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Sample records for regional savings potential

  1. Potential Cost Savings From Reduction of Regional Variation in Medicare Spending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjie Song

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Potential cost savings estimated from reduction of regional variation in Medicare spending are considerable but questioned. This article evaluates the validity of the principal methods that have been used in the estimations of the potential savings. Three estimation approaches were identified. The first approach uses adjusted expenditures to calculate avoidable costs, but adjusted expenditures can be independent of avoidable costs, and measurement errors are not controlled. The second approach uses an outcome variable to replace its causal factors, and is not acceptable because the association between the outcomes and the causes is untestable. The final approach uses surveys to directly measure physician beliefs and patient preferences, but the sole study using this approach is weakened by sample selection biases and incomplete controls. A development of reliable measures and a switch of observation from clinic settings to geographic contexts could make the estimations more convincing.

  2. Regionalism. Clip and Save.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the art movement, called Regionalism, discussing the painters involved and describing the characteristics of the art movement. Provides a set of learning activities and background information on John Steuart Curry. Includes a discussion of Curry's painting, "Tornado Over Kansas," and a reproduction of the painting. (CMK)

  3. Regional distribution of nitrogen fertilizer use and N-saving potential for improvement of food production and nitrogen use efficiency in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobin; Cai, Dianxiong; Hoogmoed, Willem B; Oenema, Oene

    2011-08-30

    An apparently large disparity still exists between developed and developing countries in historical trends of the amounts of nitrogen (N) fertilizers consumed, and the same situation holds true in China. The situation of either N overuse or underuse has become one of the major limiting factors in agricultural production and economic development in China. The issue of food security in N-poor regions has been given the greatest attention internationally. Balanced and appropriate use of N fertilizer for enriching soil fertility is an effective step in preventing soil degradation, ensuring food security, and further contributing to poverty alleviation and rural economic development in the N-poor regions. Based on the China Statistical Yearbook (2007), there could be scope for improvement of N use efficiency (NUE) in N-rich regions by reducing N fertilizer input to an optimal level (≤180 kg N ha(-1)), and also potential for increasing yield in the N-poor regions by further increasing N fertilizer supply (up to 116 kg N ha(-1)). For the N-rich regions, the average estimated potential of N saving and NUE increase could be about 15% and 23%, respectively, while for the N-poor regions the average estimated potential for yield increase could be 21% on a regional scale, when N input is increased by 13%. The study suggests that to achieve the goals of regional yield improvement, it is necessary to readjust and optimize regional distribution of N fertilizer use between the N-poor and N-rich regions in China, in combination with other nutrient management practices. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Potential Logistics Cost Savings from Engine Commonality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, Robert L; Higer, Matthew W

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this MBA Project is to determine potential logistics cost savings the USAF and DoD could have realized through the life of the F-16 fighter aircraft had they required engine commonality...

  5. Potential energy savings and thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed.......The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed....

  6. Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.

    2000-09-04

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.

  7. Energy Savings Potential of Radiative Cooling Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Alvine, Kyle J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), conducted a study to estimate, through simulation, the potential cooling energy savings that could be achieved through novel approaches to capturing free radiative cooling in buildings, particularly photonic ‘selective emittance’ materials. This report documents the results of that study.

  8. Energy saving potential in existing industrial compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittorini, Diego; Cipollone, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The Compressed Air Sector accounts for a mean 10% worldwide electricity consumption, which ensures about its importance, when energy saving and CO_2 emissions reduction are in question. Since the compressors alone account for 15% overall industry electricity consumption, it appears vital to pay attention to machine performances. The paper presents an overview of present compressor technology and focuses on saving directions for screw and sliding vanes machines, according to data provided by the Compressed Air and Gas Institute and PNEUROP. Data were processed to obtain consistency with fixed reference pressures and organized as a function of main operating parameters. Each sub-term, contributing to the overall efficiency (adiabatic, volumetric, mechanical, electric, organic), was considered separately: the analysis showed that the thermodynamic improvement during compression achievable by splitting the compression in two stages, with a lower compression ratio, opens the way to significantly reduce the energy specific consumption. - Highlights: • Compressors technology overview in industrial compressed air systems. • Market compressors efficiency baseline definition. • Energy breakdown and evaluation of main efficiency terms. • Assessment of air cooling-related energy saving potential. • Energy specific consumption reduction through dual stage compression.

  9. Potential cost savings with terrestrial rabies control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Bryan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cost-benefit of raccoon rabies control strategies such as oral rabies vaccination (ORV are under evaluation. As an initial quantification of the potential cost savings for a control program, the collection of selected rabies cost data was pilot tested for five counties in New York State (NYS in a three-year period. Methods Rabies costs reported to NYS from the study counties were computerized and linked to a human rabies exposure database. Consolidated costs by county and year were averaged and compared. Results Reported rabies-associated costs for all rabies variants totalled $2.1 million, for human rabies postexposure prophylaxes (PEP (90.9%, animal specimen preparation/shipment to laboratory (4.7%, and pet vaccination clinics (4.4%. The proportion that may be attributed to raccoon rabies control was 37% ($784,529. Average costs associated with the raccoon variant varied across counties from $440 to $1,885 per PEP, $14 to $44 per specimen, and $0.33 to $15 per pet vaccinated. Conclusion Rabies costs vary widely by county in New York State, and were associated with human population size and methods used by counties to estimate costs. Rabies cost variability must be considered in developing estimates of possible ORV-related cost savings. Costs of PEPs and specimen preparation/shipments, as well as the costs of pet vaccination provided by this study may be valuable for development of more realistic scenarios in economic modelling of ORV costs versus benefits.

  10. User behaviour impact on energy savings potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    and the residents' behaviour and if these defaults do not reflect actual circumstances, it can result in non-realisation of expected energy savings. Furthermore, a risk also exists that residents' behaviour change after the energy upgrading, e.g. to obtain improved comfort than what was possible before......, 3) Domestic hot water consumption and 4) Air change rate. Based on the analysis, a methodology is established that can be used to make more realistic and accurate predictions of expected energy savings associated with energy upgrading taking into account user behaviour....... the upgrading and this could lead to further discrepancies between the calculated and the actual energy savings. This paper presents an analysis on how residents’ behaviour and the use of standard assumptions may influence expected energy savings. The analysis is performed on two typical single-family houses...

  11. Estimating the energy saving potential of telecom operators in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Tian-Jian; Zhang, Yue-Jun; Huang, Jin; Peng, Ruo-Hong

    2013-01-01

    A set of models are employed to estimate the potential of total energy saved of productions and segmented energy saving for telecom operators in China. During the estimation, the total energy saving is divided into that by technology and management, which are derived from technical reform and progress, and management control measures and even marketing respectively, and the estimating methodologies for energy saving potential of each segment are elaborated. Empirical results from China Mobile indicate that, first, the technical advance in communications technology accounts for the largest proportion (70%–80%) of the total energy saved of productions in telecom sector of China. Second, technical reform brings about 20%–30% of the total energy saving. Third, the proportions of energy saving brought by marketing and control measures appear relatively smaller, just less than 3%. Therefore, China's telecom operators should seize the opportunity of the revolution of communications network techniques in recent years to create an advanced network with lower energy consumption

  12. Energy Savings Potential and Research & Development Opportunities for Commercial Refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-09-01

    This study documents the energy consumption of commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE) in the U.S. and evaluated the energy savings potential of various technologies and energy efficiency measures that could be applied to such equipment. The study provided an overview of CRE applications, assessed the energy-savings potential of CRE in the U.S., outline key barriers to adoption of energy-savings technologies, and recommended opportunities for advanced energy saving technology research. The study was modeled after an earlier 1996 report by Arthur D. Little, Inc., and updated key information, examined more equipment types, and outlined long-term research and development opportunities.

  13. Regional politics of energy savings and instruments of its realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simkiv Lilya Yevgenivna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with theoretical and methodological foundations and applied aspects of the regional policy of energy saving aimed at the efficient use of energy resources in the region, diversification of energy supplies, modernization of energy infrastructure through the introduction of new technologies and protection of regional interests in the energy sector. The basic approaches and methods for the formation of regional policy of energy saving are determined. It allows deepening and expanding of the basic applied researches, and solving of more complex theoretical and applied problems of regional development. It is mentioned, that the development of regional energy saving policy involves the formation of appropriate legal, financial and credit policy; scientific research, economic, organizational and management measures; advertising and marketing support. It is proved, that for the practical implementation of regional policy the complex combination of economic feasibility, social effectiveness and environmental safety is required.

  14. Potential energy savings from cool roofs in Spain and Andalusia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boixo, Sergio; Diaz-Vicente, Marian; Colmenar, Antonio; Castro, Manuel Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Cool roofs are an inexpensive method to save energy and to improve the comfort level in buildings in mild and hot climates. A high scale implementation of cool roofs in Andalusia, in the south of Spain, could potentially save 295,000 kWh per year, considering only residential buildings with flat roofs using electrical heating. At the current energy prices, consumers can save 59 million euros annually in electricity costs and the emission of 136,000 metric tons of CO 2 can be directly avoided every year from the production of that electricity. If radiative forcings are considered, Andalucía can potentially offset between 9.44 and 12 Mt of CO 2 . All the provinces in the rest of Spain are also studied in this paper. The biggest savings are achieved in Gran Canaria (48%), Tenerife (48%), Cádiz (36%), Murcia (33%), Huelva (30%), Málaga (29%), Almería (29%) and Sevilla (28%), where savings are greater than 2 euros per square meter of flat roof for old buildings with dark roofs. For the biggest cities the range of savings obtained are: between 7.4% and 11% in Madrid, between 12% and 18% in Barcelona and between 14% and 20% in Valencia. -- Highlights: ► We estimate potential savings in energy, CO 2 , and money for cool roofs in Spain (residential sector with flat roofs). ► Average savings are of around one euro per square meter in the biggest cities. ► Potential savings are of more than 2 €/m 2 in the hottest cities. ► In Andalusia the potential savings are 300 MWh, 60 millions euro and 136,000 tons of CO 2 per year. ► With forcings, the CO 2 equivalence of cool roofs in Andalusia is between 9 and 12 Mt.

  15. Defining The Energy Saving Potential of Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Malcangi, Antonio; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Designers, in response to codes or voluntary " green building " programs, are increasingly concerned with building energy demand reduction, but they are not fully aware of the energy saving potential of architectural design. According to literature, building form, construction and material choices...... on sustainable design: " Design With Climate " by Olgyay (1963), which discussed strategies for climate-adapted architecture, and Lechner´s " Heating, Cooling and Lighting " (1991), on how to reduce building energy needs by as much as 60 – 80 percent with proper architectural design decisions. Both books used...... behaviour. The research shows the best solution for each of the climates and compares them with Olgyay´s findings. Finally, for each climate the energy saving potential is defined and then compared to Lechner's conclusions. Defining The Energy Saving Potential of Architectural Design (PDF Download Available...

  16. Natural gas decompression energy recovery: Energy savings potential in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatti, A.; Piemonte, C.; Rampini, E.; Vatrano, F.; Techint SpA, Milan; ENEA, Rome

    1992-01-01

    This paper surveyed the natural gas distribution systems employed in the Italian civil, industrial and thermoelectric sectors to identify those installations which can make use of gas decompression energy recovery systems (consisting of turbo-expanders or alternative expanders) to economically generate electric power. Estimates were then made of the total amount of potential energy savings. The study considered as eligible for energy savings interventions only those plants with a greater than 5,000 standard cubic meter per hour plant capacity. It was evaluated that, with suitable decompression equipment installed at 50 key installations (33 civil, 15 industrial), about 200 GWh of power could be produced annually, representing potential savings of about 22,000 petroleum equivalent tonnes of energy. A comparative analysis was done on three investment alternatives involving inputs of varying amounts of Government financial assistance

  17. Incorrect storage of medicines and potential for cost savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colberg, Lene; Schmidt-Petersen, Lone; Hansen, Merete Kock

    2017-01-01

    continue to be used, possibly with a shortened expiry date. Thus, by examining all cases of incorrect storage, the value of drugs that pharmacists advised could be used despite a broken cold chain, could be estimated. Results The Medicine Information Centre dealt with 171 cases concerning incorrect storage...... in 2013. Data show that advice from Medicine Information Centre pharmacists resulted medicine cost savings of DKK 13 million (approx. €1.7 million) in hospitals in the Capital Region for that year. Conclusions Substantial savings can be made by seeking the advice of a team of information pharmacists...

  18. Savings potential of ENERGY STAR (registered trademark) voluntary labeling programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    In 1993 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced ENERGY STAR (registered trademark), a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products. Since then EPA, now in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has introduced programs for more than twenty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, new homes, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. We present potential energy, dollar and carbon savings forecasts for these programs for the period 1998 to 2010. Our target market penetration case represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide results under the assumption of 100% market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period. Finally, we assess the sensitivity of our target penetration case forecasts to greater or lesser marketing success by EPA and DOE, lower-than-expected future energy prices, and higher or lower rates of carbon emission by electricity generators. The potential savings of ENERGY STAR are substantial. If all purchasers chose Energy Star-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products over the next 15 years, they would save more than$100 billion on their energy bills during those 15 years. (Bill savings are in 1995 dollars, discounted at a 4% real discount rate.)

  19. Potential Cost Savings Ideas for FAA and Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-04

    The intent of this paper is to catalogue potential cost-savings ideas which : impact both the FAA and the aviation community. These ideas have come from : various sources including MITRE, Coopers & Lybrand (C&L), FAA studies, General : Accounting Off...

  20. Energy Saving Potential by Utilizing Natural Ventilation under Warm Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to show the potential of natural ventilation as a passive cooling method within the residential sector of countries which are located in warm conditions using Mexico as a case study. The method is proposed as performing, with a simplified ventilation model, thermal......–airflow simulations of 27 common cases of dwellings (considered as one thermal zone) based on the combination of specific features of the building design, occupancy and climate conditions. The energy saving potential is assessed then by the use of a new assessment method suitable for large-scale scenarios using...... the actual number of air-conditioned dwellings distributed among the 27 cases. Thereby, the energy saving is presented as the difference in the cooling demand of the dwelling during one year without and with natural ventilation, respectively. Results indicate that for hot-dry conditions, buildings with high...

  1. Can regional climate engineering save the summer Arctic sea ice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, S.; Jahn, Alexandra; Kay, Jennifer E.; Holland, Marika; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2014-02-01

    Rapid declines in summer Arctic sea ice extent are projected under high-forcing future climate scenarios. Regional Arctic climate engineering has been suggested as an emergency strategy to save the sea ice. Model simulations of idealized regional dimming experiments compared to a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission simulation demonstrate the importance of both local and remote feedback mechanisms to the surface energy budget in high latitudes. With increasing artificial reduction in incoming shortwave radiation, the positive surface albedo feedback from Arctic sea ice loss is reduced. However, changes in Arctic clouds and the strongly increasing northward heat transport both counteract the direct dimming effects. A 4 times stronger local reduction in solar radiation compared to a global experiment is required to preserve summer Arctic sea ice area. Even with regional Arctic dimming, a reduction in the strength of the oceanic meridional overturning circulation and a shut down of Labrador Sea deep convection are possible.

  2. Energy Saving Potential of PCMs in Buildings under Future Climate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Abdullah Ahmed Gassar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption reduction under changing climate conditions is a major challenge in buildings design, where excessive energy consumption creates an economic and environmental burden. Improving thermal performance of the buildings through support applying phase change material (PCM is a promising strategy for reducing building energy consumption under future climate change. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the energy saving potentials in buildings under future climate conditions in the humid and snowy regions in the hot continental and humid subtropical climates of the east Asia (Seoul, Tokyo and Hong Kong when various PCMs with different phase change temperatures are applied to a lightweight building envelope. Methodology in this work is implemented in two phases: firstly, investigation of energy saving potentials in buildings through inclusion of three types of PCMs with different phase temperatures into the building envelop separately and use weather file in the present (2017; and, secondly, evaluation of the effect of future climate change on the performance of PCMs by analyzing energy saving potentials of PCMs with 2020, 2050 and 2080 weather data. The results show that the inclusion of PCM into the building envelope is a promising strategy to increase the energy performance in buildings during both heating and cooling seasons in Seoul, Tokyo and Hong Kong under future climate conditions. The energy savings achieved by using PCMs in those regions are electricity savings of 4.48–8.21%, 3.81–9.69%, and 1.94–5.15%, and gas savings of 1.65–16.59%, 7.60–61.76%, and 62.07–93.33% in Seoul, Tokyo and Hong Kong, respectively, for the years 2017, 2020, 2050 and 2080. In addition, BioPCM and RUBITHERMPCM are the most efficient for improving thermal performance and saving energy in buildings in the tested regions and years.

  3. Identifying electricity-saving potential in rural China: Empirical evidence from a household survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yihua; Guo, Jin

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a fast-growing body of literature examining energy-saving potential in relation to electricity. However, empirical studies focusing on non-Western nations are limited. To fill this gap, this study intends to examine the electricity-saving potential of rural households in China using a unique data set from the China Residential Electricity Consumption Survey (CRECS) in collaboration with the China General Social Survey (CGSS), conducted nationwide at the household level in rural China. We use a stochastic frontier model, which allows us to decompose residential electricity consumption into the minimum necessary amount of consumption based on physical characteristics (e.g. house size, house age, number of televisions or refrigerators) and estimate the consumption slack (i.e. the amount of electricity consumption that could be saved), which depends on various factors. We find that rural households in China are generally efficient in electricity saving and the saving potential is affected by (fast) information feedback and social-demographic characteristics, instead of by the (averaged) electricity price, or energy efficiency labelling signals. In addition, we find no evidence of regional heterogeneity on electricity saving potential for rural households. Policy implications are derived. - Highlights: •Electricity saving potential of rural households in China is examined. •Unique survey data from the CRECS in collaboration with the CGSS are used. •A stochastic frontier model is applied. •Information feedback and social-demographic characteristics matter. •Electricity price or energy efficiency tier rating does not matter.

  4. Assessing the cost saving potential of shared product architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Løkkegaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    company. Experiences from the case company show it is possible to reduce the number of architectures with 60% which leads to significant reduction in direct material and labor costs. This can be achieved without compromising the market offerings of products. Experiences from the case study indicate cost......This article presents a method for calculating cost savings of shared architectures in industrial companies called Architecture Mapping and Evaluation. The main contribution is an operational method to evaluate the cost potential and evaluate the number of product architectures in an industrial...

  5. Estimating the potential for electricity savings in households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boogen, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Improving efficiency in the use of energy is an important goal for many nations since end-use energy efficiency can help to reduce CO_2 emissions. Furthermore, since the residential sector in industrialised countries requires around one third of the end-use electricity, it is important for policy makers to estimate the scope for electricity saving in households to reduce electricity consumption by using appropriate steering mechanisms. We estimate the level of technical efficiency in the use of electricity using data from a Swiss household survey. We find an average inefficiency in electricity use by Swiss households of around 20 to 25%. Bottom-up economic-engineering models estimate the potential in Switzerland to be around 15%. In this paper we use a sub-vector input distance frontier function based on economic foundations. Our estimates lie at the upper end of the electricity saving potential estimated by the afore-mentioned economic-engineering approach. - Highlights: • We estimate the level of efficiency in the use of electricity by Swiss households. • We apply a non-radial input distance function and stochastic frontier methods. • We use data from two waves of a Swiss household survey conducted in 2005 and 2011. • We find an inefficiency in the use of electricity of around 20–25%.

  6. Understanding usage patterns of electric kettle and energy saving potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.M.; Liao, J.; Stankovic, L.; Stankovic, V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Time-of-use analysis to motivate kettle usage and consumption prediction. • Identification of households whose kettle usage and consumption is outside the norm. • Mathematical model to estimate water volume from consumed power measurements only. • Quantification of energy savings if a household uses its kettle more efficiently. • Kettle usage and demand prediction using an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System. - Abstract: The availability of smart metering and smart appliances enables detecting and characterising appliance use in a household, quantifying energy savings through efficient appliance use and predicting appliance-specific demand from load measurements is possible. With growing electric kettle ownership and usage, lack of any efficiency labelling guidelines for the kettle, slow technological progress in improving kettle efficiency relative to other domestic appliances, and current consumer attitudes, urgent investigation into consumer kettle usage patterns is warranted. From an efficiency point of view, little can be done about the kettle, which is more efficient than other methods of heating water such as the stove top kettle. However, since a majority households use the kettle inefficiently by overfilling, in order to meet energy targets, it is imperative to quantify inefficient usage and predict demand. For the purposes of scalability, we propose tools that depend only on load measurement data for quantifying and visualising kettle usage and energy consumption, assessing energy wastage through overfilling via our proposed electric kettle model, and predicting kettle-specific demand, from which we can estimate potential energy savings in a household and across a housing stock. This is demonstrated using data from a longitudinal study across a sample of 14 UK households for a two-year period.

  7. Data Network Equipment Energy Use and Savings Potential in Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzisera, Steven; Nordman, Bruce; Brown, Richard E.

    2010-06-09

    Network connectivity has become nearly ubiquitous, and the energy use of the equipment required for this connectivity is growing. Network equipment consists of devices that primarily switch and route Internet Protocol (IP) packets from a source to a destination, and this category specifically excludes edge devices like PCs, servers and other sources and sinks of IP traffic. This paper presents the results of a study of network equipment energy use and includes case studies of networks in a campus, a medium commercial building, and a typical home. The total energy use of network equipment is the product of the stock of equipment in use, the power of each device, and their usage patterns. This information was gathered from market research reports, broadband market penetration studies, field metering, and interviews with network administrators and service providers. We estimate that network equipment in the USA used 18 TWh, or about 1percent of building electricity, in 2008 and that consumption is expected to grow at roughly 6percent per year to 23 TWh in 2012; world usage in 2008 was 51 TWh. This study shows that office building network switches and residential equipment are the two largest categories of energy use consuming 40percent and 30percent of the total respectively. We estimate potential energy savings for different scenarios using forecasts of equipment stock and energy use, and savings estimates range from 20percent to 50percent based on full market penetration of efficient technologies.

  8. SAVING BEHAVIOUR AND DETERMINANTS OF SAVING MOBILIZATION BY RURAL FINANCIAL CO-OPERATORS IN TIGRAI REGION, ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebhatu Kifle Tesfamariam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identified and examined saving behaviour and determinants of saving mobiliza-tion by the rural co-operators in Southern Tigrai Ethiopia. The input for the study was ob-tained from randomly selected 120 rural household savers from six purposively selected ru-ral savings and credit cooperatives. The result of the study using least squares method showed that savings mobilized is determined by household annual income, amount of loan borrowed and year of member stay in the cooperative. These factors therefore have to be considered in designing strategies aimed at improving the saving mobilization of coopera-tive members in the study area. Besides, economically feasible cooperative societies in the region should be encouraged among the rural households by supporting them with revolv-ing funds as they are more effective and efficient in mobilizing rural savings and provide collateral plus guarantor-based loans with low default rate. This will enable them to boost up their production output and increase their savings thereby stimulating the rural economy.

  9. Advertising energy saving programs: The potential environmental cost of emphasizing monetary savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Lave, Lester

    2015-06-01

    Many consumers have monetary or environmental motivations for saving energy. Indeed, saving energy produces both monetary benefits, by reducing energy bills, and environmental benefits, by reducing carbon footprints. We examined how consumers' willingness and reasons to enroll in energy-savings programs are affected by whether advertisements emphasize monetary benefits, environmental benefits, or both. From a normative perspective, having 2 noteworthy kinds of benefit should not decrease a program's attractiveness. In contrast, psychological research suggests that adding external incentives to an intrinsically motivating task may backfire. To date, however, it remains unclear whether this is the case when both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are inherent to the task, as with energy savings, and whether removing explicit mention of extrinsic motivation will reduce its importance. We found that emphasizing a program's monetary benefits reduced participants' willingness to enroll. In addition, participants' explanations about enrollment revealed less attention to environmental concerns when programs emphasized monetary savings, even when environmental savings were also emphasized. We found equal attention to monetary motivations in all conditions, revealing an asymmetric attention to monetary and environmental motives. These results also provide practical guidance regarding the positioning of energy-saving programs: emphasize intrinsic benefits; the extrinsic ones may speak for themselves. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Savings Opportunities in U.S. Petroleum Refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas, representing 68% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  11. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Chemical Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  12. The likely market potential for electricity saving ASD devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparow, F.T.; McKenzie, L.

    1993-01-01

    Many utility demand-side management (DSM) programs encourage the adoption of adjustable speed drives (ASD) in the industrial and commercial sectors, since such devices save KW and KWh. The term open-quotes adjustable speed drives close-quote is used to refer to any device which allows the speed of the motor to be adjusted to better match process requirements. Thus, motor input control devices, such as electronic adjustable speed drives for AC motors (i.e., adjustable frequency drives (AFD)), voltage controlled DC motors, and the use of floating pressure setpoint controls, or other devices which better control on/off compressor operation, would be considered ASD devices. Also included would be motor technologies, such as multi-speed windings, etc., which allow the synchronous speed of the motor to be altered. Not included in this definition would be mechanical systems such as gear boxes, friction disks, etc., which maintain motor speed, but alter the drive r.p.m. to the equipment. The importance of the distinction is that ASDs, as defined above, have the potential to substantially reduce KW and KWh consumption if the equipment duty cycle is varying, while mechanical drive r.p.m. varying devices don't

  13. Textiles industry: Potential saving of 30%, from improving operation management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.S. [Korea Energy Management Corporation, Songnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    In order to pass over the age of IMF wisely, we should remove all swollen bubbles of the past boldly, design life that is within one`s means, and realize saving and austerity in daily life. As a part of these countermeasures, several plans are needed for energy saving, and Korea Energy Management Corp. has been continuously carrying out energy management diagnosis targeting enterprises that consume energy. This study tries to provide a little help to the business by introducing attentive matters needed in advising energy technology as well as the diagnosis case of energy and analyzing the current condition of advising energy saving technology.

  14. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  15. Cooling and energy saving potentials of shade trees and urban lawns in a desert city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhi-Hua; Zhao, Xiaoxi; Yang, Jiachuan; Song, Jiyun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a numerical framework incorporating trees in an urban canopy model. • Shade trees have more prominent energy saving potential than urban lawns. • The trade-off between water-energy is a key for urban landscape management. • Urban vegetation can significantly alleviate outdoor thermal stress. - Abstract: The use of urban vegetation in cities is a common landscape planning strategy to alleviate the heat island effect as well as to enhance building energy efficiency. The presence of trees in street canyons can effectively reduce environmental temperature via radiative shading. However, resolving shade trees in urban land surface models presents a major challenge in numerical models, especially in predicting the radiative heat exchange in canyons. In this paper, we develop a new numerical framework by incorporating shade trees into an advanced single-layer urban canopy model. This novel numerical framework is applied to Phoenix metropolitan area to investigate the cooling effect of different urban vegetation types and their potentials in saving building energy. It is found that the cooling effect by shading from trees is more significant than that by evapotranspiration from lawns, leading to a considerable saving of cooling load. In addition, analysis of human thermal comfort shows that urban vegetation plays a crucial role in creating a comfortable living environment, especially for cities located in arid or semi-arid region.

  16. DSM Electricity Savings Potential in the Buildings Sector in APP Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, MIchael; Letschert, Virginie; Shen, Bo; Sathaye, Jayant; de la Ru du Can, Stephane

    2011-01-12

    The global economy has grown rapidly over the past decade with a commensurate growth in the demand for electricity services that has increased a country's vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Increasing need of reliable and affordable electricity supply is a challenge which is before every Asia Pacific Partnership (APP) country. Collaboration between APP members has been extremely fruitful in identifying potential efficiency upgrades and implementing clean technology in the supply side of the power sector as well established the beginnings of collaboration. However, significantly more effort needs to be focused on demand side potential in each country. Demand side management or DSM in this case is a policy measure that promotes energy efficiency as an alternative to increasing electricity supply. It uses financial or other incentives to slow demand growth on condition that the incremental cost needed is less than the cost of increasing supply. Such DSM measures provide an alternative to building power supply capacity The type of financial incentives comprise of rebates (subsidies), tax exemptions, reduced interest loans, etc. Other approaches include the utilization of a cap and trade scheme to foster energy efficiency projects by creating a market where savings are valued. Under this scheme, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production of electricity are capped and electricity retailers are required to meet the target partially or entirely through energy efficiency activities. Implementation of DSM projects is very much in the early stages in several of the APP countries or localized to a regional part of the country. The purpose of this project is to review the different types of DSM programs experienced by APP countries and to estimate the overall future potential for cost-effective demand-side efficiency improvements in buildings sectors in the 7 APP countries through the year 2030. Overall, the savings potential is estimated to be

  17. Theory and Practice of the Public Sector Savings: The Case of Czech Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan PŮČEK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the necessity to allocate resources in economically rational ways has been amplified in the context of budget austerity measures and the overall tendency for balanced public budgets. Under these long-term circumstances, political leaders and public sector managers will be motivated to allocate available resources in economic, effective and purposeful ways, thus reducing waste of resources and seeking rational savings. The study shows some ways of achieving that goals by finding rational savings in the performance of delegated central government administration. The study analyzes expenditures and revenues for those tasks of central government administration that are delegated to regions in the Czech Republic. Based on the proposed theoretical concept of public sector savings and on the analysis of secondary and primary data, it assesses possibilities for achieving regional savings in delegated central government administration. Calculations based on empirical data demonstrate that regional governments have space for internal savings; benchmarking comparison and simulations confirm the possibilities for reducing waste of resources and achieving rational savings. Total calculated savings for all regions (for the year 2009 range between EUR 16 million and 29 million according to simulations, and the highest savings would be achieved by Central Bohemia.

  18. Energy and cost savings potential of oscillating heat pipes for waste heat recovery ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govinda Mahajan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using finned oscillating heat pipes (OHPs for heat exchange between counter-flowing air streams in HVAC air systems (i.e., outdoor and exhaust air flows, along with the associated cost savings in typical North American climates, is investigated. For a prescribed temperature difference and volumetric flow rate of air, rudimentary design parameters for a viable OHP Heat Recovery Ventilator (OHP-HRV were determined using the ε-NTU (effectiveness-Number of Transfer Unit method. The two-phase heat transfer within the OHP-HRV is modeled via effective evaporation/condensation heat transfer coefficients, while the latent heat transfer required to initiate OHP operation via boiling and evaporation is also considered. Results suggest that an OHP-HRV can possess a reasonable pressure drop (5 kW. The proposed OHP-HRV can possess an effectiveness near 0.5 and can pre-cool/heat HVAC air by >5°C. Potential energy and cost savings associated with using an OHP-HRV were estimated for commercial building envelopes in various regions of the United States. It is found that the proposed OHP-HRV can save more than $2500 annually in cities that have continental climatic conditions, such as Chicago and Denver, and for the selected locations the average yearly cost savings per building is found to be on-the-order of $700. Overall, the OHP-HRV shows potential in effectively reducing energy consumption and the operational cost of air handling units in buildings.

  19. Potential opportunities for energy savings in a Jordanian poultry company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlQdah, K.

    2010-01-01

    Rising concern about energy resource availability and energy prices in Jordan, cost of energy has become an issue that cannot be ignored in Jordan's industrial sector. In this study, energy auditing in a meat production factory related to poultry company was carried out. Based on the collected data and the conservation laws of energy, the performance of steam boilers, domestic hot water boilers, compressors, refrigeration systems, chillers, pumps, daily consumption of diesel and water were reviewed. The percentage of energy consumed by the refrigeration units, with respect to the total energy consumed, has been estimated. The results demonstrated a normal operation with thermal efficiency of 80.66% for the steam boiler, ability to save 18818.99 JD by installing economizer with payback period of 0.637 year and a 12.3% reduction of the energy cost achieved by reducing the blow down rate. The rate of diesel consumption was reduced by 12.87% over the last period of the study as a result of the recommendations that have been submitted to the technicians and professionals. The sum of 22223.77 JD can be saved by using heavy fuel oil instead of diesel oil. Moreover, this study demonstrated that energy saving can be considered as an ideal choice to increase profit and promote competition within the poultry industry if the company adopts all the proposals and recommendations that have been offered by this study.

  20. Renewable energy for Canada's northern communities - quantifying potential fuel savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brothers, C.

    1998-01-01

    The probable impact of renewable energy technologies on fuel consumption in Canada's remote northern communities was discussed. These communities currently meet their electricity requirements using expensive diesel powered generators. It was noted that change to renewable energy in Canada's remote communities will only be made if the economic benefits can be clearly demonstrated. A study was conducted in Cambridge Bay, Northwest Territories, in which electrical load requirements and wind and solar resource data from the community was acquired to estimate savings in diesel fuel consumption for various renewable energy technologies. Wind was found to provide the most fuel displacement and was considered to be the most appropriate technology for these communities. A photovoltaic (PV) system of equivalent size would have significantly less impact on fuel savings in a community like Cambridge Bay, in part because a PV system would be poorly correlated on a seasonal basis with the energy requirements of the community. A wind-diesel system would be the most advantageous in terms of fuel savings due to its relatively high capacity factor, and due to the fact that is it is available year around. 4 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  1. District Heating Expansion Potential with Low-Temperature and End-Use Heat Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Grundahl, Lars

    2018-01-01

    District heating has the potential to play a key role in the transition towards a renewable energy system. However, the development towards reduced heat demands threatens the feasibility of district heating. Despite this challenge, opportunity exists in the form of fourth generation district...... heating, which operates at lower temperatures and enables better renewable integration. This article investigates this challenge by examining the district heating potential within three scenarios: The first is a reference scenario with current heat demand and temperatures, the second includes heat demand...... costs. The models are applied using an example case of The Northern Region of Denmark. The article concludes that the district heating potential is highest in the reference scenario. When heat savings are introduced, district heating expansions, in most cases, will not be feasible. Introducing low...

  2. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Charles; Green, Andrew S.; Dahle, Douglas; Barnett, John; Butler, Pat; Kerner, David

    2013-08-01

    The findings of this study indicate that potential exists in non-building applications to save energy and costs. This potential could save billions of federal dollars, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy independence and security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Federal Government has nearly twenty years of experience with achieving similar energy cost reductions, and letting the energy costs savings pay for themselves, by applying energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) inits buildings. Currently, the application of ESPCs is limited by statute to federal buildings. This study indicates that ESPCs can be a compatible and effective contracting tool for achieving savings in non-building applications.

  3. Potential Energy Savings in Refrigeration Systems Using Optimal Setpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Slot; Thybo, Claus

    2004-01-01

    Energy efficiency of refrigeration systems has gradually been improved with help of control schemes utilizing the more flexible components. This paper proposes an approach in line with this trend, where a suboptimal condenser pressure is found in order to minimize the energy consumption. The obje......Energy efficiency of refrigeration systems has gradually been improved with help of control schemes utilizing the more flexible components. This paper proposes an approach in line with this trend, where a suboptimal condenser pressure is found in order to minimize the energy consumption....... The objective is to give an idea of how this optimization scheme works as well as to show what amount of energy it is possible to save. A steady state model of a simple refrigeration system will be used as a basis for the optimization....

  4. The costs and potential savings of a novel telepaediatric service in Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scuffham Paul

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few cost-minimisation studies in telemedicine. We have compared the actual costs of providing a telepaediatric service to the potential costs if patients had travelled to see the specialist in person. Methods In November 2000, we established a novel telepaediatric service for selected regional hospitals in Queensland. Instead of transferring patients to Brisbane, the majority of referrals to specialists in Brisbane were dealt with via videoconference. Since the service began, 1499 consultations have been conducted for a broad range of paediatric sub-specialities including burns, cardiology, child development, dermatology, diabetes, endocrinology, gastroenterology, nephrology, neurology, oncology, orthopaedics, paediatric surgery and psychiatry. Results During a five year period, the total cost of providing 1499 consultations through the telepaediatric service was A$955,996. The estimated potential cost of providing an outpatient service to the same number of patients at the Royal Children's Hospital in Brisbane was A$1,553,264; thus, telepaediatric services resulted in a net saving of approximately A$600,000 to the health service provider. Conclusion Telepaediatrics was a cheaper method for the delivery of outpatient services when the workload exceeded 774 consultations. A sensitivity analysis showed that the threshold point was most sensitive to changes related to patient travel costs, coordinator salaries and videoconference equipment costs. The study showed substantial savings for the health department, mainly due to reduced costs associated with patient travel.

  5. Estimation on oil demand and oil saving potential of China's road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Xie, Chunping

    2013-01-01

    China is currently in the stage of industrialization and urbanization, which is characterized by rigid energy demand and rapid growth of energy consumption. Therefore, energy conservation will become a major strategy for China in a transition to low-carbon economy. China's transport industry is of high energy consumption. In 2010, oil consumption in transport industry takes up 38.2% of the country's total oil demand, of which 23.6% is taken up by road transport sector. As a result, oil saving in China's road transport sector is vital to the whole nation. The co-integration method is developed to find a long-run relationship between oil consumption and affecting factors such as GDP, road condition, labor productivity and oil price, to estimate oil demand and to predict future oil saving potential in China's transport sector under different oil-saving scenarios. Monte Carlo simulation is further used for risk analysis. Results show that under BAU condition, oil demand of China's road transport sector will reach 278.5 million ton of oil equivalents (MTOE) in 2020. Oil saving potential will be 86 MTOE and 131 MTOE under moderate oil-saving scenario and advanced oil-saving scenario, respectively. This paper provides a reference to establishing oil saving policy for China's road transport sector. - Highlights: • We adopt the co-integration model to estimate oil demand and oil saving potential of China's road transport sector. • Monte Carlo simulation is further used for risk analysis. • GDP, ratio of classified highway, labor productivity and oil price are main factors affecting oil consumption. • Scenario analysis approach is applied to calculate oil saving potential under different energy saving scenarios. • Future policy for oil conservation in China's road transport sector is suggested

  6. 99th Regional Support Command Uses LED Lighting to Capture Significant Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-11-03

    Case study describes how the Army Reserve 99th Regional Support Command (RSC) cut its energy consumption in half at the Support Command's Technical Sergeant Vernon McGarity Army Reserve Center by replacing more than 1,200 fluorescent troffers with 46 W and 61 W LED troffers with dimmers. The site achieved annual savings of more than 180,000 kWh and more than $20,000 in energy cost savings.

  7. Potential of energy savings in the hotel sector in Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Yahya [Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mustafa, Mairna [Department of Sustainable Tourism, Queen Rania' s Institute of Tourism and Heritage, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Al-Mashaqbah, Shireen [International Office, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mashal, Kholoud [Department of Land Management and Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mohsen, Mousa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan)

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents some insights into Jordan's energy consumption in the tourist accommodation sector. The results of a recent survey on environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan were used to evaluate energy conservation in hotels. A survey was designed and distributed to hotels' managers and departments' supervisors in order to understand the environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan during the period 10-17 August 2006. Also some field visits were conducted to fully understand hotels interaction regarding the environment, in addition to help interpreting the results of the survey. The study is limited to all classified hotels in Jordan. It was found that lighting hotels' main building and outside areas, and air conditioning consume more electricity compared to other departments. The results show that few classified hotels already installed energy saving equipments, though, it was noticed that managers of one star hotels were not really willing to make such changes in their hotels, on the other hand, other classified hotels (2-5 star hotels) have shown a high willingness to make changes in their hotels to reduce the consumption of different types of energy. Hotel's classification played a significant role in explaining variations in most of the results, particularly when it comes to long-term investments to reduce energy consumption by using energy efficient appliances. Five and four star hotels were the most hotels willing to use energy efficient appliances to reduce energy consumption. The study suggested some strategies to help reduce the negative impacts of high energy consumption in hotels. These strategies include better insulation, and enhanced insulation for the hot water reticulation system. Moreover, enhancing and increasing the level of awareness among all hoteliers through a directed and well-designed campaign. Also offer interest free loans; and activate precise

  8. Potential of energy savings in the hotel sector in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Yahya; Mustafa, Mairna; Al-Mashaqbah, Shireen; Mashal, Kholoud; Mohsen, Mousa

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some insights into Jordan's energy consumption in the tourist accommodation sector. The results of a recent survey on environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan were used to evaluate energy conservation in hotels. A survey was designed and distributed to hotels' managers and departments' supervisors in order to understand the environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan during the period 10-17 August 2006. Also some field visits were conducted to fully understand hotels interaction regarding the environment, in addition to help interpreting the results of the survey. The study is limited to all classified hotels in Jordan. It was found that lighting hotels' main building and outside areas, and air conditioning consume more electricity compared to other departments. The results show that few classified hotels already installed energy saving equipments, though, it was noticed that managers of one star hotels were not really willing to make such changes in their hotels, on the other hand, other classified hotels (2-5 star hotels) have shown a high willingness to make changes in their hotels to reduce the consumption of different types of energy. Hotel's classification played a significant role in explaining variations in most of the results, particularly when it comes to long-term investments to reduce energy consumption by using energy efficient appliances. Five and four star hotels were the most hotels willing to use energy efficient appliances to reduce energy consumption. The study suggested some strategies to help reduce the negative impacts of high energy consumption in hotels. These strategies include better insulation, and enhanced insulation for the hot water reticulation system. Moreover, enhancing and increasing the level of awareness among all hoteliers through a directed and well-designed campaign. Also offer interest free loans; and activate precise standards and specifications

  9. Energy savings potential from improved building controls for the US commercial building sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nick; Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Xie, Yulong; Zhao, Mingjie

    2017-09-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) sponsored a study to determine the potential national savings achievable in the commercial building sector through widespread deployment of best practice controls, elimination of system and component faults, and use of better sensing. Detailed characterization of potential savings was one source of input to set research, development, and deployment (RD&D) goals in the field of building sensors and controls. DOE’s building energy simulation software, EnergyPlus, was employed to estimate the potential savings from 34 measures in 9 building types and across 16 climates representing almost 57% of commercial building sector energy consumption. In addition to estimating savings from individual measures, three packages of measures were created to estimate savings from the packages. These packages represented an 1) efficient building, 2) typical building, and 3) inefficient building. To scale the results from individual measures or a package to the national scale, building weights by building type and climate locations from the Energy Information Administration’s 2012 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) were used. The results showed significant potential for energy savings across all building types and climates. The total site potential savings from individual measures by building type and climate location ranged between 0% and 25%. The total site potential savings by building type aggregated across all climates (using the CBECS building weights) for each measure varied between 0% and 16%. The total site potential savings aggregated across all building types and climates for each measure varied between 0% and 11%. Some individual measures had negative savings because correcting underlying operational problems (e.g., inadequate ventilation) resulted in increased energy consumption. When combined into packages, the overall national savings potential is estimated to be 29

  10. Maximum potential cost-savings attributable to generic substitution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D. Husselmann

    community. ... Conclusions: Potential economic benefits can be generated with generic substitution. ... Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ... supply of safe, cost-effective drugs of acceptable quality to all citizens of South Africa, and the rational use of drugs by .... different types of schizophrenic diagnosis) with a claim.

  11. Energy saving analysis and management modeling based on index decomposition analysis integrated energy saving potential method: Application to complex chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Zhiqiang; Gao, Huachao; Wang, Yanqing; Han, Yongming; Zhu, Qunxiong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The integrated framework that combines IDA with energy-saving potential method is proposed. • Energy saving analysis and management framework of complex chemical processes is obtained. • This proposed method is efficient in energy optimization and carbon emissions of complex chemical processes. - Abstract: Energy saving and management of complex chemical processes play a crucial role in the sustainable development procedure. In order to analyze the effect of the technology, management level, and production structure having on energy efficiency and energy saving potential, this paper proposed a novel integrated framework that combines index decomposition analysis (IDA) with energy saving potential method. The IDA method can obtain the level of energy activity, energy hierarchy and energy intensity effectively based on data-drive to reflect the impact of energy usage. The energy saving potential method can verify the correctness of the improvement direction proposed by the IDA method. Meanwhile, energy efficiency improvement, energy consumption reduction and energy savings can be visually discovered by the proposed framework. The demonstration analysis of ethylene production has verified the practicality of the proposed method. Moreover, we can obtain the corresponding improvement for the ethylene production based on the demonstration analysis. The energy efficiency index and the energy saving potential of these worst months can be increased by 6.7% and 7.4%, respectively. And the carbon emissions can be reduced by 7.4–8.2%.

  12. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Sagisaka, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity...... and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while...... proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts...

  13. Report on energy saving vision in Santo-cho region; Santocho chiiki sho energy vision hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    An energy-saving vision was decided on in Santo-cho region in Hyogo Prefecture, with its outline reported. This town is such that about 80% of the region is mountains, forests and wilderness and that aging is advancing at the rate above that of Hyogo Prefecture or the national average. Nearly entire energy of the town is dependent on the supply from outside. The energy consumption is somewhat increasing as a whole, with that of the people's livelihood/domestic sector and of transportation sector are rising. In the classification of fuels, electricity is growing in consumption. As an energy-saving vision, it aimed principally at personal surroundings in which every one got into the habit of saving energy continuously without being forced. The basic plan for the energy conservation drive consisted of inducement to an energy-saving life style, energy conservation to be spread by the next generation children, continuation of energy saving activity rooted in the region, and promotion of energy conservation as a basis for introducing new energy. The diffusion and enlightenment for children destined to lead the next generation were defined as a particularly important assignment, as was the promotion of energy conservation and environmental education. (NEDO)

  14. Bivalent heating systems - Potential for savings through system optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good, J.; Jenni, A.; Nussbaumer, T.

    2005-01-01

    This article tales a look at the potential for optimising bivalent heating installations for district heating systems fired with oil and wood. The influence of increases in the price of heating oil as compared to wood fuels is discussed. The authors comment that the proportion of expensive heating oil used in such installations is often too high. Price developments for both classes of fuel in 2005 are discussed. Factors influencing the proportions of oil and wood fuel used are listed and discussed, as is the mode of operation of the district heating systems, their extension and the consumers connected to them. The article provides information on the performance of 30 installations examined. Measures that can be taken to reduce the amount of heating oil used and to increase installation efficiency are presented and discussed

  15. Potential savings from an evidence-based consumer-oriented public education campaign on prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Julie M; Fischer, Michael A; Huskamp, Haiden A; Weissman, Joel S

    2008-10-01

    To estimate potential savings associated with the Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs program, a national educational program that provides consumers with price and effectiveness information on prescription drugs. National data on 2006 prescription sales and retail prices paid for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-coA) reductase inhibitors (statins). We converted national data on aggregate unit sales of drugs in the four classes to defined daily doses (DDD) and estimated a range of potential savings from generic and therapeutic substitution. We estimated that $2.76 billion, or 7.83 percent of sales, could be saved if use of the drugs recommended by the educational program was increased. The recommended drugs' prices were 15-65 percent lower per DDD than their therapeutic alternatives. The majority (57.4 percent) of potential savings would be achieved through therapeutic substitution. Substantial savings can be achieved through greater use of comparatively effective and lower cost drugs recommended by a national consumer education program. However, barriers to dissemination of consumer-oriented drug information must be addressed before savings can be realized. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  16. A budget impact analysis of Spiromax® compared with Turbuhaler® for the treatment of moderate to severe asthma: a potential improvement in the inhalation technique to strengthen medication adherence could represent savings for the Spanish Healthcare System and five Spanish regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbà J

    2016-09-01

    , Catalonia, Galicia, Madrid, and Valencia, respectively. Based on the forecast uptake of DuoResp® Spiromax®, the total budget savings in Spain were expected to be €1.509 million over the next 4 years. Region-specific rates imply that the total savings were expected to be €229,706 in Andalusia, €90,145 in Catalonia, €188,327 in Galicia, €122,669 in Madrid, and €165,796 in Valencia over 2015–2018.Conclusion: The introduction of DuoResp® Spiromax®, which represents a potential improvement in the inhalation technique to strengthen medication adherence for the treatment of moderate to severe asthma, could represent savings for the Spanish National Health Society and five Spanish regions. Keywords: dry powder inhaler, economic evaluation, region-specific estimates, payers perspective

  17. Potential energy savings in renovation projects of residential and service buildings; Energiansaeaestoemahdollisuudet rakennuskannan korjaustoiminnassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heljo, J.; Vihola, J.

    2012-11-01

    The study estimates the feasible energy savings potential in the 2010 building stock by 2050. The focus is on energy-saving measures related to renovation of residential and service buildings. The calculations were done by building types and age groups using the EKOREM calculation model. The calculations indicate the building types and structural elements where potential for savings exists. The study did not consider energy-saving measures related to changes in heating systems, electrical equipment, property maintenance or use habits. The study disproved the common belief that considerably more energy savings could be achieved faster by focussing on the existing building stock instead of new construction. That is mainly due the fact that it generally pays to implement structural energy-saving measures only when the targeted elements also require other significant repairs besides energy-efficiency improvements. Thus, energy renovations cannot be speeded up very much. The clearest exception are the extra insulations added to roof assemblies that are easy to implement. Attempts to save more energy in the building stock than can be achieved at a small additional cost in connection with needed renovations may multiply costs, and the saving in energy costs will not necessarily cover the additional investments. The efficiency of energy-saving measures can be affected by recommending or ordering use of more energy efficient windows, thicker extra insulations or more efficient ventilation heat recovery systems than the standard solution selected in connection with renovations. The goal of preserving the characteristics of buildings of cultural-historical or architectural value and the typical solutions and materials used in all buildings of a certain period limit the repair and renovation of structural elements. In the case of these buildings, improvement of energy efficiency can be considered in connection with the planning of renovations and the buildings' use and

  18. Potential energy savings using dynamically optimizing control in refrigeration systems under daily variations in ambient temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth; Thybo, Claus; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the energy saving potential for refrigeration systems by refrigeration more at the colder night time than at the warmer day time. The potential is evaluated using an optimal control policy and illustrated on a simulation example. The results show...

  19. Estimating potential saving with energy consumption behaviour model in higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafizal Ishak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Towards sustainable Higher Education Institutions (HEIs, energy consumption behaviour is one of several issues that require an attention by facilities manager. Information from the behavioural aspect would be useful for facilities manager on managing the energy and determining potential energy saving. A lack of information negatively affects this aim. Hence, this paper proposes a methodology for assessing the energy consumption behaviour with the objective determining potential energy saving. The method used energy culture framework as basis and joined with centrographic approach and multiple-regression analysis. A self-administrated survey carried out involving 1400 respondents in selected HEIs. There are four types of energy use among students in HEIs namely, 'high', 'low', ‘medium’ and 'conserve' determined from the centrographic analysis. The energy consumption behaviour model was developed and tested against the holdout sample. Through the model's application, there is a vast potential for energy savings with over 55 kWh daily among the students.

  20. Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Bolduc, Christopher; Burch, Gabriel; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Saltiel, Seth

    2011-05-06

    This study surveyed the technical potential for efficiency improvements in 150 categories of appliances and equipment representing 33 quads of primary energy use across the US economy in 2010 and (1) documented efficient product designs, (2) identified the most promising cross-cutting strategies, and (3) ranked national energy savings potential by end use. Savings were estimated using a method modeled after US Department of Energy priority-setting reports - simplified versions of the full technical and economic analyses performed for rulemakings. This study demonstrates that large savings are possible by replacing products at the end-of-life with ultra-efficient models that use existing technology. Replacing the 50 top energy-saving end-uses (constituting 30 quads of primary energy consumption in 2010) with today's best-on-market equivalents would save {approx}200 quads of US primary energy over 30 years (25% of consumption anticipated there from). For the 29 products for maximum feasible savings potential could be estimated, the savings were twice as high. These results demonstrate that pushing ultra-efficient products to market could significantly escalate carbon emission reductions and is a viable strategy for sustaining large emissions reductions through standards. The results of this analysis were used by DOE for new coverage prioritization, to identify key opportunities for product prototyping and market development, and will leverage future standards rulemakings by identifying the full scope of maximum feasible technology options. High leverage products include advances lighting systems, HVAC, and televisions. High leverage technologies include electronic lighting, heat pumps, variable speed motors, and a host of controls-related technologies.

  1. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Hermansen, John E. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); Sagisaka, Masayuki [Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts to 15 million barrels of oil a year. Whether the saving benefits could be fully realized, however, depends on how well the potential land use change resulting from an expansion of ethanol production is managed. The results presented serve as a useful guidance to formulate strategies that enable optimum utilization of biomass as an energy source. (author)

  2. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. pulp and paper manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas, representing 52% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity

  3. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Iron and Steel Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith Jamison, Caroline Kramer, Sabine Brueske, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. iron and steel manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas and select subareas, representing 82% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes and subareas are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  4. Why do savings institutions differ within the same region? The role of environment and social capital in the creation of savings arrangements in eastern Burkina Faso.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzucato, V.; Niemeijer, D

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes two different savings arrangements around cattle that have been developed in two villages in the eastern region of Burkina Faso and raises the question of why two forms have evolved in the same region, populated by the same ethnic groups, and where crop and livestock production

  5. A comprehensive framework to quantify energy savings potential from improved operations of commercial building stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azar, Elie; Menassa, Carol C.

    2014-01-01

    While studies highlight the significant impact of actions performed by occupants and facility managers on building energy performance, current policies ignore the importance of human actions and the potential energy savings from a more efficient operation of building systems. This is mainly attributed to the lack of methods that evaluate non-technological drivers of energy use for large stocks of commercial buildings to support policy making efforts. Therefore, this study proposes a scientific approach to quantifying the energy savings potential due to improved operations of any stock of commercial buildings. The proposed framework combines energy modeling techniques, studies on human actions in buildings, and surveying and sampling methods. The contributions of this study to energy policy are significant as they reinforce the role of human actions in energy conservation, and support efforts to integrate operation-focused solutions in energy conservation policy frameworks. The framework's capabilities are illustrated in a case study performed on the stock of office buildings in the United States (US). Results indicate a potential 21 percent reduction in the current energy use levels of these buildings through realistic changes in current building operation patterns. - Highlights: • Human actions highly influence energy performance of commercial building stocks. • It is challenging to quantify operation-related energy savings potential. • The proposed framework quantifies potential energy savings from improved operations. • The framework can be applied on any stock of commercial buildings. • Applications include support for operation-focused solutions in energy policies

  6. Potential savings from redetermining disability among children receiving supplemental security income benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, Christian D; Kotelchuck, Milton; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Nozzolillo, Alixandra A; Perrin, James M

    2012-01-01

    To compare the costs of redetermining disability to potential savings in Supplemental Security Income payments associated with different strategies for implementing Continuing Disability Reviews (CDRs) among children potentially enrolled in SSI from 2012 to 2021. We reviewed publicly available reports from the Social Security Administration and Government Accountability Office to estimate costs and savings. We considered CDRs for children ages 1-17 years, excluding mandated low-birth weight and age 18 redeterminations that SSA routinely has performed. If in 2012 the Social Security Administration performs the same number of CDRs for children as in 2010 (16,677, 1% of eligibles) at a cessation rate of 15%, the agency would experience net savings of approximately $145 million in benefit payments. If CDR numbers increased to the greatest level ever (183,211, 22% of eligibles, in 1999) at the same cessation rate, the agency would save approximately $1.6 billion in benefit payments. Increasing the numbers of CDRs for children represents a considerable opportunity for savings. Recognizing the dynamic nature of disability, the agency could reassess the persistence of disability systematically; doing so could free up resources from children who are no longer eligible and help the agency better direct its benefits to recipients with ongoing disability and whose families need support to meet the extra costs associated with raising a child with a major disability. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Model for Determining Geographical Distribution of Heat Saving Potentials in Danish Building Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Petrovic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the global oil crisis in the 1970s, Denmark has followed a path towards energy independency by continuously improving its energy efficiency and energy conservation. Energy efficiency was mainly tackled by introducing a high number of combined heat and power plants in the system, while energy conservation was predominantly approached by implementing heat saving measures. Today, with the goal of 100% renewable energy within the power and heat sector by the year 2035, reductions in energy demand for space heating and the preparation of domestic hot water remain at the top of the agenda in Denmark. A highly detailed model for determining heat demand, possible heat savings and associated costs in the Danish building stock is presented. Both scheduled and energy-saving renovations until year 2030 have been analyzed. The highly detailed GIS-based heat atlas for Denmark is used as a container for storing data about physical properties for 2.5 million buildings in Denmark. Consequently, the results of the analysis can be represented on a single building level. Under the assumption that buildings with the most profitable heat savings are renovated first, the consequences of heat savings for the economy and energy system have been quantified and geographically referenced. The possibilities for further improvements of the model and the application to other geographical regions have been discussed.

  8. Shortened first-line TB treatment in Brazil: potential cost savings for patients and health services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trajman, Anete; Bastos, Mayara Lisboa; Belo, Marcia; Calaça, Janaína; Gaspar, Júlia; Dos Santos, Alexandre Martins; Dos Santos, Camila Martins; Brito, Raquel Trindade; Wells, William A.; Cobelens, Frank G.; Vassall, Anna; Gomez, Gabriela B.

    2016-01-01

    Shortened treatment regimens for tuberculosis are under development to improve treatment outcomes and reduce costs. We estimated potential savings from a societal perspective in Brazil following the introduction of a hypothetical four-month regimen for tuberculosis treatment. Data were gathered in

  9. Analysis of Energy Saving Potential and Optimization of Thermally Broken Fiberglass Window Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the energy saving potential and development process of fiberglass window frames, with intention for application in cold climates. A method is presented, where different means of improving thermal performance of a window frame are evaluated. Firstly, very simple geometries...

  10. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Reis, Callie [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2013-12-04

    This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies. After analyzing the technical savings potential offered by motor upgrades and variable speed technologies, recommended actions are presented.

  11. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Ahlfeldt, Christopher [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Hiraiwa, Hirokazu [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sathe, Amul [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This study characterizes and assesses the appliances used in commercial buildings. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development and demonstration (RD&D) opportunities for efficiency improvements, excluding product categories such as HVAC, building lighting, refrigeration equipment, and distributed generation systems. The study included equipment descriptions, characteristics of the equipment’s market, national energy consumption, estimates of technical potential for energy-saving technologies, and recommendations for U.S. Department of Energy programs that can promote energy savings in commercial appliances.

  12. Realistic Energy Saving Potential of Sleep Mode for Existing and Future Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert; Saker, Louai; Elayoubi, Salah Eddine

    2012-01-01

    potential savings, and emphasize some of the expected limitations. Since site measurements show that the energy consumption of base station sites is largely load-independent, this makes such a feature highly effective for reducing the energy consumption of mobile networks during hours of low traffic. After......This paper presents an extensive overview on an energy saving feature referred to as ‘site sleep mode’, designed for existing and future mobile broadband networks. In addition to providing a detailed understanding of the main concept, the paper also provides various studies and results to highlight...

  13. Potential electricity savings by variable speed control of compressor for air conditioning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasution, Henry [Bung Hatta University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Padang, West Sumatera (Indonesia); Wan Hassan, Mat Nawi [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Skudai, Johor Bahru-Darul Ta' zim (Malaysia)

    2006-05-15

    The potential of a variable-speed compressor running on a controller to provide enhanced load-matching capability, energy saving and thermal comfort for application in air-conditioning system is demonstrated. An air-conditioning system, originally operated on a constant speed mode, is retrofitted with an inverter and a PID controller. The system was installed to a thermal environmental room together with a data acquisition system to monitor energy consumption and temperature of the room. Measurements were taken 2 h daily at a time interval of 5 min for an on/off and an inverter variable-speed conditions. The results indicate that thermal comfort of the room together with energy saving can be obtained through a proper selection of K for the controller. At a temperature setting of 22 C, the energy saving for the system is estimated to reach 25.3% for PID controllers. (orig.)

  14. Fuel Savings Potential from Future In-motion Wireless Power Transfer (WPT); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.; Konan, A.

    2015-02-10

    This presentation discusses the fuel savings potential from future in-motion wireless power transfer. There is an extensive overlap in road usage apparent across regional vehicle population, which occurs primarily on high-capacity roads--1% of roads are used for 25% of the vehicle miles traveled. Interstates and highways make up between 2.5% and 4% of the total roads within the Consolidated Statistical Areas (CSAs), which represent groupings of metropolitan and/or micropolitan statistical areas. Mileage traveled on the interstates and highways ranges from 54% in California to 24% in Chicago. Road electrification could remove range restrictions of electric vehicles and increase the fuel savings of PHEVs or HEVs if implemented on a large scale. If 1% of the road miles within a geographic area are electrified, 25% of the fuel used by a 'fleet' of vehicles enabled with the technology could be displaced.

  15. Energy saving potential of natural ventilation in China: The impact of ambient air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Zheming; Chen, Yujiao; Malkawi, Ali; Liu, Zhu; Freeman, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Natural ventilation potential is affected largely by ambient air pollution in China. • NV hours of 76 Chinese cities based on weather and ambient air quality are estimated. • Cooling energy savings and carbon reductions of 35 major Chinese cities are estimated. • 8–78% of the cooling energy usage can be potentially reduced by NV. • Our findings provide guidelines to improve energy policies in China. - Abstract: Natural ventilation (NV) is a key sustainable solution for reducing the energy use in buildings, improving thermal comfort, and maintaining a healthy indoor environment. However, the energy savings and environmental benefits are affected greatly by ambient air pollution in China. Here we estimate the NV potential of all major Chinese cities based on weather, ambient air quality, building configuration, and newly constructed square footage of office buildings in the year of 2015. In general, little NV potential is observed in northern China during the winter and southern China during the summer. Kunming located in the Southwest China is the most weather-favorable city for natural ventilation, and reveals almost no loss due to air pollution. Building Energy Simulation (BES) is conducted to estimate the energy savings of natural ventilation in which ambient air pollution and total square footage at each city must be taken into account. Beijing, the capital city, displays limited per-square-meter saving potential due to the unfavorable weather and air quality for natural ventilation, but its largest total square footage of office buildings makes it become the city with the greatest energy saving opportunity in China. Our analysis shows that the aggregated energy savings potential of office buildings at 35 major Chinese cities is 112 GWh in 2015, even after allowing for a 43 GWh loss due to China’s serious air pollution issue especially in North China. 8–78% of the cooling energy consumption can be potentially reduced by natural

  16. Potential energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction of China's cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Jing; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David; Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes current energy and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission trends in China's cement industry as the basis for modeling different levels of cement production and rates of efficiency improvement and carbon reduction in 2011–2030. Three cement output projections are developed based on analyses of historical production and physical and macroeconomic drivers. For each of these three production projections, energy savings and CO 2 emission reduction potentials are estimated in a best practice scenario and two continuous improvement scenarios relative to a frozen scenario. The results reveal the potential for cumulative final energy savings of 27.1 to 37.5 exajoules and energy-related direct emission reductions of 3.2 to 4.4 gigatonnes in 2011–2030 under the best practice scenarios. The continuous improvement scenarios produce cumulative final energy savings of 6.0 to 18.9 exajoules and reduce CO 2 emissions by 1.0 to 2.4 gigatonnes. This analysis highlights that increasing energy efficiency is the most important policy measure for reducing the cement industry's energy and emissions intensity, given the current state of the industry and the unlikelihood of significant carbon capture and storage before 2030. In addition, policies to reduce total cement production offer the most direct way of reducing total energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. - Highlights: ► This study models output and efficiency improvements in Chinese cement industry from 2011–2030. ► Energy savings and CO 2 emission reductions estimated for 3 scenarios relative to frozen scenario. ► Results reveal cumulative final energy savings potential of 27.1–37.5 EJ and 3.2–4.4 Gt CO 2 reductions. ► Increasing efficiency is the most important policy for reducing cement energy and emissions intensity.

  17. Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    1 Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization David N. Ford...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization 5a...Manufacturing ( 3D printing ) 2 Research Context Problem: Learning curve savings forecasted in SHIPMAIN maintenance initiative have not materialized

  18. Financial Impact of Cancer Drug Wastage and Potential Cost Savings From Mitigation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Caitlyn Y W; Cheung, Matthew C; Charbonneau, Lauren F; Prica, Anca; Ng, Pamela; Chan, Kelvin K W

    2017-07-01

    Cancer drug wastage occurs when a parenteral drug within a fixed vial is not administered fully to a patient. This study investigated the extent of drug wastage, the financial impact on the hospital budget, and the cost savings associated with current mitigation strategies. We conducted a cross-sectional study in three University of Toronto-affiliated hospitals of various sizes. We recorded the actual amount of drug wasted over a 2-week period while using current mitigation strategies. Single-dose vial cancer drugs with the highest wastage potentials were identified (14 drugs). To calculate the hypothetical drug wastage with no mitigation strategies, we determined how many vials of drugs would be needed to fill a single prescription. The total drug costs over the 2 weeks ranged from $50,257 to $716,983 in the three institutions. With existing mitigation strategies, the actual drug wastage over the 2 weeks ranged from $928 to $5,472, which was approximately 1% to 2% of the total drug costs. In the hypothetical model with no mitigation strategies implemented, the projected drug cost wastage would have been $11,232 to $149,131, which accounted for 16% to 18% of the total drug costs. As a result, the potential annual savings while using current mitigation strategies range from 15% to 17%. The financial impact of drug wastage is substantial. Mitigation strategies lead to substantial cost savings, with the opportunity to reinvest those savings. More research is needed to determine the appropriate methods to minimize risk to patients while using the cost-saving mitigation strategies.

  19. Nash Equilibrium of an Energy Saving Strategy with Dual Rate Transmission in Wireless Regional Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanqiang Huo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless regional area network (WRAN adopts centralized network architecture and is currently one of the most typical cognitive radio networks. In order to reduce the energy consumption of the communication networks with the constraint of spectrum resource utilization, a working sleep mechanism is introduced into the base station (BS, and a novel energy saving strategy with dual rate transmission is proposed. Combining the multiple-vacation queue and priority queue, using the quasi-birth-death process and the matrix-geometric solution method, we assess the average latency and the forced termination probability of secondary user packets, as well as the energy saving ratio and the channel utilization of system. Based on the revenue-expenditure structure, a profit function is built, and then the Nash equilibrium behavior and the socially optimal behavior are investigated. With the help of the particle swarm optimization, an intelligent optimization algorithm to search the socially optimal arrival rate of secondary user packets is presented. In order to unify the arrival rates of secondary user packets with Nash equilibrium and social optimization, a reasonable pricing policy is formulated. In addition, system experiments are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the energy saving strategy and the rationality of the pricing policy.

  20. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Commercial Building HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Shandross, Richard [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Petritchenko, Oxana [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Ringo, Decker [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); McClive, Sam [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) commissioned this characterization and technology assessment of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems for commercial buildings. The main objectives of this study: Identify a wide range of technology options in varying stages of development that could reduce commercial HVAC energy consumption; Characterize these technology options based on their technical energy-savings potential, development status, non-energy benefits, and other factors affecting end-user acceptance and the ability to compete with conventional HVAC technologies; Make specific recommendations to DOE and other stakeholders on potential research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities that would support further development of the most promising technology options.

  1. Energy saving potential of energy services - experimentation on the life cycle of energy conversion equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, M.

    2006-12-01

    Energy efficiency services are growing in Europe but their role is still limited. In order to evaluate the potential, we focused first of all on policy, economical and environmental mechanisms that support their development. European natural gas and electricity markets, that are now almost wholly de-regulated, are analysed and compared to their historical structure. By introducing uncertainty on energy prices, this new deal translates better the real energy costs. Energy performance contracts (EPC) limit the impact of these uncertainties on the customer energy bills by guaranteeing a financial result. As a result of the modelling of these contracts, namely operation and maintenance ones, we prove that they transfer technical and financial risks from building owners to energy service companies (ESCO) making energy saving measures easier and less expensive at the same time. These contracts are relatively widespread for heating or compressed-air processes but remain marginal for air-conditioning systems. So new methods were needed to guarantee on the long terms the efficiency of air-conditioning systems demand (1) to master the process and its performances and (2) to be able to determine precisely the energy saving potential and its realisation costs. A detailed energy audit is thus necessary for which we propose a guidance. Conclusions of audits carried out prove that energy saving potential is mainly located in equipment management and control. These optimizations are not always carried out because of a lack of contractual incentive and due to the weaknesses of audit methods. Through the involvement of an independent expert, the mandatory and regular inspection of air-conditioning systems may allow to verify and guide such practices. A three-step analysis procedure has been developed in order to maximize the inspection potential and to get higher benefits from service contracts. (author)

  2. Energy usage and technical potential for energy saving measures in the Swedish residential building stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, Érika; Sasic Kalagasidis, Angela; Johnsson, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the current energy usage (net energy and final energy by fuels) and associated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions of the Swedish residential building stock, which includes single-family dwellings and multi-family dwellings. Twelve energy saving measures (ESMs) are assessed using a bottom–up modeling methodology, in which the Swedish residential stock is represented by a sample of 1400 buildings (based on data from the year 2005). Application of the ESMs studied gives a maximum technical reduction potential in energy demand of 53%, corresponding to a 63% reduction in CO 2 emissions. Although application of the investigated ESMs would reduce CO 2 emissions, the measures that reduce electricity consumption for lighting and appliances (LA) will increase CO 2 emissions, since the saved electricity production is less CO 2 -intensive than the fuel mix used for the increased space heating required to make up for the loss in indirect heating obtained from LA. - Highlights: ► Analysis of year 2005energy use and CO2 emissions of Swedish residential buildings. ► Includes all single-family dwellings and multi-family dwellings. ► Bottom–up modeling of building stock represented by 1400 buildings. ► Technical effects of 12 energy saving measures are assessed. ► Energy demand can be reduced by53% and associated CO 2 emissions by 63%

  3. The potential and need for energy saving in standard family detached and semi-detached wooden houses in arctic Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Vladyková, Petra

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives an account of the potential and need for energy saving in standard family detached and semi-detached wooden houses in Greenland. It is based on studies of house construction compared with Building Regulation requirements and the spread of buildings over time. In the climatic...... conditions of Greenland, there is considerable potential for energy saving in houses due to their construction, shape and condition. To estimate the total potential for energy saving and thus reducing CO2 emissions, we carried out a detailed investigation of three typical standard semi-detached family houses...

  4. Development of a prediction model for the cost saving potentials in implementing the building energy efficiency rating certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jaewook; Hong, Taehoon; Ji, Changyoon; Kim, Jimin; Lee, Minhyun; Jeong, Kwangbok; Koo, Choongwan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This study evaluates the building energy efficiency rating (BEER) certification. • Prediction model was developed for cost saving potentials by the BEER certification. • Prediction model was developed using LCC analysis, ROV, and Monte Carlo simulation. • Cost saving potential was predicted to be 2.78–3.77% of the construction cost. • Cost saving potential can be used for estimating the investment value of BEER. - Abstract: Building energy efficiency rating (BEER) certification is an energy performance certificates (EPCs) in South Korea. It is critical to examine the cost saving potentials of the BEER-certification in advance. This study aimed to develop a prediction model for the cost saving potentials in implementing the BEER-certification, in which the cost saving potentials included the energy cost savings of the BEER-certification and the relevant CO_2 emissions reduction as well as the additional construction cost for the BEER-certification. The prediction model was developed by using data mining, life cycle cost analysis, real option valuation, and Monte Carlo simulation. The database were established with 437 multi-family housing complexes (MFHCs), including 116 BEER-certified MFHCs and 321 non-certified MFHCs. The case study was conducted to validate the developed prediction model using 321 non-certified MFHCs, which considered 20-year life cycle. As a result, compared to the additional construction cost, the average cost saving potentials of the 1st-BEER-certified MFHCs in Groups 1, 2, and 3 were predicted to be 3.77%, 2.78%, and 2.87%, respectively. The cost saving potentials can be used as a guideline for the additional construction cost of the BEER-certification in the early design phase.

  5. Residential energy use in Mexico: Structure, evolution, environmental impacts, and savings potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masera, O.; Friedmann, R.; deBuen, O.

    1993-05-01

    This article examines the characteristics of residential energy use in Mexico, its environmental impacts, and the savings potential of the major end-uses. The main options and barriers to increase the efficiency of energy use are discussed. The energy analysis is based on a disaggregation of residential energy use by end-uses. The dynamics of the evolution of the residential energy sector during the past 20 years are also addressed when the information is available. Major areas for research and for innovative decision-making are identified and prioritized.

  6. Potential for Potable Water Savings in Buildings by Using Stormwater Harvested from Porous Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Niehuns Antunes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern about the scarcity of water resources due to population growth and increased demand for potable water. Thus, the rational use of water has become necessary for the conservation of such resources. The objective of this study is to estimate the potential for potable water savings in buildings of different sectors—residential, public and commercial—in the city of Florianópolis, southern Brazil, by using stormwater harvested from porous pavements. Models were constructed to assess infiltration and rainwater quality; samples of stormwater from a local road were collected to evaluate its quality; and computer simulation was performed to assess the potential for potable water savings and rainwater tank sizing. Draining asphalt concrete slabs with two types of modifiers were used, i.e., tire rubber and SBS polymer—styrene-butadiene-styrene. The Netuno computer programme was used to simulate the potential for potable water savings considering the use of rainwater for non-potable uses such as flushing toilets and urinals, cleaning external areas, and garden watering. Average stormwater infiltration was 85.4%. It was observed that stormwater is not completely pure. From the models, the pH was 5.4 and the concentrations of ammonia, phosphorus, nitrite, and dissolved oxygen were 0.41, 0.14, 0.002, and 9.0 mg/L, respectively. The results for the stormwater runoff of a paved road were 0.23, 0.11, 0.12, 0.08, 1.41, 2.11, 0.02, and 9.0 mg/L for the parameters aluminium, ammonia, copper, chromium, iron, phosphorus, nitrite, and dissolved oxygen, respectively; and the pH was 6.7. In the city of Florianópolis, which has a surface area of paved roads of approximately 11,044,216 m², the potential for potable water savings ranged from 1.2% to 19.4% in the residential sector, 2.1% to 75.7% in the public sector and 6.5% to 70.0% in the commercial sector.

  7. Fossil energy and GHG saving potentials of pig farming in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Hermansen, John Erik

    2010-01-01

    ) savings can be feasibly achieved. As shown in the results of the analysis, pig farming in the EU has a high potential to reduce fossil energy use and GHG emissions by taking improvement measures in three aspects: (i) feed use; (ii) manure management; and (iii) manure utilization. In particular......In Europe, the highly developed livestock industry places a high burden on resource use and environmental quality. This paper examines pig meat production in North-West Europe as a base case and runs different scenarios to investigate how improvements in terms of energy and greenhouse gas (GHG...

  8. Web-based Tool Identifies and Quantifies Potential Cost Savings Measures at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renevitz, Marisa J.; Peschong, Jon C.; Charboneau, Briant L.; Simpson, Brett C.

    2014-01-01

    The Technical Improvement system is an approachable web-based tool that is available to Hanford DOE staff, site contractors, and general support service contractors as part of the baseline optimization effort underway at the Hanford Site. Finding and implementing technical improvements are a large part of DOE's cost savings efforts. The Technical Improvement dashboard is a key tool for brainstorming and monitoring the progress of submitted baseline optimization and potential cost/schedule efficiencies. The dashboard is accessible to users over the Hanford Local Area Network (HLAN) and provides a highly visual and straightforward status to management on the ideas provided, alleviating the need for resource intensive weekly and monthly reviews

  9. Forecasting the Optimal Factors of Formation of the Population Savings as the Basis for Investment Resources of the Regional Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odintsova Tetiana M.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the optimal factors of formation of the population savings as the basis for investment resources of the regional economy. A factorial (nonlinear correlative-regression analysis of the formation of savings of the population of Ukraine was completed. On its basis a forecast of the optimal structure and volumes of formation of the population incomes was carried out taking into consideration impact of fundamental factors on these incomes. Such approach provides to identify the marginal volumes of tax burden, population savings, and capital investments, directed to economic growth.

  10. Fossil energy and GHG saving potentials of pig farming in the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Hermansen, John E.; Mogensen, Lisbeth [Department of Agroecology and Environment, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark)

    2010-05-15

    In Europe, the highly developed livestock industry places a high burden on resource use and environmental quality. This paper examines pig meat production in North-West Europe as a base case and runs different scenarios to investigate how improvements in terms of energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) savings can be feasibly achieved. As shown in the results of the analysis, pig farming in the EU has a high potential to reduce fossil energy use and GHG emissions by taking improvement measures in three aspects: (i) feed use; (2) manure management; and (3) manure utilization. In particular, a combination of improvements in all mentioned aspects offers the highest savings potential of up to 61% fossil energy and 49% GHG emissions. In weighing these three aspects, manure utilization for energy production is found to be the most important factor in reducing fossil energy use and GHG emissions. However, when GHG implications of land use change and land opportunity cost associated with the production of feed crops (e.g. soy meal, cereals) are considered, reducing feed use becomes the main factor in improving GHG performance of EU pork. (author)

  11. Analysis on energy saving potential of integrated supermarket HVAC and refrigeration systems using multiple subcoolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); China R and D Center, Carrier Corporation, No. 3239 Shen Jiang Road, Shanghai 201206 (China); Zhang, Chun-Lu [China R and D Center, Carrier Corporation, No. 3239 Shen Jiang Road, Shanghai 201206 (China)

    2010-02-15

    The paper presents a model-based analysis on the energy saving potential of supermarket HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning) and refrigeration systems using multiple subcoolers among the high-temperature HVAC system, the medium-temperature refrigeration system, and the low-temperature refrigeration system. The principle of energy reduction is to have the higher COP (coefficient of performance) system generate more cooling capacity to increase the cooling capacity or reduce the power consumption of the lower COP system. The subcooler could be placed between the medium-temperature and low-temperature systems, between the high-temperature and medium-temperature systems, and between the high-temperature and low-temperature systems. All integration scenarios of adding one, two and three subcoolers have been investigated. The energy saving potential varies with the load ratio between high-, medium- and low-temperature systems, COP of three systems, and the ''on-off'' duty time of HVAC system. The optimal sequence of adding subcoolers is also proposed. (author)

  12. Fossil energy and GHG saving potentials of pig farming in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Hermansen, John E.; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    In Europe, the highly developed livestock industry places a high burden on resource use and environmental quality. This paper examines pig meat production in North-West Europe as a base case and runs different scenarios to investigate how improvements in terms of energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) savings can be feasibly achieved. As shown in the results of the analysis, pig farming in the EU has a high potential to reduce fossil energy use and GHG emissions by taking improvement measures in three aspects: (i) feed use; (ii) manure management; and (iii) manure utilization. In particular, a combination of improvements in all mentioned aspects offers the highest savings potential of up to 61% fossil energy and 49% GHG emissions. In weighing these three aspects, manure utilization for energy production is found to be the most important factor in reducing fossil energy use and GHG emissions. However, when GHG implications of land use change and land opportunity cost associated with the production of feed crops (e.g. soy meal, cereals) are considered, reducing feed use becomes the main factor in improving GHG performance of EU pork.

  13. Potential travel cost saving in urban public-transport networks using smartphone guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Public transport (PT) is a key element in most major cities around the world. With the development of smartphones, available journey planning information is becoming an integral part of the PT system. Each traveler has specific preferences when undertaking a trip, and these preferences can also be reflected on the smartphone. This paper considers transit assignment in urban public-transport networks in which the passengers receive smartphone-based information containing elements that might influence the travel decisions in relation to line loads, as well as passenger benefits, and the paper discusses the transition from the current widespread choosing approach to a personalized decision-making approach based on smartphone information. The approach associated with smartphone guidance that considers passengers’ preference on travel time, waiting time and transfer is proposed in the process of obtaining his/her preferred route from the potential travel routes generated by the Deep First Search (DFS) method. Two other approaches, based on the scenarios reflecting reality, include passengers with access to no real time information, and passengers that only have access to the arrival time at the platform are used as comparisons. For illustration, the same network proposed by Spiess and Florian is utilized on the experiments in an agent-based model. Two experiments are conducted respectively according to whether each passenger’s choosing method is consistent. As expected, the results in the first experiment showed that the travel for consistent passengers with smartphone guidance was clearly shorter and that it can reduce travel time exceeding 15% and weighted cost exceeding 20%, and the average saved time approximated 3.88 minutes per passenger. The second experiment presented that travel cost, as well as cost savings, gradually decreased by employing smartphone guidance, and the maximum cost savings accounted for 14.2% of the total weighted cost. PMID:29746528

  14. Potential travel cost saving in urban public-transport networks using smartphone guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cuiying; Guan, Wei; Ma, Jihui

    2018-01-01

    Public transport (PT) is a key element in most major cities around the world. With the development of smartphones, available journey planning information is becoming an integral part of the PT system. Each traveler has specific preferences when undertaking a trip, and these preferences can also be reflected on the smartphone. This paper considers transit assignment in urban public-transport networks in which the passengers receive smartphone-based information containing elements that might influence the travel decisions in relation to line loads, as well as passenger benefits, and the paper discusses the transition from the current widespread choosing approach to a personalized decision-making approach based on smartphone information. The approach associated with smartphone guidance that considers passengers' preference on travel time, waiting time and transfer is proposed in the process of obtaining his/her preferred route from the potential travel routes generated by the Deep First Search (DFS) method. Two other approaches, based on the scenarios reflecting reality, include passengers with access to no real time information, and passengers that only have access to the arrival time at the platform are used as comparisons. For illustration, the same network proposed by Spiess and Florian is utilized on the experiments in an agent-based model. Two experiments are conducted respectively according to whether each passenger's choosing method is consistent. As expected, the results in the first experiment showed that the travel for consistent passengers with smartphone guidance was clearly shorter and that it can reduce travel time exceeding 15% and weighted cost exceeding 20%, and the average saved time approximated 3.88 minutes per passenger. The second experiment presented that travel cost, as well as cost savings, gradually decreased by employing smartphone guidance, and the maximum cost savings accounted for 14.2% of the total weighted cost.

  15. Urban passenger transport energy saving and emission reduction potential: A case study for Tianjin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Binbin; Du, Huibin; Ma, Shoufeng; Fan, Ying; Broadstock, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential to reduce urban passenger transport is projected between 2010 and 2040. • Four scenarios reflecting different policy mixes are considered. • The potential for energy conservation and emission reductions are obtained. • Vehicle population regulation is most effective in energy saving and reducing overall GHG. • Emission standards are the most effective measure to reduce pollutant emissions. - Abstract: With rapid growth of the vehicle population, urban passenger transport in China is largely responsible for increases in energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and also atmospheric pollutants (NO x , CO, HC, PM). In this paper, we first develop an urban passenger transport energy saving and emission reduction potential evaluation model using the “Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP)” tool; and then take Tianjin city as an empirical case to evaluate the reduction potential of final energy consumption, GHG emissions and pollutants emissions of Tianjin’s urban passenger transport sector between 2010 and 2040 under four scenarios, i.e. BAU (business as usual) scenario, PP (the 12th five-year plan policy) scenario, CP (comprehensive policy) scenario and HP (hybrid policy of PP and CP) scenario. The results show that due to the public transport promotion, energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in 2040 can be reduced by 22% and 22.6% in the PP scenario, compared to BAU. The largest reductions in energy consumption, CO 2 and atmospheric pollutants emissions can be achieved under CP scenario, in which vehicle population regulation is the most effective to be implemented. Emissions standard regulation is the most effective measure to reduce atmospheric pollutant emissions in all the scenarios and green energy promotion is especially effective to reduce NO x and PM

  16. Assessment of innovative potential of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Sazonova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of innovative-oriented processes of transformation of the Russian economy at the current stage of development requires the formation of regional innovation systems that predetermine the growing competitiveness of the national economy in the future. The optimal functioning of the innovation system of the region as the most important link in the national innovation system depends on the availability, condition and level of development of its innovative potential, which in turn determines the economic growth of not only a single region, but the country as a whole. The essence and structure of innovative potential of organizational systems are considered in the article. The main approaches to the definition of the concept of innovative potential and the definition of the content of the concept are analyzed. An approach to the formation of an integrated indicator is proposed. The integrated indicator of the region's innovative potential was calculated using the area diagram method. The values of the innovation potential for the regions of the Central Federal District were calculated and the ranking of the regions was performed in accordance with the final value. Conclusion. To build a model for innovative development of the region, it is necessary to analyze the components of the innovation potential, its evaluation, and a possible development forecast for the coming years. Voronezh, Tula and Kostroma and Belgorod regions have high rates for the Central Federal District. Ryazan, Smolensk and Kostroma oblasts have rather low indicators in comparison with other regions.

  17. PV potential and potential PV rent in European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-­‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-­‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-­‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level...

  18. Electricity consumption and energy savings potential of video game consoles in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hittinger, E.; Mullins, K.A.; Azevedo, I.L. [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Total energy consumption of video game consoles has grown rapidly in the past few decades due to rapid increases in market penetration, power consumption of the devices, and increasing usage driven by new capabilities. Unfortunately, studies investigating the energy impacts of these devices have been limited and potential responses, such as ENERGY STAR requirements, have been difficult to define and implement. We estimate that the total electricity consumption of video game consoles in the US was around 11 TWh in 2007 and 16 TWh in 2010 (approximately 1 % of US residential electricity consumption), an increase of almost 50 % in 3 years. However, any estimate of total game console energy consumption is highly uncertain, and we have determined that the key uncertainty is the unknown consumer behavior with regards to powering down the system after use. Even under this uncertainty, we demonstrate that the most effective energy-saving modification is incorporation of a default auto power down feature, which could reduce electricity consumption of game consoles by 75 % (10 TWh reduction of electricity in 2010), saving consumers over USD 1 billion annually in electricity bills. We conclude that using an auto power down feature for game consoles is at least as effective for reducing energy consumption as implementing a strict set of energy efficiency improvements for the devices, is much easier to implement given the nature of the video game console industry, and could be applied retroactively to currently deployed consoles through firmware updates.

  19. Implementing Suicide Prevention Programs: Costs and Potential Life Years Saved in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Lesage, Alain; Latimer, Eric; Seguin, Monique

    2015-09-01

    ,979 per life year saved. Suicide prevention programs such as the NAD trial are cost-effective and can result in important potential cost-savings due to averted suicide deaths and reduced life years lost. Implementation of suicide prevention programs at the population level in Canada is cost-effective. Community mental health programs aimed at increasing awareness and the treatment of depression and better follow-up of high risk individuals for suicide are associated with a minimal per capita investment. These programs can result in important potential cost-savings due to averted suicide deaths and decreased disability due to depression. Additional research should focus on whether the outcomes of multi-modal suicide programs are specific or synergistic and most effective for which population subgroups. This may help inform how best to invest resources for the highest return.

  20. Measuring the impact of efficient household travel decisions on potential travel time savings and accessibility gains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recker, W.W.; McNally, M.G. [University of California, Irvine (United States). Institute of Transportation Studies, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Chen, C. [Ming-Chuan University, Taiwan (China). Department of Tourism Industry

    2001-07-01

    Using the conceptual framework of time-space geography, this paper incorporates both spatio-temporal constraints and household interaction effects into a meaningful measure of the potential of a household to interact with the built environment. Within this context, personal accessibility is described as a measure of the potential ability of individuals within a household not only to reach activity opportunities, but to do so with sufficient time available for participation in those activities, subject to the spatio-temporal constraints imposed by their daily obligations and transportation supply environment. The incorporation of activity-based concepts in the measurement of accessibility as a product of travel time savings not only explicitly acknowledges a temporal dimension in assessing the potential for spatial interaction but also expands the applicability of accessibility consideration to such real-world policy options as the promotion of ride-sharing and trip chaining behaviors. An empirical application of the model system provides an indication of the potential of activity-based modeling approaches to assess the bounds on achievable improvements in accessibility and travel time based on daily household activity patterns. It also provides an assessment of roles for trip chaining and ride-sharing as potentially effective methods to facilitate transportation policy objectives. (author)

  1. Analysis of genuine saving and potential green net national income. Portugal, 1990-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, Rui Pedro; Domingos, Tiago; Martins, Victor

    2010-01-01

    The context of this paper is the measurement of welfare and weak sustainability (defined as non-declining utility) in dynamic economies, i.e., comprehensive or green accounting. We estimate green net national income (GNNI) and genuine saving (GS) for Portugal, for the years 1990 to 2005, accounting for the disamenity of air pollution emissions, the depreciation of commercial forests and the value of time, discussing the implications of the assumptions underlying the inclusion of these terms in the green accounting model. The influence of short-run cycles is analyzed by estimating GNNI excluding business cycles. Our results suggest that business cycles affect the sustainability message of GNNI. We find that potential GNNI is growing and GS is positive in the analyzed period, thereby not indicating a weak sustainability problem in Portugal, although both depict a trend towards unsustainability. Excluding technological progress there is a contradiction in the sustainability message of GNNI and GS. (author)

  2. Potential emissions savings of lightweight composite aircraft components evaluated through life cycle assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA of structural aircraft materials has been utilised to assess and compare the total emissions produced during manufacturing, use and disposal of aerospace materials and their selected components. First, a comparison of aluminium, GLARE and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP plates was performed to investigate the potential of lightweight composites in reducing aviation emissions. Subsequently, a case study is presented on a tubular component for which more accurate manufacturing data were directly available. A structural steel tube was replaced with a composite tubular component. The analysis has shown that once the composite material is used as a component in the aircraft, there is a cumulative saving of aircraft fuel and emissions, in particular from CFRP structures. The environmental analysis included the long-term use predictions for CFRPs, involving detailed raw materials production, use and operation, and disposal scenarios.

  3. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Non-Vapor-Compression HVAC Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-03-01

    While vapor-compression technologies have served heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) needs very effectively, and have been the dominant HVAC technology for close to 100 years, the conventional refrigerants used in vapor-compression equipment contribute to global climate change when released to the atmosphere. This Building Technologies Office report: --Identifies alternatives to vapor-compression technology in residential and commercial HVAC applications --Characterizes these technologies based on their technical energy savings potential, development status, non-energy benefits, and other factors affecting end-user acceptance and their ability to compete with conventional vapor-compression systems --Makes specific research, development, and deployment (RD&D) recommendations to support further development of these technologies, should DOE choose to support non-vapor-compression technology further.

  4. Analysis of genuine saving and potential green net national income. Portugal, 1990-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Rui Pedro; Domingos, Tiago [Environment and Energy Section, DEM, Instituto Superior Tecnico (Portugal); Martins, Victor [Department of Economics, Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao (Portugal)

    2010-08-15

    The context of this paper is the measurement of welfare and weak sustainability (defined as non-declining utility) in dynamic economies, i.e., comprehensive or green accounting. We estimate green net national income (GNNI) and genuine saving (GS) for Portugal, for the years 1990 to 2005, accounting for the disamenity of air pollution emissions, the depreciation of commercial forests and the value of time, discussing the implications of the assumptions underlying the inclusion of these terms in the green accounting model. The influence of short-run cycles is analyzed by estimating GNNI excluding business cycles. Our results suggest that business cycles affect the sustainability message of GNNI. We find that potential GNNI is growing and GS is positive in the analyzed period, thereby not indicating a weak sustainability problem in Portugal, although both depict a trend towards unsustainability. Excluding technological progress there is a contradiction in the sustainability message of GNNI and GS. (author)

  5. Regional Super ESPC Saves Energy and Dollars at NASA's Johnson Space Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal Energy Management Program

    2001-01-01

    This case study about energy saving performance contacts (ESPCs) presents an overview of how the NASA's Johnson Space Flight Center established an ESPC contract and the benefits derived from it. The Federal Energy Management Program instituted these special contracts to help federal agencies finance energy-saving projects at their facilities

  6. Characterization of the household electricity consumption in the EU, potential energy savings and specific policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Paula; Almeida, Anibal de (ISR-Univ. of Coimbra, Dep. Electrical Engineering (Portugal)). e-mail: pfonseca@isr.uc.pt; Feilberg, Nicolai (SINTEF Energiforskning AS (Norway)); Markogiannakis, George (Centre for Renewable Energy Sources - CRES (Greece)); Kofod, Casper (Energy piano (Denmark))

    2009-07-01

    Although significant improvements in energy efficiency have been achieved in home appliances and lighting, the electricity consumption in the average EU-27 household has been increasing by about 2% per year during the past 10 years. Some reasons for such increase are associated with an increased degree of basic comfort and level of amenities (particularly in the new EU member countries) and also with the widespread utilization of relatively new types of loads whose penetration and use has experienced a very significant growth in recent years. With the objective of contributing to an increased understanding of the energy consumption in the EU-27 households for the different types of equipment including the consumers' behaviour and comfort levels, and to identify demand trends, a large energy monitoring campaign, co-funded by the IEE programme, was carried out in 12 countries, accompanied by a lifestyle consumer survey. From the measurements carried out it can be concluded that IT and entertainment loads, including standby, are a key contributor to the power demand. In basically all types of loads there is wide range of performance levels, including new emerging technologies, in the models available in the market. Available technology, associated with responsible consumer behaviour, can reduce wasteful consumption. The potential electricity savings that exist in the residential sector in Europe, and that can already be implemented by existing means, like the use of BAT (best available technology) efficient appliances or the elimination/mitigation of standby consumption, can reach up to 48% savings. Specific policy recommendations to promote market transformation and behavioural changes in the equipment selection and operation have been identified.

  7. Developing simplified Regional Potential Evapotranspiration (PET ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regional Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) estimation method was developed to estimate the potential evapotranspiration (reference evapotranspiration) over Abbay Basin as a function of basin maximum and minimum temperature, and modulated by site specific elevation data. The method is intended to estimate PET in ...

  8. Reasonable potential for GHG savings by anaerobic biomethane in Germany and UK derived from economic and ecological analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horschig, Thomas; Adams, Paul W.R.; Röder, Mirjam; Thornley, Patricia; Thrän, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomethane market potential estimation through biogas market analyses. • Country comparison of Germany and the UK in terms of bioenergy. • Assessment of possible greenhouse gas emission savings by biomethane. • Role of biomethane to achieve greenhouse gas reduction goals in Germany and the UK was investigated. - Abstract: This study introduces a new approach to estimate biomethane market potential by analysing biogas markets and their relative environmental and economic advantages. This potential is then combined with greenhouse gas emission values for different feedstock shares (farm-fed and waste-fed systems) and different application share to determine the possible contribution of biomethane to national greenhouse gas emission saving goals. Markets that are considered are Germany and the UK being the biggest emitters of CO_2_e_q in the European Union. The current use was compared with the scenarios (i) market projection, derived from literature study and (ii) reasonable potential, derived from environmental and economic calculations. The current market status is presented to show the past market development until the present date and associated greenhouse gas savings. Additionally the potential of biomethane to contribute to greenhouse gas emission savings is extensively described. Results indicate that the share of application in Germany is more environmental beneficial than the one in the UK achieving higher greenhouse gas savings at comparable feed-in level. In contrast, the UK has a higher share of waste-fed systems to produce biomethane. The use of biomethane in CHP plants achieves the highest GHG emission savings and if organic waste is used as feedstock the possible savings are even higher. With an increase of biomethane used in CHP plants and a decrease of biomethane used for direct heating the savings in the UK could increase up to 52%. Current savings of 2446 kt CO_2_e_q (Germany) and 606 kt CO_2_e_q (UK) can be extended to 4483

  9. Which hydroelectric potential in your region?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Illustrated by photos, maps, figures and graphs, this Power Point presentation outlines the important remaining potential of hydroelectricity in France: 10.6 TWh. It indicates how this potential has been assessed and calculated. Even if possibilities exist everywhere (either by building new dams or by exploiting existing weirs), four regions present a higher potential for new works: Rhone-Alpes, Midi-Pyrenees, Auvergne, and Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur. Maps indicate the concerned rivers and locations in some regions. Such projects which could boost economic local, regional and national development must be designed while taking planning tools into account (notably the climate-air-energy regional schemes), and rules related to river preservation

  10. Potentials for energy saving and CO2 reduction in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.; Luenstroth, U.

    1993-01-01

    In order to protect the climate the Administration of the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg aims at cutting energy-related CO 2 -emissions by 30% by the year 2005. This study analyses the potentials of energy consumption and CO 2 -reduction in the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg in the framework of an evaluation of literature. As special emphasis is put on technical steps such as an increase in efficiency with respect to the generation and consumption of energy as well as on the substitution of fossil energy sources by regenerative techniques of energy generation. In order to obtain considerable potentials of energy-saving a moderate increase in energy prices as well as several actions to reduce impediments are required . However, an achievement of those goals by the year 2005 is only partly possible, because of the time required. The evaluation of literature serves as a preparation of the comprehensive project Klimavertraegliche Energieversorgung in Baden-Wuerttemberg (greenhouse-gas-reduced energy supply in Baden-Wuerttemberg) of the Center of Technology Assessment in Baden-Wuerttemberg. (orig.) [de

  11. K2 Urbancorp, LLC.: Hot, Humid Climate Region 40+% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-08-13

    This case study describes a community of historically inspired energy efficient homes that met the 40% whole-house source energy savings by focusing primarily on tightening the building envelope and sealing ductwork.

  12. A comprehensive analysis of China's regional energy saving and emission reduction efficiency: From production and treatment perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jie; Lv, Lin; Sun, Jiasen; Ji, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Energy and environmental issues have recently aroused increasing interest in China and many approaches are used to evaluate energy and environmental performance. In this paper, a two-stage network DEA framework is applied to evaluate the efficiency of energy saving and emission reduction in China during the period of the eleventh five-year plan, from 2006 to 2010. In this study, economic activities are divided into production and treatment processes. This is different from previous research which generally focused on either environmental efficiency or energy efficiency, omitting the integration of energy and environmental measures. Today, energy saving and emission reduction are both parts of the basic state policy of China and are equally important. The empirical results in this study show that: (i) eastern China has the best energy saving and emission reduction efficiency, performing is better than western and central China. (ii) The efficiency of the production process in central China is better than that in western China while the western area performs better than the central area in term of treatment efficiency. (iii) Integrated efficiency of energy saving and emission reduction of China was relatively stable in the five years and the pollution treatment efficiency maintained a rising trend. -- Highlights: •We measured China's regional energy saving and emission reduction efficiency using two-stage DEA approach. •The production and treatment processes are incorporated in evaluation. •Eastern China performs best in terms of energy saving and emission reduction efficiency. •Integrated efficiency of energy saving and emission reduction of China kept a stable trend during 2006–2010

  13. A real-time regional adaptive exposure method for saving dose-area product in x-ray fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burion, Steve; Funk, Tobias; Speidel, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Reduction of radiation dose in x-ray imaging has been recognized as a high priority in the medical community. Here the authors show that a regional adaptive exposure method can reduce dose-area product (DAP) in x-ray fluoroscopy. The authors' method is particularly geared toward providing dose savings for the pediatric population. Methods: The scanning beam digital x-ray system uses a large-area x-ray source with 8000 focal spots in combination with a small photon-counting detector. An imaging frame is obtained by acquiring and reconstructing up to 8000 detector images, each viewing only a small portion of the patient. Regional adaptive exposure was implemented by varying the exposure of the detector images depending on the local opacity of the object. A family of phantoms ranging in size from infant to obese adult was imaged in anteroposterior view with and without adaptive exposure. The DAP delivered to each phantom was measured in each case, and noise performance was compared by generating noise arrays to represent regional noise in the images. These noise arrays were generated by dividing the image into regions of about 6 mm 2 , calculating the relative noise in each region, and placing the relative noise value of each region in a one-dimensional array (noise array) sorted from highest to lowest. Dose-area product savings were calculated as the difference between the ratio of DAP with adaptive exposure to DAP without adaptive exposure. The authors modified this value by a correction factor that matches the noise arrays where relative noise is the highest to report a final dose-area product savings. Results: The average dose-area product saving across the phantom family was (42 ± 8)% with the highest dose-area product saving in the child-sized phantom (50%) and the lowest in the phantom mimicking an obese adult (23%). Conclusions: Phantom measurements indicate that a regional adaptive exposure method can produce large DAP savings without compromising

  14. The potential for energy savings when reducing the water consumption in a kraft pulp mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wising, Ulrika; Berntsson, Thore [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Science; Stuart, Paul [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2004-05-01

    In this paper an existing pulp and paper mill has been studied in a systematic way regarding the reduction of water consumption, and the resulting increased potential for energy integration. It has been found that when the mill's hot water consumption is decreased, the live steam demand for the mill also decreases. Also when decreasing the hot water consumption, the quantity and temperature of available excess heat increases. This excess heat can be used for evaporation, thereby reducing the live steam demand further by up to 1.5 GJ/t. A pinch analysis was performed at an existing mill and it was found that if pinch violations are removed, the hot water consumption is not an important factor any more. Removing all the pinch violations and using the remaining excess heat for evaporation yields a significantly larger energy savings for the mill (4.0 GJ/t). From an economic optimum perspective it is probably most profitable to do a combination of reducing water consumption, removing pinch violations, and use the remaining excess heat for evaporation.

  15. Electrical heating tapes, their use, energy consumption and energy savings potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nipkow, J.; Lingenhel, S.

    2002-01-01

    Heating cables require about 0.6% of Swiss electricity consumption, approximately as much as all TV-sets. Most important applications are domestic hot water distribution tubing, frost protection (tubing, gutters) and industrial tubing, each requiring about 1/3. For over 10 years, self-regulating technology is standard for heating cables and offers pre-defined maintenance temperatures. To minimize electricity consumption, in most applications additional control devices (timer, temperature-/ power control) are necessary. The study could not give a general answer to whether domestic hot water distribution systems should be heated by heating cables or circulation systems. The best solution depends on the specific building circumstances. Conclusions of the technical and market analysis say that measures in different fields can transfer the saving potentials into practice: architects and designers of sanitary and electrical installations should be informed by articles in specialized magazines: the goal is either to avoid the use of heating cables or to minimize their electricity consumption, training of plumbers and electricians should treat the efficient use of heating cables. An instruction leaflet is to be created. Building owners and operators should be informed by their specialized magazines about problems with heating cables. (author)

  16. Climate protection with rapid payback. Energy and CO2 savings potential of industrial insulation in EU27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neelis, M.; Blinde, P.; Overgaag, M.; Deng, Y. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    This study aims to answer the following four questions: (1) What is the energy savings and CO2 emissions mitigation potential resulting from insulating currently uninsulated parts and from better maintenance of insulation systems?; (2) What are the energy savings and CO2 mitigation potential from improving current insulation to cost-effective levels? Cost-effective insulation in this study is defined as the insulation that minimises the sum of the costs of heat loss and the costs of insulation; (3) What is the energy savings and CO2 mitigation potential from improving current insulation beyond cost-effective levels to even more energy-efficient levels? Energy-efficient insulation in this study is defined as the insulation at which the sum of the costs of heat loss and the annualised insulation investments are equal to the costs of typical current insulation while offering an additional energy savings and CO2 mitigation potential; and (4) How can these potentials best be realised? This study investigates savings potentials from improved insulation in EU industry and the power sector under realistic market conditions. Nuclear power plants and power production by renewable sources were left outside the scope of this study as well as insulations of cold applications. Case studies of insulation projects have been used to compare energy loss and investments related to different levels of insulation. The analysis was performed for three temperature levels: <100C; 100-300C and >300C. Results at the level of the case studies were extrapolated to European level using data on current energy use. Other assumptions have been made where needed on the basis of literature and expert input. All potentials are based on a 9% discount rate, an average insulation lifetime of 15 years and a 2-3% per year increase of the price of energy net of inflation.

  17. Energy Saving Potentials of Phase Change Materials Applied to Lightweight Building Envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Bok Seong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCMs have been considered as an innovative technology that can reduce the peak loads and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC energy consumption in buildings. Basically they are substances capable of storing or releasing thermal energy as latent heat. Because the amount of latent heat absorbed or released is much larger than the sensible heat, the application of PCMs in buildings has significant potential to reduce energy consumption. However, because each PCM has its own phase change temperature, which is the temperature at which latent heat is absorbed or released, it is important to use an appropriate PCM for the purpose of building envelope design. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the energy saving potentials in buildings when various PCMs with different phase change temperatures are applied to a lightweight building envelope by analyzing the thermal load characteristics. As results, the annual heating load increased at every phase change temperature, but the peak heating load decreased by 3.19% with heptadecane (phase change temperature 21 °C, and the lowest indoor temperature increased by 0.86 °C with heptadecane (phase change temperature 21 °C. The annual cooling load decreased by 1.05% with dodecanol (phase change temperature 24 °C, the peak cooling load decreased by 1.30% with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C, and the highest indoor temperature dropped by 0.50 °C with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C. When the night ventilation was applied to the building HVAC system for better passive cooling performance, the annual cooling load decreased by 9.28% with dodecanol (phase change temperature 24 °C, the peak load decreased by 11.33% with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C, and the highest indoor temperature dropped by 0.85 °C with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C.

  18. Deemed Savings Estimates for Legacy Air Conditioning and WaterHeating Direct Load Control Programs in PJM Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles

    2007-03-01

    During 2005 and 2006, the PJM Interconnection (PJM) Load Analysis Subcommittee (LAS) examined ways to reduce the costs and improve the effectiveness of its existing measurement and verification (M&V) protocols for Direct Load Control (DLC) programs. The current M&V protocol requires that a PURPA-compliant Load Research study be conducted every five years for each Load-Serving Entity (LSE). The current M&V protocol is expensive to implement and administer particularly for mature load control programs, some of which are marginally cost-effective. There was growing evidence that some LSEs were mothballing or dropping their DLC programs in lieu of incurring the expense associated with the M&V. This project had several objectives: (1) examine the potential for developing deemed savings estimates acceptable to PJM for legacy air conditioning and water heating DLC programs, and (2) explore the development of a collaborative, regional, consensus-based approach for conducting monitoring and verification of load reductions for emerging load management technologies for customers that do not have interval metering capability.

  19. Energy savings potential in China's industrial sector: From the perspectives of factor price distortion and allocative inefficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Xiaoling; Sun, Chuanwang

    2015-01-01

    China's industrial energy consumption accounted for 70.82% of national and 14.12% of world energy usage in 2011. In the context of energy scarcity and environmental pollution, the industrial sector in China faces unsustainable growth problems. By adopting the stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) framework, this paper analyzes the factor allocative efficiency of China's industrial sector, and estimates the energy savings potential from the perspective of allocative inefficiency. This paper focuses on three issues. The first is examining the factor allocative inefficiency of China's industrial sector. The second is measuring factor price distortion by the shadow price model. The third is estimating the energy savings potential in China's industrial sector during 2001–2009. Major conclusions are thus drawn. First, factor prices of capital, labor and energy are distorted in China due to government regulations. Moreover, energy price is relatively low compared to capital price, while is relatively high compared to labor price. Second, the industry-wide energy savings potential resulted from energy allocative inefficiency was about 9.71% during 2001–2009. The downward trend of energy savings potential implies the increasing energy allocative efficiency in China's industrial sector. Third, a transparent and reasonable pricing mechanism is conducive to improving energy allocative efficiency. - Highlights: • We measure energy savings potential resulted from allocative inefficiency in China's industrial sector. • Allocative inefficiency is explained based on the theoretical and empirical models. • Factor prices of capital, labor and energy are distorted because of government regulations. • Energy pricing reform is conducive to improving energy allocative efficiency

  20. The Multiplying Influence of Savings of Population and the Financial Resources of Enterprises on the Socio-Economic Development of Regions of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odintsova Tetiana M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the influence of the population’s savings and the financial resources of enterprises on the socio-economic development of the regions of Ukraine. Conditions for stabilizing and improving the socio-economic level of development of regions were considered, based on the multiplying influence of savings through transformation of them into capital investments through the network chain of «gross regional product – population income – spending – taxes – savings – capital investment – gross regional product». The thesis that the multiplying effect of savings of population manifests and fosters the economic growth on the assumption that the savings provide the formation of capital investments, aimed at the growth of the gross regional product, has been substantiated.

  1. Use of reference buildings to assess the energy saving potentials of the residential building stock: The experience of TABULA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballarini, Ilaria; Corgnati, Stefano Paolo; Corrado, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Retrofit actions applied to the existent building stock aim at increasing the energy performance, considering the optimal trade-off between energy savings and costs, according to the Directive 2010/31/EU. To select effective refurbishment measures and to quantify the energy saving potentials of the existent building stock, the analysis should be performed on “reference buildings”. This article presents a methodology for the identification of reference buildings, according to the IEE-TABULA project (2009–12) aimed at creating a harmonised structure for “European Building Typologies”. Among the possible applications of the building typology, this work focuses on the potentialities of energy savings and CO 2 emission reductions for the European residential building stock. In particular, the Italian approach to model the energy balance of a subset of the national building stock is described; the results show the enormous potentialities of energy savings even with basic energy retrofit actions. Cost analyses were not in the scope of the project, but the results of this study are the basis for further investigations aimed at assessing the cost effectiveness of sets of measures. In this regard, the TABULA building-types are being applied by the Italian government for calculating cost-optimal levels of energy performance, complying with the Directive 2010/31/EU objectives. - Highlights: • European building stocks need retrofit actions to improve the energy performance. • Necessity to define “reference buildings” in order to perform cost-optimal analyses. • Definition of a National “Building Typology” according to IEE-TABULA project. • Methodology to identify reference buildings for assessing energy saving potentials

  2. Model for Determining Geographical Distribution of Heat Saving Potentials in Danish Building Stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Since the global oil crisis in the 1970s, Denmark has followed a path towards energy independency by continuously improving its energy efficiency and energy conservation. Energy efficiency was mainly tackled by introducing a high number of combined heat and power plants in the system, while energy...... conservation was predominantly approached by implementing heat saving measures. Today, with the goal of 100% renewable energy within the power and heat sector by the year 2035, reductions in energy demand for space heating and the preparation of domestic hot water remain at the top of the agenda in Denmark....... A highly detailed model for determining heat demand, possible heat savings and associated costs in the Danish building stock is presented. Both scheduled and energy-saving renovations until year 2030 have been analyzed. The highly detailed GIS-based heat atlas for Denmark is used as a container for storing...

  3. Potential of the Kakadu National Park Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The Committee reviewed the potential of the Kakadu National Park region in the Northern Territory with particular reference to the nature of the resources available for exploitation and the impact of utilisation of these resources, particularly mining and tourism. Individual chapters discuss the Park, tourism, mineral resources (particularly the environmental and economic impacts of the Ranger Uranium Mine and the potential impacts of mining the Koongarra and Jabiluka deposits), the town of Jabiru, commercial fishing, other issues (the scientific resource, crocodiles, introduced species and fire), and park management and control (including a review of the role of the Office of the Supervising Scientist for the Alligator Rivers Region). A number of recommendations are made and the dissenting report of three of the Committee's members is included.

  4. Modernizing potential of urban multiculturalism: Beyond regionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Božo V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main intention of the. author is to strengthen critical sociological approach to positivistic attempts that still exist in out society and that have been trying, out of the sociological discourse, to impose themselves as 'the last novelty' which, allegedly, should help a professional adaptation of sociological profession in social (actually, political practice. That is the reason why the modernization potential is explained as theoretical-hypothetical basis for understanding of contemporary needs for regionalization (as one of the aspects of developmental problems of contemporary societies, and, at the same time, as a knowledge need for critical reconsideration of regionalism (as etatistic mediation in distribution of power of political elites. Sociological approach to the problems of regionalization is a part of sociological research of social development. That is why this problem is one of numerous factors that influence the possibility of a concrete society to reproduce itself. Due to this reason, problems of regionalization cannot be (sociologically explained outside of theoretical perspective of modernization. It means that the problems of regionalization cannot be reduced to (legal and political problem of regionalism, as a problem of state and its territorial and political organization (in the inter-space of local communities and its center, but it calls for broader sociological problematization (because it reflects the characteristics of the modernization of concrete society. In this respect, real problems of legal and political regionalism are situated in less visible structural-historical and social-cultural feature of development of modern societies and their correspondent states; namely beyond regionalism. Since sociological approach to regionalization tries to find out real social-cultural links and relations that make some concrete territorial community specific within a global society, it is necessary in sociological research

  5. Monetary or environmental appeals for saving electricity? –Potentials for spillover on low carbon policy acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhorst, Julia; Matthies, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The acceptability of low carbon policies is an important precondition for energy system transitions, such as the German Energiewende. This long-term experimental study examines the potential for behavioural spillover on the acceptability of low carbon policies, caused by a framed intervention to promote electricity saving behaviour. Clients of a German energy provider were randomly assigned to continuously receive electricity saving tips with either monetary framing (saving potential in €) or environmental framing (saving potential in CO_2). The control group did not receive any information. In two follow-up surveys, four (N=333) and nine months (N=258) later, participants rated the acceptability of several low carbon policies. A pre-survey assessed the personal ecological norm for saving electricity. Participants with strong personal ecological norms reported generally higher policy acceptability. After environmental framing they also indicated higher acceptability compared to the monetary framing or control group. These results indicate that information campaigns should be designed carefully in order to promote positive spillover effects. Environmental framing of private-sphere behaviour can increase the disposition for further pro-environmental behaviour in the public sphere, e.g. policy acceptability. When appealing to monetary benefits in pro-environmental behaviour, there is a risk of inhibiting positive spillover effects. - Highlights: •Policy acceptability may be influenced by type of framing and individual factors. •We examined long-term spillover effects in association with type of framing. •Framing (environmental vs. monetary) interacts with personal ecological norms. •For strong personal ecological norms, environmental framing increases acceptability. •Also, strong personal ecological norms increase low carbon policy acceptability.

  6. Potential savings of harmonising hospital and community formularies for chronic disease medications initiated in hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Lapointe-Shaw

    Full Text Available Hospitals in Canada manage their formularies independently, yet many inpatients are discharged on medications which will be purchased through publicly-funded programs. We sought to determine how much public money could be saved on chronic medications if hospitals promoted the initiation of agents with the lowest outpatient formulary prices.We used administrative databases for the province of Ontario to identify patients initiated on a proton pump inhibitor (PPI, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB following hospital admission from April 1(st 2008-March 31(st 2009. We assessed the cost to the Ontario Drug Benefit Program (ODB over the year following initiation and determined the cost savings if prescriptions were substituted with the least expensive agent in each class.The cost for filling all PPI, ACE inhibitor and ARB prescriptions was $ 2.48 million, $968 thousand and $325 thousand respectively. Substituting the least expensive agent could have saved $1.16 million (47% for PPIs, $162 thousand (17% for ACE inhibitors and $14 thousand (4% for ARBs over the year following discharge.In a setting where outpatient prescriptions are publicly funded, harmonising outpatient formularies with inpatient therapeutic substitution resulted in modest cost savings and may be one way to control rising pharmaceutical costs.

  7. Potential energy savings with personalized ventilation coupled with passive chilled beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubenova, Velina S.; Holsøe, Jan W.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2011-01-01

    Personalized ventilation (PV) is an individually controlled air distribution system aimed at improving inhaled air quality and thermal comfort of each occupant. Numerous studies have shown that PV may improve occupants’ health, comfort and performance in comparison with traditional total volume air...... saving especially in spaces where occupants spend most of the time at their workplace....

  8. Energy saving vision in Miyazu City region (FY2000); Miyazushi chiiki sho energy vision (2000 nendo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    An energy-saving vision was decided on in Miyazu City, Kyoto Prefecture, with its outline reported. The city promulgated the 'Miyazu City plan for the prevention of global warming' earlier this year, aiming at reduction in carbon dioxide exhaust by 25% in ten years ending 2010, and accordingly, also formulated the energy-saving vision on the basis of the plan. The measures with the citizens' life in mind were, for example, encouragement to participate in energy-saving monitor activity, publication of data of survey result, implementation of 'Miyazu eco-life school', support for citizens' voluntary action, utilization of public information/home pages, renewal of equipment and facilities, and preparation of performance/price data for new housing construction and so on. In addition, survey on actual condition, examination for improvements, etc., were among the measures intended for such sectors as hotels/inns, public transportation, manufacturing, and construction, and for the City administration itself. Furthermore, as measures to collaborate with energy suppliers, building an information exchange system is under consideration. (NEDO)

  9. Clustering potential of agriculture in Lviv region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Tsymbalista

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes the need to stimulate the development of integration processes in agro-industrial complex of Ukraine. The advantages of the cluster model of integration are shown: along with the growth of competitiveness of agricultural products, it helps to increase the efficiency of inventory management of material flows, as well as to expand opportunities to attract investment and to implement innovation in agricultural production. Clusters also help to reduce transaction costs by establishing an optimal cooperation between the contracting parties. The theoretical essentiality of agro-industrial clusters is studied and a conceptual model of that kind of clusters is shown. The preconditions of clustering of agriculture in Lviv region are analyzed and feasibility of specific methods of statistical analysis to identify localization areas of the potential members of cluster-forming blocks of regional food clusters is verified. Cluster analysis is carried out to identify potential cluster-forming areas in the region in various sectors of agricultural production.

  10. Canadian Potential Healthcare and Societal Cost Savings from Consumption of Pulses: A Cost-Of-Illness Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. H. Abdullah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of dietary pulses, including beans, peas and lentils, is recommended by health authorities across jurisdictions for their nutritional value and effectiveness in helping to prevent and manage major diet-related illnesses of significant socioeconomic burden. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential annual healthcare and societal cost savings relevant to rates of reduction in complications from type 2 diabetes (T2D and incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD following a low glycemic index (GI or high fiber diet that includes pulses, or 100 g/day pulse intake in Canada, respectively. A four-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to: (1 estimate the proportions of individuals who are likely to consume pulses; (2 evaluate the reductions in established risk factors for T2D and CVD; (3 assess the percent reduction in incidences or complications of the diseases of interest; and (4 calculate the potential annual savings in relevant healthcare and related costs. A low GI or high fiber diet that includes pulses and 100 g/day pulse intake were shown to potentially yield Can$6.2 (95% CI $2.6–$9.9 to Can$62.4 (95% CI $26–$98.8 and Can$31.6 (95% CI $11.1–$52 to Can$315.5 (95% CI $110.6–$520.4 million in savings on annual healthcare and related costs of T2D and CVD, respectively. Specific provincial/territorial analyses suggested annual T2D and CVD related cost savings that ranged from up to Can$0.2 million in some provinces to up to Can$135 million in others. In conclusion, with regular consumption of pulse crops, there is a potential opportunity to facilitate T2D and CVD related socioeconomic cost savings that could be applied to Canadian healthcare or re-assigned to other priority domains. Whether these potential cost savings will be offset by other healthcare costs associated with longevity and diseases of the elderly is to be investigated over the long term.

  11. Regional energy system optimization - Potential for a regional heat market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Magnus; Gebremedhin, Alemayehu; Klugman, Sofia; Henning, Dag; Moshfegh, Bahram

    2009-01-01

    Energy supply companies and industrial plants are likely to face new situations due to, for example, the introduction of new energy legislation, increased fuel prices and increased environmental awareness. These new prerequisites provide companies with new challenges but also new possibilities from which to benefit. Increased energy efficiency within companies and increased cooperation between different operators are two alternatives to meet the new conditions. A region characterized by a high density of energy-intensive processes is used in this study to find the economic potential of connecting three industrial plants and four energy companies, within three local district heating systems, to a regional heat market, in which different operators provide heat to a joint district heating grid. Also, different investment alternatives are studied. The results show that the economical potential for a heat market amounts to between 5 and 26 million EUR/year with payback times ranging from two to eleven years. However, the investment costs and the net benefit for the total system need to be allotted to the different operators, as they benefit economically to different extents from the introduction of a heat market. It is also shown that the emissions of CO 2 from the joint system would decrease compared to separate operation of the systems. However, the valuation of CO 2 emissions from electricity production is important as the difference of emitted CO 2 between the accounting methods exceeds 650 kton/year for some scenarios

  12. Analysis of energy-saving potential in residential buildings in Xiamen City and its policy implications for southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei

    The buildings sector is the largest energy-consuming sector in the world. Residential buildings consume about three-quarters of the final energy in the buildings sector. Promoting residential energy savings is in consequence critical for addressing many energy-use-related environmental challenges, such as climate change and air pollution. Given China's robust economic growth and fast urbanization, it is now a critical time to develop policy interventions on residential energy use in the nation. With this as a background, this dissertation explores effective policy intervention opportunities in southern China through analyzing the residential energy-saving potential, using the city of Xiamen as a case study. Four types of residential energy-saving potential are analyzed: technical potential, economic potential, maximum achievable potential (MAP), and possible achievable potential (PAP). Of these, the first two types are characterized as static theoretical evaluation, while the last two represent dynamic evaluation within a certain time horizon. The achievable potential analyses are rarely seen in existing literature. The analytical results reveal that there exists a significant technical potential for residential energy savings of about 20.9-24.9% in the city of Xiamen. Of the technical potential, about two-thirds to four-fifths are cost-effective from the government or society perspective. The cost-effectiveness is evaluated by comparing the "Levelized Cost of Conserved Energy (LCOCE)" of available advanced technical measures with the "Actual Cost" of conserved energy. The "Actual Cost" of energy is defined by adding the environmental externalities costs and hidden government subsidies over the retail prices of energy. The achievable potential analyses are particularly based on two key realistic factors: 1) the gradual ramping-up adoption process of advanced technical measures; and 2) individuals' adoption-decision making on them. For implementing the achievable

  13. An Audit of Repeat Testing at an Academic Medical Center: Consistency of Order Patterns With Recommendations and Potential Cost Savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueth, Kyle D; Jackson, Brian R; Schmidt, Robert L

    2018-05-31

    To evaluate the prevalence of potentially unnecessary repeat testing (PURT) and the associated economic burden for an inpatient population at a large academic medical facility. We evaluated all inpatient test orders during 2016 for PURT by comparing the intertest times to published recommendations. Potential cost savings were estimated using the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services maximum allowable reimbursement rate. We evaluated result positivity as a determinant of PURT through logistic regression. Of the evaluated 4,242 repeated target tests, 1,849 (44%) were identified as PURT, representing an estimated cost-savings opportunity of $37,376. Collectively, the association of result positivity and PURT was statistically significant (relative risk, 1.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.3; P < .001). PURT contributes to unnecessary health care costs. We found that a small percentage of providers account for the majority of PURT, and PURT is positively associated with result positivity.

  14. HUMAN POTENTIAL AS A STRATEGIC FACTOR OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Korobeynikov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an insight of human potential as the strategic factor of regional development. The matter of human potential and its role in regional reproducing process is considered; regional intellectual potential as an integral part of human potential is analysed. The author outlines major directions of active social policy, aimed to develop regional human potential.

  15. A Method for Estimating Potential Energy and Cost Savings for Cooling Existing Data Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Geet, Otto

    2017-04-24

    NREL has developed a methodology to prioritize which data center cooling systems could be upgraded for better efficiency based on estimated cost savings and economics. The best efficiency results are in cool or dry climates where 'free' economizer or evaporative cooling can provide most of the data center cooling. Locations with a high cost of energy and facilities with high power usage effectiveness (PUE) are also good candidates for data center cooling system upgrades. In one case study of a major cable provider's data centers, most of the sites studied had opportunities for cost-effective cooling system upgrades with payback period of 5 years or less. If the cable provider invested in all opportunities for upgrades with payback periods of less than 15 years, it could save 27% on annual energy costs.

  16. Market analysis, energy savings potential, and future development requirements for Radiance. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE), Building Equipment Division has funded the development of a sophisticated computer rendering program called Radiance at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories (LBL). The project review study included: (1) Surveys of the lighting profession to determine how designers would use an improved, user-friendly Radiance, (2) Elucidation of features, including how Radiance could be used to save energy, which could be incorporated into Radiance to facilitate its more widespread use, (3) Outline of a development plan and determination of what costs the DOE might incur if it were to proceed with the development of an improved version, and (4) Weighing the anticipated development costs against anticipated energy-saving benefits.

  17. Assessing Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Energy Code Compliance in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin

    2016-02-15

    The US Department of Energy’s most recent commercial energy code compliance evaluation efforts focused on determining a percent compliance rating for states to help them meet requirements under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. That approach included a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. With its binary approach to compliance determination, the previous methodology failed to answer some important questions. In particular, how much energy cost could be saved by better compliance with the commercial energy code and what are the relative priorities of code requirements from an energy cost savings perspective? This paper explores an analytical approach and pilot study using a single building type and climate zone to answer those questions.

  18. Potential time savings to radiology department personnel in a PACS-based environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, Allan O.; Wilson, M. C.; Iverson, Scott C.; Loop, John W.

    1990-08-01

    A purported benefit of digital imaging and archiving of radiographic procedures is the presumption of time savings to radiologists, radiology technologists, and radiology departmentpersonnel involved with processingfilms and managing theflimfile room. As part of the University of Washington's evaluation of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS)for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, a study was performed which evaluated the current operationalpractices of the film-based radiology department at the University of Washington Medical Center (UWMC). Industrial engineering time and motion studies were conducted to document the length of time requiredforfilm processing in various modalities, the proportion of the total exam time usedforfilm processing, the amount of time radiologists spent searchingfor and looking at images, and the amount of time file room personnel spent collating reports, making loans, updatingfilm jacket information, and purging files. This evaluation showed that better than one-half of the tasks in the file room may be eliminated with PACS and radiologists may save easily 10 percent of the time they spend reading films by no longer having to searchforfilms. Radiology technologists may also save as much as 10 percent of their time with PACS, although this estimate is subject to significant patient mix aberrations and measurement error. Given that the UWMC radiology department operates efficiently, similar improvements are forecast for other radiology departments and larger improvements areforecastfor less efficient departments.

  19. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, Frank A., E-mail: bender@isys.uni-stuttgart.de; Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Driving cycle acquisition in a refuse collection vehicle. • Vehicle modeling and validation for numerical simulations based on the measured driving cycle. • Fuel consumption analysis for a conventional diesel vehicle and a hybrid hydraulic vehicle. - Abstract: Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection.

  20. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Frank A; Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Frank A.; Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Driving cycle acquisition in a refuse collection vehicle. • Vehicle modeling and validation for numerical simulations based on the measured driving cycle. • Fuel consumption analysis for a conventional diesel vehicle and a hybrid hydraulic vehicle. - Abstract: Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection

  2. Energy-saving and emission-abatement potential of Chinese coal-fired power enterprise: A non-parametric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Chu; Löschel, Andreas; Liu, Bing

    2015-01-01

    In the context of soaring demand for electricity, mitigating and controlling greenhouse gas emissions is a great challenge for China's power sector. Increasing attention has been placed on the evaluation of energy efficiency and CO 2 abatement potential in the power sector. However, studies at the micro-level are relatively rare due to serious data limitations. This study uses the 2004 and 2008 Census data of Zhejiang province to construct a non-parametric frontier in order to assess the abatement space of energy and associated CO 2 emission from China's coal-fired power enterprises. A Weighted Russell Directional Distance Function (WRDDF) is applied to construct an energy-saving potential index and a CO 2 emission-abatement potential index. Both indicators depict the inefficiency level in terms of energy utilization and CO 2 emissions of electric power plants. Our results show a substantial variation of energy-saving potential and CO 2 abatement potential among enterprises. We find that large power enterprises are less efficient in 2004, but become more efficient than smaller enterprises in 2008. State-owned enterprises (SOE) are not significantly different in 2008 from 2004, but perform better than their non-SOE counterparts in 2008. This change in performance for large enterprises and SOE might be driven by the “top-1000 Enterprise Energy Conservation Action” that was implemented in 2006. - Highlights: • Energy-saving potential and CO 2 abatement-potential for Chinese power enterprise are evaluated. • The potential to curb energy and emission shows great variation and dynamic changes. • Large enterprise is less efficient than small enterprise in 2004, but more efficient in 2008. • The state-owned enterprise performs better than non-state-owned enterprise in 2008

  3. Evaluation of the absolute regional temperature potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shindell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90–28° S, 28° S–28° N, 28–60° N and 60–90° N as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within ±20% of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90–28° S and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the ±20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39–45% and 9–39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  4. Auxiliary energy in building technical services - Potential for savings and ways toward implementation; Hilfsenergie Haustechnik: Einspar-Potenziale und Umsetzungspfade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nipkow, J. [Schweizerische Agentur fuer Energieeffizienz (SAFE), Zuerich (Switzerland); Peters, M.; Wapf, B. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2006-11-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the potential available for saving energy in the building technical services area. Savings of six to eight percent are noted for the area concerning pumps, fans, control systems, etc. The report presents the aims of the project and reviews the definition of auxiliary energy. National and international energy labels, limiting values and typical values for efficiency are examined. The results of surveys are presented and discussed as are the opinions and suggestions of planners, installers and architects. Manufacturers' opinions and marketing aspects are briefly examined, as are energy labels and regulations. Implementation of measures in various areas are described. Economical aspects and actions to be taken are discussed and educational measures are looked at. Follow-up projects are defined.

  5. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Residential Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Schmidt, Justin [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report is an assessment of 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, descriptions of technical maturity, descriptions of non-energy benefits, descriptions of current barriers for market adoption, and descriptions of the technology's applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  6. Energy saving and CO2-reduction potential of micro-cogeneration in the Netherlands (2010-2030). Update 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gastel, M.; De Jong, A.; Schlatmann, S.; Bakker, E.J.; Jeeninga, H.; Boerakker, Y.; Seebregts, A.; Menkveld, M.; Van Wolferen, H.; Turkstra, J.W.; Dam, J.; Harmsen, R.; Rooijers, F.; Koot, M.

    2008-05-01

    Various parties have been asked to come to a joint point of view with regard to establishing the potential of micro CHP for energy saving and CO2 emission reduction in the Netherlands from 2010 to 2030, assuming that micro CHP will have a successful market introduction. The result of this memo is a method for determining the technical potential of micro CHP for the reduction of energy use and CO2 emissions. This report is an update of the 2006 report [mk] [nl

  7. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report covers an assessment of 182 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. commercial buildings to identify and provide analysis on 17 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, description of technical maturity, description of non-energy benefits, description of current barriers for market adoption, and description of the technology’s applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  8. Realizing potential savings of energy and emissions from efficient household appliances in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Kirit S.; Parikh, Jyoti K.

    2016-01-01

    The paper projects households' stock of four major electricity consuming appliances till 2030 and explores policy options to accelerate adoption of more energy efficient appliances. India's rapid economic growth has enabled the growing middle class to buy household appliances in increasing numbers. The consequent rise in energy consumption and GHG emissions can be significantly reduced if consumers are motivated by awareness and options in the market to buy energy efficient appliances. India has introduced a star rating scheme for appliances, and even without incentives consumers purchase star-rated appliances. The stock of household appliances is projected using the data of a national sample survey of household consumption, observed sale of star-rated appliances and projected consumption distribution. Estimated savings in households' electricity consumption from just four appliances, ACs, refrigerators, TVs, and ceiling fans, for which data were available, range from 52 bKwh to 145 bkwh in 2030, reductions of 10–27%. The corresponding reduction in CO_2 emissions will be between 42 Mt and 116 Mt in 2030. With policies of finance and bulk procurement to reduce costs, emissions reduction can be 128 Mt in 2030, a reduction of 30%. - Highlights: • Estimates the stock of selected household appliances with 20 classes of rural and urban households in the years 2030 in India. • Assesses the economics of energy efficient appliances. • Estimates spread of selected energy efficient appliances. • Assesses savings in energy consumption and CO_2 emissions in four alternative scenarios. • Suggests policies to promote energy efficient appliances.

  9. Fossil energy savings and GHG mitigation potentials of ethanol as a gasoline substitute in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Garivait, Savitri

    2007-01-01

    One of the Thai government's measures to promote ethanol use is excise tax exemption, making gasohol cheaper than gasoline. The policy in favour of biofuels is being supported by their contribution to fossil energy savings and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. An analysis of energy balance (EnB), GHG balance and GHG abatement cost has been done to evaluate molasses-based ethanol (MoE) in Thailand. A positive EnB of 19.2 MJ/L implies that MoE is a good substitute for gasoline, effective in fossil energy savings. GHG balance assessment based on the baseline scenario shows that emissions are most likely to increase with the substitution. Scenarios using biogas captured from spent wash treatment and rice husk to substitute coal used in ethanol conversion give encouraging results in improving the GHG balance. However, the higher price of MoE over gasoline currently has resulted in high GHG abatement costs, even under the best-case scenario. Compared to the many other climate strategies relevant to Thailand, MoE is much less cost effective. Governed by the rule of supply and demand, a strong fluctuation in molasses price is considered the main cause of volatile MoE price. Once supplies are stable, the trend of price drops would make MoE a reasonable option for national climate policy

  10. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Software, Anyhere; Fernandes, Luis; Lee, Eleanor; Ward, Greg

    2013-03-15

    A simulation study was conducted to evaluate lighting energy savings of split-pane electrochromic (EC) windows controlled to satisfy key visual comfort parameters. Using the Radiance lighting simulation software, interior illuminance and luminance levels were computed for a south-facing private office illuminated by a window split into two independently-controlled EC panes. The transmittance of these was optimized hourly for a workplane illuminance target while meeting visual comfort constraints, using a least-squares algorithm with linear inequality constraints. Blinds were successively deployed until visual comfort criteria were satisfied. The energy performance of electrochromics proved to be highly dependent on how blinds were controlled. With hourly blind position adjustments, electrochromics showed significantly higher (62percent and 53percent, respectively without and with overhang) lighting energy consumption than clear glass. With a control algorithm designed to better approximate realistic manual control by an occupant, electrochromics achieved significant savings (48percent and 37percent, respectively without and with overhang). In all cases, energy consumption decreased when the workplace illuminance target was increased. In addition, the fraction of time during which the occupant had an unobstructed view of the outside was significantly greater with electrochromics: 10 months out of the year versus a handful of days for the reference case.

  11. China's energy saving potential from the perspective of energy efficiency advantages of foreign-invested enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xuemei; Zhu, Kunfu; Green, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the energy saving potential associated with firm ownership-related differences in energy efficiency such as those between domestically and foreign-owned firms. Because of a gap in official statistics this topic has barely been touched upon in the scholarly literature. This paper employs a new energy input–output table that distinguishes firm ownership (Chinese owned enterprises, COEs; and foreign-invested enterprises, FIEs) and trade mode (export processing and normal goods production) to analyze the energy efficiency advantage of FIEs in China in 2007. The results show that the total energy intensities of COEs in the industrial sector are generally 5%–35% higher than that of FIEs across industry groups. At an aggregate level, China could save up to 20.3% of its energy use, if industrial COEs could duplicate the energy use efficiency and production technology of FIEs. This gain would require major technology upgrades among COEs. - Highlights: • A new input–output table distinguishing firm ownership and trade mode is employed. • The foreign-invested enterprises are 5%–35% energy efficient than Chinese enterprises in 2007. • China could save 20.3% of energy use if industrial COEs could duplicate the technologies of FIEs

  12. Structural Mass Saving Potential of a 5-MW Direct-Drive Generator Designed for Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fingersh, Lee J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hayes, Austin [Rochester Institute of Technology

    2017-11-09

    As wind turbine blade diameters and tower height increase to capture more energy in the wind, higher structural loads results in more structural support material increasing the cost of scaling. Weight reductions in the generator transfer to overall cost savings of the system. Additive manufacturing facilitates a design-for-functionality approach, thereby removing traditional manufacturing constraints and labor costs. The most feasible additive manufacturing technology identified for large, direct-drive generators in this study is powder-binder jetting of a sand cast mold. A parametric finite element analysis optimization study is performed, optimizing for mass and deformation. Also, topology optimization is employed for each parameter-optimized design.The optimized U-beam spoked web design results in a 24 percent reduction in structural mass of the rotor and 60 percent reduction in radial deflection.

  13. Energy efficiency monitoring and economic analysis for energy saving potential in UNITEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M Reyasudin Basir; Jidin, Razali; Yew, Kang Chin; Shaaya, Sharifah Azwa; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses on energy efficiency survey for typical buildings in Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN). Undeniably, wastage of energy will cause the increase of operation cost and depletion of fossil fuel resources which contributes to the climate change issue in the world. UNITEN was commenced in the late 1990s and most of the buildings in this university are not equipped with energy management system. Such system is the solution to reduce energy use while maximizing the comfort levels of the occupants. Disregard to the energy management system, the implementation of other energy saving measures is the main objective of this paper. By taking the right measures, the energy wastage in the buildings of this university can be reduced.

  14. Potentials for energy savings and long term energy demands for Croatian households sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duic, Neven

    2011-01-01

    demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which also leads to lesser greenhouse gas emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels....... relevant. In order to plan future energy systems it is important to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand for different sectors. Through this paper long term energy demand projections for Croatian households sector will be shown with a special emphasis on different mechanisms, both...... financial, legal but also technological that will influence future energy demand scenarios. It is important to see how these mechanisms influence, positive or negative, on future energy demand and which mechanism would be most influential. Energy demand predictions in this paper are based upon bottom...

  15. Potentials for energy savings and long term energy demands for Croatian households sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duic, Neven

    2013-01-01

    demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which also leads to lesser greenhouse gas emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels....... relevant. In order to plan future energy systems it is important to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand for different sectors. Through this paper long term energy demand projections for Croatian households sector will be shown with a special emphasis on different mechanisms, both...... financial, legal but also technological that will influence future energy demand scenarios. It is important to see how these mechanisms influence, positive or negative, on future energy demand and which mechanism would be most influential. Energy demand predictions in this paper are based upon bottom...

  16. Energy savings potential of a hybrid desiccant dehumidification air conditioning system in Beirut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghali, Kamel

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the transient performance of a hybrid desiccant vapor compression air conditioning system is numerically simulated for the ambient conditions of Beirut. The main feature of this hybrid system is that the regenerative heat needed by the desiccant wheel is partly supplied by the condenser dissipated heat while the rest is supplied by an auxiliary gas heater. The hybrid air conditioning system of the present study replaces a 23 kW vapor compression unit for a typical office in Beirut characterized by a high latent load. The vapor compression subsystem size in the hybrid air conditioning system is reduced to 15 kW at the peak load when the regeneration temperature was fixed at 75 deg. C. Also the sensible heat ratio of the combined hybrid system increased from 0.47 to 0.73. Based on hour by hour simulation studies for a wide range of recorded ambient conditions of Beirut city, this paper predicts the annual energy consumption of the hybrid system in comparison with the conventional vapor compression system for the entire cooling season. The annual running costs savings for the hybrid system is 418.39 USD for a gas cost price of 0.141 USD/kg. The pay back period of the hybrid system is less than five years when the initial cost of the hybrid air conditioning system priced an additional 1712.00 USD. Hence, for a 20-year life cycle, the life cycle savings of the hybrid air conditioning system are 4295.19 USD

  17. Health economic modeling of the potential cost saving effects of Neurally Adjusted Ventilator Assist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmgren, Jonas; Bruce Wirta, Sara; Huetson, Pernilla; Myrén, Karl-Johan; Göthberg, Sylvia

    2016-02-01

    Asynchrony between patient and ventilator breaths is associated with increased duration of mechanical ventilation (MV). Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) controls MV through an esophageal reading of diaphragm electrical activity via a nasogastric tube mounted with electrode rings. NAVA has been shown to decrease asynchrony in comparison to pressure support ventilation (PSV). The objective of this study was to conduct a health economic evaluation of NAVA compared with PSV. We developed a model based on an indirect link between improved synchrony with NAVA versus PSV and fewer days spent on MV in synchronous patients. Unit costs for MV were obtained from the Swedish intensive care unit register, and used in the model along with NAVA-specific costs. The importance of each parameter (proportion of asynchronous patients, costs, and average MV duration) for the overall results was evaluated through sensitivity analyses. Base case results showed that 21% of patients ventilated with NAVA were asynchronous versus 52% of patients receiving PSV. This equals an absolute difference of 31% and an average of 1.7 days less on MV and a total cost saving of US$7886 (including NAVA catheter costs). A breakeven analysis suggested that NAVA was cost effective compared with PSV given an absolute difference in the proportion of asynchronous patients greater than 2.5% (49.5% versus 52% asynchronous patients with NAVA and PSV, respectively). The base case results were stable to changes in parameters, such as difference in asynchrony, duration of ventilation and daily intensive care unit costs. This study showed economically favorable results for NAVA versus PSV. Our results show that only a minor decrease in the proportion of asynchronous patients with NAVA is needed for investments to pay off and generate savings. Future studies need to confirm this result by directly relating improved synchrony to the number of days on MV. © The Author(s), 2015.

  18. Historical changes and recent energy saving potential of residential heating in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, M.-S.; Yang, I.-H.; Kim, K.-W.

    2003-01-01

    The residential heating method in Korea underwent various phases of development to reach the current system. The first phase was the traditional Ondol (the traditional under-floor heating system in Korea), where the floor was heated by the circulation of hot gas produced by a fire furnace (before the 1950s). The second phase involved the use of the modified anthracite coal Ondol, for which the fire furnace was modified for briquette use (from the early 1950s to the late 1970s). The third phase involved the use of hot water radiant floor heating with embedded tubes (from the late 1970s). This paper presents insights into the problem of current residential heating in Korea and the general aspects of heating energy savings by tracing the history of residential heating in Korea and analyzing related data. The results show that modern apartment buildings with hot water radiant floor heating (the third phase) yield less heat loss due to the tighter envelope, but also yield higher energy consumption than the traditional Ondol heating housing (the first phase). Because of an inefficient system and lack of thermal insulation of the traditional Ondol heating housing, Ondol heating was used to heat occupants sitting directly on the floor, keeping lower room temperature and higher floor surface temperature. So the range of comfortable floor temperature for Korean people is higher and this unique comfort sense is related to energy consumption in modern apartment housing. As a result, several energy saving methods were found such as reducing the total floor heating area or zoning the floor area, receiving continuous heat supply, and installing a delicate control system and metering devices. (author)

  19. Auxiliary aggregates: Effects on fuel consumption and potential fuel savings; Einfluss und Potenzial von Nebenaggregaten auf den Kraftstoffverbrauch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauchfuss, Lutz; Hindorf, Kay [Robert Bosch GmbH (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    New concepts and new developments in the field of auxiliary aggregates will help to reduce fuel consumption in the future. One aspect is the higher efficiency of components, the other on-demand power supply management. The contribution shows that thermomanagement, intelligent generator control, the start/stop system, auxiliary power control and fuel pumps may achieve considerable savings in the driving cycle and also in real operation. Efficient air conditioning systems and higher generator efficiency will show their potential in real operation. Cost-profit analyses are presented to prove the economic effects for the customer. (orig.)

  20. Energy Savings Potential of Flexible and Adaptive HVAC Distribution Systems for Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftness, Vivian; Brahme, Rohini; Mondazzi, Michelle; Vineyard, Edward; MacDonald, Michael

    2002-06-01

    It has been understood by architects and engineers that office buildings with easily re-configurable space and flexible mechanical and electrical systems are able to provide comfort that increases worker productivity while using less energy. Raised floors are an example of how fresh air, thermal conditioning, lighting needs, and network access can be delivered in a flexible manner that is not ''embedded'' within the structure. What are not yet documented is how well these systems perform and how much energy they can save. This area is being investigated in phased projects of the 21st Century Research Program of the Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute. For the initial project, research teams at the Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, documented the diversity, performance, and incidence of flexible and adaptive HVAC systems. Information was gathered worldwide from journal and conference articles, case studies, manufactured products and assemblies, and interviews with design professionals. Their report thoroughly describes the variety of system types along with the various design alternatives observed for plenums, diffusers, individual control, and system integration. Many of the systems are illustrated in the report and the authors provide quantitative and qualitative comparisons. Among conclusions regarding key design issues, and barriers to widespread adoption, the authors state that flexible and adaptive HVAC systems, such as underfloor air, perform as well if not better than ceiling-based systems. Leading engineers have become active proponents after their first experience, which is resulting in these flexible and adaptive HVAC systems approaching 10 percent of the new construction market. To encourage adoption of this technology that improves thermal comfort and indoor air quality, follow-on work is required to further document

  1. Save Energy: Save Money!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccli, Eugene; And Others

    This publication is a collection of inexpensive energy saving tips and home improvements for home owners, particularly in low-income areas or in older homes. Section titles are: (1) Keeping Warm; (2) Getting Heat Where You Need It; (3) Using the Sun; (4) Furnaces, Stoves, and Fireplaces; (5) Insulation and Other Energy Needs; (6) Do-It-Yourself…

  2. Potential of energy saving with photovoltaic systems; Potencialidad de ahorro de energia con sistemas fotovoltaicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman S, Eusebio; Bratu S, Neagu [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents an approach on the application of photovoltaic systems in energy saving. The problem of the electric energy demand in the coming years is analyzed and its consequences on the environment and on the energy reserves of conventional sources. A model of the electric circuit equivalent to a photovoltaic cell illustrates the behavior of the photovoltaic cell in function of the climatological conditions. The former in order to show some of the limiting factors in this type of generator. Also, the evolution of the applications of the photovoltaic systems and its forecasting in the installed capacity in the next 20 years, is described. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta un enfoque de la aplicacion de los sistemas fotovoltaicos en el ahorro de energia. Se plantea el problema del crecimiento de la demanda energetica en los proximos anos y sus consecuencias sobre el medio ambiente y las reservas de energia por fuentes convencionales. Un modelo del circuito electrico equivalente de una celda fotovoltaica ilustra el comportamiento del generador fotovoltaico en funcion de las condiciones climatologicas. Lo anterior con el fin de mostrar algunas limitantes de este tipo de generador. Tambien se describe la evolucion de las aplicaciones de los sistemas fotovoltaicos y el pronostico de la potencia instalada en los proximos 20 anos.

  3. Smart Thermostats: An Experimental Facility to Test Their Capabilities and Savings Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bustamante

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Commission has explained how heating and cooling in buildings and industry account for half of the energy consumption of the EU. Several studies explain how to achieve an energy saving at home, and the use of smart thermostats will help to reduce energy consumption while increasing the efficiency of households. In this article, a comparative evaluation was carried out between four smart thermostats that are now on the market, whose characteristics vary in terms of price, precision of measurements and set temperature, algorithms, etc. A thermal test chamber was designed and constructed from a refrigerator, a thermal blanket, a Raspberry Pi and the necessary electronic components for its control and data collection. From the tests carried out in the thermal chamber, data on the operation of the four thermostats such as the maintenance and the anticipation of the setpoint temperature, were obtained. It was necessary to run the system enough times for each thermostat to memorize the housing characteristics, such as its inertia and its thermal insulation. This would also allow for the generation of a better algorithm to regulate the temperature, which would create a lower oscillation with respect to the setpoint temperature. The learning of the thermostats was not demonstrated and for the anticipation mode it was seen that the thermostats failed to improve or learn in this aspect, as they did not improve the start-up times of the heating system, with the consequent increase in energy consumption.

  4. Analysis of potential energy, economic and environmental savings in residential buildings: Solar collectors combined with microturbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suárez, I.; Prieto, M.M.; Fernández, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Centralization of energy systems for a group of buildings improves profitability. ► Thermal solar systems are economically interesting even in low radiation locations. ► Regulations currently in force determine the feasibility of high efficiency energy systems. - Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of a combined solar-cogeneration installation for providing energy services in a set of four residential buildings. Different configurations as regards the number of collectors and their orientation, the number of buildings grouped together, the type of microturbines used in the cogeneration system and their daily and annual operating period are studied from the legal, economic and environmental perspectives. The installation that fulfils the minimum requirements of the solar system coverage and the cogeneration system efficiency currently in force, and simultaneously leads to the highest energy, economic and environmental savings is the one that integrates both technologies and centralises the installation for the four buildings together. A payback period lower than 8 years is obtained that makes this investment recommendable, but it is also concluded that maintaining the existing subsidies for these technologies and lowering the costs of the equipment, are essential factors to ensure the feasibility of this type of installations

  5. Potential of energy saving with photovoltaic systems; Potencialidad de ahorro de energia con sistemas fotovoltaicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman S, Eusebio; Bratu S, Neagu [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    This paper presents an approach on the application of photovoltaic systems in energy saving. The problem of the electric energy demand in the coming years is analyzed and its consequences on the environment and on the energy reserves of conventional sources. A model of the electric circuit equivalent to a photovoltaic cell illustrates the behavior of the photovoltaic cell in function of the climatological conditions. The former in order to show some of the limiting factors in this type of generator. Also, the evolution of the applications of the photovoltaic systems and its forecasting in the installed capacity in the next 20 years, is described. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta un enfoque de la aplicacion de los sistemas fotovoltaicos en el ahorro de energia. Se plantea el problema del crecimiento de la demanda energetica en los proximos anos y sus consecuencias sobre el medio ambiente y las reservas de energia por fuentes convencionales. Un modelo del circuito electrico equivalente de una celda fotovoltaica ilustra el comportamiento del generador fotovoltaico en funcion de las condiciones climatologicas. Lo anterior con el fin de mostrar algunas limitantes de este tipo de generador. Tambien se describe la evolucion de las aplicaciones de los sistemas fotovoltaicos y el pronostico de la potencia instalada en los proximos 20 anos.

  6. Evaluation of the cost saving potential of introducing Benepali® and Flixabi® on the European and Italian markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Negrini

    2017-10-01

    CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of Benepali® and Flixabi® has a substantial cost saving potential for the Italian and European health systems, and the budget impact is sensitive to the uptake rates of the biosimilars market.

  7. Improved modelling of thermal energy savings potential in the existing residential stock using a newly available data source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dineen, D.; Rogan, F.; Ó Gallachóir, B.P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel bottom up approach to modelling the energy savings potential of energy efficiency improvement measures to be applied through retrofit of the existing dwelling stock. It takes advantage of a newly available, rich dataset on the construction characteristics of the 2011 housing stock in Ireland. The methodological innovation centres on the use of wall construction type in the modelling and analysis. While Ireland is the focus, this approach is applicable to any EU member state for which data on dwelling characteristics exists from surveys carried as part of Energy Performance Certificate calculations. The model is calibrated to the national energy balance for 2011 by varying the internal temperature assumptions. Sensitivity analysis is performed on the effects of internal temperature and rebound. The paper also highlights some limitations posed by data availability on the accuracy and sophistication of models that can currently be developed, specifically in the Irish case. - Highlights: • Archetype model of energy savings potential from retrofit of existing dwelling stock. • Takes advantage of rich dataset on the construction characteristics of the Irish housing stock. • Innovative use of wall construction types in archetype definition possible due to improved data. • Results calibrated to top down estimate of heating demand by adjusting internal temperature. • Highlights limitations on the accuracy and sophistication of models posed by data availability.

  8. Approximation of theoretical energy-saving potentials for the petrochemical industry using energy balances for 68 key processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neelis, Maarten; Patel, Martin; Blok, Kornelis; Haije, Wim; Bach, Pieter

    2007-01-01

    We prepared energy and carbon balances for 68 petrochemical processes in the petrochemical industry for Western Europe, the Netherlands and the world. We analysed the process energy use in relation to the heat effects of the chemical reactions and quantified in this way the sum of all energy inputs into the processes that do not end up in the useful products of the process, but are lost as waste heat to the environment. We showed that both process energy use and heat effects of reaction contribute significantly to the overall energy loss of the processes studied and recommend addressing reaction effects explicitly in energy-efficiency studies. We estimated the energy loss in Western Europe in the year 2000 at 1620 PJ of final energy and 1936 PJ of primary energy, resulting in a total of 127 Mt CO 2 . The losses identified can be regarded as good approximations of the theoretical energy-saving potentials of the processes analysed. The processes with large energy losses in relative (per tonne of product) and absolute (in PJ per year) terms are recommended for more detailed analysis taking into account further thermodynamic, economic, and practical considerations to identify technical and economic energy-saving potentials

  9. Potentials for energy savings and long term energy demand of Croatian households sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Vad Mathiesen, Brian; Duić, Neven

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Long term energy demand of Croatian households sector has been modelled. ► Developed model can describe the whole households sector. ► Main modes include heating, cooling, electrical appliances, cooking and hot water. ► Different scenarios regarding future energy demand are presented and discussed. -- Abstract: Households represent one of the most interesting sectors, when analyzing Croatia’s energy balance. It makes up one of the largest energy consumers with around 75 PJ per year, which is almost 29% of Croatia’s final energy demand. Considering this consumption, implementing various mechanisms, which would lead to improvements in energy efficiency of this sector, seems relevant. In order to plan future energy systems, important would be to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand of different sectors. Through this paper, long term energy demand projections of Croatian households sector will be shown. Focus of the paper will be on various mechanisms influencing future energy demand scenarios. Important would be to quantify this influence, whether positive or negative, and see which mechanisms would be the most significant. Energy demand projections in this paper are based upon bottom-up approach model which combines and processes a large number of input data. The model will be compared to Croatian National Energy Strategy and certain differences and conclusions will be presented. One of the major conclusions shown in this paper is significant possibilities for energy efficiency improvements and lower energy demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which leads to lower GHG emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels.

  10. Modeling and simulation to determine the potential energy savings by implementing cold thermal energy storage system in office buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rismanchi, B.; Saidur, R.; Masjuki, H.H.; Mahlia, T.M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulating the CTES system behavior based on Malaysian climate. • Almost 65% of power is used for cooling for cooling the office buildings, every day. • The baseline shows an acceptable match with real data from the fieldwork. • Overall, the energy used for full load storage is much than the conventional system. • The load levelling storage strategy has 3.7% lower energy demand. - Abstract: In Malaysia, air conditioning (AC) systems are considered as the major energy consumers in office buildings with almost 57% share. During the past decade, cold thermal energy storage (CTES) systems have been widely used for their significant economic benefits. However, there were always doubts about their energy saving possibilities. The main objective of the present work is to develop a computer model to determine the potential energy savings of implementing CTES systems in Malaysia. A case study building has been selected to determine the energy consumption pattern of an office building. In the first step the building baseline model was developed and validated with the recorded data from the fieldwork. Once the simulation results reach an acceptable accuracy, different CTES system configuration was added to the model to predict their energy consumption pattern. It was found that the overall energy used by the full load storage strategy is considerably more than the conventional system. However, by applying the load leveling storage strategy, and considering its benefits to reduce the air handling unit size and reducing the pumping power, the overall energy usage was almost 4% lower than the non-storage system. Although utilizing CTES systems cannot reduce the total energy consumption considerably, but it has several outstanding benefits such as cost saving, bringing balance in the grid system, reducing the overall fuel consumption in the power plants and consequently reducing to total carbon footprint

  11. Energy saving potential of heat insulation solar glass: Key results from laboratory and in-situ testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuce, Erdem; Cuce, Pinar Mert; Young, Chin-Huai

    2016-01-01

    HISG (heat insulation solar glass) is a recently developed multi-functional glazing technology to mitigate energy consumption of buildings. HISG can generate electricity similar to conventional PV (photovoltaic) glazing products when exposed to sunlight, however it differs from them by having some extraordinary characteristic features such as thermal insulation, which is competitive with Argon filled triple glazed windows, acoustic comfort, remarkable energy saving potential and self-cleaning ability owing to TiO_2 nano coating. Within the scope of this research, latest results from laboratory and in-situ testing of HISG are presented in terms of its key role in mitigating heating and cooling demand of buildings as well as clean energy generation. Lighting and thermal comfort related parameters such as shading coefficient, UV, IR and visible light intensity are also investigated through the tests conducted in real operating conditions. It is achieved from the results that instant electricity generation of HISG is 16% higher than that of standard PV glazing owing to its nano layer reflective film. Shading coefficient of HISG is only 0.136, which provides almost 80% reduction in solar heat gain compared to ordinary glazing. Indoor air temperature measured from HISG test house in summer time is very close to the ambient temperature, whereas it is found to be 14.7 °C higher in ordinary glass test house due to greenhouse effect. Annual heating and cooling demand tests indicate that HISG provides 38 and 48% energy saving in heating and cooling season, respectively. - Highlights: • Nano layer reflective film of HISG enables 16% more power generation. • 80% of undesired outdoor thermal radiation is prevented by HISG. • HISG has a 100% UV blocking rate. • The shading coefficient of HISG is 0.136. • HISG provides 38 and 48% energy saving in heating and cooling season.

  12. Heating and cooling energy demand in underground buildings : potential for saving in various climates and functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dronkelaar, C.; Costola, D.; Mangkuto, R.A.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Underground buildings are pointed out as alternatives to conventional aboveground buildings for reducing total energy requirements, while alleviating land use and location problems. This paper investigates the potential in reducing the heating and cooling energy demand of underground buildings

  13. Enhancing the potential of e-savings to boost women's investment ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project seeks to promote the transformative potential of financial ... best increase women's financial inclusion and labour market and economic choices ... Institution. Innovations for Poverty Action, a non-profit corporation. Institution Country.

  14. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions of industrial process technologies. Saving potentials, barriers and instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleiter, Tobias; Schlomann, Barbara; Eichhammer, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Which contribution can the increase of energy efficiency achieve in the industry energy for the energy transition in Germany? To answer this question a model-based analysis of existing energy efficiency potentials of the energy-intensive industries is performed, which account for about 70% of the total energy demand of the industry. Based on this industry for each sector are instruments proposed for the implementation of the calculated potential and to overcome the existing barriers. [de

  15. Biodiversity in vegetable crops, a heritage to save: the case of Puglia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Elia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity in vegetable crops is composed by the genetic diversity, as species diversity (interspecific diversity and as diversity of genes within a species (intraspecific diversity referring to the vegetable grown varieties, and by the diversity of agro-ecosystems (agrobiodiversity. Intraspecific diversity is very ample in vegetable crops and is not reflected, at least not to the same extent, in other groups of crops. The labour operated by farmers over centuries of selection has led to the creation of a plurality of local varieties, following domestication of cultivated forms, and wide agro-biodiversity, a precious heritage both from a genetic and a cultural-historical point of view. The Italian National Statistical Institute (ISTAT takes into account in its annual survey about forty vegetable crops. Intraspecific diversity in vegetables can also be analyzed by examining the information contained in the common catalogue of varieties of vegetable species. The 27 EU Countries as a whole had entered 19,576 varieties of vegetables in the common catalogue as of August 2011. The Netherlands, which represents 8% of total vegetable production in the EU, has registered 7826 varieties. Italy and Spain, which predominate in Europe for the production of vegetables, have registered only 8% (1513 and 9% (1672 of the total varieties, respectively. As a whole 54% of the European varieties entered in the catalogue are hybrids. Puglia, which contributes with about 22% to the Italian vegetable growing area, is among the leading regions for the productions of broccoli raab, celery, parsley, processing tomato, artichoke, endive and escarole, cabbage, fennel, lettuce, cucumber, cauliflower and broccoli, early potato, and asparagus (all with more than 20% of the national area. The region is particularly rich in local vegetable varieties, obtained by farmers themselves after repeated simple selection procedures generation after generation. The local varieties

  16. Project to demonstrate potential energy savings from industrial customers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The full potential for electric load management was determined with respect to the industrial sector by adopting direct load management techniques. Certain options available to regulatory authorities and individual utilities to conserve energy are highlighted. By conducting a demonstration project on a representative sample of primary industrial customers, information could be obtained on the potential impact of direct load management methods and other end-use conservation programs on a system-wide basis or multi-system-wide basis. The study was conducted by the Michigan Public Service Commission in cooperation with the Detroit Edison Company.

  17. Potential fuel savings through electric camschaft adjustment; Moeglichkeiten zur Kraftstoffeinsparung durch elektrische Nockenwellenverstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebber-Hortmann, Karl; Koester, Andreas; Toennesmann, Andres; Brunetti, Costantino [Pierburg GmbH, Neuss (Germany). Abt. Vorentwicklung

    2013-11-01

    KSPG has developed an electric variable cam timing system. Using simulations and engine tests, KSPG demonstrates the potential reduction in fuel consumption that the system offers when combined with technologies such as fully variable valve gear in a gasoline engine. (orig.)

  18. Prediction of dynamic Rankine Cycle waste heat recovery performance and fuel saving potential in passenger car applications considering interactions with vehicles’ energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, Tilmann Abbe; Tegethoff, Wilhelm; Eilts, Peter; Koehler, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Method for evaluating fuel saving potential of vehicle waste heat recovery systems. • Analysis of interactions between waste heat recovery system and vehicle. • Evaluation of fuel saving potential in dynamic motorway driving scenario. • Parameter study for increasing fuel saving potential of integrated system. - Abstract: Waste heat recovery (WHR) by means of a Rankine Cycle is a promising approach for achieving reductions in fuel consumption and, as a result, exhaust emissions of passenger car engines. To find the best compromise between complexity and fuel saving potential, methods for predicting the WHR performance for different system configurations and stationary as well as dynamic driving scenarios are needed. Since WHR systems are usually not included in today’s car concepts, they are mostly designed as add-on systems. As a result their integration may lead to negative interactions due to increased vehicle weight, engine backpressure and cooling demand. These effects have to be considered when evaluating the fuel saving potential. A new approach for predicting WHR performance and fuel saving potential was developed and is presented in this paper. It is based on simple dynamic models of a system for recovering exhaust gas waste heat and its interfaces with the vehicle: the exhaust system for heat input, the on-board electric system for power delivery and the engine cooling system for heat rejection. The models are validated with test bench measurements of the cycle components. A study of fuel saving potential in an exemplary dynamic motorway driving scenario shows the effect of vehicle integration: while the WHR system could improve fuel economy by 3.4%, restrictions in power output due to the architecture of the on-board electric system, package considerations, increased weight, cooling demand and exhaust gas backpressure lead to a reduction of fuel saving potential by 60% to 1.3%. A parameter study reveals that, in addition to weight

  19. Estimating the potential of energy saving and carbon emission mitigation of cassava-based fuel ethanol using life cycle assessment coupled with a biogeochemical process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong; Hao, Mengmeng; Fu, Jingying; Tian, Guangjin; Ding, Fangyu

    2017-09-01

    Global warming and increasing concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) have prompted considerable interest in the potential role of energy plant biomass. Cassava-based fuel ethanol is one of the most important bioenergy and has attracted much attention in both developed and developing countries. However, the development of cassava-based fuel ethanol is still faced with many uncertainties, including raw material supply, net energy potential, and carbon emission mitigation potential. Thus, an accurate estimation of these issues is urgently needed. This study provides an approach to estimate energy saving and carbon emission mitigation potentials of cassava-based fuel ethanol through LCA (life cycle assessment) coupled with a biogeochemical process model—GEPIC (GIS-based environmental policy integrated climate) model. The results indicate that the total potential of cassava yield on marginal land in China is 52.51 million t; the energy ratio value varies from 0.07 to 1.44, and the net energy surplus of cassava-based fuel ethanol in China is 92,920.58 million MJ. The total carbon emission mitigation from cassava-based fuel ethanol in China is 4593.89 million kgC. Guangxi, Guangdong, and Fujian are identified as target regions for large-scale development of cassava-based fuel ethanol industry. These results can provide an operational approach and fundamental data for scientific research and energy planning.

  20. Performance analysis of proposed hybrid air conditioning and humidification–dehumidification systems for energy saving and water production in hot and dry climatic regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, S.A.; Elattar, H.F.; Fouda, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrative air-conditioning (A/C) and humidification–dehumidification desalination systems are proposed. • Effects of operating parameters on the proposed systems are investigated. • System configurations that have the highest fresh water production rate, power saving and total cost saving are identified. - Abstract: Performance of integrative air-conditioning (A/C) and humidification–dehumidification desalination systems proposed for hot and dry climatic regions is theoretically investigated. The proposed systems aim to energy saving and systems utilization in fresh water production. Four systems with evaporative cooler and heat recovery units located at different locations are proposed, analyzed and evaluated at different operating parameters (fresh air ratio, supply air temperature and outside air wet bulb temperature). Other two basic systems are used as reference systems in proposed systems assessment. Fresh water production rate, A/C cooling capacity, A/C electrical power consumption, saving in power consumptions and total cost saving (TCS) parameters are used for systems evaluations and comparisons. The results show that (i) the fresh water production rates of the proposed systems increase with increasing fresh air ratio, supply air temperature and outdoor wet bulb temperature, (ii) powers saving of the proposed systems increase with increasing fresh air ratio and supply air temperature and decreasing of the outdoor air wet bulb temperature, (iii) locating the evaporative cooling after the fresh air mixing remarkably increases water production rate, and (vi) incorporating heat recovery in the air conditioning systems with evaporative cooling may adversely affect both of the water production rate and the total cost saving of the system. Comparison study has been presented to identify systems configurations that have the highest fresh water production rate, highest power saving and highest total cost saving. Numerical correlations for

  1. Overview of direct air free cooling and thermal energy storage potential energy savings in data centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oró, Eduard; Depoorter, Victor; Pflugradt, Noah; Salom, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    In the last years the total energy demand of data centres has experienced a dramatic increase which is expected to continue. This is why data centres industry and researchers are working on implementing energy efficiency measures and integrating renewable energy to overcome energy dependence and to reduce operational costs and CO 2 emissions. The cooling system of these unique infrastructures can account for 40% of the total energy consumption. To reduce the energy consumption, free cooling strategies are used more and more, but so far there has been little research about the potential of thermal energy storage (TES) solutions to match energy demand and energy availability. Hence, this work intends to provide an overview of the potential of the integration of direct air free cooling strategy and TES systems into data centres located at different European locations. For each location, the benefit of using direct air free cooling is evaluated energetically and economically for a data centre of 1250 kW. The use of direct air free cooling is shown to be feasible. This does not apply the TES systems by itself. But when using TES in combination with an off-peak electricity tariff the operational cooling cost can be drastically reduced. - Highlights: • The total annual hours for direct air free cooling in data centres are calculated. • The potential of TES integration in data centres is evaluated. • The implementation of TES to store the ambient air cold is not recommended. • TES is feasible if combined with redundant chillers and off-peak electricity price. • The cooling electricity cost is being reduced up to 51%, depending on the location

  2. Priority listing of industrial processes by total energy consumption and potential for savings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streb, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of eight of the most energy-intensive segments of the U.S. industry is made to quantify the energy consumed in the principal process units, to identify areas in which significant improvement appear possible, and to rank the process units in terms of total energy consumption and the potential for improvement. Data on the steel, paper, aluminum, textile, cement, and glass industries, petroleum refineries, and olefins and derivative products industries were compiled to help plan the development of new energy sources and to provide targets for energy conservation activities. (MCW)

  3. Improving the thermal integrity of new single-family detached residential buildings: Documentation for a regional database of capital costs and space conditioning load savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Wodley, C.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the costs and space-conditioning load savings from improving new single-family building shells. It relies on survey data from the National Association of Home-builders (NAHB) to assess current insulation practices for these new buildings, and NAHB cost data (aggregated to the Federal region level) to estimate the costs of improving new single-family buildings beyond current practice. Space-conditioning load savings are estimated using a database of loads for prototype buildings developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, adjusted to reflect population-weighted average weather in each of the ten federal regions and for the nation as a whole

  4. Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Langkilde, G.; Olesen, Bjarne W. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Moerck, O. (Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)); Sundman, O. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Engelund Thomsen, K. (Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2008-09-15

    This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

  5. Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M [Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Langkilde, G; Olesen, Bjarne W [Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Moerck, O [Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark); Sundman, O [DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark); Engelund Thomsen, K [Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2008-09-15

    This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

  6. Caustic saving potentile in textile processing mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, M.; Rehman, A.; Ghafar, A.; Hafeez, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    The textile processing industry of pakistan has great potential of improvement in resource consumption in various production processes. One major concern is the heavy usage of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) especially during the mercerization process which incurs a significant cost to a textile processing mill. To reduce the unit fabric production cost and stay competitive, the industry need to minimize the caustic wastage and explore the caustic saving potential. This paper describe the detailed caustic consumption practices and saving potentials in woven textile sector based on the data base of 100 industries. Region wise caustic saving potential is also investigated . Three caustic conservation option including process improvement, reuse and recycling, and caustic recovery plants are discussed. Detailed technical and and financial requirements. saving potentials and paybacks of these options are provided. (author)

  7. Power consumption of lifts and potential for energy savings; Elektrizitaetsverbrauch und Einspar-Potenziale bei Aufzuegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nipkow, J.

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews the results of a study made on the electricity consumption of lifts, which estimates that around 0.5% of Swiss power consumption is caused by lift installations. The results of measurements made on 33 various lift installations and their power consumption are presented. The SIA 380/4 model used to determine energy consumption on the basis of the number of movements is described. Stand-by and lighting consumption is examined, which, according to the authors' conclusions, offer considerable room for improvement, especially for lifts in residential buildings. A further significant potential for improvement is also noted which can be achieved when renewing older systems. The avoidance of inefficient concepts by the use of guidelines for architects, planners and customers is recommended.

  8. Energy conservation: policy issues and end-use scenarios of savings potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The enclosed work is based on previous research during this fiscal year, contained in Construction of Energy Conservation Scenarios: Interim Report of Work in Progress, June 1978. Five subjects were investigated and summaries were published for each subject in separate publications. This publication summarizes policy issues on the five subjects: tradeoffs of municipal solid-waste-processing alternatives (economics of garbage collection; mechanical versus home separation of recyclables); policy barriers and investment decisions in industry (methodology for identification of potential barriers to industrial energy conservation; process of industrial investment decision making); energy-efficient recreational travel (information system to promote energy-efficient recreational travel; recreational travel; national importance and individual decision making); energy-efficient buildings (causes of litigation against energy-conservation building codes; description of the building process); and end-use energy-conservation data base and scenaerios (residential; commercial; transportation; and industrial).

  9. Request of laboratory liver tests in primary care in Spain: potential savings if appropriateness indicator targets were achieved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Maria; López-Garrigós, Maite; Flores, Emilio; Uris, Joaquín; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    Liver laboratory tests are used to screen for liver disease, suggest the underlying cause, estimate the severity, assess prognosis, and monitor the efficacy of therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the liver laboratory tests requesting patterns by GPs in Spain, according to geographic and hospital characteristics, to investigate the degree of requesting appropriateness. One hundred and forty-one clinical laboratories were invited to participate from diverse regions across Spain. They filed out the number of laboratory liver tests requested by GPs for the year 2012. Two types of appropriateness indicators were calculated: every test request per 1000 inhabitants or ratios of related tests requests. The indicator results obtained were compared between the different hospitals, according to their setting, location, and management. The savings generated, if each area would have achieved indicator targets, were calculated. We recruited 76 laboratories covering a population of 17,679,195 inhabitants. GPs requested 20,916,780 laboratory liver tests in the year 2012. No differences were obtained according to their setting. Lactate dehydrogenase and direct bilirubin per 1000 inhabitants were significantly higher in institutions with private management. Largest differences were observed between communities. Nine, 31, 0, and 13 laboratories, respectively, achieved the aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and total bilirubin-related alanine aminotransferase indicator targets. Reaching ratios would have resulted in savings of €1,028,468. There was a high variability in the request of liver tests. This emphasizes the need to implement interventions to improve appropriate use of liver tests.

  10. Quinoa's potential in the Mediterranean region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavini, A.; Pulvento, C.; d'Andria, R.

    2014-01-01

    Willd.), which was grown in field trials in several Mediterranean countries, to study the effects of drought and salinity on yield and other characters. Drought stress during the vegetative growth stage leads to deep root development, and without stress conditions for the rest of the growing season...... allowed the plant to be able to optimize its photosynthesis and carbon translocation. Stress during seed filling recorded the lowest yields. The influence of organic matter on yield was more important under deficit irrigation than under full irrigation. The interaction between relative water content......The climate of Mediterranean region will become drier and hotter, with increased problems of soil salinity. A possible alternative to minimize the effects of climate change is to introduce species with better tolerance to salt and drought stresses. One of the options is quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa...

  11. Rotavirus diarrhea disease burden in Peru: the need for a rotavirus vaccine and its potential cost savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenkranz, P; Lanata, C F; Penny, M E; Salazar-Lindo, E; Glass, R I

    2001-10-01

    To assess the disease burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Peru as well the need for and the potential cost savings with a rotavirus vaccine in that country. To assess the burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Peru, we reviewed published and unpublished reports where rotavirus was sought as the etiologic agent of diarrhea in children. Rotavirus detection rates obtained from these studies were combined with diarrhea incidence rates from a number of national surveys in order to estimate both the burden of rotavirus diarrhea in the country and its associated medical costs. Rotavirus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Peruvian children. In their first 5 years of life, an estimated 1 in 1.6 children will experience an episode of rotavirus diarrhea, 1 in 9.4 will seek medical care, 1 in 19.7 will require hospitalization, and 1 in 375 will die of the disease. Per year, this represents approximately 384,000 cases, 64,000 clinic visits, 30,000 hospitalizations, and 1,600 deaths. The annual cost of medical care alone for these children is approximately US$ 2.6 million--and that does not take into account the indirect or societal costs of the illness and the deaths. Rotavirus immunization provides the prospect of decreasing the morbidity and mortality from diarrhea in Peru, but a vaccine regimen would have to be relatively inexpensive, a few dollars or less per child. Future cost-effectiveness analyses should explore the total costs (medical as well as indirect or societal) associated with rotavirus diarrhea. Newly licensed vaccines should be tested according to both their ability to avert deaths and their efficacy with fewer than three doses. All three of these factors could increase the cost savings associated with a rotavirus vaccine.

  12. Rotavirus diarrhea disease burden in Peru: the need for a rotavirus vaccine and its potential cost savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ehrenkranz

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the disease burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Peru as well the need for and the potential cost savings with a rotavirus vaccine in that country. Methods. To assess the burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Peru, we reviewed published and unpublished reports where rotavirus was sought as the etiologic agent of diarrhea in children. Rotavirus detection rates obtained from these studies were combined with diarrhea incidence rates from a number of national surveys in order to estimate both the burden of rotavirus diarrhea in the country and its associated medical costs. Results. Rotavirus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Peruvian children. In their first 5 years of life, an estimated 1 in 1.6 children will experience an episode of rotavirus diarrhea, 1 in 9.4 will seek medical care, 1 in 19.7 will require hospitalization, and 1 in 375 will die of the disease. Per year, this represents approximately 384 000 cases, 64 000 clinic visits, 30 000 hospitalizations, and 1 600 deaths. The annual cost of medical care alone for these children is approximately US$ 2.6 million--and that does not take into account the indirect or societal costs of the illness and the deaths. Conclusions. Rotavirus immunization provides the prospect of decreasing the morbidity and mortality from diarrhea in Peru, but a vaccine regimen would have to be relatively inexpensive, a few dollars or less per child. Future cost-effectiveness analyses should explore the total costs (medical as well as indirect or societal associated with rotavirus diarrhea. Newly licensed vaccines should be tested according to both their ability to avert deaths and their efficacy with fewer than three doses. All three of these factors could increase the cost savings associated with a rotavirus vaccine.

  13. INNOVATION POTENTIAL OF RUSSIAN NORTHERN REGIONS: DEVELOPMENT TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Berezikova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the work for the first time a methodology of complex evaluation of innovation potentials of the regions is proposed. As a result the index of innovation potentials of Russian northern regions was determined, and on its basis all regions are referred to groups corresponding their innovation rating. A system of measures on stimulation of innovation activities in regions has been proposed

  14. Seat belt use to save face: impact on drivers' body region and nature of injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang-Ming; Newmyer, Ashley; Qu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Seat belt use is the single most effective way to save lives and reduce injuries in motor vehicle crashes. However, some case reports described seat belt use as a double-edged sword because some injuries are related to seat belt use in motor vehicle crashes. To comprehensively understand the effects of seat belt use, we systemically investigated the association between seat belt use and injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes. The injury information was obtained by linking crash reports with hospital discharge data and categorized by using the diagnosis codes based on the Barell injury diagnosis matrix. A total of 10,479 drivers (≥15 years) in passenger vehicles involved in motor vehicle crashes from 2006 to 2011 were included in this study. Seat belt use significantly reduced the proportions of traumatic brain injury (10.4% non-seat belt; 4.1% seat belt) and other head, face, and neck injury (29.3% non-seat belt; 16.6% seat belt) but increased the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury (17.9% non-seat belt; 35.5% seat belt). Although the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury was increased in drivers with seat belt use, the severity of injury was decreased, such as fracture (4.2% with seat belt use; 22.0% without seat belt use). Furthermore, the total medical charges decreased due to the change of injury profiles in drivers with seat belt use from a higher percentage of fractures (average cost for per case $26,352) to a higher percentage of sprains and/or strains ($1,897) with spine: thoracic to coccyx injury. This study provide a comprehensive picture for understanding the protective effect of seat belt use on injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes.

  15. Energy potential of region and its quantitative assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Aleksandrovna Kovalenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is the development of the concept of the energy potential of the region (EPR, the analysis of the existing structure of relationships for the EPR elements in Ukraine and improvement of a quantitative assessment of energy potential of the region (country. The methods of an assessment of the existing condition of energy potential of the territory are the subject matter of the research. As a result of the analysis of concept’s definitions of energy potential of the region, it has further development and included the consumer potential of energy resources and capacity of management. The structure of relationships between elements of energy potential is developed for the Ukraine region. The new economic indicator — the realized energy potential is offered for an EPR assessment. By means of this indicator, the assessment of energy potential for the different countries of the world and a number of Ukraine areas of is performed.

  16. Potential Cost Savings for Use of 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    bäÉîÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä=^Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = Potential Cost Savings for Use of 3D Printing Combined With 3D...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Potential Cost Savings for Use of 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and...Chair: RADM David Lewis, USN Program Executive Officer, SHIPS Potential Cost Savings for Use of 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for

  17. National potential of saving of electricity in domestic refrigeration; Potencial nacional de ahorro de electricidad en refrigeracion domestica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo C, Fernando [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Ambriz G, Juan Jose; Romero P, Hernando [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the present paper the evaluation of the potential of saving of electrical energy in Mexico is presented, by means of the substitution of old refrigerators of low efficiency by modern high efficiency ones. This potential is very ample, since the replacement of the old models by new follows a very slow curve, if the economic difficulties of the Mexican families are considered and that, on the other hand, the technology of the domestic refrigerators is so reliable that they have a very long life and they are not easily rejected. In field work have been found refrigerators operating with ages of more than 30 years and still 40. In Mexico, it is estimated that the refrigeration is responsible for around 29% of the of electricity consumption in homes settled in tempered climate and of 14 % in those of warm climate in which air conditioning is used. The proposal of this work is the organization of a governmental program of accelerated substitution of refrigerators that helps to acquire an efficient refrigerator and to reject the old ones. The results indicate that if a total renovation of the park of domestic refrigerators is made, the saving of electrical energy would reach the 5.2 TWh/a which represents the 44.5% of the total consumption of 11.7 TWh in a year. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se presenta la evaluacion del potencial de ahorro de energia electrica en Mexico, mediante la substitucion de refrigeradores antiguos de baja eficiencia por modernos de alta eficiencia. Este potencial es muy amplio, ya que el reemplazo de los modelos viejos por nuevos sigue una curva muy lenta, si se consideran las dificultades economicas de las familias mexicanas y que, por otro lado, la tecnologia de los refrigeradores domesticos es tan confiable que tienen una vida muy larga y no se desechan facilmente. En trabajos de campo se han encontrado refrigeradores operando con edades de mas de 30 anos y aun 40. En Mexico, se estima que la refrigeracion es responsable de alrededor del

  18. The Energy Saving Potential of Occupancy-Based Lighting Control Strategies in Open-Plan Offices: The Influence of Occupancy Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel de Bakker

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupancy-based lighting control strategies have been proven to be effective in diminishing offices’ energy consumption. These strategies have typically worked by controlling lighting at the room level but, recently, lighting systems have begun to be equipped with sensors on a more fine-grained level, enabling lighting control at the desk level. For some office cases, however, the savings gained using this strategy may not outweigh the costs and design efforts compared to room control. This is because, in some offices, individual occupancy patterns are similar, hence the difference in savings between desk and room control would be minimal. This study examined the influence of occupancy pattern variance within an office space on the relative energy savings of control strategies with different control zone sizes. We applied stochastic modeling to estimate the occupancy patterns, as this method can account for uncertainty. To validate our model, simulation results were compared to earlier studies and real measurements, which demonstrated that our simulations provided realistic occupancy patterns. Next, office cases varying in both job-function type distribution and office policy were investigated on energy savings potential to determine the influence of occupancy pattern variance. The relative energy savings potential of the different control strategies differed minimally for the test cases, suggesting that variations in individual occupancy patterns negligibly influence energy savings. In all cases, lighting control at the desk level showed a significantly higher energy savings potential than strategies with lower control zone granularity, suggesting that it is useful to implement occupancy-based lighting at the desk level in all office cases. This strategy should, thus, receive more attention from both researchers and lighting designers.

  19. How much electricity can we save by using direct current circuits in homes? Understanding the potential for electricity savings and assessing feasibility of a transition towards DC powered buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgo, Brock; Azevedo, Inês Lima; Hendrickson, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • DC distribution systems are analyzed using monitored appliance and solar PV data. • DC-distributed PV energy generates savings under real-world load and solar profiles. • Savings from direct-DC are generally not cost-effective in current markets. • Non-technical hurdles remain before DC can be widely adopted in US homes. - Abstract: Advances in semiconductor-based power electronics and growing direct current loads in buildings have led researchers to reconsider whether buildings should be wired with DC circuits to reduce power conversions and facilitate a transition to efficient DC appliances. The feasibility, energy savings, and economics of such systems have been assessed and proven in data centers and commercial buildings, but the outcomes are still uncertain for the residential sector. In this work, we assess the technical and economic feasibility of DC circuits using data for 120 traditionally-wired AC homes in Austin, Texas to understand the effect of highly variable demand profiles on DC-powered residences, using appliance-level use and solar generation data, and performing a Monte Carlo simulation to quantify costs and benefits. Results show site energy savings between 9% and 20% when solar PV is distributed to all home appliances. When battery storage for excess solar energy is considered, these savings increase to 14–25%. At present DC equipment prices, converting all equipment to DC causes levelized annual costs of electricity to homeowners to roughly double. However, by converting only homes’ air conditioning condensing units to DC, the costs of direct-DC are greatly reduced and home site energy savings of 7–16% are generated. In addition to quantifying savings, we find major nontechnical barriers to implementing direct-DC in homes. These include a lack of standards for such systems, a relatively small market for DC appliances and components, utility programs designed for AC power, and a workforce unfamiliar with DC

  20. Household Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Lusardi, Annamaria

    suggested in the informal saving literature can be captured in the standard optimizing model. Particular attention is given to recent work on the precautionary motive and its implications for saving and consumption behavior. We also discuss the "behavioral" or "psychological" approach that eschews the use......In this survey, we review the recent theoretical and empirical literature on household saving and consumption. The discussion is structured around a list of motives for saving and how well the standard theory captures these motives. We show that almost all of the motives for saving that have been...

  1. Potential of bioclimatic architecture for energy saving in buildings; Potencial de la arquitectura bioclimatica para ahorro de energia en edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Chavez, Jose Roberto [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The design and construction of current buildings has been characterized, most of all, in the last 30 years, for the lack of consideration in the design process of aspects that nowadays represent a fundamental importance. These aspects are related to energy conservation and environmental protection, with man as the main center of attention for the optimum satisfaction of its physiological as well as psychological needs. In this paper are presented the causes for the lack of consideration of the mentioned aspects and guidelines to follow are set forth for their integration in the design process. Also the architecture potential with a bioclimatic approach is analyzed, for energy saving in buildings. [Espanol] El diseno y construccion de edificios contemporaneos se ha caracterizado, sobre todo en los ultimos treinta anos, por la falta de consideracion en el proceso de diseno, de aspectos que hoy en dia revisten una importancia primordial. Estos aspectos se relacionan con la preservacion de la energia y del medio ambiente, teniendo al hombre como principal centro de atencion, para la satisfaccion optima de sus necesidades, tanto fisiologicas como psicologicas. En este trabajo, se presentan las causas de la falta de consideracion de los aspectos antes citados y se plantean las pautas a seguir para su integracion en el proceso de diseno. Asi mismo, se analiza el potencial de la arquitectura con un enfoque bioclimatico, para ahorro de energia en los edificios.

  2. Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters (PICCs) and Potential Cost Savings and Shortened Bed Stays In an Acute Hospital Setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Brien, C

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral inserted central catheters (PICCs) have increasingly become the mainstay of patients requiring prolonged treatment with antibiotics, transfusions, oncologic IV therapy and total parental nutrition. They may also be used in delivering a number of other medications to patients. In recent years, bed occupancy rates have become hugely pressurized in many hospitals and any potential solutions to free up beds is welcome. Recent introductions of doctor or nurse led intravenous (IV) outpatient based treatment teams has been having a direct effect on early discharge of patients and in some cases avoiding admission completely. The ability to deliver outpatient intravenous treatment is facilitated by the placement of PICCs allowing safe and targeted treatment of patients over a prolonged period of time. We carried out a retrospective study of 2,404 patients referred for PICCs from 2009 to 2015 in a university teaching hospital. There was an exponential increase in the number of PICCs requested from 2011 to 2015 with a 64% increase from 2012 to 2013. The clear increase in demand for PICCs in our institution is directly linked to the advent of outpatient intravenous antibiotic services. In this paper, we assess the impact that the use of PICCs combined with intravenous outpatient treatment may have on cost and hospital bed demand. We advocate that a more widespread implementation of this service throughout Ireland may result in significant cost savings as well as decreasing the number of patients on hospital trollies.

  3. A Study of Application Layer Paradigm for Lower Layer Energy Saving Potentials in Cloud-Edge Social User Wireless Image Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving becomes critical in modern cloud wireless multimedia and mobile communication systems. In this paper we propose to study a new paradigm named application layer Position-Value diversity for wireless image sharing for cloud-edge communications, which has significant energy saving potentials for modern wireless networking systems. In this new paradigm, saving energy is achieved by looking into application layer imaging traffic, in stead of MAC-PHY protocols at lower layers, and partitioning it into important positions and unimportant values. This paradigm could be integrated to existing wavelet-based tree compression, and truncation of image bit streams could be performed with regards to wireless communication energy budget estimation. Simulation results demonstrated that there are significant potentials of communication energy efficiency gain and Quality of Experience (QoE enhancement in wireless image communication systems.

  4. Investigation on the Energy Saving Potential of Using a Novel Dew Point Cooling System in Data Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Bi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Information technology (IT has brought significant changes in people’s lives. As an important part of the IT industry, data centres (DCs have been rapidly growing in both the number and size over the past 40 years. Around 30% to 40% of electricity consumption in DCs is used for space cooling, thus leading to very inefficient DC operation. To identify ways to reduce the energy consumption for space cooling and increase the energy efficiency of DCs’ operation, a dedicated investigation into the energy usage in DCs has been undertaken and a novel high performance dew point cooling system was introduced into a DC operational scheme. Based on the cooling load in DCs, a case study was carried out to evaluate the energy consumptions and energy usage effectiveness when using the novel dew point cooling system in different scales of DCs in various climates. It was found that by using the novel dew point cooling system, for 10 typical climates a DC can have a much lower power usage effectiveness (PUE of 1.10 to 1.22 compared to that of 1.7 to 3.7 by using existing traditional cooling systems, leading to significantly increased energy efficiency of the DC operation. In addition, the energy performance by managing the cooling air supply at the different levels in DCs, i.e., room, row and rack level, was simulated by using a dynamic computer model. It was found that cooling air supply at rack level can provide a higher energy efficiency in DCs. Based on the above work, the energy saving potential in DCs was conducted by comparing DCs using an the novel dew point cooling system and the optimum management scheme for the cooling air supply to that using traditional air cooling systems and the same supply air management. Annual electricity consumptions for the two cases were given. It was found that by using the novel dew point cooling system and optimum management system for the cooling air supply, an 87.7~91.6% electricity consumption saving for

  5. Mapping Irrigation Potential in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow

  6. Does Prevention Pay? Costs and Potential Cost-savings of School Interventions Targeting Children with Mental Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellander, Lisa; Wells, Michael B; Feldman, Inna

    2016-06-01

    In Sweden, the local government is responsible for funding schools in their district. One funding initiative is for schools to provide students with mental health problems with additional support via extra teachers, personal assistants, and special education classes. There are evidence-based preventive interventions delivered in schools, which have been shown to decrease the levels of students' mental health problems. However, little is known about how much the local government currently spends on students' mental health support and if evidence-based interventions could be financially beneficial. The aim of this study was to estimate the costs of providing additional support for students' mental health problems and the potential cost-offsets, defined as reduced school-based additional support, if two evidence-based school interventions targeting children's mental health problems were implemented in routine practice. This study uses data on the additional support students with mental health problems received in schools. Data was collected from one school district for students aged 6 to 16 years. We modeled two Swedish school interventions, Comet for Teachers and Social and Emotional Training (SET), which both had evidence of reducing mental health problems. We used a cost-offset analysis framework, assuming both interventions were fully implemented throughout the whole school district. Based on the published studies, the expected effects and the costs of the interventions were calculated. We defined the cost-offsets as the amount of predicted averted additional support for students with ongoing mental health problems who might no longer require receiving services such as one-on-one time with an extra teacher, a personal assistant, or to be placed in a special education classroom. A cost-offset analysis, from a payer's perspective (the local government responsible for school financing), was conducted comparing the costs of both interventions with the potential cost-savings

  7. Formation components of socio-economic potential of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyanets Nataliia Valeriivna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article the content category “socio-economic system of the region” through coherent, equilibrated integrity objects of economic and social purposes in the territory, which includes including resource component and designed for the production of environmentally friendly products and services are provided. A typical signs of socio-economic potential of the region through the hierarchy, complexity, emergence, dynamism, commitment, synerhichnist, uniqueness and openness components. The economic potential of the region as the maximum capacity of the region to achieve its strategic goals through the use of existing resources, manufacturing, natural – resource, research, information and social sub region.

  8. Improving the Assessment of Regional Economic Potential (on Example of Rostov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai A. Kurianov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses a number of problematic issues concerning the possibility of improving existing approaches to assessing regional economic potential. Based on the analysis of existing approaches it is concluded that presence of a number of inherent common disadvantages, which include the exclusion of complex assessment elements of intangible resources, isolation from development goals in the region, ignoring the possibility of incremental reserves development static evaluation results. To overcome these ambiguities the authors' approach to improving assessment procedures based on the allocation of the essential nature of the category «regional economic potential», which unites, on the one hand, the resources available for regional development (actual potential, and on the other hand, resources in respect of which the region has the opportunity to attract them as a tool for further development of (stochastic potential. As the degree of implementation of this option is determined by the quality of regional governance, the most important element of the economic potential of the region is also an effective mechanism for management of existing and potential resources of various types. The practical implementation of the proposed methodology suppose, for example, estimate the economic potential of the Rostov region. At the first stage of the evaluation determine the most important elements of this potential and their ranking, on the second – assessment of the status of these elements from the point of view of their availability, ability to attract and management efficiency, and the third – the normalized assessment of regional economic potential.

  9. IDENTIFYING REGIONAL CLUSTER MANAGEMENT POTENTIALS EMPIRICAL RESULTS FROM THREE NORTH RHINEWESTPHALIAN REGIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Rudiger Hamm; Christiane Goebel

    2010-01-01

    The development and support of clusters is an issue that became quite popular by players dealing with regional economic policy. But before a regional development agency can start to implement a cluster-oriented strategy there a two question that have to be answered: 1. What are the regional fields of competence (cluster potentials) that fulfill the requirements for a cluster-oriented regional development policy? 2. If you find such regional fields of competence, are the enterprises willing to...

  10. FY 1999 report on energy conservation potential survey of measurement and control systems and energy-saving equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Studies are conducted with a view to connecting a survey in Egypt to CDM (clean development mechanism) adopted at COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). The survey covers the textile industry which is one of Egypt's main industries, and investigation is conducted for extending technical recommendation to 11 textile mills (including dyeing plants) about how to reduce greenhouse gas (CO2) emissions through energy conservation efforts. Required investment, investment recovery period, and reduction in CO2 emissions are calculated. About CO2 reduction, it is found that there will be a CO2 reduction of 44,702 tons/year at a rate of 22.4%, investment of 838.56-million yen, CO2 reduction of 53.3 tons/million yen, and investment of 18,750-yen/t-CO2. As for energy conservation, there will be a reduction at a rate of 14,449 toe/year in energy consumption, investment of 838.56-million yen, energy saved at a rate of 17.2 toe/million yen, and investment of 5,800 yen/toe. There will be an annual reduction in utility cost of 125.79-million yen at a cost reduction rate of 10.3%. The investment recovery period is calculated to be 5.8 years. The Egyptian textile has high potentials for CO2 reduction, and will present an excellent opportunity for a CDM project. (NEDO)

  11. THE METHODS FOR ESTIMATING REGIONAL PROFESSIONAL MOBILE RADIO MARKET POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.À. Korobeynikov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the author’s methods of estimating regional professional mobile radio market potential, that belongs to high-tech b2b markets. These methods take into consideration such market peculiarities as great range and complexity of products, technological constraints and infrastructure development for the technological systems operation. The paper gives an estimation of professional mobile radio potential in Perm region. This estimation is already used by one of the systems integrator for its strategy development.

  12. On the assessment of cross-border regions' development potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilchak Mikhail

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to assess the potential of cross-border region development on the basis of theoretical and methodological materials. The study examines the Kaliningrad region and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. The article is focused on the modelling of interindustry balance and export/import functions of border territories.

  13. Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation: Facility Utilizes Energy Assessments to Identify $930,000 in Potential Annual Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation (KUCC) used targeted energy assessments in the smelter and refinery at its Bingham Canyon Mine, near Salt Lake City, Utah. The assessment focused mainly on the energy-intensive processes of copper smelting and refining. By implementing the projects identified, KUCC could realize annual cost savings of $930,000 and annual energy savings of 452,000 MMBtu. The projects would also reduce maintenance, repair costs, waste, and environmental emissions. One project would use methane gas from an adjacent municipal dump to replace natural gas currently used to heat the refinery electrolyte.

  14. Preliminary study of potential energy savings within business and industry by reducing over-harmonies; Forundersoegelse af muligheder for energibesparelser i erhvervslivet ved reduktion af overharmoniske stroemme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Kehr, J.M. (ABB A/S, Skovlunde (Denmark)); Hoejte Hansen, H. (Balslev A/S (Denmark))

    2009-08-15

    Overharmonic currents cause additional losses in the power supply network (lines, transformers) and in motors, which are supplied directly from the network (not motors, which are supplied from frequency converters or rectifiers). The overharmonic currents can be reduced or removed by capacitor banks and active filters. Active filters adjust themselves to the loading conditions and are also reacting on too slow transients and voltage disturbances in the network. Till now there is only little experience with active filters in commercial life. However, there are indications of potential electricity savings up to 10 % in installations with many overharmonic voltages (THDU > 5 %). The extent of harmonic distortions has been measured in 10 firms and has been compared to previous measurements. It is estimated that the voltage distortion, measured in THDU, at least must be 5 or 6 % in order to establish a profitable solution by reducing the harmonics by means of an active filter. In approx 40 % of the cases where the THDU has been measured, it has been estimated on the basis of THDU, current and utilization time that there is a potential of electricity savings by reducing the THDU. The overharmonic currents cause additional current heating losses in directly supplied motors as well as in lines and transformers. In induction motors they also cause current heating losses in the rotor and the 5th, 11th, 17th etc harmonics make a pulsating or reduced torque, which implies further losses. ABB and Comsys, both of which deliver active filters, have calculated electricity savings in some installations equipped with active filters. The direct electricity savings have been estimated at a low per cent in production equipment generally and up to 16 % in some directly supplied induction motors. In addition to the direct electricity savings the filters may also result in increased production capacity as a consequence of fewer breakdowns (the filters improve the voltage quality and

  15. Measuring the Regional Availability of Forest Biomass for Biofuels and the Potential of GHG Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengli Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest biomass is an important resource for producing bioenergy and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. The State of Michigan in the United States (U.S. is one region recognized for its high potential of supplying forest biomass; however, the long-term availability of timber harvests and the associated harvest residues from this area has not been fully explored. In this study time trend analyses was employed for long term timber assessment and developed mathematical models for harvest residue estimation, as well as the implications of use for ethanol. The GHG savings potential of ethanol over gasoline was also modeled. The methods were applied in Michigan under scenarios of different harvest solutions, harvest types, transportation distances, conversion technologies, and higher heating values over a 50-year period. Our results indicate that the study region has the potential to supply 0.75–1.4 Megatonnes (Mt dry timber annually and less than 0.05 Mt of dry residue produced from these harvests. This amount of forest biomass could generate 0.15–1.01 Mt of ethanol, which contains 0.68–17.32 GJ of energy. The substitution of ethanol for gasoline as transportation fuel has potential to reduce emissions by 0.043–1.09 Mt CO2eq annually. The developed method is generalizable in other similar regions of different countries for bioenergy related analyses.

  16. Evaluation of energy savings potential of variable refrigerant flow (VRF from variable air volume (VAV in the U.S. climate locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsu Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Variable refrigerant flow (VRF systems are known for their high energy performance and thus can improve energy efficiency both in residential and commercial buildings. The energy savings potential of this system has been demonstrated in several studies by comparing the system performance with conventional HVAC systems such as rooftop variable air volume systems (RTU-VAV and central chiller and boiler systems. This paper evaluates the performance of VRF and RTU-VAV systems in a simulation environment using widely-accepted whole building energy modeling software, EnergyPlus. A medium office prototype building model, developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE, is used to assess the performance of VRF and RTU-VAV systems. Each system is placed in 16 different locations, representing all U.S. climate zones, to evaluate the performance variations. Both models are compliant with the minimum energy code requirements prescribed in ASHRAE standard 90.1-2010 — energy standard for buildings except low-rise residential buildings. Finally, a comparison study between the simulation results of VRF and RTU-VAV models is made to demonstrate energy savings potential of VRF systems. The simulation results show that the VRF systems would save around 15–42% and 18–33% for HVAC site and source energy uses compared to the RTU-VAV systems. In addition, calculated results for annual HVAC cost savings point out that hot and mild climates show higher percentage cost savings for the VRF systems than cold climates mainly due to the differences in electricity and gas use for heating sources.

  17. Forecasting how residential urban form affects the regional carbon savings and costs of retrofitting and decentralized energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargreaves, Anthony; Cheng, Vicky; Deshmukh, Sandip; Leach, Matthew; Steemers, Koen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative model for testing combinations of spatial planning and decentralised energy supply. • An improved method of modelling the spatial variability of energy consumption per dwelling type. • Shows how spatial planning would affect the future carbon reduction of decentralised supply. • Forecasts the future carbon reduction and costs of retrofitting and decentralised supply. • A method of forecasting how residential space would affect the suitability of decentralised supply. - Abstract: Low carbon energy supply technologies are increasingly used at the building and community scale and are an important part of the government decarbonisation strategy. However, with their present state of development and costs, many of these decentralised technologies rely on public subsidies to be financially viable. It is questionable whether they are cost effective compared to other ways of reducing carbon emissions, such as decarbonisation of conventional supply and improving the energy efficiency of dwellings. Previous studies have found it difficult to reliably estimate the future potential of decentralised supply because this depends on the available residential space which varies greatly within a city region. To address this problem, we used an integrated modelling framework that converted the residential density forecasts of a regional model into a representation of the building dimensions and land of the future housing stock. This included a method of estimating the variability of the dwellings and residential land. We present the findings of a case study of the wider south east regions of England that forecasted the impacts of energy efficiency and decentralised supply scenarios to year 2031. Our novel and innovative method substantially improves the spatial estimates of energy consumption compared to building energy models that only use standard dwelling typologies. We tested the impact of an alternative spatial planning policy on the future

  18. Building envelope regulations on thermal comfort in glass facade buildings and energy-saving potential for PMV-based comfort control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Shu, Shiu-Ya [Department of Architecture, National United University, 1, Lien-Da, Kung-Ching Li, Miaoli, 36003 (China)

    2011-04-15

    This paper presents an investigation of the effect of building envelope regulation on thermal comfort and on the energy-saving potential for PMV-based comfort control in glass facade buildings. Occurrences and severity of overheating, based on the PMV-PPD model contained in ISO 7730, were used for the thermal comfort assessment. Parametric study simulations for an actual building with a large glass facade were carried out to predict the changes in thermal comfort levels in a space due to different glazing types, depths of overhang and glazing areas, which are the key parameters of the building envelope regulation index, named ENVLOAD, in Taiwan. The result demonstrates that the ENVLOAD has significant effect on thermal comfort. Additionally, comparative simulations between PMV-based comfort control and conventional thermostatic control were performed to investigate the changes in the energy-saving potential of a thermal comfort-controlled space due to changes of its ENVLOAD. The results demonstrate that the energy-saving potential in a PMV-based controlled space increases with low ENVLOAD conditions. (author)

  19. Russian Pharmaceutical Companies Export Potential in Emerging Regional Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Vladimirovna Sapir; Igor Andreyevich Karachyov; Mingzhu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes a diverse range of the enterprise’s export potential growth factors in emerging pharmaceutical clusters of Central European Russia. Classification and comparative analysis were used to identify export potential attributes (production, finance, labor and marketing), which have allowed to reveal the strong connection of cluster and regional factor groups with the results of export performance. The purpose of the study is to provide exports-seeking pharmaceutical c...

  20. Beyond fuelwood savings. Valuing the economic benefits of introducing improved biomass cookstoves in the Purepecha region of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Frapolli, Eduardo; Schilmann, Astrid; Berrueta, Victor M.; Riojas-Rodriguez, Horacio; Edwards, Rufus D.; Johnson, Michael; Guevara-Sangines, Alejandro; Armendariz, Cynthia; Masera, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Half of the world population relies on biomass for cooking, with very significant health as well as climate change impacts. Improved cookstoves have been disseminated as an alternative to reduce these impacts. However, few detailed studies about the economic benefits of improved cookstoves (ICS) interventions, including environmental and health co-benefits, exist to date. In this paper we perform a comprehensive economic evaluation of a dissemination program of ICS in rural Mexico. The resulting cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of the Patsari improved cookstove is presented, utilizing estimation of direct costs and benefits, including fuelwood savings, income generation, health impacts, environmental conservation, and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The analysis is based on comprehensive data obtained through monitoring studies carried out in the Study Area from 2003 to the present. Results show that Patsari cookstoves represent a viable economic option for improving living conditions of the poorest inhabitants of rural Mexico, with benefit/cost ratios estimated between 11.4:1 and 9:1. The largest contributors to economic benefits stemmed from fuelwood savings and reductions in health impacts, which constituted 53% and 28% of the overall benefit, respectively. (author)

  1. Report on investigation of initial stage of energy-saving vision in Ikeda City region; Ikedashi sho energy vision shoki dankai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Investigation was conducted for the purpose of deciding energy-saving vision in the region of Ikeda City, Osaka Prefecture. Ikeda City is lower in the use of electric lights per household than Osaka Prefecture or the whole country, and is higher in the consumption of city gas. The carbon dioxide exhaust of the City is less compared with that of Osaka Prefecture or the whole country. As to new energy, there is a good possibility of the use of solar energy. As a result of energy conservation diagnosis, about 25% energy saving was found possible in the government office building jointly used by the City and the Prefecture, and 21% in Kitateshima Junior High School. From these investigative results, proposals were made for the basic policy of the energy saving vision; they were, for example, to enrich one's life style by promoting efficient use of energy, to build an urban structure having less energy load, to enhance all citizens' consciousness about energy, to change the way of living by the community unit, to take the lead in energy conservation as the city administration to set an example for the whole city, to foster the environmental industry by dealing with energy problems, and to have a long-term outlook and tackle the issue with stress placed on feasible projects. (NEDO)

  2. MULTIDIMENSIONAL MODELING TOOL OF POTENTIAL EVALUATION OF REGION DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Олександрович ТІМОФЄЄВ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The results of Ukrainian research of western towns are proposed for evaluation of development potential of recreational tourism and the whole tourism industry. Socio-economic factors, climatic and natural factors, state and perspectives of infrastructure in the region, political and administrative stability were chosen as evaluation parameters. The conclusion was done concerning the obtained results of rating evaluation.

  3. Thermal perceptions, general adaptation methods and occupant's idea about the trade-off between thermal comfort and energy saving in hot-humid regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ruey-Lung [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91 Huseh-Shin Road, Taichung 404 (China); Cheng, Ming-Jen [Department of Architecture, Feng Chia University, 100 Wen-Hwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 407 (China); Lin, Tzu-Ping [Department of Leisure Planning, National Formosa University, 64 Wen-Hua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 632 (China); Ho, Ming-Chin [Architecture and Building Research Institute, Ministry of the Interior, 13F, No. 200, Sec. 3, Bei-sin Road, Sindian City, Taipei County 231 (China)

    2009-06-15

    A field study conducted in workplaces and residences in Taiwan is carried out to clarify two questions in detail: (1) do people in the tropical climate regions demonstrate a correlation between thermal sensation and thermal dissatisfaction the same as the PMV-PPD formula in the ISO 7730; and (2) does the difference in opportunities to choose from a variety of methods to achieve thermal comfort affects thermal perceptions of occupants? A new predicted formula of percentage of dissatisfied (PD) relating to mean thermal sensation votes (TSVs) is proposed for hot and humid regions. Besides an increase in minimum rate of dissatisfied from 5% to 9%, a shift of the TSV with minimum PD to the cool side of sensation scale is suggested by the new proposed formula. It also reveals that the limits of TSV corresponding to 80% acceptability for hot and humid regions are -1.45 and +0.65 rather than -0.85 and +0.85 suggested by ISO 7730. It is revealed in the findings that the effectiveness, availability and cost of a thermal adaptation method can affect the interviewees' thermal adaptation behaviour. According to the discussion of interviewees' idea about the trade-off between thermal comfort and energy saving, it is found that an energy-saving approach at the cost of sacrificing occupant's thermal comfort is difficult to set into action, but those ensure the occupant's comfort are more acceptable and can be easily popularized. (author)

  4. Determining the regional potential for a grass biomethane industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, Beatrice M.; Smyth, Henry; Murphy, Jerry D.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We identified assessment criteria for determining the regional potential for grass biomethane. → Grass biomethane is distributed via the natural gas grid. → The criteria include: land use; grass yields; gas grid coverage; availability of co-substrates. → The county with the highest potential can fuel 50% of cars or supply 130% of domestic gas consumption. - Abstract: Grass biogas/biomethane has been put forward as a renewable energy solution and it has been shown to perform well in terms of energy balance, greenhouse gas emissions and policy constraints. Biofuel and energy crop solutions are country-specific and grass biomethane has strong potential in countries with temperate climates and a high proportion of grassland, such as Ireland. For a grass biomethane industry to develop in a country, suitable regions (i.e. those with the highest potential) must be identified. In this paper, factors specifically related to the assessment of the potential of a grass biogas/biomethane industry are identified and analysed. The potential for grass biogas and grass biomethane is determined on a county-by-county basis using multi-criteria decision analysis. Values are assigned to each county and ratings and weightings applied to determine the overall county potential. The potential for grass biomethane with co-digestion of slaughter waste (belly grass) is also determined. The county with the highest potential (Limerick) is analysed in detail and is shown to have ready potential for production of gaseous biofuel to meet either 50% of the vehicle fleet or 130% of the domestic natural gas demand, through 25 facilities at a scale of ca. 30 kt yr -1 of feedstock. The assessment factors developed in this paper can be used in other resource studies into grass biomethane or other energy crops.

  5. GIS modelling of solar potential in Toplica region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valjarević Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigated possible potential solar area on Toplica region based on GIS (Geographical Information system and using a special kriging method with the help of open sources GIS software Quantum GIS. This kriging method is very special to vectorized and calculated the small area. The statistical approach calculated between datasets of three meteorological stations (Niš, Prokuplje, Kuršumlija. Data using of insolation from that meteorological stations from the period of (1953-2013 is useful for a solution to calculating solar potential. The also used parameter is hypsometry of relief of the whole area of Toplica region. Area of Toplica region is 2.231 km2 with a population of 90600 citizens. Divided into fourth municipalities (Prokuplje, Žitoradja, Black, Kuršumlija. The GIS modeling indicates that ideal areas for solar development are located the potential places in Toplica region. Only 13.6 km2 of the head model scores that were in the 90-100% range. However, given the statewide high insolation values with minimal variance, solar projects may be better suited for small-scale residential or commercial projects.

  6. The technical-economic potential of thermal energy saving in hospitals; El potencial tecnico-economico de ahorro de energia termica en hospitales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, A. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Islas, J [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Arriola, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The hospitals are important consumers of energy. At the General Hospital of Zone (HGZ) N of the IMSS in Aguscalientes (HGZ N . IMSS Ags.), the diesel oil is the main fuel that is used to satisfy the requirements of thermal energy of the hospital. According to the data collected by this author, this fuel represented in 2001, 75% of its total energy consumption and the 67.9% of its total costs in energy that ascended to $396.131 (December 2001 Dollars) Since this last amount represents an important percentage of the total expenses of the hospital (29.367 million dollars) it is important to determine the technical-economic possibilities of thermal energy saving of the hospital. The HGZ N 1 IMSS Ags. is located in a ampler conglomerate where the IMSS units are located, such as, the regional laundry, the sport unit, the center of social security, the familiar medicine unit N 1 and the hospital. Nevertheless departing from the installation of the electrical systems and the provision of steam and hot water to the hospital, the electrical and thermal fluids of all this facilities are distributed. Due to this situation, in this work we will refer to the global consumption of the IMSS of Aguascalientes development where the hospital is the main consumer of thermal energy. In the present work we will calculate the technical-economic potential of thermal energy saving in the development of the IMSS through the thermodynamic technique of folding point or pinch technique. [Spanish] Los hospitales son importantes consumidores de energia. En el Hospital General de Zona N del IMSS en Aguscalientes (HGZ N - IMSS Ags.), el diesel es el principal combustible que se usa para satisfacer los requerimientos de energia termica del hospital. Segun los datos obtenidos por el autor anterior, este combustible represento en 2001 el 75% de su consumo total energetico y el 67.9% de sus costos totales en energeticos que ascendieron a $396,131 (dolares de diciembre de 2001). Dado que esta ultima

  7. Russian Pharmaceutical Companies Export Potential in Emerging Regional Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vladimirovna Sapir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes a diverse range of the enterprise’s export potential growth factors in emerging pharmaceutical clusters of Central European Russia. Classification and comparative analysis were used to identify export potential attributes (production, finance, labor and marketing, which have allowed to reveal the strong connection of cluster and regional factor groups with the results of export performance. The purpose of the study is to provide exports-seeking pharmaceutical companies with a set of tools to enhance their export potential. The hypothesis that the cumulative impact of the specified attributes leads to the strengthening of pharmaceutical cluster export potential and promotes an effective integration of the region in the world economic space, is developed and tested. The methodology combines the geo-economy-based theory with the theory of clusters competitive advantages. The impacts of export potential growth factors are estimated by using an econometric model based on math statistics. Thus, five Russian regional pharmaceutical clusters (Belgorod, Kaluga, Moscow, Oryol, Yaroslavl are shown. Findings identify an objective causal link between enterprise export potential growth and competitiveness factors of cluster origin (network business chains, production functions interconnectedness and flexibility, production localization. An action plan for the purpose of the maximum use of competitive advantages of the cluster organization for export activities of the entities of the pharmaceutical industry is developed. Conclusions and recommendations of the study are intended to enterprises in pharmaceutical industry and regions’ public authorities, implementing cluster development strategies. It is thus essential to improve marketing and organizational innovations, reduction of commercial expenses under the cluster environment, development of drugs production and delivery chains from R&D to end-users in order to enjoy greater

  8. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF TOURIST POTENTIAL OF MUSEUMS OF KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Kirilicheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The article describes the tourist potential of two large museums of the Krasnodar Territory, the Krasnodar State Historical and Archaeological Museum-Reserve named after E.D. Felitsyn and Krasnodar Regional Art Museum named after F.A. Kovalenko. Much attention is paid to the classification of museums in the Krasnodar Territory. Methods. In the study were used a comparative-geographical method, a systematic approach, an analysis of statistical-mathematical materials and an analysis of the leisure profile of citizens. Findings. A comparative assessment of the potential of two large museums of the region is given. We also conducted an analysis of the survey data of the leisure profile among the townspeople in the city of Krasnodar in order to identify which of the museums is more popular. The main indicators such as the number of storage units, the total exposition and exhibition area, the number of sightseeing visits and mass events, the number of educational programs and exhibitions, the number of employees were examined and analyzed. Distinctions between museums are also noted. Conclusions. An analysis of these data showed that both museums have sufficient tourist potential to represent the city and get acquainted with the city through museums. The results of an analysis of events held in museums to attract visitors are presented. The sufficient tourist potential of two large museums for representation of the city and region is defined. The directions for their development as objects of tourism are proposed.

  9. Regional prediction of long-term landfill gas to energy potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Hamid R; Reinhart, Debra R

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) potential as a source of renewable energy is difficult due to the challenges involved in modeling landfill gas (LFG) generation. In this paper a methodology is presented to estimate LFGTE potential on a regional scale over a 25-year timeframe with consideration of modeling uncertainties. The methodology was demonstrated for the US state of Florida, as a case study, and showed that Florida could increase the annual LFGTE production by more than threefold by 2035 through installation of LFGTE facilities at all landfills. The estimated electricity production potential from Florida LFG is equivalent to removing some 70 million vehicles from highways or replacing over 800 million barrels of oil consumption during the 2010-2035 timeframe. Diverting food waste could significantly reduce fugitive LFG emissions, while having minimal effect on the LFGTE potential; whereas, achieving high diversion goals through increased recycling will result in reduced uncollected LFG and significant loss of energy production potential which may be offset by energy savings from material recovery and reuse. Estimates showed that the power density for Florida LFGTE production could reach as high as 10 Wm(-2) with optimized landfill operation and energy production practices. The environmental benefits from increased lifetime LFG collection efficiencies magnify the value of LFGTE projects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Forecasting the demand on solar water heating systems and their energy savings potential during the period 2001-2005 in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kablan, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Jordan is an example of a developing country that depends almost exclusively on imported oil. Luckily, Jordan is blessed with good solar energy resources. However, only 24% of Jordanian families are installing solar water heating systems (SWHS). The objective of this research is to forecast the yearly demand on SWHS by the household sector during the period 2001-2005 and to compute the potential energy savings throughout the investigated period due to the use of SWHS. It is found that the net energy collected over the entire investigated period is about 1454.4 million kW h. In addition, the capital savings over the entire investigated period is estimated to be 46.28 million US$ if SWHS are used to heat water instead of the commonly used LPG gas cookers. The results of the research may assist decision makers in the energy sector to implement more comprehensive plans that encourage more families to install SWHS and save on imported oil

  11. Cost-of-illness analysis reveals potential healthcare savings with reductions in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease following recommended intakes of dietary fibre in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eAbdullah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of fibre-rich diets is associated with favourable impacts on type 2 diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD, two of the most costly ailments worldwide, however the economic value of altered fibre intakes remains poorly understood. Methods: A cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to identify the percentage of adults expected to consume fibre-rich diets in Canada, estimate fibre intakes in relation to T2D and CVD reductions, and assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs with reductions in rates of these two epidemics. Results: Non-trivial healthcare and related savings of CAD$35.9-$718.8 million in T2D costs and CAD$64.8-$1,295.7 million in CVD costs were calculated under a scenario where cereal fibre was used to increase current intakes of dietary fibre to the recommended levels of 38 g per day for men and 25 g per day for women. Each 1 g per day increase in fibre consumption resulted in annual CAD$2.6-$51.1 and $4.6-$92.1 million savings for T2D and CVD, respectively. Conclusions: Strategies to increase consumers’ knowledge of the recommended dietary fibre intakes, as part of healthy diet, and to facilitate stakeholder synergy are warranted to enable better management of costs associated with T2D and CVD in Canada.

  12. The potential of the Kakadu National Park Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    The Committee reviewed the potential of the Kakadu National Park region in the Northern Territory with particular reference to the nature of the resources available for exploitation and the impact of utilisation of these resources, particularly mining and tourism. Individual chapters discuss the Park, tourism, mineral resources (particularly the environmental and economic impacts of the Ranger Uranium Mine and the potential impacts of mining the Koongarra and Jabiluka deposits), the town of Jabiru, commercial fishing, other issues (the scientific resource, crocodiles, introduced species and fire), and park management and control (including a review of the role of the Office of the Supervising Scientist for the Alligator Rivers Region). A number of recommendations are made and the dissenting report of three of the Committee's members is included

  13. AN ANALYSIS OF THE ENTREPRENEURIAL POTENTIAL IN OLTENIA TOURIST REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Cosmin BĂLOI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism can bring an attractive horizon for Romania: the projects can generate jobs, cooperation between the touristic destinations, the increase of living standards and local people revenues. This paper treats an issue of tourist business administration and seeks to assess the actual potential of tourist resources and determining the differences between the Oltenia's actual touristic exploitation and their growth potential. We develop a model of evaluate the tourist resources, the industry efficiency and also their attractiveness for entrepreneurial initiatives. Their quantification can be statistically correlated leading to a rethinking of models that shape the parameters of regional competitiveness. The synthetic and the graphic tools highlights the most important features of the competitiveness of tourism for the region of Oltenia.

  14. Reevaluation of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria for Potential Cost Savings at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13598

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, J.W. [Savannah River Remediation (United States); Marra, S.L.; Herman, C.C. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form. (authors)

  15. Reevaluation Of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria For Potential Cost Savings At The Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, J. W.; Marra, S. L.; Herman, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form

  16. Active tectonics and earthquake potential of the Myanmar region

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu; Sieh, Kerry; Tun, Soe Thura; Lai, Kuang-Yin; Myint, Than

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes geomorphologic evidence for the principal neotectonic features of Myanmar and its immediate surroundings. We combine this evidence with published structural, geodetic, and seismic data to present an overview of the active tectonic architecture of the region and its seismic potential. Three tectonic systems accommodate oblique collision of the Indian plate with Southeast Asia and extrusion of Asian territory around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalayan mountain range. Subd...

  17. Long term energy demand projection and potential for energy savings of Croatian tourism–catering trade sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irsag, Bojan; Pukšec, Tomislav; Duić, Neven

    2012-01-01

    Today, tourism represents one of the backbones of Croatian economy and one of the main factors of its growth. Combined with catering trade sector, tourism represents a significant energy consumer that has the tendencies of future growth. Since services sector, which tourism–catering trade sector is a part of, is not yet well described regarding future energy balances it would be very interesting to see how could possible future growth in tourism influence energy consumption of the services sector in Croatia. Through this paper long term energy demand projections of tourism–catering trade sector were studied with special emphasis on future growth of tourism in Croatia as well as different mechanisms that might lead to certain energy savings. Bottom-up approach was chosen as the most suitable one since it allows better quantification of different measures, technological or legal, that would influence future energy demand. Downside of this approach is extensive input data that is required to analyse and model future energy demand which is roughly divided into heating/cooling section and all other consumption. Results show that additional energy savings in the tourism–catering trade sector are possible if careful and rational demand side planning is in place. -- Highlights: ► Future energy demand of Croatian touristm–catering trade sector has been modelled. ► Model is roughly divided into two basic modes (heating/cooling and all other consumption). ► Different factors influencing future energy demand were implemented into the model. ► Possibilities for energy efficiency improvements have been presented.

  18. In-office diagnostic arthroscopy for knee and shoulder intra-articular injuries its potential impact on cost savings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this analysis was to determine whether in office diagnostic needle arthroscopy (Visionscope Imaging System [VSI]) can provide for improved diagnostic assessment and; more cost effective care. Methods Data on arthroscopy procedures in the US for deep seated pathology in the knee and shoulder were used (Calendar Year 2012). These procedures represent approximately 25-30% of all arthroscopic procedures performed annually. Sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive, and negative predictive values for MRI analysis of this deep seated pathology from systematic reviews and meta-analyses were used in assessing for false positive and false negative MRI findings. The costs of performing diagnostic and surgical arthroscopy procedures (using 2013 Medicare reimbursement amounts); costs associated with false negative findings; and the costs for treating associated complications arising from diagnostic and therapeutic arthroscopy procedures were then assessed. Results In patients presenting with medial meniscal pathology (ICD9CM diagnosis 836.0 over 540,000 procedures in CY 2012); use of the VSI system in place of MRI assessment (standard of care) resulted in a net cost savings to the system of $151 million. In patients presenting with rotator cuff pathology (ICD9CM 840.4 over 165,000 procedures in CY2012); use of VSI in place of MRI similarly saved $59 million. These savings were realized along with more appropriate care as; fewer patients were exposed to higher risk surgical arthroscopic procedures. Conclusions The use of an in-office arthroscopy system can: possibly save the US healthcare system money; shorten the diagnostic odyssey for patients; potentially better prepare clinicians for arthroscopic surgery (when needed) and; eliminate unnecessary outpatient arthroscopy procedures, which commonly result in surgical intervention. PMID:24885678

  19. Regional Entrepreneurship System: Development Parameters and Potential of Reconfiguration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Zinovyevna Solodilova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the development of entrepreneurship in the Russian regions. Firstly, the state of both Russian entrepreneurship, in general, and small and medium-sized business in particular is not satisfactory. Secondly, the measures implemented by the state in the field of entrepreneurship development are not sufficiently effective. To the authors’ opinion, these two facts are due, among other things, to a lack of a holistic understanding of what constitutes an institution of entrepreneurship in a spatial context. The authors propose to consider the development of regional entrepreneurship using the system approach with the scope to the regional business system. Within the proposed authors’ approach, resources, economic agents and institutions are considered as the main elements of this system. The authors substantiate that there are institutional configurations, and not simple institutions, which determine the parameters of interaction between the elements of the regional enterprise system. These elements can contribute to the enterprise processes in the territory or block them. We assume that even a region with an essential resource of business potential is not able to realize it completely until it develops an effective institutional configuration of the regional business system. In order to investigate certain parameters of the institutional configuration of the regional business system, we propose a methodology for assessing the institutional loyalty of business entities and testing this technique on the example of eighty-four constituent entities of the Russian Federation. We have concluded that, in a large part of the Russian regions, a successful implementation of strategy for the development of small and medium-sized businesses will require the transformation of the regional enterprise system on the basis of reengineering. It involves a radical redesigning the entire system, ensuring the entrepreneurial processes in a

  20. Regional energy autarky: Potentials, costs and consequences for an Austrian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.; Schönhart, M.; Biberacher, M.; Guggenberger, T.; Hausl, S.; Kalt, G.; Leduc, S.; Schardinger, I.; Schmid, E.

    2012-01-01

    Local actors at community level often thrive for energy autarky to decrease the dependence on imported energy resources. We assess the potentials and trade-offs between benefits and costs of increasing levels of energy autarky for a small rural region of around 21,000 inhabitants in Austria. We use a novel modeling approach which couples a regional energy system model with a regional land use optimization model. We have collected and processed data on the spatial distribution of energy demand and potentials of biomass, photovoltaics and solar thermal resources. The impacts of increasing biomass production on the agricultural sector are assessed with a land-use optimization model that allows deriving regional biomass supply curves. An energy system model is subsequently applied to find the least cost solution for supplying the region with energy resources. Model results indicate that fossil fuel use for heating can be replaced at low costs by increasing forestry and agricultural biomass production. However, autarky in the electricity and the heating sector would significantly increase biomass production and require a full use of the potentials of photovoltaics on roof tops. Attaining energy autarky implies high costs to consumers and a decline in the local production of food and feed. - Highlights: ► Energy autarky strong vision for many regional actors. ► Assessment of consequences of energy autarky for a rural region in Austria. ► Novel modeling approach coupling energy system model with land use model. ► Power and heat autarky causes high costs and decline in regional food and feed production. ► Heat autarky achievable at lower costs by utilizing regional forestry and agricultural biomass.

  1. Numerical investigation of the energy saving potential of a semi-transparent photovoltaic double-skin facade in a cool-summer Mediterranean climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Jinqing; Curcija, Dragan C.; Lu, Lin; Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Yang, Hongxing; Zhang, Weilong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive simulation model has been developed to predict the overall energy performance of PV-DSF. • Sensitivity analyses of air gap depths were conducted and the optimal air gap depth was identified. • The overall energy performance and energy saving potential of the PV-DSF was evaluated. • A comparative study was conducted between the PV-DSF and other commonly used window technologies. - Abstract: This paper presents the annual overall energy performance and energy-saving potential of a ventilated photovoltaic double-skin facade (PV-DSF) in a cool-summer Mediterranean climate zone. A numerical simulation model based on EnergyPlus was utilized to simulate the PV-DSF overall energy performance, simultaneously taking into account thermal power and daylight. Based on numerical model, sensitivity analyses about air gap width and ventilation modes have been lead in Berkeley (California) with the aim to optimize unit’s structure design and operational strategy of PV-DSF. Via simulation, the overall energy performance including thermal, power and daylighting of the optimized PV-DSF was evaluated using the typical meteorological year (TMY) weather data. It was found that per unit area of the proposed PV-DSF was able to generate about 65 kW h electricity yearly. If high efficiency cadmium telluride (CdTe) semi-transparent PV modules are adopted, the annual energy output could be even doubled. The PV-DSF studied, also featured good thermal and daylighting performances. The PV-DSF can effectively block solar radiation while still providing considerable daylighting illuminance. Due simply to excellent overall energy performance, a PV-DSF at Berkeley can reduce net electricity use by about 50% compared with other commonly used glazing systems. Efficiency improvements of semi-transparent PV modules would further increase the energy saving potential of a PV-DSF and thus making this technology more promising.

  2. Geological study for identifying potential aquifer zone in Pakes and Bandung Villages, Konang District, Bangkalan Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I Gde Sukadana

    2010-01-01

    Konang District has a problem on fresh water supply particularly in dry season. Two villages in the district, namely Pakes and Konang, are densely populated areas having agriculture activities, so available of sufficient fresh water is necessary. A fresh water source that can be developed in this area is deep groundwater source from potential aquifers. A geological study has been conducted to identify potential aquifer based on lithological aspect and geological structure. According to the regional stratigraphy. the study area consists of Tawun Formation and Ngrayong Formation. They compose of carbonaceous clay stone (the oldest rock unit), carbonaceous clay stone with sandy limestone intercalations, sandy limestone interbed with carbonaceous clay stone, tuff sandstone with clay stone intercalations, and reef limestone (the youngest) respectively. Strike and dip positions of the rocks layers are N110°E/22° - N150°E/26°, located on the south anticline axis with wavy plan to gentle slope of hilly morphology. Among the rock unit, only sandy limestone has fine sand with sub angular in shape and open pack. Qualitatively. this rock has good porosity and permeability and is enables to save and to flow subsurface water. Thus. the sandy limestone is considered as a potential zone for fresh water resources. Whereas, carbonaceous clay stone with clay grain size has low porosity and permeability, so it is potential as a cap rock. (author)

  3. Cost-of-illness analysis reveals potential healthcare savings with reductions in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease following recommended intakes of dietary fiber in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohammad M. H.; Gyles, Collin L.; Marinangeli, Christopher P. F.; Carlberg, Jared G.; Jones, Peter J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are leading causes of mortality and two of the most costly diet-related ailments worldwide. Consumption of fiber-rich diets has been repeatedly associated with favorable impacts on these co-epidemics, however, the healthcare cost-related economic value of altered dietary fiber intakes remains poorly understood. In this study, we estimated the annual cost savings accruing to the Canadian healthcare system in association with reductions in T2D and CVD rates, separately, following increased intakes of dietary fiber by adults. Methods: A three-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to identify the percentage of individuals expected to consume fiber-rich diets in Canada, estimate increased fiber intakes in relation to T2D and CVD reduction rates, and independently assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs associated with the reductions in rates of these two epidemics. The economic model employed a sensitivity analysis of four scenarios (universal, optimistic, pessimistic, and very pessimistic) to cover a range of assumptions within each step. Results: Non-trivial healthcare and related savings of CAD$35.9-$718.8 million in T2D costs and CAD$64.8 million–$1.3 billion in CVD costs were calculated under a scenario where cereal fiber was used to increase current intakes of dietary fiber to the recommended levels of 38 g per day for men and 25 g per day for women. Each 1 g per day increase in fiber consumption resulted in annual CAD$2.6 to $51.1 million savings for T2D and $4.6 to $92.1 million savings for CVD. Conclusion: Findings of this analysis shed light on the economic value of optimal dietary fiber intakes. Strategies to increase consumers’ general knowledge of the recommended intakes of dietary fiber, as part of healthy diet, and to facilitate stakeholder synergy are warranted to enable better management of healthcare and related costs associated with T2D and CVD in Canada. PMID

  4. Medical Care Expenditures for Individuals with Prediabetes: The Potential Cost Savings in Reducing the Risk of Developing Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tamkeen; Tsipas, Stavros; Wozniak, Gregory

    2017-10-01

    The United States has 86 million adults with prediabetes. Individuals with prediabetes can prevent or delay the development of type 2 diabetes through lifestyle modifications such as participation in the National Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), thereby mitigating the medical and economic burdens associated with diabetes. A cohort analysis of a commercially insured population was conducted using individual-level claims data from Truven Health MarketScan ® Lab Database to identify adults with prediabetes, track whether they develop diabetes, and compare medical expenditures for those who are newly diagnosed with diabetes to those who are not. This study then illustrates how reducing the risk of developing diabetes by participation in an evidence-based lifestyle change program could yield both positive net savings on medical care expenditures and return on investment (ROI). Annual expenditures are found to be nearly one third higher for those who develop diabetes in subsequent years relative to those who do not transition from prediabetes to diabetes, with an average difference of $2671 per year. At that cost differential, the 3-year ROI for a National DPP is estimated to be as high as 42%. The results show the importance and economic benefits of participation in lifestyle intervention programs to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes.

  5. Calculation of direct antiretroviral treatment costs and potential cost savings by using generics in the German HIV ClinSurv cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Stoll

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND/AIM OF THE STUDY: The study aimed to determine the cost impacts of antiretroviral drugs by analysing a long-term follow-up of direct costs for combined antiretroviral therapy, cART, -regimens in the nationwide long-term observational multi-centre German HIV ClinSurv Cohort. The second aim was to develop potential cost saving strategies by modelling different treatment scenarios. METHODS: Antiretroviral regimens (ART from 10,190 HIV-infected patients from 11 participating ClinSurv study centres have been investigated since 1996. Biannual data cART-initiation, cART-changes, surrogate markers, clinical events and the Centre of Disease Control- (CDC-stage of HIV disease are reported. Treatment duration was calculated on a daily basis via the documented dates for the beginning and end of each antiretroviral drug treatment. Prices were calculated for each individual regimen based on actual office sales prices of the branded pharmaceuticals distributed by the license holder including German taxes. RESULTS: During the 13-year follow-up period, 21,387,427 treatment days were covered. Cumulative direct costs for antiretroviral drugs of €812,877,356 were determined according to an average of €42.08 per day (€7.52 to € 217.70. Since cART is widely used in Germany, the costs for an entire regimen increased by 13.5%. Regimens are more expensive in the advanced stages of HIV disease. The potential for cost savings was calculated using non-nucleotide-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor, NNRTI, more frequently instead of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor, PI/r, in first line therapy. This calculation revealed cumulative savings of 10.9% to 19.8% of daily treatment costs (50% and 90% substitution of PI/r, respectively. Substituting certain branded drugs by generic drugs showed potential cost savings of between 1.6% and 31.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the data of this nationwide study reflects disease-specific health services research

  6. Calculation of direct antiretroviral treatment costs and potential cost savings by using generics in the German HIV ClinSurv cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Matthias; Kollan, Christian; Bergmann, Frank; Bogner, Johannes; Faetkenheuer, Gerd; Fritzsche, Carlos; Hoeper, Kirsten; Horst, Heinz-August; van Lunzen, Jan; Plettenberg, Andreas; Reuter, Stefan; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Stellbrink, Hans-Jürgen; Hamouda, Osamah; Bartmeyer, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM OF THE STUDY: The study aimed to determine the cost impacts of antiretroviral drugs by analysing a long-term follow-up of direct costs for combined antiretroviral therapy, cART, -regimens in the nationwide long-term observational multi-centre German HIV ClinSurv Cohort. The second aim was to develop potential cost saving strategies by modelling different treatment scenarios. Antiretroviral regimens (ART) from 10,190 HIV-infected patients from 11 participating ClinSurv study centres have been investigated since 1996. Biannual data cART-initiation, cART-changes, surrogate markers, clinical events and the Centre of Disease Control- (CDC)-stage of HIV disease are reported. Treatment duration was calculated on a daily basis via the documented dates for the beginning and end of each antiretroviral drug treatment. Prices were calculated for each individual regimen based on actual office sales prices of the branded pharmaceuticals distributed by the license holder including German taxes. During the 13-year follow-up period, 21,387,427 treatment days were covered. Cumulative direct costs for antiretroviral drugs of €812,877,356 were determined according to an average of €42.08 per day (€7.52 to € 217.70). Since cART is widely used in Germany, the costs for an entire regimen increased by 13.5%. Regimens are more expensive in the advanced stages of HIV disease. The potential for cost savings was calculated using non-nucleotide-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor, NNRTI, more frequently instead of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor, PI/r, in first line therapy. This calculation revealed cumulative savings of 10.9% to 19.8% of daily treatment costs (50% and 90% substitution of PI/r, respectively). Substituting certain branded drugs by generic drugs showed potential cost savings of between 1.6% and 31.8%. Analysis of the data of this nationwide study reflects disease-specific health services research and will give insights into the cost impacts of

  7. Active tectonics and earthquake potential of the Myanmar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Sieh, Kerry; Tun, Soe Thura; Lai, Kuang-Yin; Myint, Than

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes geomorphologic evidence for the principal neotectonic features of Myanmar and its immediate surroundings. We combine this evidence with published structural, geodetic, and seismic data to present an overview of the active tectonic architecture of the region and its seismic potential. Three tectonic systems accommodate oblique collision of the Indian plate with Southeast Asia and extrusion of Asian territory around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalayan mountain range. Subduction and collision associated with the Sunda megathrust beneath and within the Indoburman range and Naga Hills accommodate most of the shortening across the transpressional plate boundary. The Sagaing fault system is the predominant locus of dextral motion associated with the northward translation of India. Left-lateral faults of the northern Shan Plateau, northern Laos, Thailand, and southern China facilitate extrusion of rocks around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalaya. All of these systems have produced major earthquakes within recorded history and continue to present major seismic hazards in the region.

  8. A study of algal biomass potential in selected Canadian regions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard David; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-11-01

    A dynamic assessment model has been developed for evaluating the potential algal biomass and extracted biocrude productivity and costs, using nutrient and water resources available from waste streams in four regions of Canada (western British Columbia, Alberta oil fields, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia). The purpose of this model is to help identify optimal locations in Canada for algae cultivation and biofuel production. The model uses spatially referenced data across the four regions for nitrogen and phosphorous loads in municipal wastewaters, and CO{sub 2} in exhaust streams from a variety of large industrial sources. Other data inputs include land cover, and solar insolation. Model users can develop estimates of resource potential by manipulating model assumptions in a graphic user interface, and updated results are viewed in real time. Resource potential by location can be viewed in terms of biomass production potential, potential CO{sub 2} fixed, biocrude production potential, and area required. The cost of producing algal biomass can be estimated using an approximation of the distance to move CO{sub 2} and water to the desired land parcel and an estimation of capital and operating costs for a theoretical open pond facility. Preliminary results suggest that in most cases, the CO{sub 2} resource is plentiful compared to other necessary nutrients (especially nitrogen), and that siting and prospects for successful large-scale algae cultivation efforts in Canada will be driven by availability of those other nutrients and the efficiency with which they can be used and re-used. Cost curves based on optimal possible siting of an open pond system are shown. The cost of energy for maintaining optimal growth temperatures is not considered in this effort, and additional research in this area, which has not been well studied at these latitudes, will be important in refining the costs of algal biomass production. The model will be used by NRC-IMB Canada to identify

  9. Saving behaviour and determinants of saving mobilization by rural financial co-operators in Tigrai Region, Ethiopia Zachowanie oszczędnościowe i wyznaczniki mobilizacji oszczędnościowej na przykładzie spółdzielców finansowych na terenach wiejskich w regionie Tigrai w Etiopii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebhatu Kifle Tesfamariam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper identified and examined saving behaviour and determinants of saving mobiliza-tion by the rural co-operators in Southern Tigrai Ethiopia. The input for the study was ob-tained from randomly selected 120 rural household savers from six purposively selected ru-ral savings and credit cooperatives. The result of the study using least squares method showed that savings mobilized is determined by household annual income, amount of loan borrowed and year of member stay in the cooperative. These factors therefore have to be considered in designing strategies aimed at improving the saving mobilization of coopera-tive members in the study area. Besides, economically feasible cooperative societies in the region should be encouraged among the rural households by supporting them with revolv-ing funds as they are more effective and efficient in mobilizing rural savings and provide collateral plus guarantor-based loans with low default rate. This will enable them to boost up their production output and increase their savings thereby stimulating the rural economy.

  10. Scenario analysis of energy saving and CO_2 emissions reduction potentials to ratchet up Japanese mitigation target in 2030 in the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakiyama, Takako; Kuramochi, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses to what extent CO_2 emissions from electricity in the residential sector can be further reduced in Japan beyond its post-2020 mitigation target (known as “Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC)”). The paper examines the reduction potential of electricity demand and CO_2 emissions in the residential sector by conducting a scenario analysis. Electricity consumption scenarios are set up using a time-series regression model, and used to forecast the electricity consumption patterns to 2030. The scenario analysis also includes scenarios that reduce electricity consumption through enhanced energy efficiency and energy saving measures. The obtained results show that Japan can reduce electricity consumption and CO_2 emissions in the residential sector in 2030 more than the Japanese post-2020 mitigation target indicates. At the maximum, the electricity consumption could be reduced by 35 TWh, which contributes to 55.4 MtCO_2 of emissions reduction in 2030 compared to 2013 if the voluntarily targeted CO_2 intensity of electricity is achieved. The result implies that Japan has the potential to ratchet up post-2020 mitigation targets discussed under the Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). - Highlights: • Further reduction of electricity consumption is possible beyond Japan's post-2020 mitigation target. • Energy saving efforts by households and incentives to reduce electricity demands are required. • Improvement of CO_2 intensity from electricity is a key factor in the reduction of CO_2 emissions.

  11. Measuring the inward FDI potential of South African regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Krugell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to construct an index that captures the factors expected to affect a local economy's attractiveness to foreign investors. Problem statement: Following South Africa's reintegration into the world economy in 1994, foreign direct investment has been seen as a potential driver of growth and development. Concerns about the low investment rate in South Africa raise the possibility of augmenting domestic with foreign investment expenditure. The potential of technology spillovers and skills transfer from foreign direct investment have also been emphasised. As a result, Trade and Investment South Africa is involved in identifying, packaging and promoting investment opportunities. However, investments tend to be place-specific and this has lead to the decentralisation of foreign direct investment promotion. Currently the nine provincial development agencies are competing to attract investors and the larger local governments are also getting involved in the fray. This paper argues that some places have better potential to attract foreign investment than others. A first step to use scarce investment promotion resources more efficiently would be to measure the inward FDI potential of South African regions. Approach: This paper uses principal components analysis to construct an index that captures the factors expected to affect a local economy's attractiveness to foreign investors. This approach draws on UNCTAD's Inward FDI Potential Index and applies it to 354 magisterial districts in South Africa for the periods 1996, 2001 and 2006. The index creates a summary measure of FDI potential. Findings: The results show that different places present differential potential in urbanization and localization economies and market size. The high-potential locations are typically found in or around the major agglomerations, but there are a few smaller places on the periphery that offer FDI potential. Contribution: The index should aid

  12. Hydrocarbon potential of Ordovician and Silurian rocks. Siljan Region (Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Lehnert, O. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany); Meinhold, G. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration in the vicinity of Europe's largest impact structure (Siljan, Central Sweden) focused for years on abiogenic concepts and largely neglected state of the art knowledge on hydrocarbon generation via thermal decomposition of organic matter. In our study we use sedimentary rocks obtained from three drill sites (Mora001, Stumsnaes 1 and Solberga 1) within the ring structure around the central uplift to investigate the hydrocarbon potential of Ordovician and Silurian strata of the region and also for comparison with the shale oil and gas potential of age equivalent rocks of the Baltic Sea. Elemental analyses provided information on concentrations of carbonate and organic carbon, total sulfur as well as on the composition of major and minor elements of the sediments. The data has been used to evaluate the depositional environment and possible diagenetic alterations of the organic matter. RockEval pyrolysis and solvent hydrocarbon extraction gave insight into the hydrocarbon generation potential and the type and thermal maturity of the sediments. From the geochemistry data of the studied wells it is obvious that changes of depositional environments (lacustrine - marine) have occurred during Ordovician and Silurian times. Although, the quality of the organic matter has been influenced in marine and brackish environments through sulfate reduction, we observe for a number of marine and lacustrine sediments a good to excellent preservation of the biological precursors which qualify the sediments as hydrocarbon source rocks (Type II kerogens). Lacustrine source rocks show a higher remaining hydrocarbon potential (up to {proportional_to}550 mg HC per g C{sub org}) than those of marine or brackish environments. Our investigations indicate that the thermal maturity of organic matter of the drill sites has reached the initial stage of oil generation. However, at Mora001 some of the sediments were stained with oil indicating that hydrocarbons have

  13. Potential of Agricultural Biomass: Comparative Review of Selected EU Regions and Region of Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odavić Petrana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the fact that the EU is committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20% below 1990 levels by 2020, and having in mind their high dependence on import of oil and oil derivatives, which, in turn, causes instability of power supply, increasing attention is being paid to renewable energy sources. Given the ongoing pre-accession process of the Republic of Serbia in relation to the EU, in order to determine the capacity of the country to increase the share of energy use from renewable sources, in this paper clustering of selected regions in the EU-28 has been carried out, after which a comparative analysis of regions was performed in terms of potential of agricultural biomass, for the purpose of generating energy. The aim of this study is to determine the level of the region of Vojvodina in relation to ten selected EU regions, based on parameters that affect the potential for using renewable energy sources, primarily residues from agriculture. By applying the K-means method, Borda count method and comparative analysis, and based on empirical data, results show that the region of Vojvodina takes a significant fifth place. Its share of agricultural land ranks it as the first, whereas production of cereals and the total number of farms larger than 100 ha rank it as the second. It could be concluded that Vojvodina is an agricultural region with large quantities of plant remains, primarily those left over from harvest, which represents a significant potential for energy generation from agricultural biomass.

  14. Regional Landslide Hazard Assessment Considering Potential Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, S.; Holcombe, E.; Pianosi, F.; Wagener, T.

    2016-12-01

    Landslides have many negative economic and societal impacts, including the potential for significant loss of life and damage to infrastructure. These risks are likely to be exacerbated in the future by a combination of climatic and socio-economic factors. Climate change, for example, is expected to increase the occurrence of rainfall-triggered landslides, because a warmer atmosphere tends to produce more high intensity rainfall events. Prediction of future changes in rainfall, however, is subject to high levels of uncertainty, making it challenging for decision-makers to identify the areas and populations that are most vulnerable to landslide hazards. In this study, we demonstrate how a physically-based model - the Combined Hydrology and Stability Model (CHASM) - can be used together with Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) to explore the underlying factors controlling the spatial distribution of landslide risks across a regional landscape, while also accounting for deep uncertainty around potential future rainfall triggers. We demonstrate how GSA can be used to analyse CHASM which in turn represents the spatial variability of hillslope characteristics in the study region, while accounting for other uncertainties. Results are presented in the form of landslide hazard maps, utilising high-resolution digital elevation datasets for a case study in St Lucia in the Caribbean. Our findings about spatial landslide hazard drivers have important implications for data collection approaches and for long-term decision-making about land management practices.

  15. Green jobs in tourism: The potential of the Savinja region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvikl Darija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Green jobs are considered to be the jobs of the future due to their substantial contribution to preserving or restoring the quality of the environment. These jobs imply protection of ecosystems and conservation of biodiversity since they facilitate reduction of waste and pollution. Among the existing natural resources of the Savinja Region, there are huge potentials for the new green jobs around the sites such as thermal springs and forests as natural habitats since the fertile soil provides opportunities for organic farming as well as the use of solar, water and wind energy for generating power from renewable natural resources. The principles of sustainable tourism development in the Republic of Slovenia dictating the principles of 'green, active and healthy' are 100% compatible with the exploitation of natural resources for tourism purposes. Sustainable tourism in the Savinja Region will yield the best possible results only if synergies are achieved in the interaction, in establishing and exploiting leverage to create green jobs, organic farming as well as the offer of the local cultural heritage. The Savinja Region has recognized this opportunity, but it is necessary to put in a lot of work in the first phase at raising awareness of individuals, households and businesses, whereas in the second, the efforts should be made towards the implementation and standardization of green jobs in practice.

  16. A retrospective analysis of the duration of oral antibiotic therapy for the treatment of acne among adolescents: investigating practice gaps and potential cost-savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young H; Liu, Guodong; Thiboutot, Diane M; Leslie, Douglas L; Kirby, Joslyn S

    2014-07-01

    Duration of oral antibiotic therapy in acne has not been widely studied. Recent guidelines suggest it should be limited to 3 to 6 months. We sought to compare the duration of oral antibiotic use with recent guidelines and determine the potential cost-savings related to shortened durations. This is a retrospective cohort study from the MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database. Claims data were used to determine duration and costs of antibiotic therapy. The mean course duration was 129 days. The majority (93%) of courses were less than 9 months. Among the 31,634 courses, 18,280 (57.8%) did not include concomitant topical retinoid therapy. The mean (95% confidence interval) duration with and without topical retinoid use was 133 (131.5-134.7) days and 127 (125.4-127.9) days, respectively. The mean excess direct cost of antibiotic treatment for longer than 6 months was $580.99/person. Claims cannot be attributed to a specific diagnosis or provider. The database does not provide information on acne severity. Duration of antibiotic use is decreasing when compared with previous data. However, 5547 (17.53%) courses exceeded 6 months, highlighting an opportunity for reduced antibiotic use. If courses greater than 6 months were shortened to 6 months, savings would be $580.99/person. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential cost savings by minimisation of blood sample delays on care decision making in urgent care services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M.S. Bodansky

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Sample rejection rate is high and is associated with increased in-hospital stay and cost. Blood sampling technique impacts on rejection rates. Reduction in sample rejection rates in emergency care areas in acute hospitals has the potential to impact on patient flow and reduce cost.

  18. Potential of soil liquefaction at Perlis, northern region of Malalysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaly, Zuhayr Md; Rahim, Mustaqqim Abdul; Nasir, Mohamad Amzar Bin Mhd; Isa, Nur Fitriah; Zaki, Mohd Faiz Mohammad; Hassan, Zulkarnain Bin; Ismail, Zul-Atfi Bin

    2017-09-01

    Soil liquefaction is earthquake's secondary effect which could cause fatal damages and structures instability. Despite Malaysia been located in stable zone of Pacific Ring of Fire, few significant surrounded quakes like Sumatra-Andaman earthquake had prompted Malaysian's public concern, especially in Perlis area, on local seismic resistant. Hence, this research presents the analysis result of liquefaction potential of the soils, as the secondary effect of earthquake, within Perlis, northern region of Malaysia; the next strong and sustainable metropolis by using semi-empirical procedures introduced by Seed and Idriss. The study consists of two stages which were determination of the local geological and geotechnical site conditions within Perlis and analysis of soil liquefaction susceptibility by using various methods and liquefaction potential by using Simplified Procedure developed by Seed and Idriss on stress approach. There were consist of four phases implemented in order to achieve the objectives targeted for the study after problem being identified. Firstly, a comprehensive review of literature on liquefaction at Perlis was carried out. Second phase was data collection process that includes collection of Site Investigation (SI) report. Thirdly, data analysis was carried out by utilizing suitable method. The final phase was to draw conclusion and recommendation for this study. It can be concluded that the overall Perlis due to earthquake moment magnitude below 7.5 has no potential to soil liquefaction. However, with the range of liquefaction potential of 1.60 to 5.64 in Kuala Perlis area, it is liquefiable. The development of liquefaction severity map of Perlis, Malaysia in this research, may be used by others as a reference for seismic design and standard safety measures as well as for further research work.

  19. Using learning curves on energy-efficient technologies to estimate future energy savings and emission reduction potentials in the U.S. iron and steel industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karali, Nihan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-18

    Increasing concerns on non-sustainable energy use and climate change spur a growing research interest in energy efficiency potentials in various critical areas such as industrial production. This paper focuses on learning curve aspects of energy efficiency measures in the U.S iron and steel sector. A number of early-stage efficient technologies (i.e., emerging or demonstration technologies) are technically feasible and have the potential to make a significant contribution to energy saving and CO2 emissions reduction, but fall short economically to be included. However, they may also have the cost effective potential for significant cost reduction and/or performance improvement in the future under learning effects such as ‘learning-by-doing’. The investigation is carried out using ISEEM, a technology oriented, linear optimization model. We investigated how steel demand is balanced with/without the availability learning curve, compared to a Reference scenario. The retrofit (or investment in some cases) costs of energy efficient technologies decline in the scenario where learning curve is applied. The analysis also addresses market penetration of energy efficient technologies, energy saving, and CO2 emissions in the U.S. iron and steel sector with/without learning impact. Accordingly, the study helps those who use energy models better manage the price barriers preventing unrealistic diffusion of energy-efficiency technologies, better understand the market and learning system involved, predict future achievable learning rates more accurately, and project future savings via energy-efficiency technologies with presence of learning. We conclude from our analysis that, most of the existing energy efficiency technologies that are currently used in the U.S. iron and steel sector are cost effective. Penetration levels increases through the years, even though there is no price reduction. However, demonstration technologies are not economically

  20. Federal Aviation Administration retained savings program proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostick, D.J.; Larson, L.L.; Hostick, C.J.

    1998-03-01

    Federal legislation allows federal agencies to retain up to 50% of the savings associated with implementing energy efficiency and water conservation measures and practices. Given budget pressures to reduce expenditures, the use of retained savings to fund additional projects represents a source of funds outside of the traditional budget cycle. The Southwest Region Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a model retained savings program for Southwest Region FAA use and as a prototype for consideration by the FAA. PNNL recommends the following steps be taken in developing a Southwest Region FAA retained savings program: Establish a retained savings mechanism. Determine the level at which the retained savings should be consolidated into a fund. The preliminary recommendation is to establish a revolving efficiency loan fund at the regional level. Such a mechanism allows some consolidation of savings to fund larger projects, while maintaining a sense of facility ownership in that the funds will remain within the region

  1. A technical analysis for cogeneration systems with potential applications in twelve California industrial plants. [energy saving heat-electricity utility systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, V. C.; Davis, H. S.; Slonski, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    In a study sponsored by the State of California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, 12 industrial plants in five utility districts were surveyed to assess the potential applications of the cogeneration of heat and electricity in California industry. Thermodynamic calculations were made for each plant in determining the energy required to meet the existing electrical and steam demands. The present systems were then compared to conceptual cogeneration systems specified for each plant. Overall energy savings were determined for the cogeneration applications. Steam and gas turbine topping cycle systems were considered as well as bottoming cycle systems. Types of industries studied were: pulp and paper, timber, cement, petroleum refining, enhanced oil recovery, foods processing, steel and glass

  2. Adding value while saving dollars: unleashing the potential of a national, integrated approach to home and community care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petch, Teresa; Shamian, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This commentary by Victorian Order of Nurses Canada, written in response to "Getting What We Pay For? The Value-for-Money Challenge," by McGrail, Zierler and Ip, answers four key questions about Canada's home and community care sector: (1) What are our objectives? (2) Where do we achieve good value now? (3) Where and why are we failing? and (4) What will help us do better? We conclude that although the home and community care sector offers great promise in meeting the evolving health and social needs of Canadians, it is not living up to its potential. We propose the development of a national, integrated approach to home and community care to help Canadians remain healthy and independent in their homes. This would represent a wise financial investment for governments and would contribute to the long-term health of Canadians.

  3. Burgundy regional climate change and its potential impact on grapevines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yiwen [University of Burgundy, Center for Climate Research, UMR 5210 CNRS, Dijon (France); G.C. Rieber Climate Institute at the Nansen Environment and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway); Castel, Thierry [University of Burgundy, Center for Climate Research, UMR 5210 CNRS, Dijon (France); AgroSup, Department of Agriculture and Environment, Dijon (France); Richard, Yves; Cuccia, Cedric [University of Burgundy, Center for Climate Research, UMR 5210 CNRS, Dijon (France); Bois, Benjamin [University of Burgundy, Center for Climate Research, UMR 5210 CNRS, Dijon (France); IUVV, University of Burgundy, Dijon (France)

    2012-10-15

    ARPEGE general circulation model simulations were dynamically downscaled by The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) for the study of climate change and its impact on grapevine growth in Burgundy region in France by the mid twenty-first century. Two time periods were selected: 1970-1979 and 2031-2040. The WRF model driven by ERA-INTERIM reanalysis data was validated against in situ surface temperature observations. The daily maximum and minimum surface temperature (T{sub max} and T{sub min}) were simulated by the WRF model at 8 x 8 km horizontal resolution. The averaged daily T{sub max} for each month during 1970-1979 have good agreement with observations, the averaged daily T{sub min} have a warm bias about 1-2 K. The daily T{sub max} and T{sub min} for each month (domain averaged) during 2031-2040 show a general increase. The largest increment ({proportional_to}3 K) was found in summer. The smallest increments (<1 K) were found in spring and fall. The spatial distribution of temperature increment shows a strong meridional gradient, high in south in summer, reversing in winter. The resulting potential warming rate in summer is equivalent to 4.7 K/century under the IPCC A2 emission scenario. The dynamically downscaled T{sub max} and T{sub min} were used to simulate the grape (Pinot noir grape variety) flowering and veraison dates. For 2031-2040, the projected dates are 8 and 12 days earlier than those during 1970-1979, respectively. The simulated hot days increase more than 50% in the two principal grapevine regions. They show strong impact on Pinot noir development. (orig.)

  4. Empirical assessment of the Hellenic non-residential building stock, energy consumption, emissions and potential energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaglia, Athina G.; Balaras, Constantinos A.; Mirasgedis, Sevastianos; Georgopoulou, Elena; Sarafidis, Yiannis; Lalas, Dimitris P.

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive information and detailed data for the non-residential (NR) building stock is rather limited, although it is the fastest growing energy demand sector. This paper elaborates the approach used to determine the potential energy conservation in the Hellenic NR building stock. A major obstacle that had to be overcome was the need to make suitable assumptions for missing detailed primary data. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of scattered national data resulted in a realistic assessment of the existing NR building stock and energy consumption. Different energy conservation scenarios and their impact on the reduction of CO 2 emissions were evaluated. Accordingly, the most effective energy conservation measures are: addition of thermal insulation of exposed external walls, primarily in hotels and hospitals; installation of energy efficient lamps; installation of solar collectors for sanitary hot water production, primarily in hotels and health care; installation of building management systems in office/commercial and hotel buildings; replacement of old inefficient boilers; and regular maintenance of central heating boilers

  5. Rambutan Commodity Development Strategy as Regional Potential Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Pujiati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential product of a region needs to be developed in order to improve the social welfare. Commonly, at harvest time, there is abundant horticulture commodity. Unluckily, the price of the commodity drops significantly. In other words, it costs extremely cheap. The purpose of research is analyzing the internal and external factors and determining an appropriate strategy for developing rambutan in Central Java, especially at Gunungpati District, Semarang, Central Java Province. The primary data of this research is obtained from 58 rambutan farmers that have been interviewed and have filled out the questionnaire forms. The secondary data is taken from the Central Bureau of Statistics, the monograph of the village and the internet by implementing the literature study method. Then, SWOT analysis is implemented for analizing the data. The internal factors that become the strengths are fertilized land for rambutan to grow and the farmers’ hereditary experiences in cultivating rambutan. Further, the lack of absorbing power of knowledge and technologies and the low existence of rambutan business are the weaknesses. Next, the external factor that becomes opportunity is the continuous increasing market demand, while the threat is the young generations having no interest in rambutan business. Finally, the stability (hold and maintain strategy should be implemented for developing rambutan business

  6. Rambutan Commodity Development Strategy as Regional Potential Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Pujiati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential product of a region needs to be developed in order to improve the social welfare. Commonly, at harvest time, there is abundant horticulture commodity. Unluckily, the price of the commodity drops significantly. In other words, it costs  extremely cheap. The purpose of research is analyzing the internal and external factors and determining an appropriate strategy for developing rambutan in Central Java, especially at Gunungpati District, Semarang, Central Java Province. The primary data of this research is obtained from 58 rambutan farmers that have been interviewed and have filled out the questionnaire forms. The secondary data is taken from the Central Bureau of Statistics, the monograph of the village and the internet by implementing the literature study method. Then, SWOT analysis is implemented for analizing the data. The internal factors that become the strengths are fertilized land for rambutan to grow and the farmers’ hereditary experiences in cultivating rambutan. Further, the lack of absorbing power of knowledge and technologies and the low existence of rambutan business are the weaknesses. Next, the external factor that becomes opportunity is the continuous increasing market demand, while the threat is the young generations having no interest in rambutan business. Finally, the stability (hold and maintain strategy should be implemented for developing rambutan business

  7. The Potential of Tropospheric Gradients for Regional Precipitation Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisits, Janina; Möller, Gregor; Wittmann, Christoph; Weber, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Changes of temperature and humidity in the neutral atmosphere cause variations in tropospheric path delays and tropospheric gradients. By estimating zenith wet delays (ZWD) and gradients using a GNSS reference station network the obtained time series provide information about spatial and temporal variations of water vapour in the atmosphere. Thus, GNSS-based tropospheric parameters can contribute to the forecast of regional precipitation events. In a recently finalized master thesis at TU Wien the potential of tropospheric gradients for weather prediction was investigated. Therefore, ZWD and gradient time series at selected GNSS reference stations were compared to precipitation data over a period of six months (April to September 2014). The selected GNSS stations form two test areas within Austria. All required meteorological data was provided by the Central Institution for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG). Two characteristics in ZWD and gradient time series can be anticipated in case of an approaching weather front. First, an induced asymmetry in tropospheric delays results in both, an increased magnitude of the gradient and in gradients pointing towards the weather front. Second, an increase in ZWD reflects the increased water vapour concentration right before a precipitation event. To investigate these characteristics exemplary test events were processed. On the one hand, the sequence of the anticipated increase in ZWD at each GNSS station obtained by cross correlation of the time series indicates the direction of the approaching weather front. On the other hand, the corresponding peak in gradient time series allows the deduction of the direction of movement as well. To verify the results precipitation data from ZAMG was used. It can be deduced, that tropospheric gradients show high potential for predicting precipitation events. While ZWD time series rather indicate the orientation of the air mass boundary, gradients rather indicate the direction of movement

  8. Potential cost saving of Epoetin alfa in elective hip or knee surgery due to reduction in blood transfusions and their side effects: a discrete-event simulation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Tomeczkowski

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Transfusion of allogeneic blood is still common in orthopedic surgery. This analysis evaluates from the perspective of a German hospital the potential cost savings of Epoetin alfa (EPO compared to predonated autologous blood transfusions or to a nobloodconservationstrategy (allogeneic blood transfusion strategyduring elective hip and knee replacement surgery. METHODS: Individual patients (N = 50,000 were simulated based on data from controlled trials, the German DRG institute (InEK and various publications and entered into a stochastic model (Monte-Carlo of three treatment arms: EPO, preoperative autologous donation and nobloodconservationstrategy. All three strategies lead to a different risk for an allogeneic blood transfusion. The model focused on the costs and events of the three different procedures. The costs were obtained from clinical trial databases, the German DRG system, patient records and medical publications: transfusion (allogeneic red blood cells: €320/unit and autologous red blood cells: €250/unit, pneumonia treatment (€5,000, and length of stay (€300/day. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to determine which factors had an influence on the model's clinical and cost outcomes. RESULTS: At acquisition costs of €200/40,000 IU EPO is cost saving compared to autologous blood donation, and cost-effective compared to a nobloodconservationstrategy. The results were most sensitive to the cost of EPO, blood units and hospital days. CONCLUSIONS: EPO might become an attractive blood conservation strategy for anemic patients at reasonable costs due to the reduction in allogeneic blood transfusions, in the modeled incidence of transfusion-associated pneumonia andthe prolongedlength of stay.

  9. Potential cost saving of Epoetin alfa in elective hip or knee surgery due to reduction in blood transfusions and their side effects: a discrete-event simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomeczkowski, Jörg; Stern, Sean; Müller, Alfred; von Heymann, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion of allogeneic blood is still common in orthopedic surgery. This analysis evaluates from the perspective of a German hospital the potential cost savings of Epoetin alfa (EPO) compared to predonated autologous blood transfusions or to a nobloodconservationstrategy (allogeneic blood transfusion strategy)during elective hip and knee replacement surgery. Individual patients (N = 50,000) were simulated based on data from controlled trials, the German DRG institute (InEK) and various publications and entered into a stochastic model (Monte-Carlo) of three treatment arms: EPO, preoperative autologous donation and nobloodconservationstrategy. All three strategies lead to a different risk for an allogeneic blood transfusion. The model focused on the costs and events of the three different procedures. The costs were obtained from clinical trial databases, the German DRG system, patient records and medical publications: transfusion (allogeneic red blood cells: €320/unit and autologous red blood cells: €250/unit), pneumonia treatment (€5,000), and length of stay (€300/day). Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to determine which factors had an influence on the model's clinical and cost outcomes. At acquisition costs of €200/40,000 IU EPO is cost saving compared to autologous blood donation, and cost-effective compared to a nobloodconservationstrategy. The results were most sensitive to the cost of EPO, blood units and hospital days. EPO might become an attractive blood conservation strategy for anemic patients at reasonable costs due to the reduction in allogeneic blood transfusions, in the modeled incidence of transfusion-associated pneumonia andthe prolongedlength of stay.

  10. Energy consumption and energy-saving potential analysis of pollutant abatement systems in a 1000MW coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Zhang, Yongxin; Zheng, Chenghang; Wu, Xuecheng; Chen, Linghong; Gao, Xiang; Fu, Joshua S

    2018-05-10

    The pollutant abatement systems are widely applied in the coal-fired power sector and the energy consumption was considered an important part of the auxiliary power. An energy consumption analysis and assessment model of pollutant abatement systems in a power unit was developed based on the dynamic parameters and technology. The energy consumption of pollutant abatement systems in a 1000 MW coal-fired power unit which meet the ultra-low emission limits and the factors of operating parameters including unit load and inlet concentration of pollutants on the operating power were analyzed. The results show that the total power consumption of the pollutant abatement systems accounted for 1.27% of the gross power generation during the monitoring period. The WFGD system consumed 67% of the rate while the SCR and ESP systems consumed 8.9% and 24.1%. The power consumption rate of pollutant abatement systems decreased with the increase of unit load and increased with the increase of the inlet concentration of pollutants. The operation adjustment was also an effective method to increase the energy efficiency. For example, the operation adjustment of slurry circulation pumps could promote the energy-saving operation of WFGD system. Implication Statement The application of pollutant abatement technologies increases the internal energy consumption of the power plant, which will lead to an increase of power generation costs. The real-time energy consumption of the different pollutant abatement systems in a typical power unit is analyzed based on the dynamic operating data. Further, the influence of different operating parameters on the operating power of the system and the possible energy-saving potential are analyzed.

  11. Net savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    2001-01-01

    The state of e-commerce in the Canadian upstream oil and natural gas sector is examined in an effort to discover the extent to which the .com economy has penetrated the marketplace. The overall assessment is that although the situation varies from producer to producer and process to process, a bustling digital marketplace in the Canadian oil business has yet to emerge. Nevertheless, there are several examples of companies using e-business tools to minimize technology staffing and to eliminate wasteful practices. Initiatives cited include streamlining of supply chains to cut handling costs, using application service providers to trim information technology budgets, and adopting electronic joint interest billing to save on printing, postage and re-entering data. Most notable efforts have been made by companies such as BXL Energy Limited and Genesis Exploration Limited, both of which are boosting efficiency on the inside by contracting out data storage and software applications. For example, BXL has replaced its microfilm log library occupying six cabinets, and totalling about 9,000 lbs., by a fibre optic line. All applications can now be run from a laptop which weighs three to four pounds. In a similar vein, Genesis Exploration started using application service providers (ASPs) to avoid the cost and hassle of buying and maintaining major software applications in-house. By accessing the ASPs, Genesis staff can run software without buying or installing it on their own computers. In yet another example of cutting information technology costs, Pengrowth Corporation has its network administration done remotely over the Internet by Northwest Digital Systems (NWD). As far as the industry at large is concerned, the answer appears to be in a digital marketplace specifically tailored to the upstream sector's unique profile. As a start, a study is underway by Deloitte Consulting to explore producer interest in joining or founding an upstream digital marketplace. The study was

  12. Net savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2001-02-01

    The state of e-commerce in the Canadian upstream oil and natural gas sector is examined in an effort to discover the extent to which the .com economy has penetrated the marketplace. The overall assessment is that although the situation varies from producer to producer and process to process, a bustling digital marketplace in the Canadian oil business has yet to emerge. Nevertheless, there are several examples of companies using e-business tools to minimize technology staffing and to eliminate wasteful practices. Initiatives cited include streamlining of supply chains to cut handling costs, using application service providers to trim information technology budgets, and adopting electronic joint interest billing to save on printing, postage and re-entering data. Most notable efforts have been made by companies such as BXL Energy Limited and Genesis Exploration Limited, both of which are boosting efficiency on the inside by contracting out data storage and software applications. For example, BXL has replaced its microfilm log library occupying six cabinets, and totalling about 9,000 lbs., by a fibre optic line. All applications can now be run from a laptop which weighs three to four pounds. In a similar vein, Genesis Exploration started using application service providers (ASPs) to avoid the cost and hassle of buying and maintaining major software applications in-house. By accessing the ASPs, Genesis staff can run software without buying or installing it on their own computers. In yet another example of cutting information technology costs, Pengrowth Corporation has its network administration done remotely over the Internet by Northwest Digital Systems (NWD). As far as the industry at large is concerned, the answer appears to be in a digital marketplace specifically tailored to the upstream sector's unique profile. As a start, a study is underway by Deloitte Consulting to explore producer interest in joining or founding an upstream digital marketplace. The study

  13. Potential RSM Projects: West Maui Region, Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Hawaii by Thomas D. Smith BACKGROUND: The Hawaii West Maui Region (Figure 1) was the focus of Hawaii Regional Sediment Management (RSM...Conservation Service; Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Aquatic Resources; Hawaii Department of Transportation; Maui...County; University of Hawaii , Sea Grant; Sea Engineering, Inc.; Maui Nui Marine Resource Council; Coral Reef Alliance; The Nature Conservancy; Henningson

  14. Administrative waste in the U.S. health care system in 2003: the cost to the nation, the states, and the District of Columbia, with state-specific estimates of potential savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, David U; Woolhandler, Steffie; Wolfe, Sidney M

    2004-01-01

    This report provides nationwide and state-specific estimates of U.S. health care administration spending and potential savings in 2003 were the United States to institute a Canadian-style national health insurance system. The United States wastes more on health care bureaucracy than it would cost to provide health care to all its uninsured. Administrative expenses will consume at least dollar 399.4 billion of a total health expenditure of dollar 1,660.5 billion in 2003. Streamlining administrative overhead to Canadian levels would save approximately dollar 286.0 billion in 2003, dollar 6,940 for each of the 41.2 million Americans who were uninsured as of 2001. This is substantially more than would be needed to provide full insurance coverage. The cost of excess health bureaucracy in individual states is equally striking. For example, Massachusetts, with 560,000 uninsured state residents, could save about dollar 8,556 million in 2003 (dollar 16,453 per uninsured resident of that state) if it streamlined administration to Canadian levels. New Mexico, with 373,000 uninsured, could save dollar 1,500 million on health bureaucracy (dollar 4,022 per uninsured resident). Only a single-payer national health insurance system could garner these massive administrative savings, allowing universal coverage without any increase in total health spending. Because incremental reforms necessarily preserve the current fragmented and duplicative payment structure, they cannot achieve significant bureaucratic savings.

  15. Screening of CHP Potential at Federal Sites in Select Regions of the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Nexus Group, . .

    2002-02-25

    Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CHP) is a master term for onsite power generation technologies that sequentially produce electrical or mechanical energy and useful thermal energy. Some form of CHP has existed for more than 100 years and it is now achieving a greater level of acceptance due to an increasing need for reliable power service and energy cost management. Capturing and using the heat produced as a byproduct of generating electricity from fuel sources increases the usable energy that can be obtained from the original fuel source. CHP technologies have the potential to reduce energy consumption through increased efficiency--decreasing energy bills as well as pollution. The EPA recognizes CHP as a potent climate change mitigation measure. The U.S. Department of Energy (D.O.E.) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is assisting Federal agencies to realize their energy efficiency goals. CHP is an efficiency measure that is receiving growing attention because of its sizable potential to provide efficiency, environmental, and reliability benefits. CHP therefore benefits the host facility, the electric infrastructure, and the U.S. society as a whole. This report and study seeks to make a preliminary inquiry into near term CHP opportunities for federal facilities in selected U.S. regions. It offers to help focus the attention of policy makers and energy facility managers on good candidate facilities for CHP. First, a ranked list of high potential individual sites is identified. Then, several classes of federal facilities are identified for the multiple opportunities they offer as a class. Recommendations are then offered for appropriate next steps for the evaluation and cost effective implementation of CHP. This study was designed to ultimately rank federal facilities in terms of their potential to take advantage of CHP economic and external savings in the near term. In order to best serve the purposes of this study, projections have been expressed in terms of

  16. “Achieving Regional Energy Efficiency Potential in the Northeast”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelo, Laura

    2018-05-01

    With this grant, NEEP sought to accelerate the adoption of energy efficiency in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic region through regional partnership projects that bring together leadership and staff from state and local government, utilities, industry, environmental and consumer groups, and other related interests to make efficiency visible and understood, reduce energy use in buildings, speed the adoption of high efficiency products, and advance knowledge and best practices. At the time of this grant, the NEEP region included the states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Washington DC, Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey, and Maryland.

  17. Regional Security Partners: The Potential for Collective Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan, Jimmy

    1999-01-01

    ...." The threat of big power and regional conflicts has diminished. However, the security landscape is now characterized by political fragmentation, Third World chaos, failed states, and ethnic conflicts among others...

  18. Analysis of potential energy saving strategies in a Bangkok school building. With CD-ROM; Analyse von Energieeinsparpotentialen am Beispiel einer Schule in Bangkok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temming, H.V.

    2000-05-01

    In cooperation with the Gesellschaft fuer technische Zusammenarbeit GTZ, a school building in Thailand was selected for an analysis of potentials for energy saving. The selected school was the New International School of Thailand (NIST) in Bangkok. Energy-relevant data were acquired by measurements, and solutions for more efficient energy supply were developed. Recommendations were made on this basis. This dissertation is also available on CD-ROM. [German] In Zusammenarbeit mit der Gesellschaft fuer technische Zusammenarbeit GTZ wurde als Beispielobjekt eine thailaendische Schule, die New International School of Thailand (NIST) in Bangkok ausgewaehlt. An diesem Objekt wurden die verschiedenen energetischen Messungen durchgefuehrt. Diese wurden bedarfsgerecht ausgewertet. Auf der Basis der Ergebnisse wurden Loesungsmoeglichkeiten fuer eine effizientere Energieversorgung der Schule konstruiert und diese Alternativen wie oben beschrieben bewertet, woraus sich entsprechende Empfehlungen ergeben. Der Aufbau dieser Arbeit stellt sich nun folgendermassen dar: Nachdem in einem ersten Schritt die fuer diesen Kontext wichtigsten Parameter Thailands und des Untersuchungsobjektes dargestellt werden, schliesst sich hieran die Vorstellung verschiedener technische Alternativen zur Erzeugung von Kaelte an, da hier ein Fokus fuer moegliche Energieeinsparungen gesetzt wird. Anschliessend werden einige in der Arbeit verwandte Berechnungsverfahren fuer energetische oder wirtschaftliche Zuammenhaenge sowie eine ausfuehrliche Beschreibung der energetischen 1st-Situation des Untersuchungsobjektes dargestellt. Darauf aufbauend folgt nun die Vorstellung der verschiedenen Energieeinsparpotentiale durch technische und verhaltensinduzierte Optimierungsmassnahmen. Diese Arbeit endet mit der Bewertung aller aufgedeckten Potentiale und einem Gesamtfazit aus der Untersuchung. (Diese Diplomarbeit liegt auch in Form einer CD-ROM vor.) (orig./AKF)

  19. Successful building and sanitation - Energy-saving potentials in house and apartments - Bad Homburg vor der Hoehe. 2. ed.; Erfolgreich sanieren - Energiesparpotentiale in Haus und Wohnung - Bad Homburg vor der Hoehe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Climate protection and high energy costs require a reduction of the energy consumption in new buildings and in existing buildings. In 1995, the city Bad Homburg v.d. Hoehe (Federal Republic of Germany) let draw up an energy concept in order to uncover the potentials to effective climate protection. The brochure under consideration is addressed to house owners which would like to reorganize their buildings professionally and energy-saving and to receive a ''first aid'' with this brochure. This brochure consists of the following contributions: (a) Energy-saving construction and reorganization - an investment into the future; (b) Measures of reorganization and saving potentials; (c) Renewable energies in the house; (d) Electricity: The energy in the background; (e) Financial incentives in the overview. (orig./GL)

  20. Potential for Water Savings by Defoliation of Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by Saltcedar Beetles (Diorhabda carinulata) in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, P. L.; Nguyen, U.; Bateman, H. L.; Jarchow, C.; van Riper, C., III; Waugh, W.; Glenn, E.

    2016-12-01

    Northern saltcedar beetles (Diorhabda carinata) have spread widely in riparian zones on the Colorado Plateau since their initial release in 2002. One goal of the releases was to reduce water consumption by saltcedar in order to conserve water through reduction of evapotranspiration (ET). The beetle moved south on the Virgin River and reached Big Bend State Park in Nevada in 2014, an expansion rate of 60 km/year. This is important because the beetle's photoperiod requirement for diapause was expected to prevent them from moving south of 37°N latitude, where endangered southwest willow flycatcher habitat occurs. In addition to focusing on the rate of dispersal of the beetles, we used remote sensing estimates of ET at 13 sites on the Colorado, San Juan, Virgin and Dolores rivers and their tributaries to estimate riparian zone ET before and after beetle releases. We estimate that water savings from 2007-2015 was 31.5 million m3/yr (25,547 acre-ft/yr), amounting to 0.258 % of annual river flow from the Upper Colorado River Basin to the Lower Basin. Reasons for the relatively low potential water savings are: 1) baseline ET before beetle release was modest (0.472 m/yr); 2) reduction in ET was low (0.061 m/yr) because saltcedar stands tended to recover after defoliation; 3) riparian ET even in the absence of beetles was only 1.8 % of river flows, calculated as the before beetle average annual ET (472 mm/yr) times the total area of saltcedar (51,588 ha) divided by the combined total average annual flows (1964-2015) from the upper to lower catchment areas of the Colorado River Basin at the USGS gages (12,215 million m3/yr or 9.90 million acre-ft). Further research is suggested to concentrate on the ecological impacts (both positive and negative) of beetles on riparian zones and on identifying management options to maximize riparian health.

  1. On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogwijk, Monique Maria

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, the central research question is: what can be the contribution of renewable energy sources to the present and future world and regional energy supply system. The focus is on wind, solar PV and biomass energy (energy crops) for electricity generation. For the assessment of the

  2. Assessing diversity and phytoremediation potential of seagrass in tropical region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrass ecosystem is one of the most important resources in the coastal areas. Seagrasses support and provide habitats for many coastal organisms in tropical region. Seagrasses are specialized marine flowering plants that have adapted to the nearshore environment with heterogeneous landscape struct...

  3. Universities Potential Role in Local and Regional Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Egon; Rolim, Cassio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The paper will describe experiences from Aalborg University in Denmark on ways to support cooperation between the University and regional civic/business. Design/Methodology: Regional development is exceedingly focused in the world; and as growth is dependent on specialised knowledge...... and highly skilled and competent staff, it could be anticipated that universities should play a key role in facilitating such growth and development. At Aalborg University, such cooperation is taking place, and this paper sums up the practices and experiences gained therefrom. Findings: Universities have...... been and maybe still are seen as bodies focusing on know-how; however, they are now focusing on technology transfer, knowledge transfer and knowledge exchange, and maybe also on co-designing. From such beginnings co-operation can, and in many cases has, further developed into formal partnerships...

  4. Metrics for Identifying Food Security Status and the Population with Potential to Benefit from Nutrition Interventions in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bianca D; Walker, Neff; Heidkamp, Rebecca

    2017-11-01

    Background: The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) uses the poverty head-count ratio at $1.90/d as a proxy for food security to identify the percentage of the population with the potential to benefit from balanced energy supplementation and complementary feeding (CF) interventions, following the approach used for the Lancet 's 2008 series on Maternal and Child Undernutrition. Because much work has been done in the development of food security indicators, a re-evaluation of the use of this indicator was warranted. Objective: The aim was to re-evaluate the use of the poverty head-count ratio at $1.90/d as the food security proxy indicator in LiST. Methods: We carried out a desk review to identify available indicators of food security. We identified 3 indicators and compared them by using scatterplots, Spearman's correlations, and Bland-Altman plot analysis. We generated LiST projections to compare the modeled impact results with the use of the different indicators. Results: There are many food security indicators available, but only 3 additional indicators were identified with the data availability requirements to be used as the food security indicator in LiST. As expected, analyzed food security indicators were significantly positively correlated ( P security indicators that were used in the meta-analyses that produced the effect estimates. These are the poverty head-count ratio at $1.90/d for CF interventions and the prevalence of a low body mass index in women of reproductive age for balanced energy supplementation interventions. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Energy savings: persuasion and persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eijadi, David; McDougall, Tom; Leaf, Kris; Douglas, Jim; Steinbock, Jason; Reimer, Paul [The Weidt Group, Minnetonka, MN (United States); Gauthier, Julia [Xcel Energy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Wild, Doug; Richards McDaniel, Stephanie [BWBR Architects, Inc., Saint Paul, MN (United States)

    2005-07-01

    In this study, the architects, sponsoring utility and energy simulation specialist joined together to investigate the persistence of energy savings in three completed projects: a college library; a municipal transportation facility; and a hospital. The primary question being 'How well did the design decisions made with the help of simulation analysis translate into building operations over several years?' Design simulation and metered performance data are compared for specific energy-saving strategies. The paper provides a brief overview of the basis of selection of the three projects, the energy design assistance methods employed and the decisions made, along with their savings expectations. For each case, design characteristics, modelling assumptions, selected strategies and actual metered performance are outlined. We find evidence of appropriate levels of energy conservation, but they are not the absolute values predicted. In each case, the discrepancies between modelling assumptions and final construction or operating procedures are identified, examined and rectified. The paper illustrates that while owners are saving energy, they are not always getting the full savings potential for what they install. The paper concludes with a re-examination of the overall process. It evaluates the potential for additional savings of individual technologies and related larger utility incentives to design teams and building owners.

  6. Energy savings in Danish residential building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    a short account of the technical energy-saving possibilities that are present in existing dwellings and presents a financial methodology used for assessing energy-saving measures. In order to estimate the total savings potential detailed calculations have been performed in a case with two typical...... buildings representing the residential building stock and based on these calculations an assessment of the energy-saving potential is performed. A profitable savings potential of energy used for space heating of about 80% is identified over 45 years (until 2050) within the residential building stock......A large potential for energy savings exists in the Danish residential building stock due to the fact that 75% of the buildings were constructed before 1979 when the first important demands for energy performance of building were introduced. It is also a fact that many buildings in Denmark face...

  7. THE TOURISM POTENTIAL OF NORTHERN PORTUGAL AND ITS RELEVANCE FOR A REGIONAL BRANDING STRATEGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore a potential regional branding strategy for the northern part of Portugal, emphasizing the regional tourism potential. Furthermore, it aims to clarify the answers of the following research questions: i) is tourism a strategic domain with the potential to

  8. Regional savings bank Oldenburg heats and cools with geothermal energy. Temperation of buildings supports real smartness of architecture; Landessparkasse zu Oldenburg heizt und kuehlt mit Geothermie. Gebaeudetemperierung unterstuetzt sachliche Eleganz der Architektur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Wolfgang

    2010-02-15

    Clear lines and real elegance on the basis of a well-contrived scanning system mark the new building of the regional savings bank Oldenburg (Federal Republic of Germany). The minimalistic style of the new centre also repeats itself in the selection of temperation system for buildings being hided quasi invisibly in the floor. In addition, the linear grating of the underfloor panel convectors along the external walls accentuate the clear lines of architecture and set own accents.

  9. Potential Environmental Justice (EJ) areas in Region 2 based on 2000 Census [EPA.EJAREAS_2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Potential Environmental Justice (EJ) areas in Region 2 . This dataset was derived from 2000 census data and based on the criteria setforth in the Region 2 Interim...

  10. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bojda, Nicholas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes the financial impacts on consumers of minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances that could be implemented in 13 major economies around the world. We use the Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), to analyze various appliance efficiency target levels to estimate the net present value (NPV) of policies designed to provide maximum energy savings while not penalizing consumers financially. These policies constitute what we call the “cost-effective potential” (CEP) scenario. The CEP scenario is designed to answer the question: How high can we raise the efficiency bar in mandatory programs while still saving consumers money?

  11. Potencial da economia de água potável pelo uso de água pluvial: análise de 40 cidades da Amazônia Potential for potable water savings by using rainwater: an analysis over 40 cities in Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Alberto de Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A escassez de água é um problema cada vez mais severo em todo o mundo devido a fatores como o consumo excessivo de água bruta, as mudanas climáticas, a poluição da água e o consumo insustentável dos recursos hídricos. Sob essas condições, formas tradicionais ou alternativas de recursos hídricos, tais como a água pluvial, estão sendo consideradas como opções atrativas para reduzir o consumo de água potável. Neste contexto, este artigo descreve o cenário de disponibilidade de água na região Amazõnica, Noroeste do Brasil, e avalia o potencial da economia de água potável para o setor residencial em 40 cidades da região. Os resultados indicam que o potencial da economia de água potável varia entre 21 e 100%, dependendo da demanda de água potável verificada nas 40 cidades, com potencial médio de 76%. A prisncipal conclusão desta pesquisa é que, se houvesse um programa do governo para promover a economia de água potável por meio da utilização da água pluvial, haveria significativa economia de água potável e, consequentemente, a preservação dos recursos hídricos na Amazõnia.Water scarcity is an increasingly severe problem worldwide due to some factors, such as the excessive consumption of raw water, climate changes, water pollution, and unsustainable water resource consumption. Under these conditions, traditional or alternative forms of water resource, such as rainwater, are being considered as attractive options to reduce potable water consumption. In this context, this paper describes the water availability scenario in the Amazon region, Brazilian Northeast, and it evaluates the potential for potable water savings estimated for the residential sector of 40 cities in the region. Results indicate that the potential for potable water savings range from 21 to 100% depending on the potable water demand verified in the 40 cities, with an average potential for potable water savings of 76%. The main conclusion is

  12. Assessment of potential energy savings following the replacement of gear-motor-driven systems by frequency-converter-fed direct drives; Energiesparpotential bei Ersatz von Getriebemotoren durch FU-Antriebe. Potentialanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, R.; Riesen, H. J.

    2007-03-15

    This project deals with the energy saving potential that can be achieved by replacing gear motor driven systems by frequency converter fed direct drives. Estimates have shown that due to the high percentage of gear motor installations, which amounts to approximately 10% of all motor driven systems, a significant amount of energy could be saved. However, several barriers impose major restrictions to the broad application of such actions: With the exception of worm gears that reach about 20% of all gear drives, todays' gears already offer a high efficiency of 97-98%. Gear motors are often included in OEM integrated solutions. Many processes require complex adaptations that can complicate replacements or make it even impractical. For low speed or high torque requirements, gear motors may have a dominant advantage concerning the compactness. Our investigations have shown, that in spite of such barriers the replacement of gear motors by direct motors can sum up to a significant amount of energy savings in many cases. Looking at the worm gear systems and the restricted speed and torque ranges that are covered by the direct drives from several suppliers we assume a total saving potential of about 78 GWh per year for Switzerland. (author)

  13. Risk transfer via energy-savings insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Evan

    2003-01-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and potential disputes over stipulated savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building diagnostics and commissioning), financial methods are less developed in the energy management arena than in other segments of the economy. Energy-savings insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - transfers and spreads both types of risk over a larger pool of energy efficiency projects and reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy service firms who lack sufficiently strong balance sheets to self-insure the savings. ESI encourages those implementing energy-saving projects to go beyond standard measures and thereby achieve more significant levels of energy savings. Insurance providers are proponents of improved savings measurement and verification techniques, as well as maintenance, thereby contributing to national energy-saving objectives. If properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy-saving projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Governmental agencies have been pioneers in the use of ESI and could continue to play a role

  14. Potential antioxidant of brazilian coffee from the region of Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richtier Gonçalves da CRUZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. Its chemical composition may have varied according to the planting site, degree of roasting, and method of preparation. This work aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of coffee from the region of Cerrado in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The evaluation was performed with samples roasted at two different levels (traditional and extra dark and using two different preparation methods (decoction and infusion that reflect the conditions of preparing coffee. In vitro antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH radical methods and the concentration of total phenolic compounds and caffeine were determined. Samples made by decoction showed a higher content of phenolic compounds and no significant difference was observed between the degrees of roasting. However, the antioxidant activity and caffeine concentration of the extra dark samples were higher than those of the traditional samples for both preparation methods. The decoction preparation method was better for extracting phenolic compounds and the extra dark roast showed a higher concentration of caffeine and antioxidant activity. The samples showed a high antioxidant activity, indicating the coffee from Cerrado is an important source of antioxidants.

  15. Potential application of combisystem for an Australian climatic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halawa, E.; Bruno, F.; Saman, W. [Sustainable Energy Centre, Univ. of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, Adelaide (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    Australian climate is characterised by its more sunny days with mild winter condition compared to Europe. Solar water heating systems have been in the market for many years to provide domestic hot water to main cities in Australia. The market for these systems have been constantly growing and relevant Australian Standards have been developed. This trend is expected to remain in the near future. The paper reports on the results of a recent numerical study on the potential application of a solar combisystem to provide both space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) for a two storey house in Adelaide, Australia. The house space heating requirement was estimated using AccuRate, a building energy rating software developed in Australia, whilst the domestic hot water requirement is based on the Australian Standard AS 4234. The system modelling was carried out using the TRNSYS simulation package. In the study, the thermal performance of flat plate and evacuated type collectors are compared. A number of factors such as effects of tank size, collector slopes and system configuration are investigated. (orig.)

  16. Water Saving for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos

    2013-04-01

    The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a

  17. Wildfire potential evaluation during a drought event with a regional climate model and NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Liu; J. Stanturf; S. Goodrick

    2010-01-01

    Regional climate modeling is a technique for simulating high-resolution physical processes in the atmosphere, soil and vegetation. It can be used to evaluate wildfire potential by either providing meteorological conditions for computation of fire indices or predicting soil moisture as a direct measure of fire potential. This study examines these roles using a regional...

  18. Water saving at the field scale with Irrig-OH, an open-hardware environment device for soil water potential monitoring and irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masseroni, Daniele; Facchi, Arianna; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    Sustainability of irrigation practices is an important objective which should be pursued in many countries, especially in areas where water scarcity causes strong conflicts among the different water uses. The efficient use of water is a key factor in coping with the food demand of an increasing world population and with the negative effects of the climate change on water resources availability in many areas. In this complex context, it is important that farmers adopt instruments and practices that enable a better management of water at the field scale, whatever the irrigation method they adopt. This work presents the hardware structure and the functioning of an open-hardware microstation based on the Arduino technology, called Irrig-OH, which allows the continuous and low-cost monitoring of the soil water potential (SWP) in the root zone for supporting the irrigation scheduling at the field scale. In order to test the microstation, an experiment was carried out during the agricultural season 2014 at Lodi (Italy), with the purpose of comparing the farmers' traditional management of irrigation of a peach variety and the scheduling based on the SWP measurements provided by the microstation. Additional measurements of leaf water potential (LWP), stomatal resistance, transpiration (T), crop water stress index (CWSI) and fruit size evolution were performed respectively on leafs and fruits for verifying the plant physiological responses on different SWP levels in soil. At the harvesting time, the peach production in term of quantity and quality (sucrose content was measured by a rifractometer over a sample of one hundred fruits) of the two rows were compared. Irrigation criteria was changed with respect to three macro-periods: up to the endocarp hardening phase (begin of May) soil was kept well watered fixing the SWP threshold in the first 35 cm of the soil profile at -20 kPa, during the pit hardening period (about the entire month of May) the allowed SWP threshold was

  19. A Study on Grid-Square Statistics Based Estimation of Regional Electricity Demand and Regional Potential Capacity of Distributed Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takeyoshi; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    We established a procedure for estimating regional electricity demand and regional potential capacity of distributed generators (DGs) by using a grid square statistics data set. A photovoltaic power system (PV system) for residential use and a co-generation system (CGS) for both residential and commercial use were taken into account. As an example, the result regarding Aichi prefecture was presented in this paper. The statistical data of the number of households by family-type and the number of employees by business category for about 4000 grid-square with 1km × 1km area was used to estimate the floor space or the electricity demand distribution. The rooftop area available for installing PV systems was also estimated with the grid-square statistics data set. Considering the relation between a capacity of existing CGS and a scale-index of building where CGS is installed, the potential capacity of CGS was estimated for three business categories, i.e. hotel, hospital, store. In some regions, the potential capacity of PV systems was estimated to be about 10,000kW/km2, which corresponds to the density of the existing area with intensive installation of PV systems. Finally, we discussed the ratio of regional potential capacity of DGs to regional maximum electricity demand for deducing the appropriate capacity of DGs in the model of future electricity distribution system.

  20. Social Capital and Savings Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    We explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in imparting information about the returns to saving where potential knowledge gaps and mistrust exists. Using data from Vietnam we find strong evidence to support the hypothesis that information transmitted via reputable social...

  1. Private Sector Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitonáková Renáta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of household savings are in the form of bank deposits. It is therefore of interest for credit institutions to tailor their deposit policy for getting finances from non-banking entities and to provide the private sector with the loans that are necessary for investment activities and consumption. This paper deals with the determinants of the saving rate of the private sector of Slovakia. Economic, financial and demographic variables influence savings. Growth of income per capita, private disposable income, elderly dependency ratio, real interest rate and inflation have a positive impact on savings, while increases in public savings indicate a crowding out effect. The inflation rate implies precautionary savings, and dependency ratio savings for bequest. There are also implications for governing institutions deciding on the implementation of appropriate fiscal and monetary operations.

  2. Highly accurate potential calculations for cylindrically symmetric geometries using multi-region FDM: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, David, E-mail: dej@kingcon.com [IJL Research Center, Newark, VT 05871 (United States)

    2011-07-21

    This paper is a review of multi-region FDM, a numerical technique for accurately determining electrostatic potentials in cylindrically symmetric geometries. Multi-region FDM can be thought of as the union of various individual elements: a single region FDM process: a method for algorithmic development; a method for auto creating a multi-region structure; the process for the relaxation of multi-region structures. Each element will be briefly described along with its integration into the multi-region relaxation process itself.

  3. Measuring scarce water saving from interregional virtual water flows in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Li, Y. P.; Yang, H.; Liu, W. F.; Tillotson, M. R.; Guan, D.; Yi, Y.; Wang, H.

    2018-05-01

    Trade of commodities can lead to virtual water flows between trading partners. When commodities flow from regions of high water productivity to regions of low water productivity, the trade has the potential to generate water saving. However, this accounting of water saving does not account for the water scarcity status in different regions. It could be that the water saving generated from this trade occurs at the expense of the intensified water scarcity in the exporting region, and exerts limited effect on water stress alleviation in importing regions. In this paper, we propose an approach to measure the scarce water saving associated with virtual water trade (measuring in water withdrawal/use). The scarce water is quantified by multiplying the water use in production with the water stress index (WSI). We assessed the scarce water saving/loss through interprovincial trade within China using a multi-region input-output table from 2010. The results show that interprovincial trade resulted in 14.2 km3 of water loss without considering water stress, but only 0.4 km3 scarce water loss using the scarce water concept. Among the 435 total connections of virtual water flows, 254 connections contributed to 20.2 km3 of scarce water saving. Most of these connections are virtual water flows from provinces with lower WSI to that with higher WSI. Conversely, 175 connections contributed to 20.6 km3 of scarce water loss. The virtual water flow connections between Xinjiang and other provinces stood out as the biggest contributors, accounting for 66% of total scarce water loss. The results show the importance of assessing water savings generated from trade with consideration of both water scarcity status and water productivity across regions. Identifying key connections of scarce water saving is useful in guiding interregional economic restructuring towards water stress alleviation, a major goal of China’s sustainable development strategy.

  4. Potential benefits of cool roofs on commercial buildings. Conserving energy, saving money, and reducing emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, R.; Akbari, H.

    2010-01-01

    Cool roofs - roofs that stay cool in the sun by minimizing solar absorption and maximizing thermal emission - lessen the flow of heat from the roof into the building, reducing the need for space cooling energy in conditioned buildings. Cool roofs may also increase the need for heating energy in cold climates. For a commercial building, the decrease in annual cooling load is typically much greater than the increase in annual heating load. This study combines building energy simulations, local energy prices, local electricity emission factors, and local estimates of building density to characterize local, state average, and national average cooling energy savings, heating energy penalties, energy cost savings, and emission reductions per unit conditioned roof area. The annual heating and cooling energy uses of four commercial building prototypes - new office (1980+), old office (pre-1980), new retail (1980+), and old retail (pre-1980) - were simulated in 236 US cities. Substituting a weathered cool white roof (solar reflectance 0.55) for a weathered conventional gray roof (solar reflectance 0.20) yielded annually a cooling energy saving per unit conditioned roof area ranging from 3.30 kWh/m 2 in Alaska to 7.69 kWh/m 2 in Arizona (5.02 kWh/m 2 nationwide); a heating energy penalty ranging from 0.003 therm/m 2 in Hawaii to 0.14 therm/m 2 in Wyoming (0.065 therm/m 2 nationwide); and an energy cost saving ranging from USD 0.126/m 2 in West Virginia to USD 1.14/m 2 in Arizona (USD 0.356/m 2 nationwide). It also offered annually a CO2 reduction ranging from 1.07 kg/m 2 in Alaska to 4.97 kg/m 2 in Hawaii (3.02 kg/m 2 nationwide); an NOx reduction ranging from 1.70 g/m 2 in New York to 11.7 g/m 2 in Hawaii (4.81 g/m 2 nationwide); an SO2 reduction ranging from 1.79 g/m 2 in California to 26.1 g/m 2 in Alabama (12.4 g/m 2 nationwide); and an Hg reduction ranging from 1.08 μg/m 2 in Alaska to 105 μg/m 2 in Alabama (61.2 μg/m 2 nationwide). Retrofitting 80% of the 2

  5. A comparative assessment of the innovation potential of the Baltic Sea region countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemeshev Andrey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a comparative assessment of the Baltic region countries on the basis of three groups of indicators — indicators of economic and research potential, indicators of dynamics of economic and research potential development, and indicators of economic and innovation potential of the states of the region. The author emphasises the need for Russia to cooperate with other countries of the region in the field of innovations as well as the possible role for the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University in this process.

  6. Exploring Fog Water Harvesting Potential and Quality in the Asir Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhidasan, P.; Abualhamayel, H. I.

    2012-05-01

    During the last decade, the exploitation of the existing water resources in the Asir region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has considerably increased due to both the decrease in annual precipitation and the added population pressures from the growing tourist industry. To face the conventional water shortage, attention has been mainly focused on desalination of water. To save the region from severe water shortage, additional new water sources that are low-cost and renewable must be identified. There exists an alternative source of water such as fog water harvesting. Fog forms in the Asir Region more frequently between December and February compared to the other months of the year. This paper presents the study of the climatic conditions in the Asir region of the Kingdom to identify the most suitable location for fog water collection as well as design and testing of two large fog collectors (LFCs) of size 40 m2 along with standard fog collectors (SFCs) of 1 m2 in that region. During the period from 27 December 2009 to 9 March 2010, a total of 3,128.4 and 2,562.4 L of fog water were collected by the LFC at two sites in the Al-Sooda area of the Asir region, near Abha. Experimental results indicate that fog water collection can be combined with rain water harvesting systems to increase water yield during the rainy season. The quality of the collected fog water was analyzed and compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standards and found to be potable. An economic analysis was carried out for the proposed method of obtaining fresh water from the fog. The study suggests a clear tendency that in terms of both quality and magnitude of yield, fog is a viable source of water and can be successfully used to supplement water supplies in the Asir region of the Kingdom.

  7. Nonconformity of policy ambitions with biomass potentials in regional bioenergy transition: A Dutch example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özcan, Evren; Arentsen, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Numerous regional authorities within the European Union are committed to meet renewable energy targets in line with the EU-20-20-20 strategy. Energy from biomass occupies a pivotal position in the renewable energy strategy of many regions. Effective bioenergy policy often depends on an assessment of the regional resource potential for energy from biomass. Using the Dutch province of Overijssel as a case study, this study presents a biomass resource potential assessment, based on existing statistics and a resource-focused methodology, to determine the region's theoretical and technical potential. Additionally, a methodological framework is provided to translate the outcome of this biomass resource potential assessment into the policy domain, to allow the region's bioenergy policy ambition to be evaluated. The results indicate that Overijssel's potential bioenergy target is a share of 8.3%, which does not match with the desired policy target of 14%. It is therefore clear that it is unlikely that the province's bioenergy ambition will be met with the current supply of biomass, in the absence of additional policy measures. The outcome of the biomass resource potential assessment has therefore been used to deduce and recommend multiple policy measures. - Highlights: • Biomass resource potential assessment performed with Dutch province as case study. • Methodology presented to translate technical biomass potential into policy domain. • Nonconformity found between the province's policy ambition and biomass potential. • Five policy measures identified to cope with this nonconformity

  8. Spatial data analysis and integration for regional-scale geothermal potential mapping, West Java, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Barritt, Sally D. [Department of Earth Systems Analysis, International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Enschede (Netherlands); Wibowo, Hendro; Sumintadireja, Prihadi [Laboratory of Volcanology and Geothermal, Geology Department, Institute of Technology Bandung (ITB), Bandung (Indonesia)

    2008-06-15

    Conceptual modeling and predictive mapping of potential for geothermal resources at the regional-scale in West Java are supported by analysis of the spatial distribution of geothermal prospects and thermal springs, and their spatial associations with geologic features derived from publicly available regional-scale spatial data sets. Fry analysis shows that geothermal occurrences have regional-scale spatial distributions that are related to Quaternary volcanic centers and shallow earthquake epicenters. Spatial frequency distribution analysis shows that geothermal occurrences have strong positive spatial associations with Quaternary volcanic centers, Quaternary volcanic rocks, quasi-gravity lows, and NE-, NNW-, WNW-trending faults. These geological features, with their strong positive spatial associations with geothermal occurrences, constitute spatial recognition criteria of regional-scale geothermal potential in a study area. Application of data-driven evidential belief functions in GIS-based predictive mapping of regional-scale geothermal potential resulted in delineation of high potential zones occupying 25% of West Java, which is a substantial reduction of the search area for further exploration of geothermal resources. The predicted high potential zones delineate about 53-58% of the training geothermal areas and 94% of the validated geothermal occurrences. The results of this study demonstrate the value of regional-scale geothermal potential mapping in: (a) data-poor situations, such as West Java, and (b) regions with geotectonic environments similar to the study area. (author)

  9. Electric power saving potential due to domestic refrigerators replacement; Potencial de ahorro de energia electrica por el reemplazo de refrigeradores domesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta Solorio, Jose Luis [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (Mexico)]. E-mail: jose.peralta@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-04-15

    In Mexico the second most used electrical appliance is: refrigerator. Owing to its use, it would be a promising option for electric power saving. In Guadalajara, Reynosa and Tampico it was performed a study with the aim of launching a project to replace the old refrigerators with new ones which are more effective and less expensive. Since the refrigerators cost and the electrical invoicing saving, the electric appliance change is profitable. To expect with this replacement more than eight million of refrigerators manufactured before 1997 will be changed. [Spanish] El refrigerador es el segundo electrodomestico mas utilizado a nivel nacional, esto permite que debido a su uso sea una opcion prometedora para el ahorro de energia electrica. Se hizo un estudio en Guadalajara, Reynosa y Tampico con el fin de lanzar un proyecto para sustituir los refrigeradores viejos por unos nuevos que sean mas eficaces y menos costosos. Por el costo de los refrigeradores y el ahorro en la facturacion electrica, el cambio de electrodomestico es rentable, de esta manera se espera que los mas de ocho millones de refrigeradores fabricados antes de 1997 que existen en el pais sean cambiados.

  10. Assessment of geothermal energy potential by geophysical methods: Nevşehir Region, Central Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıyak, Alper; Karavul, Can; Gülen, Levent; Pekşen, Ertan; Kılıç, A. Rıza

    2015-03-01

    In this study, geothermal potential of the Nevşehir region (Central Anatolia) was assessed by using vertical electrical sounding (VES), self-potential (SP), magnetotelluric (MT), gravity and gravity 3D Euler deconvolution structure analysis methods. Extensive volcanic activity occurred in this region from Upper Miocene to Holocene time. Due to the young volcanic activity Nevşehir region can be viewed as a potential geothermal area. We collected data from 54 VES points along 5 profiles, from 28 MT measurement points along 2 profiles (at frequency range between 320 and 0.0001 Hz), and from 4 SP profiles (total 19 km long). The obtained results based on different geophysical methods are consistent with each other. Joint interpretation of all geological and geophysical data suggests that this region has geothermal potential and an exploration well validated this assessment beyond doubt.

  11. Minimizing the magnetohydrodynamic potential energy for the current hole region in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M.S.; Parks, P.B.

    2004-01-01

    The current hole region in the tokamak has been observed to arise naturally during the development of internal transport barriers. The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) potential energy in the current hole region is shown to be determined completely in terms of the displacements at the edge of the current hole. For modes with finite toroidal mode number n≠0, the minimized potential energy is the same as if the current hole region were a vacuum region. For modes with toroidal mode number n=0, the displacement is a superposition of three types of independent displacements: a vertical displacement or displacements that compress only the plasma, or the toroidal field uniformly. Thus for ideal MHD perturbations of plasma with a current hole, the plasma behaves as if it were bordered by an extra ''internal vacuum region.'' The relevance of the present work to computer simulations of plasma with a current hole region is also discussed

  12. MINIMIZING THE MHD POTENTIAL ENERGY FOR THE CURRENT HOLE REGION IN TOKAMAKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHU, M.S; PARKS, P.B

    2004-01-01

    The current hole region in the tokamak has been observed to arise naturally during the development of internal transport barriers. The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) potential energy in the current hole region is shown to be determined completely in terms of the displacements at the edge of the current hole. For modes with finite toroidal mode number n ≠ 0, the minimized potential energy is the same as if the current hole region were a vacuum region. For modes with toroidal mode number n = 0, the displacement is a superposition of three types of independent displacements: a vertical displacement or displacements that compress only the plasma or the toroidal field uniformly. Thus for ideal MHD perturbations of plasma with a current hole, the plasma behaves as if it were bordered by an extra ''internal vacuum region''. The relevance of the present work to computer simulations of plasma with a current hole region is also discussed

  13. Energy saving certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    The French ministry of economy, finances and industry and the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) have organized on November 8, 2005, a colloquium for the presentation of the energy saving certificates, a new tool to oblige the energy suppliers to encourage their clients to make energy savings. This document gathers the transparencies presented at this colloquium about the following topics: state-of-the-art and presentation of the energy saving certificates system: presentation of the EEC system, presentation of the EEC standard operations; the energy saving certificates in Europe today: energy efficiency commitment in UK, Italian white certificate scheme, perspectives of the different European systems. (J.S.)

  14. Spending to save

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    the energy distribution companies meet their overall saving obligation, the net savings impact are about a third of the savings reported by the obligated parties. Further it was found that while energy savings in the public and business sector have a high net impact, some subsidies given under the EEO...... perspective. The evaluation has resulted in noticeable adjustments of the design of the Danish EEO, e.g. introduction of a 1 year payback-time limit for projects receiving subsidies, a minimum baseline for insulation products, and specification of documentation requirements....

  15. Potential formation in the plasma confinement region of a radio-frequency plugged linear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Hideki; Kumazawa, Ryuhei; Howald, A.M.; Okamura, Shoichi; Sato, Teruyuki; Adati, Keizo; Garner, H.R.; Nishimura, Kiyohiko.

    1987-08-01

    Plasma potential formation in an open-ended plasma confinement system with RF plugging (the RFC-XX-M device) is investigated. The plasma potential in the central confinement region is measured with a heavy ion beam probe system and potentials at the RF plug section are measured with multi-grid energy analyzers. The measured plasma potential is compared with that deduced from the generalized Pastukhov formula. Results show that the plasma potential develops as an ambipolar potential to equate ion and electron end losses. During RF plugging, electrons are heated by Landau damping, while ions are not heated since adiabatic conditions apply during ion plugging in this experiment. (author)

  16. Innovation and growth potentials of European regions: A meta-multi-criteria analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, P.; Zwetsloot, F.; van der Wal, S.

    2010-01-01

    Creative regions are nowadays seen as foci of innovation and growth and are hence regarded strategic areas in a fierce-and often global-competition. This paper aims at providing an operational assessment framework for evaluating the innovation potential of competing regions on the basis of

  17. K ocenke potenciala razvitija prigranichnyh regionov [On the assessment of cross-border regions' development potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilchak Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to assess the potential of cross-border region development on the basis of theoretical and methodological materials. The study examines the Kaliningrad region and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. The article is focused on the modelling of interindustry balance and export/import functions of border territories.

  18. Energy saving potential of energy services - experimentation on the life cycle of energy conversion equipment; Potentiel d'economies d'energie par les services energetiques - application au cycle de vie des equipements de conversion de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, M

    2006-12-15

    Energy efficiency services are growing in Europe but their role is still limited. In order to evaluate the potential, we focused first of all on policy, economical and environmental mechanisms that support their development. European natural gas and electricity markets, that are now almost wholly de-regulated, are analysed and compared to their historical structure. By introducing uncertainty on energy prices, this new deal translates better the real energy costs. Energy performance contracts (EPC) limit the impact of these uncertainties on the customer energy bills by guaranteeing a financial result. As a result of the modelling of these contracts, namely operation and maintenance ones, we prove that they transfer technical and financial risks from building owners to energy service companies (ESCO) making energy saving measures easier and less expensive at the same time. These contracts are relatively widespread for heating or compressed-air processes but remain marginal for air-conditioning systems. So new methods were needed to guarantee on the long terms the efficiency of air-conditioning systems demand (1) to master the process and its performances and (2) to be able to determine precisely the energy saving potential and its realisation costs. A detailed energy audit is thus necessary for which we propose a guidance. Conclusions of audits carried out prove that energy saving potential is mainly located in equipment management and control. These optimizations are not always carried out because of a lack of contractual incentive and due to the weaknesses of audit methods. Through the involvement of an independent expert, the mandatory and regular inspection of air-conditioning systems may allow to verify and guide such practices. A three-step analysis procedure has been developed in order to maximize the inspection potential and to get higher benefits from service contracts. (author)

  19. The Tourism Potential of Northern Portugal and Its Relevance for a Regional Branding Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo OLIVEIRA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore a potential regional branding strategy for the northern part of Portugal, emphasizing the regional tourism potential. Furthermore, it aims to clarify the answers of the following research questions: i is tourism a strategic domain with the potential to integrate a branding strategy at the regional level? ii is a regional branding strategy an engine by which to enable economic and social transformation in the region, thus responding to the contemporary challenges such as weak economic confidence and unemployment? To answer these questions, a content analysis on the policy documents: i Northern Portugal Strategic Guidelines 2014-2020 and ii National Strategic Plan for Tourism 2013-2015 has been performed. In addition, the article details the results of in-depth interviews conducted with two regional entities: i Tourism of Porto and the North of Portugal (TPNP, in charge of national tourism planning and promotion and ii North Regional Coordination and Development Commission (CCDRN, involved in regional planning and development. The findings reinforce the importance of tourism as a strategic domain to boost the economy and create momentum in Northern Portugal. Moreover, tourism is seen by the respondents as a key objective in a regional branding strategy.

  20. Local self-government potential in sustainable development of region providing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Bobrovska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing decentralization of power in Ukraine enhances abilities of each region to independently choose their development path and use their own resources. It requires reviewing and updating of mechanisms and instruments of local government and public administration projected to increase the sustainability of development. This necessitates further research of issues of this extremely complex phenomenon. The problem of sustainable development of the regions and their internal capacities over the past decades has attracted the attention of many Ukrainian scientists. They considered the question of the essence and characteristics of this phenomenon, categorical apparatus, and formed approaches to the assessment of the state etc. Existing scientific researchers provided an opportunity for better understanding and deepening of the issues of processes of development formation, becoming the basis for further research. The purpose of the article is the definition of the potential of local governments in the sustainable development of the region, finding approaches for improving management and rational use of resources to enhance the regional development. Development of regions is the scope of display of results and public nature of local self-government. However, the results which are achieved by regional development and its level of sustainability do not meet the needs of society. The results of ongoing reforms, their economic, environmental and social significance do not correspond to spent resources and efforts of society. Strategies of regions for the transition to sustainable development are not systematic. To search for answers and ways to address the issues of the article attempts to identify common root causes in the organization of local government, the underlying increase its impact in the direction of creating conditions and ensure the flow of sustainable regional development through research and their potential influential factors. It is

  1. Evaluation of the energy saving potential in illumination using presence sensors; Evaluacion del potencial de ahorro de energia en iluminacion utilizando sensores de presencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes Eslava, Alejandro [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The analysis and the evaluation of the energy saving that would provide a system of illumination controlled by sensors of presence in an enclosure with low transit, evaluating the economic profitability of the system is presented. The data, from which the analysis is sustained and the results are deducted, coming from the use and installation of a timer in the area. [Spanish] Se presenta el analisis y la evaluacion de los ahorros de energia que suministraria un sistema de iluminacion controlado por sensores de presencia en un recinto con bajo transito, evaluando la rentabilidad economica del sistema. Los datos, a partir de los cuales se sustenta el analisis y se deducen los resultados, provienen de la utilizacion e instalacion de un contador de tiempo de uso en el recinto.

  2. The Rationale for Comparative Effectiveness of Tourist Potential Realization (Case Study of the Volga Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nikolaevna Polukhina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of long-term tourism development programs of the Volga Region. Great attention is given to the sector’s financing measures set out in development programs. Domestic and foreign tourist potential assessment methods are analyzed. Tourist potential dynamics of the Volga Region is studied based on expert opinion. Using econometric approach the authors study the correlation between tourism investments and incomes of the Volga Region for the past six years – from 2009 to 2014. The analysis was carried out using statistics provided by the Russian Tourism Association and the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation by category of profitability from paid tourist services and from hospitality and catering services. The conducted analysis helped construct the figures showing the differentiation of the Volga regions by tourism investment efficiency and tourist potential realization. It is shown that tourist potential of the territories and its realization are highly differentiated. The sub-regions of the Volga Region are divided into groups according to the effectiveness of potential realization. The effectiveness of implementation of natural recreational and historical and cultural potential is higher in the sub-regions where places of tourist accommodation and entertainment are developed enough, effective mechanisms for programs implementation control are formed and the indicators of expected effectiveness of measures implementation are elaborated. The study has revealed the need for the development of common indicators of expected final results of tourism development programs. The use of a unified system of standardized indicators should become the principle of monitoring the implementation of regional tourism development programs. Data obtained by the research will be useful for the improvement of the existing regional tourism development programs

  3. A new division of the Nordic countries into potential price regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    It has been proposed that the division of the Nordic countries into electric spot regions (potential price regions) should be changed. This implies, among other things, that Sweden is divided into three price regions. The price regions will be used for dealing with large bottlenecks, while small bottlenecks will be handled by means of countertrade. Will the change increase the risk of market power? Probably not. The present arrangement offers about equally good possibilities to exercise market power and causes price signals in general to become erroneous and that trade becomes limited. The absence of price limits in Sweden will probably not increase competition by much since the same producers are numerous on both sides of the limits. Price regions in Sweden may sharpen competition between producers in each region and producers in adjacent regions outside of Sweden

  4. Energy Savings Lifetimes and Persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Ian M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Billingsley, Megan A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This technical brief explains the concepts of energy savings lifetimes and savings persistence and discusses how program administrators use these factors to calculate savings for efficiency measures, programs and portfolios. Savings lifetime is the length of time that one or more energy efficiency measures or activities save energy, and savings persistence is the change in savings throughout the functional life of a given efficiency measure or activity. Savings lifetimes are essential for assessing the lifecycle benefits and cost effectiveness of efficiency activities and for forecasting loads in resource planning. The brief also provides estimates of savings lifetimes derived from a national collection of costs and savings for electric efficiency programs and portfolios.

  5. Contract saving schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; Eng, O.S.; Fox O'Mahony, L.; Wachter, S.

    2012-01-01

    Contractual saving schemes for housing are institutionalised savings programmes normally linked to rights to loans for home purchase. They are diverse types as they have been developed differently in each national context, but normally fall into categories of open, closed, compulsory, and ‘free

  6. Energy savings in CSFR - building sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, F.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Czechoslovak/Danish project on energy savings in buildings proves that it is possible to save up to 30% of the energy in buildings. 10% can be saved at an investment of 27 bill KCS. The total investment that is needed to save 30% is 140 bill KCS. Further energy savings can be obtained through more energy efficient supply systems. Information dissemination is important for the energy saving programme as are economic incentives. Investments in energy savings should be profitable for the investor, but this is not the case in the Czech and Slovak republics today. Changes are needed. Energy prices are still to low, compared to investment costs. Financial possibilities are not satisfactory for private investors. Price systems are not favourable to investment in energy savings. Training is needed for boiler men and energy consultants. Legislation is essential for the support of the full range of activities in the energy sector. Research and Development activities must back up the development of the sector. Pilot projects can illuminate the savings potential. The production of technical equipment for control and metering and production of insulation materials must be promoted. (AB)

  7. Medicinal plants growing in the Judea region: network approach for searching potential therapeutic targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Budovsky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing in the Judea region are widely used in traditional medicine of the Levant region. Nevertheless, they have not so far been sufficiently analyzed and their medicinal potential has not been evaluated. This study is the first attempt to fill the gap in the knowledge of the plants growing in the region. Comprehensive data mining of online botanical databases and peer-reviewed scientific literature including ethno-pharmacological surveys from the Levant region was applied to compile a full list of plants growing in the Judea region, with the focus on their medicinal applications. Around 1300 plants growing in the Judea region were identified. Of them, 25% have medicinal applications which were analyzed in this study. Screening for chemical-protein interactions, together with the network-based analysis of potential targets, will facilitate discovery and therapeutic applications of the Judea region plants. Such an approach could also be applied as an integrative platform for further searching the potential therapeutic targets of plants growing in other regions of the world.

  8. Measuring industrial energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly Kissock, J.; Eger, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Accurate measurement of energy savings from industrial energy efficiency projects can reduce uncertainty about the efficacy of the projects, guide the selection of future projects, improve future estimates of expected savings, promote financing of energy efficiency projects through shared-savings agreements, and improve utilization of capital resources. Many efforts to measure industrial energy savings, or simply track progress toward efficiency goals, have had difficulty incorporating changing weather and production, which are frequently major drivers of plant energy use. This paper presents a general method for measuring plant-wide industrial energy savings that takes into account changing weather and production between the pre and post-retrofit periods. In addition, the method can disaggregate savings into components, which provides additional resolution for understanding the effectiveness of individual projects when several projects are implemented together. The method uses multivariable piece-wise regression models to characterize baseline energy use, and disaggregates savings by taking the total derivative of the energy use equation. Although the method incorporates search techniques, multi-variable least-squares regression and calculus, it is easily implemented using data analysis software, and can use readily available temperature, production and utility billing data. This is important, since more complicated methods may be too complex for widespread use. The method is demonstrated using case studies of actual energy assessments. The case studies demonstrate the importance of adjusting for weather and production between the pre- and post-retrofit periods, how plant-wide savings can be disaggregated to evaluate the effectiveness of individual retrofits, how the method can identify the time-dependence of savings, and limitations of engineering models when used to estimate future savings

  9. Geothermal Potential Based on Physical Characteristics of the Region (Case Study: Mount Karang, Pandeglang Regency and Banten Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russel Fhillipo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is about geothermal potential of Mount Karang, Banten Province which is based on the characteristics of the region. This research method used is geochemistry sample of hot springs and integrated with GIS method for spatial of geothermal potential. Based on the geothermal potential, Mount Karang is divided into three regions, ie high potential, normal potential, and low potential. The high geothermal potential region covers an area of 24.16 Km2 and which there are Cisolong and Banjar 2 hot springs. The normal potential covers Kawah hot spring. Index of the fault of Mount Karang region is one of the significant physical characteristics to determine geothermal potential.

  10. Resource potential methods using for efficiency of activities in the region increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Vasiliev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers impact methods on the economic results, the effectiveness of the regional economic complex should be based on a high quality of the basic characteristics classification of the region state. Application composition techniques to ensure a comprehensive impact on the achievement of this goal should in synthesized form to union, adopt a target orientation of development of the region with the parameters objectively revealing his condition. Ensuring organizational, economic, financial and investment techniques to achieve the planned targets and requires specifying align resource potential of the region with the available capacity of the regional economic complex to promote economic growth, improve the efficiency of operations. The main characteristics of the potential resource opportunities in the region are the skill level of workers, the degree of depreciation of fixed assets and their renewability, increased innovation in the region, its branches and facilities, strengthening of competitive advantages, the annual average number of employees, the cost of fixed and current assets, financial stability. In the region the opportunity to potentially affect the ability of its structural components to achieve the financial and economic performance targets acts as efficiency ability to provide stable dynamics of regional production efficiency, enhance the level of benefits to achieve the planned efficiency used (consumed resource. Applying of certain methods or their entire structure, created to provide a comprehensive impact on the goal achievement, in the synthesized form of target orientation combines regional development with the parameters most objectively revealing his condition. Achieving the appropriate organizational, economic, financial, investment or other measures to achieve planned targets that are expressed by the level of efficiency of activity in the conditions of the most complete involvement and intensity of use in

  11. Site preparation savings through better utilization standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.F. Watson; B.J. Stokes; I.W. Savelle

    1984-01-01

    This reports preliminary paper results of a study to determine the savings in the cost of site preparation that can be accomplished by the intensive utiliiation of understory biomass. mechanized sys terns can potentially be used for recovering this material.

  12. The School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software (SAVES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software (SAVES) package is a tool to help school designers assess the potential financial payback and indoor humidity control benefits of Energy Recovery Ventilation (ERV) systems for school applications.

  13. Revolving fund for energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prebensen, K.

    1993-01-01

    A key issue in Eastern Europe is the adjustment of prices from the former COMECON level to a level conforming with free market conditions. In the case of household heating, this issue involves the removal of government subsidies leading to sharply increasing prices, metering of individual consumption, improving the efficiency of energy production, distribution and use - where savings of 30-50% in each link are technically feasible - thereby providing a potential for a adapting consumption patterns to higher energy prices, provided that funds are available. Currently, investment in commercial heat production and distribution systems have received substantial international support - whereas investment in reduction of demand has been little exploited. The Revolving Fund for Energy Savings in Polish Households is a concept for efficient financing of small-scale projects. It aims at financing, on the level of housing cooperatives, on the basis of a simplified lending and project evaluation procedure, well suited to current Polish conditions or an organizationally and financially weak banking system and little developed technical knowledge in the field of energy saving. A general introduction to the issue is given and technical problems are elaborated. The implementation of Energy Savings in Housing seen from the banking point of view, and a current pilot scheme for financing, are described. (AB)

  14. Estimated potential of energy saving and reduction of the demand commercial buildings illumination; Potencial estimado de ahorro de energia y reduccion de la demanda en iluminacion de edificios comerciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Gomez, Victor Hugo; Morillon Galvez, David [Posgrado en Energetica de la DEPFI-UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this paper the estimated energy saving potential in illumination, the energy end use and the technology used in commercial buildings of different use is analyzed. Estimation that departs from information of the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) demonstrative cases, presents the energy saving and the demand reduction in a sample of 29 buildings, among which are shopping malls, hospitals, schools, hotels, restaurants and public buildings in which energy saving programs have been carried out, with measures such as the cleaning of the luminaries and its replacement for more efficient ones. The average saving obtained is of 21.81%, in the following areas: illumination, air conditioning and others. In addition, in a sample of 4 buildings, it was observed that before applying the energy saving programs, two of them did not fulfill with the norm NOM-007-1995 (electric power density in interior lighting systems W/m{sup 2}) and later did fulfill the values and criteria of the norm. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se analiza el potencial estimado de ahorro de energia en iluminacion, el uso final de la energia y la tecnologia empleada en edificios comerciales de uso distinto. Estimacion que parte de la informacion de los casos demostrativos del Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia (FIDE), se presenta el ahorro y reduccion de la demanda en una muestra de 29 edificios, entre los que se tienen centros comerciales, hospitales, escuelas, hoteles, restaurantes y edificios publicos en los cuales se ha llevado a cabo programas de ahorro de energia, con medidas como la limpieza de las luminarias y su remplazo por otros mas eficientes. El ahorro promedio obtenido es de 21.81%, en las siguientes areas: iluminacion, aire acondicionado y otros. Ademas, en una muestra de 4 edificios, se observo que antes de aplicar los programas de ahorro de energia, dos no cumplian con la norma NOM-007-ENER-1995 (densidad de potencia electrica en alumbrado interior W/m{sup 2}) y

  15. Electricity savings ``soon come'' to Jamaica -- Assessing the potential for air conditioning and refrigeration end-use DSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlon, T.; Hamzawi, E.; Campbell, V.

    1998-07-01

    With the support of the Inter-American Development Bank, the Global Environment Facility of the World Bank, and the Rockefeller Foundation, the national electric utility in Jamaica (Jamaica Public Service Company) has begun an assessment of the technical, economic, and financial opportunities for achieving demand-side management (DSM) energy savings in the air conditioning and refrigeration end uses. The feasibility and cost effectiveness of specific measures is being assessed for both the residential and commercials segments. While structures as a traditional load-research-based market assessment, the project uses ethnographic data collection and analysis techniques and involves collaboration with local contractors. The skills of local experts are being taped to identify and interview the key market players, and to develop an understanding of the barriers to and opportunities for energy efficiency present in the evolving equipment markets. The paper outlines methods and presents preliminary case study results for the air conditioning market. The authors identify major groups of market players and dominant types of equipment, and provide an overview of market dynamics. The volume of sales passing through both formal and informal distribution channels is estimated and market barriers are identified. Based on the findings of the study, recommendations will be made for future program and policy initiatives designed to mitigate selected barriers in each of the supply chains.

  16. Risk transfer via energy savings insurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2001-10-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency improvements are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and apprehension about potential disputes over these savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building commissioning), financial risk transfer techniques are less developed in the energy management arena than in other more mature segments of the economy. Energy Savings Insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - is one method of transferring financial risks away from the facility owner or energy services contractor. ESI offers a number of significant advantages over other forms of financial risk transfer, e.g. savings guarantees or performance bonds. ESI providers manage risk via pre-construction design review as well as post-construction commissioning and measurement and verification of savings. We found that the two mos t common criticisms of ESI - excessive pricing and onerous exclusions - are not born out in practice. In fact, if properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy savings projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Debt service can also be ensured by matching loan payments to projected energy savings while designing the insurance mechanism so that payments are made by the insurer in the event of a savings shortfall. We estimate the U.S. ESI market potential of $875 million/year in premium income. From an energy-policy perspective, ESI offers a number of potential benefits: ESI transfers performance risk from the balance sheet of the entity implementing the energy savings project, thereby freeing up capital otherwise needed to ''self-insure'' the savings. ESI reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy services firms who do not have sufficiently strong balance

  17. Risk transfer via energy savings insurance; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Evan

    2001-01-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency improvements are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and apprehension about potential disputes over these savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building commissioning), financial risk transfer techniques are less developed in the energy management arena than in other more mature segments of the economy. Energy Savings Insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - is one method of transferring financial risks away from the facility owner or energy services contractor. ESI offers a number of significant advantages over other forms of financial risk transfer, e.g. savings guarantees or performance bonds. ESI providers manage risk via pre-construction design review as well as post-construction commissioning and measurement and verification of savings. We found that the two mos t common criticisms of ESI - excessive pricing and onerous exclusions - are not born out in practice. In fact, if properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy savings projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Debt service can also be ensured by matching loan payments to projected energy savings while designing the insurance mechanism so that payments are made by the insurer in the event of a savings shortfall. We estimate the U.S. ESI market potential of$875 million/year in premium income. From an energy-policy perspective, ESI offers a number of potential benefits: ESI transfers performance risk from the balance sheet of the entity implementing the energy savings project, thereby freeing up capital otherwise needed to ''self-insure'' the savings. ESI reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy services firms who do not have sufficiently strong balance sheets to self

  18. Saving gas project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasques, Maria Anunciacao S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garantizado, Maria Auxiliadora G. [CONCREMAT Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The work presented was implemented in municipalities around the construction of the pipeline project Urucu-Coari-Manaus, the Engineering / IETEG-IENOR, because of the constant release of workers, consequently the finishing stages of this work and its future completion. The Project aims to guide saving gas with the workforce, their families and communities to the enterprise of small business cooperatives and solidarity within the potential of the site. This project is developed through the workshops: entrepreneur ship, tourism, use, reuse and recycling of products, and hortifruiti culture, agroecology, agribusiness (cooperativism solidarity) and forestry. Its execution took place in two phases, the first called 'pilot' of 12/12/2007 to 27/03/2008 in sections A and B1, in the municipality of Coari stretch and B2 in Caapiranga. The second phase occurred from 30/06 to 27/09/08, in the words B1, in the municipalities of Codajas and Anori words and B2 in Iranduba, Manacapuru and Anama. The workshops were held in state and municipal schools and administered by the Institute of Social and Environmental Amazon - ISAM, which had a team of coordinators, teachers, experts and masters of the time until the nineteen twenty-two hours to implement the project. (author)

  19. Save energy, without entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmeyer, D.

    1992-01-01

    When we talk about saving energy what we usually mean is not wasting work. What we try to do when we design a process, is to use work as effectively as possible. It's hard to do that if we can't see it clearly. This paper illustrates how work can be seen (or calculated) without imposing entropy as a screen in front of it. We've all heard that the second law tells us that the entropy of the universe is increasing, and we are left with the feeling that the universe is ultimately headed for chaos, but receive little other information from this statement. A slightly more useful statement of the second law is the work potential of the universe is decreasing. However, this statement carries a needlessly negative ring. A simplified definition of the second law is: It takes work to change things. With these two corollaries: We can calculate the theoretical minimum work needed for a given change; and We can express the value of all changes in terms of work

  20. Water Saving Strategies & Ecological Modernisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Elle, Morten

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on case studies of water saving campaigns and new collaborations, the pa-per will serve, on the one hand, as an interpretation of the water saving strategy in Co-penhagen in the light of Ecological Modernisation, and on the other hand, as a critical discussion of Ecological Modernisation...... as a frame for understanding resource manage-ment. The water management in Copenhagen has in recent years undergone a rather radi-cal transition. Along with strong drivers for resource management in the region the mu-nicipal water supplier has tested and implemented a number of initiatives to promote sus...... to 125 l/capita/day in 2002. A series of different strategies, targets and tools have been implemented: Emphasizing demand side instead of supply side, using and communicating indicators, formulating goals for reducing water consumption and developing learning processes in water management. A main...

  1. The marketing research on potential outbound tourists in Shanghai to travel in the Kuopio region

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Despite vast researches have been made in the tourism industry, little is known about the tourism in the Kuopio region and the sport activities. This thesis aimed to seek the potential outbound tourists in Shanghai who would be interested to travel to Finland, especially the Kuopio region. The sport activities in Kuopio are popular so that the thesis is also about attitudes of sports tourism. The thesis is made up of two parts: the theoretical part and the empirical part. The author intr...

  2. Meta-modeling soil organic carbon sequestration potential and its application at regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhongkui; Wang, Enli; Bryan, Brett A; King, Darran; Zhao, Gang; Pan, Xubin; Bende-Michl, Ulrike

    2013-03-01

    Upscaling the results from process-based soil-plant models to assess regional soil organic carbon (SOC) change and sequestration potential is a great challenge due to the lack of detailed spatial information, particularly soil properties. Meta-modeling can be used to simplify and summarize process-based models and significantly reduce the demand for input data and thus could be easily applied on regional scales. We used the pre-validated Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to simulate the impact of climate, soil, and management on SOC at 613 reference sites across Australia's cereal-growing regions under a continuous wheat system. We then developed a simple meta-model to link the APSIM-modeled SOC change to primary drivers, i.e., the amount of recalcitrant SOC, plant available water capacity of soil, soil pH, and solar radiation, temperature, and rainfall in the growing season. Based on high-resolution soil texture data and 8165 climate data points across the study area, we used the meta-model to assess SOC sequestration potential and the uncertainty associated with the variability of soil characteristics. The meta-model explained 74% of the variation of final SOC content as simulated by APSIM. Applying the meta-model to Australia's cereal-growing regions reveals regional patterns in SOC, with higher SOC stock in cool, wet regions. Overall, the potential SOC stock ranged from 21.14 to 152.71 Mg/ha with a mean of 52.18 Mg/ha. Variation of soil properties induced uncertainty ranging from 12% to 117% with higher uncertainty in warm, wet regions. In general, soils in Australia's cereal-growing regions under continuous wheat production were simulated as a sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide with a mean sequestration potential of 8.17 Mg/ha.

  3. Potential hippocampal region atrophy in diabetes mellitus type 2. A voxel-based morphometry VSRAD study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyama, Kazutoshi; Sugihara, Masaki; Wada, Akihiko

    2010-01-01

    Among diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) patients, the frequency of cognitive dysfunction is higher and the relative risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is approximately twice that of nondiabetics. Cognitive impairment symptoms of AD are induced by limbic system dysfunction, and an early-stage AD brain without dementia has the potential for atrophy in the hippocampal region. In this study, we estimated potential hippocampal region atrophy in DM2 and pursued the association between DM2 and cognitive impairment/AD. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was performed in 28 diabetics (14 men, 14 women; ages 59-79 years, mean 70.7 years) and 28 sex- and age- matched (±1 year) nondiabetics. Severity of gray matter loss in the hippocampal region and whole brain were investigated. Group analysis was performed using two-tailed unpaired t-test; significance was assumed with less than 1% (P<0.01) of the critical rate. There was a significant difference between diabetics and nondiabetics regarding the severity of hippocampal region atrophy and whole-brain atrophy. Only diabetics showed a positive correlation for severity of hippocampal region atrophy and whole-brain atrophy (rs=0.69, P<0.0001). Aged DM2 patients have the potential for hippocampal region atrophy, and its dysfunction can be related to the expression of a cognitive impairment that resembles AD. (author)

  4. Invisible costs, visible savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefever, G

    1999-08-01

    By identifying hidden inventory costs, nurse managers can save money for the organization. Some measures include tracking and standardizing supplies, accurately evaluating patients' needs, and making informed purchasing decisions.

  5. Realized Cost Savings 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This dataset is provided as a requirement of OMB’s Integrated Data Collection (IDC) and links to VA’s Realized Cost Savings and Avoidances data in JSON format. Cost...

  6. The modern water-saving agricultural technology: Progress and focus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... DEVELOPING TENDENCY OF MODERN WATER-. SAVING AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY. Excavation of the own water-saving potential using biotechnology. The biological water-saving technology that uses crop physiology control and modern breeding techniques to increase production and water ...

  7. THE CONCEPTUAL BASIS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL BUSINESS POTENTIAL IN THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Hryshyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of conceptual foundations of the development of the potential of small business in the region. The purpose of the article is to study the essence and features of small business potential and to form conceptual foundations of its development at the regional level. The subject of the research is theoretical, methodological, and practical aspects of the potential of small business in providing a sustainable economic growth. In the course of the research, the following general scientific and special methods are used: dialectical, system analysis, graphical analysis, matrix, mathematical modelling in economics, and logical generalization of results. The essence of the category “small business potential of the region” is studied; it should be understood as a complex system of balanced and mutually related elements in the form of conditions, resources, and opportunities for small business enterprises in the region to conduct production, economic, commercial, and other activities in order to ensure public needs in terms of sustainable economic growth. Methodological principles for forming a conceptual model for the development of small business potential and the scheme of generalized stages of its implementation (preparatory, analytical, operational stages and stage of introduction and implementation are determined, the implementation of which will help to determine the preconditions for the formation of strategic potential, assess its modern quantitative and qualitative composition, and make a forecast of prospects of the use in ensuring sustainable economic growth. It is proposed to use economic and mathematical models, by means of which it is possible to quantitatively describe the connection between the input indicators of the economic system and the performance indicator. In order to substantiate directions of development of the potential of small business in the region in view of its role in creating new jobs

  8. Comparing the potential for identification of lactobacillus spp. of 16s rDNA variable regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riano Pachon, Diego Mauricio; Vanegas Lopez, Maria Consuelo; Gonzalez Garcia, Laura Natalia

    2013-01-01

    16s rDNA is used for bacterial identification because its variation rate between species allows differentiation. The gene for this ribosomal subunit has 9 variable regions and some of them give more information than others. We were interested in evaluating the potential for species identification of each region and their combinations. We extracted the V1 to V8 regions of 16s rDNA from different strains and species of Lactobacillus and analyzed them using STAP (ss-RNA Taxonomy Assigning Pipeline) and RDP (Ribosomal Database Project) multiclassifier packages. Phylogenetic trees obtained by maximum likelihood analyses were compared. Classification results show that many regions give the correct genus classification using RDP and STAP; however they are not enough to classify up to the level of species. V5V6 region presents the highest quantity of informative fragments but also present the highest rate of false negatives. V1V3 region presents the highest rate of true positives (species) using STAP and the region V5V8 in RDP (genus).The phylogenetic result shows that the reference topology could be obtained using different combination of regions as V1V3 and V1V8.The experimental validation was done using commercial strains from a probiotic tampon. Sequencing analysis show that the V1V3 region gives the same information and result as the complete 16s rDNA; the three isolated strains correspond to the strains indicated in the product. We conclude that the V1V3 region is the minimum required region to classify Lactobacillus spp. in the correct way and this region is useful in metagenomics to analyze probiotics samples.

  9. On the link between potential evaporation and regional evaporation from a CBL perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, J. P.; Guilioni, L.

    2010-07-01

    The relationship between potential evaporation and actual evaporation was first examined by Bouchet (Proc Berkeley Calif Symp IAHS Publ, 62:134-142, 1963) who considered potential evaporation as the consequence of regional evaporation due to atmospheric feedbacks. Using a heuristic approach, he derived a complementary relationship which, despite no real theoretical background, has proven to be very useful in interpreting many experimental data under various climatic conditions. Here, the relationship between actual and potential evaporation is reinterpreted in the context of the development of the convective boundary layer (CBL): first, with a closed-box approach, where the CBL has an impermeable lid; and then with an open system, where air is exchanged between the CBL and its external environment. By applying steady forcing to these systems, it is shown that an equilibrium state is reached, where potential evaporation has a specific equilibrium formulation as a function of two parameters: one representing large-scale advection and the other the feedback effect of regional evaporation on potential evaporation, i.e. a kind of “medium-scale advection”. It is also shown that the original form of Bouchet’s complementary relationship is not verified in the equilibrium state. This analysis leads us to propose a new and more rational approach of the relationship between potential and actual evaporation through the effective surface resistance of the region.

  10. Synthesis and Summary Report on State of the Art, Drivers and Stakeholders of Energy Efficiency in Agricullture, and Potential of Energy Saving Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Buisonje, de F.E.; Ellen, H.H.; Stanghellini, C.; Voort, van der M.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in the energy efficiency of agricultural production have the potential to significantly reduce energy inputs and thereby reducing production costs and greenhouse gas emissions. Energy efficiency analysis depicts the distribution of energy inputs in a given agricultural production system

  11. Assessment of wastewater effluent quality in Thessaly region, Greece, for determining its irrigation reuse potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakopoulou, S; Emmanouil, C; Kungolos, A

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess wastewater effluent quality in Thessaly region, Greece, in relation to its physicochemical and microbiological burden as well as its toxic potential on a number of organisms. Wastewater may be used for agricultural as well as for landscape irrigation purposes; therefore, its toxicity potential is quite important. Thessaly region has been chosen since this region suffers from a distinct water shortage in summer period necessitating alternative water resources. During our research, treated effluents from four wastewater treatment plants operating in the region (Larissa, Volos, Karditsa, and Tirnavos) were tested for specific physicochemical and microbiological parameters [biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), pH, electrical conductivity, selected metals presence (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, As), and fecal coliforms' (FC) number]. The effluents were also tested for their toxicity using two different bioassays (Daphnia magna immobilization test and Phytotoxkit microbiotest). The findings were compared to relative regulations and guidelines regarding wastewater reuse for irrigation. The results overall show that secondary effluents in Thessaly region are generally acceptable for reuse for irrigation purposes according to limits set by legislation, if effective advanced treatment methods are applied prior to reuse. However, their potential toxicity should be closely monitored, since it was found that it may vary significantly in relation to season and location, when indicator plant and zooplankton organisms are used. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A comparison of six potential evapotranspiration methods for regional use in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianbiao Lu; Ge Sun; Steven G. McNulty; Devendra Amatya

    2005-01-01

    Potential evapotranspiration (PET) is an important index of hydrologic budgets at different spatial scales and is a critical variable for understanding regional biological processes. It is often an important variable in estimating actual evapotranspiration (AET) in rainfall-runoff and ecosystem modeling. However, PET is defined in different ways in the literature and...

  13. Risk transfer via energy savings insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Evan

    2001-01-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency improvements are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and apprehension about potential disputes over these savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building commissioning), financial risk transfer techniques are less developed in the energy management arena than in other more mature segments of t...

  14. Potential Vorticity Evolution in the Co-orbital Region of Embedded Protoplanets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, J.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis presents two-dimensional hydrodynamic disk simulations with embedded protoplanets, emphasizing the non-linear dynamics in the co-orbital region. In particular, it demonstrates how a protoplanetary disk responds to embedded low mass planets at the inviscid limit. Since the potential vorticity (PV) flow is not conserved, due to the spiral shocks and possibly boundary layer effects emanating from the planet, the PV profile develops inflection points which eventually render the flow unstable. Vortices are produced in association with the potential vorticity minima. Born in the separatrix region, these vortices experience close encounters with the planet, consequently exerting strong torques on the planet. The existence of these vortices, if confirmed, have important implications on planetary migration rates. The formation of vortices is discussed in more detail and a key parameter is found which depends solely on planet mass and sound speed. With this key parameter, one can predict the disk evolution, PV growth rates, and threshold conditions for forming vortices in the co-orbital region. An analytical estimate for the change of PV due to shocks is compared to the actual change in PV in the hydrodynamic simulations. They match well except in the inner region where vortices form. In addition, extensive resolution tests were carried out but uncertainties remain about the physics of this particular region

  15. Inferring Saving in Training Time From Effect Size Estimates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burright, Burke

    2000-01-01

    .... Students' time saving represents a major potential benefit of using them. This paper fills a methodology gap in estimating the students' timesaving benefit of asynchronous training technologies...

  16. Plasma potential measurements in the edge region of the ISTTOK plasma, using electron emissive probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, C.; Balan, P.; Schrittwieser, R.; Cabral, J.A.; Fernandes, H.; Figueiredo, H. F.C.; Varandas, C.

    2001-01-01

    We have recently started to use electron-emissive probes for direct measurements of the plasma potential and its fluctuations in the edge region of the plasma ring in the tokamak ISTTOK in Lisbon, Portugal. This method is based on the fact that the electron emission current of such a probe is able to compensate electron temperature variations and electron drifts, which can occur in the edge plasma region of magnetized fusion devices, and which are making measurements with cold probes prone to errors. In this contribution we present some of the first results of our investigations in ISTTOK.(author)

  17. Electric energy savings from new technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, R.J.; Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for ten technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all ten technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Thus, the savings projected here represent between 4% and 14% of total consumption projected for 2000. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference forecast, reducing projected electricity consumption from what it otherwise would have been, the savings estimated here should not be directly subtracted from the reference forecast.

  18. Potential for energy saving and renewable energy in Utrecht, Netherlands. Preliminary validation for the Utrecht municipality; Potentieel energiebesparing en duurzame energie Utrecht. Onderbouwingsnotitie voor de gemeente Utrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, J.H.B.; Warringa, G.E.A.

    2012-10-15

    Utrecht has stated its intention to achieve CO2 neutrality of the local energy supply by 2030. Having conducted its own exploratory study into the steps that would need to be taken to achieve this aim, City Hall asked CE Delft to pass judgment on the target and how it is hoped to be achieved. While characterized by both CE Delft and interviewed scientists as very substantial, Utrecht's ambitions are also regarded as a worthy aim to pursue. City Hall's estimates of the reduction potential of the envisaged measures 28% of total projected emission cuts in 2030 via energy efficiency measures and 35% via renewable energy - are deemed realistic by CE Delft. Although the potential reduction via all options was estimated on the basis of the maximum feasible potential, there still remains a substantial policy gap. The analysis makes clear that robust policy choices are required in order to come close to achieving the stated ambitions [Dutch] De gemeente Utrecht heeft zich tot doel gesteld om in 2030 de lokale energievoorziening CO2-neutraal te hebben. Binnen de gemeente is een ambtelijke verkenning uitgevoerd naar de maatregelen om invulling te geven aan deze ambitie. Utrecht heeft CE Delft gevraagd een oordeel te geven over de ambitie en de invulling daarvan. De ambitie van Utrecht wordt zowel door CE Delft als geïnterviewde wetenschappers getypeerd als fors, maar tegelijk als een goed punt aan de horizon om naar toe te werken. De inschattingen van Utrecht rond het reductiepotentieel van de maatregelen worden door CE Delft beoordeeld als realistisch. Dit houdt in dat 28% van de totaal verwachte uitstoot in 2030 wordt gereduceerd door besparingsmaatregelen en 35% met de inzet van duurzame energie. Hoewel bij de inschatting van de mogelijke reductie voor alle opties is gerekend met het maximaal haalbare potentieel resteert er een aanzienlijk beleidsgat. De analyse maakt duidelijk dat echte beleidskeuzen nodig zijn om realisatie van de ambitie te benaderen.

  19. Porte de Gascogne region - Energy-climate profile. Study of the potential in renewable energy and in energy management in five communes of the Porte de Gascogne region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    After a presentation of the studied territory, a recall of challenges related to climate change, a discussion of the role of Climate-Air-Energy Regional Schemes (SRCAE), this study reports an analysis of the territory vulnerability to climate change under different aspects (climate, biodiversity, water, agriculture, built environment, soil erosion, others). It draws the energy-climate profile of the region in terms of energy consumption and of vulnerability. These issues are then addressed per sector (housing, tertiary, agriculture, industry, transports, wastes, good consumption, tourism). Energy production is analysed (renewable energies, solar thermal, photovoltaic, wood, biomass, biogas, geothermal, combustion, bio-fuel). Scenarios are defined for energy saving, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy production, and carbon storage. An action plan is then defined. A second document reports studies of energy consumption, heritage, possibilities of development of renewable energies, and possibilities of development of positive energy building in the case of five communes (Fleurance, Gimont, Lectoure, Saint-Clar, and Samatan)

  20. Development of innovative potential of the region as a way to increase Russian economy competitiveness in today's realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamkova S. P.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available the article explains the importance of the development of innovation as the economic competitiveness of regions of Russia. Considered term innovation potential of the region. The problems of development of innovative potential of the region and ways to solve them.

  1. Travel demand policies for saving oil during a supply emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noland, Robert B.; Cowart, William A.; Fulton, Lewis M.

    2006-01-01

    An area of growing concern is the future stability of oil producing regions and the ability to maintain stability in international petroleum markets. The transport sector, in particular, is extremely vulnerable to short-term supply disruptions with consequent implications on economic activities in most countries. This paper analyses potential transport demand restraint strategies that could potentially mitigate the impact of short-term supply disruptions. Our analysis includes estimates of the potential fuel savings from several policies. Specifically, we examine various work-based policies (telecommuting, flexible work schedules), the potential of carpooling, speed limit reductions, driving bans and restrictions, increased public transport usage, and providing information on the effect of maintaining optimal tire pressures. The analysis uses various assumptions based on existing knowledge about how travelers may respond under emergency conditions to develop estimates of potential fuel savings. Results suggest that the most restrictive policies, such as driving bans and mandatory carpooling are the most effective. Other policies provide small reductions with some, such as telecommuting and flexible work schedules, having the potential to be easily implemented. Those policies, focussed on encouraging public transport use, are less effective and potentially more costly to implement

  2. Travel demand policies for saving oil during a supply emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noland, Robert B. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Centre for Transport Studies, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: r.noland@imperial.ac.uk; Cowart, William A. [ICF Consulting, Ltd., Egmont House, 25-31 Tavistock Place, Bloomsbury, London, WC1H 9SU (United Kingdom); Fulton, Lewis M. [International Energy Agency, 9 Rue de la Federation, Paris 75015 (France)

    2006-11-15

    An area of growing concern is the future stability of oil producing regions and the ability to maintain stability in international petroleum markets. The transport sector, in particular, is extremely vulnerable to short-term supply disruptions with consequent implications on economic activities in most countries. This paper analyses potential transport demand restraint strategies that could potentially mitigate the impact of short-term supply disruptions. Our analysis includes estimates of the potential fuel savings from several policies. Specifically, we examine various work-based policies (telecommuting, flexible work schedules), the potential of carpooling, speed limit reductions, driving bans and restrictions, increased public transport usage, and providing information on the effect of maintaining optimal tire pressures. The analysis uses various assumptions based on existing knowledge about how travelers may respond under emergency conditions to develop estimates of potential fuel savings. Results suggest that the most restrictive policies, such as driving bans and mandatory carpooling are the most effective. Other policies provide small reductions with some, such as telecommuting and flexible work schedules, having the potential to be easily implemented. Those policies, focussed on encouraging public transport use, are less effective and potentially more costly to implement.

  3. Leadership potential analysis of elementary school headmaster candidates in trenggalek region, east java Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, BS; Sulistinah

    2018-01-01

    Leadership is the important component that should be possessed by headmaster candidates. Headmaster with a strong leadership potential can make a better development for school so there are many people say that “school is headmaster itself”. This study was aimed to analyze leadership potential of elementary school headmaster candidates in Trenggalek region. The samples of this study were 46 teachers who followed headmaster selection. The measurement was conducted through Leadership Potential Assessment (LPA) and interview. The result showed that there were 24 of 46 teachers who followed the test and interview had a good leadership potential to lead the elementary school. Of 24 candidates who passed the test had a good result on leadership skill, as follows: 1) quick and urgent decision making, 2) critical decision making, 3) creative decision making, and decision making based on evident that implements the four leadership skill (influence, move, develop and empower).

  4. What are the cost savings associated with providing access to specialist care through the Champlain BASE eConsult service? A costing evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddy, Clare; Drosinis, Paul; Deri Armstrong, Catherine; McKellips, Fanny; Afkham, Amir; Keely, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study estimates the costs and potential savings associated with all eConsult cases completed between 1 April 2014 and 31 March 2015. Design Costing evaluation from the societal perspective estimating the costs and potential savings associated with all eConsults completed during the study period. Setting Champlain health region in Eastern Ontario, Canada. Population Primary care providers and specialists registered to use the eConsult service. Main outcome measures Costs included (1) delivery costs; (2) specialist remuneration; (3) costs associated with traditional (face-to-face) referrals initiated as a result of eConsult. Potential savings included (1) costs of traditional referrals avoided; (2) indirect patient savings through avoided travel and lost wages/productivity. Net potential societal cost savings were estimated by subtracting total costs from total potential savings. Results A total of 3487 eConsults were completed during the study period. In 40% of eConsults, a face-to-face specialist visit was originally contemplated but avoided as result of eConsult. In 3% of eConsults, a face-to-face specialist visit was not originally contemplated but was prompted as a result of the eConsult. From the societal perspective, total costs were estimated at $207 787 and total potential savings were $246 516. eConsult led to a net societal saving of $38 729 or $11 per eConsult. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate potential cost savings from the societal perspective, as patients avoided the travel costs and lost wages/productivity associated with face-to-face specialist visits. Greater savings are expected once we account for other costs such as avoided tests and visits and potential improved health outcomes associated with shorter wait times. Our findings are valuable for healthcare delivery decision-makers as they seek solutions to improve care in a patient-centred and efficient manner. PMID:27338880

  5. Geothermal direct heat use: Market potential/penetration analysis for Federal Region 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, W. (Editor); Tang, K. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential for geothermal direct heat use in Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Nevada (Federal Region 9). An analysis was made of each state to: (1) define the resource, based on the latest available data; (2) assess the potential market growth for geothermal energy; and (3) estimate the market penetration, projected to 2020. Findings of the study include the following: (1) Potentially economical hydrothermal resources exist in all four states of the Region: however, the resource data base is largely incomplete, particularly for low to moderate temperature resources. (2) In terms of beneficial heat, the total hydrothermal resource identified so far for the four states is on the order of 43 Quads, including an estimated 34 Quads of high temperature resources which are suitable for direct as well as electrical applications. (3) In California, Hawaii, and Nevada, the industrial market sector has somewhat greater potential for penetration than the residential/commercial sector. In Arizona, however, the situation is reversed, due to the collocation of two major metropolitan areas (Phoenix and Tucson) with potential geothermal resources.

  6. Potential of carbon mitigation by vertical axis wind turbines in urban regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, K.; Naterer, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    The potential of greenhouse gas reduction with vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) in urban centers is examined in this paper. Four different wind turbine designs are compared, in terms of greenhouse gas reduction and specific energy distribution of the wind energy resource. A VAWT can potentially improve power generation capability in turbulent regions, where wind conditions can be represented by an exponential function. Results are presented to demonstrate that a VAWT covering one square metre, installed in 50% of Toronto residential dwellings, could mitigate between 29,193 and 138,741 tonnes of CO 2 per year. (author)

  7. WAYS TO INCREASE LEVERAGE RURAL TOURISM POTENTIAL OF THE HISTORICAL REGIONS CRIŞANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBU IONEL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we aimed to identify some ways of increasing the recovery of the tourism potential of the historical region Crisan. Given the multitude of economic implications, socio-cultural and environmental impacts of rural tourism by increasing recovery tourist potential, the positive impact of this economic activity will be felt by all concerned: residents, entrepreneurs, tourists and local public administration. By the way, tourists will benefit a greater diversity of services for accommodation, dining and leisure, causing them to disseminate their opinions among other tourists and even return to those places.

  8. Quantification of climate tourism potential of Croatia based on measured data and regional modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosy, Caroline; Zaninovic, Ksenija; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Tourism is one of the most important economic sectors in Croatia. The Adriatic coast is a popular travel destination for tourists, especially during the summer months. During their activities, tourists are affected by atmospheric conditions and therefore by weather and climate. Therefore, it is important to have reliable information about thermal conditions as well as their impacts on human beings. Here, the climate tourism potential of Croatia is presented and quantified on the basis of three selected stations in different climatic regions. The physiologically equivalent temperature is used for analysis as well as other climatic parameters relevant for tourism and recreation. The results already point to hot conditions for outdoor activities in summer during afternoons, especially along the coast but also for continental regions, resulting in a reduction of the climate tourism potential. In the future, this trend looks set to increase, possibly leading to a changing tourism sector in Croatia requiring adaptation and new strategies.

  9. Geothermal system 'Toplets' and geothermal potential of Dojran region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakashev, Deljo; Delipetrov, Marjan; Jovanov, Kosta

    2008-01-01

    The Toplets geothermal spring that expands into a wide geothermal net in the watershed of Lake Dojran along the geophysical exploration work carried out in the terrain, indicated the presence of a significant geothermal potential in the region. In the future it may become the major factor for the development of vegetable growing, the use of the medicinal properties of the mineral spas and tourism as well as the prosperity of the region. Water temperature in Lake Dojran amounts 15°C to 28°C during the year that is mach higher compared with the temperature of water lakes in neighbouring Greece. This indicates that beneath Lake Dojran there are other geothermal sources that replenish the lake with thermal water. Such manifestations of geothermal energy in the region along with other thermal phenomena speak for the presence of large reserves of geothermal energy in the Dojran depression. (Author)

  10. Geothermal system 'Toplets' and geothermal potential of Dojran region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakashev, Deljo; Delipetrov, Marjan; Jovanov, Kosta

    2007-01-01

    The Toplets geothermal spring that expands into a wide geothermal net in the watershed of Lake Dojran along the geophysical exploration work carried out in the terrain, indicated the presence of a significant geothermal potential in the region. In the future it may become the major factor for the development of vegetable growing, the use of the medicinal properties of the mineral spas and tourism as well as the prosperity of the region. Water temperature in Lake Dojran amounts 15°C to 28°C during the year that is mach higher compared with the temperature of water lakes in neighbouring Greece. This indicates that beneath Lake Dojran there are other geothermal sources that replenish the lake with thermal water. Such manifestations of geothermal energy in the region along with other thermal phenomena speak for the presence of large reserves of geothermal energy in the Dojran depression. (Author)

  11. Potentials of positron emission tomography for regional cerebral blood flow evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depresseux, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    A general overview of the potentials of positron emission tomography and of positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals for the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow is proposed and discussed. Specific characteristics of this technique are described, with special stress on conceptual and methodological implications. Four different approaches to the problem of the determination of cerebral blood flow are distinguished: trapping equilibrium methods, steady state equilibrium methods, clearance methods and convoluted kinetic methods [fr

  12. Sign Up for Savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Discusses performance service contracts between educational facilities and energy services companies, in which the company provides the money for energy-efficiency improvements and the school pays the company an annual fee. The company guarantees the savings will meet or exceed the fee. (EV)

  13. Saving Malta's music memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sant, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Maltese music is being lost. Along with it Malta loses its culture, way of life, and memories. Dr Toni Sant is trying to change this trend through the Malta Music Memory Project (M3P) http://www.um.edu.mt/think/saving-maltas-music-memory-2/

  14. Save Our Water Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…

  15. Gun control saves lives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gun control legislation. One study estimated that more than 4 500 lives were saved across five SA cities from 2001 to 2005.[5] Pro-gun interest groups seeking to promote gun ownership and diffusion have attacked these findings, suggesting that stricter gun control was only enacted in 2004 following the publication of ...

  16. Identification and therapeutic potential of a vitronectin binding region of meningococcal msf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl J Hill

    Full Text Available The human pathogen Neisseria meningitides (Nm attains serum resistance via a number of mechanisms, one of which involves binding to the host complement regulator protein vitronectin. We have shown previously that the Meningococcal surface fibril (Msf, a trimeric autotransporter, binds to the activated form of vitronectin (aVn to increase Nm survival in human serum. In this study, we aimed to identify the aVn-binding region of Msf to assess its potential as an antigen which can elicit antibodies that block aVn binding and/or possess bactericidal properties. Using several recombinant Msf fragments spanning its surface-exposed region, the smallest aVn-binding recombinants were found to span residues 1-86 and 39-124. The use of further deletion constructs and overlapping recombinant Msf fragments suggested that a region of Msf comprising residues 39-82 may be primarily important for aVn binding and that other regions may also be involved but to a lesser extent. Molecular modelling implicated K66 and K68, conserved in all available Msf sequences, to be involved in the interaction. Recombinant fragments which bound to aVn were able to reduce the survival advantage conveyed by aVn-interaction in serum bactericidal assays. Antibodies raised against one such fragment inhibited aVn binding to Msf. In addition, the antibodies enhanced specific killing of Msf-expressing Nm in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, this study identifies an aVn-binding region of Msf, an adhesin known to impart serum resistance properties to the pathogen; and shows that this region of Msf can elicit antibodies with dual properties which reduce pathogen survival within the host and thus has potential as a vaccine antigen.

  17. Identification and therapeutic potential of a vitronectin binding region of meningococcal msf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Darryl J; Griffiths, Natalie J; Borodina, Elena; Andreae, Clio A; Sessions, Richard B; Virji, Mumtaz

    2015-01-01

    The human pathogen Neisseria meningitides (Nm) attains serum resistance via a number of mechanisms, one of which involves binding to the host complement regulator protein vitronectin. We have shown previously that the Meningococcal surface fibril (Msf), a trimeric autotransporter, binds to the activated form of vitronectin (aVn) to increase Nm survival in human serum. In this study, we aimed to identify the aVn-binding region of Msf to assess its potential as an antigen which can elicit antibodies that block aVn binding and/or possess bactericidal properties. Using several recombinant Msf fragments spanning its surface-exposed region, the smallest aVn-binding recombinants were found to span residues 1-86 and 39-124. The use of further deletion constructs and overlapping recombinant Msf fragments suggested that a region of Msf comprising residues 39-82 may be primarily important for aVn binding and that other regions may also be involved but to a lesser extent. Molecular modelling implicated K66 and K68, conserved in all available Msf sequences, to be involved in the interaction. Recombinant fragments which bound to aVn were able to reduce the survival advantage conveyed by aVn-interaction in serum bactericidal assays. Antibodies raised against one such fragment inhibited aVn binding to Msf. In addition, the antibodies enhanced specific killing of Msf-expressing Nm in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, this study identifies an aVn-binding region of Msf, an adhesin known to impart serum resistance properties to the pathogen; and shows that this region of Msf can elicit antibodies with dual properties which reduce pathogen survival within the host and thus has potential as a vaccine antigen.

  18. Entrepreneurial potential in less innovative regions: the impact of social and cultural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. García-Rodríguez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role that the sociocultural, family and university environment play in the entrepreneurial intention of young people in a peripheral and less innovative region. Design/methodology/approach - The authors adopted the perspective of the theory of planned behavior and made an empirical study with a sample of 1,064 Spanish university students who voluntarily participated in the GUESSS Project answering an online questionnaire. A methodology based on structural equations was used employing the partial least squares structural equation modeling estimation technique. Findings - The results show that the university environment directly influences attitude, self-confidence and motivation, and indirectly the students’ entrepreneurial intention. The social context also exerts a weak direct influence on the perceived attitudes or desires toward the option to start a business and indirectly on the intention. Originality/value - The main contribution of this paper seems to confirm what previous literature highlighted in the terms of regional specificities on the link between innovation systems, the impact of entrepreneurial potential and economic development. In this sense, the university context can play an important role in generating improvements in the entrepreneurial intention’s antecedents of young people with greater potential for innovation in peripheral regions. Therefore, when it comes to defining policies to improve entrepreneurship in these regions, it seems that the establishment of entrepreneurship education and motivation programs in universities is a very effective tool to increase perceived attitude toward the option to start a new business.

  19. The potential of global solar radiation in the Silesia region as a renewable source of energy

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    Waniek Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, Silesia has been at the centre of the Polish coal industry for many years and thus has experienced poorer air quality compared to other voivodeships. However, in recent years strong economic transformation in the area has led to a considerable reduction in coal production. This study aimed to assess the variability of global solar radiation at selected stations within the Silesian voivodeship, in order to re-evaluate the resources of renewable solar energy during the period 1994–2013. The theoretical potential of solar radiation was calculated based on a three-dimensional terrain model. The data on global solar radiation from 13 stations within the Silesia region, covering the period 1994–2013, were obtained from the Regional Inspectorate of Environmental Protection in Katowice. The most favourable conditions for the use of solar energy were found at the cities Sosnowiec and Cieszyn. The largest increase in global radiation over the research period was observed in Zabrze. The average annual global radiation ranged between 600–1300 kWh·m−2. Digital Elevation Models (DEM for selected districts of the Silesia region were used to calculate the theoretical potential of global solar radiation. The highest theoretical potential of global radiation was found in the district of Cieszyn, located at the highest altitude.

  20. A new corps of trained Grand-Aides has the potential to extend reach of primary care workforce and save money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garson, Arthur; Green, Donna M; Rodriguez, Lia; Beech, Richard; Nye, Christopher

    2012-05-01

    Because the Affordable Care Act will expand health insurance to cover an estimated thirty-two million additional people, new approaches are needed to expand the primary care workforce. One possible solution is Grand-Aides®, who are health care professionals operating under the direct supervision of nurses, and who are trained and equipped to conduct telephone consultations or make primary care home visits to patients who might otherwise be seen in emergency departments and clinics. We conducted pilot tests with Grand-Aides in two pediatric Medicaid settings: an urban federally qualified health center in Houston, Texas, and a semi-rural emergency department in Harrisonburg, Virginia. We estimated that Grand-Aides and their supervisors averted 62 percent of drop-in visits at the Houston clinic and would have eliminated 74 percent of emergency department visits at the Virginia test site. We calculated the cost of the Grand-Aides program to be $16.88 per encounter. That compares with current Medicaid payments of $200 per clinic visit in Houston and $175 per emergency department visit in Harrisonburg. In addition to reducing health care costs, Grand-Aides have the potential to make a substantial impact in reducing congestion in primary care practices and emergency departments.

  1. Breaking the ritual metabolic cycle in order to save acetyl CoA: A potential role for mitochondrial humanin in T2 bladder cancer aggressiveness

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    Nesreen Nabil Omar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cancer cells may exhibit outsourcing of their high energy need in order to avoid the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis. Reduced mitochondrial respiration and accumulation of mitochondrial genome mutations are among metabolic transformations in this regard. Mitochondrial humanin (MT-RNR2 is a small peptide with anti-apoptotic activities attributed to binding some pro-apoptotic proteins. Aim of the work: The current study aims at investigating the expression of mitochondrial humanin in bladder tumor cells and the possible casting of humanin anti-apoptotic action through orchestrating some of the mitochondrial metabolic enzymes. Material and methods: Here messenger RNA of humanin, succinate dehydrogenase, glutaminase, isocitrate dehydrogenase were compared in tissues from patients with T2 bladder carcinoma in comparison to tumor associated normal tissues from the same patients. Levels of lactate and mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC1 mRNA were determined to scrutinize the prevalence of aerobic glycolysis. Results: The present study found that tumor cells had suppressed aerobic glycolysis, augmented mitochondrial respiration and interrupted tricarboxylic acid cycle, all of which were suggested to serve tumor aggressiveness. MT-RNR2 was found closely related to the alterations in mitochondrial activity. Conclusion: MT-RNR2 plays its anti-apoptotic role partly by avoiding deploying energy from complete oxidation of organic compounds to inorganic wastes. Thus MT-RNR2 can potentially serve as a new biomarker in the diagnosis of bladder carcinoma especially that it is present in blood circulation.

  2. AN INVESTIGATION OF WAVE ENERGY POTENTIAL IN WESTERN BLACK SEA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas UYGUR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main energy sources which are natural, clean, environmentally friendly, and renewable are wind power, solar energy, biomass energy, hydro energy, and wave energy. The wave energy has no cost except for the first investment and maintenance. There is also no cost for input energy. Besides these, it has no pollution effect on the environment, it is cheap and there is a huge potential all around the world. Wave energy is a good opportunity to solve the energy problem for Turkey which is surrounded by seas. Concerning all these facts, it has been conducted some studies which included five years of observation in the Western Black Sea Region (Akçakoca. The wave energy potential has also been calculated. From this sutdy results, it can be concluded that the wave energy potential of this region is inefficient. It is believed that by the improvement of the new energy converter devices in future, this low potential can be used more efficiently and as a result this study might be used as a basis for the future researches.

  3. Performance of the CORDEX regional climate models in simulating offshore wind and wind potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sumeet; Deo, M. C.; Ghosh, Subimal

    2018-03-01

    This study is oriented towards quantification of the skill addition by regional climate models (RCMs) in the parent general circulation models (GCMs) while simulating wind speed and wind potential with particular reference to the Indian offshore region. To arrive at a suitable reference dataset, the performance of wind outputs from three different reanalysis datasets is evaluated. The comparison across the RCMs and their corresponding parent GCMs is done on the basis of annual/seasonal wind statistics, intermodel bias, wind climatology, and classes of wind potential. It was observed that while the RCMs could simulate spatial variability of winds, well for certain subregions, they generally failed to replicate the overall spatial pattern, especially in monsoon and winter. Various causes of biases in RCMs were determined by assessing corresponding maps of wind vectors, surface temperature, and sea-level pressure. The results highlight the necessity to carefully assess the RCM-yielded winds before using them for sensitive applications such as coastal vulnerability and hazard assessment. A supplementary outcome of this study is in form of wind potential atlas, based on spatial distribution of wind classes. This could be beneficial in suitably identifying viable subregions for developing offshore wind farms by intercomparing both the RCM and GCM outcomes. It is encouraging that most of the RCMs and GCMs indicate that around 70% of the Indian offshore locations in monsoon would experience mean wind potential greater than 200 W/m2.

  4. Heuristic Methodology for Estimating the Liquid Biofuel Potential of a Region

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    Dorel Dusmanescu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a heuristic methodology for estimating the possible variation of the liquid biofuel potential of a region, an appraisal made for a future period of time. The determination of the liquid biofuel potential has been made up either on the account of an average (constant yield of the energetic crops that were used, or on the account of a yield that varies depending on a known trend, which can be estimated through a certain method. The proposed methodology uses the variation of the yield of energetic crops over time in order to simulate a variation of the biofuel potential for a future ten year time period. This new approach to the problem of determining the liquid biofuel potential of a certain land area can be useful for investors, as it allows making a more realistic analysis of the investment risk and of the possibilities of recovering the investment. On the other hand, the presented methodology can be useful to the governmental administration in order to elaborate strategies and policies to ensure the necessity of fuels and liquid biofuels for transportation, in a certain area. Unlike current methods, which approach the problem of determining the liquid biofuel potential in a deterministic way, by using econometric methods, the proposed methodology uses heuristic reasoning schemes in order to reduce the great number of factors that actually influence the biofuel potential and which usually have unknown values.

  5. The zonal-mean and regional tropospheric pressure responses to changes in ionospheric potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Limin; Tinsley, Brian; Wang, Lin; Burns, Gary

    2018-06-01

    Global reanalysis data reveal daily surface pressure responses to changes in the global ionospheric potential in both polar and sub-polar regions. We use 21 years of data to show that the pressure response to externally-induced ionospheric potential changes, that are due to the interplanetary magnetic field east-west (IMF By) component, are present in two separate decadal intervals, and follow the opposite ionospheric potential changes in the Arctic and Antarctic for a given By. We use the 4 years of available data to show that the pressure responses to changes in internally generated ionospheric potential, that are caused by low-latitude thunderstorms and highly electrified clouds, agree in sign and sensitivity with those externally generated. We have determined that the daily varying pressure responses are stronger in local winter and spring. The pressure responses at polar latitudes are predominantly over the Antarctic and Greenland ice caps, and those at sub-polar latitudes are of opposite sign, mainly over oceans. A lead-lag analysis confirms that the responses maximize within two days of the ionospheric potential input. Regions of surface pressure fluctuating by about 4 hPa in winter are found with ionospheric potential changes of about 40 kV. The consistent pressure response to the independent external and internal inputs strongly supports the reality of a cloud microphysical mechanism affected by the global electric circuit. A speculative mechanism involves the ionosphere-earth current density Jz, which produces space charge at cloud boundaries and electrically charged droplets and aerosol particles. Ultrafine aerosol particles, under the action of electro-anti-scavenging, are enabled to grow to condensation nuclei size, affecting cloud microphysics and cloud opacity and surface pressure on time scales of hours.

  6. An assessment of the regional potential for solar power generation in EU-28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perpiña Castillo, Carolina; Batista e Silva, Filipe; Lavalle, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    In this study we aim at assessing the potential of European regions to solar power generation and its comparison with recent European Union (EU) incentives for the development of this renewable energy source. In this study we use a multi-criteria assessment (MCA) supported by Geographical Information System (GIS) to combine already existing information on solar radiation with other geographical factors such as slope, land use, urban extent and population distribution, as well as proximity to the power grid to generate a suitability map for photovoltaic (PV) power plants across the EU at high spatial resolution. A validation exercise showed that the resulting suitability map is a good predictor of appropriate locations for the deployment of PV power plants. The suitability map was in addition compared to the regional distribution of European funds for development of solar energy from the EU Cohesion policy (2007–2013 programme). Regions were classified according their overall suitability for solar energy power systems and the allocated solar investments by the EU Cohesion policy. This analysis allowed to identify potential mismatches between fund allocations and actual regional suitability for solar energy. It is recommended that future fund allocations take into account suitability criteria for solar energy for optimised results of public policies. - Highlights: • A European suitability map for the solar energy (PV) systems deployment is created. • PV systems can contribute in a sustainable energy production in many regions in EU. • There is no correlation among the EU investment and the suitability in solar energy. • Using marginal lands to place PV systems might avoid the uptake of agricultural land. • Validation of the EU suitability map demonstrated a satisfactory degree of accuracy.

  7. Internal and external potential-field estimation from regional vector data at varying satellite altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Alain; Simons, Frederik J.

    2017-10-01

    When modelling satellite data to recover a global planetary magnetic or gravitational potential field, the method of choice remains their analysis in terms of spherical harmonics. When only regional data are available, or when data quality varies strongly with geographic location, the inversion problem becomes severely ill-posed. In those cases, adopting explicitly local methods is to be preferred over adapting global ones (e.g. by regularization). Here, we develop the theory behind a procedure to invert for planetary potential fields from vector observations collected within a spatially bounded region at varying satellite altitude. Our method relies on the construction of spatiospectrally localized bases of functions that mitigate the noise amplification caused by downward continuation (from the satellite altitude to the source) while balancing the conflicting demands for spatial concentration and spectral limitation. The `altitude-cognizant' gradient vector Slepian functions (AC-GVSF) enjoy a noise tolerance under downward continuation that is much improved relative to the `classical' gradient vector Slepian functions (CL-GVSF), which do not factor satellite altitude into their construction. Furthermore, venturing beyond the realm of their first application, published in a preceding paper, in the present article we extend the theory to being able to handle both internal and external potential-field estimation. Solving simultaneously for internal and external fields under the limitation of regional data availability reduces internal-field artefacts introduced by downward-continuing unmodelled external fields, as we show with numerical examples. We explain our solution strategies on the basis of analytic expressions for the behaviour of the estimation bias and variance of models for which signal and noise are uncorrelated, (essentially) space- and band-limited, and spectrally (almost) white. The AC-GVSF are optimal linear combinations of vector spherical harmonics

  8. POTENTIAL CLUSTERS IN BANAT AND THEIR ROLE IN REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona IŞFĂNESCU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the study of clusters and their role in the economic development of certain regions has constantly grown in the past years. This interest has also been emphasized by the emergence of successful clusters in many regions; these are clusters that have visibly and they have determined the increase in competitiveness of those particular regions. Clusters are geographic gatherings of firms and institutions, connected to each other and specialized in certain fields of activity. In Romania, due to the low cooperation level among enterprises we cannot say that proper clusters exists, but just some “spatial gatherings” of firms activating in certain domains, connected by the need of using certain natural resources and the existence of a specialized workforce in that particular domain. Natural “clusters” can be identified by means of quantitative analyses, these indicating the possibility to identify certain spatial assemblies of firms in a certain economic sector. Starting from these quantitative analyses, for Banat region have been identified some important spatial gatherings of firms activating in certain domains which could represent potential clusters in this area. As clusters function on the principle of cooperation among enterprises, a strong point of the region is the presence of foreign investors which promoted the model of enterprise cooperation through sub-contracting local enterprises. Among these, we mention the Italian investors which brought to Banat, especially to Timiş County the Italian cluster model. Are there in Banat premises for the emergence of clusters? Which are the fields of activity in which these clusters can emerge? What role will these clusters play in the economic development of the region? These are just some of the questions that we aim answering to through this study.

  9. Assessment of socio-economic potential of regions for placement of the logistic infrastructure objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Nelevich Rakhmangulov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, at the regional markets, there is a disproportion between the growing demand for transportation and logistics services and the availability of facilities needed for their implementation, which is because the high logistics costs and does not meet the strategic objectives of the country to create a common economic space. The article describes the system of market factors that have the most significant influence on the distribution of logistics facilities. Study and evaluation of potential changes in the region of logistics facility disposition are proposed to perform using simulation techniques and statistical data analysis. The article presents the engineered multivariate statistical models that control the kind and effect of correlation between socio-economic development factors of regions, as well as a simulation model, which allows to assess the dynamics of these factors and predict demand for logistics infrastructure facilities. The choice of region (subject dislocation of the logistics center is proposed to realize by the developed technique based on the calculation of the integrated index that takes into account differences in the level of socio-economic and infrastructural development of the regions. This technique in conjunction with a simulation model is applicable to a variety of administrative and territorial levels (region, city and allows to take into account both the current demand in the logistics infrastructure and demand dynamics. The technique given in the article can be used to assess the level of attractiveness of the Russian Federation in the development of public and private investment projects for the development of logistics infrastructure

  10. Save energy - for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The article is an interview with Glenn Bjorklund, Vice President of SCalEd (Southern California Edison). The variations in Californian power demand and public electricity consumption habits are explained, together with types of power source used in electricity production. Questions are posed concerning SCalEd's energy saving strategy. The political implications of electricity charge changes are discussed. The planned energy resources for 1982-1992 are given with nuclear power being the largest contributor. (H.J.P./G.T.H.)

  11. The Dynamics of the Scientific Potential of Personnel in Terms of the Regions of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuravka Andrey V.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Innovation development as well as economic growth of the country and its regions depend on the availability of scientific potential of personnel and its effective use. A brief review on this issue has been undertaken. The dynamics of scientific potential of personnel for the period of independence of Ukraine (1991–2015 in all its regions was studied. The scientific potential of personnel is considered in the context of all specialists, performing research and advanced development, and also separately in terms of candidates and doctors of sciences. It has been shown that the number of specialists, performing research and advanced development, across all Ukraine considering the period under review has decreased more than five times. During the same period, the decline in the number of candidates of science was 3,7 times, and in the doctors of science – 1.6 times. A forecast calculation of the number of specialists, performing research and advanced development, on the regression exponential dependence at the level of 2020 showed that it will reach 43,3 thousand persons, which is less than the considered number at the beginning of the «Dobrov period» (46,7 thousand people in 1960.

  12. A vectorial capacity product to monitor changing malaria transmission potential in epidemic regions of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, Pietro; Vancutsem, Christelle; Klaver, Robert; Rowland, James; Connor, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall and temperature are two of the major factors triggering malaria epidemics in warm semi-arid (desert-fringe) and high altitude (highland-fringe) epidemic risk areas. The ability of the mosquitoes to transmit Plasmodium spp. is dependent upon a series of biological features generally referred to as vectorial capacity. In this study, the vectorial capacity model (VCAP) was expanded to include the influence of rainfall and temperature variables on malaria transmission potential. Data from two remote sensing products were used to monitor rainfall and temperature and were integrated into the VCAP model. The expanded model was tested in Eritrea and Madagascar to check the viability of the approach. The analysis of VCAP in relation to rainfall, temperature and malaria incidence data in these regions shows that the expanded VCAP correctly tracks the risk of malaria both in regions where rainfall is the limiting factor and in regions where temperature is the limiting factor. The VCAP maps are currently offered as an experimental resource for testing within Malaria Early Warning applications in epidemic prone regions of sub-Saharan Africa. User feedback is currently being collected in preparation for further evaluation and refinement of the VCAP model.

  13. Formation of competitive potential of the machine-building complex of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Ivanovich Botkin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of competitive potential of regional machine-building complex in a globalized world economy. The purpose of the research is the development of theoretically reasonable economic basis of the machine-building complex considering  the  features of business in the conditions of the WTO. In the work, the hypothesis of a special role of the external economic factors locates in development of the enterprises of regional industrial complexes. The study of the theoretical provisions defining the development of the region revealed the factors determining influence of the international trade agreements on spatial localization of the industry. The main attention is paid to an analytical assessment of the current state and the trends, which have developed in the period of post-crisis economic recovery. Analysis of the main indicators of attractiveness has revealed the weak position of local industrial enterprises in the WTO. The directions of strengthening of the competitive capacity of the local industrial enterprises are defined. The obtained results allow us to increase the sustainability of the industry by means of effective management mechanism improvements and to create favorable operating conditions of a machine-building complex of the region

  14. Creation of Carbon Credits by Water Saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutoshi Shimizu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Until now, as a way of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from Japanese homes, the emphasis has been on reduction of energy consumption for air-conditioning and lighting. In recent years, there has been progress in CO2 emission reduction through research into the water-saving performance of bathroom fixtures such as toilets and showers. Simulations have shown that CO2 emissions associated with water consumption in Japanese homes can be reduced by 25% (1% of Japan’s total CO2 emissions by 2020 through the adoption of the use of water-saving fixtures. In response to this finding, a program to promote the replacement of current fixtures with water-saving toilet bowls and thermally insulated bathtubs has been added to the Government of Japan’s energy-saving policy. Furthermore, CO2 emission reduction through widespread use of water-saving fixtures has been adopted by the domestic credit system promoted by the Government of Japan as a way of achieving CO2 emission-reduction targets; application of this credit system has also begun. As part of a bilateral offset credit mechanism promoted by the Government of Japan, research to evaluate the CO2 reduction potential of the adoption of water-saving fixtures has been done in the city of Dalian, in China.

  15. Bacterial CRISPR Regions: General Features and their Potential for Epidemiological Molecular Typing Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Zahra; Ahmadi, Ali; Najafi, Ali; Ranjbar, Reza

    2018-01-01

    CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) loci as novel and applicable regions in prokaryotic genomes have gained great attraction in the post genomics era. These unique regions are diverse in number and sequence composition in different pathogenic bacteria and thereby can be a suitable candidate for molecular epidemiology and genotyping studies. Results:Furthermore, the arrayed structure of CRISPR loci (several unique repeats spaced with the variable sequence) and associated cas genes act as an active prokaryotic immune system against viral replication and conjugative elements. This property can be used as a tool for RNA editing in bioengineering studies. The aim of this review was to survey some details about the history, nature, and potential applications of CRISPR arrays in both genetic engineering and bacterial genotyping studies.

  16. Electric potential structures of auroral acceleration region border from multi-spacecraft Cluster data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, S.; Emami, M. R.

    2018-04-01

    This paper studies an auroral event using data from three spacecraft of the Cluster mission, one inside and two at the poleward edge of the bottom of the Auroral Acceleration Region (AAR). The study reveals the three-dimensional profile of the region's poleward boundary, showing spatial segmentation of the electric potential structures and their decay in time. It also depicts localized magnetic field variations and field-aligned currents that appear to have remained stable for at least 80 s. Such observations became possible due to the fortuitous motion of the three spacecraft nearly parallel to each other and tangential to the AAR edge, so that the differences and variations can be seen when the spacecraft enter and exit the segmentations, hence revealing their position with respect to the AAR.

  17. Study of the regional potential for the development of small hydroelectricity - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruillet, Mathieu; Buchet, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Whereas the potential of small hydroelectric plants in the eastern part of the PACA region, and more generally in the whole region appears to be promising to support energy supply safety, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and for local development, this study aimed at making an inventory of existing hydraulic plants (to be renewed or developed for a higher production), of existing weirs to be equipped, and of new sites to be possibly developed (non classified rives, irrigation canals, drinkable water networks). Another objective of this study was to propose a selection among the most promising sites or works. Moreover, the power for these existing or possible installations ranges from 100 kW to 10 MW. After a presentation of the adopted methodology, lists of sites are provided, as well as more detailed presentations of selected sites

  18. Regional Air Transport in Europe: The Potential Role of the Civil Tiltrotor in Reducing Airside Congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correnti, Vincenzo; Ignaccolo, Matteo; Capri, Salvatore; Inturri, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    The volume of air traffic worldwide is still in constant growth despite unfair events that sometimes occur. The demand for regional air transport is also increasing, thanks in part to the use of new vehicles purposely designed for short range flights which make this means of transport more attractive than in the past. This paper studies the possibility of using aircraft capable of vertical or short takeoff or landing (V/STOL), in particular the tiltrotor, in the regional air transport market and the impact on airport capacity that the use of this craft would have. With this in mind the advantages and disadvantages of using this vehicle are identified, as well as the changes to be made to the air transport system in order to exploit its full potential.

  19. GALATI – BRAILA: BECOMING THE POTENTIAL CAPITAL OF THE SOUTHEAST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Lucian MEHEDINTI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the arguments that can be taken into consideration in the decision of setting the conurbation assembly of Galati-Braila as a coordination area of the Southeast region. An important feature of the Galati and Braila cities is their location on the Danube-Rhine-Main Trans-European shipping artery, which may require the development of roads, including the construction of a bridge for crossing the Danube river, already proposed in the area between Galati and Braila, that can complete the road corridor of our country, as proposed in the Economic Cooperation from the Black Sea zone. The quantative research methodology used to demonstrate that the Galati and Braila cities have the potential to become the capital of the Southeast region of Romania is based on the systematic empirical investigation via statistical and numerical data that proved out to determine the fundamental social and economic interconnections such as: geographical location, natural and economic potential, administrative organization, population, working and employed population, number of unemployed population and the unemployment rate, local units of industry, construction, trade and other categories, land and the main livestock species, GDP per country/regional/counties, education and learning, educational institutions, teachers and school attendance, hospital units and health medical staff, structure of the quality of life and public roads and railways. The statistical instruments and the associations used in the present research disclosed a causal relationship between the indicators of the two counties, which in many areas are complementary, so the purpose of the research has been attained, representing a strong argument that the political factors should envisage and take the necessary steps forward in establishing a new region capital.

  20. Potential risk of regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade.

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    Anna S Dean

    Full Text Available Transboundary animal movements facilitate the spread of pathogens across large distances. Cross-border cattle trade is of economic and cultural importance in West Africa. This study explores the potential disease risk resulting from large-scale, cross-border cattle trade between Togo, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin, and Nigeria for the first time.A questionnaire-based survey of livestock movements of 226 cattle traders was conducted in the 9 biggest cattle markets of northern Togo in February-March 2012. More than half of the traders (53.5% operated in at least one other country. Animal flows were stochastically simulated based on reported movements and the risk of regional disease spread assessed. More than three quarters (79.2%, range: 78.1-80.0% of cattle flowing into the market system originated from other countries. Through the cattle market system of northern Togo, non-neighbouring countries were connected via potential routes for disease spread. Even for diseases with low transmissibility and low prevalence in a given country, there was a high risk of disease introduction into other countries.By stochastically simulating data collected by interviewing cattle traders in northern Togo, this study identifies potential risks for regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade. The findings highlight that surveillance for emerging infectious diseases as well as control activities targeting endemic diseases in West Africa are likely to be ineffective if only conducted at a national level. A regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control is essential.

  1. Potential Risk of Regional Disease Spread in West Africa through Cross-Border Cattle Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Anna S.; Fournié, Guillaume; Kulo, Abalo E.; Boukaya, G. Aboudou; Schelling, Esther; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2013-01-01

    Background Transboundary animal movements facilitate the spread of pathogens across large distances. Cross-border cattle trade is of economic and cultural importance in West Africa. This study explores the potential disease risk resulting from large-scale, cross-border cattle trade between Togo, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin, and Nigeria for the first time. Methods and Principal Findings A questionnaire-based survey of livestock movements of 226 cattle traders was conducted in the 9 biggest cattle markets of northern Togo in February-March 2012. More than half of the traders (53.5%) operated in at least one other country. Animal flows were stochastically simulated based on reported movements and the risk of regional disease spread assessed. More than three quarters (79.2%, range: 78.1–80.0%) of cattle flowing into the market system originated from other countries. Through the cattle market system of northern Togo, non-neighbouring countries were connected via potential routes for disease spread. Even for diseases with low transmissibility and low prevalence in a given country, there was a high risk of disease introduction into other countries. Conclusions By stochastically simulating data collected by interviewing cattle traders in northern Togo, this study identifies potential risks for regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade. The findings highlight that surveillance for emerging infectious diseases as well as control activities targeting endemic diseases in West Africa are likely to be ineffective if only conducted at a national level. A regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control is essential. PMID:24130721

  2. Medicinal plants of Dagala region in Bhutan: their diversity, distribution, uses and economic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Namgay, Kuenga; Gayleg, Karma; Dorji, Yeshi

    2016-06-24

    The traditional g.so-ba-rig-pa hospitals in Bhutan uses more than 100 polyingredient medicines that are manufactured by the Menjong Sorig Pharmaceuticals (MSP). The MSP has been collecting medicinal plants from Lingzhi region for about 48 years and therefore the ecological pressure on these plants have increased. It is MSP's top priority to identify an alternative collection site to ease the problem. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine whether Dagala region could potentially be an alternative collection site for MSP. First the multidisciplinary research team generated a tentative plant list by reviewing a body of ancient g.so-ba-rig-pa literature, current formulations, and the MSP medicinal plants inventory documents. Second, the research team visited the study areas in Dagala region for spot identification of medicinal plants. Third, we confirmed our traditional and botanical identification by crosschecking the descriptions with the series of books on traditional texts, Flora of Bhutan, scientific papers on medicinal plants, and the plant databases. We have identified 100 species of high altitude medicinal plants from Dagala region. Of these, 24 species grow abundantly, 29 species grow in moderate numbers and 47 species were scarce. More than 85 species belonged to the herbaceous life form and 51 of them are used as a whole plant. A total of 68 species grow in between 4000 and 4999 meter above sea level. These 100 medicinal plants represented 39 different families and 80 genera and the maximum number of plants belonged to the family Asteraceae. Of 60 species that are currently used for formulating medicines at MSP, 16 species have economic importance with potential for commercial collection. Out of seven areas covered by the survey, Kipchen hosted maximum number of medicinal plants (21 species). Our survey identified 100 medicinal plants from Dagala region and of these, 16 species has economic potential that could benefit both MSP and Dagala

  3. Potential Rebates Saved by HHS Determinations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — These estimates are provided from 2010 data. Final amount of rebates will vary with market conditions and may be lower as insurance companies lower premiums for...

  4. THE POTENTIAL OF FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS A REGIONAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT ENGINE IN THE WESTERN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Cohut Ioana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the objectives, activities, and the results of the empirical, quantitative, and qualitative research carried out in the AntrES project (AntrES - Project acronym "Entrepreneurship and Equal Opportunities. A new school for women entrepreneurship" – Antreprenoriatul şi egalitatea de şanse. Un nou model de şcoală antreprenorială pentru femei, during the two years of implementation, in the Western Romania referring to the new businesses start up; business development; the motivation and difficulties of female entrepreneurs and potentially enterprising women; of their perceptions regarding the need for entrepreneurship education, the role of female entrepreneurship promotion and the impact of the successful models on new businesses start up – this paper presents directions of action meant to emphasize and support the potential of the female entrepreneurship in Romania, as a regional growth and development engine.

  5. DO THE REGIONS OF ROMANIA HAVE POTENTIAL FOR SERVICE INNOVATION? THE CASE OF THE REGION OF BUCHAREST-ILFOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOSIF ALINA-ELENA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on conducting an assessment on one particular region of Romania, namely the region of Bucharest-Ilfov, in relation to service innovation. The paper starts with an introductory section that reveals the region’s position in terms of competitiveness and innovation within the European Union. Afterwards, a short snapshot on innovation and service innovation is included, followed by a SWOT analysis of the Region of Bucharest-Ilfov. Both the socio-economic performance of the region and the regional performance in service innovation are analyzed. The paper ends with the conclusion section that includes an overview on the main characteristics of the region from the perspective of service innovation. The region of Bucharest-Ilfov is showing its performance in service innovation through various indicators, particularly by the share of employees in service innovation intensive industries and knowledge intensive service that overcome the EU average. Particularly, the enterprises from the Bucharest-Ilfov region are mostly encountered into the services sector, but they are at their beginnings in terms of service innovation. Moreover, most of the innovation comes from SMEs that tend to offer both product and process innovation. Consequently, service innovation in the region of Bucharest-Ilfov is mainly expected to be driven by the SMEs, but taking into account that big companies have their contribution too.

  6. 'Nurture the sprouting bud; do not uproot it'. Using saving groups to save for maternal and newborn health: lessons from rural Eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Paina, Ligia; Muhumuza Kananura, Rornald; Mutebi, Aloysius; Jane, Pacuto; Tumuhairwe, Juliet; Tetui, Moses; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N

    2017-08-01

    Saving groups are increasingly being used to save in many developing countries. However, there is limited literature about how they can be exploited to improve maternal and newborn health. This paper describes saving practices, factors that encourage and constrain saving with saving groups, and lessons learnt while supporting communities to save through saving groups. This qualitative study was done in three districts in Eastern Uganda. Saving groups were identified and provided with support to enhance members' access to maternal and newborn health. Fifteen focus group discussions (FGDs) and 18 key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted to elicit members' views about saving practices. Document review was undertaken to identify key lessons for supporting saving groups. Qualitative data are presented thematically. Awareness of the importance of saving, safe custody of money saved, flexible saving arrangements and easy access to loans for personal needs including transport during obstetric emergencies increased willingness to save with saving groups. Saving groups therefore provided a safety net for the poor during emergencies. Poor management of saving groups and detrimental economic practices like gambling constrained saving. Efficient running of saving groups requires that they have a clear management structure, which is legally registered with relevant authorities and that it is governed by a constitution. Saving groups were considered a useful form of saving that enabled easy acess to cash for birth preparedness and transportation during emergencies. They are like 'a sprouting bud that needs to be nurtured rather than uprooted', as they appear to have the potential to act as a safety net for poor communities that have no health insurance. Local governments should therefore strengthen the management capacity of saving groups so as to ensure their efficient running through partnerships with non-governmental organizations that can provide support to such groups.

  7. Do Medicaid home and community based service waivers save money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Charlene; Ng, Terence; Kitchener, Martin

    2011-10-01

    This article estimates the potential savings to the Medicaid program of using 1915c Home and Community Based Services (HCBS) waivers rather than institutional care. For Medicaid HCBS waiver expenditures of $25 billion in 2006, we estimate the national savings to be over $57 billion, or $57,338 per waiver participant in 2006 compared with the cost of Medicaid institutional care (for which all waiver participants are eligible). When taking into account a potential 50% "woodwork effect" (for people who might have refused institutional services), the saving would be $21 billion. This analysis demonstrates that HCBS waiver programs present significant direct financial savings to Medicaid long-term care (LTC) programs.

  8. Technical energy savings versus changes in human behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    Energy savings seems to be the most environmentally benign element in an energy policy. The paper is a reflection on the work on saving energy both by improving technology and by adapting human daily behaviour. A simple model is suggested for the energy chain which converts the primary energy all...... the way into human satisfaction via energy services. Results of various analyses and field experiments show saving potentials for electricity of 50 - 80 per cents. Barriers for implementing these technical saving options are discussed. Also the necessity and potentials for changing behavioural or life...

  9. Geology and potential of the formation of sandstone type uranium mineralization at Hatapang region, North Sumatera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin

    2013-01-01

    The Study based on geological setting of Hatapang region, North Sumatera, identified as a favourable area to the formation of sandstone type uranium mineralization. This characterized by the occurred of anomalous radioactivity, uranium contents of the upper cretaceous granite intrusions and radioactivity anomalous of tertiary sedimentary rocks deposited in terrestrial environments. The study is objective to find out the potential formation of sandstone type-uranium mineralization within tertiary sedimentary rocks based on data’s studies of geological, geochemical, mineralogy, radioactivity of rocks. Stratigraphy of Hatapang area of the oldest to youngest are quartz units (permian-carboniferous), sandstone units (upper Triassic), granite (upper cretaceous), conglomerate units (Lower –middle Miocene) and tuff units (Pleistocene). Hatapang’s granite is S type granite which is not only potential as source of radioactive minerals, particularly placer type monazite, but also potential as source rocks of sandstone type-uranium mineralization on lighter sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rock of conglomerate units has potential as host rock, even though uranium did not accumulated in its rocks since the lack number of carbon as precipitant material and dissolved U"+"6 in water did not reduced into U"+"4 caused the uranium mineralization did not deposited. (author)

  10. Regional models for distributed flash-flood nowcasting: towards an estimation of potential impacts and damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Bihan Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flash floods monitoring systems developed up to now generally enable a real-time assessment of the potential flash-floods magnitudes based on highly distributed hydrological models and weather radar records. The approach presented here aims to go one step ahead by offering a direct assessment of the potential impacts of flash floods on inhabited areas. This approach is based on an a priori analysis of the considered area in order (1 to evaluate based on a semi-automatic hydraulic approach (Cartino method the potentially flooded areas for different discharge levels, and (2 to identify the associated buildings and/or population at risk based on geographic databases. This preliminary analysis enables to build a simplified impact model (discharge-impact curve for each river reach, which can be used to directly estimate the importance of potentially affected assets based on the outputs of a distributed rainfall-runoff model. This article presents a first case study conducted in the Gard region (south eastern France. The first validation results are presented in terms of (1 accuracy of the delineation of the flooded areas estimated based on the Cartino method and using a high resolution DTM, and (2 relevance and usefulness of the impact model obtained. The impacts estimated at the event scale will now be evaluated in a near future based on insurance claim data provided by CCR (Caisse Centrale de Réassurrance.

  11. N deposition affects allelopathic potential of Amaranthus retroflexus with different distribution regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONGYAN WANG

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to determine the allelopathic potential of Amaranthus retroflexus (Ar with different climatic zones on seed germination and growth of A. tricolor (At treated with a gradient N addition. Ar leaf extracts only displayed significantly allelopathic potential on the underground growth of Ar but not the aboveground growth of At. The allelopathic potential of Ar leaf extracts on root length of At were enhanced under N addition and there may be a N-concentration-dependent relationship. The effects of the extracts of Ar leaves that collected from Zhenjiang on seed germination and growth of At may be higher than that collected from Jinan especially on root length of At under medium N addition. This reason may be the contained higher concentration of secondary metabolites for the leaves of plants that growths in high latitudes compare with that growth in low latitudes. This phenomenon may also partly be attributed to the fact that Ar originated in America and/or south-eastern Asia which have higher similarity climate conditions as Zhenjiang rather than Jinan. The allelopathic potential of Ar on seed germination and growth of acceptor species may play an important role in its successful invasion especially in the distribution region with low latitudes.

  12. Entrepreneurial Saving Practices and Reinvestment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, Thorsten; Pamuk, Haki; Uras, Burak R.

    2017-01-01

    We use a novel enterprise survey to gauge the relationship between saving instruments and entrepreneurial reinvestment. We show that while most informal saving practices are not associated with a lower likelihood of reinvestment when compared with formal saving practices, there is a significantly

  13. Social Capital and Savings Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Khai, Luu Duc

    In this paper, we analyze household savings in rural Vietnam paying particular attention to the factors that determine the proportion of savings held as formal deposits. Our aim is to explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in promoting formal savings behavior. Social capital...

  14. Saving water through global trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2005-01-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water

  15. Intervention strategy to stimulate energy-saving behavior of local residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Q.; Nieuwenhijsen, I.; Vries, B. de; Blokhuis, E.; Schaefer, W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates intervention strategy in stimulating energy-saving behavior to achieve energy neutral urban development. A tree structure overview of potential interventions classified into three categories is revealed. An integrated behaviour model is developed reflecting the relations between behaviour and influence factors. A latent class model is used to identify segments of local residents who differ regarding their preferences for interventions. Data are collected from a sample of residents in the Eindhoven region of the Netherlands in 2010. The results indicate that social-demographic characteristics, knowledge, motivation and context factors play important roles in energy-saving behaviour. Specifically, four segments of residents in the study area were identified that clearly differed in their preferences of interventions: cost driven residents, conscious residents, ease driven residents and environment minded residents. These findings emphasize that the intervention strategy should be focused on specific target groups to have the right mixture of interventions to achieve effective results on stimulating them to save energy. - Highlights: ► A latent class model to identify segments with preferred energy-saving interventions. ► An integrated energy-saving behavior model of casual relations. ► A tree structure overview of potential interventions

  16. Potential of dinoflagellate cyst records for Quaternary climate studies in the New Zealand region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouch, E.M.

    2003-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a pilot study aimed at investigating the potential of using dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) records in the New Zealand region for contributing to high-resolution Quaternary climate studies. Dinocyst assemblages were recorded through a rapid interval of climate change, from glacial Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 to interglacial MIS 5 (∼ 160 to 80 kyr), in ODP Site 1123, offshore eastern New Zealand. Twenty-one samples were examined and dinocyst assemblages, along with other palynomorphs such as spores and pollen, were generally well preserved, abundant and diverse. The relative and absolute abundance of dinocysts is highest in MIS 6, with Brigantedinium spp. and Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus being the dominant taxa. Moreover, the higher concentration of peridinioid and total dinocysts during the glacial suggests that, in comparison with MIS 5, increased nutrient availability in surface waters was present in MIS 6. Other dinocysts that show an affinity with cool oceanic conditions include Impagidinium pallidum and Selenopemphix Antarctica, while Impagidinium paradoxum, I. patulum, I. plicatum, I. strialatum, I. variaseptum and Spiniferites mirabilis are more common during the interglacial MIS 5. Land-derived spore and pollen microfossils are abundant in Site 1123 and notable peaks in absolute abundance are recorded during MIS 5, with two of the peaks being approximately coeval with the warmer phases of Substage 5e and 5a. This pilot study highlights the increasing potential for marine palynology to contribute to Quaternary paleoclimate research in the New Zealand region. (author). 45 refs., 10 figs

  17. Potential effects of climate change on hydrology in the oil sands region of Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biftu, G.F.; Beersing, A.; Kalinga, O.A.; Pandit, K.N.

    2007-01-01

    The potential effects of climate change must be incorporated within environmental assessments of oil and gas developments. This paper evaluated the findings of a study examining the potential impacts of climate change on watershed hydrology in the oil sands region of Alberta. Components of the study included a review of trends in climate parameters and their effect on hydrology, as well as statistical analyses of precipitation, temperature and stream flow data of the Athabasca River at both the local and regional scale. The influences of tributary streams were also examined. Results of the study demonstrated that air temperatures have been steadily rising over the past few decades. Recorded annual precipitation also increased during the spring and summer months, and decreased during the winter and fall. Annual mean flows decreased. Results suggested that wet and dry cycles tended to exaggerate trends when only partial segments of the cycles were analyzed. The analysis of flows in the tributary streams indicated a that mean and peak flows were also decreasing. However, an increase in peak winter flows was observed. It was concluded that there is a large degree of uncertainty in the predictions of the hydrologic effects of climate change. 17 refs., 6 tabs

  18. Mineral potential of clays that cover the gypsum deposits in Araripina-PE region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira, B.B.; Anjos, I.F. dos; Rego, S.A.B.C.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work the applicability of the clays that cover the deposits of Gypsum Plaster in the region of Araripina - PE for use as the ceramic pigments and for bricks production in the red ceramic industry was analyzed. The clay minerals contained the illite, kaolinite and smectite, with high proportion of the last one. The possibility of industrial application of this mineral clay is considerable; however, the mining industries that mine and process the gypsum in the region do not take the clays into account as the potential mineral. In general, industries use the clay minerals in manufacturing processes or as key raw materials, or as the alternatives for some kinds of the chemical processing industries. This paper aims to highlight the potential of materials that cover the deposits of gypsum in reference. The material sampled from different deposit layers was characterized and the physical treatment of ore was applied. The results showed that the material analyzed can be used in various kinds of industry, such as the production of natural ceramic pigments. (author)

  19. POSSIBILITIES TO INCREASE THE LEVERAGE THE TOURISM POTENTIAL IN HISTORICAL REGIONS CRISANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBU IONEL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we aimed to identify some possibilities of increasing the recovery of the tourism potential of the historical region Crisan. Given the multitude of economic implications, socio-cultural and environmental impacts of rural tourism by increasing recovery tourist potential, the positive impact of this economic activity will be felt by all concerned: residents, entrepreneurs, tourists and local public administration. We analyzed a set of the 26 factors were analyzed, ranking obtained from processing the responses provided by the 391 respondents. Based on this ranking, based on the average score obtained, calculated by coding the answers of respondents, we could say that all factors have an average score above the average of 3 points, contributed in a more visible to development of rural tourism from historical region Crisana. Any intervention or any project that aims to increase the influence of one or more of these factors can bring economic impacts, socio-cultural or ecological more important. On the contrary, all factors had a mean score less than 3 points can be considered difficulties for the development of this economic activity, and any projects developed that have targeted these factors, not have attained to the extent expected.

  20. The transformative potential of geothermal heating in the U.S. energy market: A regional study of New York and Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reber, Timothy J.; Beckers, Koenraad F.; Tester, Jefferson W.

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) could supply a significant fraction of the low-temperature (<125 °C) thermal energy used in the United States through Geothermal District Heating (GDH). In this study we develop a regional model to evaluate the potential for EGS district heating in the states of New York and Pennsylvania by simulating an EGS district heating network at each population center within the study region and estimating the levelized cost of heat (LCOH) from GDH for each community. LCOHs were then compiled into a supply curve from which several conclusions could be drawn. Our evaluation revealed that EGS district heating has the potential to supply cost-effective energy for space and water heating in several New York and Pennsylvania communities in the near future. To realize wider deployment, modest improvements in EGS technology, escalation of natural gas prices, and/or government incentives will likely be required to enable GDH to compete with other heating alternatives today. EGS reservoir flow rates, drilling costs, system lifetimes, and fluid return temperatures have significant effects on the LCOH of GDH and thus will provide the highest return on R and D investment, while creative implementation strategies can help EGS district heating overcome initial cost barriers that exist today. - Highlights: • EGS district heating potential evaluated for 2894 towns in New York and Pennsylvania. • Supply curves developed using estimated levelized cost of heat (LCOH) for each town. • Geothermal district heating has cost-saving potential in NY, PA and the US. • Initial candidate communities, R and D targets, and deployment strategies identified

  1. Regional modeling of large wildfires under current and potential future climates in Colorado and Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Amanda; Kumar, Sunil; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2016-01-01

    Regional analysis of large wildfire potential given climate change scenarios is crucial to understanding areas most at risk in the future, yet wildfire models are not often developed and tested at this spatial scale. We fit three historical climate suitability models for large wildfires (i.e. ≥ 400 ha) in Colorado andWyoming using topography and decadal climate averages corresponding to wildfire occurrence at the same temporal scale. The historical models classified points of known large wildfire occurrence with high accuracies. Using a novel approach in wildfire modeling, we applied the historical models to independent climate and wildfire datasets, and the resulting sensitivities were 0.75, 0.81, and 0.83 for Maxent, Generalized Linear, and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines, respectively. We projected the historic models into future climate space using data from 15 global circulation models and two representative concentration pathway scenarios. Maps from these geospatial analyses can be used to evaluate the changing spatial distribution of climate suitability of large wildfires in these states. April relative humidity was the most important covariate in all models, providing insight to the climate space of large wildfires in this region. These methods incorporate monthly and seasonal climate averages at a spatial resolution relevant to land management (i.e. 1 km2) and provide a tool that can be modified for other regions of North America, or adapted for other parts of the world.

  2. Potential of Russian Regions to Implement CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Cherepovitsyn

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses the techno-economic potential of Russia to implement carbon capture and storage technologies that imply the capture of anthropogenic CO2 and its injection into geologic reservoirs for long-term storage. The focus is on CO2 enhanced oil recovery projects that seem to be the most economically promising option of carbon capture and storage. The novelty of the work lies in the formulation of a potential assessment method of CO2 enhanced oil recovery, which allows for establishing a connection between energy production and oil extraction from the viewpoint of CO2 supply and demand. Using linear optimization, the most promising combinations of CO2 sources and sinks are identified and an economic evaluation of these projects is carried out. Based on this information, regions of Russia are ranked according to their prospects in regards to CO2 capture and enhanced oil recovery storage. The results indicate that Russia has a significant potential to utilize its power plants as CO2 sources for enhanced oil recovery projects. It has been estimated that 71 coal-fired power plants, and 185 of the gas-fired power plants of Russia annually produce 297.1 and 309.6 Mt of CO2 that can cover 553.4 Mt of the demand of 322 Russian oil fields. At the same time, the total CO2 storage capacity of the Russian fields is estimated at 7382.6 Mt, however, due to geological and technical factors, only 22.6% can be used for CO2-EOR projects. Of the 183 potential projects identified in the regional analysis phase, 99 were found to be cost-effective, with an average unit cost of € 19.07 per ton of CO2 and a payback period of 8.71 years. The most promising of the estimated regions is characterized by a well-developed energy industry, relatively low transportation costs, numerous large and medium-sized oil fields at the final stages of development, and favorable geological conditions that minimize the cost of injection. Geographically, they are located in the

  3. Energy. Saving 'Private' Areva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    While Areva keeps on loosing money (billions of euros for 2014), the saving of this company is at stake. Staff is already planned to be reduced in La Hague, and other staff reductions might occur after the failure of a previous strategic plan. Various activities could be sold (dismantling, mining). The article outlines the difficult relationships between Areva and EDF and the problems also faced by EDF. Some actors think that Areva should remain independent from EDF in order to be free to compete on international bidding. The rapprochement between these two companies is said to be necessary for the Ministry but seems very difficult to achieve

  4. Savings for the Poor

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Mas

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the relevance of formal financial services – in particular, savings – to poor people, the economic factors that have hindered the mass-scale delivery of such services in developing countries, and the technology-based opportunities that exist today to make massive gains in financial inclusion. It also highlights the benefits to government from universal financial access, as well as the key policy enablers that would need to be put in place to allow the necessary innovati...

  5. Locomotive energy savings possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonas Povilas LINGAITIS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic indicators of electrodynamic braking have not been properly estimated. Vehicles with alternative power trains are transitional stage between development of pollution- free vehicles. According to these aspects the investigation on conventional hybrids drives and their control system is carried out in the article. The equation that allows evaluating effectiveness of regenerative braking for different variants of hybrid drive are given. Presenting different types of locomotive energy savings power systems, which are using regenerative braking energy any form of hybrid traction vehicles systems, circuit diagrams, electrical parameters curves.

  6. Geoinformation evaluation of soil resource potential for horticulture in Krasnodar region and the Republic of Adygea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, I. Yu.; Dragavtseva, I. A.; Mironenko, N. Ya.; Sergeeva, N. N.; Domozhirova, V. V.; Morenets, A. S.; Ovechkin, S. V.

    2016-04-01

    A geoinformation database for assessing soil resource potential for horticulture in Krasnodar region and Adygea has been developed. The results of geoinformation analysis indicate that only 55-60% of soils in these regions are suitable for growing horticultural crops without limitations; about 35-40% of the total soil area is unsuitable for horticultural purposes. For plum trees, the area of unsuitable soils is somewhat lower than for other horticultural crops. Geographically, the areas of soils suitable and unsuitable for horticulture are close to one another. The thickness of the loose earthy soil material, the gravel content, the degree of salinization, the soil texture, and the degree of soil hydromorphism are the major soil properties imposing considerable limitations for the development of fruit-growing industry in the studied regions. The highest portions of soils suitable for horticulture are found in Eiskii, Kushchevskii, Krylovskii, Shcherbinovskii, and Novokubanskii districts of Krasnodar region. The development of horticulture in Tuapsinskii, Slavyanskii, and Primorsko-Akhtarskii districts is limited because of the unsuitability of soils for this purpose. About 8% of the existing orchards are found on soils recognized as unsuitable for horticulture, and only about 20% of the existing orchards are found on soils suitable for fruit growing without limitations. About 70% of the existing fruit orchards are located on degraded soils or on soils with certain limitations for horticulture. The profitability of fruit orchards on such soils is lower than that of the orchards planted on soils without limitations for horticulture. This information is necessary for the adequate economic evaluation of the degree of soil degradation.

  7. Estimated saving potential and efficient use of energy in air conditioning by means of the solar protection; Potencial estimado de ahorro y uso eficiente de energia en aires acondicionados mediante la proteccion solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia D, David; Morillon G, David; Rodriguez V, Luis [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In here it is presented the analysis of the impact of the solar gains through the transparent parts of a prototype house of social interest, located in a dry warm climate. This analysis was made to determine the gains through windows for the summer time and under the following conditions: without outside solar protections, with the use of eaves, solar breakers and finally with the use of both systems of solar protection. The results were compared to obtain the considered potential of energy saving in cooling equipment, that could be obtained in future houses to build. [Spanish] Se presenta el analisis del impacto de las ganancias solares a traves de las partes transparentes de un prototipo de vivienda de interes social, ubicado en un clima calido seco. Dicho analisis se realizo para determinar las ganancias a traves de ventanas para la epoca de verano y bajo las siguientes condiciones: sin protecciones solares exteriores, con el empleo de aleros, con quiebrasoles y finalmente con el empleo de ambos sistemas de proteccion solar. Se compararon los resultados para obtener el potencial estimado de ahorro de energia en equipo de enfriamiento, que se tendria en las futuras viviendas por construir.

  8. Learning to save lives!

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    They're all around you and watch over you, but you won't be aware of them unless you look closely at their office doors. There are 308 of them and they have all been given 12 hours of training with the CERN Fire Brigade. Who are they? Quite simply, those who could one day save your life at work, the CERN first-aiders. First-aiders are recruited on a volunteer basis. "Training is in groups of 10 to 12 people and a lot of emphasis is placed on the practical to ensure that they remember the life-saving techniques we show them", explains Patrick Berlinghi, a CERN first-aid instructor from TIS Division. He is looking forward to the arrival of four new instructors, which will bring the total number to twelve (eleven firemen and one member of the Medical Service). "The new instructors were trained at CERN from 16 to 24 May by Marie-Christine Boucher Da Ros (a member of the Commission Pédagogie de l'Observatoire National Français du Secourisme, the education commission of France's national first-aid body). This in...

  9. THE TOURISM POTENTIAL OF THE REPUBLIC OF KALMYKIA AND ITS ROLE IN THE REGIONAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Avaldykova

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a sector of the economy, which is constantly evolving and plays a significant role in the formation of GDP. The term ‘destination’ can be interpreted as the territory equipped with facilities and advanced system of services to meet all basic needs of tourists. Richly developed tourist destination within the region is one of the key elements of the system, which is designed to encourage tourists’ interest in a particular area and to motivate their visit there, thus enhancing the tourism system as a whole. Analyzing the tourism potential of the territory of the Republic of Kalmykia, it is difficult to overestimate the unique set of historical, cultural and natural heritage of the Kalmyk people, as well as favorable geographical location of the territory and the uniqueness of the Buddhist people in the European part of Russia. Thus, Kalmykia has a huge potential to become a tourist destination and develop such types of tourism, as gastronomical, cultural, religious, environmental, family, and cognitive. It should be noted that currently the Republic is actively developing the event tourism, which is recreation dedicated to a certain event or participation in any entertainment. According to the results of the competition ranking of International tourism forum Rest (‘Otdykh’, the Republic was ranked 15th in the first National ranking of the development of tourism in Russia in 2016. The development of tourist destinations in the Republic is prospective from the viewpoint of stimulating economic development in the region through participation in Federal target programs ‘Development of domestic and inbound tourism in the Russian Federation (2011–2018’ and ‘Development of culture and tourism of the Russian Federation (2013–2020’, aimed at increasing the competitiveness of domestic tourism market, which would meet the needs of Russian and foreign citizens in high-quality tourist services. The creation of tourist

  10. Final Technical Report: "Achieving Regional Energy Efficiency Potential in the Southeast”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Mandy [Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance (SEEA), Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2018-03-07

    The overall objective of this award was to facilitate sharing of DOE resources and best practices as well as provide technical assistance to key stakeholders to support greater compliance with energy efficiency standards and increased energy savings. The outcomes of this award include greater awareness among key stakeholders on energy efficiency topics, increased deployment and utilization of DOE resources, and effective policies and programs to support energy efficiency in the Southeast.

  11. Savings in its sights for Somerset Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Colin

    2011-10-01

    Colin Russell, healthcare specialist at Schneider Electric (pictured), explains how the company has recently worked with Taunton and Somerset NHS Foundation Trust to implement a major energy-saving project at the Trust's Musgrove Park Hospital in Taunton. He argues that, at a time when all areas of the service are being asked to reduce costs, such partnerships can potentially save the institution millions of pounds and significantly reduce carbon emissions, while "revitalising" parts of the NHS estate, and ensuring continuity of vital hospital services for facilities managers.

  12. Financing aspects of electricity saving's in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacca, S.A.; Sauer, I.L.

    1996-01-01

    Programs regarding to energy saving in Brasil arised by the early 80's from the concern with oil products consumption. The situation has changed and electricity is growing in importance when energy conservation is discussed. Thus, the government, following examples from abroad, has been trying to overcome the barriers that obstruct a massive process evolution towards energy saving, since the potential is spread out in many society segments. One important issue is related to financing energy conservation. This paper attempts to analyze the utilities efforts allied to public and private banks investments towards energy conservation financing. (author)

  13. The bioenergy potential of conservation areas and roadsides for biogas in an urbanized region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Meerbeek, Koenraad; Ottoy, Sam; De Meyer, Annelies; Van Schaeybroeck, Tom; Van Orshoven, Jos; Muys, Bart; Hermy, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We assessed the bioenergy potential of conservation areas and roadsides in Flanders. • An area of 31,055 ha produces 203 kton DM of herbaceous biomass annually. • The associated biomass supply chain was optimized with OPTIMASS in four scenarios. • The net energy balance of the studied systems was 7 GJ ha −1 in the 2020 scenarios. • We show that this biomass can play a role to meet the increased biomass demand in 2020. - Abstract: In many urbanized areas the roadside and nature conservation management offers a biomass-for-bioenergy resource potential which is barely valorized, because of the fragmented biomass production sites and the scarcity of accurate data on the spatial availability of the biomass. In this study, a GIS based assessment was performed to determine the regional non-woody biomass-for-bioenergy potential for biogas from conservation areas and roadsides in Flanders, Belgium. These systems, with an area of 31,055 ha, have an annual herbaceous biomass production of 203 kton dry matter. The full associated biomass-to-bioenergy supply chain was optimized in four scenarios to maximize the net energy output and the profit. The scenario analysis was performed with OPTIMASS, a recently developed GIS based strategic decision support system. The analysis showed that the energetic valorization of conservation and roadside biomass through anaerobic digestion had a positive net energy balance, although there is still much room for improvements. Economically, however, it is a less interesting biomass resource. Most likely, the economic picture would change when other ecosystem services delivered by the protected biodiversity would be taken into account. Future technical advances and governmental incentives, like green energy certificates, will be necessary to incorporate the biomass into the energy chain. By tackling the existing barriers and providing a detailed methodology for biomass potential assessments, this study tries to

  14. Institutional Analysis of Knowledge Generation Resource Potential at the Enterprises of Regional Military-Industrial Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Vasilyevich Popov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the processes of knowledge generation at the enterprises of military-industrial complex, which are the leaders of the regional innovative activity. The target of the research is to develop the methodology based on the use of resource application potential for increasing the efficiency of knowledge generation at the instrument-making enterprises of military-industrial complex. The system analysis of the knowledge generation processes is conducted at one of them. It allows to draw a conclusion that such enterprises have a lack of the institutes of knowledge generation processes. The authors are offered a technique of the development of the knowledge generation system at the military-industrial enterprises based on the accounting of assets and opportunities of the enterprise in the realization of intellectual activity. The developed technique is based on the determination of the horizontal resource potential of knowledge generation and allows to determine the potential of resource application at each stage of product life cycle. The comparison of the actual and theoretical values of horizontal resource potential allows to correct the distribution of a share of each of resources within a stage, and therefore, to optimize the realization of tasks at a specific stage. The offered tools were implemented in 2015 at one of the regional military-Industrial enterprises. The methodological tools of the research include the methods of expert assessment, mathematical statistics and the institutional analysis. On the basis of the offered technique and received empirical results, the institutional spiral of knowledge generation during the filling of state order at the military-industrial enterprise is developed. Its implementation will promote the decrease in the level of uncertainty during the whole life cycle of innovative activity product. The developed institutional spiral of knowledge generation at instrument-making military

  15. Cover plants with potential use for crop-livestock integrated systems in the Cerrado region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arminda Moreira de Carvalho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose concentrations in the decomposition process of cover plant residues with potential use in no-tillage with corn, for crop-livestock integrated system, in the Cerrado region. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Cerrados, in Planaltina, DF, Brazil in a split plot experimental design. The plots were represented by the plant species and the subplots by harvesting times, with three replicates. The cover plants Urochloa ruziziensis, Canavalia brasiliensis, Cajanus cajan, Pennisetum glaucum, Mucuna aterrima, Raphanus sativus, Sorghum bicolor were evaluated together with spontaneous plants in the fallow. Cover plants with lower lignin concentrations and, consequently, higher residue decomposition such as C. brasiliensis and U. ruziziensis promoted higher corn yield. High concentrations of lignin inhibit plant residue decomposition and this is favorable for the soil cover. Lower concentrations of lignin result in accelerated plant decomposition, more efficient nutrient cycling, and higher corn yield.

  16. Potential use of fly ash to soil treatment in the Morava region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulíková, Lucia; Kresta, František; Rochovanský, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Soil treatment by binders is a standard technology and leads to optimal utilization of excavated soils in road constructions. Soil treatment is controlled in the Czech Republic by EN 14227-15 and Technical Requirement TP 94. Soil treatment using fly ash has not been performed in the Czech Republic, although there is a sufficient normative base. Fly ash produced by burning of hard coal in the Moravian region was tested as a potential binder. Fly ash samples were mixed with loess loams (CI). Tested siliceous fly ash of class F (ASTM C618) did not showed hydraulic properties but it showed positive effect on reducing maximum dry density of mixtures, increasing the IBI value (Immediate bearing index) and decreasing tendency to volume changes when the amount of fly ash was increased. The results of laboratory tests demonstrate the possibility of using fly ashes as a binder for soil treatment.

  17. Energy efficiency and potentials of cassava fuel ethanol in Guangxi region of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Du; Hu Zhiyuan; Pu Gengqiang; Li He; Wang Chengtao

    2006-01-01

    The Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region has plentiful cassava resources, which is an ideal feedstock for fuel ethanol production. The Guangxi government intends to promote cassava fuel ethanol as a substitute for gasoline. The purpose of this study was to quantify the energy efficiency and potentials of a cassava fuel ethanol project in the Guangxi region based on a 100 thousand ton fuel ethanol demonstration plant at Qinzhou of Guangxi. The net energy value (NEV) and net renewable energy value (NREV) are presented to assess the energy and renewable energy efficiency of the cassava fuel ethanol system during its life cycle. The cassava fuel ethanol system was divided into five subsystems including the cassava plantation/treatment, ethanol conversion, denaturing, refueling and transportation. All the energy and energy related materials inputs to each subsystem were estimated at the primary energy level. The total energy inputs were allocated between the fuel ethanol and its coproducts with market value and replacement value methods. Available lands for a cassava plantation were investigated and estimated. The results showed that the cassava fuel ethanol system was energy and renewable energy efficient as indicated by positive NEV and NREV values that were 7.475 MJ/L and 7.881 MJ/L, respectively. Cassava fuel ethanol production helps to convert the non-liquid fuel into fuel ethanol that can be used for transportation. Through fuel ethanol production, one Joule of petroleum fuel, plus other forms of energy inputs such as coal, can produce 9.8 J of fuel ethanol. Cassava fuel ethanol can substitute for gasoline and reduce oil imports. With the cassava output in 2003, it can substitute for 166.107 million liters of gasoline. With the cassava output potential, it can substitute for 618.162 million liters of gasoline. Cassava fuel ethanol is more energy efficient than gasoline, diesel fuel and corn fuel ethanol but less efficient than biodiesel

  18. Analysis of the potentiality haying of native forage species in semiarid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoque de Sousa Leão

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential hay production from Spiny Amaranth (Amaranthus spinosus, Hairy Woodrose (Merremia aegyptia, Malva (Sida galheirensis, Mucuna (Mucuna pruriens and Ervanço (Froelichia humboldtiana, native forage species of the semiarid region of Brazil by observing morphological components of the plant, such as the dehydration curve, crude protein loss (CPL curve, chemical composition of plant and hay and hay degradability in situ. There were differences (P < 0.05 among species on leaf, stem and inflorescence quantification with Ervanço, Hairy Woodrose, and Mucuna having a greater number of leaves. There was a linearly increasing response for the dehydration curve of the five forage plants species. Mucuna forage had the greatest hay point at 800 g kg-1 dried matter (DM after 11.8 hours and Woodrose had a lower dehydration efficiency, which required 25 hours of sun exposure. There was no difference in CPL. Mucuna had the lowest crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF content, 8.4, 67.7 and 73.8 g kg DM-1 in hay in relation to the plant, respectively. Ervanço, Spiny Amaranth, Hairy Woodrose and Malva hay had more of soluble fraction “a” of DM of 31.0, 26.2, 22.1 and 9.7 g kg-1 DM than Mucuna, respectively. Spiny Amaranth and Malva hay had values of 335.4 and 193.2 g kg-1 DM of fraction “b” more than Ervanço hay, respectively. For fraction “a’’ of CP, Spiny Amaranth and Hairy Woodrose hay obtained 312.6 and 227.4 g kg-1 CP more than that observed for Malva, respectively. Mucuna had better hay potential among the forage studied in the semiarid region of Brazil.

  19. Potential lignocellulose resources and their utilization by ruminants in tropical regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoucy, R.; Mahadevan, P.

    1983-01-01

    The nature and estimated quantities of potential lignocellulose resources in tropical regions are described. The most abundant sources of these materials are the natural grasslands, crop residues and by-products, e.g. sugar cane, cereals and fruits, and, to a limited extent, cultivated grasses, e.g. guinea and elephant grass. The availability of these resources to livestock is limited by a variety of environmental and logistic factors, e.g. seasonality of production and problems of collection and transport. Additionally, the nutritive value of pastures and fodders in the tropics is relatively lower than in temperate regions owing to their higher fibre and lower N and P content, with consequent lowering of intake and digestibility. Crop residues also have low N and high lignin contents and are generally deficient in fermentable energy, fermentable N, protein and micronutrients. The possibilities for improving the nutritive value of tropical feeds are discussed; these include supplementation with urea, molasses and minerals, good quality forage, and/or ''by-pass'' nutrients, e.g. oil cakes, and treatment by various physical, chemical or biological methods. (author)

  20. Current and potential impacts of mosquitoes and the pathogens they vector in the Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Mosquitoes and the pathogens they transmit are ubiquitous throughout most of the temperate and tropical regions of the world. The natural and pre-European distribution and diversity of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases throughout much of the Pacific region, however, depicts a depauperate and relatively benign fauna reinforcing the dream of “paradise regained”. In the central and South Pacific few mosquito species were able to colonize the remotest islands and atolls. Native mosquitoes are limited to a few far-ranging species and island endemics are typically restricted to the genera of Aedes and Culex. Only lymphatic filariasis appears to have been present as an endemic mosquito-borne disease before European contact. In nearby Australia, however, some 242 species of mosquitoes are known to occur and more than 70 arboviruses have been identified (Mackenzie 1999). In this regard Australia is more similar to the rest of the tropic and subtropical world than the smaller islands of Oceania. In our ever-shrinking world of global commerce, military activity and travel, the nature of mosquito-borne disease in the Pacific was bound to change. This paper is a brief summary of introduced mosquitoes in the Pacific and their potential impacts on human and wildlife health.

  1. Does Daylight Saving Save Energy? A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Havránek, Tomáš; Herman, Dominik; Irsova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    The original rationale for adopting daylight saving time (DST) was energy savings. Modern research studies, however, question the magnitude and even direction of the effect of DST on energy consumption. Representing the first meta-analysis in this literature, we collect 162 estimates from 44 studies and find that the mean reported estimate indicates modest energy savings: 0.34% during the days when DST applies. The literature is not affected by publication bias, but the results vary systemati...

  2. Can lean save lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingham, David

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how over the last 18 months Bolton Hospitals NHS Trust have been exploring whether or not lean methodologies, often known as the Toyota Production System, can indeed be applied to healthcare. This paper is a viewpoint. One's early experience is that lean really can save lives. The Toyota Production System is an amazingly successful way of manufacturing cars. It cannot be simply translated unthinkingly into a hospital but lessons can be learned from it and the method can be adapted and developed so that it becomes owned by healthcare staff and focused towards the goal of improved patient care. Working in healthcare is a stressful and difficult thing. Everyone needs a touch of inspiration and encouragement. Applying lean to healthcare in Bolton seems to be achieving just that for those who work there.

  3. Potential for use of lignocellulosic materials in feeding ruminants in temperate regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurti, C.R.; Kitts, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    The potential sources of lignocellulosic materials (LCM) in the temperate regions are residues from forestry and allied industries, agricultural crop by-products and animal wastes. Economic considerations and shortage of fossil fuels have prompted research workers to use LCM as a source of energy, chemicals and animal feeds. For use in animal nutrition LCM have to be pretreated by physical, chemical, enzymatic and/or microbiological techniques in order to make the cellulose and other carbohydrates available to rumen microbes or to convert them into a biomass. The choice of method would depend upon the economics of collection, transport and processing of these residues and increase of their nutritional value following pretreatment. Irradiation has long been recognized as a potential pretreatment for the degradation of LCM, but its cost has so far prevented commercial application of this technique. Although irradiation increases the nutritive value of woody residues, it decreases that of poor quality roughages. More fundamental research is necessary on the identity of free radicals and new compounds formed during the course of irradiation of LCM at high doses. The effects of these compounds on rumen microbial activity and on the ruminant host have to be clarified. In the light of recent observations that degradation of LCM occurs at lower irradiation doses in the presence of halogens, it appears that efforts should be made to optimize irradiation conditions which may prove technologically and economically advantageous for applying this technique to increasing the feeding value of LCM. (author)

  4. Electronic memory devices based on the chalcone with negative electrostatic potential regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Bao-Long; Sun, Ru; Ge, Jian-Feng; Wang, Dong; Li, Hua; Lu, Jian-Mei

    2013-01-01

    The molecular electrostatic potential (ESP) properties were used for the explanation of organic electric memory ability. Several chalcone compounds, owning a negative ESP region locates at the oxygen atom, were selected in this paper to validate the selection of compounds for organic memory materials. The synthesis, characterization, fabrication of the organic memory devices and the electrical properties for them were reported, and they were shown as WORM (write once read many times) type memory devices. The molecular geometries were optimized by the addition of a changeable electric field in the x direction inside the molecules using FF-DFT (Finite Field-Density Functionary Theory) method. The relationship between ESP of the molecules under different electric field and the property was discussed, and the mechanisms associated with the memory effect were also elucidated from DFT calculation results. - Highlights: • The molecular electrostatic potential (ESP) properties were used. • The chalcone compounds were used for the WORM type device. • The molecular geometries were optimized by the addition of a changeable electric field in the x direction. • The structure–property relationship was discussed

  5. Evaluation of plume potential and plume abatement of evaporative cooling towers in a subtropical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xinhua; Wang Shengwei; Ma Zhenjun

    2008-01-01

    Hong Kong is a typical subtropical region with frequently high humidity in late spring and summer seasons. Plume from evaporative cooling towers, which service air-conditioning systems of civil buildings, has aroused public concerns since 2000 when the fresh water evaporative cooling towers were allowed to be used for high energy efficiency and environmental issues. This paper presents the evaluation of the plume potential and its effect on the sizing of the plume abatement system in a large commercial office building in Hong Kong for practical application. This evaluation was conducted based on a dynamic simulation platform using the typical meteorological year of Hong Kong since the occurrence of the plume heavily depends on the state conditions of the exhaust air from cooling towers and the ambient air, while the state condition of the exhaust air is determined by the total building cooling load and the control strategies of cooling towers employed mainly for improving energy efficiency. The results show that the control strategies have a significant effect on the plume potential and further affect the system design and sizing of the plume abatement system

  6. Neural 17β-estradiol facilitates long-term potentiation in the hippocampal CA1 region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, S; Tozzi, A; Costa, C; Tantucci, M; Colcelli, E; Scarduzio, M; Calabresi, P; Pettorossi, V E

    2011-09-29

    In the hippocampal formation many neuromodulators are possibly implied in the synaptic plasticity such as the long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of afferent fibers. We investigated the involvement of locally synthesized neural 17β-estradiol (nE(2)) in the induction of HFS-LTP in hippocampal slices from male rats by stimulating the Schaffer collateral fibers and recording the evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) in the CA1 region. We demonstrated that either the blockade of nE(2) synthesis by the aromatase inhibitor letrozole, or the antagonism of E(2) receptors (ERs) by ICI 182,780 did not prevent the induction of HFS-LTP, but reduced its amplitude by ∼60%, without influencing its maintenance. Moreover, letrozole and ICI 182,780 did not affect the first short-term post-tetanic component of LTP and the paired-pulse facilitation (PPF). These findings demonstrate that nE(2) plays an important role in the induction phase of HFS-dependent LTP. Since the basal responses were not affected by the blocking agents, we suggest that the synthesis of nE(2) is induced or enhanced by HFS through aromatase activation. In this context, the local production of nE(2) seems to be a very effective mechanism to modulate the amplitude of LTP. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. What actions in the domain of energy saving?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourlia, J.P.; Richard, P.

    2007-01-01

    The energy saving potentialities are very often put forward to justify actions of mastery of energy demand. What are the possible substitutes and their result in terms of energy saving? What are the tools implemented and the services proposed by energy suppliers to end-users? What is the optimum mix between the regulatory measures and the market instruments to perform energy saving? What are the costs generated by such measures with respect to the expected results? How to sensibilize citizens to energy saving actions? These questions were debated during a round table which gathered 4 participants and two chairmen. (J.S.)

  8. Stratigraphic, regional unconformity analysis and potential petroleum plays of East Siberian Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Yury; Stoupakova, Antonina; Suslova, Anna; Agasheva, Mariia

    2017-04-01

    The East Siberian Sea basin (ESSB) one of the most unexplored part of the Russian Arctic shelf, extending for over 1000 km from New Siberian Islands archipelago to Wrangel Island. This region is considered as a region with probable high petroleum potential. Within the ESSB several phases of orogeny are recognized [1]: Elsmerian orogeny in Early Devonian, Early Brooks orogeny in Early Cretaceous, Late Brooks orogeny in Late Cretaceous. Two generations of the basins could be outlined. Both of these generations are controlled by the basement domains [1]: Paleozoic (post-Devonian) to Mesozoic basins preserved north of the Late Mesozoic frontal thrusts; Aptian-Albian to Quaternary basins, postdating the Verkhoyansk-Brookian orogeny, and evolving mainly over the New-Siberian-Chukchi Fold Belt. Basin is filled with siliclastic sediments and in the deepest depocentres sediments thickness exceeds 8-10 km in average. Seismic data was interpreted using methods of seismic stratigraphy. Finally, main seismic horizons were indicated and each horizon follows regional stratigraphic unconformities: mBU - in base of Cenozoic, BU - in base of Upper Cretaceous, LCU - in base of Cretaceous, JU - in middle of Jurassic, F - in top of Basement. In ESSB, we can identify Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene and Neogene seismic stratigraphy complexes. Perspective structures, investigated in ESSB were founded out by comparing seismogeological cross-sections with explored analogs in other onshore and offshore basins [2, 3, 4]. The majority of structures could be connected with stratigraphic and fault traps. The most perspective prospects are probably connected with grabens and depressions, where thickness of sediments exceed 10 km. Reservoirs in ESSB are proposed by regional geological explorations on New Siberian Islands Archipelago and Wrangel Island. Potential seals are predominantly assigned to Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. Thick clinoform units of various geometry and

  9. Near-surface geothermal potential assessment of the region Leogang - Saalbach-Hinterglemm in Salzburg, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottig, Magdalena; Rupprecht, Doris; Hoyer, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Within the EU-funded Alpine Space project GRETA (Near-surface Geothermal Resources in the Territory of the Alpine space), a potential assessment for the use of near-surface geothermal energy is being performed. The focus region for Austria is represented by the two communities Leogang and Saalbach-Hinterglemm where settlements are located in altitudes of about 800 - 1.000 m. In these communities, as well as in large parts of the alpine space region in Austria, winter sports tourism is an important economic factor. The demand for heating and domestic hot water in this region of about 6.000 inhabitants rises significantly in the winter months due to around 2 million guest nights per year. This makes clear why the focus is on touristic infrastructure like alpine huts or hotels. It is a high-altitude area with a large number of remote houses, thus district-heating is not ubiquitous - thus, near-surface geothermal energy can be a useful solution for a self-sufficient energy supply. The objective of detailed investigation within the project is, to which extent the elevation, the gradient and the orientation of the hillside influence the geothermal usability of the shallow underground. To predict temperatures in depths of up to 100 m and therefore make statements on the geothermal usability of a certain piece of land, it is necessary to attain a precise ground-temperature map which reflects the upper model boundary. As there are no ground temperature measurement stations within the region, the GBA has installed four monitoring stations. Two are located in the valley, at altitudes of about 800 m, and two in higher altitudes of about 1.200 m, one on a south- and one on a north-slope. Using a software invented by the University of Soil Sciences in Vienna a ground-temperature map will be calculated. The calculation is based on climatic data considering parameters like soil composition. Measured values from the installed monitoring stations will help to validate or to

  10. Planning a Sabbatical? These Tips Can Save Taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoney, Joseph P., Jr.; Weston, Marilyn

    1985-01-01

    Information on potential tax-saving opportunities when planning a sabbatical is provided for college personnel. Advice is offered about tax savings for: rental of the academician's personal residences while away from home, the home office deduction, use of an auto, and foreign income tax exclusion. The answer to what expenses are deductible…

  11. Using dew points to estimate savings during a planned cooling shutdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlein, Matthew T.; Changnon, David; Musselman, Eric; Zielinski, Jeff

    2005-12-01

    In an effort to save money during the summer of 2003, Northern Illinois University (NIU) administrators instituted a four-day working week and stopped air conditioning buildings for the three-day weekends (Friday through Sunday). Shutting down the air conditioning systems caused a noticeable drop in electricity usage for that part of the campus that features in our study, with estimated total electricity savings of 1,268,492 kilowatt-hours or 17% of the average usage during that eight-week period. NIU's air conditioning systems, which relied on evaporative cooling to function, were sensitive to dew point levels. Greatest savings during the shutdown period occurred on days with higher dew points. An examination of the regional dew point climatology (1959 2003) indicated that the average summer daily dew point for 2003 was 14.9°C (58.8°F), which fell in the lowest 20% of the distribution. Based on the relationship between daily average dew points and electrical usage, a predictive model that could estimate electrical daily savings was created. This model suggests that electrical savings related to any future three-day shutdowns over summer could be much greater in more humid summers. Studies like this demonstrate the potential value of applying climatological information and of integrating this information into practical decision-making.

  12. Regional Projections of Extreme Apparent Temperature Days in Africa and the Related Potential Risk to Human Health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Garland, Rebecca M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional climate modelling was used to produce high resolution climate projections for Africa, under a “business as usual scenario”, that were translated into potential health impacts utilizing a heat index that relates apparent temperature...

  13. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  14. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  15. Analysis of viticultural potential and delineation of homogeneous viticultural zones in a temperate climate region of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Mihai Irimia

    2014-09-01

    Significance and impact of the study: This study provides the necessary information for viticultural zoning in the Huşi wine growing region in Romania. The methodology allows to evaluate viticultural potential and to delineate homogeneous viticultural zones in wine growing regions with a temperate continental climate.

  16. Comparative Estimation of Russia’s Regions Investment Potential on the Base of the Multivariate Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor V. Nikitin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the algorithm of Russia’s regions investment potential estimation, developed by means of multivariate statistical methods, determines the factors, reflecting regions investment state. The integral indicator was developed on their basis, using statistical data. The article presents regions’ classification on the basis of the integral index

  17. 12 CFR 583.21 - Savings association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.21 Savings association. The term savings association means a Federal savings and loan association or a Federal savings bank chartered under section 5 of the Home Owners' Loan Act, a building and loan, savings and loan or homestead association or a cooperative...

  18. Reinforcement Learning and Savings Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, James J; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C; Metrick, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    We show that individual investors over-extrapolate from their personal experience when making savings decisions. Investors who experience particularly rewarding outcomes from saving in their 401(k)-a high average and/or low variance return-increase their 401(k) savings rate more than investors who have less rewarding experiences with saving. This finding is not driven by aggregate time-series shocks, income effects, rational learning about investing skill, investor fixed effects, or time-varying investor-level heterogeneity that is correlated with portfolio allocations to stock, bond, and cash asset classes. We discuss implications for the equity premium puzzle and interventions aimed at improving household financial outcomes.

  19. Biofuel production and climate mitigation potential from marginal lands in US North Central region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, I.; Sahajpal, R.; Zhang, X.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Robertson, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    An ever-increasing demand for liquid fuels, amidst concerns of anthropogenic impacts on the environment and fossil fuels availability, has spurred a strong interest in the development of agriculturally-based renewable energy sources. However, increasing demand for food as well as direct and indirect effects on land use, have raised concerns about reliance on grain-based ethanol and shifted research towards the direction of cellulosic feedstocks. In order to understand the future possibility for using agricultural systems for bio-fuel production, we present here a full greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of six potential sources of cellulosic feedstocks production. From 1991 to 2008, we measured GHGs sinks and sources in cropped and nearby unmanaged ecosystems in SW Michigan. The measurements included soil fluxes of GHGs (N2O and CH4), soil organic carbon concentration change, agronomic practices data, and biomass yields. We analyzed two types of intensively managed annual cropping systems under corn-soybean-wheat rotation (conventional tillage and no till), two perennial systems (alfalfa and poplar plantation), and one successional system. The use of agricultural residues for biofuel feedstock from conventionally-tilled crops had the lowest climate stabilization potential (-9 ±13 gCO2e m-2 y-1). In contrast, biomass collected from a successional system fertilized with N at123 kg ha-1y-1 showed the highest climate stabilization potential (-749 ±30 gCO2e m-2 y-1). We used our results to parameterize the EPIC model, which, together with GIS analysis was used to scale up the biomass productivity of the best environmentally performing systems to the marginal lands of the 10-state U.S. North Central region. Assuming 80 km as the maximum distance for road haulage to the biorefinery from the field, we identified 32 potential biorefinery placements each capable of supplying sufficient feedstock to produce at least 133 × 106 L y-1. In total, ethanol production from marginal

  20. Measurement of potentials in the wake region of an unmagnetized plasma by using a DC-heated emissive probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yong Ho; Chung, Kyu Sun

    1995-01-01

    An emissive probe was designed and manufactured to measure the floating and the space potentials of a plasma in the wake region. The 'floating potential method', among various schemes, was used for the measurement and analysis. To generate the wake, a plane artificial satellite with a circular shape was introduced into a simply discharged argon plasma without a magnetic field. Potentials along the radial direction in and out of the wake region of the artificial satellite were measured, and the plasma parameters were compared in both regions. In the wake region, the floating potential was higher than that out of the wake; the space potential was approximately equal to that out of the wake; when a positive voltage was applied to the artificial satellite, the floating and the space potentials were lower than those out of the wake; and when a negative voltage was applied to the artificial satellite, the floating potential was higher and the space potential was lower than the corresponding potentials out of the wake. (author)

  1. Multivariate evaluation of brain function by measuring regional cerebral blood flow and event-related potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Yoshihiko; Mochida, Masahiko; Shutara, Yoshikazu; Nakagawa, Kazumi [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Nagata, Ken

    1998-07-01

    To measure the effect of events on human cognitive function, effects of odors by measurement regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and P300 were evaluated during the auditory odd-ball exercise. PET showed the increase in rCBF on the right hemisphere of the brain by coffee aroma. rCBF was measured by PET in 9 of right-handed healthy adults men, and P300 was by event-related potential (ERP) in each sex of 20 right-handed healthy adults. ERP showed the difference of the P300 amplitude between men and women, and showed the tendency, by odors except the lavender oil, that women had higher in the P300 amplitude than men. These results suggest the presence of effects on the cognitive function through emotional actions. Next, the relationship between rCBF and ERP were evaluated. The subjects were 9 of the right-handed healthy adults (average: 25.6{+-}3.4 years old). rCBF by PET and P300 amplitude by ERP were simultaneously recorded during the auditory odd-ball exercise using the tone-burst method (2 kHz of the low frequency aimed stimuli and 1 kHz of the high frequency non-aimed stimuli). The rCBF value was the highest at the transverse gyrus of Heschl and the lowest at the piriform cortex among 24 regions of interest (ROI) from both sides. The difference of P300 peak latent time among ROI was almost the same. The brain waves from Cz and Pz were similar and the average amplitude was highest at Pz. We found the high correlation in the right piriform cortex (Fz), and right (Fz, Cz) and left (Cz, Pz) transverse gyrus of Heschl between the P300 amplitude and rCBF. (K.H.)

  2. Multivariate evaluation of brain function by measuring regional cerebral blood flow and event-related potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Yoshihiko; Mochida, Masahiko; Shutara, Yoshikazu; Nakagawa, Kazumi; Nagata, Ken

    1998-01-01

    To measure the effect of events on human cognitive function, effects of odors by measurement regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and P300 were evaluated during the auditory odd-ball exercise. PET showed the increase in rCBF on the right hemisphere of the brain by coffee aroma. rCBF was measured by PET in 9 of right-handed healthy adults men, and P300 was by event-related potential (ERP) in each sex of 20 right-handed healthy adults. ERP showed the difference of the P300 amplitude between men and women, and showed the tendency, by odors except the lavender oil, that women had higher in the P300 amplitude than men. These results suggest the presence of effects on the cognitive function through emotional actions. Next, the relationship between rCBF and ERP were evaluated. The subjects were 9 of the right-handed healthy adults (average: 25.6±3.4 years old). rCBF by PET and P300 amplitude by ERP were simultaneously recorded during the auditory odd-ball exercise using the tone-burst method (2 kHz of the low frequency aimed stimuli and 1 kHz of the high frequency non-aimed stimuli). The rCBF value was the highest at the transverse gyrus of Heschl and the lowest at the piriform cortex among 24 regions of interest (ROI) from both sides. The difference of P300 peak latent time among ROI was almost the same. The brain waves from Cz and Pz were similar and the average amplitude was highest at Pz. We found the high correlation in the right piriform cortex (Fz), and right (Fz, Cz) and left (Cz, Pz) transverse gyrus of Heschl between the P300 amplitude and rCBF. (K.H.)

  3. Modelling Regional Climate Change Effects On Potential Natural Ecosystems in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koca, D.; Smith, B.; Sykes, M.T. [Centre for GeoBiosphere Science, Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund University, Soelvegatan 12, S-223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2006-10-15

    This study aims to demonstrate the potential of a process-based regional ecosystem model, LPJ-GUESS, driven by climate scenarios generated by a regional climate model system (RCM) to generate predictions useful for assessing effects of climatic and CO2 change on the key ecosystem services of carbon uptake and storage. Scenarios compatible with the A2 and B2 greenhouse gas emission scenarios of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) and with boundary conditions from two general circulation models (GCMs) - HadAM3H and ECHAM4/OPYC3 - were used in simulations to explore changes in tree species distributions, vegetation structure, productivity and ecosystem carbon stocks for the late 21st Century, thus accommodating a proportion of the GCM-based and emissions-based uncertainty in future climate development. The simulations represented in this study were of the potential natural vegetation ignoring direct anthropogenic effects. Results suggest that shifts in climatic zones may lead to changes in species distribution and community composition among seven major tree species of natural Swedish forests. All four climate scenarios were associated with an extension of the boreal forest treeline with respect to altitude and latitude. In the boreal and boreo-nemoral zones, the dominance of Norway spruce and to a lesser extent Scots pine was reduced in favour of deciduous broadleaved tree species. The model also predicted substantial increases in vegetation net primary productivity (NPP), especially in central Sweden. Expansion of forest cover and increased local biomass enhanced the net carbon sink over central and northern Sweden, despite increased carbon release through decomposition processes in the soil. In southern Sweden, reduced growing season soil moisture levels counterbalanced the positive effects of a longer growing season and increased carbon supply on NPP, with the result that many areas were converted from a sink to a source of carbon by the late 21st

  4. Modelling Regional Climate Change Effects On Potential Natural Ecosystems in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koca, D.; Smith, B.; Sykes, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to demonstrate the potential of a process-based regional ecosystem model, LPJ-GUESS, driven by climate scenarios generated by a regional climate model system (RCM) to generate predictions useful for assessing effects of climatic and CO2 change on the key ecosystem services of carbon uptake and storage. Scenarios compatible with the A2 and B2 greenhouse gas emission scenarios of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) and with boundary conditions from two general circulation models (GCMs) - HadAM3H and ECHAM4/OPYC3 - were used in simulations to explore changes in tree species distributions, vegetation structure, productivity and ecosystem carbon stocks for the late 21st Century, thus accommodating a proportion of the GCM-based and emissions-based uncertainty in future climate development. The simulations represented in this study were of the potential natural vegetation ignoring direct anthropogenic effects. Results suggest that shifts in climatic zones may lead to changes in species distribution and community composition among seven major tree species of natural Swedish forests. All four climate scenarios were associated with an extension of the boreal forest treeline with respect to altitude and latitude. In the boreal and boreo-nemoral zones, the dominance of Norway spruce and to a lesser extent Scots pine was reduced in favour of deciduous broadleaved tree species. The model also predicted substantial increases in vegetation net primary productivity (NPP), especially in central Sweden. Expansion of forest cover and increased local biomass enhanced the net carbon sink over central and northern Sweden, despite increased carbon release through decomposition processes in the soil. In southern Sweden, reduced growing season soil moisture levels counterbalanced the positive effects of a longer growing season and increased carbon supply on NPP, with the result that many areas were converted from a sink to a source of carbon by the late 21st

  5. Khadum Formation of Pre-Caucasus region as potential source of oil shales: geology and geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Sh. Yandarbiev1

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main modern aim for oil industry is the development of hydrocarbon extraction technologies from «oil shale». In Russia there are kerogen-saturated carbonate-clayey-siliceous deposits of the Bazhenov Formation, carbonate rocks of the Volga-Ural and Timan-Pechora oil and gas bearing basins and clayey Maikop series of Pre-Caucasus region. The Khadum Formation is lower part of the Maikop series represented by carbonate-clay and clayey deposits. On the basis of long-term field and laboratory investigation conducted by specialists of the Oil and Gas Department from Geological Faculty of the Lomonosov Moscow State University. a comprehensive study of the lithological composition, structure, geochemical, hydrogeological and hydrodynamic characteristics of the Paleogene section and monitoring of the drilled wells, the prospects of the oil and gas potential of the Khadum deposits of the Oligocene in the Eastern Pre-Caucasus oil and gas bearing basin were estimated. 11 gas and 19 oil deposits are discovered within the Khadum deposits, and they are confined to the sand layers and lenses, but most of the Khadum section belongs to «unconventional» sources of hydrocarbons. Based on the integrated approach, a map of oil and gas potential prospects for the Khadum deposits was constructed. Highly prospective territories for drilling for oil, areas with small and medium perspectives, and gas prospecting areas have been singled out. Recommendations are given for drilling and technology for the development of the Pre-Caucasus oil shales, based on the world experience in the development of such formations.

  6. A new division of the Nordic countries into potential price regions; Ny inndeling av Norden i elspotomraader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    It has been proposed that the division of the Nordic countries into electric spot regions (potential price regions) should be changed. This implies, among other things, that Sweden is divided into three price regions. The price regions will be used for dealing with large bottlenecks, while small bottlenecks will be handled by means of countertrade. Will the change increase the risk of market power? Probably not. The present arrangement offers about equally good possibilities to exercise market power and causes price signals in general to become erroneous and that trade becomes limited. The absence of price limits in Sweden will probably not increase competition by much since the same producers are numerous on both sides of the limits. Price regions in Sweden may sharpen competition between producers in each region and producers in adjacent regions outside of Sweden.

  7. Potentials and Limitations of Regional Organic Food Supply: A Qualitative Analysis of Two Food Chain Types in the Berlin Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Doernberg

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Regional food systems and organic agriculture are both considered more sustainable than the conventional, globalized food system they provide an alternative to. The emergence and expansion of alternative forms of food supply are influenced by various factors on different scales. Using the food systems approach we aim to study potentials and limitations of regional organic food supply in the Berlin metropolitan region (BMR. Based on the literature, we developed an analytical framework and identified determinants of regional organic food provision along the three major levels of the supply chain: agricultural production, food chain organization, and consumption. Then, we examined a qualitative case study with two different types of alternative food networks (A organic community supported agriculture (CSA and (B organic retail trade. Factors that hinder or promote the provision of regional organic food were identified through qualitative interviews and assessed by regional stakeholders in a workshop. Our findings show that demand for regional organic food is higher than regional supply, which could offer good possibilities for organic farmers. However, actors in these two food chains need to overcome some obstacles, including limited access to land, increasing renting prices, insufficient processing capacities, and unsupportive political environment for organic farming.

  8. Potential sea salt aerosol sources from frost flowers in the pan-Arctic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Li [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; Now at Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine California USA; Russell, Lynn M. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; Burrows, Susannah M. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2016-09-23

    In order to better represent observed wintertime aerosol concentrations at Barrow, Alaska, we implemented an observationally-based parameterization for estimating sea salt production from frost flowers in the Community Earth System Model (CESM). In this work, we evaluate the potential influence of this sea salt source on the pan-Arctic (60ºN-90ºN) climate. Results show that frost flower salt emissions substantially increase the modeled surface sea salt aerosol concentration in the winter months when new sea ice and frost flowers are present. The parameterization reproduces both the magnitude and seasonal variation of the observed submicron sea salt aerosol concentration at surface in Barrow during winter much better than the standard CESM simulation without a frost-flower salt particle source. Adding these frost flower salt particle emissions increases aerosol optical depth by 10% and results in a small cooling at surface. The increase in salt particle mass concentrations of a factor of 8 provides nearly two times the cloud condensation nuclei concentration, as well as 10% increases in cloud droplet number and 40% increases in liquid water content near coastal regions adjacent to continents. These cloud changes reduce longwave cloud forcing by 3% and cause a small surface warming, increasing the downward longwave flux at the surface by 2 W m-2 in the pan-Arctic under the present-day climate.

  9. Save water to save carbon and money: developing abatement costs for expanded greenhouse gas reduction portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Hendrickson, Thomas P; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-12-02

    The water-energy nexus is of growing interest for researchers and policy makers because the two critical resources are interdependent. Their provision and consumption contribute to climate change through the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). This research considers the potential for conserving both energy and water resources by measuring the life-cycle economic efficiency of greenhouse gas reductions through the water loss control technologies of pressure management and leak management. These costs are compared to other GHG abatement technologies: lighting, building insulation, electricity generation, and passenger transportation. Each cost is calculated using a bottom-up approach where regional and temporal variations for three different California water utilities are applied to all alternatives. The costs and abatement potential for each technology are displayed on an environmental abatement cost curve. The results reveal that water loss control can reduce GHGs at lower cost than other technologies and well below California's expected carbon trading price floor. One utility with an energy-intensive water supply could abate 135,000 Mg of GHGs between 2014 and 2035 and save--rather than spend--more than $130/Mg using the water loss control strategies evaluated. Water loss control technologies therefore should be considered in GHG abatement portfolios for utilities and policy makers.

  10. Acquiring energy savings in manufactured housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1991, the Northwest utilities faced a complex situation. They needed new sources of electrical power to avoid future deficits. A significant block of energy savings was available in the manufactured housing sector in the form of energy savings from increased insulation to new manufactured homes. The manufacturers were interested in saving the electricity in the homes, but would only deal with the utility sector as a whole. Half of the homes targeted were sited in investor-owned utility (IOU) service territories, and half in the public sector made up of utilities that purchased some or all of their electricity from the Bonneville Power Administration. Utilities agreed to acquire energy from manufacturers In the form of thermal efficiency measures specified by the Bonneville Power Administration. The program that resulted from over one year of negotiations was called the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program, or MAP. Manufacturers, the utilities, State Energy Offices, the Northwest Power Planning Council and Bonneville all worked closely and with tenacity to build the program that went into effect on April 1, 1992, and should save the region between 7 and 9 megawatts, enough energy to supply 11,000 homes in the Northwest

  11. Saving oil in a hurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    During 2004, oil prices reached levels unprecedented in recent years. Though world oil markets remain adequately supplied, high oil prices do reflect increasingly uncertain conditions. Many IEA member countries and non-member countries alike are looking for ways to improve their capability to handle market volatility and possible supply disruptions in the future. This book aims to provide assistance. It provides a new, quantitative assessment of the potential oil savings and costs of rapid oil demand restraint measures for transport. Some measures may make sense under any circumstances; others are primarily useful in emergency situations. All can be implemented on short notice ? if governments are prepared. The book examines potential approaches for rapid uptake of telecommuting, ?ecodriving?, and car-pooling, among other measures. It also provides methodologies and data that policymakers can use to decide which measures would be best adapted to their national circumstances. This ?tool box? may help countries to complement other measures for coping with supply disruptions, such as use of strategic oil stocks.

  12. Energy-saving motor; Energiesparmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindegger, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development and testing of an advanced electrical motor using a permanent-magnet rotor. The aims of the project - to study the technical feasibility and market potential of the Eco-Motor - are discussed and the three phases of the project described. These include the calculation and realisation of a 250-watt prototype operating at 230 V, the measurement of the motor's characteristics as well as those of a comparable asynchronous motor on the test bed at the University of Applied Science in Lucerne, Switzerland, and a market study to establish if the Eco-Motor and its controller can compete against normal asynchronous motors. Also, the results of an analysis of the energy-savings potential is made, should such Eco-Motors be used. Detailed results of the three phases of the project are presented and the prospects of producing such motors in Switzerland for home use as well as for export are examined.

  13. About the Territorial Potential of the Construction of Battery-Charging Stations for Autonomous Electric Motor Vehicles in the Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilova Lyubov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main current trends in the development of electric motor vehicles with "zero emission" as well as the battery-charging stations concerned. The study is based on a preliminary comparative analysis of the RF regions with respect to five indices (average per capita income, number of private cars in the region, air pollution level, provision of the region with power supply and the potential use of local renewable energy resources, and it gives some recommendations on the prospects of possible construction of battery-charging stations in the regions.

  14. The Quality of the Embedding Potential Is Decisive for Minimal Quantum Region Size in Embedding Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nåbo, Lina J; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Martínez, Todd J

    2017-01-01

    correct description of the MM region, and that this enables the use of much smaller QM regions compared to fixed charge electrostatic embedding. Furthermore, absorption intensities converge very slowly with system size and inclusion of effective external field effects in the MM region through...

  15. Saving-Based Asset Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Schneider, Johannes; T. Smith, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of a novel class of preferences for the behavior of asset prices. Following a suggestion by Marshall (1920), we entertain the possibility that people derive utility not only from consumption, but also from the very act of saving. These ‘‘saving-based’’ prefere...

  16. Geology of Woman Saving Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayesteh Madani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Money is lubricant and an instrument for economic transaction. Money social dimension has increased over time, transforming it from a sole economic instrument to a device for various transactions. Money economic value in society is indicated through different forms, one of which is saving, in the sense of money accumulation and its use under specific future circumstances. Women, who form half of the society, take specific approaches to money and savings. The current research aims to investigate the perspectives and changing attitude strategy to money and saving among married women. The participants of this study include 20 to 70 year-old employed household married women who were observed phenomenologically and interviewed qualitatively on saving through.   The findings of this study demonstrated women perspectives on various types of saving, ways of saving, transfer methods, saving consumption forms and their mechanism. It also revealed that while money is an economic instrument and possess the economic material; attitudes and acts related to money are influenced by social conditions that has consequently turned saving into a social phenomenon.

  17. Prescription Program Provides Significant Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Most school districts today are looking for ways to save money without decreasing services to its staff. Retired pharmacist Tim Sylvester, a lifelong resident of Alpena Public Schools in Alpena, Michigan, presented the district with a pharmaceuticals plan that would save the district money without raising employee co-pays for prescriptions. The…

  18. Insights on the Understanding of the Circum-Caribbean Region from Potential Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyes, A.; Dyment, J.; Thebault, E.

    2017-12-01

    During decades, the nature, geometry and evolution of the Caribbean geological provinces and their boundaries have been topic of discussion and controversy. Great strike-slip faulting in the northern boundaries of the plate, and folding and thrusting structures related with Cretaceous magmatism have been used as indicators of the emplacement of the Caribbean plate between the Northamerican and Southamerican plates at least from the Late Cretaceous, which is the most accepted hypothesis. The exotic origin of the Caribbean plate has also been supported by presence of radiolarites, fauna, ages from rocks sampled from drilling and oceanic paleo-currents analyses. The high thickness of the sediments in most of the basins, the absence of drilling wells reaching the acoustic basement and the absence of identifiable patterns of magnetic anomalies constitute the limitations for the interpretation from potential field data. Potential field data allows tracking contrasts in the physical properties between two geological bodies if they are laterally exhibited. Hence its use is suitable to characterise the seafloor fabric but also to better delineate the boundaries between the geological provinces. In this research we are providing an interpretation from vertical gradients of gravity and reprocessed magnetic anomalies over the Caribbean region with the purpose of making a contribution to the understanding of this area. We are also using magnetic anomalies to determine the paleolatitude over those areas where seafloor spreading related anomalies are observed. Our results led us to propose a conceptual model of the origin of the Caribbean plate. Our model relates the Venezuelan basin with the Cretaceous `not-so-quite' magnetic isochrons; it proposes that the Colombian, Venezuelan and Grenada basins have oceanic crustal affinity and it reinterprets the Beata and Aves ridges as reactivated fracture zones - respectively - in which a magmatic event occurred during or after its

  19. Optimizing Energy Savings from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Vossos, Vagelis; Sanstad, Alan; Burch, Gabriel

    2011-10-13

    An increasing number of energy efficient appliances operate on direct current (DC) internally, offering the potential to use DC from renewable energy systems directly and avoiding the losses inherent in converting power to alternating current (AC) and back. This paper investigates that potential for net-metered residences with on-site photovoltaics (PV) by modeling the net power draw of the ‘direct-DC house’ with respect to today’s typical configuration, assuming identical DC-internal loads. Power draws were modeled for houses in 14 U.S. cities, using hourly, simulated PV-system output and residential loads. The latter were adjusted to reflect a 33% load reduction, representative of the most efficient DC-internal technology, based on an analysis of 32 electricity end-uses. The model tested the effect of climate, electric vehicle (EV) loads, electricity storage, and load shifting on electricity savings; a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine how future changes in the efficiencies of power system components might affect savings potential. Based on this work, we estimate that net-metered PV residences could save 5% of their total electricity load for houses without storage and 14% for houses with storage. Based on residential PV penetration projections for year 2035 obtained from the National Energy Modeling System (2.7% for the reference case and 11.2% for the extended policy case), direct-DC could save the nation 10 trillion Btu (without storage) or 40 trillion Btu (with storage). Shifting the cooling load by two hours earlier in the day (pre-cooling) has negligible benefits for energy savings. Direct-DC provides no energy savings benefits for EV charging, to the extent that charging occurs at night. However, if charging occurred during the day, for example with employees charging while at work, the benefits would be large. Direct-DC energy savings are sensitive to power system and appliance conversion efficiencies but are not significantly

  20. Energy saving baking methods. Energibesparende bagemetoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gry, P.

    1988-01-01

    The project ''Energy Saving Baking Methods'', run as part of the Energy Research Project-1984, and has as its aim to investigate potentials for energy saving by employing microwaves in the baking process. The project is a follow-up of the Nordic Industry Fund project which was completed in 1983. Smaller test ovens with IR long waves, warm air convection and microwaves of 2,47 GHz were used. Measurements of heat distribution from all three energy sources have been made. Extensive experiments have been carried out in order to develope baking methods for white loaves which are energy saving, but where the quality of the bread does not undergo any form of deterioration. Tests were made using microwaves alone, and in combination with hot air and IR. A resulting saving 35% baking time was achieved, and a further reduction of baking time can be reached where a greater improvement of energy distribution can take place, especially in the case of microwaves and IR. (AB).

  1. Exploring Demand Charge Savings from Commercial Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-31

    Commercial retail electricity rates commonly include a demand charge component, based on some measure of the customer’s peak demand. Customer-sited solar PV can potentially reduce demand charges, but the magnitude of these savings can be difficult to predict, given variations in demand charge designs, customer loads, and PV generation profiles. Moreover, depending on the circumstances, demand charges from solar may or may not align well with associated utility cost savings. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are collaborating in a series of studies to understand how solar PV can reduce demand charge levels for a variety of customer types and demand charges designs. Previous work focused on residential customs with solar. This study, instead, focuses on commercial customers and seeks to understand the extent and conditions under which rooftop can solar reduce commercial demand charges. To answer these questions, we simulate demand charge savings for a broad range of commercial customer types, demand charge designs, locations, and PV system characteristics. This particular analysis does not include storage, but a subsequent analysis in this series will evaluate demand charge savings for commercial customers with solar and storage.

  2. Investigation of wind characteristics and assessment of wind energy potential for Waterloo region, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Meishen; Li Xianguo

    2005-01-01

    Wind energy becomes more and more attractive as one of the clean renewable energy resources. Knowledge of the wind characteristics is of great importance in the exploitation of wind energy resources for a site. It is essential in designing or selecting a wind energy conversion system for any application. This study examines the wind characteristics for the Waterloo region in Canada based on a data source measured at an elevation 10 m above the ground level over a 5-year period (1999-2003) with the emphasis on the suitability for wind energy technology applications. Characteristics such as annual, seasonal, monthly and diurnal wind speed variations and wind direction variations are examined. Wind speed data reveal that the windy months in Waterloo are from November to April, defined as the Cold Season in this study, with February being the windiest month. It is helpful that the high heating demand in the Cold Season coincides with the windy season. Analysis shows that the day time is the windy time, with 2 p.m. in the afternoon being the windiest moment. Moreover, a model derived from the maximum entropy principle (MEP) is applied to determine the diurnal, monthly, seasonal and yearly wind speed frequency distributions, and the corresponding Lagrangian parameters are determined. Based on these wind speed distributions, this study quantifies the available wind energy potential to provide practical information for the application of wind energy in this area. The yearly average wind power density is 105 W/m 2 . The day and night time wind power density in the Cold Season is 180 and 111 W/m 2 , respectively

  3. Concentrations and potential health hazards of organochlorine pesticides in (shallow) groundwater of Taihu Lake region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunfa; Luo, Yongming; Gui, Tong; Huang, Yujuan

    2014-02-01

    A total of 27 shallow groundwater samples were collected from the Taihu Lake region (TLR), to determine the concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticide (OCP) species, identify their possible sources, and estimate health risk of drinking the shallow groundwater. All OCP species occurred in the shallow groundwater of TLR with high detection frequency except p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichlorothane (p, p'-DDD) and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p, p'-DDT). DDTs and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the dominant OCP contaminants in the shallow groundwater of TLR, and they account for 44.2% total OCPs. The low α-HCH/γ-HCH ratio, high β-HCH/(α+γ)-HCH ratio and β-HCH being the dominant HCH isomers for the majority of samples suggest that the HCHs were mainly from the historical use of lindane after a period of degradation. p, p'-DDE being the dominant DDT metabolite for all the samples indicated that the DDTs were mainly from the historical residues. Compositional analysis also suggested that there were fresh input sources of heptachlors, aldrins and endrins in addition to the historical residues. Correlation analysis indicated the hexachlorobenzene (HCB) impurity in the shallow groundwater of TLR was likely from the historical application of lindane and technical HCH (a mixture of HCH isomers that is produced by photochlorination of benzene). Carcinogenic risk values for α-HCH, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrins and dieldrin in the shallow groundwater in majority area of TLR were found to be >10(-6), posing a potentially serious cancer risk to those dependant on shallow groundwater for drinking water. © 2013.

  4. Expert Evaluation of Potential Points of Economic Growth in the Regions of Russia and the Conditions of their Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tihonov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the main purpose of this article is to identify « growth points» of economic growth in the regions, determine their type, and assess the conditions for their development. Methods: the main feature of this study is to obtain an expert assessment of the qualitative aspects of regional development. The main source of empirical data was an online survey conducted by the authors in 2016. Results: the study identified potential «growth points» in five regions of the Russian Federation and determined their nature according to the idea of modernizing the socio-economic environment. The selected points allow to develop the potential of the region horizontally. However, there are certain problems that hinder this development and they have been identified. Conclusions and Relevance: at the moment, the identified «growth points» can not be classified as information or intellectual, but in all regions there is the possibility of activating such industries. The «growth points» allocated by experts are still potential, because their technical, technological and innovative components have medium level of development. «Growth points» in the Republic of Sakha and the Nizhny Novgorod region have a greater modernization activity. Such expertise can be used by local authorities to adjust development vectors and strategies. It can also be an element of monitoring the socioeconomic development of regions

  5. Ecological safety and potentialities of sustainable development of Kzyl-Orda region