platforms and infrastructure. However, this raises many issues for Governance, Risk and Compliance (GRC) and in particular in terms of Information Systems Security Risk Management (ISSRM). Considering such issues lack attention and knowledge, particularly for small and medium sized en- terprises (SMEs), and that cloud computing Service Level Agreements (SLA)...

  5. Achieving water security through community-based agreements in rural Northwestern Costa Rica

    Bautista Solís, P.; Bommel, P.; Campos, X.; Suarez, A.; Leclerc, G.


    Community-based drinking water organizations have the responsibility in supplying water for domestic use to 29% of the Costa Rican population. Nowadays, more than 1.500 of these organizations face important challenges for achieving this critical mission, such as fulfilling national drinking-water quality standards, and improving their organization and administration to secure water supply and distribution under climate change. We conducted action-research in two communities with similar geographical and demographic conditions: Cuajiniquil and Colas de Gallo located in the drought prone Guanacaste region in Costa Rica. Both communities are contrasted regarding to their assets and organization. We addressed the following research question: Can a participatory process help communities assess the situation of their aqueduct and its management, project themselves in the future, and build more resilient strategies to face domestic water restrictions? Through 16 participatory sessions, we adapted the Wat-a-Game (WAG) toolkit to the problem of domestic water provision in these communities, creating the WAG-Tico role-playing game. This was complemented by two other activities: visits by regional actors sharing their experience, and exchange visits between both communities for cross-learning about community-based water management. The process resulted in a locally-led collaboration between both communities and the emergence of community commitments for improving drought resilience. WAG-Tico sensibilized participants to appreciate the value of community organization and the impacts of climate change on water supply, and develop aqueduct management rules. Exchange visits and regional actors interventions promoted opportunities for accessing to external resources (i.e. social, human and financial). Colas de Gallo created its first water committee for building a community aqueduct and their first drilled well. Cuajiniquil has committed in protecting its water springs, organized

  6. Security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards and biometrics.

    Choi, Younsung; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho


    An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user's biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen's scheme.

  7. Computational Security Analysis of the UMTS and LTE Authentication and Key Agreement Protocols

    Mjølsnes, Stig


    One of the forerunners and main candidates for the fourth generation (4G) generation mobile communication system is commonly known under the name Long-Term Evolution (LTE) and its standard is produced and maintained by the international 3rd Generation Partnership Program (3GPP) consortium. The LTE Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA) protocol design is based on the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) AKA protocol, which is widely used today for third generation (3G) wireless networks. The authentication protocols for these mobile network systems will arguably become the most widely used security protocols in the near future. We present a computational security analysis of both the LTE AKA and the UMTS AKA. This work constitutes the first security analysis of LTE AKA to date. Our analysis is based on a computational security model. Moreover, we report on a deficiency in the protocol specifications, and show how this may enable attacks on both LTE AKA and UMTS AKA. The vulnerability can be explo...

  8. A secure smart-card based authentication and key agreement scheme for telecare medicine information systems.

    Lee, Tian-Fu; Liu, Chuan-Ming


    A smart-card based authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems enables patients, doctors, nurses, health visitors and the medicine information systems to establish a secure communication platform through public networks. Zhu recently presented an improved authentication scheme in order to solve the weakness of the authentication scheme of Wei et al., where the off-line password guessing attacks cannot be resisted. This investigation indicates that the improved scheme of Zhu has some faults such that the authentication scheme cannot execute correctly and is vulnerable to the attack of parallel sessions. Additionally, an enhanced authentication scheme based on the scheme of Zhu is proposed. The enhanced scheme not only avoids the weakness in the original scheme, but also provides users' anonymity and authenticated key agreements for secure data communications.

  9. Prospects of Collective Security in the Eastern Africa Region


    Claude Jr., I. L. 1971. Swords into plowshares. The problems and progress of international organization. 4th ed. New York: Random House. Creswell , John W...regional collective security mechanism and assesses its capacity to address regional security concerns. The overall research methodology used is the...assesses its capacity to address regional security concerns. The overall research methodology used is the qualitative method using case studies. The

  10. Security: The Fourth Pillar of the Caribbean Community. Does the Region Need a Security Organ


    SECURITY: THE FOURTH PILLAR OF THE CARIBBEAN COMMUNITY. DOES THE REGION NEED A SECURITY ORGAN? A thesis presented to the...Does the Region Need a Security Organ? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Pryce, Murphy G...Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) is a 15-state regional

  11. Regional security assessments : a strategic approach to securing federal facilities

    Consolini, Todd


    CHDS State/Local The 18 critical infrastructure sectors identified by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security form a vast and complex network of interdependent assets that supports the functioning of nearly every aspect of business, government, and commerce. The disruption of even one critical infrastructure sector by a terrorist attack or natural or manmade disaster is likely to have cascading effects on other sectors. As the Sector-Specific Agency for the Government Facilities Sector, t...

  12. The optimization approach to regional environmental security

    N.V. Kameneva


    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of this paper is to work out a conceptual approach to the problem of environmental safety securing, the protection of population against unfavourable environmental impact and ecological risks and the maximization of economic effect from business activity including its ecological part. The following purposes were set and achieved: definition of the notion of optimal level of environmental safety; working out of a more precise classification of the elements of economic effect from ecological activity; outlining of possibilities to use economic tools in managing environmental safety at the regional level. The results of the analysis. Economically optimal level of environmental safety is one, which meets basic requirements concerning protection of population against negative environmental impact and threats of such impact, and provides the maximum economic effect from ecological activity. The gradation of environmental safety levels is based on the assessment of levels of ecological risk. The final economic result of ecological activity may be positive or negative depending on the amounts of expenditures and effect. The purpose of optimization will therefore be either maximization of earnings or minimization of loss. In general, the expenditures related to ecological activity grow when the level of environmental safety gets higher. For most of populated territories, the achievement of the maximum theoretically possible level of environmental safety is not only impractical in present but also not desirable in principle. Elimination or reducing to insignificant values of all ecological risks would actually require transforming a given territory to a natural reserve with consequent stopping all business activity, which would lead to very high economic losses. Conclusions and directions of further researches. Environmental safety of a territory may have different levels, which are characterized, in particular, by the


    This book focuses on two basic concepts: security and desertification in the Mediterranean Region and their linkages. It emerged from a single meeting of the "Workshop on Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. A Security Issue" held in Valencia, Spain on 2-5 December 2003...

  14. Wireless Physical Layer Security: On the Performance Limit of Secret-Key Agreement

    Zorgui, Marwen


    Physical layer security (PLS) is a new paradigm aiming at securing communications between legitimate parties at the physical layer. Conventionally, achieving confidentiality in communication networks relies on cryptographic techniques such as public-key cryptography, secret-key distribution and symmetric encryption. Such techniques are deemed secure based on the assumption of limited computational abilities of a wiretapper. Given the relentless progress in computational capacities and the dynamic topology and proliferation of modern wireless networks, the relevance of the previous techniques in securing communications is more and more questionable and less and less reliable. In contrast to this paradigm, PLS does not assume a specific computational power at any eavesdropper, its premise to guarantee provable security via employing channel coding techniques at the physical layer exploiting the inherent randomness in most communication systems. In this dissertation, we investigate a particular aspect of PLS, which is secret-key agreement, also known as secret-sharing. In this setup, two legitimate parties try to distill a secret-key via the observation of correlated signals through a noisy wireless channel, in the presence of an eavesdropper who must be kept ignorant of the secret-key. Additionally, a noiseless public channel is made available to the legitimate parties to exchange public messages that are also accessible to the eavesdropper. Recall that key agreement is an important aspect toward realizing secure communications in the sense that the key can be used in a one-time pad scheme to send the confidential message. In the first part, our focus is on secret-sharing over Rayleigh fading quasi-static channels. We study the fundamental relationship relating the probability of error and a given target secret-key rate in the high power regime. This is characterized through the diversity multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) concept, that we define for our model and then

  15. Regional and Mega-Regional Trade Agreements: Agricultural Trade in the Trans-Pacific Partnership

    Vera Maltseva


    Full Text Available Mega-regional trade agreements (MRTAs have appeared in response to the prolonged stagnation of the multilateral trading system ruled by the World Trade Organization (WTO. Although this issue has stimulated research in international integration, the specifics of MRTAs have not yet been sufficiently investigated. This article therefore assesses the multilateralization potential of regional commitments using the example of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP. It includes commitments in market access liberalization made in regional trade agreements (RTAs and in intraregional agricultural trade liberalization under the TPP. The central research problem is to identify the regional liberalization commitments that might be promoted to the level of the WTO. The authors use the methodology devised by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for assessing the potential multilateralization. RTA and MRTA commitments are grouped in two policy areas: WTO-plus (going beyond the normal provisions of the WTO and WTO-beyond (dealing with issues going beyond the WTO. The TTP is scrutinized in the context of intraregional agricultural trade liberalization. MRTAs can raise regional commitments to the global level because of their large membership, regulatory transparency and high levels of implementation. The multilateralization of regional agreements is expected in services and investments as well as in various aspects of technical regulation. The key features of implementing RTA’s WTO-plus and WTO-beyond commitments in intraregional agricultural trade are discussed. Most RTAs have liberalized tariffs beyond the WTO Agreement on Agriculture (WTO-plus, but only a few have strengthened disciplines in non-tariff barriers and implemented WTO-beyond commitments for export restrictions and export subsidies. The TPP parties are a diverse group in terms of involvement in global agricultural trade and applied tariffs on agriculture and food. The TPP

  16. Food and nutrition security in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region.

    Rasul, Golam; Hussain, Abid; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Dangol, Narendra


    The status of food and nutrition security and its underlying factors in the Hindu-Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is investigated. In this region, one third to a half of children (security in the HKH region. To achieve sustainable food and nutrition security in the mountains, this study suggests a multi-sectoral integrated approach with consideration of nutritional aspects in all development processes dealing with economic, social, agricultural and public health issues. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Analysis and characterization of security regions in power systems


    Progress is repoted in a study performed to investigate the concept of security regions in the context of power system security analysis. The background and motivation for this research, the results of 2 years of work, and proposed future studies are discussed. (LCL)

  18. The Role and Place of Regional Agreements NAFTA and ASEAN in Advance and Guarantee of Huaman Rights Dimensions and Species

    Hossein Sharifi Taraz Koohi


    Full Text Available NAFTA and ASEAN were concluded topursue certain goals. ASEAN,being developedas for political reasons, gradually expanded its work scope intoeconomic, trade, security, and cultural extents. NAFTA on the other hand has been able to form anintegrated economic and trade system. According to documents regarding the observation of human rights within ASEAN and NAFTA frames,it is clearly indicated that they have persistently considered the issues related to such issues. The present paper tries to analyze ASEANand NAFTAdegree of commitment tothe improvement of human rights in the region, and to compare these two regional agreements efficiencyon the above mentioned issue. Therefore, the performance of each agreement is studied separately in order to determine its strengths and weaknesses.The results of the study show that ASEAN, due to its region-specific complexity and particular difficulties, has underperformed NAFTA concerning itscommitment to the observation of human rights.

  19. Efficient and Secure Temporal Credential-Based Authenticated Key Agreement Using Extended Chaotic Maps for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Lee, Tian-Fu


    A secure temporal credential-based authenticated key agreement scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) enables a user, a sensor node and a gateway node to realize mutual authentication using temporal credentials. The user and the sensor node then negotiate a common secret key with the help of the gateway node, and establish a secure and authenticated channel using this common secret key. To increase efficiency, recent temporal credential-based authenticated key agreement schemes for WSNs have been designed to involve few computational operations, such as hash and exclusive-or operations. However, these schemes cannot protect the privacy of users and withstand possible attacks. This work develops a novel temporal credential-based authenticated key agreement scheme for WSNs using extended chaotic maps, in which operations are more efficient than modular exponential computations and scalar multiplications on an elliptic curve. The proposed scheme not only provides higher security and efficiency than related schemes, but also resolves their weaknesses.

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Trade Facilitation in Selected Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreement

    Institute for International Trade


    This study compared the treatment of trade facilitation in four selected regional trade agreements, AFTA, APEC, SAFRA and PACER, and in one bilateral free trade agreement being the Australia-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (ASFTA), with a view to determining model trade facilitation principles and measures which may be instructive for developing country negotiations and policy makers.

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Trade Facilitation in Selected Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreement

    Wille, P.; J. Redden


    This study compares the treatment of trade facilitation in four selected regional trade agreements, AFTA, APEC, SAFTA and PACER, and in one bilateral free trade agreement being the Australia-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (ASFTA), with a view to determining model trade facilitation principles and measures which may be instructive for developing country negotiators and policy makers.


    Fora Andreea-Florina


    Full Text Available The large number of regional trade agreements notified to the World Trade Organization (WTO significantly influenced the flow of world trade. By April 2014 there had been notified 583 regional trade agreements to the WTO, of which only 379 are in force. The objective of this paper is to highlight the importance of regional trade agreements in world trade, especially the importance of establishing a regional competition policy in these agreements. The research methodology used is the analysis of legislation governing preferential trade agreements at the level of WTO, the collection and interpretation of statistical data provided by the WTO Secretariat, the case study, namely the study of literature. The paper is structured in three parts. The first part of the paper examines the basic laws based on which regional trade agreements are notified to the WTO and the evolution of these agreements in the period 1958-2013. The second part of the paper is devoted to the analysis of competition policy in regional trade agreements. In this part of the paper, to highlight the patterns of competition policy adopted under these agreements was analyzed by three case studies of competition policy in the EU, ASEAN and NAFTA. The three case studies have revealed that the three preferential trade agreements present regional competition policies with varying degrees of integration. The most complex form of competition policy is found in the European Union, because we are talking about a centralized model of competition policy. ASEAN presents a partially decentralized model, while NAFTA scrolls with a decentralized model of competition policy. The last part of the paper presents the characteristics of the four models of competition policy identified in the preferential trade agreements in force. It should be emphasized that if the initial preferential trade agreements have not put a great emphasis on the rules of competition policy, practice has shown the importance

  3. Regional Collaboration Among Urban Area Security Initiative Regions: Results of the Johns Hopkins Urban Area Survey

    Bowman, Calvin; Barnett, Daniel J.; Resnick, Beth A.; Frattaroli, Shannon; Rutkow, Lainie


    Regional collaboration has been identified as a potential facilitator of public health preparedness efforts. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since 2003, has provided 64 high-risk metropolitan areas funding to enhance their regional preparedness capabilities. This study describes informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure, as well as regional collaboration–related activities and assessment methods, in FFY2010 UASI regions. A cross-sectional online survey was administered via Survey Monkey from September through December 2013. Points of contact from FFY2010 funded UASI metropolitan areas completed the survey, with a response rate of 77.8% (n=49). Summary statistics were calculated to describe the current informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure. Additionally, the cross-sectional survey collected rates of agreement with 8 collaborative preparedness statements at 3 time points. The survey found that UASI regions are engaging in collaborative activities and investments to build capabilities, with most collaboration occurring in the prevention, protection, and response mission areas. Collaborative relationships in preparedness among emergency managers and municipal chief executive officers improved during the FFY2010 UASI performance period compared to the pre-UASI award period, with lasting effects. The majority of UASI regions reported conducting independent assessments of capabilities and their measurement at the UASI region level. Urban areas that received a FFY2010 UASI grant award are engaging in collaborative activities and have established interjurisdictional relationships in preparedness. The use of grant funds to encourage collaboration in preparedness has the potential to leverage limited resources and promote informed investments. PMID:25398073

  4. Labor law successorship under the National Bituminous Coal Wage Agreement and the union's campaign for job security

    Gies, T.P.; Smith, W.L. (Crowell and Moring, Washington, DC (USA))

    This article evaluates the existing state of labor law successorship in the coal industry, with particular emphasis on cases interpreting Article I of the Wage Agreement as it is applied to transactions involving inactive coal properties, and on the job security provisions of Article II of the 1988 NBCWA. Part II of this article summarizes the basic principles of labor law successorship, which provide the necessary background for a full understanding of the scope of Articles I and I of the Wage Agreement. Part III of this article reviews the successorship provisions of Article I of the Wage Agreement in detail, and discusses the various interpretations given its provisions by arbitrators, the courts, and the National Labor Relations Board (Board). Part III also reviews the related provisions of Article 1A of the NBCWA, as they apply to various forms of leasing and contracting of coal producing properties. Part IV of this article examines the new job security provisions of Article II of the 1988 Wage Agreement, which establish a new procedure for staffing at non-signatory operations of signatory employers. Part V of this article argues that some courts and arbitrators have improperly extended the reach of the contractual successorship and job security obligations, and suggests an interpretation of Articles I and II of the Wage Agreement that is more harmonious with the overriding objectives of federal labor law policy.

  5. Demographic aspects of social security in region

    Alla Gennad'evna Leont'eva


    Full Text Available This paper presents a situational analysis of the level of life safety in the field of demographic regions of the Ural Federal District. The analysis is based on data from the Federal Statistics and covers the period 2000-2010. We have developed a system of indicators for evaluating safety in the demographic sphere. We set the main threats to the social and economic stability in the regions. The system of thresholds includes three blocks: the reproduction of the population, marriage and family relationships and health. We have presented a quantitative description of the main threats. Identified priority areas of social protection, providing increased stability of the regional socio-economic development, reducing the likelihood of social conflicts and improve the demographic situation.

  6. Danish Interests in Regional Security Institutions in East Africa

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja


    through capacity building projects anchored in different regional security institutions. The report illuminates some of the risks that such capacity building projects might confront. Furthermore the report points out some of the challenges that exist in the cooperation between the Ministry of Foreign......For the past decade, peace and security in East Africa have gained increasing focus internationally. The region has experienced armed conflicts, civil wars, rebellion, drought and famine. Yet, at the same time, there is an emerging ambition among a number of African states to handle security issues...... on the continent independently. Such ambitions have fostered a variety of military capacity building programmes supported by external donors. The present report explores how up until now Denmark has sought to contribute to strengthening political and military security in East Africa. This has mainly been done...


    Andrey V. Masloboev


    Full Text Available Subject of research. The research goal and scope are development of methods and software for mathematical and computer modeling of the regional security information support systems as multilevel hierarchical systems. Such systems are characterized by loosely formalization, multiple-aspect of descendent system processes and their interconnectivity, high level dynamics and uncertainty. The research methodology is based on functional-target approach and principles of multilevel hierarchical system theory. The work considers analysis and structural-algorithmic synthesis problem-solving of the multilevel computer-aided systems intended for management and decision-making information support in the field of regional security. Main results. A hierarchical control multilevel model of regional socio-economic system complex security has been developed. The model is based on functional-target approach and provides both formal statement and solving, and practical implementation of the automated information system structure and control algorithms synthesis problems of regional security management optimal in terms of specified criteria. An approach for intralevel and interlevel coordination problem-solving in the multilevel hierarchical systems has been proposed on the basis of model application. The coordination is provided at the expense of interconnection requirements satisfaction between the functioning quality indexes (objective functions, which are optimized by the different elements of multilevel systems. That gives the possibility for sufficient coherence reaching of the local decisions, being made on the different control levels, under decentralized decision-making and external environment high dynamics. Recurrent model application provides security control mathematical models formation of regional socioeconomic systems, functioning under uncertainty. Practical relevance. The model implementation makes it possible to automate synthesis realization of

  8. The U. S. -IRI relations in the regional security context

    Evseyev, Vladimir


    The author concentrates on American-Iranian relations during the Obama presidency and their impact on security in the Central Caucasus; he also closely examines Iran's bilateral relations with Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Georgia in the economic, political, and military spheres. He reveals that the intensity of the American-Iranian confrontation and the regional security level are two sides of the same coin. This conclusion is based on the author's analysis of the current state of and the future ...

  9. A Secure and Robust User Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme for Hierarchical Multi-medical Server Environment in TMIS.

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Goswami, Adrijit


    The telecare medicine information system (TMIS) helps the patients to gain the health monitoring facility at home and access medical services over the Internet of mobile networks. Recently, Amin and Biswas presented a smart card based user authentication and key agreement security protocol usable for TMIS system using the cryptographic one-way hash function and biohashing function, and claimed that their scheme is secure against all possible attacks. Though their scheme is efficient due to usage of one-way hash function, we show that their scheme has several security pitfalls and design flaws, such as (1) it fails to protect privileged-insider attack, (2) it fails to protect strong replay attack, (3) it fails to protect strong man-in-the-middle attack, (4) it has design flaw in user registration phase, (5) it has design flaw in login phase, (6) it has design flaw in password change phase, (7) it lacks of supporting biometric update phase, and (8) it has flaws in formal security analysis. In order to withstand these security pitfalls and design flaws, we aim to propose a secure and robust user authenticated key agreement scheme for the hierarchical multi-server environment suitable in TMIS using the cryptographic one-way hash function and fuzzy extractor. Through the rigorous security analysis including the formal security analysis using the widely-accepted Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic, the formal security analysis under the random oracle model and the informal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible known attacks. Furthermore, we simulate our scheme using the most-widely accepted and used Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) tool. The simulation results show that our scheme is also secure. Our scheme is more efficient in computation and communication as compared to Amin-Biswas's scheme and other related schemes. In addition, our scheme supports extra functionality features as compared to

  10. Securing Security Governance in Post-conflict Situation : A Framework of Conflict Prevention through ECOWARN in West African Region

    Yamane, Tatsuo


    This article focuses on an analytical approach of “security governance” in light of post-conflict situation and aims to examine a system of conflict prevention in the West African region from a viewpoint of the approach. The security governance initially developed security studies of International Relations especially for the regional governance in the field of European security. On that basis of making and developing the new perspective for the region, it currently goes to expand the subject...

  11. Economic Partnership Agreements of the EU: Impact on Regional Integration in Africa

    Marinov, Eduard


    The development and dynamics of regional integration in Africa are severely influenced by the transformation of the trade relations between African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries and the EU, imposed by the Cotonou agreement. Economic relations now based on unilateral trade preferences provided by the EU are envisaged to be based on Economic partnership agreements (EPAs) that should regulate trade and cooperation establishing new trade regimes between the EU and ACP regions selected by...

  12. Food and health considerations in Asia-Pacific regional security.

    McKay, John


    Recent dramatic increases in food prices in much of the world have caused much concern, and have even resulted in some public protests and riots. This is easy to understand given the large percentages of incomes that the poor devote to food purchases. Many commentators have predicted that food supplies in the Asia-Pacific region will become much more limited in the future as the result of population growth, the rapid growth of cities, new food demands by a growing middle class, the impacts of climate change, and the growth of a global food industry. But will these possible shortages of food result in pressures that will destabilise the security situation in the region? Recent work of the whole concept of security has resulted in some redefinition of the term to include issues of human security, but it could also be argued that severe strains on the human security situation could even result in increased instability in the more traditional kind of security regime. The extreme case of North Korea is used as an example of how this might happen. But we really do not know if such dangers are real ones for the region as a whole, and it is suggested that much more research is needed in this area. The whole concept of resilience has been used in some studies elsewhere and this may be useful starting point for new work in this area.

  13. Damming the Mekong Tributaries : Water Security and the MRC 1995 Agreement

    Sithirith, M.; Evers, J.; Gupta, J.


    Water security is a key governance challenge especially in relation to transboundary rivers. While the literature elaborates on the water security concept, there is very little on how to operationalize it in the transboundary context. Hence, this paper addresses the question: How can the governance

  14. A Novel Fast and Secure Mutual Remote User Authentication Protocol with Session Key Agreement Using Second Order Cellular Automata

    Sofiane Baghor


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel remote user authentication protocol with session key agreement, using the mechanism of one-dimensional second order cellular automata. The scheme use simple and elementary operations to handle the problem of mutual authentication between two communicating parties, and enable the sharing of a common secure session key. Security of the proposed scheme is shown to be high, while it resist most common attacks on authentications schemes. Besides, runtime performances of the authentication protocol are very competitive, and outperform those of existing similar schemes. The proposed schemes ensure the three authentication requirements, namely the mutuality, the authenticity and the key agreement using only elementary and parallelizable operations, without requiring any addition cryptographic functions

  15. Redefining Maritime Security Threats in the Eastern Indian Ocean Region.

    Banerjee, Arjun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This occasional paper analyzes the general security issues and trends relating to maritime trafficking of radiological and nuclear material using small vessels, minor ports, and unchecked areas of coastline existing in the Eastern Indian Ocean Region today. By the Eastern Indian Ocean Region is meant the area starting from the tip of the Indian peninsula in the west to the Straits of Malacca in the east. It lays focus on the potential sources of nuclear or radiological material that may be trafficked here. It further undertakes a study of the terrorist groups active in the region as well as the multinational or national interdiction organizations that have been created to counter maritime threats. It also seeks to discern the various technologies for detecting materials of concern available in the area. Finally, it ascertains possible methods and technologies to improve the maritime security system in the region.

  16. An Advanced Temporal Credential-Based Security Scheme with Mutual Authentication and Key Agreement for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Chun-Ta Li


    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs can be quickly and randomly deployed in any harsh and unattended environment and only authorized users are allowed to access reliable sensor nodes in WSNs with the aid of gateways (GWNs. Secure authentication models among the users, the sensor nodes and GWN are important research issues for ensuring communication security and data privacy in WSNs. In 2013, Xue et al. proposed a temporal-credential-based mutual authentication and key agreement scheme for WSNs. However, in this paper, we point out that Xue et al.’s scheme cannot resist stolen-verifier, insider, off-line password guessing, smart card lost problem and many logged-in users’ attacks and these security weaknesses make the scheme inapplicable to practical WSN applications. To tackle these problems, we suggest a simple countermeasure to prevent proposed attacks while the other merits of Xue et al.’s authentication scheme are left unchanged.

  17. An Improved and Secure Anonymous Biometric-Based User Authentication with Key Agreement Scheme for the Integrated EPR Information System

    Kang, Dongwoo; Lee, Donghoon; Won, Dongho


    Nowadays, many hospitals and medical institutes employ an authentication protocol within electronic patient records (EPR) services in order to provide protected electronic transactions in e-medicine systems. In order to establish efficient and robust health care services, numerous studies have been carried out on authentication protocols. Recently, Li et al. proposed a user authenticated key agreement scheme according to EPR information systems, arguing that their scheme is able to resist various types of attacks and preserve diverse security properties. However, this scheme possesses critical vulnerabilities. First, the scheme cannot prevent off-line password guessing attacks and server spoofing attack, and cannot preserve user identity. Second, there is no password verification process with the failure to identify the correct password at the beginning of the login phase. Third, the mechanism of password change is incompetent, in that it induces inefficient communication in communicating with the server to change a user password. Therefore, we suggest an upgraded version of the user authenticated key agreement scheme that provides enhanced security. Our security and performance analysis shows that compared to other related schemes, our scheme not only improves the security level, but also ensures efficiency. PMID:28046075

  18. An Improved and Secure Anonymous Biometric-Based User Authentication with Key Agreement Scheme for the Integrated EPR Information System.

    Jung, Jaewook; Kang, Dongwoo; Lee, Donghoon; Won, Dongho


    Nowadays, many hospitals and medical institutes employ an authentication protocol within electronic patient records (EPR) services in order to provide protected electronic transactions in e-medicine systems. In order to establish efficient and robust health care services, numerous studies have been carried out on authentication protocols. Recently, Li et al. proposed a user authenticated key agreement scheme according to EPR information systems, arguing that their scheme is able to resist various types of attacks and preserve diverse security properties. However, this scheme possesses critical vulnerabilities. First, the scheme cannot prevent off-line password guessing attacks and server spoofing attack, and cannot preserve user identity. Second, there is no password verification process with the failure to identify the correct password at the beginning of the login phase. Third, the mechanism of password change is incompetent, in that it induces inefficient communication in communicating with the server to change a user password. Therefore, we suggest an upgraded version of the user authenticated key agreement scheme that provides enhanced security. Our security and performance analysis shows that compared to other related schemes, our scheme not only improves the security level, but also ensures efficiency.

  19. Congressional Oversight and Related Issues Concerning International Security Agreements Concluded by the United States


    to make congressional-executive agreement a complete alternative to a treaty); Myres S. McDougal and Asher Lans, Treaties and Congressional...proceeded from the legislature”) (quoting THE FEDERALIST NO. 64 (John Jay )); Dames & Moore, 453 U.S. at 654 (upholding sole executive agreement

  20. Congressional Oversight and Related Issues Concerning the Prospective Security Agreement Between the United States and Iraq


    government branches so as to make congressional-executive agreement a complete alternative to a treaty); Myres S. McDougal and Asher Lans, Treaties and...they proceeded from the legislature”) (quoting THE FEDERALIST NO. 64 (John Jay )); Dames & Moore, 453 U.S. at 654 (upholding sole executive agreement

  1. Еcological security of environment in Zhytomyr region

    I.М. Kovalevska


    Full Text Available The article is aiming at the study of environmental hazards in Zhytomir region. Its main objective is to identify the set of adverse factors affecting the state of danger and compose a necessary starting material for the prediction of possible negative consequences, their nature and extent. The matter of special importance for the study of the phenomenon of security is the security classification. First of all, the forms (system of security in relation to the forces and processes of natural, social and technical character should be distinguished. They can be defined as systems of geo-bio-physical, social and technical security. The classification of security can be determined in many ways, for example, in relation to the object of security; in relation to the subject of security; according to the problem indication; according to the functional indication. Security is a distinctive characteristic and prerequisite of life, progressive development and viability of real-world objects. The methodology of its evaluation is based on the states of the essence of natural and anthropogenic environmental pollution, the standard requirements for the quality of environmental objects and standards of acceptable contamination. The assessment of ecological security of the environment is the quantitative measure of parameters of environmental pollution dangers, threats and risks of natural character as well as the state of anthropogenic security. This assessment is carried out according to the methods and ways to measure environmental parameters. For this purpose it is important to know the factors of danger and the system of indicators that characterizes all natural and environmental phenomena and processes of geo-ecological dangers, natural environmental conditions, ecological condition. The system of natural and industrial environmental indicators consists of the indicators which characterize all phenomena and processes of geo-ecological dangers of natural

  2. Control Mechanism and Security Region for Intentional Islanding Transition

    Chen, Yu; Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob


    This paper investigates the control mechanism for intentional islanding transition, when a Low Voltage (LV) or Medium Voltage (MV) distribution system, which is usually under grid connection mode, is supposed to be separated from the upstream grid, due to either maintenance or a disturbance...... in the grid. The concept of Islanding Security Region (ISR) has been proposed as an organic composition of the developed control mechanism. The purpose of this control mechanism is to maintain the frequency stability and eventually the security of power supply to the customers, by utilizing resources from...

  3. The African Standby Force and Regional Security Integration

    Mandrup, Thomas


    the challenges facing the region? The regional enmities between the states seem to be widespread, deep-rooted and of a nearly chronic nature. In June 2015 the African Union and its member-states announced that they expected the five regionally based standby brigades to be fully operational by December 2015....... The readiness is to be tested at a continental field exercise, Amani Africa 11 to take place in South Africa October 2015. (Defence Web, 2015) The article will start by mapping out the security dynamics and architecture in East Africa, including its membership circles and priorities. The article...

  4. Sustainability and Security: Timber Certification in Asia-Pacific Region

    Antonina Ivanova


    Full Text Available The expansion of sustainable development initiatives since the 1990’s reflected an emphasis on integrated solutions to economic development, socio-political stability and environmental health in the global community. In the same context the traditional concept of security needed to be open in two directions. First, the notion of security should no longer be applied only to the military realm, but also to the economic, the societal, the environmental, and the political fields. Second, the referent object of the “security” should not be conceptualized solely in terms of the state, but should embrace the individual below the state, and the international system above it. The forests industry timber certification in Asia-Pacific region has been selected as a case study because it is an excellent example to illustrate the links between the sustainable development and the environmental security, including also certain elements of economic security. This article is presenting a critical overview of the forest industry and the status of timber certification globally, with an emphasis on Asia – Pacific countries applying the Systemic Thinking approach. In conclusion, an outlook is presented concerning the future of timber certification and possible impacts on security and sustainable development.

  5. Ambiguous Law: The Right to Bargain for Job Security in Collective Agreements

    Elizabeth Shi


    Full Text Available This article argues that as a result of the lack of clarity on the dual questions of ‘permitted matters’ and ‘interests of employer and employees’, Fair Work Commission has been given very wide discretion in Workplace Determination cases to decide to retain or reject job security clauses. In a landmark Workplace Determination made after the enactment of Fair Work Act, the Qantas determination, FWC chose to reject job security clauses on merit grounds, despite paying lip service to the interests of employees’ job security. This article argues that the Qantas decision was a political decision by the FWC, given free rein by the lack of clarity in the legislation. 

  6. A New Scalable and Reliable Cost Effective Key Agreement Protocol for Secure Group Communication

    S. J. Begum


    Full Text Available Problem statement: In a heterogeneous environment, for a secure multicast communication, the group members have to share a secret key which is used to encrypt/decrypt the secret messages among the members. The Secure Group Communication of large scale multicast group in a dynamic environment is more complex than securing one-to-one communication due to the inherent scalability issue of group key management. Since the group members are dynamic in nature such as joining or leaving the group, the key updating is performed among the valid members without interrupting the multicast session so that non group members can’t have access to the future renewed keys. Approach: The main aim is to develop a scheme which can reduce the cost of computational overhead, number of messages needed during the time of key refreshing and the number of keys stored in servers and members. The cost of establishing the key and renewal is proportionate to the size of the group and subsequently fetches a bottleneck performance in achieving scalability. By using a Cluster Based Hierarchical Key Distribution Protocol, the load of key management can be shared among dummy nodes of a cluster without revealing the group messages to them. Results: Especially, the existing model incurs a very less computational and communication overhead during renewal of keys. The proposed scheme yields better scalability because of the fact that the Key computational cost, the keys stored in key server and numbers of rekey-messages needed are very less. Conclusion: Our proposed protocol is based on Elliptic curve cryptography algorithm to form secure group key, even with smaller key size, it is capable of providing more security. This protocol can be used both in wired or wireless environments.

  7. Chinalco Signed Agreement with Guangxi Autonomous Region to Drive Forward Cooperation in Investment Project


    <正>Recently,the Aluminum Corporation of China Limited and the People’s Government of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region held signing ceremony for investment cooperation agreement in Nanning City.Luo Jianchuan,member of the CPC Party Leadership Group of Chinalco and President of Chinalco,and Chen Gang,Vice Chairman of the People’s Government of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous

  8. 7 CFR Guide 1 to Subpart G of... - Project Management Agreement Between the ____ Regional Commission and the Farmers Home...


    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Project Management Agreement Between the ____ Regional... Guide 1 to Subpart G of Part 1942—Project Management Agreement Between the ____ Regional Commission and... successor agency under Public Law 103-354, in concurring to this Project Management Agreement, hereby...

  9. UN Security Council Practice and Regional Arrangements: Procedure, Legitimacy and International Justice

    Cullen, Miriam


    When the United Nations Security Council first met in January 1946, it was unable to reach agreement on rules of procedure to govern its operation. Instead, “provisional” rules were adopted in anticipation of further negotiation at a later date. The same provisional rules govern the Council’s work...... today, but provide only the skeletal framework of its contemporary practice. From the early 1990s, the Council increasingly implemented informal working methods to expedite its decision-making. This paper will critically examine the tension between the procedural practice of the Security Council...... and international justice, with particular focus on regional arrangements. Herein “international justice” is the concept of criminal culpability and liability for internationally wrongful acts which give rise to individual criminal responsibility. The Council is unapologetically political but it is also obligated...

  10. Secured telemedicine using region-based watermarking with tamper localization.

    Al-Haj, Ali; Amer, Alaa'


    Medical images exchanged over public networks require a methodology to provide confidentiality for the image, authenticity of the image ownership and source of origin, and image integrity verification. To provide these three security requirements, we propose in this paper a region-based algorithm based on multiple watermarking in the frequency and spatial domains. Confidentiality and authenticity are provided by embedding robust watermarks in the region-of-non-interest (RONI) of the image using a blind scheme in the discrete wavelet transform and singular value decomposition domain (DWT-SVD). On the other hand, integrity is provided by embedding local fragile watermarks in the region-of-interest (ROI) of the image using a reversible scheme in the spatial domain. The integrity provided by the proposed algorithm is implemented on a block-level of the partitioned-image, thus enabling localized detection of tampered regions. The algorithm was evaluated with respect to imperceptibility, robustness, capacity, and tamper localization capability, using MRI, Ultrasound, and X-ray gray-scale medical images. Performance results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in providing the required security services for telemedicine applications.

  11. Secure Capacity Region for Erasure Broadcast Channels with Feedback

    Czap, László; Diggavi, Suhas; Fragouli, Christina


    We formulate and study a cryptographic problem relevant to wireless: a sender, Alice, wants to transmit private messages to two receivers, Bob and Calvin, using unreliable wireless broadcast transmissions and short public feedback from Bob and Calvin. We ask, at what rates can we broadcast the private messages if we also provide (information-theoretic) unconditional security guarantees that Bob and Calvin do not learn each-other's message? We characterize the largest transmission rates to the two receivers, for any protocol that provides unconditional security guarantees. We design a protocol that operates at any rate-pair within the above region, uses very simple interactions and operations, and is robust to misbehaving users.

  12. On the Perception of National Security Issues at Regional Level

    Ponedelkov Aleksandr Vasilyevich


    Full Text Available The article explores the issue on the perception of the concept “national security” areas, models and methods of its maintenance by the population. The author uses materials of the sociological survey conducted by the Laboratory of problems of increasing the efficiency of state and municipal management of the South-Russian Institute of Management – branch of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. The survey was carried out with the participation of leading experts in various aspects of national security, representing 27 Russian higher educational institutions and research centers in Moscow, Astrakhan, Barnaul, Belgorod, Dushanbe, Krasnodar, Nizhny Novgorod, Omsk, Pyatigorsk, Rostov-on-Don, Saint Petersburg, Syktyvkar, Sochi, Ufa. It is noted that as a priority political governance model that implements the basic concept of national security, respondents identified a democratic model. Most respondents believe that a unified security model in the Russian regions is ineffective, and such model should be developed taking into account the specificity of each subject. The study showed that the public’s attention to the issue of national security is not sustainable, as determined by situational factors. It is proved that the motives of anxiety formed in the Russian public mind are not sustainable, and situational. Respondents see the economic cooperation more effective incentive to maintain national interests than by force. Estimation of the population of the priority issues of security shows that most respondents appreciate the organization of work to ensure the safety and anti-terrorism security in the sphere of national relations. The findings give grounds to assert that the focus of public attention to the problem of national security does not yet occupy the leading positions. To a greater extent, respondents focused on the issues of public safety, reducing threats and risks in their daily lives

  13. Canada and the North American Free Trade Agreement: Between globalization and regional integration

    Caterina García Segura


    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to analize, from Canada’s perspective, the choice regarding the model of state as well as of economic and commercial policy which the decision to participate in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA implies. The debatewhich NAFTA provoked in Canada expresses in concrete terms that debate which, in much larger terms, takes place at the international level regarding the multilateralization and/or the regionalization of commercial exchanges. It is a reflection of the tension between theintegrating forces (process of globalization and the fragmenting ones (processes of regionalization which characterize the dynamics of the contemporary international system. The hypothesis of this work is that in spite of being a commercial agreement, the Canadian government’s decision to participate in NAFTA was a decision of a political nature which was not determined exclusively by the reality of the existing commercial exchanges between Canada and Mexico or by the perspectives of improving them inthe short term. The immediate objective of Canada was to avoid that a possible bilateral agreement between its prinicipal economic member, the United States, and Mexico would empty out the contents of the existing Free Trade Agreement (FTA between Canada and the United States. In this sense, NAFTA was the possible remedy to an unwanted situation (the negotiation of a US-Mexico bilateral agreement. The objective in the medium and long term is use the platform of regional integration as a trampoline from where the Canadian economy can be reorientated and driven in order to attain international competitiveness. In this sense, Canada’s true option had already beenrealised with the FTA.

  14. Regionalism and African agency: negotiating an Economic Partnership Agreement between the European Union and SADC- Minus

    Murray-Evans, Peg


    This article investigates the regional dynamics of African agency in the case of negotiations for an Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) between the EU and a group of Southern African countries, known as SADC-Minus. I argue that these negotiations were shaped by a pattern of differentiated responses to the choice set on offer under the EPAs by SADC-Minus policymakers and by a series of strategic interactions and power plays between them. I offer two contributions to an emerging literature on...

  15. Autonomous Voltage Security Regions to Prevent Cascading Trip Faults in Wind Turbine Generators

    Niu, Tao; Guo, Qinglai; Sun, Hongbin


    Cascading trip faults in large-scale wind power centralized integration areas bring new challenges to the secure operation of power systems. In order to deal with the complexity of voltage security regions and the computation difficulty, this paper proposes an autonomous voltage security region...

  16. Job Descriptions, Report Forms, Annual Report, Mobile Home Live-In Agreements. Workshop I. School Security Programs.

    National Association of School Security Directors, Bellevue, WA.

    Workshop materials, all from Broward County (Florida), include job descriptions for the positions of director of security, security investigator, security specialist, and security patrolman. A security report also contains charts reflecting arson, vandalism, and theft costs from the school in years 1970 through 1979. The last section contains…

  17. Competitiveness and food security at the regional level

    Mikhail Vasil'evich Fyodorov


    Full Text Available This paper deals with food safety as one of the areas of food security and food sovereignty. A review of concepts, models, acts on the power of international and national levels is made. The authors formulate a conclusion about the need for a measure of «food quality» with the release of the functional components of fitness (the ability to perform specified functions with the purpose and safety (restrictions on the content of harmful substances in the products. The analysis of the competitiveness of local products is made on the quality characteristics based on the proportion of output indicator of inadequate quality or dangerous to health in the total volume of products placed on the market. The paper identifies key areas of federal and regional levels to comply with the quality of food.

  18. G8 Regional Security Governance through Sanctions and Force

    John Kirton


    Full Text Available Why do the Group of Eight (G8 members approve its members’ use of material sanctions in some regional conflicts but military force in others?2 As an informal security institution composed of major democratic powers from North America, Europe and Asia, the G8 has often chosen sanctions, notably on Iran in 1980, Afghanistan in 1980, Sudan in 2004, North Korea in 2006, and Syria in 2011. It has increasingly chosen military force, notably in Iraq in 1990, Kosovo in 1999, the USSR over Afghanistan in 2001, Libya in 2011, and Mali in 2013. Yet the G8’s choice, initiation, commitment, compliance, implementation and effectiveness of both sanctions and force has varied. Force was chosen and used effectively only in the post cold war period, primarily where the target was close to southern Europe. A high relative-capability predominance of G8 members over the target country strongly produces the G8’s choice of force, but a high, direct, deadly threat from the target state to G8 countries does not. Geographic proximity and the connectivity coming from the former colonial relationship between G8 members and the target country only weakly cause the G8 to choose force. Support from the most relevant regional organization – the North Atlantic Treaty Organization – and support from the United Nations in the form of an authorizing UN Security Council or General Assembly resolution have a strong, positive effect on the G8’s choice of force. Accompanying accountability mechanisms from the G8 itself have a variable impact, as leaders’ iteration of the issue at subsequent summits does not increase compliance with G8 commitments on force-related cases, but their foreign ministers’ follow up does to a substantial degree.

  19. Agreement Workflow Tool (AWT)

    Social Security Administration — The Agreement Workflow Tool (AWT) is a role-based Intranet application used for processing SSA's Reimbursable Agreements according to SSA's standards. AWT provides...

  20. The Regionally-Oriented National Schools, an Innovative Tool for National and Regional Security Building


    REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MILITARY STUDIES AUTHOR: Chef de bataillon Tugdual Barbarin Armee de Terre , Troupes de Marine- France AY 11...national and regional security building Author: Chef de bataillon Tugdual Barbarin, Armée de Terre , Troupes de Marines (France) Thesis...assertion, people are rarely able to provide precise examples demonstrating this influence. At best, they evoke outdated clichés which do not reflect the

  1. Agreement among Four Prevalence Metrics for Urogenital Schistosomiasis in the Eastern Region of Ghana

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V.; Tybor, David; Osabutey, Dickson; Bosompem, Kwabena M.; Naumova, Elena N.


    Few studies assess agreement among Schistosoma haematobium eggs, measured hematuria, and self-reported metrics. We assessed agreement among four metrics at a single time point and analyzed the stability of infection across two time points with a single metric. We used data from the Eastern Region of Ghana and constructed logistic regression models. Girls reporting macrohematuria were 4.1 times more likely to have measured hematuria than girls not reporting macrohematuria (CI95%: 2.1–7.9); girls who swim were 3.6 times more likely to have measured hematuria than nonswimmers (CI95%: 1.6–7.9). For boys, neither self-reported metric was predictive. Girls with measured hematuria in 2010 were 3.3 times more likely to be positive in 2012 (CI95%: 1.01–10.5), but boys showed no association. Boys with measured hematuria in 2008 were 6.0 times more likely to have measured hematuria in 2009 (CI95%: 1.5–23.9) and those with eggs in urine in 2008 were 4.8 times more likely to have eggs in urine in 2009 (CI95%: 1.2–18.8). For girls, measured hematuria in 2008 predicted a positive test in 2009 (OR = 2.8; CI95%: 1.1–6.8), but egg status did not. Agreement between dipstick results and eggs suggests continued dipstick used is appropriate. Self-reported swimming should be further examined. For effective disease monitoring, we recommend annual dipstick testing. PMID:28078300

  2. The Potential of Regional Integration Agreements (RIAs) in Enhancing the Credibility of Reform: The Case of the Syrian-European Association Agreement

    Zorob, Anja


    The effect of 'locking-in' economic reform and enhancing its credibility is generally regarded as one of the most important potential effects of regional integration. Based on a detailed review of the theoretical debate, this paper develops a general framework for assessment to evaluate the ability of RIAs to serve as effective mechanisms for 'commitment' and 'signalling'. In the second part, this assessment framework is applied to the case of the Syrian-European Association Agreement (AA). S...

  3. An empirical application of regional security complex theory on eastern partnership region

    Ludmila STUPARU


    Full Text Available Eastern Partnership (EaP is a very dynamic region. If a year ago the EaP was seen as an authentic and vibrant „laboratory” of democracy building, overcoming the remains of the totalitarian state and putting the basis of a free and pluralist society, nowadays the Eastern Partnership is seen as an „out-dated” approach of the EU. However, Eastern Partnership is visible on European political arena and the big powers (USA, Russia and the EU pay attention more and more to the evolution of EaP countries. Moreover, it seems to be a confrontation between Russia and Western powers regarding the political and geopolitical orientation of EaP countries. Kremlin tries actively to stop the efforts of the EaP to close to the EU and on the other side, the EU as well as the USA encourage EaP countries to implement reforms in order to build their democracy. This paper aims to analyse the Eastern Partnership in terms of security complex, trying to argue that Eastern Partnership countries at this phase don’t form a Regional Security Complex and the EU and USA should rethink its approach towards this region.

  4. A study on an information security system of a regional collaborative medical platform.

    Zhao, Junping; Peng, Kun; Leng, Jinchang; Sun, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhenjiang; Xue, Wanguo; Ren, Lianzhong


    The objective of this study was to share the experience of building an information security system for a regional collaborative medical platform (RCMP) and discuss the lessons learned from practical projects. Safety measures are analyzed from the perspective of system engineering. We present the essential requirements, critical architectures, and policies for system security of regional collaborative medical platforms.

  5. The Impact of Regional Higher Education Spaces on the Security of International Students

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen


    The security of international students in regional higher education spaces in Australia has been overlooked. Contingency theory provides the framework for this case study to explore the organisational structure and support services relevant to a regional higher education space and how this impacts the security of international students. In-depth…

  6. The Impact of Regional Higher Education Spaces on the Security of International Students

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen


    The security of international students in regional higher education spaces in Australia has been overlooked. Contingency theory provides the framework for this case study to explore the organisational structure and support services relevant to a regional higher education space and how this impacts the security of international students. In-depth…

  7. Regional Contagion and the Globalization of Securities Markets

    Guillermo A. Calvo; Enrique G. Mendoza


    This paper argues that the globalization of securities markets may promote contagion among investors by weakening incentives for gathering costly country-specific information and by strengthening incentives for imitating arbitrary market portfolios. In the presence of short-selling constraints, the utility gain of gathering information at a fixed cost converges to a constant level and may diminish as securities markets grow. Moreover, if a portfolio manager's marginal cost for yielding below-...

  8. Korea’s Trade Strategies for Mega Free Trade Agreements in Regional and Global Economic Integration

    Sang-Chul Park


    Full Text Available Korea has developed rapidly since the 1960s. It is one of the four Asian tiger economies and a good model for developing countries. Korea shows the world how a developing country can develop its economy rapidly and become industrialized. Its development strategy has mainly been an export-oriented trade policy. As a result, its trade volume grew from $1 billion in 1966 to $1 trillion in 2011, which is a 1,000-fold increase within five decades. Since 2011, Korea has become one of seven countries with a trade volume over $1 trillion. However, the Korean economy has experienced turbulence as well as positive growth. It underwent severe economic crises such as the Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the global financial crisis in 2008. Its economy has been extremely vulnerable to the external economic environment, although it has improved and strengthened, particularly since the global financial crisis. During those two crises, the government carried out an appropriate trade policy with a strategic approach to upgrade its industrial structure and competitiveness in global markets. This article comprehensively discusses Korean trade policy and strategy over the last five decades, and how its national economy has developed rapidly. It also explores how the government sets its strategic targets in Asia and the Asia Pacific region. It considers two mega free trade agreements (FTAs — the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership and the Trans-Pacific Partnership — as new opportunities for further development. Therefore, it is wise to analyze these regional mega FTAs in order to maximize the national interest.


    Makhanko G. V.


    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of economic security of the country and argues that the priorities of economic security of the state vary depending on the historical period of development of the state, and under the influence of changes in the world. In modern terms they are monetary, energy and food security. The article is devoted to the issue of food security as an integral and essential part of national security, because the share of imports in total food variously estimated at from 30 to 50 %. Ensuring food security contributes to sustainable social climate in society. Russia, having all the main types of resources - land, water, energy, raw materials and labour, is not yet able to make full use of their populations wholesome food through own production. Needs completed large-scale imports even for those that it can produce sufficient not only for domestic consumption but also for export to the world market. Food security regions and the country serves as a basic indicator of human activity, and security is a priority of the state agrarian policy of the state.. The article proves that food security as an important element of national security involves ensuring the normal operation of such a complex biological system, as a people, mostly at the expense of domestic food production with the accounting standards recommended by the Institute of nutrition of the Academy of medical Sciences. The article is exploratory in nature, reflected in the fact that it dealt with issues of food security of the region and the country. The article is devoted to solving actual tasks associated with the role of agriculture in the Kuban in ensuring food security in the region and the country. In article on the basis of the analysis of the economic potential of Krasnodar region, in particular the agro-industrial complex of the region as the largest Russian producer and supplier of agricultural products and raw materials, justifies the role of agrarian and

  10. [IHE ITI-ATNA profile-based solution for the security of regional healthcare information sharing].

    Yao, Ye-hong; Zhang, Jian-guo


    In designing and implementing regional healthcare information sharing systems, the security problem is a very important issue. According to the Audit Trail and Node Authentication (ATNA) Profile of Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) and the practical experiences in several hospitals in Shanghai, a Proxy/Server based security solution for the integration of regional healthcare information sharing systems is proposed, which can solve the cross-platform security problems of integration, providing some security measures such as Central User Authentication, Audit Trail and Node Authentication.

  11. Evaluation the Role of Securities Market in Increasing the Regional Budget Revenues

    Aleksandr Yemelyanovich Miller


    Full Text Available In the article, the relevant problem of increasing the regional budget revenues is investigated. The subject matter of the research is the securities market as a mechanism for the redistribution of financial resources. The purpose of the research is justification of the effective scheme feasible in the current environment of the interaction of the securities market and the regional budget. In the study of the above-mentioned subject, the hypothesis of a close relationship between state and non-state finance system was taken as a basis. The theoretical principle of the research supports the theory of the stock market; to achieve the purpose, the institutionally-functional approach to the study of state finances is applied. As the result of the research, possible common grounds of the securities market and the regional financial system are identified; the reserve of improving efficiency of the securities market in the Western Siberia regions are revealed; the model reflecting the dependence of tax revenues from the pace of regional economic development is constructed; promising areas for development of the securities market for the benefit of the regional economy and regional financial system are formulated; the possible effect from the development of regional securities market on regional budget revenues is estimated. The results mentioned above are recommended to be apllied when developing regional financial policies and programmes of region socio-economic development. A long-term stimulation of the growth in incomes of regional budgets is a very complex process, but with the proper elaboration of organizational issues, the implementation of the proposed scheme for interaction of the securities market and the regional financial system is capable to provide a steady increase in tax revenue in the short term and alleviate the problem of financing costs of the regional budget.

  12. Accounting and Control in Ensuring Economic Security of the Organizations of Perm Region


    The article deals with the urgent problem concerning the regional development as well as the specific organization, or to the development of an integrated system of economic security of the organization. The article discusses the importance of such an element of economic security (including the financial security) as the accounting and control as well as their possible violations. The authors substantiate their position on the relationship of the violations of accounting and control and also ...

  13. Modern Piracy and Regional Security Cooperation in the Maritime Domain: The Middle East and Southeast Asia


    Lotfian, “A Regional Security System in the Persian Gulf,” 111–125. 70 Risa Brooks, “Civil Military Relations in the Middle East,” in The Future Security...resources on assuring internal stability. 262 Risa Brooks, “Civil Military Relations in the Middle...December 2004): 480–505. Brooks, Risa . “Civil Military Relations in the Middle East.” In The Future Security Environment in the Middle East: Conflict

  14. Public Procurement of Security Technology : A multiple case study of Swedish municipalities and regions

    Rolandsson, Rasmus


    Municipalities and regions in Sweden have an increasing need to purchase security technology to secure their properties and their operations. However this procurement process is strictly regulated by the Swedish procurement act (“Lagen om Offentlig Upphandling”, LoU), leading to a similar procurement process. However no academic studies have been done on the procurement of security technology in local authorities.This thesis explores and maps this process and the important aspects which affec...

  15. Community Gardening in Rural Regions: Enhancing Food Security and Nutrition.

    Sullivan, Ashley F.

    Community gardening projects can enhance community food security and improve the nutrition of project participants. However, limited information exists on the most effective models and methods for establishing community gardens in rural areas. A survey of 12 rural community gardening projects found a variety of program models: community gardens…

  16. Security regionalism and flaws of externally forged peace in Sudan ...

    arguably frees government resources from maintaining internal and external security ... as an example of 'African solutions to African problems', the IGAD process was ... can be viewed partly as an attempt to push responsibility of managing armed .... (i.e. Indonesia, Malaysia and China), all with major commercial interests in.

  17. The Domestic, Regional and Global Security Stakes in Kazakhstan


    prosperity. The distinguished Nigerian novelist Chinua Achebe , describing crisis in his country, wrote, The trouble with Nigeria is simply and...2004. 14 Chinua Achebe , “The Trouble with Nigeria,” London: Heinemann, 1983, p. 1. 11 economic development, foreign policy, and security. The crisis...

  18. Harmonization of domestic legislation in the field of civil law with the European Union law: Securing of claims by means of fiduciary agreements

    Pajtić Bojan


    Full Text Available This paper analyses fiduciary agreements, which, as a form of contract, that is the means of securing obligation and legal claims, are regulated by provisions of specific laws and codifications in some of the European Union countries. Even the Montenegrin legislator enacted a special law governing these legal matters, however in the Serbian law fiduciary agreements fall into the category of innominate contracts. Fiducia originates in the Roman Law and constitutes the first common form of the pledge law. The Latin term fiducia means 'trust', since these legal matters were, first of all, based on the trust between contractual parties. This paper addresses the institution of 'trust' as it is the Anglo-Saxon counterpart of the fiduciary agreement. Etymologically, 'trust' has the same meaning as the term fiducia - trust. Due to their advantages, fiduciary agreements are not even uncommon in the domestic legal practice, while there are certain, as we have already announced, theoretical, but also practical concerns arguing admissibility of this legal matter. These arguments mainly come down to the thesis (mentioned above that entering into the fiduciary agreement results in violation of the ban on performance of contract lex commissoria in the pledge law. Nevertheless, I provided explanation that differences between contracts of pledge and fiduciary agreements clearly point to the conclusion that fiduciary agreements may not be treated as a pledge, hence they are admissible, that is, they are concluded on the principle of contractual freedom as an imperative norm of the Law on Obligations. Fiduciary agreements (in relation to the realistic means of security offer to the creditor a higher level of security, reduce the period of payment of his claims, also providing practical benefits for the debtor himself. The paper presents the reasons supporting the view that it would be advantageous for the Serbian legislator, in the process of harmonization of the

  19. The Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA in the Philippines: Insights on Issues of Sovereignty, Security and Foreign Policy

    Mark Anthony M. Velasco


    Full Text Available The study intends to compare the Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA between the Philippines and the United States of America and the VFA between the Philippines and Australia. The research piece is arranged in the following flow of ideas. The first and the second part provides the foundations by highlighting issues on definition, historical background, provisions of the agreement and concerns faced by the agreement of the Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA between the Republic of the Philippines and the United States of America and the Status of the Visiting Forces Agreement (SOVFA between the Republic of the Philippines and Australia. The third part is an analysis of the VFA and the SOVFA under the tutelage of the framework on the non-intervention principle. As a result, the provisions of SOVFA were in consonance with the legal arrangement in the Philippines than the VFA with the United States of America.

  20. Asian Transnational Security Challenge: Emerging Trends, Regional Visions


    exploitation, forced marriage, settlement of debts or disputes, forced begging, debt bondage , service as child soldiers, or other forms of...SECURITY Pakistan’s energy sector faces tremendous challenges. Pakistan’s domestic energy production infrastructure is weak and trapped in a debt cycle...PSDP). However, most expenditures – including those incurred in debt serving and providing MUHAMMAD AMIR RANA, SAFDAR SIAL 32 Asian Transnational

  1. [Demographic aspects of social security of elderly population in the Barents Euro-Arctic Region].

    Danilova, R I; Golubeva, E Iu; Emel'ianova, A S


    Social security of elderly people is discussed at different levels of the realization of the geronto-social policy in the Barents Euro-Arctic Region within the context of the Madrid Plan of Actions on Aging. There have been comparatively analyzed demographic indicators that show age structures of the regions which are parts of the Barents Euro-Arctic Region. There have been defined regional differences and trends of improvement of geronto-social policy for providing security of life activity of elderly people in the Russian part of the Barents Euro-Arctic Region.

  2. Nuclear knowledge management initiatives of the Regional Cooperative Agreement undertaken by the Electronic Networking and Outreach project

    Alawiah Musa [Information and Technology Centre, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Kajang 43000 (Malaysia)]. E-mail:; Ainul Hayati Daud; Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman [Information and Technology Centre, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Kajang 43000 (Malaysia)


    The Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) in the Asia Pacific region is one of the cooperative agreements under the aegis of the International Atomic Energy Agency and currently consists of 17 member states. Since the region covered by the RCA is undergoing a rapid expansion in nuclear power development, many activities have been carried out under the RCA. The Electronic Networking and Outreach (ENO) Project under the RCA was used as a vehicle for the RCA programme for the dissemination of valuable information to end-users. This paper will describe the initiatives undertaken by the ENO project to initially establish an information and knowledge-sharing environment as an initiative towards a nuclear knowledge management system within the RCA community. It will also discuss the challenges and issues peculiar to the region that have been encountered during the project cycle. Then it will try to offer a conceptual framework of a nuclear knowledge management system for the RCA region. (author)

  3. A Secure Dynamic Identity and Chaotic Maps Based User Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme for e-Healthcare Systems.

    Li, Chun-Ta; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Weng, Chi-Yao; Chen, Song-Jhih


    Secure user authentication schemes in many e-Healthcare applications try to prevent unauthorized users from intruding the e-Healthcare systems and a remote user and a medical server can establish session keys for securing the subsequent communications. However, many schemes does not mask the users' identity information while constructing a login session between two or more parties, even though personal privacy of users is a significant topic for e-Healthcare systems. In order to preserve personal privacy of users, dynamic identity based authentication schemes are hiding user's real identity during the process of network communications and only the medical server knows login user's identity. In addition, most of the existing dynamic identity based authentication schemes ignore the inputs verification during login condition and this flaw may subject to inefficiency in the case of incorrect inputs in the login phase. Regarding the use of secure authentication mechanisms for e-Healthcare systems, this paper presents a new dynamic identity and chaotic maps based authentication scheme and a secure data protection approach is employed in every session to prevent illegal intrusions. The proposed scheme can not only quickly detect incorrect inputs during the phases of login and password change but also can invalidate the future use of a lost/stolen smart card. Compared the functionality and efficiency with other authentication schemes recently, the proposed scheme satisfies desirable security attributes and maintains acceptable efficiency in terms of the computational overheads for e-Healthcare systems.

  4. Eastern Canadian crude oil supply and its implications for regional energy security

    Hughes, Larry [Energy Research Group, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)


    Canada has been blessed with immense energy resources; however, their distribution is not uniform. One such example is crude oil, which is found primarily in western Canada. Eastern Canada, consisting of the six eastern-most provinces (Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and Quebec), produce limited quantities of crude oil, most of which is exported to the United States. Ideally, western Canadian crude oil would meet the demands of eastern Canada; however, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the absence of oil pipelines means that eastern Canada increasingly relies on supplies of crude oil from a small number of oil exporting countries, many with declining production. This paper examines crude oil production, supply, and its refining in eastern Canada. It shows that crude production in the region has reached its peak and that increasing global competition for crude oil will affect energy security in eastern Canada, either through price increases or supply shortages, or both. (author)

  5. Brazilian Policy and the Creation of a Regional Security Complex in the South Atlantic: Pax Brasiliana?

    Beatriz Rodrigues Bessa Mattos

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past five years, the South Atlantic region has become a central element of Brazilian security policy, with Brazil actively supporting the notion of a trans-oceanic security consciousness involving African littoral states. It has invested in diplomatic initiatives such as the Zone of Peace and Cooperation of the South Atlantic (ZPCSA, or ZOPACAS, and extensive military co-operation with West African states such as São Tomé e Príncipe, Namibia and Cape Verde. Its internal security and defence policy documents have repeatedly been updated to reflect this dimension, and now provide the foundation for advancing these initiatives. This policy thrust is directed at securing Brazil’s offshore oil assets, and limiting the influence of what it has termed ‘extra-regional powers’ such as the P-5. This article highlights these initiatives and reviews the prospects for this policy by examining the plausibility of the South Atlantic region as a regional security complex in the sense coined by Buzan and Wæver. The analysis is based on the role of geographical and linguistic proximity in international relations, and the impact of multilateral bodies on building support for a regional approach to security governance.

  6. A Food in Health Security (FIHS) platform in the Asia-Pacific Region: the way forward.

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Keatinge, John Donough H; Butler, Colin D; Friel, Sharon; McKay, John; Easdown, Warwick; Kuo, Ken N; Huang, Ching-jang; Pan, Wen-Harn; Yang, Ray-Yu; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chiu, Ya-Wen; Jaron, Dov; Krawinkel, Michael; Barlow, Snow; Walsh, Greg; Chiang, Tung-liang; Huang, Po-Chao; Li, Duo


    The advent of multiple global crises, especially those of climate change, economics, energy, water, food and health evident in 2008, is of considerable moment to those who are suffering their consequences and for those with responsibility and interest in the systems affected. A coalition of parties in the Asia Pacific Region who work in the food and health systems met in August, 2009 in Taiwan and instigated a Food in Health Security (FIHS) Network which might join with other like-minded networks in and beyond the region. Sustainable health has many dimensions, among which food and nutrition is often neglected; there is a wide spectrum of nutritionally-related disorders. Malnutrition remains the global concern for agricultural research and development scientists and linkage with the health sector is key to progress. The disconnect between agricultural and health sectors negatively impacts consumer nutrition and health. Ethical and equity affect food and health systems. Food and health security is attainable only when the underlying social inequities are addressed; it is an ethical issue as reflected in the UN Universal declaration of Human Rights which includes the right to food for health and well-being. Food and health security are part of the larger security agenda and merit corresponding attention. Policy recommendations with immediacy are greater investment in combined food and health research; an Asia Pacific security agenda which emphasizes planetary, human, health and food security as relevant to traditional defence security; and community and household security measures which include maternal literacy, communication technology and entrepreneurial opportunity.

  7. Problems and Tools for the Detection of Threats to Personnel Security in the Region

    Natalia Victorovna Kuznetsova


    Full Text Available The investigation of threats negatively affecting the state and the development of human resources as well as the varieties of security threats is of particular importance in the theory and practice of personnel security measures. The purpose of the article is to identify and classify the ideas of the main threats to personnel security of the region (the research is carried out on the example of the Irkutsk region. On the basis of the content analysis of Russian regulatory legal acts and scientific publications, external and internal threats to personnel security of the region are highlighted. As a result, the list of threats to personnel security of the region consisting of 37 stands is composed. The political, economic, demographic, social, technical and technological, ecological, legal, ethnocultural forms of threats are demonstrated. The authors came to the conclusion that the internal threats to personnel security of the region (first of all socio-economic are dominant. An assessment of the urgency and relevance of the threats to the personnel security of the region is given. With the use of the technology of the hierarchical factorial analysis, the types of threats (factors of the lowest level were identified and their influence on the general level of the urgency of personnel security threats (a factor of the highest level is estimated. It is revealed that legal threats, as well as threats caused by the low labour potential of the region, have the most significant impact on the estimation of the urgency of threats. The study applies the following analysis methods — a content analysis, the analysis of linear and cross-distribution, hierarchical factor and correlation analysis. The analysis is based on the data of the expert survey conducted in the Irkutsk region (2015. To determine the relationship (coherence of the expert evaluations, the Kendall’s coefficient of concordance is calculated. The received results can be used for studying

  8. Managing Regional Collaboration in Higher Education: The Case of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

    Crespo, Manuel


    Describes accomplishments in increasing collaboration in higher education within the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Analyzes procedures for determining equivalencies of courses and degrees and for improving transnational mobility of students and professors. Also discusses the role of the private sector in research, education and…

  9. Improved Rate-Equivocation Regions for Secure Cooperative Communication

    Marina, Ninoslav; Poor, H Vincent


    A simple four node network in which cooperation improves the information-theoretic secrecy is studied. The channel consists of two senders, a receiver, and an eavesdropper. One or both senders transmit confidential messages to the receiver, while the eavesdropper tries to decode the transmitted message. The main result is the derivation of a newly achievable rate-equivocation region that is shown to be larger than a rate-equivocation region derived by Lai and El Gamal for the relay-eavesdropper channel. When the rate of the helping interferer is zero, the new rate-equivocation region reduces to the capacity-equivocation region over the wire-tap channel, hence, the new achievability scheme can be seen as a generalization of a coding scheme proposed by Csiszar and Korner. This result can naturally be combined with a rate-equivocation region given by Tang et al. (for the interference assisted secret communication), yielding an even larger achievable rate-equivocation region.


    A. V. Masloboev


    Full Text Available The paper deals with engineering problems and application perspectives of virtual cognitive centers as intelligent systems for information support of interagency activities in the field of complex security management of regional development. A research prototype of virtual cognitive center for regional security management in crisis situations, implemented as hybrid cloud service based on IaaS architectural framework with the usage of multi-agent and web-service technologies has been developed. Virtual cognitive center is a training simulator software system and is intended for solving on the basis of distributed simulation such problems as: strategic planning and forecasting of risk-sustainable development of regional socioeconomic systems, agents of management interaction specification synthesis for regional components security in different crisis situations within the planning stage of joint anti-crisis actions.

  11. Negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement : Evaluation and Implications for East Asian Regionalism

    Inkyo CHEONG


    The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement seems to have reached a crossroads : it could either be a building block toward achieving economic integration in Asia and the Pacific, or trigger the formation of two large trade blocs which will work independently of one another. When the Government of Japan announced its participation in the TPP negotiations in March 2013, the partnership began to attract greater interest from other East Asian countries. This paper analyzes the progress and ...

  12. An Impact Study of the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) in the Six ACP Regions

    Fontagné, Lionel; Laborde, David; Mitaritonna, Cristina


    This article intends to present a very detailed analysis of the trade-related aspects of Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) negotiations. We use a dynamic partial equilibrium model – focusing on the demand side – at the HS6 level (covering 5,113 HS6 products). Two alternative lists of sensitive products are constructed, one giving priority to the agricultural sectors, the other focusing on tariff revenue preservation. In order to be WTO compatible, EPAs must translate into 90 percent of b...

  13. Water security in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro: contributions to the debate

    Santos,Bianca Borges Medeiros


    Abstract This article aims to contribute to discussions on the management of water resources and the elements associated to water security. The discussion has focused on two main aspects, first, in the theoretical frame about discussions of water security and second, in the presentation of the elements which composes the current scenario of water management in the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro (RMRJ), based in the discussions about the centrality for Rio de Janeiro's water supply focu...

  14. Homeland Security Vulnerabilities Of The US National Capital Region’s Bridges


    THE HOMELAND SECURITY VULNERABILITIES OF THE US NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION’S BRIDGES A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S...AUG 2015 – JUNE 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Homeland Security Vulnerabilities of the US National Capital Region’s Bridges 5a. CONTRACT...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The National Capital Region (NCR) is plagued by the same critical infrastructure vulnerabilities, disrepair, and

  15. United States security strategy for the East Asia-Pacific region



    The three years since release of the last East Asia Strategy Report (EASR) have produced important development in the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. The 1998 EASR outlines a multifaceted regional security strategy, including: maintenance of comprehensive US engagement, including not only the presence of approximately 100,000 US military personnel in Asia but also a variety of other public and private interaction with the region; continued enhancement of the alliance relationships with Japan, Korea, Australia, Thailand and the Philippines; comprehensive engagement with China to build the foundation for a long-term relationship based on cooperation and mutual interest; broadening of cooperation with the nations of Southeast Asia on security and confidence building; expansion of regional cooperation with Russia; support for the development of security pluralism, including expansion of multilateral, minilateral and bilateral dialogue in the region; promotion of democracy; stemming and countering proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD): and increased attention to terrorism, environmental degradation, emerging infectious diseases, drug trafficking and other transnational challenges as critical elements of `comprehensive security.`

  16. The Caspian Sea regionalism in a globalized world: Energy security and regional trajectories of Azerbaijan and Iran

    Hedjazi, Babak


    This dissertation is fundamentally about the formation of new regional spaces in Central Eurasia viewed from a dynamic, comparative and historical approach. Analyzing the global-local economic and political interactions and their consequences on resource rich countries of the Caspian Sea enable us to reframe security as a central element of the new global order. In this respect, the dissertation examines how two particular states, Azerbaijan and Iran, respond to the changing global security environment and optimize their capacity to absorb or control change. Here, security as I conceive is multidimensional and engages various social, political and economic domains. My research is articulated along three hypotheses regarding the formation of a new regional space and its consequences on territorial polarization and interstate rivalry. These hypotheses, respectively and cumulatively, elucidate global and domestic contexts of regional space formation, regional strategic and discursive trajectories, and regional tensions of global/local interactions. In order to empirically test these hypotheses, a series of thirty interviews were conducted by the author with local and foreign business representatives, civilian and government representatives, and corroborated by economic data collected from the International Energy Agency. The findings of the research validate the primary assumption of the dissertation that Azerbaijan and Iran have chosen the regional scale to address discrepancies between their aspired place in the new world order and the reality of their power and international status. Extending the argument for structural scarcity of oil towards contenders, this dissertation concludes that the Caspian oil has become a fundamental element of the regional discourse. The mismatch between the rhetoric of sovereign rights and energy security on one side and the reality of regional countries' powerlessness and their need to reach international markets on the other side are

  17. The China Factor in Regional Security Cooperation: The ASEAN Regional Forum and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization

    Alfred Gerstl


    Full Text Available This article argues that regional security cooperation in South-East Asia, mainly promoted by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN, is a response to China´s economic rise. Although China is not regarded as a military challenge, Beijing’s ascension threatens to undermine the regional balance of power. The emerging insecurities threaten the stability of the regimes whose power is based on output legitimacy. Cooperation, the thesis states, can reduce these uncertainties. Yet, whereas collaboration in the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF offers Beijing incentives for the strengthening of its “enlightened” multilateralism, regional cooperation in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO will not change China’s behaviour. The reason is that this cooperation is based on Realpolitik motives. Offensive Realism seems therefore well suited to analyse the Central Asian power relations. Even though the dimension of cooperation has not been included in John Mearsheimer’s approach, this article demonstrates that it can conceptually be integrated into offensive Realism without contradicting its core theses. For this, however, its adherents must accept two assumptions: First, that the domestic political logic – in case of Beijing the output legitimacy of the Communist Party – must be integrated. Second, that there exists no automatism in international politics. Otherwise one would have to speak of the tragic of offensive Realism: Policies, based on this perception, does not offer China sufficient incentives to further pursue multilateralism. ----- In diesem Aufsatz wird argumentiert, dass die regionale sicherheitspolitische Integration in SüdostundNordostasien, primär von der südostasiatischen Staatengemeinschaft ASEAN vorangetrieben, eine Reaktion auf Chinas wirtschaftlichen Aufstieg verkörpert. Dieser droht das regionale Kräftegleichgewicht zu untergraben, wodurch er Unsicherheiten weckt und damit eine Gefahr für die auf Stabilit


    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović


    Full Text Available A fundamental prerequisite for the existence, growth and development of each social community is environmental safety. In modern conditions of environmental degradation as a global process, it is bound to increase social stratification, ethnic and even religious conflict, conflict and intolerance that threatens the safety of society. It is a notorious fact that the world of Simply is no longer in a position to deal with new shocks. The financial crisis has reduced global economic resilience, while geopolitical tensions and increased social concerns point to the fact that the state and society less able than ever to cope with global challenges, among which is the primary problem of environmental security. In modern countries, political, security and other interests of the citizens' day-to-day modeling, transform, get the content, in accordance with the general civilization changes. In this connection, sustainable local spatial development is crucial conditioned ecological without security region and aims to achieve a balance between current consumption of natural resources and the ability of the system to maintain the level at which future generations will be able to use them. The work represents a contribution to the achievement of environmental security as a new, modern forms of security, and originated from the need to once again draw attention to the evident environmental degradation as an integral part of human security. Ecological security of the region protects the basic components of the environment and determinants of the local spatial development. In fact, safety in the field of protection and preservation of the environment is one of the most important factors Security Council shall contemporary world. In doing so, it is important to emphasize, however, that environmental security has no borders and is a global problem, a task and an obligation.

  19. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia

    Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y


    This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

  20. Evaluation of regional energy security in eastern coastal China based on the DPSIR model

    ZHANG Yan; SHEN Lei


    The DPSIR assessment method,which implies the relationships among driving force (D),pressure (P),status (S),impact (I),and response (R),is widely applied by scholars.This paper aims to establish a comprehensive assessment system for regional energy security in eastern coastal China based on the above model using different indicators.Factor analysis and the SPSS statistical analysis software were used to carry out scientific and quantitative assessments.The results indicated that contradictions of energy supply and demand as well as environmental pollution are the critical factors that present great challenges to regional energy security in this area.The authors argued that a sustainable,stable,and safe supply energy supply is crucial in solving the aforesaid dilemma,and improving the energy use efficiency is one of the best choices.Some countermeasures and suggestions regarding regional energy supply stability and utilization security were pointed out.


    A. V. Masloboev


    Full Text Available The paper deals with development of methods and tools for mathematical and computer modeling of the multilevel network-centric control systems of regional security. This research is carried out under development strategy implementation of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation and national safeguarding for the period before 2020 in the Murmansk region territory. Creation of unified interdepartmental multilevel computer-aided system is proposed intended for decision-making information support and socio-economic security monitoring of the Arctic regions of Russia. The distinctive features of the investigated system class are openness, self-organization, decentralization of management functions and decision-making, weak hierarchy in the decision-making circuit and goal generation capability inside itself. Research techniques include functional-target approach, mathematical apparatus of multilevel hierarchical system theory and principles of network-centric control of distributed systems with pro-active components and variable structure. The work considers network-centric management local decisions coordination problem-solving within the multilevel distributed systems intended for information support of regional security. The coordination problem-solving approach and problem formalization in the multilevel network-centric control systems of regional security have been proposed based on developed multilevel recurrent hierarchical model of regional socio-economic system complex security. The model provides coordination of regional security indexes, optimized by the different elements of multilevel control systems, subject to decentralized decision-making. The model specificity consists in application of functional-target technology and mathematical apparatus of multilevel hierarchical system theory for coordination procedures implementation of the network-centric management local decisions. The work-out and research results can find further

  2. Comparison of the Efficiency of Budget Financing and the Social Security of a Region

    Aleksandr Anatolyevich Kuklin


    Full Text Available In the article, the theoretical and economic aspects of the category “security” are considered, the distinction between philosophical and socio-economic approaches to the understanding of social security is drawn. From the point of view of the system approach, the place of social security for national security protection is determined. The theoretical content of the category “social security” is shown; in the authors’ treatment, the specifying concepts such as “social risks”, “danger”, “threat” are given. For the purpose of risks identification (deviations and the revealing of the factors of inefficient financing, the methodological tools for the assessment of the social security of a region are proposed. These tools are based on the integrated assessment of the regional socio-economic indexes and the indexes assessing the budgetary financing of the territory. The methodical approach offered by the authors is based on the detection of dependencies between the social and financial security of a region. As estimates, the indicators reflecting the level of social security in the territory of residence are chosen: income, expenses of the consolidated budget of a region, growth rate of gross regional product, rate of natural population growth, level of unemployment, population share with the income below living level. This approach is approved on the example of Perm Krai and Sverdlovsk region; the regularities, the favourable and adverse periods for social security of the region are revealed. The received estimates are ranged depending on a temporary log of growth (fall, elasticity and sensitivity to the budget financing. The results of the assessment have shown that, from the point of view of social security protection, Perm Krai has entered a stage of deep recession, which started in 2012. Similar tendencies are observed in the Sverdlovsk region. Nevertheless, considering both a visible variety and the dominating influence of

  3. The 'ASEAN Way' and regional security cooperation in the South China Sea

    Heng, Pek Koon


    The ASEAN Way of security cooperation – based on principles of sovereignty, non-intervention, peaceful resolution of conflict, and consultation and consensus decision-making – has maintained intra-ASEAN harmony since the grouping’s formation in 1967. It has also enabled ASEAN to play a central role in regional integration by successfully engaging external major powers in an overlapping regional network of ASEAN-led organizations such as the ASEAN Regional Forum, East Asia Summit and ASEAN Def...

  4. The Interface of Safety and Security in Transport: A Regional Perspective

    Welch, Tim [ORNL; Duhamel, David A [ORNL; Nandakumar, A. N. [Mumbai, India; ParamiPhD, Vangeline K. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City, Philippines; Bajwa, Christopher [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Shannon, Michael [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)


    Security of nuclear and other radioactive material in transport continues to be a challenge for States that are working on strengthening their nuclear security regime. One reason for this is that State regulatory agencies and other organizations lack the resources and trained personnel to dedicate to this field. For over 50 years safety has been a major focus in the use, storage and transport of radioactive material. Only recently, since the late 1990s, has dedicated focus been given to the field of security. One way to assist States to advance nuclear security is to reach out to safety workers (regulators, inspectors, and safety compliance personnel) and showcase the need to better integrate safety and security practices. A recent IAEA regional workshop in Bangkok, Thailand (June 2015) yielded profound results when subject matter experts lectured on both the safety and the security of radioactive material in transport. These experts presented and discussed experiences and best practices for: 1) developing and implementing safety requirements and security recommendations for radioactive material in transport; 2) national and international cooperation; and 3) preventing shipment delays/denials of radioactive material. The workshop participants, who were predominantly from safety organizations, shared that they received the following from this event: 1. A clear understanding of the objectives of the IAEA safety requirements and security recommendations for radioactive material in transport. 2. A general understanding of and appreciation for the similarities and differences between safety requirements and security recommendations for radioactive material in transport. 3. A greater appreciation of the interface between transport safety and security and potential impacts of this interface on the efforts to strengthen the compliance assurance regime for the safe transport of radioactive material. 4. A general understanding of assessing the transport security scenarios

  5. 75 FR 13137 - Regional Collaborative for the Pacific Basin (RCPB) Cooperative Agreement


    ...: Notice of Non-competitive Supplemental Funding Award. SUMMARY: HRSA will be providing supplemental funds... activities to improve data strategies and address the health workforce needs in the region....

  6. A secure chaotic maps and smart cards based password authentication and key agreement scheme with user anonymity for telecare medicine information systems.

    Li, Chun-Ta; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Weng, Chi-Yao


    Telecare medicine information system (TMIS) is widely used for providing a convenient and efficient communicating platform between patients at home and physicians at medical centers or home health care (HHC) organizations. To ensure patient privacy, in 2013, Hao et al. proposed a chaotic map based authentication scheme with user anonymity for TMIS. Later, Lee showed that Hao et al.'s scheme is in no provision for providing fairness in session key establishment and gave an efficient user authentication and key agreement scheme using smart cards, in which only few hashing and Chebyshev chaotic map operations are required. In addition, Jiang et al. discussed that Hao et al.'s scheme can not resist stolen smart card attack and they further presented an improved scheme which attempts to repair the security pitfalls found in Hao et al.'s scheme. In this paper, we found that both Lee's and Jiang et al.'s authentication schemes have a serious security problem in that a registered user's secret parameters may be intentionally exposed to many non-registered users and this problem causing the service misuse attack. Therefore, we propose a slight modification on Lee's scheme to prevent the shortcomings. Compared with previous schemes, our improved scheme not only inherits the advantages of Lee's and Jiang et al.'s authentication schemes for TMIS but also remedies the serious security weakness of not being able to withstand service misuse attack.

  7. A novel water poverty index model for evaluation of Chinese regional water security

    Gong, L.; Jin, C. L.; Li, Y. X.; Zhou, Z. L.


    This study proposed an improved Water Poverty Index (WPI) model employed in evaluating Chinese regional water security. Firstly, the Chinese WPI index system was constructed, in which the indicators were obtained according to China River reality. A new mathematical model was then established for WPI values calculation on the basis of Center for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) model. Furthermore, this new model was applied in Shiyanghe River (located in western China). It turned out that the Chinese index system could clearly reflect the indicators threatening security of river water and the Chinese WPI model is feasible. This work has also developed a Water Security Degree (WSD) standard which is able to be regarded as a scientific basis for further water resources utilization and water security warning mechanism formulation.


    Agnieszka Sapa


    Full Text Available The study attempts to determine the CACM, MERCOSUR and NAFTA competitive position in the agri-food market taking into account selected indicators related to GDP, productivity and trade. The analysis allowed to state that only for MERCOSUR the competitive position in global food-market improved. In that groupings, compared to NAFTA and CACM, there was a bigger increase in GDP per capita and labour productivity in agriculture. Furthermore, only the share of MERCOSUR agri-food trade in world trade increased which was accompanied by a greater increase of extra-regional agri-food trade than intra-regional ones.

  9. Security region based real and reactive power pricing of power system

    YU YiXin; WANG YanJun


    This paper develops a novel model and an algorithm of security region based real and reactive power pricing of power systems. In the proposed model, the reactive power production cost is represented as the opportunity cost. The static voltage stability region in the cut set power space (CVSR) and the practical dynamic secu-rity region (PDSR) in the injection power space are used to represent the con-straints of voltage stability and transient stability, so that the consideration of this kind of constraints in the optimization becomes very easy. In the proposed algo-rithm, a decoupled optimization and iteration method of active power production cost and reactive power production cost is suggested. According to the K-T opti-mality conditions, the prices of active power and reactive power, and the different components corresponding to the concerned security constraints are derived. The components of spot prices can reflect the influence of different node power injec-tions on each kind of security constraints, so that through the node price all of the participants in power market can be stimulated to take an active part in maintaining the system security. An illustrative example on the New England 10-generator 39-bus System is used to demonstrate the proposed method.

  10. Security region based real and reactive power pricing of power system


    This paper develops a novel model and an algorithm of security region based real and reactive power pricing of power systems.In the proposed model,the reactive power production cost is represented as the opportunity cost.The static voltage stability region in the cut set power space(CVSR) and the practical dynamic security region(PDSR) in the injection power space are used to represent the constraints of voltage stability and transient stability,so that the consideration of this kind of constraints in the optimization becomes very easy.In the proposed algorithm,a decoupled optimization and iteration method of active power production cost and reactive power production cost is suggested.According to the K-T optimality conditions,the prices of active power and reactive power,and the different components corresponding to the concerned security constraints are derived.The components of spot prices can reflect the influence of different node power injections on each kind of security constraints,so that through the node price all of the participants in power market can be stimulated to take an active part in maintaining the system security.An illustrative example on the New England 10-genetator 39-bus System is used to demonstrate the proposed method.

  11. Agreement between a self-administered questionnaire on musculoskeletal disorders of the neck-shoulder region and a physical examination

    Brisson Chantal


    musculoskeletal disorders ascertained by self-administered questionnaire and physical examination that may reflect differences in the constructs measured. Shorter time lags result in better agreement. Investigators should consider these results before choosing a method to measure the presence of musculoskeletal disorders in the neck-shoulder region.

  12. Inter-rater agreement of the PEWS tools used in Central Denmark Region

    Jensen, Claus Sixtus; Aagaard, Hanne; Olesen, Hanne Vebert;


    Background Paediatric Early Warning Score (PEWS) tools can assist healthcare providers in the rapid detection and recognition of changes in patient condition. In the Central Denmark Region two different PEWS tool tested in large scale RCT study. However, data from PEWS instruments are only...

  13. Investigating the Influence of Regional Stress on Fault and Fracture Permeability at Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site

    Reeves, Donald M. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Smith, Kenneth D. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Parashar, Rishi [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Collins, Cheryl [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Heintz, Kevin M. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)


    Regional stress may exert considerable control on the permeability and hydraulic function (i.e., barrier to and/or conduit for fluid flow) of faults and fractures at Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). In-situ measurements of the stress field are sparse in this area, and short period earthquake focal mechanisms are used to delineate principal horizontal stress orientations. Stress field inversion solutions to earthquake focal mechanisms indicate that Pahute Mesa is located within a transtensional faulting regime, represented by oblique slip on steeply dipping normal fault structures, with maximum horizontal stress ranging from N29°E to N63°E and average of N42°E. Average horizontal stress directions are in general agreement with large diameter borehole breakouts from Pahute Mesa analyzed in this study and with stress measurements from other locations on the NNSS.

  14. Free Trade Agreement and beef cattle livestock in Coahuila’s borderland region

    Francisco René Vidaurrázaga Obezo


    Full Text Available This study has the objective to analize the bovine livestock in the North region of Coahuila, the importance on this sector of agriculture and livestock, as well as their effects from NAFTA in the field livestock, with perspectives in a short, medium and long term.The bovine livestock of the North region of Coahuila is encountering a serie of problems that does not permit to be competitive on a short and medium term, with the operation of NAFTA. According to the principal problems we can mention the bovine industry faces a high debt ratio with financial institutions, and reducing their solvency to meet its capacity on a short term, placing it in desadvantage with United States.

  15. Impact of Inter‐Basin Water Transfer Projects on Regional Ecological Security from a Telecoupling Perspective

    Yuan Quan


    Full Text Available Inter‐basin water transfer projects (IBWTPs offer one of the most important means to solve the mismatch between supply and demand of regional water resources. IBWTPs have impacts on the complex ecosystems of the areas from which water is diverted and to which water is received. These impacts increase damage or risk to regional ecological security and human wellbeing. However, current methods make it difficult to achieve comprehensive analysis of the impacts of whole ecosystems, because of the long distance between ecosystems and the inconsistency of impact events. In this study, a model was proposed for the analysis of the impacts of IBWTPs on regional ecological security. It is based on the telecoupling framework, and the Driver‐Pressure‐State‐ Impact‐Response (DPSIR model was used to improve the analysis procedure within the telecoupling framework. The Middle Line of the South‐to‐North Water Diversion Project was selected as a case study to illustrate the specific analysis procedure. We realized that information sharing is a key issue in the management of regional security, and that the ecological water requirement, in the form of a single index, could be used to quantitatively assess the impacts on ecological security from IBWTPs.

  16. Regionalizing Food Security? Imperatives, Intersections and Contestations in a Post-9/11 World

    Hinrichs, C. Clare


    In the early 21st century, food security has become an urgent public concern, arguably more entangled with social, political and environmental problems at multiple scales now than in the past. This paper examines approaches to food system change emphasizing regionalization, rather than either localization or globalization, to consider framings of…

  17. The Need for a Regional Security System Multinational Coast Guard Unit in the Eastern Caribbean


    Islands and eight observer states: Aruba, Colombia , Curacao, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Saint Maarten (Kingdom of the Netherlands...former Prime Minister of Barbados, Owen Arthur expressed that the security concerns of the sub-region included Human Immuno- Deficiency Virus /Acquired

  18. Regionalizing Food Security? Imperatives, Intersections and Contestations in a Post-9/11 World

    Hinrichs, C. Clare


    In the early 21st century, food security has become an urgent public concern, arguably more entangled with social, political and environmental problems at multiple scales now than in the past. This paper examines approaches to food system change emphasizing regionalization, rather than either localization or globalization, to consider framings of…

  19. East Asia’s energy needs: The impact on security and guidelines for regional governance

    Pablo Pareja Alcaraz


    Full Text Available The last three decades have witnessed a spectacular (and not easily sustainable increase in the global demand for energy. This trend has a particular significance in East Asia owing to its heavy industrialisation, which is promoting intense regional growth, on top of the already delicate balance of security in the region and the traditional refusal by the region’s states to delegate power and management to supranational bodies. The aim of this article is to analyse the impact of East Asia’s energy needs on security and on the instruments of order and governance that have been developed in the region up until the present time. Thus, the article is divided into two parts; the first analyses East Asia’s energy programme and its most significant features: 1 a high dependence on oil imports from other regions, especially the Middle East; 2 a persistence of high dependency on pollutant fossil fuels; and 3 a high degree of energy insecurity. Meanwhile, the second part assesses the impact of energy on regional relations in different areas of security and guidelines for regional government: 1 the securitisation of energy and of the environment; 2 the reactivation of certain maritime conflicts; 3 the transformation of certain threats, and conventional and non-conventional challenges to regional security; 4 the rise of non-state actors (mainly environmental businesses and NGOs in East Asia’s international relations; 5 the maintaining of bilateralism and the promotion of multilateral initiatives; and 6 the emergence of new extra-regional geopolitical links and balances.

  20. International trade, regional integration and food security in the Middle East:


    Against the background of increasing interest in closer economic relations in the Middle East, the contribution that greater integration of markets might make to improving food security in the region is investigated, using a quantitative framework for gauging the reduction in instability of market supplies for cereal, meat, and dairy commodities under regional cooperation schemes versus more general policies to increase the integration of Middle East markets with markets in Western Europe and...

  1. Pakistan’s Security Problems and Opportunities in the Indian Ocean Region


    with the Mediterranean. Involvement of the superpowers in this region has affected the foreign policy orientations of 7 the regional countries and has...significant. Japan is South Africa’s third biggest export market , and South Africa is the fourth largest importer of Japanese goods. In response to the Soviet...Cheema, p. 25. 19 7. Admiral S. N. Kohli , The Indian Ocean and India’s Maritime Security, New Delhi: Tata Hill Publishing Company, 1978, p. 34. 8

  2. Security

    Technology & Learning, 2008


    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  3. Trade Facilitation Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements: Discriminatory or Non-discriminatory?

    Innwon Park


    Full Text Available The RTAs with trade facilitation provisions have been expected to generate a larger net trade-creating effect and complement the discriminatory feature of RTAs but have yet to be empirically proven. Recognizing the limitations of existing studies, we conducted a quantitative analysis on the effects of RTAs with and without trade facilitation provisions on both intra- and extra-bloc trade by using a modified gravity equation. We applied the Poisson Pseudo-Maximum Likelihood (PPML estimation with time varying exporter and importer fixed effect method to panel data consisting of 45,770 country pairs covering 170 countries for 2000-2010. We found that the trade facilitation provisions in existing RTAs are non-discriminatory by generating more intra- and extra-bloc trade in general. In particular, we found that the trade effects of RTAs in the APEC region are much stronger than the general case covering all RTAs in the world. In addition, as we control the trade effect of a country's trade facilitation, which is ranked by the World Bank's logistic performance index, RTAs consisting of trade facilitation provisions are discriminatory for trade in final goods and non-discriminatory for trade in intermediate goods. Overall, we endeavor to "explain," instead of "hypothesizing," why most of the recent RTAs contain trade facilitation provisions, especially in light of the deepening regional interdependence through trade in parts and components under global value chains and support the necessity of multilateralizing RTAs by implementing non-discriminatory trade facilitation provisions.

  4. PACFEST 2004 : enabling technologies for maritime security in the Pacific region.

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Whitley, John B.; Chellis, Craig (Pacific Disaster Center, Kihei, HI)


    In October of 2003 experts involved in various aspects of homeland security from the Pacific region met to engage in a free-wheeling discussion and brainstorming (a 'fest') on the role that technology could play in winning the war on terrorism in the Pacific region. The result was a concise and relatively thorough definition of the terrorism problem in the Pacific region, emphasizing the issues unique to Island nations in the Pacific setting, along with an action plan for developing working demonstrations of advanced technological solutions to these issues. Since PacFest 2003, the maritime dimensions of the international security environment have garnered increased attention and interest. To this end, PacFest 2004 sought to identify gaps and enabling technologies for maritime domain awareness and responsive decision-making in the Asia-Pacific region. The PacFest 2004 participants concluded that the technologies and basic information building blocks exist to create a system that would enable the Pacific region government and private organizations to effectively collaborate and share their capabilities and information concerning maritime security. The proposed solution summarized in this report integrates national environments in real time, thereby enabling effective prevention and first response to natural and terrorist induced disasters through better use of national and regional investments in people, infrastructure, systems, processes and standards.

  5. Food Security - Global Trends and Region Perspective with Reference to East Asia

    Chang, Ching-Cheng; Hsu, Shih-Hsun


    The sharp increase in global food prices during 2007‐2008 has triggered the awareness of food insecurity problems and their impacts on the low income, food‐deficit countries many of which are located in the East Asian countries. The food‐security situation was good in relative terms given that the percentage of carbohydrates consumed is slightly lower than the world average while proteins and fats consumption are higher than that of other regions. The food security in East Asia is largely dri...

  6. Mobility Partnerships and Security Subcomplexes in the Mediterranean: The Strategic Role of Migration and the EU’s Foreign and Security Policies towards the MENA region

    Seeberg, Peter


    issues, the article analyses the MPs by looking at the strategic significance of migration in the context of EU’s foreign and security policy cooperation with the five Arab Mediterranean states. The MPs are seen as an important element in the EU’s overall migration strategy, but have been met......The present article discusses the negotiating and implementing of Mobility Partnership (MP) agreements between the European Union (EU) and Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, and Tunisia. Taking its starting point in the conceptual notions of subregional security complexes and non-traditional security...... with reluctance by the Arab partner states. The article concludes that so far only to a limited degree have the MPs developed into well-functioning tools for managing the migration policies of the EU and its partners states, and that they seem mainly to play a role as instruments for the EU’s foreign and security...

  7. Identifying regional key eco-space to maintain ecological security using GIS.

    Xie, Hualin; Yao, Guanrong; Wang, Peng


    Ecological security and environmental sustainability are the foundations of sustainable development. With the acceleration of urbanization, increasing human activities have promoted greater impacts on the eco-spaces that maintain ecological security. Regional key eco-space has become the primary need to maintain environmental sustainability and can offer society with continued ecosystem services. In this paper, considering the security of water resources, biodiversity conservation, disaster avoidance and protection and natural recreation, an integrated index of eco-space importance was established and a method for identifying key eco-space was created using GIS, with Lanzhou City, China as a case study. The results show that the area of core eco-space in the Lanzhou City is approximately 50,908.7 hm(2), accounting for 40% of the region's total area. These areas mainly consist of geological hazard protection zones and the core zones of regional river systems, wetlands, nature reserves, forest parks and scenic spots. The results of this study provide some guidance for the management of ecological security, ecological restoration and environmental sustainability.


    Peter Nyamuhanga Mwita


    Full Text Available This paper considers the modeling and prediction of  households food security status using a sample of households in the  Lake Victoria region of Kenya. A priori expected food security  factors and their measurements are given. A binary logistic regression model  derived was fitted to thirteen priori expected factors. Analysis of the marginal effects revealed that effecting the use of the seven significant determinants: farmland size, per capita aggregate production, household size, gender of household head, use of fertilizer, use of pesticide/herbicide and education of household head,  increase the likelihood of a household being food secure. Finally, interpretations  of   predicted conditional probabilities, following improvement of significant determinants,  are given.


    Glen Segell


    Full Text Available The first decade of the new millennium saw the European Union deploy ninesecurity missions to the African continent, quoting the European Security andDefence Policy. Unlike the numerous United Nations security missions thatEuropean states had previously contributed to, these were part of a grand strategydesigned to link the African Union and the European Union in a process of transregionalismdefined as a unique organisational infrastructure (joint secretariat forresearch, policy planning, preparation and coordination of meetings andimplementation of decisions. The rationale being that security and its associatedpeace and stability are the basis for sustainable development in other areas. Thisarticle follows the development of the trans-regionalism detailing the securitymissions.

  10. Household food security and adequacy of child diet in the food insecure region north in Ghana.

    Agbadi, Pascal; Urke, Helga Bjørnøy; Mittelmark, Maurice B


    Adequate diet is of crucial importance for healthy child development. In food insecure areas of the world, the provision of adequate child diet is threatened in the many households that sometimes experience having no food at all to eat (household food insecurity). In the context of food insecure northern Ghana, this study investigated the relationship between level of household food security and achievement of recommended child diet as measured by WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding Indicators. Using data from households and 6-23 month old children in the 2012 Feed the Future baseline survey (n = 871), descriptive analyses assessed the prevalence of minimum meal frequency; minimum dietary diversity, and minimum acceptable diet. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of minimum acceptable diet with household food security, while accounting for the effects of child sex and age, maternal -age, -dietary diversity, -literacy and -education, household size, region, and urban-rural setting. Household food security was assessed with the Household Hunger Scale developed by USAID's Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project. Forty-nine percent of children received minimum recommended meal frequency, 31% received minimum dietary diversity, and 17% of the children received minimum acceptable diet. Sixty-four percent of the children lived in food secure households, and they were significantly more likely than children in food insecure households to receive recommended minimum acceptable diet [O.R = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.82]. However, in 80% of food secure households, children did not receive a minimal acceptable diet by WHO standards. Children living in food secure households were more likely than others to receive a minimum acceptable diet. Yet living in a food secure household was no guarantee of child dietary adequacy, since eight of 10 children in food secure households received less than a minimum acceptable diet. The results call for research

  11. Identifying Regional Key Eco-Space to Maintain Ecological Security Using GIS

    Xie, Hualin; Yao, Guanrong; Wang, Peng


    Ecological security and environmental sustainability are the foundations of sustainable development. With the acceleration of urbanization, increasing human activities have promoted greater impacts on the eco-spaces that maintain ecological security. Regional key eco-space has become the primary need to maintain environmental sustainability and can offer society with continued ecosystem services. In this paper, considering the security of water resources, biodiversity conservation, disaster avoidance and protection and natural recreation, an integrated index of eco-space importance was established and a method for identifying key eco-space was created using GIS, with Lanzhou City, China as a case study. The results show that the area of core eco-space in the Lanzhou City is approximately 50,908.7 hm2, accounting for 40% of the region’s total area. These areas mainly consist of geological hazard protection zones and the core zones of regional river systems, wetlands, nature reserves, forest parks and scenic spots. The results of this study provide some guidance for the management of ecological security, ecological restoration and environmental sustainability. PMID:24590051

  12. Identifying Regional Key Eco-Space to Maintain Ecological Security Using GIS

    Hualin Xie


    Full Text Available Ecological security and environmental sustainability are the foundations of sustainable development. With the acceleration of urbanization, increasing human activities have promoted greater impacts on the eco-spaces that maintain ecological security. Regional key eco-space has become the primary need to maintain environmental sustainability and can offer society with continued ecosystem services. In this paper, considering the security of water resources, biodiversity conservation, disaster avoidance and protection and natural recreation, an integrated index of eco-space importance was established and a method for identifying key eco-space was created using GIS, with Lanzhou City, China as a case study. The results show that the area of core eco-space in the Lanzhou City is approximately 50,908.7 hm2, accounting for 40% of the region’s total area. These areas mainly consist of geological hazard protection zones and the core zones of regional river systems, wetlands, nature reserves, forest parks and scenic spots. The results of this study provide some guidance for the management of ecological security, ecological restoration and environmental sustainability.

  13. A new transient stability margin based on dynamic security region and its applications


    A new transient stability margin is proposed based on a new expression of dynamic security region (DSR) which is developed from the existing expression of DSR. Applications of the DSR based transient stability margin to contingency ranking and screening are discussed. Simulations in the 10-machine 39-bus New England system are performed to show the effectiveness of the proposed DSR based tran-sient stability margin.

  14. The Concepts of Tax Burden from The Position of Financial Security: A Regional Aspect

    Anzhela S. Okun


    Full Text Available Excessive tax burden on the economy of the country contributes to create risks of the country financial security, it is connect with withdraw from the economic entities of financial resources to finance the current needs of the state. Not a balanced fiscal policy to relation of various branches of the economy provokes structural imbalances in the economic system, expressed in the active development of some economic activity to the detriment of others. The paper discusses the methodological basis of financial security of the state in terms of the fiscal segment. As a tool for the analysis of the tax burden is proposed method of calculation, based on an assessment of the coefficient of elasticity of the value of GRP from income tax charge, based on the growth rate, which is subject to view the statistics provided by the Federal State Statistics Service. Using the coefficient of elasticity allows analyzing the dynamics of changes in the tax burden in the economy. The detailed analysis of the dynamics of the tax burden on the economy of Krasnodar region as a whole and for individual economy sectors in the region in particular for the period 2007‒2014 years is carried out. The method of rating of valuation of economy branches based on the dynamics of the coefficient of elasticity is offered. The sectors of the Krasnodar region for reduction degree of financial security are ranked .

  15. Trade Agreements PTI

    Department of Homeland Security — The objective of the Trade Agreements PTI is to advance CBP’s mission by working with internal and external stakeholders to facilitate legitimate trade and address...

  16. Accounting and Control in Ensuring Economic Security of the Organizations of Perm Region

    Vyacheslav Valetyevich Epishin


    Full Text Available The article deals with the urgent problem concerning the regional development as well as the specific organization, or to the development of an integrated system of economic security of the organization. The article discusses the importance of such an element of economic security (including the financial security as the accounting and control as well as their possible violations. The authors substantiate their position on the relationship of the violations of accounting and control and also the internal theft, other economic crimes and their negative consequences. The analysis of the existing national and foreign sources related to the subject of the study is carried out. The conclusion is made about the lack of modern research devoted to the study of the protective properties of accounting, control and their violations, which condition economic crimes. The methodological tools of the research include dialectic method, systemic analysis, complex sociological methods: the analysis of the legal sources, of statistical information and judicial practice. On the basis of the analysis of criminal cases, financial statements, publications media, the authors made the conclusion about the conditionality of the theft in the organizations as there are the violations of accounting and control, low efficiency of control and auditing, of preventive measures for neutralization of the violations of accounting and control from the services of economic security, accounting offices, auditing and law enforcement services. The recommendations for the optimization of this work are introduced. They can be used by accounting departments, auditing bodies, fiscal authorities at the municipal and regional level and by law enforcement officials. The economic security is necessary for any organizations regardless of their forms of ownership, ranging from government organizations to small kiosks. The difference will only consist in the means and methods.

  17. Multi-membership and the effectiveness of regional trade agreements in Western and Southern Africa : A comparative study of ECOWAS and SADC

    S.K. Afesorgbor (Sylvanus Kwaku); P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter)


    textabstractUsing a gravity model for 35 countries and the years 1995-2006 we estimate the impact of regional trade agreements in Africa (in particular ECOWAS and SADC) and compare this to the a benchmark of North South trade integration (Europe’s preferential trade agreement). We find that •

  18. Multi-membership and the effectiveness of regional trade agreements in Western and Southern Africa : A comparative study of ECOWAS and SADC

    S.K. Afesorgbor (Sylvanus Kwaku); P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter)


    textabstractUsing a gravity model for 35 countries and the years 1995-2006 we estimate the impact of regional trade agreements in Africa (in particular ECOWAS and SADC) and compare this to the a benchmark of North South trade integration (Europe’s preferential trade agreement). We find that • ECO

  19. Import dependence of industrial enterprises in the region as an economic security hazard

    A. N. Makarov


    Full Text Available Import is traditionally considered as a source for saturation of a home market with scarce commodities or goods non-manufactured in an importing country. However, the larger is the share of import in the total volume of deliveries, the greater is the hazard for economic security of the region and for the state upon the whole. The analysis has revealed the fact that in the regional industry there is a real situation of absolute import dependence. It means that enterprises have been functioning only based on import deliveries to manufacture some single components for products of production-technical purposes.

  20. Security and Acceptance of Web Based Marketing Information System among Microfinance Banks in Nairobi Region, Kenya

    Silvance O. Abeka


    Full Text Available Information system (IS acceptance has been the subject of much research in the past two decades. Researchers have concentrated their efforts on identifying the conditions or factors that could facilitate the acceptance of information system (IS into microfinance banks. The purpose of this paper is to find out if there is a significant relationship between security and acceptance of web based marketing information system (MKIs among micro- finance banks in Nairobi Region, Kenya. It also tends to provide deeper understanding on the current security and acceptance level of web based MKIS. Anonymous and self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 383 respondents. A total of 370 usable responses were received, resulting in a response rate of 96.6% which was considered satisfactory for subsequent analysis. Due to the quantitative nature of the study, the results are analysed with statistical measures. The results indicated that Security was influential determinant of acceptance with t= 2.0541, β= 0.120, p< 0.01 at 1% significant level though most respondents indicated that the current security level of the system was low. Theoretical contributions and practical implications of the findings are discussed and suggestions for future research are presented.

  1. GridStat – Cyber Security and Regional Deployment Project Report

    Clements, Samuel L.


    GridStat is a developing communication technology to provide real-time data delivery services to the electric power grid. It is being developed in a collaborative effort between the Electrical Power Engineering and Distributed Computing Science Departments at Washington State University. Improving the cyber security of GridStat was the principle focus of this project. A regional network was established to test GridStat’s cyber security mechanisms in a realistic environment. The network consists of nodes at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Washington State University. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was tasked with performing the security assessment, the results of which detailed a number or easily resolvable and previously unknown issues, as well as a number of difficult and previously known issues. Going forward we recommend additional development prior to commercialization of GridStat. The development plan is structured into three domains: Core Development, Cyber Security and Pilot Projects. Each domain contains a number of phased subtasks that build upon each other to increase the robustness and maturity of GridStat.

  2. The Glory of Intelligence: China’s Smart Power and the Implications for Security in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Sergey Mikhnevich


    Full Text Available This article considers the interconnection between the institutional change in the sphere of security and China’s smart power in the Asia-Pacific region. It explores the practical dimension of China’s smart power in the region after the Cold War, and analyzes the multilateral interaction on security issues in the Association of the Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN. The appropriate mechanisms in which all the major actors participate are the basis and essence of the macro regional security architecture. This article identifies the links between China’s smart power and the macro regional security institutionalization. It begins by describing the ideological dimension of Chinese foreign policy since the establishment of the People’s Republic. It considers the main theoretical concept constituting China’s international strategy and its economical methods of spreading soft power in the Asia-Pacific region. It goes on to analyze the process of multilateral interaction in macro regional security after the Cold War, recognizing that despite the promotion of cooperation in non-traditional security issues there are still challenges for China, the United States and ASEAN in the realm of traditional security. Moreover, the effective and efficient use of smart power in the ASEAN mechanisms helps China counteract the efforts of other countries in the region to limit its politics. The article concludes that regional multilateral security institutions have reached their limit of effectiveness due to their design and the politics of the main actors. To sustain an acceptable level of security in the region, all participants need to develop new institutions or radically reorganize the existing ones.

  3. Using the Method of Water Poverty Index (WPI) to Evaluate the Region Water Security

    Fu, Q.; Kachanoski, G.


    Water security is a widely concerned issue in the world nowadays. A new method, water poverty index (WPI), has been used to evaluate the regional water security. Twelve state farms in Heilongjiang Province, Northeastern China were selected to evaluate water security status based on the data of 2006 by using WPI and mean deviation grading method. The method of WPI includes five key indexes, such as resources(R), access (A), capacity(C), utilization (U) and environment (E). Each key index includes several sub-indexes. According to the results of WPI, the grade of each farm has been calculated by using the method of mean deviation grading. Thus, the radar images can be protracted of each farm. From the radar images, the conclusions can be drawn that the WPI values of Farms 853 and Hongqiling were in very safe status, while that of Farm Raohe was in safe status, those of Farms Youyi, 597, 852, 291 and Jiangchuan were in moderate safe status, that of Farm Beixing was in low safe status and those of Farms Shuangyashan, Shuguang and Baoshan were in unsafe status. The results from this study can provide basic information for decision making on rational use of water resources and regulations for regional water safety guarantee system.


    Makhanko G. V.


    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to outline topical issues of economics security, competitiveness and the strategic mission of a region. The Krasnodar region is a prosperous agrarian territory considered as one of the main investment-attractive regions ensuring Russian food security. It possesses a significant resource potential, which is able to provide both import substitution of embargoed goods and ensure economic, and food security not only of a region but also of our country. The article highlights the strategic objectives of the Krasnodar region agrarian sector that aim at meeting the needs of the regional population and ensuring Russian food security. It is inferred that further development of grain production, as a cornerstone of agriculture, livestock and rice industries, is crucial for implementation of the import substitution strategy in the Krasnodar region. Authors assess the production of basic food items in the region, indicating that the local agro-industrial businesses demonstrated 100 % ability to meet the population demand under sanctions for a number of food products, such as meet, sausages, dairy, animal fat, confectionery, sugar, flour, vegetable oil, bread and pastries, rice, canned fruit and vegetables, fruit juices, mineral and table water, etc. According to the present article, the main objective of ensuring Russian food security and import substitution in the agri-food industry under current economic restrictions is an effective use of regional food production capacities and raw material base development. Competitiveness and economic development of the Krasnodar region directly depend on its investment attractiveness. It is revealed that the Krasnodar region competitiveness, economic development and consequently its economic and food security will be determined not only by a favorable transport-geographical position and significant natural resources reserves, but will depend on the regional authorities activity, labor

  5. An Agreement to Disagree: The ASEAN Human Rights Declaration and the Absence of Regional Identity in Southeast Asia

    Mathew Davies


    Full Text Available ASEAN’s engagement with human rights culminated in the creation of the ASEAN Human Rights Declaration in 2012. The Declaration is fascinating in three ways: Its institutional origins are surprising, it was agreed upon by states with very different positions on the role of human rights domestically, and it both contains commitments far in advance of some members and is at the same time dangerously regressive. The three leading frameworks that currently interrogate the Declaration fail to provide convincing insights into all three of those dimensions. To correct these shortcomings, this article applies the notion of an “incompletely theorized agreement” to the study of the Declaration, arguing that member states understand the Declaration in very different ways and agreed to it for similarly diverse reasons. Further, I argue that the Declaration neither articulates a shared regional identity relating to respect for human rights, nor can it be understood as marking an early point towards the creation of this identity. Instead, the current diversity of regional opinions on human rights and democracy is perceived as legitimate and will endure. The article concludes by considering whether this denudes the Declaration of value, arguing that its importance will vary: The more progressive the member state, the more important the Declaration will be in the future.

  6. Hydrologic variability in dryland regions: impacts on ecosystem dynamics and food security.

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Bhattachan, Abinash


    Research on ecosystem and societal response to global environmental change typically considers the effects of shifts in mean climate conditions. There is, however, some evidence of ongoing changes also in the variance of hydrologic and climate fluctuations. A relatively high interannual variability is a distinctive feature of the hydrologic regime of dryland regions, particularly at the desert margins. Hydrologic variability has an important impact on ecosystem dynamics, food security and societal reliance on ecosystem services in water-limited environments. Here, we investigate some of the current patterns of hydrologic variability in drylands around the world and review the major effects of hydrologic fluctuations on ecosystem resilience, maintenance of biodiversity and food security. We show that random hydrologic fluctuations may enhance the resilience of dryland ecosystems by obliterating bistable deterministic behaviours and threshold-like responses to external drivers. Moreover, by increasing biodiversity and the associated ecosystem redundancy, hydrologic variability can indirectly enhance post-disturbance recovery, i.e. ecosystem resilience.

  7. Security of water, energy, and food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region

    Taniguchi, M.; Endo, A.; Fujii, M.; Shoji, J.; Baba, K.; Gurdak, J. J.; Allen, D. M.; Siringan, F. P.; Delinom, R.


    Water, energy, and food are the most important and fundamental resources for human beings and society. Demands for these resources are escalating rapidly because of increases in populations and changes in lifestyles. Therefore intensive demand for those resources makes conflicts between resources. Securities of water, energy, and food are treated separately, however they should be considered as one integrated matter, because water-energy-food are connected and it makes nexus and tradeoff. Security in terms of self-production, diversity of alternatives, and variability are evaluated for water, energy and food for thirty two countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The water and energy nexus includes water consumption for the cooling of power plant systems, water use for hydro power generation, and energy consumption for water allocation and pumping. The water and food nexus consists of water consumption for agriculture and aquaculture. The energy and food nexus includes energy consumption for food production and biomass for energy. Analyses of 11 countries within the Asia- Pacific region show that energy consumption for fish is the largest among foods in Japan, Philippines, and Peru, while energy consumption for cereals is the largest among foods in Canada, US, Indonesia, and others. Water consumption for different types of food and energy are also analyzed, including nexus ratio to total water consumption. The water-energy-food nexus at a local level in the Asia Pacific region are examined by the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature project "Human environmental security in Asia Pacific Ring of Fire". Themes including geothermal power plants for energy development and hot springs as water, shale gas for energy development and water consumption/contamination, aquaculture for food and water contamination are used to evaluate the water-energy-food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region.

  8. Nuclear installations in the baltic sea region and the stake holders cooperation: a crucial step towards energy security, environmental sustainability and political stability in the region

    Zakaria, M.; Mandere, N.; Olsson, L. [Lund Univ., Centre for Sustainability Studies (LUCSUS) (Sweden)


    Radiation hazards are trans-boundary. The prevention of accidents must be managed locally. But the awareness, preparedness, and the responsibilities in the case of emergencies must be managed at the local and regional level, and must rely on close interaction between the local and regional levels. The Baltic Sea Region contains over 40 nuclear reactors contributing to energy security, but also posing a potential threat to human, environmental, and political security. The aim of this paper is to integrate the four fields of security: health, environment, energy, and political by analysing awareness, preparedness responsibility and decision making related to nuclear installations. With increasing political, economical, cultural and physical (in term of energy infrastructure) integration, the region needs to take a comprehensive approach to create adequate structure for managing risks and thereby promote security. (authors)

  9. Pastoralists at War: Violence and Security in the Kenya-Sudan-Uganda Border Region

    Jonah Leff


    Full Text Available The majority of those living in the border region of Kenya, Sudan, and Uganda are pastoralists, whose livelihoods are dictated by the upkeep and size of their herds. Harsh environmental conditions force pastoralists to migrate in search of water and pasturelands during the dry season. With limited access to water and competing rights to land, intertribal conflict arises when pastoralists from one tribe enter the territory of another. The increased availability of small arms in the region from past wars increasingly makes ordinary clashes fatal. Governments in the region have responded with heavy-handed coercive disarmament operations. These have led to distrust and subsequent violent clashes between communities and security providers. This report reviews the scale, consequences of, and responses to the many pastoral conflicts, utilizing methodological tools such as key informant interviews, retrospective analysis, and a thorough review of available literature.

  10. Iran's Relations to the East: Nonproliferation and Regional Security in a Changing Southwest Asia

    Tehsin, Muhammad [Quaid-I-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)


    This study attempts to answer the following questions: would a successful JPOA result in nuclear nonproliferation and regional security in Southwest Asia; and could the Middle East and South Asia work together to contain the threat of Salafi jihadism?

  11. Challenges of transfrontier conservation areas: Natural resources nationalism, security and regionalism in the southern African development community region

    Oswell Rusinga


    Full Text Available Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs initiatives in the Southern African Development Community (SADC region offer hope for providing a mechanism for resolving political tensions and conflicts which are not only related to environmental issues but to security concerns as well. The geopolitical implications of TFCAs in the SADC region cannot be overemphasised with regard to international relations and regional integration. The SADS region is characterised by histories of contested military balance of power and geopolitical rivalries which have a potential to degenerate into military confrontation. Although there is a strong belief in multilateral co-operation among SADC member countries, most of them often engage the international community at the bilateral level. Moreover, there is disharmony in constitutional applications of the rule of law, respect of human rights and good governance. However, TFCAs initiatives in Southern Africa have been seen as offering an opportunity to heal the wounds of pre- and post-independence wars of destabilisation through the encouragement of inter-state collaboration and co-operation by giving governments an opportunity for mutual action on issues of common interest.

  12. ENTNEA: A concept for enhancing regional atomic energy cooperation for securing nuclear transparency in northeast Asia

    Shin, S. T. [Korea Institute for Defence Analyses, Seoul (Korea)


    Nuclear energy continues to be a strong and growing component of economic development in Northeast Asia. A broad range of nuclear energy systems already exists across the region and vigorous growth is projected. Associated with these capabilities and plans are various concerns about operational safety, environmental protection, and accumulation of spent fuel and other nuclear materials. We consider cooperative measures that might address these concerns. The confidence building measures suggested here center on the sharing of information to lessen concerns about nuclear activities or to solve technical problems. These activities are encompassed by an Enhanced Nuclear Transparency in Northeast Asia (ENTNEA) concept that would be composed of near-term, information-sharing activities and an eventual regional institution. The near-term activities would address specific concerns and build a tradition of cooperation; examples include radiation measurements for public safety and emergency response, demonstration of safe operations at facilities and in transportation, and material security in the back end of the fuel cycle. Linkages to existing efforts and organizations would be sought to maximize the benefits of cooperation. In the longer term, the new cooperative tradition might evolve into an ENTNEA institution. In institutional form, ENTNEA could combine the near-term activities and new cooperative activities, which might require an institutional basis, for the mutual benefit and security of regional parties. 28 refs., 23 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  13. Security in the Baltic region as a Projection of Global Confrontation between Russia and the USA

    Vadim Volovoj


    Full Text Available This article considers the problem of security in the Baltic region, namely, that of Poland and the Baltics. The authors rely on the works of Karl Deutsch, Emanuel Adler, on Michael Barnett’s theory of security communities and Barry Buzan’s re­gional security complex theory, address Steven Mann’s controlled chaos theory and the concept of Intermarium. Their starting assumption is that the situation in the Baltic depends largely on the politics of external powers — Russia and the United States, — being a projection of their global geopolitical confrontation. The US strategy thus becomes a major part of the equation. The authors believe that since the end of the second Iraq war the American elite has been divided along ideological lines into adherents of the chaos theory and traditionalists thinking in terms of sharing control with the other centres of global power. The US strategy in the Baltic region does not seek an open military conflict with Russia. On the contrary, the US strives to preserve the current level of confrontation between Russia and the EU, convincing the latter of the reality of the Russian threat. Countries that traditionally support confrontation with Russia, Poland and the Bal­tics, serve as a conduit for Washington strategy in Europe and a cordon sanitaire. This function is implemented through the Intermarium project meant to separate Russia from the EU. The four countries are rather active in this area, striving to attain the status of the US principal partners in the region and Europe in general. To retaliate, Moscow does everything within its power to ‘separate’ Brussels from Washington, yet the US influence is still very strong in Europe.

  14. The use of science in environmental policy: a case study of the Regional Forest Agreement process in Western Australia

    Pierre Horwitz


    Full Text Available This paper explores the notion of pluralism as it relates to the involvement of science in processes of environmental policy formulation. In particular, it focuses attention on the dominance of normal science within the Australian debate on commercial forest use, management, and conservation. It presents case study information from the Western Australian Regional Forest Agreement (RFA process, a policy initiative designed to end a long-running conflict over public forestland. It then analyzes the use of science within this political process, along with the respective impacts of different voices within science on the RFA outcomes. The case study data highlight the vulnerability of reductionist science within complex political debates and support arguments for a widening of the scientific basis of policy processes to include alternative ways of understanding nature-society relations. The paper contends that such a broadening will make science not only more robust, but also more valuable as a problem-solving tool in future decision-making processes on land use, conservation, and broader sustainability questions. It also considers the obstacles facing pluralism.

  15. Neoindustrialization as a factor in improving economic security of old-industrial regions

    Ol’ga Aleksandrovna Romanova


    Full Text Available This paper proves that the paradigm of the world of the XXIcentury is neoindustrialization on the basis of alternativestrategic goals of the global economy associated with the formation of post-industrial society and financialization neoindustrialization. A systematic proposal for the driving forces and mechanisms for its implementation is suggested. It is shown that target-oriented approach can be successfully used at the regional level as a mechanism for economic neoindustrialization of an old-industrial region. Conceptual approach to developing comprehensive program of industrial development in the industrial region that implements the ideas of neoindustrialization in relation to industry of Sverdlovsk region is presented. It was found that the regional technology platform can be an effective tool for combining the interests of territorial and sectoral development. It is proved that the idea of neoindustrialization can be realized only as a result of wise industrial policy and road map formation for the movement to an entirely new high-tech based industrial development. In the process of forming, the problem of neoindustrialization of a «pure» market as a factor in increasing the economic security is actualized.

  16. Acordos bilaterais de comércio como estratégia de inserção regional e internacional do Chile Bilateral trade agreements as Chile's strategy for regional and international insertion

    Renata Rossetto Lopes


    exhaustion of the unilateral tariff reduction, today in 6% for the majority of products, in trade creation. Nevertheless, the implementation of a large and diversified net of bilateral trade agreements also have political, strategic and security interests regarding the neighbors and near countries. This strategy also gives Chile the choice of not taking part in regional blocks to guarantee its interests, which increases its ability to deal with different and important partners in the international level.

  17. Globalisation, Geopolitics and Energy Security in Central Eurasia and the Caspian Region

    Amineh, Parvizi Mehdi


    The demise of the Soviet Union and its subsequent break-up into 15 independent states gave rise to totally new political and strategic circumstances, which also extended into Central Eurasia and the Caspian Region. The eight newly independent states of this region have become one of the most important geopolitical areas in the post-Cold War era, due to a combination of its geographical position and significant oil and gas reserves. The region's resources are vital for advanced industrialised countries and figure prominently in Western geostrategic and economic interests in the twenty-first century. Intense competition, as well as co-operation, among various state and non-state actors for the control of these resources is emerging, also known as the New Great Game. The main actors involved in Central Eurasia and the Caspian region are identified as follows: inner circle actors (Russia, Iran, and Turkey), outer circle actors (China, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan), external actors (the United States, the European Union and its particular member states), and non-state actors (ethno-religious groups, Transnational Corporations, crime groups, etc.). The author analyses the New Great Game by using a neo-geopolitical perspective. An important element towards control of the region's energy resources is the construction of transport routes. The question of where to construct pipelines engenders considerable conflicts between the interested players that could create obstacles to building the most economically viable and secure pipelines. Transportation of energy resources to the global market is also subject to conflicts between different forces within the Central Eurasian region, including ethno-religious conflicts. Problems such as lack of infrastructure and technology, and finding a solution for the Caspian legal regime dispute could pose further obstacles to prospective pipeline construction. The book analyses these and other important local and geopolitical

  18. Development of a strategic plan for food security and safety in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Canada

    Myriam Fillion


    Full Text Available Background: Current social and environmental changes in the Arctic challenge the health and well-being of its residents. Developing evidence-informed adaptive measures in response to these changes is a priority for communities, governments and researchers. Objectives: To develop strategic planning to promote food security and food safety in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR, Northwest Territories (NWT, Canada. Design: A qualitative study using group discussions during a workshop. Methods: A regional workshop gathered Inuit organizations and community representatives, university-based researchers from the Inuit Health Survey (IHS and NWT governmental organizations. Discussions were structured around the findings from the IHS. For each key area, programs and activities were identified and prioritized by group discussion and voting. Results: The working group developed a vision for future research and intervention, which is to empower communities to promote health, well-being and environmental sustainability in the ISR. The group elaborated missions for the region that address the following issues: (a capacity building within communities; (b promotion of the use of traditional foods to address food security; (c research to better understand the linkages between diseases and contaminants in traditional foods, market foods and lifestyle choices; (d and promotion of affordable housing. Five programs to address each key area were developed as follows: harvest support and traditional food sharing; education and promotion; governance and policy; research; and housing. Concrete activities were identified to guide future research and intervention projects. Conclusions: The results of the planning workshop provide a blueprint for future research and intervention projects.

  19. Report: EPA Region 9 Needs to Improve Oversight Over Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Consolidated Cooperative Agreements

    Report #16-P-0207, June 20, 2016. More than $58 million in consolidated cooperative agreement funds is not being administered efficiently and effectively due to inadequate oversight and a lack of internal controls.

  20. Unpacking Terrorism, Revolution and Insurgency in Yemen: Real and Imagined Threats to Regional Security

    Alexandra Lewis


    Full Text Available Recent months have seen a seeming escalation in the international threat posed by Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP, a terrorist network that has taken Yemen as its regional base of operations. In light of recent attacks, and resulting embassy closures, Yemen is a rising priority in the Western-led War on Terror. However, this has resulted in a side-lining of other security threats in Yemen, which may cause serious challenges to the authority of the Yemeni Government. In reality, the role of AQAP has been heavily manipulated throughout Yemen’s contemporary history: this was most evident during the 2011 Arab Spring, when both sides in the conflict claimed that Al Qaeda operatives were working with members of the other. Two years later, the true nature of the AQAP threat in Yemen is rarely questioned by external observers, yet remains largely shrouded in mystery. There is a need for more critical approaches to the AQAP challenges, which take the broader context of Yemeni security into account.

  1. What are the determinants of food security among regional and remote Western Australian children?

    Godrich, Stephanie L; Davies, Christina R; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda


    To explore how determinants of food security affect children in regional and remote Western Australia (WA), across food availability, access and utilisation dimensions. The Determinants of Food Security framework guided the thematic analysis (using NVivo 10) of semi-structured interviews with 20 key informants. Food availability factors included availability, price, promotion, quality, location of outlets and variety. Food access factors included social support, financial resources, transport to food outlets, distance to food outlets and mobility. Food utilisation factors included nutrition knowledge and skills, children's food preferences, storage facilities, preparation and cooking facilities and time to purchase food. Key food availability recommendations include increasing local food supply options. Food access recommendations include ensuring equitable formal social support and empowering informal support options. Food utilisation recommendations include prioritising food literacy programs focusing on quick, healthy food preparation and budgeting skills. Implications for public health: Policymakers should invest in local food supply options, equitable social support services and experiential food literacy programs. Practitioners should focus child/parent programs on improving attitude, knowledge and skills. © 2017 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. A Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Adnan, Ali Idarous; Hanapi, Zurina Mohd; Othman, Mohamed; Zukarnain, Zuriati Ahmad


    Due to the lack of dependency for routing initiation and an inadequate allocated sextant on responding messages, the secure geographic routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have attracted considerable attention. However, the existing protocols are more likely to drop packets when legitimate nodes fail to respond to the routing initiation messages while attackers in the allocated sextant manage to respond. Furthermore, these protocols are designed with inefficient collection window and inadequate verification criteria which may lead to a high number of attacker selections. To prevent the failure to find an appropriate relay node and undesirable packet retransmission, this paper presents Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) to increase the probability of selecting the appropriate relay node. By extending the allocated sextant and applying different message contention priorities more legitimate nodes can be admitted in the routing process. Moreover, the paper also proposed the bound collection window for a sufficient collection time and verification cost for both attacker identification and isolation. Extensive simulation experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol in comparison with other existing protocols. The results demonstrate that SRBGR increases network performance in terms of the packet delivery ratio and isolates attacks such as Sybil and Black hole. PMID:28121992

  3. Promising practices in food security and nutrition assistance to vulnerable households in the Tonle Sap Region, Cambodia


    The CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) seeks to reduce poverty and improve food security for many small-scale fishers and farmers who are dependent on aquatic agriculture systems by partnering with local, national and international partners to achieve large-scale development impact. This study on promising practices in food security and nutrition assistance to vulnerable households in the Tonle Sap region forms part of the preliminary research that informs AAS work i...

  4. After Indonesia’s Ratification: The ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution and Its Effectiveness As a Regional Environmental Governance Tool

    Daniel Heilmann


    Full Text Available On 20 January 2015 Indonesia deposited its instrument of ratification for the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution with the ASEAN Secretariat, becoming the last ASEAN member state to join the treaty. Haze pollution poses a serious health threat to the people of Indonesia, Singapore and Malaysia, and for decades haze pollution has been a highly contentious issue among ASEAN member states. This article argues that Indonesia’s ratification will not be an immediate game changer. The mechanisms of the agreement are too weak to contribute much to a reduction of haze pollution in the region. The agreement is designed according to the ASEAN way: a non-binding approach that is based on the principles of state sovereignty and non-intervention. This makes it unlikely that the agreement itself will bring about change, even now that all ASEAN member states have ratified it.

  5. The Regional Self-organizing Potential in Sustainable Agriculture: An Analysis of Co-operative Agreements on Pollution in Bavaria by Means of Rough Set Methods

    Nijkamp, P.; Oltmer, K.


    This study addresses the achievements of cooperative agreements in sustainable agriculture policy. After an economic analysis of multi-actor choice situations, it focuses the attention on the self-organizing potential of regional market parties in order to comply with environmental policy objectives

  6. Soil health as a factor of ensuring food security (the case of the Asia-Pacific Region)

    Kravchenko, Alla; Nesterova, Olga; Tregubova, Valentina; Semal, Viktoriia; Derbentseva, Alla; Purtova, Lyudmila; Kostenkov, Nikolay; Tyurina, Elena; Glotova, Elena; Sergeeva, Olesya; Korshenko, Ekaterina


    Soil health as a factor of ensuring food security (the case of the Asia-Pacific Region) Food security is a complex issue of both international and national levels. The food embargo on imported products has defined the preservation and regeneration of soils as a priority task in ensuring the food security of the Russian Federation. Soils are a finite, non-renewable resource and their preservation is extremely important for the national food security. Food production is the major function of soils; production of high-quality foods, rich in nutrients, is possible only in healthy soils. Therefore, a healthy and fertile soil is the most important factor in ensuring the food security and improved subsistence. By 2050, in order to meet the demand for food, the global agricultural production has to increase by 60%, and almost by 100% in the developing countries. In many countries and subregions of the Asia-Pacific Region, the population growth rates outrun the rates of food production. The possibilities of incorporating new lands into agricultural activities and providing their irrigation are also limited. In the context of expanding cooperation with the Asia-Pacific neighbors, Russia can make its contribution into improving the food security of the region. Russia has vast territories that could be used for crops farming; a substantial part of these lands have not been farmed yet. Hence, in the Russian Far East, production of grain crops can be increased by incorporating the unused territories into agricultural activities. Therefore, the Russian Far East is a unique site for creating a crops farming territory. And the preservation and regeneration of soils will provide for the production growth and ensure the food security of Russia and the Asia-Pacific region.

  7. Crop Production of Northern Mindanao, Philippines: Its contribution to the Regional Economy and Food Security

    Dejarme-Calalang, GM.


    Full Text Available This paper presents the contribution of primary agricultural crops produced in Northern Mindanao to its economy and food security of people with the situational analysis and insights of the authors. Rice as the staple food of most Filipinos is insufficient in quantity produced. Corn production is more than enough for the total regional demand. White corn is preferred as secondary staple food, however the corn industry emphasizes yellow corn production and the bulk of this goes to raw materials for livestock and poultry feeds. Coconut, sugar, pineapple and bananas significantly contribute to agricultural exports. Coconut is processed before exporting which can offer employment in the rural areas. Sugarcane, pineapple and bananas have created a change in the land use and hence compete with rice and corn. Northern Mindanao is one of the leading producers of tomatoes, carrots and potatoes, yet farmers have encountered deterring factors in attaining potential income from these products. Although Bukidnon province is the top agricultural producer in the region, poverty in the area remains high.

  8. The role and impact of the small states diplomacy on regional and international security

    Dr.Sc. Bejtush Gashi


    Full Text Available History has proved that the safety for small countries has never been secure, however this has been more emphasized during the Cold War Period through the rivalry of the superpowers, ideological conflicts, as well as the clashes between their geopolitical and geostrategic interests. For the Superpowers it is very easy to manipulate with these countries' economic and military aspect. They can't handle a conflict with their strengths, while the only way is diplomatic war to avoid or decrease the danger of conflict. To avoid insecurity, which for the small countries in the international relationships is bigger than for the big countries, the only safety alternative is their association in the international institutions. To face the regional and global challenges of safety, the Western Balkan countries have only one strategic solution, that is the integration in the Euro-Atlantic structures. The membership institutionalizes the relations between the small countries with those regional in the economic and safety field, as well as it sets the frames of the behavior with which the weak are protected from the eventual misuse from the most powerful ones. Small countries should concentrate in the creation of the professional and trained forces which can be easily mobilized in case of any crisis and they should also be affordable in the economic aspect.

  9. Comprehensive evaluation of regional ecological security for land use: a case study of Yanchi County, Ningxia Province


    As an Abstract study conception,most researches of ecological security generally are macro-scale theoretical study with a regional,national or global perspective.Micro-scale research mainly concentrates on ecological risk,ecosystem health and ecosystem safety.In order to assess regional ecological security and to accomplish the transition from micro-scale to macro-scale research,a Driving-Function-State-Output-Respond model framework (DFSOR model) is put forward in this paper according to the analyses on regional population,society,economy,resources,environment and ecological risks.In empirical research an index .system is set out to evaluate ecological security of land use.The DFSOR model comprises five group of indicators:(1) driving indicators,which include social population pressure and economic pressure;(2) Junction indicators,which include human function,hydrodynamic function,wind function and gravity function;(3) state indicators,which include soil resources,water resources and land use/land cover;(4) output indicators,which include production output and ecological risk output;(5) response indicators,which are composed of all sorts of policies and measures for improving production of ecosystem.The method and procedure for ecological security evaluation is put forward based on DFSOR model as well.In the case study,Yanchi,the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry,is chosen for the study.An index system built to evaluate ecological security based on the evaluation of regional ecological risks which including sandification,water erosion,soil salinization,soil pollution and shortage of water.The comprehens'ive evaluation result shows the regional ecological security index of land use in the research area increase obviously.But it is still in the state of low-graded danger.

  10. The Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) and the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) Region- The Case for South Africa

    Sukati, Mphumuzi A


    EPAs between the EU and ACP countries can be viewed as being anti mercantilist and there has been a lot of speculations about their outcome. The aim of the study is to determine the effects of the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) between the European Union (EU) and the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) members using Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) version 7. Two scenarios are analysed: first when the other SACU member states sign the EPAs with the EU excluding South Africa and ...

  11. The Homomorphic Key Agreement


    There are various challenges that are faced in group communication, so it is necessary to ensure session key. Key agreement is the fundamental cryptographic primitive for establishing a secure communication. It is a process of computing a shared secret contributed by two or more entities such that no single node can predetermine the resulting value. An authenticated key agreement is attained by combining the key agreement protocol with digital signatures. After a brief introduction to existing key agreement in group communication, Making use of the additive-multiplicative homomorphism in the integer ring defined by Sander and Tschudin: A new protocols, called the homomorphism key agreement, was designed, which can be self-contributory, robust, scalable and applicable in group communication.

  12. Strategic Implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)


    AD-A276 615 1993 Executive Research Project S9 Strategic Implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ) Commander Daniel E. Busch...implications. This paper highlights the importance of NAFTA with respect to national security in the areas of raw materials, labor, industrial...capacity, the economy, and military cooperation. It also explores the political impact of trade regionalization driven by NAFTA and similar trade agreements

  13. «Cross-border Environmental Peace» as the Interaction of Regional Norms and Local Power: Lessons from Cross-Regional Analysis of Water Security Debates

    Harlan Koff


    Full Text Available This article contends that notions of «peace» and «justice» in cross-border water management vary in different world regions. Moreover, it argues that «peace» and «justice» can be explained by analyzing the interaction between «regional» interpretations and implementation of water security norms and local cross-border power structures. «Regional water security» is defined as the normative commitment to provide necessary water resources to communities within world regions. «Power,» which is defined traditionally as «the ability of actors to obtain their objectives despite opposition» is viewed as a function of political entrepreneurialism and opportunity structures. This article derives from a review of the pertinent literatures on «water security» and «water justice,» the two elements of «water peace» as well as scholarship on cross-border water management in different world regions. It discusses water governance within the framework of cross-border politics and comparative regional integration. It also includes analysis of the policy documents and websites of seventeen regional organizations as well as interviews with key actors and local experts on water management in specific cross-border case studies. The article is divided into five sections. Following this introduction, part two examines «water security» and «water justice» in international affairs. Part III then discusses «power» in cross-border water governance debates and addresses the transnational face of water security discussions. Part IV presents a comparative examination of cross-border «water justice» in selected world regions which is followed by theoretical considerations that are addressed in part V, the conclusion. In general, the article emphasizes the need to promote comparative cross-regional research on cross-border water governance in order to examine how «peace,» «security» and «justice» are framed in debates over water resources. 

  14. Mechanisms and Tools to Ensure the Economic Security of the Regions of Ukraine in the Process of Decentralization

    Biluk Rostislav R.


    Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiation of the applied mechanisms and tools for systemic ensuring the economic security of the regions of Ukraine in the process of decentralized reorganization of the executive powers. It has been revealed that in Ukraine a considerable number of projects of laws have been developed, legislation acts and policy documents have been passed, declarative provisions for the decentralization of powers as well as for reforming the local governance have been presented. It has been confirmed that the decentralization of powers in Ukraine is a necessary step, given the European integration course of the both foreign policy and the internal economic development of the State. However, it has been determined that an administrative-territorial reform may not only positively affect the economic security of region, but can lead to some negative results as well. It has been found that such planning of both the economic development of region and ensuring its security, on the one hand, has its risks, and on the other hand, generates new opportunities and prospects. A complex mechanism for ensuring economic security of the region, including institutional, organizational and economic constituents, has been proposed.

  15. Household Perceptions about the Impacts of Climate Change on Food Security in the Mountainous Region of Nepal

    Shobha Poudel


    Full Text Available This study tried to understand the mountainous households’ perception of climate change and its impacts on food security in the Lamjung district of Nepal. The study attempted to find out changes in households food security and daily activities in the face of climate change for the last twenty years. The study started with the 150 household surveys along with participatory rural appraisal to understand the climate change perception of local people and its impact on dimensions of food security. Households expressed different levels of perception in terms of climate change on food security. The result shows that most of the mountainous households experienced increased temperature, less rainfall in winter, an increasing number of natural disasters and the emergence of insects for the last twenty years. They perceived the role of climate change in decreased crop production, decreased dairy products and increased household work. The situation of food security is likely to be more vulnerable to climate change in the future. It was also observed that households have been using different autonomous adaptation measures, such as high yielding crop varieties, enhanced irrigation systems and fertilizers, to cope with the changing climate. Finally, the study recommended policy instruments to enhance food security in the mountainous region amidst changing climate.

  16. Unraveling the nexus between water and food security in Latin America and the Caribbean: regional and global implications

    Willaarts, Barbara; Garrido, Alberto; Soriano, Barbara; De Stefano, Lucia; López Gunn, Elena; Aldaya, Maite; Martínez-Santos, Pedro; Llamas, Ramon


    Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) is a water and land abundant region, and plays a key role in meeting global food and water security. During the last decade, LAC has experience a rapid socio-economic growth, largely sustained by its competitive advantage in the production and exports of agricultural and mining products and by the high commodity prices in the global market. This study seeks to quantify the contribution of LAC's agriculture to global food and water security, i.e. virtual water trade, and evaluate the environmental and societal implications for regional development. Results show that between 2000 and 2011, LAC has increase its agricultural production 27%, and it now accounts for nearly 18% of the global agricultural market. As a result, the agricultural water footprint (WF) of LAC was augmented 65%; and yet, nearly 19% to 44% of the actual agricultural WF - depending on the countries - is virtual water exported to third countries. In fact, almost 50% of the increase in global virtual water trade during the last decade, corresponds to LAC. Such global contribution has significant implications for regional water and food security. From an environmental perspective, crop expansion (mostly rain-fed) resulted in the deforestation of nearly 1 million km2, turning this region into the second most important deforestation hotspots worldwide. This land clearing is having large impacts of ecosystem services, e.g. carbon sequestration, water quality or biodiversity conservation. From a socio-economic perspective, increasing agricultural production has improved regional food security indicators, although one every seven children is still stunted in LAC and nearly 10% of the population remains undernourished. Dietary shifts and socio-cultural factors also lag behind the growing problem of malnutrition in the region, i.e. overweight and obesity. Improvements of water access and sanitation, have had a positive impact on food security indicators, especially

  17. Prediction of Instability Separation Modes and Its Application in Practical Dynamic Security Region


    The transient critical boundary of dynamic security region (DSR) can be approximated by a few hyper planes correlated with instability separation modes. A method to fast predict instability separation modes is proposed for DSR calculation in power injection space. The method identifies coherent generation groups by the developed K-medoids algorithm, taking a similarity matrix derived from the reachability Grammian as the index. As an experimental result, reachability Grammian matrices under local injections are approximately invariant. It indicates that the generator coherency identifications are nearly consistent for different injections. Then instability separation modes can be predicted at the normal operating point, while average initial acceleration is considered as the measure of the critical generator group to amend the error. Moreover, based on these predicted instability separation modes, a critical point search strategy for DSR calculation is illustrated in the reduced injection space of the critical generators. The proposed method was evaluated using New England Test System, and the computation accuracy and speed in determining the practical DSR were improve.

  18. A Novel Approach Towards Cost Effective Region-Based Group Key Agreement Protocol for Peer - to - Peer Information Sharing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Kumar, K; Sumathy, V


    Peer-to-peer systems have gained a lot of attention as information sharing systems for the widespread exchange of resources and voluminous information that is easily accessible among thousands of users. However, current peer-to-peer information sharing systems work mostly on wired networks. With the growing number of communication-equipped mobile devices that can self-organize into infrastructure-less communication platform, namely mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), peer-to-peer information sharing over MANETs becomes a promising research area. In this paper, we propose a Region-Based structure that enables efficient and secure peer-to-peer information sharing over MANETs. The implementation shows that the proposed scheme is Secure, scalable, efficient, and adaptive to node mobility and provides Reliable information sharing.

  19. Precipitation variability on global pasturelands may affect food security in livestock-dependent regions

    Sloat, L.; Gerber, J. S.; Samberg, L. H.; Smith, W. K.; West, P. C.; Herrero, M.; Brendan, P.; Cecile, G.; Katharina, W.; Smith, W. K.


    The need to feed an increasing number of people while maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services is one of the key challenges currently facing humanity. Livestock systems are likely to be a crucial piece of this puzzle, as urbanization and changing diets in much of the world lead to increases in global meat consumption. This predicted increase in global demand for livestock products will challenge the ability of pastures and rangelands to maintain or increase their productivity. The majority of people that depend on animal production for food security do so through grazing and herding on natural rangelands, and these systems make a significant contribution to global production of meat and milk. The vegetation dynamics of natural forage are highly dependent on climate, and subject to disruption with changes in climate and climate variability. Precipitation heterogeneity has been linked to the ecosystem dynamics of grazing lands through impacts on livestock carrying capacity and grassland degradation potential. Additionally, changes in precipitation variability are linked to the increased incidence of extreme events (e.g. droughts, floods) that negatively impact food production and food security. Here, we use the inter-annual coefficient of variation (CV) of precipitation as a metric to assess climate risk on global pastures. Comparisons of global satellite measures of vegetation greenness to climate reveal that the CV of precipitation is negatively related to mean annual NDVI, such that areas with low year-to-year precipitation variability have the highest measures of vegetation greenness, and vice versa. Furthermore, areas with high CV of precipitation support lower livestock densities and produce less meat. A sliding window analysis of changes in CV of precipitation over the last century shows that, overall, precipitation variability is increasing in global pasture areas, although global maps reveal a patchwork of both positive and negative changes. We use

  20. Human Security: A Thematic Guidance Note for Regional and National Human Development Report Teams

    O.A. Gómez (Oscar); D.R. Gasper (Des)


    textabstractAbstract Many important aspects of human development relate also to people’s security: loosely defined as people’s freedom from fear and freedom from want in a broad sense. Applying a human security approach offers an opportunity to analyse many issues in an informative way.

  1. Human Security: A Thematic Guidance Note for Regional and National Human Development Report Teams

    O.A. Gómez (Oscar); D.R. Gasper (Des)


    textabstractAbstract Many important aspects of human development relate also to people’s security: loosely defined as people’s freedom from fear and freedom from want in a broad sense. Applying a human security approach offers an opportunity to analyse many issues in an informative way. This note

  2. Northeast Asia Regional Security and the United States Military: Context, Presence, and Roles


    The Diplomatic Role of Non-Weaponized Programs. Rosalind R. Reynolds, January 1996 8. Five Minutes Past Midnight: The Clear and Present Danger...Director Colonel Franklin Wolf Chief, National Security Policy Division USAF INSTITUTE FOR NATIONAL SECURITY STUDIES Dr James M. Smith

  3. World market or regional integration and food security in West Africa

    L.J. de Haan (Leo); A. Klaasse Bos (Andries); C. Lutz (Clemens)


    textabstractThe problem of food security in West Africa was put on the international agenda in 1974 at the international food conference in Rome following the Great Sahelian Drought of 1968-1973. In those years preoccupation with food security was limited mainly to the Sahel countries and concentrat

  4. Air Force Security Assistance Center Foreign Military Sales Center Institutionalizes How It ’Develops and Executes International Agreements" by Linking Strategic Initiatives to the Balanced Scorecard Process


    Linking Strategic Initiatives to the Balanced Scorecard Process By Len Walton Tiyette McDaniel Schneata Shyne-Turner Air Force Security Assistance Center...with short term actions. The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) methodology is being institutionalized to ensure continuous process change driven by...Linking Strategic Initiatives to the Balanced Scorecard Process 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  5. Developing an analytical model to increase urban security from the Secured perspective by Designing (SBD Approach using fuzzy AHP method (case study: region 17 of Tehran

    H. Zabihi


    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionSafety and security have been significant issues throughout history, from early prehistoric cave-dwelling societies to medieval and modern cities (P. Cozens, 2008. Crime is a part of our way of living. It is tied to the physical distribution of people and objects, to the routine activity patterns of daily life, and to the ways in which people perceive and use information about the environment (Brantingham & Brantingham, 1993. Statistics show that there is a meaningful relationship between different districts and kind and repetition of crimes in Tehran, so that these districts can be categorized based on city safety (Rezvan, 2007In some regions unsafely is more likely due to environmental, social, economic and even occupational reasons. One of these areas is region 3 of district 17 in Tehran, which suffers from high population density, aggregation of deteriorated and compact areas, multiplicity of cross-regional land use, separation of the area by two railways (Tehran-Tabriz and Tehran- South, etc. Mentioned limitations along with other relevant factors, has created numerous problems such as low level of urban security in the area and feeling of insecurity among residents.2- Theoretical basesSecured by design is a UK based initiative which was devised in1989, with the aim of countering the rise in household burglary, reducing crime through the design of the environment and encouraging urban designers to design out crime at the planning stage (Armitage, 2004. SBD also aims to achieve security for the building shell and to introduce appropriate internal and external design features that facilitate natural surveillance and create a sense of ownership and responsibility, in order to deter criminal and anti-social behavior within the cartilage of the business. New opportunity theories of crime and crime prevention measures such as situational crime prevention and crime prevention through environmental design largely

  6. Economic-mathematical model of two-level minimax program control of economic security of a region

    Andrey Fyodorovich Shorikov


    Full Text Available This article discusses a discrete-time dynamical system consisting of a set of a controllable objects (region and forming it municipalities. The dynamics each of these is described by the corresponding vector linear discrete-time recurrent relations, and its control system consist from two levels: basic (control level I that is dominating and subordinate level (control level II. Both levels have different criterions of functioning and united a priori by determined informational and control connections defined in advance. Considered addresses the problem of optimization of management of economic security of the region in the presence of risks. For the investigated problem is proposed in this work an economic-mathematical model of two-level hierarchical minimax program control of economic security of the region in the presence of risk and the general scheme of the solution.

  7. 中国粮食安全脆弱区的识别及空间分异%Regional differences of vulnerability of food security in China

    殷培红; 方修琦; 云雅如


    able regions of food security with underdeveloped local economies (Type Ⅱ), of which 57% are the main grain-surplus regions in China, mainly located in the areas of plains and basins with favorable climate.

  8. Europol’s Cybercrime Centre (EC3), its Agreements with Third Parties and the Growing Role of Law Enforcement on the European Security Scene

    Vendius, Trine Thygesen


    The European Cyber Crime Centre, EC3, established under the umbrella of Europol, started operations on January 1 2013. It is to act as the focal point in the fight against cybercrime in the European Union. Using a “shared, cross-community approach” the EC3 is concluding partnerships with member s......, this not least in view of the EC3’s mandate to conclude strategic agreements with a fairly high degree of autonomy....

  9. Convenio "Andres Bello:" Informe Final [de la] Segunda Reunion de Ministros de Educacion de la Region Andina ("Andres Bello" Agreement: Final Report of the Second Meeting of the Andean Region Ministers of Education).

    Ministros de Educacion de la Region Andina, Lima (Peru).

    This final report of the second meeting of the Andean Region Ministers of Education subscribing to the Andres Bello Agreement on education and culture contains a resume of the individual sessions and the proposals approved during that meeting. The proposals cover various educational problems and issues and begin with the Declaration of Lima which…

  10. Europol’s Cybercrime Centre (EC3), its Agreements with Third Parties and the Growing Role of Law Enforcement on the European Security Scene

    Vendius, Trine Thygesen


    The European Cyber Crime Centre, EC3, established under the umbrella of Europol, started operations on January 1 2013. It is to act as the focal point in the fight against cybercrime in the European Union. Using a “shared, cross-community approach” the EC3 is concluding partnerships with member...... states, European agencies, international partners and the private sector. This article describes the coming about of EC3 and its efforts to address cybercrime. Furthermore, the article is an attempt to assess the growing role of the European law enforcement community on the European security scene...

  11. Security Conditions and Regional Competition in East Asia after the New Millennium: A South Korean Perspective

    Chong Jin Oh


    ... economically, it has been struggling to contend with security issues such as the North Korean nuclear problem, revision of the South Korean-US alliance, Japanese militarisation, the rise of China, and so...

  12. Future Indonesia-East Timor Relations: An Analysis of the Regional Security Practices in the Cold War and After


    Indonesia In the fourteenth century, long before the arrival of Dutch and Portuguese colonizers, the era of Majapahit rule the old Javanese Hindu...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. FUTURE INDONESIA -EAST TIMOR...from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") Title and Subtitle FUTURE INDONESIA -EAST TIMOR RELATIONS: AN ANALYSIS OF THE REGIONAL SECURITY PRACTICES IN THE COLD WAR

  13. A GIS-based decision support system for regional eco-security assessment and its application on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Xiaodan, Wang; Xianghao, Zhong; Pan, Gao


    Regional eco-security assessment is an intricate, challenging task. In previous studies, the integration of eco-environmental models and geographical information systems (GIS) usually takes two approaches: loose coupling and tight coupling. However, the present study used a full coupling approach to develop a GIS-based regional eco-security assessment decision support system (ESDSS). This was achieved by merging the pressure-state-response (PSR) model and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) into ArcGIS 9 as a dynamic link library (DLL) using ArcObjects in ArcGIS and Visual Basic for Applications. Such an approach makes it easy to capitalize on the GIS visualization and spatial analysis functions, thereby significantly supporting the dynamic estimation of regional eco-security. A case study is presented for the Tibetan Plateau, known as the world's "third pole" after the Arctic and Antarctic. Results verified the usefulness and feasibility of the developed method. As a useful tool, the ESDSS can also help local managers to make scientifically-based and effective decisions about Tibetan eco-environmental protection and land use.

  14. Security guide for subcontractors

    Adams, R.C.


    This security guide of the Department of Energy covers contractor and subcontractor access to DOE and Mound facilities. The topics of the security guide include responsibilities, physical barriers, personnel identification system, personnel and vehicular access controls, classified document control, protecting classified matter in use, storing classified matter repository combinations, violations, security education clearance terminations, security infractions, classified information nondisclosure agreement, personnel security clearances, visitor control, travel to communist-controlled or sensitive countries, shipment security, and surreptitious listening devices.

  15. The AgMIP Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments (CGRA) of Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture and Food Security

    Ruane, Alex; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Elliott, Joshua; Antle, John


    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) has been working since 2010 to construct a protocol-based framework enabling regional assessments (led by regional experts and modelers) that can provide consistent inputs to global economic and integrated assessment models. These global models can then relay important global-level information that drive regional decision-making and outcomes throughout an interconnected agricultural system. AgMIPs community of nearly 800 climate, crop, livestock, economics, and IT experts has improved the state-of-the-art through model intercomparisons, validation exercises, regional integrated assessments, and the launch of AgMIP programs on all six arable continents. AgMIP is now launching Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments (CGRA) of climate change impacts on agriculture and food security to link global and regional crop and economic models using a protocol-based framework. The CGRA protocols are being developed to utilize historical observations, climate projections, and RCPsSSPs from CMIP5 (and potentially CMIP6), and will examine stakeholder-driven agricultural development and adaptation scenarios to provide cutting-edge assessments of climate changes impact on agriculture and food security. These protocols will build on the foundation of established protocols from AgMIPs 30+ activities, and will emphasize the use of multiple models, scenarios, and scales to enable an accurate assessment of related uncertainties. The CGRA is also designed to provide the outputs necessary to feed into integrated assessment models (IAMs), nutrition and food security assessments, nitrogen and carbon cycle models, and additional impact-sector assessments (e.g., water resources, land-use, biomes, urban areas). This presentation will describe the current status of CGRA planning and initial prototype experiments to demonstrate key aspects of the protocols before wider implementation ahead of the IPCC Sixth Assessment

  16. The AgMIP Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments (CGRA) of Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture and Food Security

    Ruane, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C.; Antle, J. M.; Elliott, J. W.


    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) has been working since 2010 to construct a protocol-based framework enabling regional assessments (led by regional experts and modelers) that can provide consistent inputs to global economic and integrated assessment models. These global models can then relay important global-level information that drive regional decision-making and outcomes throughout an interconnected agricultural system. AgMIP's community of nearly 800 climate, crop, livestock, economics, and IT experts has improved the state-of-the-art through model intercomparisons, validation exercises, regional integrated assessments, and the launch of AgMIP programs on all six arable continents. AgMIP is now launching Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments (CGRA) of climate change impacts on agriculture and food security to link global and regional crop and economic models using a protocol-based framework. The CGRA protocols are being developed to utilize historical observations, climate projections, and RCPs/SSPs from CMIP5 (and potentially CMIP6), and will examine stakeholder-driven agricultural development and adaptation scenarios to provide cutting-edge assessments of climate change's impact on agriculture and food security. These protocols will build on the foundation of established protocols from AgMIP's 30+ activities, and will emphasize the use of multiple models, scenarios, and scales to enable an accurate assessment of related uncertainties. The CGRA is also designed to provide the outputs necessary to feed into integrated assessment models (IAMs), nutrition and food security assessments, nitrogen and carbon cycle models, and additional impact-sector assessments (e.g., water resources, land-use, biomes, urban areas). This presentation will describe the current status of CGRA planning and initial prototype experiments to demonstrate key aspects of the protocols before wider implementation ahead of the IPCC Sixth Assessment

  17. HOMELAND SECURITY: Management of First Responder Grants in the National Capital Region Reflects the Need for Coordinated Planning and Performance Goals


    Office GAO May 2004 HOMELAND SECURITY Management of First Responder Grants in the National Capital Region Reflects the Need for Coordinated...Management of First Responder Grants in the National Capital Region Reflects the Need for Coordinated Planning and Performance Goals 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...2004 HOMELAND SECURITY Management of First Responder Grants in the National Capital Region Reflects the Need for Coordinated Planning and Performance

  18. 物联网安全网关认证与密钥协商协议设计%A Design of Authentication and Key Agreement Protocol for Secure Gateways in IoTs

    杜大海; 范红; 王冠; 李程远


    分析研究了物联网节点认证与密钥管理技术。针对大量节点同时对物联网网关集中访问的特点,提出了一种快速认证与密钥协商协议。采用会聚认证算法,提高了认证效率,密钥协商过程中每个节点都贡献一份因子参与密钥协商,提高了密钥生成的安全性。%Access control and key agreement technology of IoTs is studied in this paper .Since many nodes in IoTs may access the gateway at the same time ,a fast authentication and key agreement protocol is proposed in this paper .We use an aggregated verification scheme to improve the authentication efficiency . Each node participates in the key agreement procedure and contributes a key parameter ,which improves the security level of the key establishment scheme .

  19. Global Energy Security and Its Geopolitical Impediments: The Case of the Caspian Region

    Amineh, M.P.; Houweling, H.


    This article discusses the global geopolitics of energy security in the post-Cold War environment. Energy companies headquartered in western countries have long history of accessing energy resources beyond borders through invasion of the host by their home state, followed by domination and the

  20. Global Energy Security and Its Geopolitical Impediments: The Case of the Caspian Region

    Amineh, M.P.; Houweling, H.


    This article discusses the global geopolitics of energy security in the post-Cold War environment. Energy companies headquartered in western countries have long history of accessing energy resources beyond borders through invasion of the host by their home state, followed by domination and the creat

  1. From food production to food security: developing interdisciplinary, regional-level research

    Ingram, J.S.I.


    Food security is a condition whereby “all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (FAO World Food Summit, 1996). Globally, food production has kept ah


    J. K. UKWAYI


    Full Text Available The emergence of an “international community” through accumulation of perceived risks that contrasts with those risks (of considerably lower levels of seriousness compared to those perceived constitutes one of the interesting (or intriguing subjects of risks and disaster studies surrounding the 9/11 era. The constructions of “imaginative geographies”, have frequently been biased in the practices that underlie the mapping of the foreign places tend to put-down the affected regions in their “paintings” for the global community. The latter are subsequently “demonized” in their ratings of competence for participating in world trade, tourism, travel, among other social/cultural, and economic and political activities. The objective of this article is to highlight how the exaggeration of risks (contrasted to actually existing/lived risks, practices that are frequently associated with such adverse “imaginative geographies” poses sub-national regional development dilemma in Nigeria’s Niger Delta. We trace the roots of adverse “imaginative geographies” of Nigeria to the Abacha dictatorship (1993-1997. Then we highlight the mixed characteristics of the Niger Delta conditions during the “return of positive image recapture” by Nigeria’s federal government (re-democratisation of the Fourth Republic, 1999-present, re-branding campaigns; as well as adverse conditions present. Most significantly, we show that despite these adversities, a combination of favorable geographical size, differentiation, sub-national regional security programme formulation and management taking aims at diversification have created “large oases” of peace and security in Cross River State, a part of the Niger Delta that has been completely unscathed by insurgencies of the nearby sub-national region and further away national origin. Apart from identifying sub-national regions qualifying for delisting from “adverse imaginative geographies” due to

  3. On regional trade agreement and multilateral trade system%浅析区域贸易协定与多边贸易体制



    Since 90's of the twentieth Century, especially after the failure of no progress and Cancun Conference of the Doha Round negotiations, in the global scope blew up a regional trade liberalization tide. Regional trade agreements began from the multilateral trade system"exception"role change to"mainstream"role, on one hand, the impact of the multilateral trading system, on the other hand also promoted the development of multilateral trade liberalization, the two sides should be mutual development in coordination. This paper explains the concept of the regional trade agreement, types, development trend and the reasons for the rise, citing the relevant regulations of the WTO, between the multilateral trading system and regional trade agreements on the basis of the conflict, and aprospect of harmonious relations between the two sides proposed.%自20世纪90年代以来,特别是多哈回合谈判的毫无进展和坎昆会议失败之后,在全球范围内刮起了一股区域贸易自由化的浪潮。区域贸易协定开始了从多边贸易体制的“例外”的角色向“主流”角色的转变,一方面冲击了多边贸易体制,另一方面也推动了多边贸易的自由化,二者应当在协调中相互发展。本文阐释了区域贸易协定的概念、类型、发展趋势以及兴起的原因,并且援引WTO有关规定,在此基础上分析多边贸易体制与区域贸易协定之间的冲突,并对二者关系的协调提出了一定的展望。

  4. 2004年东南亚地区安全形势分析%An Analysis on the Security Situation in Southeast Asian Region in 2004



    The article analyses the security situation of Southeast Asian Region in 2004 from the following aspects, which are antiterrorist situation and cooperation, joint military maneuver, military modernization and the internal turbulence in the area and together with an outlook of the security situation there in 2005.


    Evgeniy Sergeevich Krasantsov


    Full Text Available The main objective of this article was to determine the level of the Chinese energy security that was built up for last several decades. In order to reach the set aim the author figured the current condition of the energy sector within the leading states of the Asia-Pacific Region and compared it with a similar condition ofChina. The condition’s characteristics included the following: Chinese energy balance, oil production, import and consumption, energy efficiency, CO2 emissions, electricity amount produced by using the renewable energy sources (hydropower, wind energy, sun energy and nuclear energy. In addition the authorities’ plans for the expansion of the mentioned renewable and nuclear energy production were as well discovered. The probable threats of the energy security and possible obstacles for the extensive means of sustaining the country’s energy security were also brought up.Statistical, comparative and analytical methods were applied in the process of the current research. As a result the PRC was found to be at a threshold to energetic crisis. In order to avoid the scenario two innovative methods were proposed as the means of avoiding the possible future crisis and sustaining energy security.The research results can be applied in determining the domestic and foreign policy of China as well as the foreign policies of the PRC’s energetic partners both within the Asia-Pacific Region and beyond its borders. DOI:

  6. Perspectives of the National Army of the Republic of Moldova under The New Regional Security Architecture

    Gheorghe MEREUŢĂ


    Full Text Available Currently, the security complex from the South-East Europe, situated in the area of modern confrontation between the major European powers (Germany, Russia, Great Britain and France, is undergoing a profound political, economic and military restructuring. The USA and NATO, within the UN and OSCE, as well as through other institutions, control the most significant local developments. The concept was imposed by the new politico-military coordinates in Europe and in the world, the limitations of armaments, and the new military relations established in the world. National Army of the Republic of Moldova (hereinafter National Army passes through a complex process of restructuring / modernization. Implemented operational measures and actions, and those that need to be implemented in the next period, refer to the development in the security environment in the area of interest of the Republic of Moldova. Classification-JEL: A23

  7. Military Cooperation Frameworks: Effective Models to Address Transnational Security Challenges of the Asia-Pacific Region


    197* (10) Sri Lanka 204* (12) Oceania American Samoa 22* (6) Australia 117* (11) Cook Islands 19* (4) Fiji 72* (8) Guam 24* (8) Kiribati...evolving security challenges. Issues such as terrorism, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, impacts of climate change , and the ever...impacts of climate change , and the ever-growing competition for valuable natural resources are a few of the these challenges. As an integral part

  8. Improving Regional Security in Central America: Military Engagement Options for Nicaragua


    peaceful resolution. This group was made up of foreign ministers from Mexico , Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama and was named after Contadora Island, the...from: Martine, George and Guzman, Jose Miguel, UNFPA Country Support Team, Mexico Source: OPS/OMS (1994); CEPAL (1999); OPS-Nicaragua (http...State. Isacson, Adam 1998. Seguridad Cooperativa en Centroamérica. (Cooperative Security in Central America) Diálogo Centro-americano No. 35

  9. The United States Department of Homeland Security Concept of Regionalization - Will It Survive the Test


    intergovernmental relations by using network theory means that the system should be based on linkages and interrelationships, rather than...terrorist attack. Didn’t New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg exhibit big city egoism over a reduction in homeland security funding? Some... theory tells us that every relay doubles the noise and cuts the message in half. Also, change leadership requires the willingness and ability to change

  10. The Importance of a U.S. Security Strategy in the Caspian Black Sea Region


    passes· through the Druzhba pipeline and another million barrels through the Black Sea.6 Energy security has been especially prominent in shaping...expanding oil and natural gas pipelines running from the Caspian Sea and Caucasus areas to Turkish ports, thereby bypassing Russia altogether. One...such conduit is the Baku-Tblisi-Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline that was completed in 2005. The BTC transports oil from Baku, Azerbaijan and the Caspian Sea

  11. North American Regional Security: A Trilateral Framework. By Richard J. Kilroy, Jr., Abelardo Rodriquez Sumano, and Todd S. Hataley, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Press, 2013.

    Robert Stewart-Ingersoll


    Full Text Available North American Regional Security: A Trilateral Framework. By Richard J. Kilroy, Jr., Abelardo Rodriquez Sumano, and Todd S. Hataley, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Press, 2013. ISBN 978-1-58826-854-9.

  12. Citizen Security

    Beatriz Abizanda


    This is a presentation for the Caribbean Regional ConSoc Retreat held on June 16, 2011 in Kingston, Jamaica. This document outlines crime and violence as major roadblocks to development in the Caribbean; citing statistics and providing examples of the economic costs to the region. This presentation then goes on to describe the IDB's strategy with regard to citizen security and highlights IDB Funded security programs in the region. The presentation also identifies Civil Society as a potentiall...

  13. Growing Region Segmentation Software (GRES) for quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of multiple sclerosis: intra- and inter-observer agreement variability: a comparison with manual contouring method.

    Parodi, Roberto C; Sardanelli, Francesco; Renzetti, Paolo; Rosso, Elisabetta; Losacco, Caterina; Ferrari, Alessandra; Levrero, Fabrizio; Pilot, Alberto; Inglese, Matilde; Mancardi, Giovanni L


    Lesion area measurement in multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the key points in evaluating the natural history and in monitoring the efficacy of treatments. This study was performed to check the intra- and inter-observer agreement variability of a locally developed Growing Region Segmentation Software (GRES), comparing them to those obtained using manual contouring (MC). From routine 1.5-T MRI study of clinically definite multiple sclerosis patients, 36 lesions seen on proton-density-weighted images (PDWI) and 36 enhancing lesion on Gd-DTPA-BMA-enhanced T1-weighted images (Gd-T1WI) were randomly chosen and were evaluated by three observers. The mean range of lesion size was 9.9-536.0 mm(2) on PDWI and 3.6-57.2 mm(2) on Gd-T1WI. The median intra- and inter-observer agreement were, respectively, 97.1 and 90.0% using GRES on PDWI, 81.0 and 70.0% using MC on PDWI, 88.8 and 80.0% using GRES on Gd-T1WI, and 85.8 and 70.0% using MC on Gd-T1WI. The intra- and inter-observer agreements were significantly greater for GRES compared with MC ( PGRES an MC for Gd-T1WI. The intra-observer variability for GRES was significantly lower on both PDWI ( P=0.0001) and Gd-T1WI ( P=0.0067), whereas for MC the same result was found only for PDWI ( P=0.0147). These data indicate that GRES reduces both the intra- and the inter-observer variability in assessing the area of MS lesions on PDWI and may prove useful in multicentre studies.

  14. 对 Tasi 群密钥协商协议的改进及安全分析%Improvement and security analysis on Tasi’s group key agreement

    霍丽娟; 李朝阳; 孙垒


    针对 J.L.Tsai 等人提出的移动环境下群密钥协商协议存在的安全缺陷,利用数字签名技术,对其进行了改进:在数字签名中加入序列号,用以标记签名和将要生成的群密钥的次序,并将序列号作为数字签名公开验证信息之一,从而实现对移动用户或者具有较强计算能力的节点所发送消息的及时验证.由安全分析可知,改进后的协议不仅具有原来的安全特性,而且可以抵抗重放攻击或冒充攻击.%Aimed at the security defect of group key agreement protocol for mobile environment proposed by J.L.Tsai,the protocol was improved by using the digital signature technology.That is,some serial numbers were inserted in the digital signatures so as to identify the signatures and the order of the group keys to be generated,and the serial numbers were used as part of public information to verify the digital signatures.So the freshness of messages sent by the mobile users or the powerful node could be checked.According to the security analysis,it is found that the improved protocol not only had the old security properties,but also could resist against impersonation attack or forgery attack.

  15. Regional Cooperation Efforts in the Mekong River Basin: Mitigating river-related security threats and promoting regional development

    Susanne Schmeier


    Full Text Available The development of international rivers is often perceived as leading to conflicts or even water wars. However, as the development of the Mekong River shows, cooperation has not only prevailed in the last decades, but River Basin Organizations (RBOs, established to mitigate river-related conflicts and/or develop the river basin, have also contributed to the emergence of more general cooperation structures, mainly by creating spill-over effects in other issue-areas, bringing cooperation to policy fields beyond the river itself. This article assesses the contribution of the Mekong River Commission (MRC and the Greater Mekong Sub-Region (GMS to the sustainable development of the Mekong Region as well as to the promotion of regional cooperation in mainland South-East Asia in general. --- Die Entwicklung grenzüberschreitender Flüsse wird oft mit Konflikten oder gar Kriegen um Wasser assoziiert. Wie jedoch die Entwicklung im Mekong-Becken zeigt, waren die vergangenen Jahrzehnte nicht nur von Kooperation gezeichnet, sondern Flussbeckenorganisationen konnten außerdem dazu beitragen, weitreichendere Kooperationsstrukturen zu entwickeln, die sich auf andere Politikfelder ausdehnen. Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich mit dem Beitrag der Mekong River Commission (MRC und der Greater Mekong Sub-Region (GMS zur nachhaltigen Entwicklung in der Mekong Region sowie zur Förderung allgemeiner regionaler Kooperation im Festländischen Südostasien.

  16. Agreement technologies

    Ossowski, Sascha


    More and more transactions, whether in business or related to leisure activities, are mediated automatically by computers and computer networks, and this trend is having a significant impact on the conception and design of new computer applications. The next generation of these applications will be based on software agents to which increasingly complex tasks can be delegated, and which interact with each other in sophisticated ways so as to forge agreements in the interest of their human users. The wide variety of technologies supporting this vision is the subject of this volume. It summarises

  17. Regional Inequalities in Security Research Subjects: women aged 15 and above living in Yasouj City

    Arman Heidari


    Full Text Available IntroductionThe results of many studies on women's security are indicative that women experience various degrees of insecurity in urban zones. These studies, however, are mostly influenced by three dominant and restricting presuppositions. First, "city" is considered as a "whole" in contrast with "village" and the intra-urban diversity is ignored. Secondly, most studies, for the fear of falling into a geographically oriented determinism, tend to neglect or underestimate the effects of the physical environment on security. Thirdly, women are regarded as a homogeneous category in contrast with men, and intra-sexual variations, issues and difficulties of different groups of women are ignored. In other words, previous studies are influenced by the dominant methodological dichotomist logic (urban/rural, women/men, social /environmental, etc.. They have ignored or neglected intra-urban and intra-sexual distinctions as well as the security-related features of physical environment. Material & MethodsIn order to get rid of aforesaid limitations, the present study has investigated the intra-sexual security of 15-year old and older women of Yasouj, residing in two main districts, in regard to social and physical features of their domiciles. District 1, the main part of the city, is socially considered as "uptown", the dwellers of which are mostly white-collar servants or traders earning high incomes. District 2, on the contrary, is more densely populated, and is socially regarded as "downtown", where the majority of population are blue-collar servants, workers and urban margin-dwellers. Researchers, upon assessing the related views (theories of crime experience, social control, ecology and broken windows, studied and compared the security of women dwelling in the two districts, using a survey method including questionnaire.Discussion of Results & ConclusionsAccording to the findings of the research, women's insecurity in district 1 is mostly related to the

  18. Provably Secure Authenticated Key Agreement Protocol Based on Hierarchical Identity%基于层级化身份的可证明安全的认证密钥协商协议

    曹晨磊; 刘明奇; 张茹; 杨义先


    目前基于身份的认证密钥协商协议均以单个私钥生成器(PKG)为可信第三方,但这种系统结构难以满足身份分层注册与认证需求。该文以基于层级化身份的加密(HIBE)系统为基础重构了私钥的组成元素,并利用椭圆曲线乘法循环群上的双线性映射提出一个基于层级化身份的认证密钥协商协议,为隶属于不同层级的云实体提供了安全的会话密钥协商机制。基于CDH(Computational Diffie-Hellman)与GDH(Gap Diffie-Hellman)假设,该文证明了新协议在eCK模型下具有已知密钥安全性、前向安全性和PKG前向安全性,并且能够抵抗基于密钥泄露的伪装攻击。%At present most Identity-based authenticated key agreement protocols are built on the security infrastructure in which a single Private Key Generator (PKG) is contained as the only trusted third party of the whole system, however such kind of infrastructure can not satisfy the requirements of hierarchical identity register and authentication. On the basis of Hierarchical Identity Based Encryption (HIBE) system, this paper reconstructs the private key and proposes a new hierarchical identity based authenticated key agreement protocol using the bilinear map in multiplicative cyclic group and it provides secure session key exchange mechanism for cloud entities on different hierarchical levels. Based on the Computational Diffie-Hellman (CDH) and Gap Diffie-Hellman (GDH) assumptions, this paper proves that the new protocol not only achieves known-key security, forward secrecy and PKG forward secrecy, but also resists key-compromise impersonation attacks in the eCK model.



    Thailand acquired an aircraft carrier from Spain in 2000. $100 million military credit line to Hanoi has been extended by India to Vietnam to build...accessed 03 December 2015). 70 Jim Garamone, “U.S., India Sign 10-Year Defense Framework Agreement,” DOD News, Defense Media Activity, US Department...and achieved his Masters in Defense and Strategic Studies from Defense Services Staff College, India . He has commanded a frontline fighter squadron

  20. Energy security and competition over energy resources in Iran and Caucasus region

    Shahrouz Abolhosseini


    Full Text Available Energy security as a dominant factor in international stability is of great importance for major economies. The global energy market with its current level of supply and demand relies on energy sources in the Middle East, Caucasus, Central Asia and Russia. After the Fukushima disaster nuclear powers in Europe view renewable energy sources as a serious alternative. Europe’s energy vulnerability has deteriorated due to the Russia-Ukraine conflict. However, renewable energy sources are not large enough to replace nuclear power completely. This trend will continue with climbing demand especially in the natural gas sector as clean energy. In this research, Caucasus and Iran are considered the main sources and routes for energy transmission to the global market, including Europe. Caucasus plays a key role in bridging Europe and Asia. Also, Iran is an alternative for energy transmission to Europe after lifted sanctions. As part of the European active supply diversification policy Iran has capacity to reduce Europe’s energy dependency on Russia. However, changes in US new administration America First Policy is harmful for the EUs energy security. Caucasus aims to catch a large share of the European energy market since the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline has started operations and Iran is also trying to expand its market to become a sustainable source of energy for major consumers. Therefore, Iran and Caucasus are considered reliable energy suppliers for Europe. In this regard, we analyze the best motivation for changing the direction new suppliers’ energy policies towards Europe and suggest alternative solutions to compete with rival countries in order to enhance energy security.

  1. Management Innovations as a Condition of Competitive, Sustainable and Secure Development of the Region

    Nikolay Prokofyevich Ivanov


    Full Text Available In the article within the comparative analysis the author reveals the tendencies of functioning of an economic complex in a number of regions of the South of Russia in recent years; describes the potential of modernization of economy of the Stavropol region; substantiates the influence of organizational and administrative innovations on activity and efficiency of using territorial management of institutes of economic development in practice. The author of the present research proves that realization of administrative capacity of bodies of the regional power of the Stavropol region is mainly connected with the development of production sector of the region, as well as with the monitoring and management of regional economy become the basic elements of creating the diversified, effective and competitive environment focused on creation in the region of the industrial complexes which yield the final products. The article emphasizes that organizational and administrative innovations are mostly directed on the activization of the process of regional innovative system formation, the search of more effective forms of interaction with vertically integrated companies (mega-corporations operating on the territory of the region which investment resources need to be involved in the process of modernization and restructuring of a regional economic complex.

  2. CMC Participation in the Regional Centre for Strategic Studies (RCSS) Workshop: Defense, Technology and Cooperative Security in South Asia

    Biringer, K.L.; Olsen, J.


    As an ongoing part of the collaborative efforts between the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories, the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), staff from the CMC served as faculty in conducting a workshop in Shanghai, China. Sponsor of the workshop was the Regional Centre for Strategic Studies (RCSS) based in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The workshop included participants from throughout South Asia and China. The CMC presented four sessions related to the role of monitoring technologies in promoting regional security and building confidence among nations. Participation in these workshops supports U.S. efforts to further regional cooperation and promote arms control, nonproliferation and other cooperative securily measures and supplements efforts funded by DOE and ACDA over the past four years. The RCSS Shanghai meeting permitted a continued CMC involvement in regionally conducted training for anew generation of leaders in government, the military, and academia throughout South Asia and China. Nuclear issues are clearly a dominant South Asian concern since the nuclear tests of May 1998. However, there remains a strong interest in identifying opportunities for increased trade and reduced tensions in other areas. The RCSS and other regional organizations are enthusiastic about continued CMC involvement in future regional courses.

  3. Evaluating the Impact of the Department of Defense Regional Centers for Security Studies


    Government WHA Western Hemisphere Affairs WIF Warsaw Initiative Funds WMDs weapons of mass destruction 1 ChAptER OnE Introduction The five...and WHA = Western Hemisphere Affairs. RAND RR388-3.1 Approved regional and country-specic guidance Regional and country-specic guidanceP o lic y g...Balance Between Core Residential Courses and In-Region Workshops Officials in OSD/PSO and OSD’s Office of Western Hemisphere Affairs (OSD/ WHA

  4. The United States and the Asia-Pacific Region: Security Strategy for the Obama Administration


    popular culture, regional tourism , and sub-regional communications, have created a new atmosphere in which cooperative approaches to a wide range...promotion of good governance, capac- ity building, and advisory assistance if requested by Bangkok to deal with its insurgency along the Thai-Malaysia

  5. Caribbean Regional Security: The Challenges to creating Formal Military Relationships in the English-Speaking Caribbean


    and sovereignty in the region. There are three French departments in the Caribbean region: the islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe and French Guyana...French, British, and Dutch still have dependent territories in the Caribbean. French Guiana, Guadeloupe , and Martinique are French founded largely on agriculture , fisheries, and tourism. The adverse impact of natural disasters (hurricanes, volcanoes, floods, and droughts) on

  6. Environmental security of the coastal seafloor in the sea ports and waterways of the Mediterranean region

    Obhodas, Jasmina, E-mail: jobhodas@irb.h [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka c.54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Valkovic, Vladivoj [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Sudac, Davorin [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka c.54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Matika, Dario [Institute for Researches and Development of Defense Systems, Ilica 256b, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Pavic, Ivica [Ministry of Defense, Croatian Navy, Dubrovacka 49, 21000 Split (Croatia); Kollar, Robert [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)


    The Mediterranean coastal seafloor is littered with man-made objects and materials, including a variety of ammunition in many areas. In addition, sediments in ports, harbors and marinas are contaminated with elevated concentrations of chemicals used as biocides in antifouling paints. In order to reach a satisfactory level of environmental security of the coastal sea areas, fast neutron activation analysis with detection of associated alpha particles and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, both in laboratory and inside an autonomous underwater vehicle for in-situ measurements, has been used for the characterization of the objects on the seafloor. Measurements have shown that gamma ray spectra are able to distinguish threat material from the surrounding material. Analysis of more than 700 coastal sea sediment samples has resulted in concentration distribution maps indicating the locations of 'hot spots', which might interfere with threat material identification.

  7. Visualization of Load Security Region Bounded by Operational Constraints of Power Systems

    Sotdhipong Phichaisawat


    Full Text Available This paper presents the method to visualize a set of feasible loading points, called “feasible region”, in the two-dimensional power flow solution space. The visualization can be done by tracing the boundary of feasible region. The boundary points are determined by optimizing the reduced cost function with operational constraints. The method can also determine several kinds of feasible regions by assigning the appropriate free variables and its criteria. These feasible regions show the robustness of operating points and the limit of control actions. The six-bus test system illustrates the boundary tracing and impacts of system parameters on the shape of feasible region, i.e. the capacitor bank operation, load shedding, generator voltage controls, and load level.

  8. European Security

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  9. European Security

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  10. 数字信息资源区域性保障研究%On the Regional Security of Digital Resources



    介绍数字信息资源保障体系的系统模式和区域模式,对二者的优势与不足进行比较分析,从区域发展、用户需求、资源数字化发展的视角论述数字信息资源区域性保障的必要性,并提出可持续发展策略。%The paper introduces the system and region models in digital resources security system, and makes comparison of advantages and disadvantages between the two models. It analyzes the causes to the regional security of digital resources in views of regional development, user demand and resource digitalization, and proposes strategies to keep sustainable development of the regional security of digital resources.

  11. Assessing food security in water scarce regions by Life Cycle Analysis: a case study in the Gaza strip

    Recanati, Francesca; Castelletti, Andrea; Melià, Paco; Dotelli, Giovanni


    Food security is a major issue in Palestine for both political and physical reasons, with direct effects on the local population living conditions: the nutritional level of people in Gaza is classified by FAO as "insecure". As most of the protein supply comes from irrigated agricultural production and aquaculture, freshwater availability is a limiting factor to food security, and the primary reason for frequent conflicts among food production processes (e.g. aquaculture, land livestock or different types of crops). In this study we use Life Cycle Analysis to assess the environmental impacts associated to all the stages of water-based protein production (from agriculture and aquaculture) in the Gaza strip under different agricultural scenarios and hydroclimatic variability. As reported in several recent studies, LCA seems to be an appropriate methodology to analyze agricultural systems and assess associated food security in different socio-economic contexts. However, we argue that the inherently linear and static nature of LCA might prove inadequate to tackle with the complex interaction between water cycle variability and the food production system in water-scarce regions of underdeveloped countries. Lack of sufficient and reliable data to characterize the water cycle is a further source of uncertainty affecting the robustness of the analysis. We investigate pros and cons of LCA and LCA-based option planning in an average size farm in Gaza strip, where farming and aquaculture are family-based and integrated by reuse of fish breeding water for irrigation. Different technological solutions (drip irrigation system, greenhouses etc.) are evaluated to improve protein supply and reduce the pressure on freshwater, particularly during droughts. But this use of technology represent also a contribution in increasing sustainability in agricultural processes, and therefore in economy, of Gaza Strip (reduction in chemical fertilizers and pesticides etc.).

  12. Regional growth and energy supply: Is there an energy security issue?

    Roop, J.M.; Freund, K.A.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Johnson, A.K.; Paananen, O.H.; Woodruff, M.G.


    This study examines how the growth of the developing world might affect energy markets in the future. Based on recent growth trends, world energy demand could reasonably be expected to grow from about 350 Exajoules (EJ: 1.0E18=0.95 Quad) to nearly 1025 EJ by the year 2020, nearly 3x current consumption estimates. Introduction of more energy-efficient technologies could reduce this growth by about 17% to 830 EJ. But one cannot rely exclusively on current trends to forecast future energy demand. The growth of the developing world will interact with supply to affect prices, which in turn will mitigate the growth of demand, and growth rates of energy use will be much more modes. Under the Business as Usual scenario, energy demand will grow to 835 EJ by 2020, and this could be reduced a further 15% to 714 EJ through the adoption of more energy efficient technologies. Fuel prices based on model results are analyzed. Energy security implications of rapid growth in the developing world are considered and found to be of likely little significance.

  13. Hunting at the Abun Regional Marine Protected Areas: A Link Between Wildmeat and Food Security



    Full Text Available Native Papuans are relied on hunting for subsistence purposes and significantly contributed to traditional cultures. However, in Papua information on hunting is limited and largely restricted to anthropological setting with most observations were done on the forest sites in lowland and highland landscapes. This study focuses on the contribution of hunting on food security along the coastal forests at the Bird’s Head Peninsula. Do people live near coastal sites mostly rely on marine resources as protein source? We gathered data on hunting by the majority of Karon ethnic group in the Abun district of Tambrauw Regency at the Bird’s Head Peninsula of Papua, Indonesia. We used information from in-depth interviews with hunters and households meal survey at four villages of Abun: Waibem, Wau, Warmandi and Saubeba. Reasons for hunting were varies among respondents but mostly conducted for trade. Six species of mammals and three birds were commonly hunted by using six different hunting techniques. Wild pig and rusa deer were the major targets in hunting to meet the demand of meat for both trading and household consumption. Meals containing wildmeat was the most consumed meal, greater than meals containing fish, animal products and vegetables, and noodles.

  14. Meteorological tools in support to the railway security system on the Calabria region

    Laviola, Sante; Gabriele, Salvatore; Iovine, Giulio; Baldini, Luca; Chiravalloti, Francesco; Federico, Stefano; Miglietta, Marcello Mario; Milani, Lisa; Procopio, Antonio; Roberto, Nicoletta; Tiesi, Alessandro; Agostino, Mario; Niccoli, Raffaele; Stassi, Sergio; Rago, Valeria


    RAMSES (RAilway Meteorological SEcurity System) is a pilot project co-funded by the Italian Railway Company - RFI S.p.A. and conceived for the mitigation of the hydrological risk along the Calabria railways. RAMSES aims at improving the forecast of very short life-cycle convection systems, responsible of intense and localized rainfalls affecting small catchment areas, which are often underestimated by the numerical weather models and even non-adequately detected by the network of sparse raingauges. The RAMSES operational design is based on a synergistic and integrated architecture, providing a series of information able to identify the most active convective cells and monitoring their evolution in terms of vertical structure, rain intensity and geo-hydrological effects at ground (debris flow, landslides, collapses of bridges, erosion of the ballast). The RAMSES meteorological component is designed to identify and track the short-term evolution (15-60 min) of convective cells, by means of imaging techniques based on dual-polarization weather radar and Meteosat data. In support of this quasi-real time analysis, the numerical model WRF provides the weather forecast at 3-6 hours range by ingesting, through the assimilation system LAPS, the observational data (rain gauges, ground weather stations, radar, satellites) in order to improve the initial condition. Finally, the hydraulic flow modeling is used to assess the ground effects in terms of landslide susceptibility, rainfall-runoff intensity, debris impact on the drainage network and evaluate of risk along the railway track.

  15. [Environmental security in the region with heavy exposure to sources of man-made earthquakes].

    Kharlamova, E V; Shmandiĭ, V M; Gal'chuk, S V


    It is set that in separate regions substantial value at the study of terms of forming of ecological danger it is necessary to spare to research of vibrations of earth surface under effect of technogenic activity of man. Influence of technogenic earthquakes is investigational on a man and dwellings apartments medical and other establishments. Levels are set also intensities resulting in psychological discomfort.

  16. Development of Beet Sugar Production in Ryazan Region in the Context of Ensuring Food Security

    Mansurov Ruslan Evgenyevich


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research on the current state of the beet sugar subcomplex of Ryazan region in the context of the need of improving its efficiency. The study let the author determine that currently the beet sugar subcomplex of Ryazan region does not ensure domestic demand in sand sugar. However, there are reserves of providing more efficient use of soil and climate capacity as well as the productivity potential of the region. When applying the technology of field beet piling, the period of sugar production at sugar factories may be extended up to 200 days. At this, up to 51 thousand tons of sand sugar can be produced. This amount will completely cover the annual demand for sugar in Ryazan region. In order to further study the feasibility of this approach, zoning was carried out and let allocate the zones of beet seeding. As a result, it was determined that a number of areas are far removed from the place of treatment, and in terms of transportation costs minimization the sugar beet cultivation in these areas is not rational. As an alternative, the author proposes to consider the possibility of building a new sugar factory in Ryazhsky district with the processing capacity of 1,000 tons of sugar beet per day. Taking this into account, the recommended acreage of sugar beet by districts and zones of raw material supply were obtained through corresponding calculations.


    Ramakant Trivedi


    Full Text Available Abstract: The article explores the roots and current state of religious extremism in Central Asia, as well as investigates its connections with the global salafi movement. It evaluates attempts of the regional players and external stakeholders to address the existing threats, and provides recommendations for their advancement.

  18. Regional Threats and Security Strategy: The Troubling Case of Today’s Middle East


    entire region now sits precariously wedged just inside the entrance staring into the inferno . Indeed, the entire world is feeling the heat. From...steady stream of recruits ready to throw themselves and their innocent victims into the flames of hell’s inferno . The suicide bombers of Iraq have

  19. Economic separatism in the European Union member states as a factor of regional security

    A A Shakhina


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the examination of the economic separatism problem in the European Union member states. It considers specific of the regional separatist movements as exemplified by the conflicts in Scotland, Catalonia, Bavaria, Flanders. Various points of view on the relevance of the budgetary separatism for the European integration process are given in the article.

  20. Self-Propelled Semi-Submersibles: The Next Great Threat to Regional Security and Stability


    Figure 8. Narco-Torpedo shell used to transit cocaine into Mexico and Central America (Image available from Covert Shores Naval Warfare Blog: Open...Source Intelligence) .........................................................................................43 Figure 9. Narco-Torpedo shell captured...terrorist groups. The insurgent group Sendero Luminoso ―had penetrated the Upper Huallaga region of Peru, forging a monopoly of alliances with cocoa

  1. Results of a project on development of agro-forestry systems for food security in Carrefour region, Republic of Haiti

    Furio Massolino


    Full Text Available Haity has a notable problem of food security, 48% of people have not sufficient food availability, food prices has doubled from 1980 and 1990 and further increased 5 times between 1991 and 2000. Water availability and quality is another problems to be added to food insufficiency. Food deficiency is mitigated by natural food resources in rural areas where many different species are cultivated together but it can be extreme in the towns. Agricultural systems are not efficient and, at the same time, enhance soil and genetic erosion. A development project has been implemented to increase food security over the long term in the geographical area of Carrefour rural area, this comprises a research aimed to increase national food production introducing complex agro-forestry systems. The project has investigated problems and solutions, actions have been started to increase food production, including agronomic training of local farmers, organization of small farmers including legal protection on land tenure, introduction of low input modern agroforestry systems that can diversify food production through the year and reduce soil and genetic erosion. After these results, an intervention project has been approved and funded by EU, then delayed due to the recent civil war, finally it is giving positive results now. The same approach used for this project can be spread in the rest of the Republic of Haiti and, hopefully, to other world regions that have similar problems.

  2. Examine How Botswana Defense Force in Concurrence with Other Instruments of National Power, Promote Botwana’s National Interests in a Multifarious International Security Environment Regionally


    development and employment of military power will be fundamentally flawed. In a concise agreement with this viewpoint, Arthur F. Lykke, Jr. succinctly...our national security may be in danger.”117 The elements as 116 Drew and Snow, 20. 117 Arthur F...policymakers care about developing the NSS? Daniel J. Kaufman, David S. Clark , and Kevin P. Sheehan, in Dilday’s work, argue that it is important for

  3. Regional, national and international security requirements for the transport of nuclear cargo by sea

    Booker, P.A.; Barnwell, I. [Marine Operations, BNFL International Transport and British Nuclear Group Security (United Kingdom)


    Since the beginning of the nuclear age in the 1940's, the world has focused on the immense possibilities of nuclear power with both its destructive and productive capabilities. The civil nuclear industry in the UK, as in most nuclear weapons states, grew from the military facilities built in the post war years under the political climate of the Cold War. In the early years of the industry, civil and defence nuclear facilities were inextricably linked both in public perceptions and the regulatory infrastructure under which they operated. The nuclear arms race and the spread of communism overshadowed people's perceptions of there being two separate uses of nuclear material. This was a double edged sword which initially allowed the industry to develop largely unhindered by public concerns but latterly meant the industry could not break away from its roots and to many is still perceived as a dangerous and destructive force. Regulatory frameworks governing all aspects of the industry have developed both nationally and internationally driven by valid public concerns, political agendas and an international consensus that the unregulated use of nuclear material has catastrophic possibilities on an international scale. With the internationalisation of the civil nuclear industry and the costs associated with developing facilities to fully support each stage of the fuel cycle, from enrichment, fuel manufacturing, reprocessing and waste remediation, it became inevitable that a transport infrastructure would develop to make best use of the facilities. Regulations, both national and international are implicit in ensuring the security of nuclear material in transit. Due to the physical size of many of the irradiated fuel packages and implications of the changes to transport safety regulations, international transports of nuclear material, other than within mainland Europe, is predominantly carried out by sea.

  4. A novel optimization method of transient stability emergency control based on practical dynamic security region (PDSR) of power systems

    YU; Yixin; LIU; Hui; ZENG; Yuan


    This paper proposes a novel optimization method of transient stability emergency control based on a new concept of the so-called extended practical dynamic security region (EPDSR) defined in this paper and four experiential laws about the EPDSRs found from a number of studies in real power systems. In this method, the effect of a control action is represented by the displacement of EPDSR's critical hyper-plane boundary in the direction of its outer normal vector. If an unstable contingency occurs, appropriate emergency control actions are triggered so that the enlarged EPDSR can cover the current operating point. Based on these ideas, a mathematics model of emergency control strategy is developed for minimizing its total cost and guaranteeing power system transient stability. The simulation results on the 10-generator, 39-bus New-England Test System as well as other real power systems have shown the validity of this method.

  5. The African Standby Force and Regional Security Integration on the Horn of Africa

    Mandrup, Thomas


    African Standby Force is one of five regional structures that are intended to provide robust tools to the continental conflict management regime. In the book The Future of African Peace Operations from 2016, de Coning et al. shows the changing nature and role of African Peace Operations (Coning , Gelot......, & Karlsrud, 2016). They also ask the key question about the future of the African Standby Force, and end by asking an open and important question: how should the future force be structured and equipped to enable it to deal effectively with the hybrid threats that confront African states, which have...... announced that they expected the five regionally based standby brigades to be fully operational by December 2015. Their readiness was tested in the continental field exercise, Amani Africa II, that took place in South Africa in October-November 2015 (Defence Web, 2015) The exercise successfully tested both...

  6. Security Cooperation: Contributions Toward National and Regional Stability in the Balkans


    existence. The Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes included the former kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro (including Serbian-held Macedonia ...which cut across traditional boundaries of the different ethnic regions.48 Yugoslavia was occupied by the Germans during World War II. a federation of six nominally equal republics: Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia . In Serbia the two

  7. U.S.-China Partnership: Building Regional Synergy for Stability and Security of the Korean Peninsula


    success. Based on geographic, historic, socio-economic and cultural affinity , regional organizations, in some cases, may serve as a better forum to...Anniversary Summit in 2007, the 10 full ASEAN Members (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia , Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam...Charter,” (2011), Public Affairs Office, Indonesia ,, (accessed November 18, 2012). 72 plus three




    It stands to reason that at the early stage of independence the five republics in the Central Asian region-Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan-previously closely linked to the Soviet economic and political systems, faced a number of challenges, most of which were inherited from the Czarist-Soviet regimes. Coping with the challenges posed by the transition period required foreign support, and all the republics, except Turkmenistan, have been engaged in active coope...

  9. Regional Security Cooperation in the Maghreb and Sahel: Algeria’s Pivotal Ambivalence


    Tuaregs , both in Mali and Niger, as part of Algerian efforts to counter Libyan domination of the Sahara. Algeria later served as a mediator in the peace...length of Algeria through to marginalized northern Mali and the Tuareg regions. However, work on the highway stopped at Tamanrasset in 1978 rather... Algeria faces inverse incentives to combat AQIM outside of Algiers as it gains much of its geostrategic leverage by maintaining overstated

  10. Geo-Regional Security and Transformation After the Balkan's Wars and Kosova Independence

    Dr.Sc. Gjon Boriqi


    Full Text Available During the '90-ies the wars in the former territories of what was called Yugoslavia marked the end of a century plenty of wars and local armed conflicts. More than 140 million people died because of wars in the XX century. The war of Kosova was the last one in that century. The beginning of the XXI century stressed the necessity for a new way of thinking nationally, regionally and globally. The Balkans were often considered as a gun powder territory. All the Balkans states, someone more and someone less, have problems with each other. History was and remained very passionate within the Balkan countries. The case of Kosova is possibly the most sensitive in all this framework. After the proclamation of independence on February 17 2008, the concerns were high within the region and a new question was questioned: would the map of the Balkan peninsula change again to form another "Kosovo"? This article would give some details about the geopolitical situation in the Balkans focusing on Kosova and would try to establish e new way of making politics and diplomacy though deterrence and not offence. We will try to overpass history but without neglecting it, but by learning from its mistakes in order to bring a better Peace-Building aspect for the Balkan region.

  11. 基于DPSIR模型的区域水安全评价研究%Study on regional water security assessment based on DPSIR model

    向红梅; 金腊华


    为了对区域水安全状况进行有效评价,采用"驱动力-压力-状态-影响-响应"模型,选取27项指标,构建区域水安全评价指标体系,通过层次分析法与熵值法确定评价指标在满足主客观条件下的组合权重,运用综合指数法模型,对2004-2008年广东省水安全状况进行了动态评价.结果表明,广东省水安全水平逐年提高,但总体水平不高,处于警戒状态,存在较大的不安全隐患.虽然响应指标在水安全方面起重要的作用,使系统存在的状态都处于上升的趋势,但系统驱动力、压力强度仍然较大,说明广东省水安全水平的提高很大程度上是依赖对环境的治理和投入.%This paper is aimed to introduce the application of the author's DPSIR model for regional water security assessment. Regional water security always includes various hazards resulting from the social and economic development, such as water shortage, pollution and flood etc. The scholars from home and abroad have carried out researches in different aspects, but the research of water quantification and assessment is still inadequate. Analyzing the components of regional water security on the basis of historical research findings and the related literature, this article has established a regional water security assessment system by using DPSIR model. This system includes five subsystems ( Driving Forces-Pressure-State-lmpact-Response ),three levels and 27 indicators. All the indexes are divided into two categories and also each category has its own calculation method. On the basis of the regional water security assessment index systems, the weight of indicators is confirmed by the method of Analytic Hierarchy Process and Entropy via calculating the comprehensive weight with the respect of considering the objective and subjective conditions. The composite index method is introduced to assess the comprehensive indicator system which is classified into five grades. The water

  12. 75 FR 54352 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Free Trade Agreements


    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Free Trade Agreements... Agreements. OMB Number: 1651-0117. Form Number: None. Abstract: Free trade agreements are established to... further cooperation to expand and enhance benefits of the agreement. Free trade agreements establish free...

  13. India Should Develop Its Naval Power in View of Growing Potential Security Concerns Connected to China’s Non-Transparent Intentions in the Indian Ocean Region


    INDIAN OCEAN REGION A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the...its naval power in view of growing potential security concerns connected to China’s non-transparent intentions in the Indian Ocean Region 5a...across the Indian Ocean is central to interests of India and China. Hence, both have increased their regional presence using diplomatic, economic, and

  14. Quinoa for Marginal Environments: Toward Future Food and Nutritional Security in MENA and Central Asia Regions

    Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Rao, Nanduri K.; Hirich, Abdelaziz; Shahid, Mohammad; Alshankiti, Abdullah; Toderich, Kristina; Gill, Shagufta; Butt, Khalil Ur Rahman


    Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a mean to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries. PMID:27066019

  15. Quinoa for marginal environments: Towards future food and nutritional security in MENA and Central Asia regions

    Redouane eChoukr-allah


    Full Text Available Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a means to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries.

  16. Triple Helix Model as an Efficient Mechanism of Food Security Provision in Regional Economic Entities and the Economic System as a Whole

    Mihail N. Dudin


    Full Text Available The leading countries of the world consider food security the important condition of internal political and social-economic stability of the state and its external independence. The topic of the article is crucial due to the fact that the problem of food security is rather complicated and multilevel and should be considered at different interrelated hierarchical levels. In this context the efficient model of food security is the result of the permanent dialogue between the representatives of the state government, business entities, social organizations and scientific institutions. The article justifies the fact that the model of innovation development, known as ‘the triple helix model’ should be applied at the modern stage of economic development as an efficient tool for the food security provision, which can be implemented in the activity of regional economic entities and the whole economic system of the Russian Federation.

  17. 我国区域粮食安全演变:1949-2008%EVOLUTION OF CH1NA'S REGIONAL FOOD SECURITY: 1949-2008



    利用人均粮食占有量衡量1949-2008年我国不同区域粮食安全状况,结论表明:①我国粮食安全状况趋于好转,但整体安全水平仍然偏低;②主产区粮食安全状况整体趋于明显好转,非主产区粮食安全状况整体变化不明显;③东部粮食安全状况先变好,然后再变差,中部粮食安全状况整体趋于明显好转,西部粮食安全状况先变好,然后再变差;④我国省级层面粮食安全状况整体趋于好转.%Assessing China's regional food security from 1949 to 2008 by using food occupation per capita, this paper shows that ① China's food security is turning for the better, though overall security level is still relatively low; ② food security in major grain production regions is obviously turning for the better, however food security in non-major grain production regions stays stable; ③ food security in eastern and western China turned for the better, then for the worse, whereas in central China turned for the better as a whole; ④ food security at provincial-level turned for the better.

  18. Water Security, Climate Forcings and Public Health Impacts in Emerging Regions

    Serman, E. A.; Akanda, A. S.; Craver, V.; Boving, T. B.


    Our world is rapidly urbanizing, with more than 80% of world's population is expected to be living in a city by the end of the century. A majority of these nations are rapidly urbanizing due to massive rural-to-urban migratory trends, with rapid development of unplanned urban settlements, or slums, with lack of adequate water or sanitation facilities and other municipal amenities. With global environmental change, natural disasters will expose millions more to drought, floods, and disease epidemics, and existing vulnerabilities will worsen. At the same time, rapid urbanization and fast changing land-use leads to widespread damage of infrastructure by stormwater, especially in lowlands and economically poor areas. The factor that consistently stands out among different cities from both the developed and the developing worlds is that the slums are typically the most vulnerable to water related natural hazards and climatic threats, such as water scarcity and quality issues in drought conditions, or water and sanitation breakdown and stormwater contamination problems. Onsite or decentralized water, wastewater and stormwater treatment as well as point-of-use water treatment options can be an economic, safe, and reliable alternative to conventional large-scale treatment especially, in urban fringes as well as rural areas. These systems can be designed to fit communities in terms of their economic, cultural, environmental, and demographic resources. As part of this study, we develop a database of urban water quality and quantity indices such as with urban land-use, water usage, climate, and socio-economic characteristics in various emerging regions in the world. We analyze past and current data to identify and quantify long-term trends and the impacts of large-scale climatic and anthropogenic changes on urban hydrology and health impacts. We specifically focus on five major cities from distinct groups of countries and geographies: Providence, RI, USA from the developed

  19. Shared Compromise -- Future US-Mexican Border Security Initiatives


    and Canada had better get with it and recognize U.S. security priorities if they wished their burgeoning trade, especially after NAFTA , to continue...improve regional economic performance. Following the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ), to eliminate barriers to trade and...investment between the U.S., Canada , and Mexico, the United States and Mexico were on a path to balance trade and security. For example, from 1996




    Full Text Available One of the most important conditions for the security system in the Mediterranean at the period 20 ‒ beginning of the 21-st centuries it was an ensuring the economic stability for all of states in the region. There was a significant imbalance in the development of the countries of sub-region. Because of this reason the main instrument, which ensured the achievement of this condition, there were multilateral cooperation in the field of trade and the building of energy-dialogue. Traditionally energy shortages in the EU-countries and, on the contrary, the availability of energy resources on the territory of nonEuropean countries of the Mediterranean basin determined the nature and forms of relationships between participants of political processes in the region. Modern development processes addressing energy security in the region and the necessity to build a model of the global energy balance is largely determined by the factors and parameters that were incorporated as a part of the studied historical period. The desire of some states to a monopoly in economic and political components of the regional policy was due primarily to the requirement for internal control in the sphere of production and distribution of energy resources. Thus, the resource component, namely the energy aspect, directly determined the parameters of the model of regional security system, in general. 

  1. Development of transport mechanical engineering as the condition of maintenance of social and economic security of region

    Vsevolod Petrovich Babushkin


    Full Text Available In the article, the transport role in the decision of problems of innovative and scientifically-technological development of territory is defined. Dependence of quality, completeness and timeliness of granting of transport services on replenishment and updating of park of locomotives, cars, i.e. from a level of development of domestic transport mechanical engineering is shown. The basic problems of development given branches –low competitiveness of made production are revealed. The basic accent in the course of such analysis is made on research of competitive possibilities of the enterprises of railway mechanical engineering of Sverdlovsk area. Such enterprises play the increasing role, become points of development of region’s economy and maintenance of its social and economic safety. The cooperation communications, which have developed in an industrial complex of Sverdlovsk area on the basis of development of modern manufacture on building of electric locomotives, have allowed to generate in region cluster railway mechanical engineering. The structure cluster is shown, development prospects, the estimation of its influence on the economy of Sverdlovsk area and maintenance of its social and economic security is given

  2. Issues and Challenges Facing Rice Production and Food Security in the Granary Areas in the East Coast Economic Region (ECER), Malaysia

    Chamhuri Siwar; Nor Diana Mohd Idris; Muhammad Yasar; Golam Morshed


    This study is an effort to explore and investigate the issues and challenging are facing rice production and food security in Malaysia. It is also to identify the contribution of the granary areas in East Coast Economic Region (ECER) to the national food security. The important of rice as a staple food crop of Malaysia and is grown on 673,745 ha of land, producing annually 2.6 million tons of paddy grain valued at RM 2 billion, which is contribute with average growth rate of 3.7% of year, in ...

  3. Climate-derived tensions in Arctic security.

    Backus, George A.; Strickland, James Hassler


    Globally, there is no lack of security threats. Many of them demand priority engagement and there can never be adequate resources to address all threats. In this context, climate is just another aspect of global security and the Arctic just another region. In light of physical and budgetary constraints, new security needs must be integrated and prioritized with existing ones. This discussion approaches the security impacts of climate from that perspective, starting with the broad security picture and establishing how climate may affect it. This method provides a different view from one that starts with climate and projects it, in isolation, as the source of a hypothetical security burden. That said, the Arctic does appear to present high-priority security challenges. Uncertainty in the timing of an ice-free Arctic affects how quickly it will become a security priority. Uncertainty in the emergent extreme and variable weather conditions will determine the difficulty (cost) of maintaining adequate security (order) in the area. The resolution of sovereignty boundaries affects the ability to enforce security measures, and the U.S. will most probably need a military presence to back-up negotiated sovereignty agreements. Without additional global warming, technology already allows the Arctic to become a strategic link in the global supply chain, possibly with northern Russia as its main hub. Additionally, the multinational corporations reaping the economic bounty may affect security tensions more than nation-states themselves. Countries will depend ever more heavily on the global supply chains. China has particular needs to protect its trade flows. In matters of security, nation-state and multinational-corporate interests will become heavily intertwined.

  4. Transpacific Partnership (TPP Agreement. Is the commercial solution for political-military tension at the region? or Is an american strategy to diminish China influence in Asia?

    Eduardo Ramírez Zamudio


    several subjects, but they are members of one of the wealthiest regions in the world: Asia-Pacific and both of them attend the Asia- Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum (APEC, which main goal is to establish a Free Trade Area for the 21 member economies by 2020. Unfortunately, Apec’s goal has been delayed by the lack of consensus among its members. Since 2011, the United States and other Apec Apec’s members have openly supported The Transpacific Partnership Agreement (TPP, which could be a brilliant strategy to boost the members’ economic growth through their commercial linkage in Asia-Pacific. However, the fact that China has not been invited by the U.S. to TPP poses the question of whether this strategy has intentions beyond its economic interests and seeks to diminish China’s economic political influence in Asia. If the American administration intends to exclude China from this ambitious economic integration, the Tpp’s potential will never be reached.

  5. Arctic Security

    Wang, Nils


    of the general security situation and to identify both the explicit and the implicit agendas of the primary state actors. The region contains all the ingredients for confrontation and conflict but the economical potential for all the parties concerned creates a general interest in dialogue and cooperation...

  6. After Indonesia’s Ratification: The ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution and Its Effectiveness As a Regional Environmental Governance Tool

    Daniel Heilmann


    On 20 January 2015 Indonesia deposited its instrument of ratification for the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution with the ASEAN Secretariat, becoming the last ASEAN member state to join the treaty. Haze pollution poses a serious health threat to the people of Indonesia, Singapore and Malaysia, and for decades haze pollution has been a highly contentious issue among ASEAN member states. This article argues that Indonesia's ratification will not be an immediate game changer. The me...

  7. Securing health through food systems: an initiative of the nutrition consortium of the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan and Asia Pacific regional partners as a network.

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Kuo, Ken N


    There are growing concerns about the health impacts of climate change with ecosystem degradation and global warming, finite reserves of non-renewable energy, water shortages in food-producing regions, limits to contemporary agriculture with its dependence on exhaustible petrochemical nitrogen and rock phosphate fertilizers, and failure of the global financial system. To date, health security has meant attention to safe environments especially water, sanitation and waste disposal; and access to health care and its affordability. Its dependency on food security (safety, sufficiency, sustainability, and satisfaction which requires diversity and quality) has been under-estimated because the current and imminent risks have increased and extended to more populations, because these may be less tractable and because the nature, extent and dynamics of nutritionally-related health are better appreciated. As a step towards more collaborative food and health systems, the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan has created an interdisciplinary Nutrition Consortium (NC) with research and policy agendas. The NC held a food in Health Security (FIHS) in the Asia Pacific region roundtable in conjunction with the World Vegetable Center based in Tainan, supported by the National Science Council and Academia Sinica in Taiwan and the Australian Academies of Science and of Science Technology and Engineering, August 2-5th 2009 in Taiwan. A FIHS Network is being established to further the initiative. It should form part of the broader Human Security agenda.

  8. Enabling Others to Win in a Complex World: Maximizing Security Force Assistance Potential in the Regionally Aligned Brigade Combat Team


    to also act as a “ think factory” for commanders and civilian leaders at the strategic level worldwide and routinely engage in discourse and policy formulation. iii v Strategic Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press ENABLING OTHERS TO WIN IN A COMPLEX WORLD: MAXIMIZING...while also getting the best soldiers suited for advisor duty into those roles. 1 ENABLING OTHERS TO WIN IN A COMPLEX WORLD: MAXIMIZING SECURITY

  9. Proceedings of Regional Asia Pacific Defence Environmental Workshop Held in Darwin, Australia on 11-14 May 1998 (Environmental Security Series Number 5)


    confront the threat to its own fishing industry as illegal fishing vessels poach stocks of the Patagonian Toothfish from the waters surrounding...Adelaide River has 30 000 hectares Found now in Thailand, Costa Rica , Zambia, South Africa and Florida. Other specimen plants which went on to...sustainability of these resources and the region’s economies. Illegal fishing is a challenge to regional stability and security. Coastal and marine pollution



    In 1999, Seo and Sweeney proposed a simple authenticated key agreement protocol that was designed to act as a Diffie-Hellman key agreement protocol with user authentication.Various attacks on this protocol are described and enhanced in the literature. Recently, Ku and Wang proposed an improved authenticated key agreement protocol, where they asserted the protocol could withstand the existing attacks. This paper shows that Ku and Wang's protocol is still vulnerable to the modification attack and presents an improved authenticated key agreement protocol to enhance the security of Ku and Wang's protocol. The protocol has more efficient performance by replacing exponentiation operations with message authentication code operations.

  11. Dynamic model of minimax control over economic security state of the region in the presence of risks

    Andrey Fedorovich Shorikov


    Full Text Available Investigation and solution of management of economic security state in the region (MESSR requires development of a dynamic economic-mathematical model that takes into account the presence of control actions, uncontrolled parameters (risk modeling errors, etc. and availability of information deficit. At the same time, the existing approaches to solving such problems are based primarily on static models and the use of stochastic modeling of the device, which is required for the application of knowledge of the probability characteristics of the main model parameters and special conditions for the realization of the process. We should note that to use the apparatus of stochastic modeling, very strict conditions are required, which in practice are usually not feasible in advance In this paper, we propose to use a deterministic approach for modeling and solving the original problem in the form of a dynamic programming problem of minimax control (optimization of a guaranteed result MESSR at the determined point of time, taking into account the availability of risks of deterministic and stochastic nature (combined risks model. At thesametime, under therisks in thesocial and economic system we understand thefactors that negatively catastrophically affect the results of the reviewed processes inside it. For an effective use, a technique of prediction and assessment of time rows and stochastic risks in MESSR optimization process is presented, which can serve as a basis for the development of appropriate computer software. To solve the problem of program minimax control MESSR in the presence of risks, we propose a method which is reduced to the realization of a finite number of solutions of linear and convex mathematical programming and discrete optimization problem. The proposed method makes it possible to develop efficient numerical procedures to implement computer simulation of the dynamics of the problem, build program minimax control and gain optimal

  12. Food for Work Program and its Implications on Food Security: A Critical Review with a Practical Example from the Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    Ashenafi Gedamu


    Full Text Available A systematic evaluation of food-for-work (FFW programs in Ethiopia is seriously lacking. Most of the few available reports indicate that these programs have reached very few achievements in terms of food security and reduction of poverty at large. As expressed by Holden et al. (2005, FFW programs are commonly aimed to produce or maintain potentially valuable public goods necessary to stimulate productivity and thus income growth. Natural resources management, like rural road construction, erosion control and afforestation of degraded lands can be mentioned as valuable measures which could stimulate productivity and agricultural growth. The poverty reduction and food security impact of food or cash for work activities are larger if they offer not only seasonal job opportunities to the rural community but also long term employment possibilities. This is more likely if the projects are regionally dispersed and combined with basic education. In the Ethiopian context, it was always questionable if the continuous boom in food aid (regardless of cash or food for work purposes was the solution for the long standing food insecurity and poverty crises in the country. The study discusses the efficiency of FFW programs that aimed to reduce rural poverty and ensure food security on the one hand, and the impact of the food aid on resource and time allocation of the participating households for own food production on the other. The study is based on a field research conducted at a FFW program project, in the Amhara region, Ethiopia run by the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ with the view of improving food security in the Amhara region, Ethiopia. A household theoretical model is used to analyze the sample data, whether FFW program may indeed reduce household food insecurity and/or has some crowding-out effects on labour allocation of participating households for own field production.


    Alexander Ponomarev


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the legal model of mediation agreements in Russian and international legislation. The authors consider the main provisions of the mediation agreements in civil matters, in particular, is defined by such features of the legal model as the requirements for this type of agreements. In addition, the article discusses the problematic issues of implementation of mediation agreements.

  14. A Decade of Experience: Which Network Structures Maximize Fire Service Capacity for Homeland Security Incidents in Metropolitan Regions?


    and a related abstract titled “Distributed preparedness: the spatial logic of domestic security in the United States” (Collier & Lakoff , 2008...hurricanes, earthquakes, and floods. The result of this evolution created a new field of expertise called “emergency management” (Collier & Lakoff , 2008...Collier and Lakoff examined two dimensions of distributed preparedness— emergency federalism and vulnerability mapping—to assess their

  15. 77 FR 25488 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Federally Integrated Communications System


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Federally Integrated Communications... Coast Guard is announcing its intent to enter into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement... Register (73 FR 3316). Cooperative Research and Development Agreements Cooperative Research and...

  16. Homeland Security

    Provides an overview of EPA's homeland security roles and responsibilities, and links to specific homeland security issues: water security, research, emergency response, recovery, and waste management.

  17. Analysis of Water Resources Supply and Demand and Security of Water Resources Development in Irrigation Regions of the Middle Reaches of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    JI Xi-bin; KANG Er-si; CHEN Ren-sheng; ZHAO Wen-zhi; XIAO Sheng-chun; JIN Bo-wen


    Based on the data for meteorology, hydrology, soil, planting, vegetation, and socio-economic development of the irrigation region in the middle reaches of the Heihe River basin, Northwest China, the model of balance of water supply and demand in the region was established, and the security of water resource was assessed, from which the results that the effects of unified management of water resources in the Heihe River basin between Gansu Province and Inner Mongolia on regional hydrology are significant with a decrease in water supply diverted from Heihe River and an increase in groundwater extracted. In addition, it was found that the groundwater level has been steadily decreasing due to over pumping and decrease in recharges. In present year (2003), the volume of potential groundwater in the irrigation districts is far small because of the groundwater overdraft; even in the particular regions, there is no availability of groundwater resources for use. By 2003, water supply is not sufficient to meet the water demand in the different irrigation districts, the sustainable development and utilization of water resources are not secured, and the water supply crisis occurs in Pingchuan irrigation district. Achieving water security for the sustainable development of society, agriculture, economy, industry, and livelihoods while maintaining or improving the abilities of the management and planning of water resources, determining of the reasonable percentage between water supply and groundwater utilization and water saving in agricultural irrigation are taken into account. If this does not occur, it is feared that the present performance of water development and planning may further aggravate the problem of scarcities of water resources and further damage the fragile ecological system.

  18. Improved Authenticated Multi-Key Agreement Protocol

    ZHANG Hua; YUAN Zheng; WEN Qiaoyan


    Zhou et al give an attack on Harn's modified authenticated multi-key agreement protocol, and give a protocol that can prevent the unknown key-share attack. The paper points out that the protocol is vulnerable to a concatenation attack. This paper proposes an improved authenticated multi-key agreement protocol which shows how to make Harn's protocol more secure by modifying the signature and verification. And this protocol can escape the concatenation attack.


    Olga Nikolaevna Uglitskikh


    Full Text Available The developed economic-political situation around of Russia, specifies an indispensability of support of agricultural commodity producers as from their financial well-being, investment activity the financial security of agrarian and industrial complex of the state depends. Limitation of own financial resources at agrarians does not allow them to realize independently conceived projects. Studying of questions of formation and functioning of investment activity in agriculture of Stavropol Territory and an assessment of investment projects offered to reali-zation, have allowed to analyse investment activity of agrarian and industrial complex of region up to the introduction of Russia into WTO and in conditions of its membership. By results of the lead assessment the administrative areas of region showing the greatest investment activity, threats of a financial security of agrarian and industrial complex of region not putting by the activity have been revealed. It is drawn a conclusion on influence West-American sanctions on financial without-danger agra-rian and industrial complex of the state and the responsibility сельхозтоваропроизводителей about delivery of agricultural production in necessary volume and import substitution.

  20. Environment and security in the South China Sea region : the role of experts, non-governmental actors and governments in regime building processes


    Background: The Spratly islands in the South China Sea are today the focal point of a territorial dispute that represents a serious threat to the regional security in Southeast Asia. Six governments - China, Vietnam, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia and Brunei - have laid claims to all or some of the more than 230 islets, reefs and shoals in the Spratly area. The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is a key player in the South China Sea conflict. However, the South China Sea is not jus...

  1. Agreement in Bloomfield.

    Langendoen, D. Terence; McDaniel, Dana S.

    A discussion of Leonard Bloomfield's theory on grammatical agreement examines agreement within Bloomfield's overall scheme of syntactic analysis and relates it to current work in syntax. Bloomfield's three types of agreement (concord, government, and cross-reference) are outlined and compared to the contemporary distinction between pro-drop and…

  2. Security Policy and Developments in Central Asia : Security Documents Compared with Security Challenges

    Haas, de M.


    This article examines the security policy of the Central Asian (CA) states, by comparing theory (security documents) with practice (the actual security challenges). The lack of CA regional (security) cooperation and authoritarian rule puts political and economic stability at stake. The internal and

  3. Security Policy and Developments in Central Asia : Security Documents Compared with Security Challenges

    Haas, de M.


    This article examines the security policy of the Central Asian (CA) states, by comparing theory (security documents) with practice (the actual security challenges). The lack of CA regional (security) cooperation and authoritarian rule puts political and economic stability at stake. The internal and

  4. AgriSense-STARS: Advancing Methods of Agricultural Monitoring for Food Security in Smallholder Regions - the Case for Tanzania

    Dempewolf, J.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Nakalembe, C. L.; Tumbo, S.; Maurice, S.; Mbilinyi, B.; Ntikha, O.; Hansen, M.; Justice, C. J.; Adusei, B.; Kongo, V.


    In-season monitoring of crop conditions provides critical information for agricultural policy and decision making and most importantly for food security planning and management. Nationwide agricultural monitoring in countries dominated by smallholder farming systems, generally relies on extensive networks of field data collectors. In Tanzania, extension agents make up this network and report on conditions across the country, approaching a "near-census". Data is collected on paper which is resource and time intensive, as well as prone to errors. Data quality is ambiguous and there is a general lack of clear and functional feedback loops between farmers, extension agents, analysts and decision makers. Moreover, the data are not spatially explicit, limiting the usefulness for analysis and quality of policy outcomes. Despite significant advances in remote sensing and information communication technologies (ICT) for monitoring agriculture, the full potential of these new tools is yet to be realized in Tanzania. Their use is constrained by the lack of resources, skills and infrastructure to access and process these data. The use of ICT technologies for data collection, processing and analysis is equally limited. The AgriSense-STARS project is developing and testing a system for national-scale in-season monitoring of smallholder agriculture using a combination of three main tools, 1) GLAM-East Africa, an automated MODIS satellite image processing system, 2) field data collection using GeoODK and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and 3) the Tanzania Crop Monitor, a collaborative online portal for data management and reporting. These tools are developed and applied in Tanzania through the National Food Security Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives (MAFC) within a statistically representative sampling framework (area frame) that ensures data quality, representability and resource efficiency.

  5. Issues and Challenges Facing Rice Production and Food Security in the Granary Areas in the East Coast Economic Region (ECER, Malaysia

    Chamhuri Siwar


    Full Text Available This study is an effort to explore and investigate the issues and challenging are facing rice production and food security in Malaysia. It is also to identify the contribution of the granary areas in East Coast Economic Region (ECER to the national food security. The important of rice as a staple food crop of Malaysia and is grown on 673,745 ha of land, producing annually 2.6 million tons of paddy grain valued at RM 2 billion, which is contribute with average growth rate of 3.7% of year, in the last five years. However, the current country’s self-sufficiency level for rice production is about 71.4% and the balance imported from countries abroad. Efforts are being undertaken by government to increase the productivity, cropping intensity prediction and crop acreage to cope with the growing demand for the produce. This study examines the various issues of rice production for food security and analyses the challenging of rice production in Malaysia. Various policies, strategies and programmes for rice production will be thoroughly analysed for attaining the study objectives. In the ECER, Kemubu Agricultural Development Authority (KADA, Kemasin Semerak and North Terengganu (KETARA Integrated Agriculture Development Area (IADA is among the granary areas, which emphasised on paddy cultivation to the country. The role of the area is important to enhance the self-sufficiency level of rice in Malaysia. Issues and challenges related to rice production, food security and self-sufficiency are discussed. Various efforts and government intervention have been implemented to ensure that these areas will remain as the important granary area. Several approaches to improve the productivity and stability of food production as well as outlining the agenda to ensure the country food supply are discussed.

  6. Inter and intrastate conflicts nexus: The Colombian Peace process, as a means to prevent interstate conflicts in South America and rethink regional security

    Sandra Montoya


    Full Text Available The Colombian internal conflict case provides useful scenarios, realities and dynamics for nourishing the debate between those who treat internal and interstate conflicts as disconnected or totally independent phenomena and those who argue the frequent links between them. This policy paper is situated in the latter school of thought, and from that angle I shall argue the usefulness of perceiving the nexus between intrastate and interstate conflicts, and its applicability to the Colombian internal conflict. The paper highlights the importance of taking into account the strong nexus in order to prevent international disputes that put regional security at risk; it also suggests that the current Colombian peace process represents an historic opportunity for Colombia –and a great challenge for the Colombian society– while at the same time being an opportunity for thinking about a shared future in the South America region, which challenges the Colombian state and its performance at the international level.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Inter-basin Groundwater Flow into Northern Yucca Flat, Nevada National Security Site, Using the Death Valley Regional Flow System Model

    Pohlmann Karl,Ye Ming


    Models of groundwater flow for the Yucca Flat area of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) are under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for corrective action investigations of the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit (CAU). One important aspect of these models is the quantity of inter-basin groundwater flow from regional systems to the north. This component of flow, together with its uncertainty, must be properly accounted for in the CAU flow models to provide a defensible regional framework for calculations of radionuclide transport that will support determinations of the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine contaminant boundary. Because characterizing flow boundary conditions in northern Yucca Flat requires evaluation to a higher level of detail than the scale of the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine CAU model can efficiently provide, a study more focused on this aspect of the model was required.

  8. Tensions of network security and collaborative work practice: understanding a single sign-on deployment in a regional hospital.

    Heckle, Rosa R; Lutters, Wayne G


    Healthcare providers and their IT staff, working in an effort to balance appropriate accessibility with stricter security mandates, are considering the use of a single network sign-on approach for authentication and password management. Single sign-on (SSO) promises to improve usability of authentication for multiple-system users, increase compliance, and help curb system maintenance costs. However, complexities are introduced when SSO is placed within a collaborative environment. These complexities include unanticipated workflow implications that introduce greater security vulnerability for the individual user. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY: In this work, we examine the challenges of implementing a single sign-on authentication technology in a hospital environment. The aim of the study was to document the factors that affected SSO adoption within the context of use. The ultimate goal is to better inform the design of usable authentication systems within collaborative healthcare work sites. The primary data collection techniques used are ethnographically informed - observation, contextual interviews, and document review. The study included a cross-section of individuals from various departments and varying rolls. These participants were a mix of both clinical and administrative staff, as well as the Information Technology group. The field work revealed fundamental mis-matches between the technology and routine work practices that will significantly impact its effective adoption. While single sign-on was effective in the administrative offices, SSO was not a good fit for collaborative areas. The collaborative needs of the clinical staff unearthed tensions in its implementation. An analysis of the findings revealed that the workflow, activities, and physical environment of the clinical areas create increased security vulnerabilities for the individual user. The clinical users were cognizant of these vulnerabilities and this created resistance to the implementation due

  9. Dynamic hazard identification and evaluation techniques for regional airport safety and security%支线机场安全动态预警技术研究

    许红军; 田俊改


    How to promote management ability of regional airport safety and security is the major problem which China regional airports will face in the future. In order to control the safety and security risk in regional airport operation, a series of dynamic risk early warning technology were put forward in this paper. Based on the safety and security risk management theory, a three dimensions hazard identification model was put forward. In this model,the hazards which the regional airports are facing could be identified by time, space and logistic dimension. Hazard identification in time dimension referred to analyze regional airport running process and identify the risk factor in these process. Hazard identification in spatial dimension refers to identify the risk factor in the spatial composition of regional airport. Hazard identification in the logical dimension was to establish management, personnel, equipment and environment hierarchical evaluation model by analyzing the risk factors in management, man, machine and media. By using this model, the hazards which the regional airports are facing could be identified more comprehensive. The multi-dimension characteristics of the risk were also introduced, such as the likehood, consequence,predictability and the controllability into regional airports risk analysis procedure. The multi-dimension risk assessment model could reflect the effect of risk response measures and give more systematic and comprehensively evaluation for the risk factor. By using these techniques, the hazards which the regional airport are facing could be identified comprehensively and dynamically, which will help improve the risk early warning technology for regional airport.%提升支线机场安全管理能力是中国支线机场未来发展面临的一个重大问题,为提高我国支线机场安全管理水平,本文基于系统动态的风险管理思想,针对支线机场安全风险发生随机、动态和系统的特点,结合支线机场安


    Ljupka B.Petrevska


    Full Text Available The gift agreement is a bilateral legal contract which is concluded between the donor and the recipiet of a gift, which could be a thing or a property right. It includes no compensation for the donor but requires mutual agreement. Under certain circumstances the gift agreement may be revoked, and it could be done by the conlcuding parts or third parts, all of which cases are stipulated by law more or less precisely from country to country.

  11. 区域旅游生态安全的动态仿真模拟%Dynamic Simulation of Regional Ecological Security of Tourism

    武春友; 郭玲玲; 于惊涛


    生态系统的安全是区域旅游业可持续发展的前提与基础.旅游业发展所引起的环境问题威胁着生态系统的安全,而不安全的生态系统也会影响旅游业的可持续发展.运用系统动力学理论与方法,分析区域旅游生态安全系统中各要素的因果反馈关系,构建区域旅游生态安全系统的系统动力学模型,并以辽宁省旅游生态安全系统为例进行系统仿真,通过对模型中主要参数的调控,提出辽宁省旅游业发展的不同模式.最后通过分析,得出环境保护、旅游投资、政策法规与旅游工作人员素质是影响辽宁省旅游生态系统安全状态的主要因素.%Ecological security is the basis for sustainable development of regional tourism. Environmental problems caused by tourism development have threatened the security of ecosystem, while unsafe ecosystem will affect sustainable development of tourism as well. A system dynamics model, which can describe the causal feedback relationships of regional tourist ecological security system, was built by using system dynamics. On basis of system dynamics modeling and simulation, the different modes of tourism development are put forward through regulation and control of several key indexes. Results show that environmental protection, tourism investment, policies, regulations and tourism staff quality are the main influencing factors of ecological security of tourism in Liaoning Province.

  12. Shareholders' agreements in Denmark

    Werlauff, Erik


    ’ agreements”) cannot bind the company within the sense of company law under the new state of law, and voting rights agreements, agreements on right of pre-emption etc. will therefore only apply at the level of contract law between the parties to the agreement. This article for European Business Law Review...... (on the basis of unwritten principles of loyalty under contract law) to vote for such a repetition of the central provisions of the owners’ agreement in the articles of association is then analysed....

  13. The cost of IT security.

    McMillan, Mac


    Breaches in data security have become commonplace in health care, making IT security a necessary cost for healthcare organizations. Organizations that do not invest proactively in IT security face a significant risk of incurring much greater costs from incidents involving compromised data security. Direct costs of security breaches include the costs of discovery, response, investigation, and notification and also can include state or federal penalties and costs of compliance with corrective action plans and resolution agreements. Hidden costs can include damage to brand, loss of consumer confidence, reduced HCAHPS scores, and--by extension--reduced value-based purchasing payments.

  14. The Helsinki Agreement

    Babel: Journal of the Australian Federation of Modern Language Teachers' Associations, 1977


    A reprint of sections of the Helsinki agreement dealing with foreign languages and civilization, and cooperation and exchanges in the field of education. The agreement supports wider knowledge of foreign languages and promotes exchanges, cooperation, lexicography, and specialized programs in adult education. (AMH)

  15. Agreement on African Venture



    @@ China's biggest aluminum producer Aluminum Corp.China Ltd.(Chalco) signed a binding agreement with the world's second largest mining company,Rio Tinto,on July 29 in Beijing.The agreement will establish a joint venture to develop and operate the Simandou iron ore project in Guinea,Africa.

  16. Securing biodiversity and ecosystem services in Africa: Notes from the 2015 Satoyama Initiative Regional Workshop in Accra, Ghana

    Alfred Oteng-Yeboah


    Full Text Available The first Satoyama Initiative Regional Workshop in Africa was held in Accra, Ghana, from 10 to 12 August 2015. The objective of the workshop was to contribute to the sustainable development agenda in the region within the scope of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning by strengthening the knowledge base related to the Satoyama Initiative, a global effort ‘to realize societies in harmony with nature’ through the revitalisation and sustainable development of ‘socio-ecological production landscapes and seascapes’. This short report summarises some of the main points arising from the workshop.

  17. Practical recommendations for strengthening national and regional laboratory networks in Africa in the Global Health Security era

    Michele Best


    Full Text Available The role of national health laboratories in support of public health response has expanded beyond laboratory testing to include a number of other core functions such as emergency response, training and outreach, communications, laboratory-based surveillance and data management. These functions can only be accomplished by an efficient and resilient national laboratory network that includes public health, reference, clinical and other laboratories. It is a primary responsibility of the national health laboratory in the Ministry of Health to develop and maintain the national laboratory network in the country. In this article, we present practical recommendations based on 17 years of network development experience for the development of effective national laboratory networks. These recommendations and examples of current laboratory networks, are provided to facilitate laboratory network development in other states. The development of resilient, integrated laboratory networks will enhance each state’s public health system and is critical to the development of a robust national laboratory response network to meet global health security threats.

  18. Security Expertise

    and to reflect on the impact and responsibility of security analysis. In science and technology studies, the study of security politics adds a challenging new case to the agenda of research on expertise and policy. The contributors investigate cases such as academic security studies, security think tanks...... will be of particular interest to students of critical security studies, sociology, science and technology studies, and IR/security studies in general....

  19. 17 CFR 210.12-12 - Investments in securities of unaffiliated issuers.


    ... deposit, short-term securities, repurchase agreements, other investment companies, and so forth); and (ii) the related industry, country, or geographic region of the investment. Short-term debt instruments (i... less) of the same issuer may be aggregated, in which case the range of interest rates and maturity...

  20. A Provable Secure Group Key Agreement Protocol with Fault-Tolerant%一种故障容忍的可证安全组密钥协商协议

    郑明辉; 周慧华; 崔国华; 韩兰胜


    对Burmester等人提出的非认证组密钥协商协议的安全性进行了深入分析,指出该协议不能抵抗内部恶意节点发起的密钥协商阻断攻击和密钥控制攻击.提出了一种故障容忍的组密钥协商(FT-GKA)协议,FT-GKA协议在密钥协商过程中加入了消息正确性的认证机制,该机制利用数字签名技术检测组内恶意节点,并在驱逐恶意节点后保证组内诚实节点能计算出正确的会话密钥,解决了Burmester等人提出协议中存在的内部恶意节点攻击问题.并证明提出的协议在DDH假设下能抵抗敌手的被动攻击,在DL假设和随机预言模型下能够抵抗内部恶意节点发起的密钥协商阻断攻击和密钥控制攻击.理论分析与实验测试表明,提出的协议具有较高的通信轮效率和较低的计算开销.%This paper indicates that Burmester et al.'s group key agreement protocol which based on the authenticated broadcast channel is unable to withstand the disruption attack and key-control attack of malicious participants in group. These two attacks lead that other honest participants will compute different session key and other honest participants compute the fixed session key which is determined previously by malicious participants,respectively.In this paper,a fault-tolerant group key agreement (FT-GKA) protocol is proposed. Even if there are malicious participants trying to attack the establishment of a session key, all other honest participants following the proposed protocol are still able to compute the correct session key using the digital signature technology.Paper proves the protocol can withstand the passive attack of adversary under the DDH assumption, and the protocol can withstand the interrupted attack and key - control attack from malicious participants under the DL assumption and the random oracle model.Furthermore, the proposed protocol possesses both constant number of rounds and lower computation overhead.

  1. Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order with ROTC 1, Revision No. 0

    Lynn Kidman


    Many Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) Use Restrictions (URs) have been established at various corrective action sites (CASs) as part of FFACO corrective actions (FFACO, 1996; as amended January 2007). Since the signing of the FFACO in 1996, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective action (RBCA) have evolved. This document is part of an effort to re-evaluate all FFACO URs against the current RBCA criteria (referred to in this document as the Industrial Sites [IS] RBCA process) as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). Based on this evaluation, the URs were sorted into the following categories: 1. Where sufficient information exists to determine that the current UR is consistent with the RCBA criteria 2. Where sufficient information exists to determine that the current UR may be removed or downgraded based on RCBA criteria. 3. Where sufficient information does not exist to evaluate the current UR against the RCBA criteria. After reviewing all the existing FFACO URs, the 49 URs addressed in this document have sufficient information to determine that these current URs may be removed or downgraded based on RCBA criteria. This document presents recommendations on modifications to existing URs that will be consistent with the RCBA criteria.

  2. International Fisheries Agreements

    Pintassilgo, Pedro; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko


    This paper surveys the application of game theory to the economic analysis of international fisheries agreements. The relevance of this study comes not only from the existence of a vast literature on the topic but especially from the specific features of these agreements. The emphasis of the survey...... and stability of international fisheries agreements. A key message that emerges from this literature strand is that self-enforcing cooperative management of internationally shared fish stocks is generally difficult to achieve. Hence, the international legal framework and regulations play a decisive role...... is on coalition games, an approach that has become prominent in the fisheries economics literature over the last decade. It is shown that coalition games were first applied to international fisheries agreements in the late 1990s addressing cooperative issues under the framework of characteristic function games...

  3. Service level agreements.

    Grimwood, A


    Service level agreements provide clearer descriptions of the services to be provided and the objectives to be met. In many instances it is the first time that services have been defined allowing their performance to be suitably measured. They should be output based and not too prescriptive on how the services are to be delivered. The emphasis should be on establishing outputs and the arrangements for monitoring achievement. Customer expectations can exceed available resources and arbitration may become necessary if agreement cannot be reached on internal service level agreements. The main requirements of customers for change through service level agreements is usually improved communications on job status that includes notification of any delays and that agreed response times will be met.

  4. Cooperative Fire Protection Agreement

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Agreement is to provide for cooperation in the prevention, detection and suppression of wildland fires within the protection areas designated in...

  5. Regional Stability & Peacebuilding

    It seems that regional decision makers during the last two decades has been unable to produce a sustainable peacebuilding plan for the region and it is questionable whether any remarkable change will occur in the near future. Some would argue that the political differences are simply too far apart...... continue to face, internal challenges even if agreements with a conflicting state are settled. This only underlines the necessity of initiating sustainable initiatives that are capable of affecting politicians from within, or even to some extent have the capability to bypass the political level....... With contributions from leading international scholars within the field of security studies this book sets out to explain the main security knots preventing stability to emerge and on that basis to test whether a different approach in addressing these knots. By pursuing an innovative and different approach...

  6. Cyber security

    Voeller, John G


    Cyber Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering topics related to cyber security metrics and measure  and related technologies that meet security needs. Specific applications to web services, the banking and the finance sector, and industrial process control systems are discussed.

  7. Financial security

    de Goede, M.; Burgess, J.P.


    1. Introduction J. Peter Burgess Part 1: New Security Concepts 2. Civilizational Security Brett Bowden 3. Risk Oliver Kessler 4. Small Arms Keith Krause 5. Critical Human Security Taylor Owen 6. Critical Geopolitics Simon Dalby Part 2: New Security Subjects 7. Biopolitics Michael Dillon 8. Gendered

  8. Financial security

    de Goede, M.; Burgess, J.P.


    1. Introduction J. Peter Burgess Part 1: New Security Concepts 2. Civilizational Security Brett Bowden 3. Risk Oliver Kessler 4. Small Arms Keith Krause 5. Critical Human Security Taylor Owen 6. Critical Geopolitics Simon Dalby Part 2: New Security Subjects 7. Biopolitics Michael Dillon 8. Gendered

  9. EU Security Strategy

    Hong Jianjun


    The European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) comprises an important part of the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). The aim of ESDP is to strengthen the EU's external ability to act through the development of civilian and military capabilities for international conflict prevention and crisis management. In December 2003, the EU adopted its first European Security Strategy (ESS). Ever since then, the implementation of the ESS has been regarded as one of the biggest challenges for the EU in CFSP/ESDP matters. Although much progress has been made in its independent security and defence-building process, EU still faces serious problems and difficulties in this policy area. This paper tries to examine these recent developments, assess their impacts in regional-global security, and analyze existing problems and future trends. Finally, the author also examines EU-China engagements in recent years and explores possibilities for their future cooperation in the area of international security.

  10. LTE security

    Forsberg, Dan; Moeller, Wolf-Dietrich


    Addressing the security solutions for LTE, a cellular technology from Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), this book shows how LTE security substantially extends GSM and 3G security. It also encompasses the architectural aspects, known as SAE, to give a comprehensive resource on the topic. Although the security for SAE/LTE evolved from the security for GSM and 3G, due to different architectural and business requirements of fourth generation systems the SAE/LTE security architecture is substantially different from its predecessors. This book presents in detail the security mechanisms em

  11. Authenticated Key Agreement in Group Settings

    LI Ming; WANG Yong; GU Da-wu; BAI Ying-cai


    An enhanced definition of implicit key authentication and a secure group key agreement scheme from pairings are presented. This scheme combines the merits of group public key and key trees to achieve a communication-efficient and authenticated group key agreement protocol. Besides, it avoids dependence on signature or MAC by involving member's long-term keys and short-term keys in the group key. Furthermore, the idea behind this design can be employed as a general approach to extend the authenticated two-party Diffie-Hellman protocols to group settings.

  12. The Bali Agreement: Implications for Development and the WTO

    Christophe Bellmann


    Full Text Available At the most recent World Trade Organisation (WTO ministerial conference, in December 2013, in Bali, Indonesia, ministers from 160 countries concluded the first multilateral agreement ever negotiated under the auspices of the WTO. After five years of impasse in the moribund Doha Round of trade negotiations, the so-called “Bali package” was enthusiastically welcomed by the world’s governments and international press alike as a critical step towards restoring the credibility of the WTO as a negotiating forum. The centrepiece of the package is without doubt a new agreement on trade facilitation aimed at reducing red tape, and facilitating customs procedures in an effort to cut down the cost of doing business. Other — less far reaching — aspects of the deal focused on food security and a set of issues of particular interest to least developed countries including trade preferences or cotton subsidies. As the dust from the heated Bali negotiations settles, the main challenge for the WTO will now consist in building on this success to re-energise multilateral negotiations and ultimately close the Doha Round. In a world increasingly dominated by regional and bilateral free-trade agreements, members will have to confront the core issues that have divided them for nearly 15 years and find creative solutions to rehabilitate the WTO’s centrality in global trade governance.

  13. 44 CFR 208.9 - Agreements between Sponsoring Agencies and Participating Agencies.


    .... Every agreement between a Sponsoring Agency and a Participating Agency regarding the System must include... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND...

  14. A Conventional Agreement



    @@ More effective multilateral measures to secure nuclear materials are needed to make the world a safer place,said Chinese President Hu Jintao at the first global summit on nuclear on April 13. The appeal was made at the Nuclear Security Summit in Washington,D.C.,addressing the mounting threat of nuclear terrorism.The gathering,attended by leaders and representatives of 47 countries,also enjoyed the participation of international organizations like the International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA)as well as the UN.

  15. 19 CFR 114.2 - Customs Conventions and Agreements.


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs Conventions and Agreements. 114.2 Section 114.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARNETS General Provisions § 114.2 Customs Conventions and Agreements....

  16. 44 CFR 206.391 - FEMA-State Agreement.


    ... HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Fire Suppression Assistance § 206.391... continuing FEMA-State Agreement for Fire Suppression Assistance (the Agreement) signed by the Governor and... for the Disaster Assistance Directorate may require and specifies the type and extent of...

  17. 7 CFR 762.147 - Servicing shared appreciation agreements.


    ... the value of the security at the time of writedown, as shown on the shared appreciation agreement. (ii... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Servicing shared appreciation agreements. 762.147..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.147 Servicing shared...

  18. 78 FR 52941 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Next Generation Arctic Navigational Safety...


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Next Generation Arctic Navigational... Agreement (CRADA) with Marine Exchange of Alaska (MXAK) to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate, in an operational setting, at least one promising technology approach to the ``Next Generation Arctic...

  19. 75 FR 17407 - Service Corporation International and Keystone North America Inc.; Analysis of Agreement...


    ... Service Corporation International and Keystone North America Inc.; Analysis of Agreement Containing... any sensitive personal information, such as an individual's Social Security Number; date of birth... Agreement'') from Service Corporation International (``SCI'') and Keystone North America Inc. (``KNA''). The...

  20. Food Security and International Relations:A Kind of Research Based on Regional Public Goods%区域公共产品视角下的粮食安全与国际关系

    孙灿; 钮维敢; 钮则圳


    The history of international relations in modern times has shown the tight connection between food se-curity and IR itself. Food security includes its security in quantity and quality. Food security has typical meaning of regional public policy and using regional public goods theory to analyze food security and IR will provide us a new approach of understanding. As a traditional agricultural nation and a new economy,China should pay more attention to its food security in neighboring diplomacy.%近现代国际关系的历史表明,粮食安全与国际关系有着紧密的联系。粮食安全包含了粮食在数量供给和质量可靠两方面的安全。粮食安全具有典型的区域公共政策意义,采用区域性公共产品理论来分析粮食安全与国际关系为我们提供了一种认识该问题的新路径。作为传统的农业大国和新兴经济体的中国理应重视粮食安全在开展周边外交中的重要作用。

  1. Colômbia: mais insegurança humana, menos segurança regional Colombia: more human insecurity, less regional security

    Juan Gabriel Tokatlian


    Full Text Available No contexto da grave crise que atravessa a região andina em seu conjunto, o exemplo da Colômbia é o mais dramático e serve potencialmente de modelo de intervenção externa nos assuntos internos de um país do hemisfério. Nesse sentido, analisa-se o tipo de guerra que vive a Colômbia, assim como o chamado novo intervencionismo e as possíveis saídas para o conflito armado no referido país. Trata-se de uma situação complexa e instável em que se misturam e confundem guerra política, violência criminal, demolição do Estado, violação dos direitos humanos e expansão do poderio estadunidense na região. Como decorrência do aumento dos confrontos internos, da persistência da "guerra contra as drogas" e do começo da "guerra contra o terrorismo", a ingerência dos Estados Unidos é cada vez mais eloqüente e preocupante. Enquanto isso, uma América do Sul passiva não parece querer comprometer-se com uma saída viável para um conflito expansivo no coração dos Andes.The Colombian predicament, characterized by foreign intervention in the domestic issues of a country in the Southern hemisphere, can be considered the most dramatic crisis amongst the various crises in the Andes region. The author analyzes the kind of war that exists in Colombia, as well as the so-called new interventionism and the possible solutions of the conflict in that country. It is a very complex and unstable situation in which political war, criminal violence, the destruction of the state, violation of human rights and the expansion of US power are all mixed. The intervention of the US in Colombia as a consequence of growing domestic conflicts, the continuation of the "war against drugs" and the beginning of "the war against terrorism," is increasingly evident and worrying. Meanwhile, a passive South America does not seem to be willing to engage itself in the search for a viable solution to an expanding conflict in the heart of the Andes.

  2. An Agro-Climatological Early Warning Tool Based on the Google Earth Engine to Support Regional Food Security Analysis

    Landsfeld, M. F.; Daudert, B.; Friedrichs, M.; Morton, C.; Hegewisch, K.; Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Peterson, P.; Huntington, J. L.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Verdin, J. P.; Williams, E. L.


    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) focuses on food insecurity in developing nations and provides objective, evidence based analysis to help government decision-makers and relief agencies plan for and respond to humanitarian emergencies. The Google Earth Engine (GEE) is a platform provided by Google Inc. to support scientific research and analysis of environmental data in their cloud environment. The intent is to allow scientists and independent researchers to mine massive collections of environmental data and leverage Google's vast computational resources to detect changes and monitor the Earth's surface and climate. GEE hosts an enormous amount of satellite imagery and climate archives, one of which is the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations dataset (CHIRPS). The CHIRPS dataset is land based, quasi-global (latitude 50N-50S), 0.05 degree resolution, and has a relatively long term period of record (1981-present). CHIRPS is on a continuous monthly feed into the GEE as new data fields are generated each month. This precipitation dataset is a key input for FEWS NET monitoring and forecasting efforts. FEWS NET intends to leverage the GEE in order to provide analysts and scientists with flexible, interactive tools to aid in their monitoring and research efforts. These scientists often work in bandwidth limited regions, so lightweight Internet tools and services that bypass the need for downloading massive datasets to analyze them, are preferred for their work. The GEE provides just this type of service. We present a tool designed specifically for FEWS NET scientists to be utilized interactively for investigating and monitoring for agro-climatological issues. We are able to utilize the enormous GEE computing power to generate on-the-fly statistics to calculate precipitation anomalies, z-scores, percentiles and band ratios, and allow the user to interactively select custom areas for statistical time series comparisons and predictions.

  3. Segmentation Similarity and Agreement

    Fournier, Chris


    We propose a new segmentation evaluation metric, called segmentation similarity (S), that quantifies the similarity between two segmentations as the proportion of boundaries that are not transformed when comparing them using edit distance, essentially using edit distance as a penalty function and scaling penalties by segmentation size. We propose several adapted inter-annotator agreement coefficients which use S that are suitable for segmentation. We show that S is configurable enough to suit a wide variety of segmentation evaluations, and is an improvement upon the state of the art. We also propose using inter-annotator agreement coefficients to evaluate automatic segmenters in terms of human performance.

  4. The Sicomines Agreement

    Jansson, Johanna

    ), was to the benefit of the policy preferences of the IMF and the World Bank. This case thus indicates that since China’s own aspirations are changeable, its emergence as an alternative development partner may not bring about any substantive change of direction for the DRC’s international relations. Furthermore......, the investment into the DRC’s mining sector is in itself beneficial for the country, and the renegotiation of the agreement was positive in the sense that the Congolese state guarantee for the mining component was removed. However, the question of whether the Sicomines agreement is a good deal for the DRC...

  5. FFTF Authorization Agreement

    DAUTEL, W.A.


    The purpose of the Authorization Agreement is to serve as a mechanism whereby the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and Fluor Hanford (FH) jointly clarify and agree to key conditions for conducting work safely and efficiently.

  6. Agreement concerning Alamosa and Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuges

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Attached is a Letter of Agreement (Agreement) which Region 6 developed in concert with the Division of Refuges and the plaintiffs in the Audubon et. al. v. Babbitt...

  7. The resolution of the All-Russia conference “Seismic security of a region and the impact of seismogeological and socioeconomic factors” (Kyzyl, Republic of Tuva, Russian Federation, November 17-18, 2015

    . . .


    Full Text Available This is a brief summary of the All-Russia conference “Seismic security of a region and the impact of seismogeological and socioeconomic factors” held in Kyzyl, Republic of Tuva, Russian Federation on November 17-18, 2015. Also provided is the full text of the resolution adopted at the conference.

  8. East Asian Regionalism within the Context of Regional Security Competition:A Comparative Analysis with European. and Northern American Regionalism%区域安全竞争中的东亚区域主义——基于对欧洲/北美区域主义的比较分析



    区域主义的启动和深化受区域内外安全环境的影响。欧洲区域主义的启动和深化与其内外安全环境之间呈正相关关系,因而它得以历经冷战而不衰,并在冷战后进一步强化。比较而言,北美区域主义的深化与其内外安全环境总体上都是负相关关系,因而北美区域主义至今基本上仍仅限于经济领域。与北美区域主义类似,东亚区域主义的深化与东亚区域内外安全环境也基本上是负相关关系,但不同的是,由于东亚区域的内部安全环境是竞争性的,因此东亚区域的"共同体感觉"虽然呈日益强化之势,但总体上说是脆弱的。东亚区域主义的深化不仅受区域内部安全竞争的挑战,还受到区域外部的竞争性安全环境———区域间大国和全球大国安全竞争———的制约。%The development of regionalism is impacted by a region's internal and external security environment.European Regionalism was rooted in and positively expanded as a result of both Europe's internal and external security environments.As a result,rather than fading in the wake of the Cold War,European regionalism actually grew stronger.In comparison,the internal and external security environments in Northern America both served as a damper on the establishment and progress of its regionalism.As a result,regionalism within Northern America today is basically limited to regional economic configurations.Similar to the Northern America case,the internal and external security environment in East Asia has negatively impacted the development of regionalism.Unlike North America though,because of security competition within the East Asia region,awareness of a collective East Asian community,while increasing remains relatively weak.As a result,efforts to deepen East Asian regionalism are generally dampened by the region's internal security challenges.At the same time,the development of East Asian regionalism also faces

  9. Node security

    Barnes, Dominic


    A practical and fast-paced guide that will give you all the information you need to secure your Node applications.If you are a developer who wishes to secure your Node applications, whether you are already using Node Security in production, or are considering using it for your next project, then this book will enable you to ensure security of your applications. An understanding of JavaScript is a prerequisite, and some experience with Node is recommended, though not required.

  10. Being Secure


    As the world wrestles with challenges from nontraditional security threats, a new concept of security management is emerging Security has traditionally been seen as the means of defending a territory, primarily through the use of military power. However, as the world evolves through the process of globalization, so too does the concept of security. It now incorporates military, political, economic, societal and environmental issues, as well as the many links that bind them. Yet for most people in the wor...

  11. Watermarking security

    Bas, Patrick; Cayre, François; Doërr, Gwenaël; Mathon, Benjamin


    This book explains how to measure the security of a watermarking scheme, how to design secure schemes but also how to attack popular watermarking schemes. This book gathers the most recent achievements in the field of watermarking security by considering both parts of this cat and mouse game. This book is useful to industrial practitioners who would like to increase the security of their watermarking applications and for academics to quickly master this fascinating domain.

  12. Evaluation on the Regional Water Security Based on Virtual Water Theory and Fuzzy-AHP Model%基于虚拟水理论与Fuzzy—AHP方法的区域水安全评价研究

    雷宏军; 潘红卫; 刘鑫; 韩宇平; 徐建新


    从社会经济安全、粮食安全、水资源与生态安全3个方面构建了由13个指标组成的区域水安全的指标体系,结合虚拟水理论对部分指标进行量化,采用Fuzzy-AHP方法,以郑州市为例,对其1998—2005年及2015和2020年在丰、平、枯3个水文年下的水安全状况进行评价。结果表明,人均水足迹、人均水资源量、粮食安全指数、依赖指数、粮食自给度、水资源压力指数6个指标权重之和占总权重的79%,该6个方面决定着区域水安全状况;郑州市的综合评价结果为区域综合安全状况、社会经济安全层、粮食安全层为安全,资源生态安全层为较安全,表明郑州市经济社会和粮食安全是以牺牲区域资源和生态安全为代价的,所以郑州市区域水安全状况是一种结构不合理的安全状况。%From the aspect of social-economic security, food security, and water resource and ecological security, the evaluation index system of regional water security was established, which was composed of 13 indexes with some indicators quantified by virtual water theory. The Fuzzy-AHP method was applied to evaluate the regional water security situation of Zhengzhou City from 1998 to 2005, besides the year of 2015 and 2020 in the 25%, 50% and 75% hydrology years. Results showed that the indexes of water footprint per capita, water resources per capita, food security index, dependency ratio, degree of food self-sufficiency and water stress weights accounted for 79% of the total weight, so the water safety conditions was determined by the six aspects. The integrated security situation and the security situation of socio-economic layer, and the security situation of the safety of food layer were all safe, while the resources-ecological security layer was unsafe, suggesting that the security socio-economic and the safety of food were achieved at the expense of regional resources and ecological security. Therefore

  13. Welfare and Social Security in the USSR in the Late 1950s – Early 1980s (on the Material of the Lower Volga Region

    Gumenyuk Aleksey


    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the analysis of the main directions of the social support for workers in the Lower Volga region in the late 1950s – early 1980s. The special attention is paid to creating the universal system of pension insurance for the Soviet people. The novelty of the study consists in the use of historical and anthropological approach allowing to trace the influence of the change in insurance bodies functioning on the life quality of pensioners and disabled people. The first part of the article is devoted to the period of 1953–1964, and it explores the ways of improving the quality of care of the disabled. The particular attention is paid to the study of the positive and negative results of social bodies’ work at the regional level. The ways of improving the quality of state social support for disabled people in 1965–1985 (the new stage of Soviet reforms is also investigated. The material in the article is organized according to the following scheme: firstly, the author analyzes the basic legislative acts of the State party in the field of social security, and, secondly, he describes the ways and the results of their implementation in the provinces. The author concludes that by Spring of 1985 the total social pension system was established in the country. The evidence proves that this system lacked the individual approach and the interests of some people were often not taken into account. This study is based on the vast set of factual materials from the archives, published sources and periodical press. The various aspects of this problem can be used in educational practice.

  14. Security and Political Stability in the Mediterranean

    Antonio Marquina


    Full Text Available The author revises with a critical eye the treatment given the issue of security during the Euro-Mediterranean process from the Declaration of Barcelona to the Conference at Malta. According to Marquina, no idea of security exists which gives backbone to theEuro-Mediterranen process and the documents themselves contain incoherencies and significant imprecisions, especially regarding the concepts of cooperative security, preventative diplomacy and ‘good neighbor’ relations. These principles appear to be rather underexplained in both their conceptual and operative aspects. On one hand, the information about matters that affect security is exchanged on both a voluntary and official basis and can be, as such, thus opaque and not always reliable; on the other hand, the issues thataffect security are so wide-ranging that the operative approach - the communications network, mechanisms for early-warning, the conciliation and peaceful resolution of controversies - seems hardly realistic. With respect to confidence-building measures, the author considers that these should be linked to arms control agreements, which are more in accord with the stated objectives of defense sufficiency and the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Marquina also maintains that the role of civil society and the importance of cultural dialogue - both fundamental to conflict prevention - have not been reinforced even though the principal problems of security in the region are due to structural imbalances –military, economical, political– and, precisely the disparities amongcultures. In this sense, the EU states might consider putting forward unilateral policies that restrict such disparities, provided that a certain reciprocity of policy is put forth from the southern states in the Mediterranean.

  15. Security Embedding Codes

    Ly, Hung D; Blankenship, Yufei


    This paper considers the problem of simultaneously communicating two messages, a high-security message and a low-security message, to a legitimate receiver, referred to as the security embedding problem. An information-theoretic formulation of the problem is presented. A coding scheme that combines rate splitting, superposition coding, nested binning and channel prefixing is considered and is shown to achieve the secrecy capacity region of the channel in several scenarios. Specifying these results to both scalar and independent parallel Gaussian channels (under an average individual per-subchannel power constraint), it is shown that the high-security message can be embedded into the low-security message at full rate (as if the low-security message does not exist) without incurring any loss on the overall rate of communication (as if both messages are low-security messages). Extensions to the wiretap channel II setting of Ozarow and Wyner are also considered, where it is shown that "perfect" security embedding...

  16. 48 CFR 225.870-8 - Industrial security.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial security. 225... Coordination 225.870-8 Industrial security. Industrial security for Canada shall be in accordance with the U.S.-Canada Industrial Security Agreement of March 31, 1952, as amended....

  17. Agricultural Reciprocity under Economic Partnership Agreements

    Christopher Stevens; Jane Kennan


    This paper investigates how the formation of Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) with the EU might affect the ability of the six Development Cooperation Ireland programme countries in Sub-Saharan Africa to continue to provide protection to their domestic agri-food sectors. Various scenarios are constructed on the assumption that ‘substantially all' trade with the EU must be liberalised if the EPAs are to be compatible with WTO rules on regional trade agreements. The paper concludes that EP...

  18. Value-driven Security Agreements in Extended Enterprises

    Nunes Leal Franqueira, V.; Wieringa, Roelf J.


    Today organizations are highly interconnected in business networks called extended enterprises. This is mostly facilitated by outsourcing and by new economic models based on pay-as-you-go billing; all supported by IT-as-a-service. Although outsourcing has been around for some time, what is now new i

  19. Leveraging Trade Agreements to Meet U.S. Security Aims


    products and services between the partnered countries. The exchange of goods, services, and business investment facilitates cultural exposure and... Foreign Affairs, (November/December 2014), under “Americas,” https://www.foreiunaffairs.comlarticles/americas/strategic-logic-trade (accessed February...particularly along their shared industrial corridor. French foreign minister Robert Schurnan recognized that long-term peace and prosperity required that

  20. 14 CFR 380.34 - Security and depository agreements.


    ... shall promptly be added to the escrow account, in an amount equal to the amount of such decreased value... the direct air carrier, the bank shall pay funds from the account directly to the hotels, sightseeing enterprises, or other persons or companies furnishing ground accommodations and services, if any, in...

  1. Value-driven Security Agreements in Extended Enterprises

    Nunes Leal Franqueira, V.; Wieringa, Roelf J.


    Today organizations are highly interconnected in business networks called extended enterprises. This is mostly facilitated by outsourcing and by new economic models based on pay-as-you-go billing; all supported by IT-as-a-service. Although outsourcing has been around for some time, what is now new

  2. Diagnosis of regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities using SPECT: agreement between individualized statistical parametric maps and visual inspection by nuclear medicine physicians with different levels of expertise in nuclear neurology

    Rocha, Euclides Timoteo da, E-mail: [Fundacao Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Cancer. Dept. de Medicina Nuclear; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Hospital do Coracao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Nuclear; Nitrini, Ricardo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia; Tazima, Sergio [Hospital Alemao Oswaldo Cruz (HAOC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Nuclear; Peres, Stela Verzinhase [Fundacao Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Cancer; Busatto Filho, Geraldo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Div. de Medicina Nuclear


    Introduction: visual analysis is widely used to interpret regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) SPECT images in clinical practice despite its limitations. Automated methods are employed to investigate between-group rCBF differences in research studies but have rarely been explored in individual analyses. Objectives: to compare visual inspection by nuclear physicians with the automated statistical parametric mapping program using a SPECT dataset of patients with neurological disorders and normal control images. Methods: using statistical parametric mapping, 14 SPECT images from patients with various neurological disorders were compared individually with a databank of 32 normal images using a statistical threshold of p<0.05 (corrected for multiple comparisons at the level of individual voxels or clusters). Statistical parametric mapping results were compared with visual analyses by a nuclear physician highly experienced in neurology (A) as well as a nuclear physician with a general background of experience (B) who independently classified images as normal or altered, and determined the location of changes and the severity. Results: of the 32 images of the normal databank, 4 generated maps showing rCBF abnormalities (p<0.05, corrected). Among the 14 images from patients with neurological disorders, 13 showed rCBF alterations. Statistical parametric mapping and physician A completely agreed on 84.37% and 64.28% of cases from the normal databank and neurological disorders, respectively. The agreement between statistical parametric mapping and ratings of physician B were lower (71.18% and 35.71%, respectively). Conclusion: statistical parametric mapping replicated the findings described by the more experienced nuclear physician. This finding suggests that automated methods for individually analyzing rCBF SPECT images may be a valuable resource to complement visual inspection in clinical practice. (author)


    Margareta Timbur


    Full Text Available The environmental problems which the society is facing, ozone depletion, biodiversity loss, the spread of persistent organic pollutants, are a result of human activity with a worldwide impact, requiring immediate resolution. In this context, negotiation, signing and implementation of several multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs are one of the best solutions, affordable and reliable. The aim of this study is to analyze the commercial measures, which to some extent, ensure stability, security, and expansion of MEAs. The paper discusses, also, the efficiency, necessity and the influences of trade measures in MEAs and the WTO role in signing these agreements.

  4. US-Canada Free-Trade Agreement


    The US-Canada Free Trade Agreement is an historic agreement that will yield major benefits for the US and Canadian economies, for US-Canadian bilateral trade relations, and for the international trade regime. The energy section of the Agreement is one of its most important. Energy trade between the US and Canada amounts to over $10 billion per year, the largest such bilateral trade in the world. Canada is our largest oil supplier and provides virtually all of our natural gas and electricity imports. While these volumes are a small fraction of US needs, they provide an important margin of energy security. Canada also is an important market for US energy exports, buying 16 million tons or $700 million worth of coal in 1987, 20% of US coal exports. The Free Trade Agreement ensures that the US and Canada can continued to enjoy unrestricted trade in energy, provides benefits to US consumers and producers, and enhances our energy security. The Agreement: prohibits future restrictions on energy trade, such as quantitative restriction, import or export taxes, and minimum prices; ensures that US consumers will be treated equitably with Canadian consumers; provides added assurance of supply in the event of disruptions; will lower costs to consumers, including our energy intensive industries, and help make US industry more competitive in world markets; will provide more certainty to producers and consumers, which should expand energy trade and be more conducive to energy investment; and will, over time, reduce US oil imports by encouraging continued market penetration of Canadian and US natural gas, and greater use of Canadian hydroelectric power.

  5. Achieve a Better Understanding of Cloud and Precipitation Processes for the Promotion of Water Security in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions

    Farrah, S.; Al Yazidi, O.


    The UAE Research Program for Rain Enhancement Science (UAEREP) is an international research initiative designed to advance the science and technology of rain enhancement. It comes from an understanding of the needs of countries suffering from scarcity of fresh water, and its will to support innovation globally. The Program focuses on the following topics: Climate change, Climate modelling, Climatology, Atmospheric physics, Atmospheric dynamics, Weather modification, Cloud physics, Cloud dynamics, Cloud seeding, Weather radars, Dust modelling, Aerosol physics , Aerosol chemistry, Aerosol/cloud interactions, Water resources, Physics, Numerical modelling, Material science, Nanotechnology, Meteorology, Hydrology, Hydrogeology, Rocket technology, Laser technology, Water sustainability, Remote sensing, Environmental sciences... In 2015, three research teams from Japan, Germany and the UAE led by Prof. Masataka Murakami, Volker Wulfmeyer and Linda Zou have been respectively awarded. Together, they are addressing the issue of water security through innovative ideas: algorithms and sensors, land cover modification, and nanotechnologies to accelerate condensation. These three projects are undergoing now with extensive research and progresses. This session will be an opportunity to present their latest results as well as to detail the evolution of research in rain enhancement. In 2016 indeed, the Program saw a remarkable increase in participation, with 91 pre-proposals from 398 scientists, researchers and technologists affiliated to 180 institutes from 45 countries. The projects submitted are now focusing on modelling to predict weather, autonomous vehicles, rocket technology, lasers or new seeding materials… The science of rain enhancement offers considerable potential in terms of research, development and innovation. Though cloud seeding has been pursued since the late 1940s, it has been viewed as a relatively marginal field of interest for scientists. This benign neglect

  6. Securing Hadoop

    Narayanan, Sudheesh


    This book is a step-by-step tutorial filled with practical examples which will focus mainly on the key security tools and implementation techniques of Hadoop security.This book is great for Hadoop practitioners (solution architects, Hadoop administrators, developers, and Hadoop project managers) who are looking to get a good grounding in what Kerberos is all about and who wish to learn how to implement end-to-end Hadoop security within an enterprise setup. It's assumed that you will have some basic understanding of Hadoop as well as be familiar with some basic security concepts.

  7. Security Engineering


    attacks cannot be completely addressed by traditional perimeter security solutions [ Wulf and Jones, 2009], as they have been in the past. A new...the mainstay of the current cyber security solution space [ Wulf and Jones, 2009]. This has enabled the system engineering and security communities...Number: H98230-08-D-0171 DO 002 TO 002 RT 028 Report No. SERC-2012-TR-028 January 31, 2012 UNCLASSIFIED 37 W. A. Wulf and A. K. Jones, Reflections on cyber security, Science Magazine, vol. 326, 2009, pp. 943-944.

  8. Grid Security

    CERN. Geneva


    The aim of Grid computing is to enable the easy and open sharing of resources between large and highly distributed communities of scientists and institutes across many independent administrative domains. Convincing site security officers and computer centre managers to allow this to happen in view of today's ever-increasing Internet security problems is a major challenge. Convincing users and application developers to take security seriously is equally difficult. This paper will describe the main Grid security issues, both in terms of technology and policy, that have been tackled over recent years in LCG and related Grid projects. Achievements to date will be described and opportunities for future improvements will be addressed.

  9. 基于DPSIR模型的区域能源安全评价:以广东省为例%Evaluation of regional energy security based on the DPSIR model:a case study of Guangdong province

    张艳; 沈镭; 于汶加


    广东省是我国能源消费最集中的区域,能源供需矛盾十分突出,因此探讨保障广东省能源安全的途径和政策措施,实现广东省经济社会可持续发展显得尤为重要。本文在明晰广东省能源安全现状的基础上,利用DPSIR评价方法,分别从驱动力、压力、状态、影响和响应五个方面构建了评价指标集和能源安全综合评价模型,对广东省1998~2008年的能源安全进行了定量的评价。基于评价结果,本文提出了改善“驱动力”、降低“压力”、恢复“状态”和消除“影响”的保障广东省能源安全的响应对策,以期为广东省制定合理的能源发展战略,有效地规避能源安全风险提供理论支持。%The spatial distribution imbalances of energy supply and consumption intensifies the regional energy security issues .Guangdong Province is densely populated and economically developed ,where most of China's energy consumption is concentrated in this area on the one hand and it is rather poor in energy resources and very serious in energy supply and demand contradiction on the other hand . To guarantee energy security of Guangdong Province is the key of sustainable economic and social development at local level . As a result , it is particularly important to comprehensively evaluate the energy security situation in Guangdong Province , to protect Guangdong Province of energy security means and to formulate policy measures . The DPSIR assessment method , which implies the relationships among driving force (D ) , pressure (P) ,state (S) ,impact (I) ,and response (R) ,is widely applied by scholars .This paper aims to establish a comprehensive assessment system for regional energy security in Guangdong Province from 1995 through 2008 based on the above model using different indicators . Factor analysis was also used to carry out scientific and quantitative assessments . Conclusions are drawn as follows . First

  10. Security Components of Globalization

    Florin Iftode


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is our intention to present what are the main connections between globalization and international security. In terms of global security we can perceive the globalization as a process by which global state is represented by the UN, with a single world system, represented by major security organizations and with global effects. We will present from the beginning the main theoretical aspects that define the phenomenon of globalization, and then our contribution in assessing the implications of this phenomenon on the regional and global security. The results of our research are materialized in the last part of the paper. They emphasize the personal assessments on how the phenomenon of globalization has direct effect on global security. When talking about government, we think of norms, rules and decisionmaking procedures in the management of international life. The value that we add to the new scientific interpretation of the definition of globalization is represented, primarily, by the valuable bibliographic used resources and the original approach on the concept that refers to the links between globalization and security. This article may be, at any time, a starting point in an interesting research direction in the field of global security.

  11. Predicative Adjective Agreement

    Vikner, Sten


    German is a complicated language. Any speaker of e.g. French or Danish who has ever tried to learn German would agree to this. Coming from languages with only two genders and with no case outside the pronoun system, German, with three genders and with four cases throughout the nominal system, seems...... unjustifiably complicated, as if it had been specially designed to torment poor students. However, there is one area where German agreement morphology could not possibly be simpler, and where German is much easier for non-native speakers than e.g. French or Danish: predicative adjectives. Both gender and number...... distinctions, disappear when adjectives are used predicatively. This paper will try to account for why the Germanic languages that inflect attiributive adjectives but not predicative ones are all SOV-languages (e.g. German, Dutch, Frisian and Yiddish)....

  12. Authenticating Tripartite Key Agreement Protocol with Pairings

    Sheng-Li Liu; Fang-Guo Zhang; Ke-Fei Chen


    In this paper, an authenticated tripartite key agreement protocol is proposed, which is an ID-based one with pairings. This protocol involves only one round. The authenticity of the protocol is assured by a special signature scheme, so that messages carrying the information of two ephemeral keys can be broadcasted authentically by an entity. Consequently, one instance of the protocol results in eight session keys for three entities. In other word, one instance of the protocol generates a session key, which is eight times longer than those obtained from traditional key agreement protocols. Security attributes of the protocol are presented, and the computational overhead and bandwidth of the broadcast messages are analyzed as well.

  13. Social Security.

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983


    This group of articles discusses a variety of studies related to social security and retirement benefits. These studies are related to both developing and developed nations and are also concerned with studying work conditions and government role in administering a democratic social security system. (SSH)

  14. Information security management handbook

    Tipton, Harold F


    Access Control Systems and Methodology. Telecommunications and Network Security. Security Management Practices. Application Program Security. Cryptography. Computer, System, and Security Architecture. Operations Security. Business Continuity Planning and Disaster Recovery Planning. Law, Investigation and Ethics. Physical Security.

  15. Strategic information security

    Wylder, John


    Introduction to Strategic Information SecurityWhat Does It Mean to Be Strategic? Information Security Defined The Security Professional's View of Information Security The Business View of Information SecurityChanges Affecting Business and Risk Management Strategic Security Strategic Security or Security Strategy?Monitoring and MeasurementMoving Forward ORGANIZATIONAL ISSUESThe Life Cycles of Security ManagersIntroductionThe Information Security Manager's Responsibilities The Evolution of Data Security to Information SecurityThe Repository Concept Changing Job Requirements Business Life Cycles


    Muhammad Siddique Ansari


    Full Text Available Abstract - Business Organizations and Government unequivocally relies on upon data to deal with their business operations. The most unfavorable impact on association is disappointment of friendship, goodness, trustworthiness, legitimacy and probability of data and administrations. There is an approach to ensure data and to deal with the IT framework's Security inside association. Each time the new innovation is made, it presents some new difficulties for the insurance of information and data. To secure the information and data in association is imperative on the grounds that association nowadays inside and remotely joined with systems of IT frameworks. IT structures are inclined to dissatisfaction and security infringement because of slips and vulnerabilities. These slips and vulnerabilities can be brought on by different variables, for example, quickly creating headway, human slip, poor key particulars, poor movement schedules or censuring the threat. Likewise, framework changes, new deserts and new strikes are a huge piece of the time displayed, which helpers augmented vulnerabilities, disappointments and security infringement all through the IT structure life cycle. The business went to the confirmation that it is essentially difficult to ensure a slip free, risk free and secure IT structure in perspective of the disfigurement of the disavowing security parts, human pass or oversight, and part or supplies frustration. Totally secure IT frameworks don't exist; just those in which the holders may have changing degrees of certainty that security needs of a framework are fulfilled do. The key viewpoints identified with security of data outlining are examined in this paper. From the start, the paper recommends pertinent legitimate structure and their duties including open association obligation, and afterward it returns to present and future time, system limits, structure security in business division. At long last, two key inadequacy markers

  17. Old Dog New Tricks: Use of Point-based Crop Models in Grid-based Regional Assessment of Crop Management Technologies Impact on Future Food Security

    Koo, J.; Wood, S.; Cenacchi, N.; Fisher, M.; Cox, C.


    HarvestChoice ( generates knowledge products to guide strategic investments to improve the productivity and profitability of smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). A keynote component of the HarvestChoice analytical framework is a grid-based overlay of SSA - a cropping simulation platform powered by process-based, crop models. Calibrated around the best available representation of cropping production systems in SSA, the simulation platform engages the DSSAT Crop Systems Model with the CENTURY Soil Organic Matter model (DSSAT-CENTURY) and provides a virtual experimentation module with which to explore the impact of a range of technological, managerial and environmental metrics on future crop productivity and profitability, as well as input use. For each of 5 (or 30) arc-minute grid cells in SSA, a stack of model input underlies it: datasets that cover soil properties and fertility, historic and future climate scenarios and farmers' management practices; all compiled from analyses of existing global and regional databases and consultations with other CGIAR centers. Running a simulation model is not always straightforward, especially when certain cropping systems or management practices are not even practiced by resource-poor farmers yet (e.g., precision agriculture) or they were never included in the existing simulation framework (e.g., water harvesting). In such cases, we used DSSAT-CENTURY as a function to iteratively estimate relative responses of cropping systems to technology-driven changes in water and nutrient balances compared to zero-adoption by farmers, while adjusting model input parameters to best mimic farmers' implementation of technologies in the field. We then fed the results of the simulation into to the economic and food trade model framework, IMPACT, to assess the potential implications on future food security. The outputs of the overall simulation analyses are packaged as a web-accessible database and published

  18. Team Building of Regional Security Section in Coal Mining Enterprises%浅谈煤矿企业的地区保卫科班组建设

    席志干; 陈进


    The team is the basic production unit of enterprise, is the ultimate goal and starting point of all work. The situation of team is directly related to the vitality of enterprises. Team-building is not a new topic, but to promote the better development of enterprises, we need to strengthen teambuilding, to maximize the team's direction, motivation and cohesion role. and fully reflect the role of team workers, such as making progress, selfconsciously learning and improving from each other. This paper makes discussion based on the team-building of regional security section in coal mining enterprises, whose purpose is to improve the business skills, service standards, working attitude and other aspects of workers in companies, thus improving working quality of team and team staff more significantly.%班组是企业的基本生产单元,是一切工作的落脚点和出发点,班组情况的好坏直接关系到企业的活力.班组建设并不是一个新话题,但是为了促进企业的更好发展,必须加强班组建设,从而充分发挥班组的导向、激励和凝聚作用,充分体现班组职工的奋发向上、自觉自主的相互学习、相互提高的作用.本文通过煤矿企业的地区保卫科班组建设,谈谈一些认识,目的是使企业的班组和班组职工在业务技能、服务规范、工作态度等方面都有改善,从而促进企业的班组和班组职工工作素质水平有更大幅度地提高.

  19. Secure Objectives for School Security

    Dalton-Noblitt, April


    In a study conducted among more than 980 American four-year and two-year colleges and universities, including institutions such as the University of Michigan, MIT, UCLA and Columbia, security staff and other administrators identified the five leading goals for their security systems: (1) Preventing unauthorized people from entering their…

  20. Security Bingo

    Computer Security Team


    Want to check your security awareness and win one of three marvellous books on computer security? Just print out this page, mark which of the 25 good practices below you already follow, and send the sheet back to us by 31 October 2011 at either or P.O. Box G19710.   Winners[1] must show that they fulfil at least five good practices in a continuous vertical, horizontal or diagonal row. For details on CERN Computer Security, please consult I personally…   …am concerned about computer security. …run my computer with an anti-virus software and up-to-date signature files. …lock my computer screen whenever I leave my office. …have chosen a reasonably complex password. …have restricted access to all my files and data. …am aware of the security risks and threats to CERN’s computing facilities. &hell...

  1. VHA Data Sharing Agreement Repository

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VHA Data Sharing Agreement Repository serves as a centralized location to collect and report on agreements that share VHA data with entities outside of VA. It...

  2. Junos Security

    Cameron, Rob; Giecco, Patricio; Eberhard, Timothy; Quinn, James


    Junos® Security is the complete and authorized introduction to the new Juniper Networks SRX hardware series. This book not only provides a practical, hands-on field guide to deploying, configuring, and operating SRX, it also serves as a reference to help you prepare for any of the Junos Security Certification examinations offered by Juniper Networks. Network administrators and security professionals will learn how to use SRX Junos services gateways to address an array of enterprise data network requirements -- including IP routing, intrusion detection, attack mitigation, unified threat manag

  3. Computer security

    Gollmann, Dieter


    A completely up-to-date resource on computer security Assuming no previous experience in the field of computer security, this must-have book walks you through the many essential aspects of this vast topic, from the newest advances in software and technology to the most recent information on Web applications security. This new edition includes sections on Windows NT, CORBA, and Java and discusses cross-site scripting and JavaScript hacking as well as SQL injection. Serving as a helpful introduction, this self-study guide is a wonderful starting point for examining the variety of competing sec

  4. Wireless Security

    Osterhage, Wolfgang


    In the wake of the growing use of wireless communications, new types of security risks have evolved. Wireless Security covers the major topic of wireless communications with relevance both to organizations and private users. The technological background of these applications and protocols is laid out and presented in detail. Special emphasis is placed on the IEEE 802.11x-Standards that have been introduced for WLAN technology. Other technologies covered besides WLAN include: mobile phones, bluetooth and infrared. In each chapter a major part is devoted to security risks and provisions includin

  5. Secure NXT-the Next Level of Cloud Security

    N. Venkata Subramanian


    Full Text Available The promise of the cloud is appealing: reduced costs, greater agility, flexibility, scalability and potentially greater security. At the same time, IT organizations recognize that the cloud introduces a number of issues related to security, data integrity, compliance, service level agreements and data architecture that must be addressed. Therefore, the adoption of cloud services is being tempered by a significant level of uncertainty. Numerous surveys indicate that the top concerns for moving to the cloud are security, performance and availability. In other words, enterprises are looking for assurances that they are not adding risk to the business by leveraging the cloud. For many, moving to the cloud is still a leap of faith. Different cloud deployment models-public, private, or hybrid have different security vulnerabilities and risks. Generally, risk increases from greater degrees of multitenancy among increasingly unknown participants. The objective of this article is to insist the fact that cloud security begins with and adds to, well-defined enterprise security; it also introduces a new cloud security model called Cloud Security NXT.

  6. Agreement with Subjects in Lubukusu

    Diercks, Michael J. K.


    This dissertation examines three topics in the morphosyntax of Lubukusu (Bantu, Kenya), all of which are concerned with agreement with subjects: locative inversion, complementizer agreement, and alternative agreement effects in subject extraction. Each topic reports novel Lubukusu data which are both typologically interesting and theoretically…

  7. Regional scenario building as a tool to support vulnerability assessment of food & water security and livelihood conditions under varying natural resources managements

    Reinhardt, Julia; Liersch, Stefan; Dickens, Chris; Kabaseke, Clovis; Mulugeta Lemenih, Kassaye; Sghaier, Mongi; Hattermann, Fred


    Participatory regional scenario building was carried out with stakeholders and local researchers in four meso-scale case studies (CS) in Africa. In all CS the improvement of food and / or water security and livelihood conditions was identified as the focal issue. A major concern was to analyze the impacts of different plausible future developments on these issues. The process of scenario development is of special importance as it helps to identify main drivers, critical uncertainties and patterns of change. Opportunities and constraints of actors and actions become clearer and reveal adaptation capacities. Effective strategies must be furthermore reasonable and accepted by local stakeholders to be implemented. Hence, developing scenarios and generating strategies need the integration of local knowledge. The testing of strategies shows how they play out in different scenarios and how robust they are. Reasons and patterns of social and natural vulnerability can so be shown. The scenario building exercise applied in this study is inspired by the approach from Peter Schwartz. It aims at determining critical uncertainties and to identify the most important driving forces for a specific focal issue which are likely to shape future developments of a region. The most important and uncertain drivers were analyzed and systematized with ranking exercises during meetings with local researchers and stakeholders. Cause-effect relationships were drawn in the form of concept maps either during the meetings or by researchers based on available information. Past observations and the scenario building outcomes were used to conduct a trend analysis. Cross-comparisons were made to find similarities and differences between CS in terms of main driving forces, patterns of change, opportunities and constraints. Driving forces and trends which aroused consistently over scenarios and CS were identified. First results indicate that livelihood conditions of people rely often directly on the

  8. 基于故障树分析的区域粮食安全风险因子识别和分类%Identification and classification of risk factors of regional grain security based on fault tree analysis

    起晓星; 刘黎明; 刘亚彬; 王莉


    区域粮食安全是国家宏观粮食安全的基础.该文运用故障树法对影响中国粮食供需安全的风险因子进行了定性识别,建立了粮食安全风险因子识别的指标体系;在此基础上,提出风险系数法对区域粮食安全风险因子进行定量识别.该文以湖南省洞庭湖区为例进行了实证分析,并依据各风险因子风险来源的不同对它们进行分类,建立了风险因子的分类体系.结果表明:自然灾害、耕地资源约束、水资源约束、劳动力短缺、农药和化肥投入成本约束、人均粮食消费量变化、收入水平变化、人口数量变化是影响该区域粮食安全的主要风险因子.研究的结果可以为相关部门的政策制定提供客观依据,也能为讲一步开展粮食安全风险评估奠定基础.%Regional food security is the basis of national general food security. In this paper, risk factors of food supply and demand in China were qualitatively identified by using fault tree method, and after that the identification indexes system of risk factors of food security was established. Based on the qualitative identification, was risk coefficient method to quantitatively identify risk factors of regional food security was. Meanwhile, a case study was carried out in Dongting Lake area in Hunan Province, and the risk factors were classified according to their different risk sources. The results showed that: natural disasters, farmland resource constraints, water constraints, labor shortage, input cost constraints of fertilizers and pesticides, food consumption changes per capita, income changes, population change were the risk factors of food security in Dongting Lake area. The result can provide strong and relevant evidence for regional policy makers. Based on the results, risk assessment for food security also can be carried out.

  9. Security an introduction

    Purpura, Philip P


    Section I The History and Profession of SecurityDefinition, Role, and History of Security Security Defined The Contexts of Security The Roles of Security The History of Security Security in an Environment of Threats, Terrorism, and All-Hazards Threats and Hazards Terrorism National Strategies The Profession and Business of Security The Business of Security Professionalism and Security Associations Ethics Regulation of the Security Industry Security Training Higher Education Careers Section II Protecting People and AssetsSecurity Methodology Methodology Defined Security Business Proposals Secur

  10. Secure portal.

    Nelson, Cynthia Lee


    There is a need in security systems to rapidly and accurately grant access of authorized personnel to a secure facility while denying access to unauthorized personnel. In many cases this role is filled by security personnel, which can be very costly. Systems that can perform this role autonomously without sacrificing accuracy or speed of throughput are very appealing. To address the issue of autonomous facility access through the use of technology, the idea of a ''secure portal'' is introduced. A secure portal is a defined zone where state-of-the-art technology can be implemented to grant secure area access or to allow special privileges for an individual. Biometric technologies are of interest because they are generally more difficult to defeat than technologies such as badge swipe and keypad entry. The biometric technologies selected for this concept were facial and gait recognition. They were chosen since they require less user cooperation than other biometrics such as fingerprint, iris, and hand geometry and because they have the most potential for flexibility in deployment. The secure portal concept could be implemented within the boundaries of an entry area to a facility. As a person is approaching a badge and/or PIN portal, face and gait information can be gathered and processed. The biometric information could be fused for verification against the information that is gathered from the badge. This paper discusses a facial recognition technology that was developed for the purposes of providing high verification probabilities with low false alarm rates, which would be required of an autonomous entry control system. In particular, a 3-D facial recognition approach using Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis is described. Gait recognition technology, based on Hidden Markov Models has been explored, but those results are not included in this paper. Fusion approaches for combining the results of the biometrics would be the next step in realizing

  11. Security Studies



    Security Studies has firmly established itself as a leading journal on international security issues. The journal publishes theoretical, historical and policy-oriented articles on the causes and consequences of war, and the sources and conditions of peace. The journal has published articles on balancing vs. bandwagoning, deterrence in enduring rivalries, the Domino theory, nuclear weapons proliferation, civil-military relations, political reforms in China, strategic culture in Asia and the P...

  12. Energy Security


    With an increasing number of countries becoming industrialized, energy, the so-called blood of modern economies, is becoming increasingly important Energy security has become an important factor that directly influences world economic stability and international relations. In an article posted on People's Daily Online, Liu Jianfei, professor at the International Strategic Research Center of the Party School of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, shares his opinions on energy security.

  13. Predicting word sense annotation agreement

    Martinez Alonso, Hector; Johannsen, Anders Trærup; Lopez de Lacalle, Oier


    High agreement is a common objective when annotating data for word senses. However, a number of factors make perfect agreement impossible, e.g. the limitations of the sense inventories, the difficulty of the examples or the interpretation preferences of the annotations. Estimating potential...... agreement is thus a relevant task to supplement the evaluation of sense annotations. In this article we propose two methods to predict agreement on word-annotation instances. We experiment with a continuous representation and a three-way discretization of observed agreement. In spite of the difficulty...

  14. Secret Key Agreement: Fundamental Limits and Practical Challenges

    Rezki, Zouheir


    Despite the tremendous progress made toward establishing PLS as a new paradigm to guarantee security of communication systems at the physical layerthere is a common belief among researchers and industrials that there are many practical challenges that prevent PLS from flourishing at the industrial scale. Most secure message transmission constructions available to date are tied to strong assumptions on CSI, consider simple channel models and undermine eavesdropping capabilities; thus compromising their practical interest to a big extent. Perhaps arguably, the most likely reasonable way to leverage PLS potential in securing modern wireless communication systems is via secret-key agreement. In the latter setting, the legitimate parties try to agree on a key exploiting availability of a public channel with high capacity which is also accessible to the eavesdropper. Once a key is shared by the legitimate parties, they may use it in a one-time pad encryption, for instance. In this article, we investigate two performance limits of secret-key agreement communications; namely, the secret-key diversity-multiplexing trade-off and the effect of transmit correlation on the secretkey capacity. We show via examples how secretkey agreement offers more flexibility than secure message transmissions. Finally, we explore a few challenges of secret-key agreement concept and propose a few guidelines to overturn them.

  15. The EU-Turkey March 2016 Agreement As a Model

    Seeberg, Peter

    to the Arab Mediterranean and more specifically in the context of Libya, as and when political and security conditions in that country improve. The author recognizes that despite relevant criticism of the EU-Turkey deal, the agreement may well contain building blocks worth taking into consideration in future...


    Dorina Ardelean


    Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

  17. Efficient Authenticated Key Agreement Protocol Using Self-Certified Public Keys from Pairings

    SHAO Zu-hua


    An efficient authenticated key agreement protocol is proposed, which makes use of bilinear pairings and selfcertified public keys. Its security is based on the security assumptions of the bilinear Diffie-Hellman problem and the computational Diffie-Hellman problem. Users can choose their private keys independently. The public keys and identities of users can be verified implicitly when the session key being generating in a logically single step. A trusted Key Generation Center is no longer required as in the ID-based authenticated key agreement protocols. Compared with existing authenticated key agreement protocols from pairings, the new proposed protocol is more efficient and secure.

  18. Clinically acceptable agreement between the ViMove wireless motion sensor system and the Vicon motion capture system when measuring lumbar region inclination motion in the sagittal and coronal planes

    Mjøsund, Hanne Leirbekk; Boyle, Eleanor; Kjaer, Per


    BACKGROUND: Wireless, wearable, inertial motion sensor technology introduces new possibilities for monitoring spinal motion and pain in people during their daily activities of work, rest and play. There are many types of these wireless devices currently available but the precision in measurement......-range flexion inclination, extension inclination and lateral flexion inclination to both sides while standing were measured by both systems concurrently with short rest periods in between. Measurement agreement through the whole movement range was analysed using a multilevel mixed-effects regression model....... CONCLUSIONS: We found a clinically acceptable level of agreement between these two methods for measuring standing lumbar inclination motion in these two cardinal movement planes. Further research should investigate the ViMove system's ability to measure lumbar motion in more complex 3D functional movements...

  19. Energy and the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement

    Carmichael, E.A.


    The Canada-USA Free Trade Agreement has raised concerns in both countries with respect to its provisions that may affect security of energy supplies, market access, and energy policy. This document summarizes what the Agreement actually says with regard to energy questions, and reviews Canadian and US energy policies in the postwar period. Three distinct stages of North American energy policy are identified, according to the oil price situation in each stage. From this review, a number of observations are made on the effects of various energy-related policies, and it is noted that past policies of trade restrictions, price controls, and discriminatory treatment of foreign supplies have proven to be wasteful. On the other hand, this is not taken to mean that Canada and the USA should not give up the ability to conduct independent, constructive energy policies, and the exact provisions of the Agreement's energy chapter are examined with that point in mind. The benefits of the Agreement for Canada are outlined, notably in the uranium, oil/gas, and electricity sectors. It is concluded that the Agreement does not reduce Canada's energy supply security, and that it should enhance the energy security of both Canada and the USA. 11 refs.

  20. 水匮乏指数及其在东北地区水安全评价中的应用%Application of water poverty index in water security evaluation in north- east region of China

    姜宁; 付强; 孙颖娜


    Water is being the most precious resources. The impaction of water security on the sustainable development of human society and economy should be treated as a crucial part of comprehensive security .Water Poverty Index (WPI),developed by the center of Ecology and Hydrology in UK, is applied to assess the regional water security. Through the calculation of WPI in northeast region of china in 2009, the WPI of Heilongjiang province was maximum, the WPI of Jilin province was minimum. The water security situation of Jilin was worst. Water safety guarantee system should be established by raising level of water resource development and people’s education, controlling fertilizer amount and area of soil erosion, improving social economic development etc in Jilin province.%  水安全问题对社会经济发展的影响已纳入综合安全的范畴,英国生态与水文中心针对水安全评价问题提出的水匮乏指数可以对地区水安全状况进行评价。通过对东北地区2009年水资源匮乏指数的计算,发现黑龙江省水匮乏指数最高,吉林省水匮乏指数最低,其水安全状况最差,需要从提高水资源开发利用程度、人口受教育程度、控制化肥用量、增加水土流失治理面积、提高社会经济发展水平等方面保障水资源安全体系建立。

  1. Three-party authenticated key agreements for optimal communication.

    Lee, Tian-Fu; Hwang, Tzonelih


    Authenticated key agreements enable users to determine session keys, and to securely communicate with others over an insecure channel via the session keys. This study investigates the lower bounds on communications for three-party authenticated key agreements and considers whether or not the sub-keys for generating a session key can be revealed in the channel. Since two clients do not share any common secret key, they require the help of the server to authenticate their identities and exchange confidential and authenticated information over insecure networks. However, if the session key security is based on asymmetric cryptosystems, then revealing the sub-keys cannot compromise the session key. The clients can directly exchange the sub-keys and reduce the transmissions. In addition, authenticated key agreements were developed by using the derived results of the lower bounds on communications. Compared with related approaches, the proposed protocols had fewer transmissions and realized the lower bounds on communications.

  2. DIRAC Security

    Casajús Ramo, A


    DIRAC is the LHCb Workload and Data Management System. Based on a service-oriented architecture, it enables generic distributed computing with lightweight Agents and Clients for job execution and data transfers. DIRAC implements a client-server architecture exposing server methods through XML Remote Procedure Call (XML-RPC) protocol. DIRAC is mostly coded in python. DIRAC security infrastructure has been designed to be a completely generic XML-RPC transport over a SSL tunnel. This new security layer is able to handle standard X509 certificates as well as grid-proxies to authenticate both sides of the connection. Serve and client authentication relies over OpenSSL and py-Open SSL, but to be able to handle grid proxies some modifications have been added to those libraries. DIRAC security infrastructure handles authorization and authorization as well as provides extended capabilities like secure connection tunneling and file transfer. Using this new security infrastructure all LHCb users can safely make use o...

  3. Perspectives on Global and Regional Security and Implications of Nuclear and Space Technologies: U.S.-Brazil Strategic Dialogue, Phase 2 Report


    enhanced leverage in South- South and BRICs groupings. 6 Under President Lula da Silva’s leadership, Brazil sought to actively enhance and promote its...State,” 25, 35-36; Joe Leahy and James Lamont, “ BRICs to Debate Creation of Common Bank,” Financial Times, March 20, 2012.   4   Challenges in the...conflict. As previously, mentioned, UNASUR is viewed as a proto-security community. The BRICS (Brazil-Russia-India-China-South Africa) grouping

  4. West Africa’s Efforts to Build Regional Security: An Analysis of Past ECOWAS Interventions to Determine what is Needed to Increase its Peacekeeping Capabilities


    Nations Office on Drugs and Crime xiii UNOMIL United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia UNSCR United Nations Security Council Resolution URSS Union...only beneficial to US interests 9 (the local natural resources, the increasing presence of China and the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT).27 Even... China , the newcomer, is accordingly seen as an opportunistic superpower only interested in its economic interests.28 Western countries or

  5. 14 CFR 1274.936 - Breach of safety or security.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Breach of safety or security. 1274.936... AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.936 Breach of safety or security. Breach of Safety or Security July 2002 Safety is the freedom from those conditions that can...

  6. Exploring rater agreement: configurations of agreement and disagreement



    Full Text Available At the level of manifest categorical variables, a large number of coefficients and models for the examination of rater agreement has been proposed and used for descriptive and explanatory purposes. This article focuses on exploring rater agreement. Configural Frequency Analysis (CFA is proposed as a method of exploration of cross-classifications of raters’ judgements. CFA allows researchers to (1 examine individual cells and sets of cells in agreement tables; (2 examine cells that indicate disagreement; and (3 explore agreement and disagreement among three or more raters. Four CFA base models are discussed. The first is the model of rater agreement that is also used for Cohen’s (1960  (kappa. This model proposes independence of raters’ judgements. Deviations from this model suggest agreement or disagreement beyond chance. The second CFA model is based on a log-linear null model. This model is also used for Brennan and Prediger’s (1981 n. It proposes a uniform distribution of ratings. The third model is that of Tanner and Young (1985. This model proposes equal weights for agreement cases and independence otherwise. The fourth model is the quasi-independence model. This model allows one to blank out agreement cells and thus to focus solely on patterns of disagreement. Examples use data from applicant selection.

  7. Data security.


    A government-commissioned review of data security across health and care has led to the proposal of new standards for security and options for a consent/opt-out model. Standards include that all staff complete appropriate annual data security training and pass a mandatory test provided through the revised Information Governance Toolkit, that personal confidential data is only accessible to staff who need it for their current role, and that access is removed as soon as it is no longer required. The consent/opt-out model is outlined under 8 statements, and includes certain circumstances where it will not apply, for example, where there is an overriding public interest, or mandatory legal requirement.

  8. International Grants and Cooperative Agreements

    EPA provides grants and enters into cooperative agreements that support protecting human health and the environment while advancing U.S. national interests through international environmental collaboration.

  9. Labor Agreement Information System (LAIRS)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Labor Agreement Information Retrieval System (LAIRS) is a database containing historical information on labor-management relations in the Federal Government. It...

  10. Data and Communication Security

    Sadeq ALHAMOUZ


    Full Text Available The regional initiative was presented by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia in preparation for the world summit, Dec 2003. The Initiative by itself and away from regional trouble and differences between both the Arab countries and other countries in the regions is a good and noble Initiative. However with such differences and lack of trust the security issue should be the first issue tackled and resolved. In this paper it is aimed to look at present tools and techniques available, and then suggest alternatives when possible.

  11. Flying from the EU to the US: necessary extraterritorial legal diffusion in the US-EU Passenger Name Record agreement

    Taylor, M.S.C.


    The US-EU Passenger Name Record (PNR) agreement provides guidance on processing and transferring EU citizens’ airline passenger data to the US Department of Homeland Security for counterterrorism and security purposes. The US and the EU have struggled to conclude an agreement that satisfies all thei

  12. Privatising Security

    Irina Mindova-Docheva


    Full Text Available The article proposes an analysis of the different approaches towards employing the international legal framework in the regulation and oversight of private military and security companies’ operation in armed conflicts and in peace time security systems. It proposes a partnership-based approach for public and private actors aiming at creating and sharing common values under the principles of solidarity, protection of human rights and rule of law. A focus of further research should be the process of shaping those common values.


    Julián A. Herrera M


    dica works to implement an automated system (web manager limbering important mechanisms like articles submission, evaluation process and management of editorial decisions, in order to increase in authors the proportion of an universal language use for scientific communication. In this number sixteen articles have been received from four countries and two continents, more than half of them written in English, which demonstrates an advance achieving the proposed objectives.Finally I would like to refer to a public health problem that continues with no solution in Colombia. It has been treated by some authors of various articles in this number. According to United Nations Population Fund maternal mortality is the millennium developing goal that is less achieved in the country. The National Health Institute of the United States of America (NHI has made a call to diminish research breach between disciplines as the only way to find some day preeclampsia’s etiology and prevention, which is the first cause of maternal death in Colombia. Regardless of known causes, there is a consensus about the multifactorial origin of the illness; and so, preventive actions should be taken in that direction, as it is presented by the review article.Increase coverage of prenatal control, number of prenatal controls, and increase institutional attention at delivery, is not concordant with high mortality rates observed in many countries in the region, that also present issues with attention quality and a high degree of unaccomplished standards and protocols. This situation deserves a very deep reflexion. Government, academy, and society have a great social responsibility to modify this serious problem that affects in a very sensitive way life quality specially that of the most vulnerable population.

  14. 78 FR 20120 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Joint Technical Demonstration of Tactical Data...


    ... and supporting hardware configurations (as required) and conduct preliminary data information sharing... SECURITY Coast Guard Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Joint Technical Demonstration of Tactical Data Link Range Enhancement Software AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of intent;...

  15. The Research and Application of Security and Defense System in Regional Service Based on Internet%基于Internet的区域服务安全防御系统的研究与应用



    Internet作为信息分享平台越来越受到人们的关注,并在人们的日常生活中占据了重要的一席之地,但是随之而来的安全问题也开始日益严重。如何在实现数据共享的同时保证隐私和信息的可靠性开始成为IT行业研究的对象。本文主要研究了区域网络的安全防御系统,并通过实例证明了安全防御系统的重要性。%Internet has gained more and more attention as an information shared platform,while has taken a great place in people’s daily life.Moreover,the ensuing security problems have begun to increasingly serious.How to achieve data sharing while ensuring privacy and the reliability of the information has become the studying object in IT occupation.This paper studies the regional network security defense system,and demonstrates the importance of security and defense systems by example.

  16. Exploration of Provincial and Regional Two Level Substation Security Risk Prevention and Control System Construction%省地两级变电站安防风险防控体系建设探索

    肖安南; 张城玮; 戴先玉


    Through establishing standardized the maintenance management system of security system , se-curity risk classification management and neural network risk early warning are implemented , in two level of province and region setting risk analysis , online inspection and field monitoring officers .Effectively tracking the rectification results , to achieve closed-loop management , the level of substation security risk prevention and control is improved .%通过建立规范化的安防系统运维管理体系,实行安防风险分类管理、神经网络风险预警,在省地两级均设置风险分析、在线稽查和现场监控专责人员。有效跟踪隐患整改结果,实现问题的闭环管理,提高变电站安防风险防控水平。

  17. Information Security

    Hartel, Pieter; Suryana Herman, Nanna; Leukfeldt, E.R.; Stol, W.Ph.


    Information security is all about the protection of digital assets, such as digital content, personal health records, state secrets etc. These assets can be handled by a party who is authorised to access and control the asset or a party who is not authorised to do so. Authorisation determines who is

  18. Secure Ties

    Joep de Hart; Frans Knol; Cora Maas - de Waal; Theo Roes


    Original title: Zekere banden. Discussions about the Netherlands of today often throw up terms such as 'social cohesion', 'social integration', 'liveability' and 'security'. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP has carried out a study of this phenomenon and presents the results in this

  19. Secured transactions

    Beale, H.


    In this paper I describe the work that is currently under way, within the Network of Excellence charged with creating a draft Common Frame of Reference, to draft rules on security over moveable assets. After a brief introduction, I deal with two broad questions: (1) the general aims and scope of the

  20. Food security

    Ridder, M. de


    Food security is back on the agenda as a top priority for policy makers. In January 2011, record high food prices resulted in protests in Tunisia, which subsequently led to the spread of the revolutions in other North African and Middle Eastern countries. Although experts have asserted that no state

  1. Information Security

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Suryana Herman, Nanna; Leukfeldt, E.R.; Stol, W.Ph.


    Information security is all about the protection of digital assets, such as digital content, personal health records, state secrets etc. These assets can be handled by a party who is authorised to access and control the asset or a party who is not authorised to do so. Authorisation determines who is

  2. Opinions about Component Energetic Security



    Collective security (international) represent the morphological expression of individual security components. According to the Report presented at the United Nations Development Programme, collective security (international) as well as national security, is the expression of seven synergistic dimensions as follows: economic security, food security, environmental security, personal security, community security, political security and individual security. As part of economic security, energy an...

  3. Security Administration Reports Application

    Social Security Administration — Contains SSA Security Reports that allow Information Security Officers (ISOs) to access, review and take appropriate action based on the information contained in the...

  4. Security Investigation Database (SID)

    US Agency for International Development — Security Investigation & Personnel Security Clearance - COTS personnel security application in a USAID virtualized environement that can support USAID's business...

  5. Notes on Agreement in Itelmen

    Jonathan David Bobaljik


    Full Text Available Agreement in Itelmen is represented by means of both prefixes and suffixes. While the prefixes reference subjects (of both transitive and intransitive verbs, the suffixal agreement morphemes on a given verb may reference the subject, the object, or an oblique argument, or some combination of these. We propose that the proper characterization of the factors that determine which arguments control suffixal agreement involves a division of labour between morphology and a notion of discourse prominence/salience. In essence, we propose that the suffixal agreement morpheme is an object agreement marker, but the features of the subject are reflected in this position when the object lacks the relevant features (for example, we treat third person as the lack of a person feature, or is absent altogether (thus, intransitive verbs agree twice with their subjects. When a verb occurs with an oblique as well as a direct object, discourse salience will determine which of these non-subject arguments will control object agreement. In addition to providing a description of a complex range of facts from Itelmen, the paper sheds light on the nature of “multiple exponence” and the role of “competition” among affixes for a particular position in the verbal agreement system.

  6. Extending Eurasia Security Cooperation


    After 14 years of development, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) , has set its sights on goals for the next de-cade at the 15th meeting of the Council of SCO Heads of State that was held in Ufa, the capital of Russia's Bashkortostan Republic, on July 9-10. The SCO, established in Shanghai in 2001, is committed to building fdendly neighbor rela- tions and maintaining security and stability in the Central Asian region through multilateral cooperation.

  7. Multiparty Quantum Key Agreement Based on Quantum Search Algorithm.

    Cao, Hao; Ma, Wenping


    Quantum key agreement is an important topic that the shared key must be negotiated equally by all participants, and any nontrivial subset of participants cannot fully determine the shared key. To date, the embed modes of subkey in all the previously proposed quantum key agreement protocols are based on either BB84 or entangled states. The research of the quantum key agreement protocol based on quantum search algorithms is still blank. In this paper, on the basis of investigating the properties of quantum search algorithms, we propose the first quantum key agreement protocol whose embed mode of subkey is based on a quantum search algorithm known as Grover's algorithm. A novel example of protocols with 5 - party is presented. The efficiency analysis shows that our protocol is prior to existing MQKA protocols. Furthermore it is secure against both external attack and internal attacks.

  8. Research Progress on Regional Ecological Security Pattern Planning and Discussion of Planning Techniqueflow%区域生态安全格局规划研究进展及规划技术流程探讨

    欧定华; 夏建国; 张莉; 赵智


    The regional ecological security pattern planning is an effect way to resolve conflicts between ecological protection and economic development, an important method to achieve smart growth and smart protection as well, thus, the research on regional ecological security pattern planning has important theoretical and practical significance. However, there is a lack of systematic carding and summary on the related literatures of conception, supporting theories as well as technical methods for regional ecological security pattern planning. Therefore, through consulting a large number of literature as well as summarizing and analyzing relevant researches at home and abroad, this paper not only clarified the logical relationship among different conceptions of regional ecological security pattern thus exactly defined regional ecological security pattern planning, but also systematically summarized the supporting theories and technical methods on regional ecological security pattern planning in different areas, such as landscape ecological classification and ecological suitability assessment, landscape pattern change analysis and dynamic simulation, ecological security warning and spatial planning decisions technical methods, and the conclusions are as follows: research on reliability verification of theory constructing and classification results on landscape ecological classification index is relatively weak;methods widely used on landscape ecological suitability assessment can be divided into traditional method including“thousand layer cake”method, analytic hierarchy process, and modern artificial intelligence method including artificial neural network, genetic algorithm, cellular automata;quantitative identification on driving factors of landscape pattern change is relatively deficient and dissicution on interaction relationship among all driving factors is superficial, what’s more, self-adaptive and feedback effct of landscape pattern itself reacting to driving

  9. Food security vs. nutrition security.

    Venugopal, K R


    This article presents the status of food security versus nutrition security in India. Food security is defined as the availability and the access of food to all people; whereas nutrition security demands the intake of a wide range of foods which provides the essential needed nutrients. It is estimated that the average dietary intake in India is 2280 calories. In 9 major states, the average was less than 2400 calories, suggesting poverty. In a 1988-90 survey, only 10% of the children, and about 50% of the adults, were considered to have a normal nutritional status. The rest suffered from different levels of Chronic Energy Deficiency. In addition, contradictions have also developed within policies in India that seek to address these issues. Recognizing that agriculture is the key to poverty eradication, India recently drafted the Agriculture Policy. The Policy focuses on rain-fed farming, unemployment, and malnutrition in rural areas, revitalizing the cooperatives, and increasing the involvement of nongovernmental organizations. However, there are certain issues of concern in the Policy with the most damaging aspect seen in the promotion of existing inequalities in the rural sector.

  10. Computer Security: the security marathon

    Computer Security Team


    If you believe that “security” is a sprint, that a quick hack is invulnerable, that quick bug fixing is sufficient, that plugging security measures on top of existing structures is good, that once you are secure your life will be easy... then let me convince you otherwise.   An excellent example of this is when the summer students join us at CERN. As the summer period is short, software projects must be accomplished quickly, like a sprint. Rush, rush! But often, this sprint ends with aching muscles. Regularly, these summer students approach us to have their project or web server made visible to the Internet. Regularly, quick security reviews of those web servers diagnose severe underperformance with regards to security: the web applications are flawed or use insecure protocols; the employed software tools, databases or web frameworks are sub-optimal and not adequately chosen for that project; the operating system is non-standard and has never been brought up-to-date; and ...

  11. 20 CFR 416.1427 - Effect of expedited appeals process agreement.


    .... 416.1427 Section 416.1427 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations, Administrative Review Process, and Reopening of.... After an expedited appeals process agreement is signed, you will not need to complete the...

  12. 78 FR 28866 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) Opportunity With the Department of...


    ... SECURITY Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) Opportunity With the Department of Homeland Security for the Development of a Foot-and-Mouth Disease 3ABC ELISA Diagnostic Kit AGENCY: Science and... research, development, and the obtaining of USDA licensure for the detection of antibodies to viral antigen...

  13. Enhanced Two-Factor Authentication and Key Agreement Using Dynamic Identities in Wireless Sensor Networks

    I-Pin Chang


    Full Text Available Key agreements that use only password authentication are convenient in communication networks, but these key agreement schemes often fail to resist possible attacks, and therefore provide poor security compared with some other authentication schemes. To increase security, many authentication and key agreement schemes use smartcard authentication in addition to passwords. Thus, two-factor authentication and key agreement schemes using smartcards and passwords are widely adopted in many applications. Vaidya et al. recently presented a two-factor authentication and key agreement scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Kim et al. observed that the Vaidya et al. scheme fails to resist gateway node bypassing and user impersonation attacks, and then proposed an improved scheme for WSNs. This study analyzes the weaknesses of the two-factor authentication and key agreement scheme of Kim et al., which include vulnerability to impersonation attacks, lost smartcard attacks and man-in-the-middle attacks, violation of session key security, and failure to protect user privacy. An efficient and secure authentication and key agreement scheme for WSNs based on the scheme of Kim et al. is then proposed. The proposed scheme not only solves the weaknesses of previous approaches, but also increases security requirements while maintaining low computational cost.

  14. Collective Security

    Galster, Kjeld

    , but while creation of defensive alliances appears unrealistic, new defence laws appearing 1909 show strong resolve to defend Denmark’s status as a neutral power. The Great War proves that these laws provided an adequate tool to be wielded by the politicians actually in office during that conflict. Following....... Moreover, they estimated that armed defence was a priori hopeless and possibly even dangerous as it might attract unnecessary attention by a would-be belligerent. Collective Security: National Egotism (Abstract) In Danish pre-World War I defence debate the notion of collective security is missing. During...... the early years of the 19th century, the political work is influenced by a pervasive feeling of rising tension and danger on the continent of Europe, but while creation of defensive alliances appears unrealistic, new defence laws appearing 1909 show strong resolve to defend Denmark’s status as a neutral...

  15. Image Security


    popularity, contemplates the cru- cial needs for protecting intellectual property rights on multimedia content like images, video, audio , and oth- for still images, audio , video, and multimedia products.’ The networking environment of the future will require tools that provide m secure and fast...technique known as steganography ? Steganography , or “covered writing,” George Voyatzis and Ioannis Pitas University of Thessaloniki has a long

  16. Security system

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.


    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  17. Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) | FNLCR

    Material Transfer Agreements are appropriate for exchange of materials into or out of the Frederick National Labfor research or testing purposes, with no collaborative research by parties involving the materials.

  18. Corporate Integrity Agreement (CIA) documents

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — OIG negotiates corporate integrity agreements (CIA) with health care providers and other entities as part of the settlement of Federal health care program...

  19. Corporate Integrity Agreement (CIA) documents

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — OIG negotiates corporate integrity agreements (CIA) with health care providers and other entities as part of the settlement of Federal health care program...

  20. The bilateral trade agreements and export performance of South Asian nations with special reference to India Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement

    Suhail P; Sreejesh S


    The regional trade agreements (RTA) have been one of the important developments in the world trading system in 1990s. There are number of studies on the effects trade agreements in different contexts. This study is an attempt to analyse the effects of bilateral trade agreements in the intraregional trade in the SAARC region with special reference to the Free Trade Agreements (FTA) between India Sri Lanka. The study uses a panel regression analysis by using balance panel data. The study conclu...

  1. Mass Customizing IT Service Agreements

    Brocke, Henrik Finn; Uebernickel, Falk; Brenner, Walter


    IT service providers shall achieve both cost reduction in their IT operations and customer individuality in service agreements. This article suggests adapting the well known principle of mass customization to balance individuality and standardization in service agreements. Dependent on the commitment modularity type, its employment may not only save time and resources at the point of customer involvement but also allow the pre-engineering of repeatable processes of provisioning and IT operati...

  2. Venezuela and Energy Security of Latin America

    Elena Igorevna Vesnovskaya


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the specificity of Venezuela's energy policy and the features of the evolution of its approaches to solving problems of energy security. Special attention is paid to the projects of Caracas in the energy sector which are aimed at the creating of common energy zone in Latin America. The author has revealed the interaction of internal political processes in Venezuela as the country's leader in the region, with its integration policy, and also identified trends in the further development of energy policy and strategy of Latin American countries. The research of energy resources of Latin America determined that the main factor that works in favor of convergence states within the South American "geopolitical ring" is to ensure energy security. Venezuela is among the richest resources of Latin America. In the research it was determined that Petrosur, Petrocaribe and Petroandina provide the basis for a range of bilateral agreements to promote cooperation, creation ventures based on the state oil companies of these states.

  3. Security of supply


    Paul Isbell revisits the energy security debate; John Gault considers European security and natural gas supplies; William C. Ramsay discusses security of energy supplies in a global market; Hasan M. Qabazard outlines OPEC’s abiding commitment to energy security.

  4. Three-Factor User Authentication and Key Agreement Using Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Park, YoHan; Park, YoungHo


    Secure communication is a significant issue in wireless sensor networks. User authentication and key agreement are essential for providing a secure system, especially in user-oriented mobile services. It is also necessary to protect the identity of each individual in wireless environments to avoid personal privacy concerns. Many authentication and key agreement schemes utilize a smart card in addition to a password to support security functionalities. However, these schemes often fail to provide security along with privacy. In 2015, Chang et al. analyzed the security vulnerabilities of previous schemes and presented the two-factor authentication scheme that provided user privacy by using dynamic identities. However, when we cryptanalyzed Chang et al.'s scheme, we found that it does not provide sufficient security for wireless sensor networks and fails to provide accurate password updates. This paper proposes a security-enhanced authentication and key agreement scheme to overcome these security weaknesses using biometric information and an elliptic curve cryptosystem. We analyze the security of the proposed scheme against various attacks and check its viability in the mobile environment.

  5. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany (Queen Mary Univ. of London (United Kingdom))


    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  6. Rater agreement in lung scintigraphy.

    Christiansen, F; Andersson, T; Rydman, H; Qvarner, N; Måre, K


    The PIOPED criteria in their original and revised forms are today's standards in the interpretation of ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy. When the PIOPED criteria are used by experienced raters with training in consensus interpretation, the agreement rates have been demonstrated to be excellent. Our purpose was to investigate the rates of agreement between 2 experienced raters from different hospital who had no training in consensus interpretation. The 2 raters investigated a population of 195 patients. This group included 72 patients from a previous study who had an intermediate probability of pulmonary embolism and who had also been examined by pulmonary angiography. The results demonstrated moderate agreement rates with a kappa value of 0.54 (0.45-0.63 in a 95% confidence interval), which is similar to the kappa value of the PIOPED study but significantly lower than the kappa values of agreement rates among consensus-trained raters. There was a low consistency in the intermediate probability category, with a proportional agreement rate of 0.39 between the experienced raters. The moderate agreement rates between raters from different hospitals make it difficult to compare study populations of a certain scintigraphic category in different hospitals. Further investigations are mandatory for accurate diagnosis when the scintigrams are in the category of intermediate probability of pulmonary embolism.

  7. Rater agreement in lung scintigraphy

    Christiansen, F. [Oerebro Medical Center Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Andersson, T. [Oerebro Medical Center Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Rydman, H. [Oerebro Medical Center Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Qvarner, N. [Oerebro Medical Center Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Maare, K. [Huddinge Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiolgy


    Purpose: The PIOPED criteria in their original and revised forms are today`s standards in the interpretation of ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy. When the PIOPED criteria are used by experienced raters with training in consensus interpretation, the agreement rates have been demonstrated to be excellent. Our purpose was to investigate the rates of agreement between 2 experienced raters from different hospitals who had no training in consensus interpretation. Material and Methods: The 2 raters investigated a population of 195 patients. This group included 72 patients from a previous study who had an intermediate probability of pulmonary embolism and who had also been examined by pulmonary angiography. Results: The results demonstrated moderate agreement rates with a kappa value of 0.54 (0.45-0.63 in a 95% confidence interval), which is similar to the kappa value of the PIOPED study but significantly lower than the kappa values of agreement rates among consensus-trained raters. There was a low consistency in the intermediate probability category, with a proportional agreement rate of 0.39 between the experienced raters. Conclusion: The moderate agreement rates between raters from different hospitals make it difficult to compare study populations of a certain scintigraphic category in different hospitals. Further investigations are mandatory for accurate diagnosis when the scintigrams are in the category of intermediate probability of pulmonary embolism. (orig.).

  8. Understanding of the Security Cooperation under the CICA Framework from the Evolving Security Concept

    Qiang Xiaoyun


    The complex characteristics and the grim situation of the Asian security in the new period puts construction of a new security structure in Asia on the agenda,and the existing CICA composed of most Asian countries can provide useful help for the Asian security structure construction.The CICA plays a unique role in promoting peace and cooperation in Asia,and in promoting mutual understanding and trust among its member states.Facing the common and comprehensive security challenges in the Asian region,the CICA security concept is also constantly developing and improving.A new Asian security concept advocated by China has become the core content of the CICA security concept,which carries far-reaching significance for pushing Asian countries to boost mutual trust and cooperation,and jointly build a secure and stable environment in the region.Respecting and caring of the security concerns of all Member States,and promoting security and mutual trust through dialogue and cooperation are the CICA main consideration for carrying out security cooperation.The Security cooperation under the future CICA framework should,on the basis of the new security concept,overcome a dilemma for lack of a community of cognition identity,a community of interests,a community of responsibility and a community of shared destiny,actively implement the measures for mutual trust,strengthen mechanisms construction,and make contributions for establishment of a new security structure in Asia.

  9. Collective Bargaining Agreement between Niagara University and Niagara University Lay Teachers Association 1987-1989.

    Niagara Univ., Niagara Falls, NY.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Niagara University (New York) and the Niagara University Lay Teachers Association, a chapter of the American Association of University Professors, covering the period 1987 to 1989 is presented. The agreement covers the following items: recognition, union security, dues checkoff, discrimination policy,…

  10. 20 CFR 411.415 - Who will verify the establishment of agreements between ENs and State VR agencies?


    ... agreements between ENs and State VR agencies? 411.415 Section 411.415 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY...' Participation Agreements Between Employment Networks and State Vr Agencies § 411.415 Who will verify the establishment of agreements between ENs and State VR agencies? The PM will verify the establishment of these...

  11. Statistical security for Social Security.

    Soneji, Samir; King, Gary


    The financial viability of Social Security, the single largest U.S. government program, depends on accurate forecasts of the solvency of its intergenerational trust fund. We begin by detailing information necessary for replicating the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) forecasting procedures, which until now has been unavailable in the public domain. We then offer a way to improve the quality of these procedures via age- and sex-specific mortality forecasts. The most recent SSA mortality forecasts were based on the best available technology at the time, which was a combination of linear extrapolation and qualitative judgments. Unfortunately, linear extrapolation excludes known risk factors and is inconsistent with long-standing demographic patterns, such as the smoothness of age profiles. Modern statistical methods typically outperform even the best qualitative judgments in these contexts. We show how to use such methods, enabling researchers to forecast using far more information, such as the known risk factors of smoking and obesity and known demographic patterns. Including this extra information makes a substantial difference. For example, by improving only mortality forecasting methods, we predict three fewer years of net surplus, $730 billion less in Social Security Trust Funds, and program costs that are 0.66% greater for projected taxable payroll by 2031 compared with SSA projections. More important than specific numerical estimates are the advantages of transparency, replicability, reduction of uncertainty, and what may be the resulting lower vulnerability to the politicization of program forecasts. In addition, by offering with this article software and detailed replication information, we hope to marshal the efforts of the research community to include ever more informative inputs and to continue to reduce uncertainties in Social Security forecasts.

  12. 75 FR 22641 - Order Extending and Modifying Temporary Conditional Exemptions Under the Securities Exchange Act...


    ... Mortgage Association (``Fannie Mae''), the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (``Freddie Mac'') or the... formal insolvency proceedings the security agreements would provide that the collateral would be returned... has established informal relationships with securities authorities in Ireland and Sweden...

  13. 美国在亚太地区“雁阵安全模式”浅析%Study on US“Flying Geese Security Model”in Asia-Pacific Region

    周俊佑; 李志东


    Since Obama administration gets in office, “Flying Geese Security Model” has been taking shape under the influence of US Rebalancing to Asia-Pacific strategy. This model is different from “Hub-and-Spokes Security Model”, which came into being during the Cold War, or “Fan Security Model”, which came into being after the end of Cold War. The main features of “Flying Geese Security Model”include that US as the leading goose is directing its followers towards its targets, US-Japan alliance and US-South Korea alliance are the second echelon formation right behind the leading goose, US and its allies --Australia, Philippines and Thailand are the third echelon formation, US and other Asia-Pacific countries such as Vietnam, Indonesia, Singapore and India are the fourth echelon formation. On the whole this model is like flying geese with a leading goose ahead and other geese following behind. Five aspects account for the formation of this security model, which are the changed global trends, the uniqueness of the Asia-Pacific region, the adjustment of the American Middle East policy, the US domestic situation and the rising China. The constructing “Flying Geese Security Model”will have great influence on US itself, China and the Asia-Pacific region.%奥巴马政府执政以来,在“再平衡”战略的背景下,美国在亚太地区逐渐形成了“雁阵安全模式”。这一模式不同于冷战时期的“轴毂安全模式”,也不同于冷战后的“扇形安全模式”。“雁阵安全模式”的主要特点是以美国为领头雁,指引雁阵所针对方向;紧随其后的第二梯队是美日同盟、美韩同盟;第三梯队是美国与澳大利亚、菲律宾和泰国等盟国的关系;第四梯队是美国与越南、印度尼西亚、新加坡和印度等国的关系;总体上形成“一雁领头、群雁跟随”的“雁阵”模式。这一安全模式形成的动因主要来自全球趋势的变化、亚太地

  14. Central Asia in a Changing World: From a Peripheral Region to an Area of Policy Generation and Application. Actors, Policy and Security

    Nora Sainz Gsell


    Full Text Available This work deals with Central Asia, beginning with an analysis of the characteristics of international insertion of the area as a whole and of the former Soviet republics that comprise it. In a general way, it aims to analyse the evolution of Central Asia from a peripheral region to an area that generates behaviours and receives the application of policies on the part ofinternational actors. In the first part of the study, it mentions a series of particularities of the republics that have determined the relationships in the region(the Central Asian order and those between the region and the outside world; it indicates geo-historical and economic-strategic aspects. In the second part, it examines the foreign policy of the republics in the post-Cold War era from the singularities of domestic policy. And, in the third part, it analyses, according to the aforementioned peculiarities, the policies that the area and each State has generated in international actors, both regional ones and global ones, and which have transformed the region from a peripheral one to a geopolitically emerging one.

  15. Asia-Pacific Regional Economic Integration: Coopetition vs. Conflict

    YuJane Chen


    Full Text Available In the era of economic globalization, promoting regional trade agreements or regional cooperation has become a plausible strategy to attract foreign direct investment and to promote national competitiveness at a global level. Nonetheless, facing the differential national economic interests and the needs of protection of domestic industries, as well as the diverse levels of economic liberalization domestically, the involvement of FTA negotiation in every country is universally in the situation of struggling between securing economic sovereignty and national economic development. Countries in the Asia-Pacific region are in the same situation. This article analyzes how countries balance between securing economic sovereignty and promoting national economic development when they are involved in TPP and RCEP negotiations. By confirming the appropriate linkage between each participating countries’ decision for balancing between domestic economic sovereignty and further integrating into regional economic cooperation institutions the validity of the proposition for this research project can be verified.

  16. A Secure Short Message Communication Protocol

    Chao-Wen Chang; Heng Pan; Hong-Yong Jia


    According to the security requirement of the short message service (SMS) industry application, a secure short message communication protocol is proposed. This is an application level protocol constructed on the standard SMS communication protocol using public key authentication and key agreement without the need of wireless public key infrastructure (WPKI). Secure short message transmission and dynamic key agreement between mobile terminals and the accessing gateway are realized. The security of the proposed protocol is validated through the BAN logic. Compared with the standard SMS protocol, the effective payload rate of our protocol can reach 91.4%, and subscriber identity module (SIM) tool kit (STK) applications based on our protocol suit well for all kinds of mobile terminals in practical application.

  17. Network security

    Perez, André


    This book introduces the security mechanisms deployed in Ethernet, Wireless-Fidelity (Wi-Fi), Internet Protocol (IP) and MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) networks. These mechanisms are grouped throughout the book according to the following four functions: data protection, access control, network isolation, and data monitoring. Data protection is supplied by data confidentiality and integrity control services. Access control is provided by a third-party authentication service. Network isolation is supplied by the Virtual Private Network (VPN) service. Data monitoring consists of applying

  18. Information Security

    Hartel, Pieter; Suryana Herman, Nanna; Leukfeldt, E.R.; Stol, W. Ph.


    Information security is all about the protection of digital assets, such as digital content, personal health records, state secrets etc. These assets can be handled by a party who is authorised to access and control the asset or a party who is not authorised to do so. Authorisation determines who is trusted to actually handle an asset. Two concepts complement authorisation. Authentication deter-mines who makes a request to handle an asset. To decide who is authorised, a system needs to au-the...

  19. Resizing the Euro-Mediterranean Dialogue in the Area of Security: The Challenge of Human Security

    Eduard Soler i Lecha


    Full Text Available Although in the countries of the south the concept of human security is not very well-rooted and the security of states or regimes continues to take precedence, this article analyses the extent to which regional co-operation strategies, especially the BarcelonaProcess, have directly or indirectly promoted a new conception of security based on the protection of the citizen. For this, it analyses what had been done in the framework of the political and security basket of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership up until the Euro-Mediterranean Summit in Barcelona, but it also emphasises some of the important deficiencies, such as inaction in the field of reformation of the security sector. This analysis is framed within a broader discussion about whether or not the Mediterranean is a security complex and whether or not it can become a security community that would make human security one of the foundations of a culture of shared security.

  20. Gender agreement and multiple referents.

    Finocchiaro, Chiara; Mahon, Bradford Z; Caramazza, Alfonso


    We report a new pattern of usage in current, spoken Italian that has implications for both psycholinguistic models of language production and linguistic theories of language change. In Italian, gender agreement is mandatory for both singular and plural nouns. However, when two or more nouns of different grammatical gender appear in a conjoined noun phrase (NP), masculine plural agreement is required. In this study, we combined on-line and off-line methodologies in order to assess the mechanisms involved in gender marking in the context of multiple referents. The results of two pronoun production tasks showed that plural feminine agreement was significantly more difficult than plural masculine agreement. In a separate study using offline judgements of acceptability, we found that agreement violations in Italian are tolerated more readily in the case of feminine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., la mela e la banana 'the:fem apple:fem and the: fem banana: fem') than masculine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., il fiore e il libro 'the:mas flower: mas and the:mas book:mas'). Implications of these results are discussed both at the level of functional architecture within the language production system and at the level of changes in language use.

  1. Gender agreement and multiple referents

    Finocchiaro, Chiara; Mahon, Bradford Z.; Caramazza, Alfonso


    We report a new pattern of usage in current, spoken Italian that has implications for both psycholinguistic models of language production and linguistic theories of language change. In Italian, gender agreement is mandatory for both singular and plural nouns. However, when two or more nouns of different grammatical gender appear in a conjoined noun phrase (NP), masculine plural agreement is required. In this study, we combined on-line and off-line methodologies in order to assess the mechanisms involved in gender marking in the context of multiple referents. The results of two pronoun production tasks showed that plural feminine agreement was significantly more difficult than plural masculine agreement. In a separate study using offline judgements of acceptability, we found that agreement violations in Italian are tolerated more readily in the case of feminine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., la mela e la banana ‘the:fem apple:fem and the: fem banana: fem’) than masculine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., il fiore e il libro ‘the:mas flower: mas and the:mas book:mas’). Implications of these results are discussed both at the level of functional architecture within the language production system and at the level of changes in language use.* PMID:21037930

  2. 闽东地区生态安全格局及空间发展模式特征%Ecological Security Pattern and Spatial Development Pattern in Mindong Region

    郑晓燕; 何东进; 游巍斌; 覃德华; 游惠明; 巫丽芸; 纪志荣


    . Ecological infrastructure was mainly distributed in middle-south region which has more waters, natural and cultural resources in Mindong, but it was contrary in northeast. Middle-south region was key region to implement protection for natural resources and landscape process, and maintain ecological security pattern sustainably. Spatial development patterns features of ecological security in high level are each ecosystem ensures the implementation of function commendably, it provides various natural service normally in the long time. And quality of natural service improves gradually.

  3. Security Verification of Secure MANET Routing Protocols


    the destination. The route discovery phase is complete upon receipt of the RREP at the requesting node. The DYMO protocol is a simpler version of AODV ...described in this appendix. The protocols are Secure AODV (SAODV), Secure Efficient Distance Vector (SEAD), and Secure Link State Routing Protocol (SLSP...SECURITY VERIFICATION OF SECURE MANET ROUTING PROTOCOLS THESIS Matthew F. Steele, Captain, USAF AFIT/GCS/ENG/12-03 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR

  4. 20 CFR 411.420 - What information should be included in an agreement between an EN and a State VR agency?


    ... agreement between an EN and a State VR agency? 411.420 Section 411.420 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY...' Participation Agreements Between Employment Networks and State Vr Agencies § 411.420 What information should be included in an agreement between an EN and a State VR agency? The agreement between an EN and a State VR...

  5. The Sino-Indian Relations of 2011 in a Changing Regional Security Environment%2011年:地区安全环境变动中的中印关系

    李渤; 齐晓璇


    2011年,伴随着国际金融危机的持续发展,全球战略与经济重心加速东移,美国对重点地区的战略关注度也开始调整,导致地区安全环境发生变动,这些因素对进入"交流年"的中印两国关系有重大影响。中印两国在政治、经济和文化交往中虽不乏亮点,但双方安全领域的互信仍显不足,并且还出现了新的"不安"倾向。%In 2011, the center of the global strategy and economy was moving to the east with the continuation ofthe global economic crisis. The US began to readjust its strategy over key areas, whuch changed me regional security environment. These factors would influence the relationship between China and India entering into the year of change. Despite of the highly visible achievements in political, economic and cultural exchanges between the two countries, they both tend to feel insecure due to the insufficient trust in each other in the field of security.

  6. Framework agreements in public procurement

    Andrecka, Marta; Telles, Pedro


    Interview with Dr. Marta Andrecka, Postdoctoral Fellow at the Department of Law at the University of Aarhus, where she is currently working on a project called "Dealing with legal loopholes and uncertainties within EU public procurement law regarding framework agreements" sponsored by the Carlsberg...... Foundation. Before taking up her present position she carried out her doctoral research in Denmark and Australia and worked at law offices in both Poland and the UK. The topic for today’s talk is framework agreements, a relatively popular way of undertaking public procurement...

  7. Regional Competition in Maghreb Region



    Great powers focus on cooperation instead of competition in their regions in order to maintain stability and develop the economy of their regions and the world in general. The United States for example created the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFT

  8. Perspectives of Security Ensuring within the Framework of Barcelona Process

    T N Kirabaev


    Full Text Available Barcelona process was aimed to become an important mechanism in the realization of ideas of peace, stability and security ensuring in the Mediterranean Sea region. Cooperation in the sphere of security ensuring means openness of the regional states, social and economic reforms, human rights protection. The article deals with the problem of security ensuring by nonmilitary means.

  9. Information security fundamentals

    Peltier, Thomas R


    Developing an information security program that adheres to the principle of security as a business enabler must be the first step in an enterprise's effort to build an effective security program. Following in the footsteps of its bestselling predecessor, Information Security Fundamentals, Second Edition provides information security professionals with a clear understanding of the fundamentals of security required to address the range of issues they will experience in the field.The book examines the elements of computer security, employee roles and r

  10. An ID-Based Authenticated Key Agreement Protocol for Peer-to-Peer Computing

    LU Rong-xing; CAO Zhen-fu; SU Ren-wang; CHAI Zhen-chuan


    Peer-to-peer computing has recently started to gain significant acceptance, since it can greatly increase the performance and reliability of overall system. However, the security issue is still a major gating factor for its full adoption. In order to guarantee the security of data exchanged between two peers in Peer-to-Peer system, this paper comes up with an ID-based authenticated key agreement from bilinear pairings and uses BAN logic to prove the protocol's security. Compared with other existing protocols, the proposed protocol seems more secure and efficient, since it adopts the static shared Diffie-Hellman key.

  11. Block Transfer Agreement Evaluation Project

    Bastedo, Helena


    The objective of this project is to evaluate for the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) the effectiveness of block transfer agreements (BTAs) in the BC Transfer System and recommend steps to be taken to improve their effectiveness. Findings of this study revealed that institutions want to expand block credit transfer;…

  12. 基于ATNA的区域卫生信息平台信息安全与隐私保护研究%Research on the Information Security and Privacy Protection of Regional Health Information Platform Based on ATNA

    冯东雷; 高昭昇; 李翠华; 张赛赛; 刘艳


    With regional healthcare information platform construction and put into practical use, healthcare information security issues increasingly prominent. According to the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) proposed Audit Trail and Node authentication Profile, combined with "healthcare records based platform for building regional healthcare information technology solutions (Trial)", proposes a combination of unified user authentication, node management, audit trail, management console, pre-service gateway service component solutions. For health information platform provides a complete set of security services mechanisms for healthcare information transactions.%随着区域卫生信息平台的建设和投入使用,医疗卫生信息的安全问题逐渐凸显。根据国际医疗保健企业集成(IHE)提出的审计跟踪和节点认证(Audit Trail and Node Authentication)技术规范,结合卫生部《基于健康档案的区域卫生信息平台建设技术解决方案(试行)》规范,提出了一个结合统一用户认证、节点管理、审计追踪、管理控制台、前置服务网关等服务组件的实现方案。为卫生信息平台提供了一整套用于健康信息交易的安全保障服务机制。

  13. Analysis of Information Leakage in Quantum Key Agreement

    LIU Sheng-li; ZHENG Dong; CHENG Ke-fei


    Quantum key agreement is one of the approaches to unconditional security. Since 1980's, different protocols for quantum key agreement have been proposed and analyzed. A new quantum key agreement protocol was presented in 2004, and a detailed analysis to the protocol was given. The possible game played between legitimate users and the enemy was described:sitting in the middle, an adversary can play a "man-in-the-middle" attack to cheat the sender and receiver. The information leaked to the adversary is essential to the length of the final quantum secret key. It was shown how to determine the amount of information leaked to the enemy and the amount of uncertainty between the legitimate sender and receiver.

  14. Computer Security: the security marathon, part 2

    Computer Security Team


    Do you recall our latest article on the “Security Marathon” (see here) and why it’s wrong to believe that computer security is a sprint, that a quick hack is invulnerable, that quick bug-fixing is sufficient, that plugging security measures on top of existing structures is a good idea, that once you are secure, your life is cosy?   In fact, security is a marathon for us too. Again and again, we have felt comfortable with the security situation at CERN, with dedicated protections deployed on individual hosts, with the security measures deployed by individual service managers, with the attentiveness and vigilance of our users, and with the responsiveness of the Management. Again and again, however, we subsequently detect or receive reports that this is wrong, that protections are incomplete, that security measures are incomplete, that security awareness has dropped. Thus, unfortunately, we often have to go back to square one and address similar issues over and over...

  15. [Safety and health in workers employed in industry. Data from Industrial Accidents Compensation Board (INAIL) and National Social Security Institute (INPS), Veneto Region, 1994-2002].

    Mastrangelo, G; Carassai, Patrizia; Carletti, Claudia; Cattani, F; De Zorzi, Lia; Di Loreto, G; Dini, M; Mattioni, G; Mundo, Antonietta; Noceta, R; Ortolani, G; Piccioni, M; Sartori, Angela; Sereno, Antonella; Priolo, G; Scoizzato, L; Marangi, G; Marchiori, L


    A decreasing time trend for occupational injuries and sickness absence would be the effect of the new legislation (D.Lgs. 626/94 and successive laws) on prevention in occupational settings. Conversely, the reduction of INPS disability would reflect a health improvement due to non-occupational causes. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of the new legislation among employees in industry (where the law was mainly applied), via the time trend of three standardized rates in the Veneto Region. The numerator for the rate of occupational accidents (cases occurring in industry workers in the Veneto Region, broken down for sex, age and calendar years) was supplied by INAIL. The denominator for the above rate, as well as numerators and denominators for disability and sickness absence were supplied by INPS. Data were available from 1994 to 2002 for accidents and disability, and from 1997 to 2002 for sickness absence. In every year from 1994 to 2002, the rates were standardized for age and sex with the direct method, using an internal "standard" population. The time trend of year-specific standardized rates was analyzed by Joinpoint regression software. Among industrial workers in the Veneto Region, occupational accidents increased by 0.4% yearly, while disability decreased by 2.56% from 1994 to 2002. Sick absence increased up to 1999, then decreased. This epidemiological pattern is difficult to explain. The increase in accidents could be due to the increase of non-European Union workers and/or to the fact that accidents on the way to or from work were recognized as occupational accidents by INAIL starting from 2000. Both these phenomena could have contributed to increase the rate that was otherwise diminishing. On the other hand, this same situation could be due to insufficient efficacy of the legislation (D.Lgs. 626/94 and successive laws) for preventing occupational accidents and diseases.

  16. Security for grids

    Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.


    Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.

  17. Information Systems Security Audit

    Gheorghe Popescu


    Full Text Available The article covers:Defining an information system; benefits obtained by introducing new information technologies; IT management;Defining prerequisites, analysis, design, implementation of IS; Information security management system; aspects regarding IS security policy; Conceptual model of a security system; Auditing information security systems and network infrastructure security.

  18. Information Systems Security Audit

    Gheorghe Popescu; Veronica Adriana Popescu; Cristina Raluca Popescu


    The article covers:Defining an information system; benefits obtained by introducing new information technologies; IT management;Defining prerequisites, analysis, design, implementation of IS; Information security management system; aspects regarding IS security policy; Conceptual model of a security system; Auditing information security systems and network infrastructure security.

  19. ITIL Based Service Level Management if SLAs Cover Security

    Tomas Feglar


    .... SLM is one of ITIL modules that are widely used within the IT service industry. We identified some weaknesses in how SLM is developed in ITIL environment if service level agreement (SLA) has cover Security...

  20. An Energy Efficient Mutual Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Preserving Anonymity for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Lu, Yanrong; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Yang, Yixian


    WSNs (Wireless sensor networks) are nowadays viewed as a vital portion of the IoTs (Internet of Things). Security is a significant issue in WSNs, especially in resource-constrained environments. AKA (Authentication and key agreement) enhances the security of WSNs against adversaries attempting to get sensitive sensor data. Various AKA schemes have been developed for verifying the legitimate users of a WSN. Firstly, we scrutinize Amin-Biswas's currently scheme and demonstrate the major security loopholes in their works. Next, we propose a lightweight AKA scheme, using symmetric key cryptography based on smart card, which is resilient against all well known security attacks. Furthermore, we prove the scheme accomplishes mutual handshake and session key agreement property securely between the participates involved under BAN (Burrows, Abadi and Needham) logic. Moreover, formal security analysis and simulations are also conducted using AVISPA(Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) to show that our scheme is secure against active and passive attacks. Additionally, performance analysis shows that our proposed scheme is secure and efficient to apply for resource-constrained WSNs.