Jensen, U.S.; Knudsen, J.D.; Andersen, Christian Østergaard
Background: A population-based nested case-control study was conducted in order to characterize patient factors and microbial species associated with recurrent bacteraemia. Methods: All patients with bacteraemia in a Danish region during 1996-2006 were investigated. Recurrence was defined based o...
Koshida, Shigeki; Yanagi, Takahide; Ono, Tetsuo; Tsuji, Shunichiro; Takahashi, Kentaro
The neonatal mortality rate in Japan has currently been at the lowest level in the world. However, it is unclear whether there are still some potentially preventable neonatal deaths. We, therefore, aimed to examine the backgrounds of neonatal death and the possibilities of prevention in a region of Japan. This is a population-based study of neonatal death in Shiga Prefecture of Japan. The 103 neonatal deaths in our prefecture between 2007 and 2011 were included. After reviewing by a peer-review team, we classified the backgrounds of these neonatal deaths and analyzed end-of-life care approaches associated with prenatal diagnosis. Furthermore, we evaluated the possibilities of preventable neonatal death, suggesting specific recommendations for its prevention. We analyzed 102 (99%) of the neonatal deaths. Congenital malformations and extreme prematurity were the first and the second most common causes of death, respectively. More than half of the congenital abnormalities (59%) including malformations and chromosome abnormality had been diagnosed before births. We had 22 neonates with non-intensive care including eighteen cases with congenital abnormality and four with extreme prematurity. Twenty three cases were judged to have had some possibility of prevention with one having had a strong possibility of prevention. Among specific recommendations of preventable neonatal death, more than half of them were for obstetricians. There is room to reduce neonatal deaths in Japan. Prevention of neonatal death requires grater prenatal care by obstetricians before birth rather than improved neonatal care by neonatologists after birth.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low adherence to multidrug therapy against leprosy (MDT is still an important obstacle of disease control, and may lead to remaining sources of infection, incomplete cure, irreversible complications, and multidrug resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We performed a population-based study in 78 municipalities in Tocantins State, central Brazil, and applied structured questionnaires on leprosy-affected individuals. We used two outcomes for assessment of risk factors: defaulting (not presenting to health care center for supervised treatment for >12 months; and interruption of MDT. In total, 28/936 (3.0% patients defaulted, and 147/806 (18.2% interrupted MDT. Defaulting was significantly associated with: low number of rooms per household (OR = 3.43; 0.98-9.69; p = 0.03; moving to another residence after diagnosis (OR = 2.90; 0.95-5.28; p = 0.04; and low family income (OR = 2.42; 1.02-5.63: p = 0.04. Interruption of treatment was associated with: low number of rooms per household (OR = 1.95; 0.98-3.70; p = 0.04; difficulty in swallowing MDT drugs (OR = 1.66; 1.03-2.63; p = 0.02; temporal non-availability of MDT at the health center (OR = 1.67; 1.11-2.46; p = 0.01; and moving to another residence (OR = 1.58; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-2.40; p = 0.03. Logistic regression identified temporal non-availability of MDT as an independent risk factor for treatment interruption (adjusted OR = 1.56; 1.05-2.33; p = 0.03, and residence size as a protective factor (adjusted OR = 0.89 per additional number of rooms; 0.80-0.99; p = 0.03. Residence size was also independently associated with defaulting (adjusted OR = 0.67; 0.52-0.88; p = 0.003. CONCLUSIONS: Defaulting and interruption of MDT are associated with some poverty-related variables such as family income, household size, and migration. Intermittent problems of drug supply need to be resolved, mainly on the municipality level. MDT producers should consider oral drug formulations that may
Benderly, Michal; Chetrit, Angela; Murad, Havi; Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Gillon-Keren, Michal; Rogowski, Ori; Sela, Ben-Ami; Kanety, Hannah; Harats, Dror; Atamna, Ahmed; Alpert, Gershon; Goldbourt, Uri; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra
Poor cardiovascular health (CVH) among ethnic/racial minorities, studied primarily in the USA, may reflect lower access to healthcare. We examined factors associated with minority CVH in a setting of universal access to healthcare. CVH behaviors and factors were evaluated in a random population sample (551 Arabs, 553 Jews) stratified by sex, ethnicity and age. More Jews (10%) than Arabs (3%) had 3 ideal health behaviors. Only one participant had all four. Although ideal diet was rare (≤1.5%) across groups, Arabs were more likely to meet intake recommendations for whole grains, but less likely to meet intake recommendations for fruits/vegetables and fish. Arabs had lower odds of attaining ideal levels for body mass index and physical activity. Smoking prevalence was 57% among Arab men and 6% among Arab women. Having four ideal health factors (cholesterol, blood pressure, glucose, smoking) was observed in 2% and 8% of Arab and Jewish men, respectively, and 13% of Arab and Jewish women. Higher prevalence of ideal total-cholesterol corresponded to lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol among Arabs. No participant met ideal levels for all 7 metrics and only 1.8% presented with 6. Accounting for age and lower socioeconomic status, Arabs were less likely to meet a greater number of metric goals (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.62 (0.42-0.92) for men, and 0.73 (0.48-1.12) for women). Ideal CVH, rare altogether, was less prevalent among the Arab minority albeit universal access to healthcare. Health behaviors were the main contributors to the CVH disparity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Divanoglou, A; Seiger, A; Levi, R
Prospective, population-based study. This paper is part of the Stockholm Thessaloniki Acute Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Study (STATSCIS). To characterize patient populations and to compare acute management after traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI). The Greater Thessaloniki region in Greece and the Greater Stockholm region in Sweden. Inception cohorts with acute TSCI that were hospitalized during the study period, that is September 2006 to October 2007, were identified. Overall, 81 out of 87 cases consented to inclusion in Thessaloniki and 47 out of 49 in Stockholm. Data from Thessaloniki were collected through physical examinations, medical record reviews and communication with TSCI cases and medical teams. Data from Stockholm were retrieved from the Nordic Spinal Cord Injury Registry. There were no significant differences between study groups with regard to core clinical characteristics. In contrast, there were significant differences in (1) transfer logistics from the scene of trauma to a tertiary-level hospital (number of intermediate admissions, modes of transportation and duration of transfer) and (2) acute key therapeutic interventions, that is, the use of mechanical ventilation (49% in Thessaloniki versus 20% in Stockholm), and performance of tracheostomy (36% in Thessaloniki versus 15% in Stockholm); spinal surgery was performed significantly more often and earlier in Stockholm than in Thessaloniki. Despite largely similar core clinical characteristics, Stockholm and Thessaloniki cases underwent significantly different acute management, most probably to be attributed to adaptations to the differing regional approaches of care one following a systematic approach of SCI care and the other not.
Ferreira, Priscila Gusmão da Silva; Galvao, Tais Freire; Silva, Marcus Tolentino
Waiting lines in healthcare reflect an imbalance between the availability and the demand for medical services. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence and factors associated with the pent-up demand for surgical procedures in the Manaus metropolitan region.We performed a population-based cross-sectional study in 2015. Pent-up demand was based on self-report by the participants; those who reported waiting were contacted by phone to clarify the nature and reasons for the experienced delay.We interviewed 4001 adults in their households. The pent-up demand for surgical procedures in the Manaus metropolitan region was 14% (95% confidence interval: 13-15%). The surgical specialties with the highest demand included orthopedics (18.1%), gynecology (17.0%), ophthalmology (12.4%), neurosurgery (10.8%), and general surgery (10.2%). The main reason for not accessing services was their lack of availability in the public health system, leading some patients to pay for procedures in private facilities. The populations most affected by pent-up demand included elderly individuals, women, and housewives.Pent-up demand for surgical procedures is a common problem in the Manaus metropolitan region and thus requires coordinated actions to optimize access to and capacity of the healthcare system.
Harris, Andrew W; Jones, C Allyson; Rowe, Brian H; Voaklander, Donald C
To report the rates of SR-related HIs presenting to EDs in a Canadian population-based sample. Descriptive epidemiology study. Using administrative data, sport and recreation-related emergency department presentations for persons 0-35 years of age, from April 1997 through March 2008, were obtained from the Edmonton Zone (formerly the Capital Health Region), Alberta Health Services through the Ambulatory Care Classification System. Of the 3,230,890 visits to the emergency departments of the five hospitals in Edmonton, 63,219 sport and recreation-related injury records and 4935 sport and recreation-head injury records were identified. Head injuries were most frequently treated for the activities of hockey (20.7%), cycling (12.0%), and skiing/snowboarding/sledding. Males accounted for 71.9% (n=3546) and patients less than 18 years of age sustained 3446 (69.8%) sport and recreation-head injuries. Sport and recreation-related head injuries most frequently treated in emergency departments involve common activities such as hockey, cycling, skiing/snowboarding/sledding, and soccer. Males and those less than 18 years of age sustain the majority of sport and recreation-related head injuries treated in emergency departments. These findings underscore the importance of sport-specific policies and safety promotion for the prevention of head injuries, in sports and recreational activities. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.
Krishnamurthi, Rita; Jones, Amy; Barber, P Alan; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; McPherson, Kathryn; Bennett, Derrick; Rush, Elaine; Suh, Flora; Starkey, Nicola; Theadom, Alice; Parag, Varsha; Rathnasabapathy, Yogini; Feigin, Valery L
Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Stroke burden is immense as it leads to premature deaths, leaves survivors with ongoing disabilities, and has a major financial impact on the individual, their families, and the community. Reliable, high-quality evidence is needed on stroke risk factors, incidence, and outcomes to provide information on how best to reduce this burden. Population-based studies are regarded as the 'gold-standard' of measuring disease burden but are not common due to the logistical and financial challenges they present. The Auckland Regional Community Stroke Studies are among a few in the world that have been carried out at a population level and at regular intervals. The aim of the fourth Auckland Regional Community Stroke Studies IV is to examine the current measures of stroke incidence, prevalence, and outcomes as well the trends over four decades. This article describes the methodology of the Auckland Regional Community Stroke Studies IV with stroke and transient ischemic attacks cases registered over a 12-month period from March 1, 2011 to February 29, 2012. The methodology described may be used as a guide in order to design similar population-based stroke incidence and outcome studies in other countries and populations, thus facilitating the collection of most consistent and accurate stroke epidemiological data. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.
Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena; Pickett, Kate
Several studies in high-income countries report better health status of immigrants compared to the local population ("healthy migrant" effect), regardless of their socioeconomic deprivation. This is known as the Latino paradox. To test the Latino paradox within Latin America by assessing the health of international immigrants to Chile, most of them from Latin American countries, and comparing them to the Chilean-born. Secondary data analysis of the population-based CASEN survey-2006. Three health outcomes were included: disability, illness/accident, and cancer/chronic condition (dichotomous). Demographics (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic-status (SES: educational level, employment status and household income per-capita), and material standards (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality). Crude and adjusted weighted regression models were performed. One percent of Chile's population were immigrants, mainly from other Latin American countries. A "healthy migrant" effect appeared within the total immigrant population: this group had a significantly lower crude prevalence of almost all health indicators than the Chilean-born, which remained after adjusting for various demographic characteristics. However, this effect lost significance when adjusting by SES for most outcomes. The Latino paradox was not observed for international immigrants compared to the local population in Chile. Also, health of immigrants with the longest time of residency showed similar health rates to the Chilean-born. The Latino paradox was not observed in Chile. Protecting low SES immigrants in Chile could have large positive effects in their health at arrival and over time.
Vahabi, Mandana; Lofters, Aisha; Kumar, Matthew; Glazier, Richard H
Rates of mammography screening for breast cancer are disproportionately low in certain subgroups including low-income and immigrant women. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in rates of appropriate breast cancer screening (i.e., screening mammography every 2 years) among Ontario immigrant women by world region of origin and explore the association between appropriate breast cancer screening among these women groups and individual and structural factors. A cohort of 183,332 screening-eligible immigrant women living in Ontario between 2010 and 2012 was created from linked databases and classified into eight world regions of origin. Appropriate screening rates were calculated for each region by age group and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and healthcare-related characteristics. The association between appropriate screening across the eight regions of origin and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and health-related characteristics was explored using multivariate Poisson regression. Screening varied by region of origin, with South Asian women (48.5%) having the lowest and Caribbean and Latin American women (63.7%) the highest cancer screening rates. Factors significantly associated with lower screening across the world regions of origin included living in the lowest income neighborhoods, having a refugee status, being a new immigrant, not having a regular physical examination, not being enrolled in a primary care patient enrollment model, having a male physician, and having an internationally trained physician. Multiple interventions entailing cross-sector collaboration, promotion of patient enrollment models, community engagement, comprehensive and intensive outreach to women, and knowledge translation and transfer to physicians should be considered to address screening disparities among immigrant population. Consideration should be given to design and delivery of culturally appropriate and easily accessible cancer screening programs
Rockett, Ian R H; Jiang, Shuhan; Yang, Qian; Yang, Tingzhong; Yang, Xiaozhao Y; Peng, Sihui; Yu, Lingwei
This study estimated the prevalence of road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents and examined individual and regional-level correlates. A cross-sectional multistage process was used to sample residents from 21 selected cities in China. Survey respondents reported their history of road traffic injury in the past 12 months through a community survey. Multilevel, multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify injury correlates. Based on a retrospective 12-month reporting window, road traffic injury prevalence among urban residents was 13.2%. Prevalence of road traffic injury, by type, was 8.7, 8.7, 8.5, and 7.7% in the automobile, bicycle, motorcycle, and pedestrian categories, respectively. Multilevel analysis showed that prevalence of road traffic injury was positively associated with minority status, income, and mental health disorder score at the individual level. Regionally, road traffic injury was associated with geographic location of residence and prevalence of mental health disorders. Both individual and regional-level variables were associated with road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents, a finding whose implications transcend wholesale imported generic solutions. This descriptive research demonstrates an urgent need for longitudinal studies across China on risk and protective factors, in order to inform injury etiology, surveillance, prevention, treatment, and evaluation.
Yang, Tingzhong; Peng, Sihui; Barnett, Ross; Zhang, Chichen
Ecological models have emphasized that short sleep duration (SSD) is influenced by both individual and environmental variables. However, few studies have considered the latter. The present study explores the influence of urban and regional contextual factors, net of individual characteristics, on the prevalence of SSD among university students in China. Participants were 11,954 students, who were identified through a multistage survey sampling process conducted in 50 universities. Individual data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire, and contextual variables were retrieved from a national database. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine urban and regional variations in high and moderate levels of SSD. Overall the prevalence of high SSD (individual- and city-level covariates. Students attending high-level universities also recorded the highest levels of SSD. Of the individual characteristcs, only mother's occupation and student mental health status were related to SSD. The results of this study add important insights about the role of contextual factors affecting SSD among young adults and indicate the need to take into account both past, as well as present, environmental influences to control SSD.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworm disease is one of the most common infections and cause of a high disease burden in the tropics and subtropics. Remotely sensed ecological data and model-based geostatistics have been used recently to identify areas in need for hookworm control. METHODOLOGY: Cross-sectional interview data and stool samples from 6,375 participants from nine different sites in Mbeya region, south-western Tanzania, were collected as part of a cohort study. Hookworm infection was assessed by microscopy of duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears from one stool sample from each participant. A geographic information system was used to obtain remotely sensed environmental data such as land surface temperature (LST, vegetation cover, rainfall, and elevation, and combine them with hookworm infection data and with socio-demographic and behavioral data. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression was performed on sites separately and on the pooled dataset. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Univariable analyses yielded significant associations for all ecological variables. Five ecological variables stayed significant in the final multivariable model: population density (odds ratio (OR = 0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.63-0.73, mean annual vegetation density (OR = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.06-0.18, mean annual LST during the day (OR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.75-0.88, mean annual LST during the night (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.44-1.64, and latrine coverage in household surroundings (OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 1.01-1.04. Interaction terms revealed substantial differences in associations of hookworm infection with population density, mean annual enhanced vegetation index, and latrine coverage between the two sites with the highest prevalence of infection. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study supports previous findings that remotely sensed data such as vegetation indices, LST, and elevation are strongly associated with hookworm prevalence. However, the results
Drivsholm, Thomas Bo; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Davidsen, Michael
Decreasing rates of participation in population-based studies increasingly challenge the interpretation of study results, in both analytic and descriptive epidemiology. Consequently, estimates of possible differences between participants and non-participants are increasingly important...... for the interpretation of study results and generalization to the background population....
Cabieses,Baltica; Tunstall,Helena; Pickett,Kate
Background: Several studies in high-income countries report better health status of immigrants compared to the local population ("healthy migrant" effect), regardless of their socioeconomic deprivation. This is known as the Latino paradox. Aim: To test the Latino paradox within Latin America by assessing the health of international immigrants to Chile, most of them from Latin American countries, and comparing them to the Chilean-born. Material and Methods: Secondary data analysis of the popul...
Rubin, K H; Abrahamsen, B; Hermann, A P
.5% of those with more than 40 km to the nearest scanner had a history of DXA. Logistic regression analysis showed that distance, fracture risk, oral glucocorticoids, low-energy fracture, conditions associated with secondary osteoporosis, low BMI, history of falls, age 65–79 years, spouse status, and income......To determine the relationship between risk factors and use of DXA scans. Our study showed a relatively high use of DXA in low-risk women and the relatively low coverage in women with multiple risk factors. Moreover, distance to DXA clinics, age, and socio-economic factors are associated...... with the use of DXA. Introduction To determine the relationship between risk factors for fracture and use of DXA scans in Danish women in relation to distance to DXA clinics and socio-economic factors. Methods From the Danish National Civil Register we randomly selected 5,000 women aged 40–90 years living...
Background The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease varies in different parts of the world. There are no population based studies in Nigeria. The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease in a population of Nigerian medical students. Methods The Carlsson-Dent questionnaire was administered to medical students in the clinical phase of their training at the University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus. Some putative risk ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous exposure to various environmental carcinogens and genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME are associated with many types of human cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. Huaian, China, is one of the endemic regions of ESCC, but fewer studies have been done in characterizing the risk factors of ESCC in this area. The aims of this study is to evaluate the etiological roles of demographic parameters, environmental and food-borne carcinogens exposure, and XME polymorphisms in formation of ESCC, and to investigate possible gene-gene and gene-environment interactions associated with ESCC in Huaian, China. Methods A population based case-control study was conducted in 107 ESCC newly diagnosed cases and 107 residency- age-, and sex-matched controls in 5 townships of Huaian. In addition to regular epidemiological and food frequency questionnaire analyses, genetic polymorphisms of phase I enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, and phase II enzymes GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX were assessed from genomic DNA using PCR based techniques. Results Consuming acrid food, fatty meat, moldy food, salted and pickled vegetables, eating fast, introverted personality, passive smoking, a family history of cancer, esophageal lesion, and infection with Helicobacter pylori were significant risk factors for ESCC (P GSTT1 null genotype was higher in cases (59.4% compared to controls (47.2% with an odds ratio (OR of 1.68 and 95% confidence interval (CI from 0.96 to 2.97 (P = 0.07, especially in males (OR = 2.78; 95% CI = 1.22–6.25; P = 0.01. No associations were found between polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2E1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and EPHX and ESCC (P > 0.05. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that dietary and environmental exposures, some demographic parameters and genetic polymorphism of GSTT1 may play important roles in the development of ESCC in Huaian
Wang, Zemin; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Tang, Lili; Sun, Guiju; Tang, Yuntian; Xie, Yin; Wang, Shaokang; Hu, Xu; Gao, Weimin; Cox, Stephen B
Continuous exposure to various environmental carcinogens and genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) are associated with many types of human cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Huaian, China, is one of the endemic regions of ESCC, but fewer studies have been done in characterizing the risk factors of ESCC in this area. The aims of this study is to evaluate the etiological roles of demographic parameters, environmental and food-borne carcinogens exposure, and XME polymorphisms in formation of ESCC, and to investigate possible gene-gene and gene-environment interactions associated with ESCC in Huaian, China. A population based case-control study was conducted in 107 ESCC newly diagnosed cases and 107 residency- age-, and sex-matched controls in 5 townships of Huaian. In addition to regular epidemiological and food frequency questionnaire analyses, genetic polymorphisms of phase I enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, and phase II enzymes GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX) were assessed from genomic DNA using PCR based techniques. Consuming acrid food, fatty meat, moldy food, salted and pickled vegetables, eating fast, introverted personality, passive smoking, a family history of cancer, esophageal lesion, and infection with Helicobacter pylori were significant risk factors for ESCC (P < 0.05). Regular clean up of food storage utensils, green tea consumption, and alcohol abstinence were protective factors for ESCC (P < 0.01). The frequency of the GSTT1 null genotype was higher in cases (59.4%) compared to controls (47.2%) with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.68 and 95% confidence interval (CI) from 0.96 to 2.97 (P = 0.07), especially in males (OR = 2.78; 95% CI = 1.22–6.25; P = 0.01). No associations were found between polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2E1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and EPHX and ESCC (P > 0.05). Our results demonstrated that dietary and environmental exposures, some demographic
Di Thiene, D; Helgesson, M; Alexanderson, K; La Torre, G; Tiihonen, J; Mittendorfer-Rutz, E
In several countries, immigrants have higher disability pension (DP) rates than natives. Reasons for this are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate if the risk of diagnosis-specific DP differed in first, second, and second/intermediate generation immigrants compared to natives, in general and across regions of birth, and stratified by age. A population-based prospective cohort study of all 3,507,055 individuals aged 19-50 years and living in Sweden in 2004 with a 6-year follow-up period. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for mental and somatic DP were estimated by Cox regression for first, second, and second/intermediate generation immigrants compared to natives, across regions of birth and stratified by age. After multivariate adjustment, HRs for both mental and somatic DP were higher at follow-up in the first generation compared to natives: mental HR 1.17 (CI 1.12-1.22) and somatic 1.15 (1.09-1.22) for individuals Immigrants born in Europe outside EU25, and countries outside Europe had particularly elevated HRs. Also in the second generation, HRs were higher in mental 1.29 (1.21-1.37) and somatic DP: 1.30 (1.19-1.42) in those immigrants there were no strong differences in HRs between regions of birth. Compared to natives, the risk of DP was higher in first and second generation immigrants. Higher estimates were seen for immigrants from Europe outside EU25 and from the rest of the world in the first generation. No considerable differences in estimates regarding mental or somatic DP diagnoses were found.
Using a population-based sampling strategy, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development compiled a longitudinal normative reference database of neuroimaging and correlated clinical/behavioral data from a demographically representative sample of healthy children and adolescents aged newborn through early adulthood. The present paper reports brain volume data for 325 children, ages 4.5-18 years, from the first cross-sectional time point. Measures included volumes of whole-brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), left and right lateral ventricles, frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe GM and WM, subcortical GM (thalamus, caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus), cerebellum, and brainstem. Associations with cross-sectional age, sex, family income, parental education, and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated. Key observations are: 1) age-related decreases in lobar GM most prominent in parietal and occipital cortex; 2) age-related increases in lobar WM, greatest in occipital, followed by the temporal lobe; 3) age-related trajectories predominantly curvilinear in females, but linear in males; and 4) small systematic associations of brain tissue volumes with BMI but not with IQ, family income, or parental education. These findings constitute a normative reference on regional brain volumes in children and adolescents.
Vigod, Simone N; Bagadia, Ashlesha J; Hussain-Shamsy, Neesha; Fung, Kinwah; Sultana, Anjum; Dennis, Cindy-Lee E
Immigrant women are at high risk for postpartum mental disorders. The purpose of this study was to understand how rates of postpartum mental health contact differ among immigrant women by region of origin, time since immigration, and refugee status. We conducted a population-based cohort study of immigrant mothers in Ontario, Canada, with children born from 2008 to 2012 (N = 123,231). We compared risk for mental health contact (outpatient, emergency department, inpatient hospitalization) in the first postpartum year by region of origin, time since immigration, and refugee status, generating adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Immigrants from North Africa and the Middle East were more likely to have outpatient mental health contact than a referent group of immigrants from North America or Europe (aOR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.14); those from East Asia and the Pacific, Southern Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa were less likely (0.64, 0.61-0.68; 0.78, 0.74-0.83; 0.88, 0.81-0.94). Refugees were more likely to have contact than non-refugees (1.10, 1.04-1.15); those in Canada Refugees were more likely to have an emergency department visit (1.81, 1.50-2.17) and a psychiatric hospitalization than non-refugees (1.78, 1.31-2.42). These findings have implications for targeted postpartum mental health service delivery targeting certain immigrant groups and particularly refugees.
Juliane S. Dalbem
Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of benign febrile seizures of childhood and describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of this population. Methods: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study, carried out in the city of Barra do Bugres, MT, Brazil, from August 2012 to August 2013. Data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, a questionnaire that was previously validated in another Brazilian study was used to identify suspected cases of seizures. In the second phase, a neurological evaluation was performed to confirm diagnosis. Results: The prevalence was 6.4/1000 inhabitants (95% CI: 3.8–10.1. There was no difference between genders. Simple febrile seizures were found in 88.8% of cases. A family history of febrile seizures in first-degree relatives and history of epilepsy was present in 33.3% and 11.1% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of febrile seizures in Midwestern Brazil was lower than that found in other Brazilian regions, probably due to the inclusion only of febrile seizures with motor manifestations and differences in socioeconomic factors among the evaluated areas. Resumo: Objetivos: Estabelecer a prevalência das crises febris e descrever o perfil clínico e epidemiológico dessa população. Métodos: Estudo transversal de base populacional realizado na cidade de Barra do Bugres (MT, no período de agosto de 2012 a agosto de 2013. Os dados foram coletados em duas etapas. Na primeira fase utilizamos um questionário validado previamente em outro estudo brasileiro, para identificação de casos suspeitos de crises epilépticas. Na segunda etapa realizamos a avaliação neuroclínica para confirmação diagnóstica. Resultados: A prevalência de crise febril foi de 6,4/1000 habitantes (IC95% 3,8; 10,1. Não houve diferença entre os sexos. As crises febris simples foram encontradas em 88,8% dos casos. A história familiar de crise febril e epilepsia em parentes de 1° grau esteve
Kranjac, Ashley Wendell; Nie, Jing; Trevisan, Maurizio; Freudenheim, Jo L
The relationship between obesity and depression is well described. However, the evidence linking depression and body mass index (BMI) across the broad range of body size is less consistent. We examined the association between depressive symptoms and BMI in a sample of adult women in the Buffalo-Niagara region between 1997 and 2001. Using logistic regression, we investigated whether increased weight status beyond normal-weight was associated with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, and if educational attainment modified the association between obesity and depression. There was a trend for increased weight status to be associated with higher depressive symptoms (obese II/III, OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.03-2.41), whereas higher education was associated with lower odds of depressive symptoms, in an adjusted model including BMI (more than 12 but less than 16 years, OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.49-0.98; 16 or more years of education, OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.40-0.93). The association of being obese I with depressive symptoms was different for more educated (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.27-3.62) compared to less educated women (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.50-1.62); the sample was larger for the more educated women and reached statistical significance. There were no differences in the association for obese II/III women in strata of education. There was evidence of risk-difference heterogeneity (0.88, 95% CI 0.84-0.93). In this population-based sample of women in western New York state, increased weight was negligibly associated with depressive symptoms. The association of being obese I with depressive symptoms was different for more compared to less educated women. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses from 1994–2000, and the distribution across gender, age groups, diagnostic groups and regions in a general population. Methods The population at risk was defined as all individuals aged 16–66 years who were entitled to sickness benefits in 1994, 1996, 1998 and 2000 (n = 2,282,761 in 2000. All individuals with a full-time disability pension were excluded. The study included approximately 77% of the Norwegian population aged 16–66 years. For each year, the study base started on 1 January and ended on 31 December. Individuals that were sick-listed for more than 14/16 consecutive days with a psychiatric diagnosis on their medical certificate were selected as cases. Included in this study were data for Norway, the capital city Oslo and five regions in the southeast of the country. Results Sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses increased in all age groups, in women and men, and in all regions. At the national level, the cumulative incidence increased in women from 1.7% in 1994 to 4.6% in 2000, and in men from 0.8% in 1994 to 2.2% in 2000. The highest cumulative incidence was found in middle-aged women and men (30–59 years. Women had a higher incidence than men in all stratification groups. The cumulative incidences in 2000 varied between 4.6% to 5.6% in women in the different regions, and for men the corresponding figures were 2.1% to 3.2%. Throughout the four years studied, women in Oslo had more than twice as high incidence levels of sickness absence with alcohol and drug diagnoses as the country as a whole. There were some differences between regions in sickness absence with specific psychiatric diagnoses, but they were small and most comparisons were non-significant. Conclusion Sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses increased between 1994 and 2000 in Norway. The increase was highest in the middle-aged, and in women
Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; de Graaf, R.; ten Have, M.; Beekman, A.T.F.
Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n = 5504) the costs
Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; Graaf, de R.; Have, M. ten; Beekman, A.T.F.
Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n ¼ 5504) the costs
Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; de Graaf, R.; ten Have, M.; Beekman, A.T.F.
Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n = 5504) the costs
Acarturk, C.; Smit, H.F.E.; de Graaf, R.; van Straten, A.; ten Have, M.; Cuijpers, P.
Background: Information about the economic costs of social phobia is scant. In this study, we examine the economic costs of social phobia and subthreshold social phobia. Methods: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS) which is a population-based
Paszat, Lawrence; Laperriere, Normand; Groome, Patti; Schulze, Karleen; Mackillop, William; Holowaty, Eric
Purpose: To describe (1) the use of surgery and radiotherapy (RT) in the treatment of patients with glioblastoma (GBM) in Ontario, (2) survival, and (3) proportion of survival time spent in the hospital after diagnosis. Methods and Materials: We performed a population-based cohort study of all Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR) cases of GBM diagnosed between 1982 and 1994. We linked OCR records, hospital files containing surgical procedure codes from the Canadian Institute for Health Information, and province-wide RT records. We studied the odds of treatment using multivariate logistic regression. We expressed the time spent in the hospital as the mean number of days per case, and as a proportion of the interval between diagnosis and death, or 24 months following diagnosis, whichever came first. We used the life-table method and Cox proportional hazards regression to describe survival. Results: The proportion of patients with GBM undergoing any surgery directed at the tumor varied with age (p<0.0001) and region of residence (p<0.0001). The proportion undergoing RT varied with age (p<0.0001), region of residence (p<0.0001), and year of diagnosis (p=0.01). RT dose ≥53.5 Gy varied with age (p<0.0001), region of residence (p<0.0001), and year of diagnosis (p=0.0002). Median survival was 11 months among patients receiving RT and 3 months among those not receiving RT. The percentage of survival time spent in the hospital was similar among those who received from 49.5 to <53.5 Gy, compared to ≥53.5 Gy. Overall survival and the adjusted relative risk of death varied with age and region of residence. Conclusion: We observed practice variation in the treatment of patients with GBM according to age, region of residence, and year of diagnosis. Survival did not increase during the study period. The variation in RT dose between those receiving from 49.5 to <53.5 Gy compared to ≥53.5 Gy was not paralleled by variation in survival between regions where one or the other of the
Yu, Zhi-gang; Jia, Cun-xian; Geng, Cui-zhi; Tang, Jin-hai; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Li-yuan
There has been an increase in the incidence of breast cancer in China, but no definite risk and protective factors for breast cancer have been identified in Chinese females. This study was designed to identify the risk factors for female breast cancer in North and East China. A 1:3 matched, case-control study was conducted. All of the subjects in the case and control groups were selected from a previous epidemiological survey of 122 058 females aged 25 to 70 years. Single and multiple Logistic regression analyses were used to study potential factors in the development of breast cancer. Significant differences at the level of α=0.20 between case and control groups were observed for the following factors: economic status, social status, family annual income, bean product consumption, body mass index (BMI), family history of breast cancer in the first or second degree, number of miscarriages, menstrual pattern, benign breast disease history, nipple leakage, inverted nipple, history of diabetes mellitus, history of hypertension, history of ovarian cyst, physical exercise, current and global quality of life satisfaction, healthy behavior and prevention, and scores of breast cancer-related knowledge. After Cox-regression model analysis (α=0.10), six factors were found to be significantly related to breast cancer, of which the ORs and 95%CIs were: BMI, 1.696 (1.169-2.460, P=0.005); benign breast disease history, 2.672 (0.848-8.416, P=0.093); family history of breast cancer, 7.080 (1.758-28.551, P=0.006); number of miscarriages, 1.738 (1.014-2.978, P=0.044); global quality of life satisfaction, 3.044 (1.804-5.136, P=0.000); healthy behavior and prevention, 3.294 (1.692-6.412, P=0.000). A comprehensive range of factors related to breast cancer was identified. Women should be educated about a healthy lifestyle, especially those with a family history of breast cancer or a personal history of benign breast disease.
Nishi, Taiki; Kamikura, Takahisa; Funada, Akira; Myojo, Yasuhiro; Ishida, Tetsuya; Inaba, Hideo
Dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DA-CPR) impacts the rates of bystander CPR (BCPR) and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs). This study aimed to elucidate whether regional variations in indexes for BCPR and emergency medical service (EMS) may be associated with OHCA outcomes. We conducted a population-based observational study involving 157,093 bystander-witnessed, resuscitation-attempted OHCAs without physician involvement between 2007 and 2011. For each index of BCPR and EMS, we classified the 47 prefectures into the following three groups: advanced, intermediate, and developing regions. Nominal logit analysis followed by multivariable logistic regression including OHCA backgrounds was employed to examine the association between neurologically favourable 1-month survival, and regional classifications based on BCPR- and EMS-related indexes. Logit analysis including all regional classifications revealed that the number of BLS training course participants per population or bystander's own performance of BCPR without DA-CPR was not associated with the survival. Multivariable logistic regression including the OHCA backgrounds known to be associated with survival (BCPR provision, arrest aetiology, initial rhythm, patient age, time intervals of witness-to-call and call-to-arrival at patient), the following regional classifications based on DA-CPR but not on EMS were associated with survival: sensitivity of DA-CPR [adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for advanced region; those for intermediate region, with developing region as reference, 1.277 (1.131-1.441); 1.162 (1.058-1.277)]; the proportion of bystanders to follow DA-CPR [1.749 (1.554-1.967); 1.280 (1.188-1.380)]. Good outcomes of bystander-witnessed OHCAs correlate with regions having higher sensitivity of DA-CPR and larger proportion of bystanders to follow DA-CPR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mokta, Jatinder; Mokta, Kiran; Ranjan, Asha; Joshi, Ivan; Garg, Mahak
To determine the pattern of diabetic drug prescription and awareness about diabetes among primary health providers in the rural areas of Himachal Pradesh situated in the western Himalayas at an elevation range from 350 meters (1,148ft) to 6900 meters (22,966ft) above sea level. Study was conducted in 20 rural areas of Himachal Pradesh, located 50 to 400 Km from state capital, at 2200 to 10,000 feet altitude. Non-pregnant diabetic adults were surveyed through 31 diabetic camps. Detailed history, weight, height, waist circumference, body mass index recorded. Fasting or random blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, lipid profile measured and blood pressure recorded. 894 diabetic patients were included in the study (59.83% male) with the mean age of 52.94±6.78 years. Two in three patients were on oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs), and one in three on alternative approaches for diabetes control. Among OHAs, sulphonylureas (SU) were the most commonly prescribed oral agents in 76.09% of patients followed by metformin in 23.87%. Glibenclamide was the most commonly prescribed SU in 44.60%. Amlodipine and atenolol was the commonest anti-hypertensive drug prescribed in 77.85% either in combination or as individual drug. Only 10.59% were on lipid lowering therapy. For primary care providers glycemic target was the mainstay of diabetes treatment with little emphasis on blood pressure control and no emphasis on lipid reduction. Sulphonylureas were the commonest anti-diabetic drug prescribed by the primary care providers followed by metformin. Insulin was prescribed to 2.23% only. Combination of amlodipine and atenolol was the commonest anti-hypertensive drugs prescribed and only 10% of patients were prescribed statin.
Wallman, Johan K; Jöud, Anna; Olofsson, Tor; Jacobsson, Lennart T H; Bliddal, Henning; Kristensen, Lars E
The aim was to assess work-loss days before and after commencement of anti-TNF treatment in patients with non-radiographic axial spondylarthritis (nr-axSpA). Bionaïve nr-axSpA patients (n = 75), aged 17-62 years, fulfilling the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society criteria for axial spondyloarthritis and starting anti-TNF treatment during 2004-11, were retrieved from the observational South Swedish Arthritis Treatment Group study. Patient information was linked to Swedish Social Insurance Agency data on sick leave and disability pension from 1 year before to 2 years after anti-TNF initiation. Matched population references were included for comparison and to adjust for secular trends. The nr-axSpA patients had a median age of 35 years and disease duration of 6 years at the start of treatment. During the 2 years after anti-TNF initiation, mean work-loss days (including both sick leave and disability pension) in the nr-axSpA group decreased significantly from 3.4 to 1.9 times more than among the population references. The effect was seen on sick leave, whereas disability pension levels remained similar in both groups throughout. Anti-TNF therapy in nr-axSpA was associated with a significant and sustained improvement of work disability over 2 years. However, the proportion of work-loss days remained almost twice as high as in the general population at the end of follow-up. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Markkula, Ritva A; Kalso, Eija A; Kaprio, Jaakko A
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a pain syndrome, the mechanisms and predictors of which are still unclear. We have earlier validated a set of FM-symptom questions for detecting possible FM in an epidemiological survey and thereby identified a cluster with "possible FM". This study explores prospectively predictors for membership of that FM-symptom cluster. A population-based sample of 8343 subjects of the older Finnish Twin Cohort replied to health questionnaires in 1975, 1981, and 1990. Their answers to the set of FM-symptom questions in 1990 classified them in three latent classes (LC): LC1 with no or few symptoms, LC2 with some symptoms, and LC3 with many FM symptoms. We analysed putative predictors for these symptom classes using baseline (1975 and 1981) data on regional pain, headache, migraine, sleeping, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, smoking, and zygosity, adjusted for age, gender, and education. Those with a high likelihood of having fibromyalgia at baseline were excluded from the analysis. In the final multivariate regression model, regional pain, sleeping problems, and overweight were all predictors for membership in the class with many FM symptoms. The strongest non-genetic predictor was frequent headache (OR 8.6, CI 95% 3.8-19.2), followed by persistent back pain (OR 4.7, CI 95% 3.3-6.7) and persistent neck pain (OR 3.3, CI 95% 1.8-6.0). Regional pain, frequent headache, and persistent back or neck pain, sleeping problems, and overweight are predictors for having a cluster of symptoms consistent with fibromyalgia.
Liu, Ning; Vigod, Simone N; Farrugia, M Michèle; Urquia, Marcelo L; Ray, Joel G
To estimate the intergenerational association in teenage pregnancy, and whether there is a coupling tendency between a mother and daughter in how their teen pregnancies end, such as an induced abortion (IA) vs. a livebirth. Population-based cohort study. Ontario, Canada. 15,097 mothers and their 16,177 daughters. Generalized estimating equations generated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of a daughter experiencing a teen pregnancy in relation to the number of teen pregnancies her mother had. Multinomial logistic regression estimated the odds that a teen pregnancy ended with IA among both mother and daughter. All models were adjusted for maternal age and world region of origin, the daughter's socio-demographic characteristics and comorbidities, mother-daughter cohabitation, and neighborhood-level teen pregnancy rate. Teen pregnancy in the daughter, between ages 15-19 years, and also the nature of the daughter's teen pregnancy, categorized as i) no teen pregnancy, ii) at least one teen pregnancy, all exclusively ending with a livebirth, and iii) at least one teen pregnancy, with at least one teen pregnancy ending with an IA. The proportion of daughters having a teen pregnancy among those whose mother had 0, 1, 2, or ≥ 3 teen pregnancies was 16.3%, 24.9%, 33.5% and 36.3%, respectively. The aOR of a daughter having a teen pregnancy was 1.42 (95% CI 1.25-1.61) if her mother had 1, 1.97 (95% CI 1.71-2.26) if she had 2, and 2.17 (95% CI 1.84-2.56) if her mother had ≥ 3 teen pregnancies, relative to none. If a mother had ≥ 1 teen pregnancy ending with IA, then her daughter had an aOR of 2.12 (95% CI 1.76-2.56) for having a teen pregnancy also ending with IA; whereas, if a mother had ≥ 1 teen pregnancy, all ending with a livebirth, then her daughter had an aOR of 1.73 (95% CI 1.46-2.05) for that same outcome. There is a strong intergenerational occurrence of teenage pregnancy between a mother and daughter, including a coupling tendency in how the pregnancy ends. This
Silva, Juan Carlos; Diaz, Marco Antonio; Maul, Eugenio; Munoz, Beatriz E; West, Sheila K
A prevalence survey for active trachoma in children aged under 10 years and trichiasis in women aged 40 years and older was carried out in four districts in the Sololá region in Guatemala, which is suspected of still having a trachoma problem. Population-based surveys were undertaken in three districts, within 15 randomly selected communities in each district. In addition, in a fourth district that borders the third district chosen, we surveyed the small northern sub-district, by randomly selecting three communities in each community, 100 children aged under 10 years were randomly selected, and all females over 40 years. Five survey teams were trained and standardized. Trachoma was graded using the World Health Organization simplified grading scheme and ocular swabs were taken in cases of clinical follicular or inflammatory trachoma. Prevalence estimates were calculated at district and sub-district level. Trachoma rates at district level varied from 0-5.1%. There were only two sub-districts where active trachoma approached 10% (Nahualá Costa, 8.1%, and Santa Catarina Costa, 7.3%). Trichiasis rates in females aged 40 years and older varied from 0-3%. Trachoma was likely a problem in the past. Trachoma is disappearing in the Sololá region in Guatemala. Health leadership may consider further mapping of villages around the areas with an especially high rate of trachoma and infection, and instituting trichiasis surgery and active trachoma intervention where needed.
Soelberg, K; Jarius, S; Skejoe, Hanne Pernille Bro
BACKGROUND: Optic neuritis (ON) is often associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Early diagnosis is critical to optimal patient management. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of acute ON and the rates of conversion to MS and antibody-mediated ON. METHOD: Population-based prospective study......-specific incidence was 3.28 (2.44-4.31) per 100,000 person years, 2.02 for men and 4.57 for women. At follow-up, 20 patients met the diagnostic criteria for MS, MRI lesions disseminated in space and time in 17/20 patients. AQP4-IgG was detected in none, MOG-IgG was detected in two patients. CONCLUSION...
Acarturk, C; Smit, Filip; de Graaf, R; van Straten, A; Ten Have, M; Cuijpers, P
Information about the economic costs of social phobia is scant. In this study, we examine the economic costs of social phobia and subthreshold social phobia. Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS) which is a population-based prospective study (n=4,789). Costs related to health service uptake, patients' out-of-pocket expenses, and costs arising from production losses were calculated for the reference year 2003. The costs for people with social phobia were compared with the costs for people with no mental disorder. The annual per capita total costs of social phobia were euro 11,952 (95% CI=7,891-16,013) which is significantly higher than the total costs for people with no mental disorder, euro 2957 (95% CI=2690-3224). When adjusting for mental and somatic co-morbidity, the costs decreased to euro 6,100 (95% CI=2681-9519), or 136 million euro per year per 1 million inhabitants, which was still significantly higher than the costs for people with no mental disorder. The costs of subthreshold social phobia were also significantly higher than the costs for people without any mental disorder, at euro 4,687 (95% CI=2557-6816). The costs presented here are conservative lower estimates because we only included costs related to mental health services. The economic costs associated with social phobia are substantial, and those of subthreshold social phobia approach those of the full-blown disorder.
Thaíse Campos Mondin
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of anxiety disorders and associated factors in young adults. Methods: Cross-sectional population-based study of individuals between the ages of 18 and 24 years randomly selected from 89 census-based sectors to ensure an adequate sample size. Household selection within the sectors was performed according to a systematic sampling process. Anxiety disorders were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. The final sample comprised 1,560 young adults. Results: Of the participants who were diagnosed with anxiety disorders, 12.3% had agoraphobia, 9.7% had generalised anxiety disorder, 4.0% had social phobia, 3.3% had obsessive-compulsive disorder, 2.5% had panic disorder, and 2.1% had post-traumatic stress disorder; only 23.8% had received any previous treatment. Anxiety disorders were associated with sex, socioeconomic status, psychiatric problems in parents, alcohol abuse, and tobacco use. Conclusions: The identification of factors associated with anxiety disorders in young people enables us to develop intervention strategies. Anxiety disorders are not only highly prevalent but are also associated with significant functional impairment, significant reductions in quality of life, lower productivity, and higher rates of comorbidities.
Full Text Available Background: The incidence of hepatoblastoma is not well known in Taiwan. The goal of this study was to investigate the incidence rates of hepatoblastoma by age and sex. Methods: The data of patients with hepatoblastoma diagnosed from 1995 to 2012 were obtained from the population-based Taiwan Cancer Registry. Incidence rates of hepatoblastoma according to sex and age were analyzed. This study employed the published methods of International Agency for Research on Cancer to calculate the age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs, standard errors, 95% confidence intervals (CIs, and standardized incidence rate ratios (SIRRs. Results: In total, 211 patients were diagnosed with hepatoblastoma during the 18-year study period. The ASIR was 0.76 per million person-years. Hepatoblastoma was predominantly diagnosed in children (n = 184, 87.2%. By contrast, adolescents/adults (n = 10, 4.7% and elderly people (n = 17, 8.1% were rarely affected. The incidence peaked at ages 0–4 years with corresponding ASIR of 7.3 per million person-years. A significant male predilection was only found in children and elderly people, with male-to-female SIRRs of 1.23 and 1.89, respectively. During 1995–2012, the overall incidence of hepatoblastoma significantly increased only in children (annual percent change: 7.4%, 95% CI 3.9%–11.1%, p < 0.05 and specifically in boys (annual percent change: 6.5%, 95% CI 1.9%–11.2%, p < 0.05. Conclusion: Only 27 patients aged ≥ 15 years with hepatoblastoma were identified in this study, the existence of adult hepatoblastoma still requires novel molecular tools to elucidate. The association between the upward trend of hepatoblastoma incidence in boys and increased survival of prematurity in Taiwan warrants further investigations. Keywords: Hepatoblastoma, Incidence, Taiwan
Jackson, Sarah E; Wardle, Jane; Steptoe, Andrew; Fisher, Abigail
This study explored differences in sexual activity, function, and concerns between cancer survivors and cancer-free controls in a population-based study. The data were from 2982 men and 3708 women who were 50 years old or older and were participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Sexual well-being was assessed with the Sexual Relationships and Activities Questionnaire, and cancer diagnoses were self-reported. There were no differences between cancer survivors and controls in levels of sexual activity (76.0% vs 78.5% for men and 58.2% vs 55.5% for women) or sexual function. Men and women with cancer diagnoses were more dissatisfied with their sex lives than controls (age-adjusted percentages: 30.9% vs 19.8% for men [P = .023] and 18.2% vs 11.8% for women [P = .034]), and women with cancer were more concerned about levels of sexual desire (10.2% vs 7.1%; P = .006). Women diagnosed sexual desire (14.8% vs 7.1%; P = .007) and orgasmic experience (17.6% vs 7.1%; P = .042) than controls, but there were no differences in men. Self-reports of sexual activity and functioning in older people with cancer are broadly comparable to age-matched, cancer-free controls. There is a need to identify the causes of sexual dissatisfaction among long-term cancer survivors despite apparently normal levels of sexual activity and function for their age. The development of interventions addressing low sexual desire and problems with sexual functioning in women is also important and may be particularly relevant for cancer survivors after treatment. Cancer 2016;122:3883-3891. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.
Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Plotnikova, Maria; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert
Young adults' Ecstasy use trajectories have important implications for individual and population-level consequences of Ecstasy use, but little relevant research has been conducted. This study prospectively examines Ecstasy trajectories in a population-based sample. Data are from the Natural History Study of Drug Use, a retrospective/prospective cohort study conducted in Australia. Population screening identified a probability sample of Ecstasy users aged 19-23 years. Complete data for 30 months of follow-up, comprising 4 time intervals, were available for 297 participants (88.4% of sample). Trajectories were derived using cluster analysis based on recent Ecstasy use at each interval. Trajectory predictors were examined using a generalized ordered logit model and included Ecstasy dependence (World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Instrument), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), aggression (Young Adult Self Report) and contextual factors (e.g. attendance at electronic/dance music events). Three Ecstasy trajectories were identified (low, intermediate and high use). At its peak, the high-use trajectory involved 1-2 days Ecstasy use per week. Decreasing frequency of use was observed for intermediate and high-use trajectories from 12 months, independently of market factors. Intermediate and high-use trajectory membership was predicted by past Ecstasy consumption (>70 pills) and attendance at electronic/dance music events. High-use trajectory members were unlikely to have used Ecstasy for more than 3 years and tended to report consistently positive subjective effects at baseline. Given the social context and temporal course of Ecstasy use, Ecstasy trajectories might be better understood in terms of instrumental rather than addictive drug use patterns. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stuart, Amanda L; Pasco, Julie A; Jacka, Felice N; Berk, Michael; Williams, Lana J
The link between falls and depression has been researched in the elderly; however, little information is available on this association in younger adults, particularly men. This study sought to investigate the link between major depressive disorder (MDD) and falls in a population-based sample of 952 men (24-97 years). MDD was diagnosed utilizing the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Research Version, Non-Patient edition, and categorized as 12-month/past/never. Body mass index and gait were measured; falls, smoking status, psychotropic medication use, and alcohol intake were self-reported as part of the Geelong Osteoporosis Study 5-year follow-up assessment. Thirty-four (3.6%) men met criteria for 12-month MDD, and 110 (11.6%) for past MDD. Of the 952 men, 175 (18.4%) reported falling at least once during the past 12 months. Fallers were older (66 [interquartile range: 48-79] vs. 59 [45-72] years, p = .001) and more likely to have uneven gait ( n = 16, 10% vs. n = 31, 4%, p = .003) than nonfallers. Participants with 12-month MDD had more than twice the odds of falling (age-adjusted odds ratio: 2.22, 95% confidence interval [1.03, 4.80]). The odds of falling were not associated with past depression ( p = .4). Further adjustments for psychotropic drug use, gait, body mass index, smoking status, blood pressure, and alcohol did not explain these associations. Given the 2.2-fold greater likelihood of falling associated with depression was not explained by age or psychotropic drug use, further research is warranted.
Full Text Available Anoop Shankar1, Kristine E Lee2, Barbara EK Klein2, Paul Muntner3, Peter C Brazy4, Karen J Cruickshanks2,5, F Javier Nieto5, Lorraine G Danforth2, Carla R Schubert2,5, Michael Y Tsai6, Ronald Klein21Department of Community Medicine, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 4Department of Medicine, 5Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA; 3Department of Community Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY, USA; 6Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USABackground: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR-estimating equations are used to determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD in population-based studies. However, it has been suggested that since the commonly used GFR equations were originally developed from samples of patients with CKD, they underestimate GFR in healthy populations. Few studies have made side-by-side comparisons of the effect of various estimating equations on the prevalence estimates of CKD in a general population sample.Patients and methods: We examined a population-based sample comprising adults from Wisconsin (age, 43–86 years; 56% women. We compared the prevalence of CKD, defined as a GFR of <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 estimated from serum creatinine, by applying various commonly used equations including the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD equation, Cockcroft–Gault (CG equation, and the Mayo equation. We compared the performance of these equations against the CKD definition of cystatin C >1.23 mg/L.Results: We found that the prevalence of CKD varied widely among different GFR equations. Although the prevalence of CKD was 17.2% with the MDRD equation and 16.5% with the CG equation, it was only 4.8% with the Mayo equation. Only 24% of those identified to have GFR in the range of 50–59 mL/min per 1
Hesse, L; Grüsser, M; Hoffstadt, K; Jörgens, V; Hartmann, P; Kroll, P
Since November 1997 the complete documentation of an ophthalmological examination of diabetics has been annually subsidized by the Volkswagen Corporation Health Maintenance Organization (VW-HMO). The results of an annual ophthalmological examination were recorded in a standardised history sheet developed by the Initiative Group for Early Detection of Diabetic Eye Diseases. These data included visual acuity, intraocular pressure, lens status and a description of fundus abnormalities. Within 26 months ophthalmological examinations of 2,801 patients were completed which represented 4.5% of all VW-HMO insured patients. On average, patients suffered from diabetes for 9.6 years (SD +/- 8.3), artificial intraocular lenses were present in 357 eyes (6.4%) and 1,216 eyes (12.0%) were diagnosed with cataract or posterior capsule opacification impairing visual acuity. Out of 263 patients younger than 40 years old, 18.8% had a mild or moderate and 3.3% a severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). A proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) was found in 2.2% of the younger patients. Of 2,228 patients aged 40 years and older, 11.9% had a mild or moderate and 2.6% a severe NPDR. In 0.9% of this group PDR was diagnosed. An annual ophthalmological screening based on a survey sheet of the Initiative Group was successfully introduced. For the first time a population-based evaluation on the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was carried out for inhabitants of a German city. The prevalence of PDR was found to be lower than previously published in comparable studied.
Rankin, Judith; Cans, Christine; Garne, Ester
Aim Our aim was to determine the proportion of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who have a congenital anomaly (CA) in three regions (Isère Region, French Alps; Funen County, Denmark; Northern Region, England) where population-based CP and CA registries exist, and to classify the children according...... to CA subtype. Method Data for children born between 1991 and 1999 were linked using electronic matching of cases. All potential matches were checked manually by each centre and verified as true matches. Results A total of 1104 children with CP were born during the study period (663 males, 441 females...
Lindfors Pirjo L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey. The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%; and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%. Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying
Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey). The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%); and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%). Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying exposure differed between
Yang, Wuyang; Garzon-Muvdi, Tomas; Braileanu, Maria; Porras, Jose L; Caplan, Justin M; Rong, Xiaoming; Huang, Judy; Jallo, George I
Primary intramedullary spinal cord lymphoma (PISCL) is a rare diagnosis with poorly understood disease progression. Clarification of the factors associated with survival in PISCL patients is warranted. We conducted a population-based cohort study utilizing prospectively collected data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Patients with histological diagnosis of primary lymphoma in spinal cord (C72.0) from 1973 to 2012 in the SEER database were included. Multivariable survival analysis between patient, lesion characteristics, and PISCL-related death was performed to adjust for confounding factors. We included 346 PISCL patients in our study. Average age was 56.5 ± 17.8 years, with 62.7% being male. Racial distribution of these patients was white (87.6%), black (8.0%), and other (4.3%). More than half (55.8%) of patients were married. The most prevalent histology of PISCL was diffuse B-cell (46.2%), and the majority (55.2%) were low stage (Ann Arbor stage I/II). Most patients (67.9%) received radiation therapy. Average survival interval of patients with PISCL-related death (n=135, 39.0%) was 27.8 months. General cumulative survival probability at 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years was 73.8%, 67.9%, and 63.1%, respectively. Multivariable accelerated failure time (AFT) regression showed follicular lymphoma (HR:0.25, P=.008) and more recent diagnosis (HR:0.96, P<.001) was positively associated with PISCL-related survival. Conversely, nonwhite race (HR:1.69, P=.046), older age (HR:1.02, P<.001), unmarried status (HR:2.14, P<.001), and higher stage (HR:1.54, P=.022) were negatively associated with survival. Age, race, marital status, tumor histology, tumor stage, and year of diagnosis were associated with survival of PISCL. While most PISCL-related deaths occur within a 1-year period, subsequent slow progression was observed after the first year of survival. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for
Alshemmari, S; Sajnani, K P; Refaat, S; Albassami, A
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) comprises about 25% of all malignant nodal lymphomas worldwide. Incidence of HL has been increasing in many countries around the world, in the western countries in particular. Cancer incidence variations in different ethnic groups in the same country can lead to some important information about the search of etiological factors. Some researchers found an association between ethnicity and increased risk of HL. In this study, we evaluated the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of patients with HL and the HL subtypes in Kuwait who were diagnosed between 1998 and 2006 and we analyzed the changes in the incidence of HL over time based on age, sex, and ethnicity. The Kuwait Cancer Control Center is a tertiary referral hospital and the only cancer hospital in the entire state of Kuwait. We identified 293 patients who were newly diagnosed with HL by histopathology between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2006, at the Kuwait Cancer Control Center. Incidence data were crossvalidated with the population-based Cancer Registry of Kuwait. Clinical data were obtained by reviewing the patients' medical records. The median age at diagnosis was 39 years (range, 10-85 years) for patients with cHL and 36 years (range, 14-51 years) for patients with NLPHL. The age-adjusted incidence rate was 2.1 cases (range, 1.2-2.9) per 100,000 people per year in the period between 1998 and 2006. NLPHL and cHL were predominant in men with a male to female ratio of 2:1. However, the mean annual percentage change in HL incidence among Kuwaiti patients and non-Kuwaiti patients per year showed unexplained higher percentage in females both Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti. cHL comprised 92.5% of all HL cases and NLPHL comprised 7.5%. Nodular sclerosis was the predominant histologic subtype of cHL (58.9%), whereas mixed cellularity was the second most frequent histologic subtype of cHL, (25.9%). Although the incidence of HL was slightly lower in Kuwait than the worldwide incidence; it
Peljto, Anna L.; Barker-Cummings, Christie; Vasoli, Vincent M.; Leibson, Cynthia L.; Hauser, W. Allen; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R.
Almost all previous studies of familial risk of epilepsy have had potentially serious methodological limitations. Our goal was to address these limitations and provide more rigorous estimates of familial risk in a population-based study. We used the unique resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify all 660 Rochester, Minnesota residents born in 1920 or later with incidence of epilepsy from 1935–94 (probands) and their 2439 first-degree relatives who resided in Olmsted County. We assessed incidence of epilepsy in relatives by comprehensive review of the relatives’ medical records, and estimated age-specific cumulative incidence and standardized incidence ratios for epilepsy in relatives compared with the general population, according to proband and relative characteristics. Among relatives of all probands, cumulative incidence of epilepsy to age 40 was 4.7%, and risk was increased 3.3-fold (95% confidence interval 2.75–5.99) compared with population incidence. Risk was increased to the greatest extent in relatives of probands with idiopathic generalized epilepsies (standardized incidence ratio 6.0) and epilepsies associated with intellectual or motor disability presumed present from birth, which we denoted ‘prenatal/developmental cause’ (standardized incidence ratio 4.3). Among relatives of probands with epilepsy without identified cause (including epilepsies classified as ‘idiopathic’ or ‘unknown cause’), risk was significantly increased for epilepsy of prenatal/developmental cause (standardized incidence ratio 4.1). Similarly, among relatives of probands with prenatal/developmental cause, risk was significantly increased for epilepsies without identified cause (standardized incidence ratio 3.8). In relatives of probands with generalized epilepsy, standardized incidence ratios were 8.3 (95% confidence interval 2.93–15.31) for generalized epilepsy and 2.5 (95% confidence interval 0.92–4.00) for focal epilepsy. In relatives of
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mapping spatial distributions of disease occurrence and risk can serve as a useful tool for identifying exposures of public health concern. Disease registry data are often mapped by town or county of diagnosis and contain limited data on covariates. These maps often possess poor spatial resolution, the potential for spatial confounding, and the inability to consider latency. Population-based case-control studies can provide detailed information on residential history and covariates. Results Generalized additive models (GAMs provide a useful framework for mapping point-based epidemiologic data. Smoothing on location while controlling for covariates produces adjusted maps. We generate maps of odds ratios using the entire study area as a reference. We smooth using a locally weighted regression smoother (loess, a method that combines the advantages of nearest neighbor and kernel methods. We choose an optimal degree of smoothing by minimizing Akaike's Information Criterion. We use a deviance-based test to assess the overall importance of location in the model and pointwise permutation tests to locate regions of significantly increased or decreased risk. The method is illustrated with synthetic data and data from a population-based case-control study, using S-Plus and ArcView software. Conclusion Our goal is to develop practical methods for mapping population-based case-control and cohort studies. The method described here performs well for our synthetic data, reproducing important features of the data and adequately controlling the covariate. When applied to the population-based case-control data set, the method suggests spatial confounding and identifies statistically significant areas of increased and decreased odds ratios.
Souza, Maria de Lourdes de; Lynn, Fiona Ann; Johnston, Linda; Tavares, Eduardo Cardoso Teixeira; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria; Botelho, Lúcio José
ABSTRACT Objective: analyze trends in fertility rates and associations with perinatal outcomes for adolescents in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods: a population-based study covering 2006 to 2013 was carried out to evaluate associations between perinatal outcomes and age groups, using odds ratios, and Chi-squared tests. Results: differences in the fertility rate among female adolescents across regions and time period were observed, ranging from 40.9 to 72.0 per 1,000 in mothers aged 15-19 ye...
Stöckl, Doris; Rückert-Eheberg, Ina-Maria; Heier, Margit; Peters, Annette; Schipf, Sabine; Krabbe, Christine; Völzke, Henry; Tamayo, Teresa; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Meisinger, Christa
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) shows regional differences in Germany. The purpose of the project was to compare the prevalence of prediabetes and undiagnosed T2D in two regions in Germany, the Northeast and the South, and to evaluate their associations with regional variations in lifestyle factors and hypertension. Data from the KORA-F4 study (South Germany, 2006-2008) and the SHIP-TREND study (Northeast Germany, 2008-2012) were used. Participants aged 35-79 years without T2D with an overnight fasting of more than 8 hours and an oral glucose tolerance test were included: KORA-F4: n = 2,616 and SHIP-TREND: n = 1,968. The prevalence of prediabetes/newly diagnosed T2D was especially high in men (about 60%) and women (about 50%) in the Northeast, followed by men (about 50%) and women (about 30%) in the South. Lifestyle factors associated with T2D varied between the regions: more participants in the Northeast were active smokers and the percentages of people with overweight or obesity were greater than in their southern counterparts. However, these differences could not explain the striking disparity in prediabetes/newly diagnosed T2D. The frequency of hypertension was also distinctly higher in the Northeast than in the South and clearly associated with prediabetes/newly diagnosed T2D. Especially in men living in the Northeast, screening individuals with blood pressure ≥ 140/90mmHg might reveal up to 70% of those with prediabetes/newly diagnosed T2D. Knowledge about regional variability in T2D and related risk factors is important for the planning of diabetes prevention programs. In our analyses, common lifestyle factors did not nearly explain these variations between the northern SHIP-TREND and the southern KORA-F4 studies. Further examinations of regional socioeconomic, political, environmental and other aspects are needed. Meanwhile, targeted diabetes prevention strategies with a special focus on men living in the northern parts of Germany are reasonable.
used in four studies. The blood pressure was measured on a single visit in the majority of studies, but blood pressure had been recorded at least twice during the visit in almost .... The prevalence of hypertension in the recent rural stud- ies was lowest in .... and affordable food choices, and by lack of safe, attrac- tive places to ...
Asgari, N; Lillevang, S T; Skejoe, H P B
Epidemiologic studies have suggested different prevalence of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in different ethnic groups. However, data on the incidence and prevalence of NMO in Caucasians are scarce.......Epidemiologic studies have suggested different prevalence of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in different ethnic groups. However, data on the incidence and prevalence of NMO in Caucasians are scarce....
Raunio, Anna; Myllykangas, Liisa; Kero, Mia; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Paetau, Anders; Oinas, Minna
We investigated the frequency of Lewy-related pathology (LRP) in the amygdala among the population-based Vantaa 85+ study. Data of amygdala samples (N = 304) immunostained with two α-synuclein antibodies (clone 42 and clone 5G4) was compared with the previously analyzed LRP and AD pathologies from other brain regions. The amygdala LRP was present in one third (33%) of subjects. Only 5% of pure AD subjects, but 85% of pure DLB subjects had LRP in the amygdala. The amygdala LRP was associated with dementia; however, the association was dependent on LRP on other brain regions, and thus was not an independent risk factor. The amygdala-predominant category was a rare (4%) and heterogeneous group.
Full Text Available Abstract Preventable trauma deaths are defined as deaths which could be avoided if optimal care has been delivered. Studies on preventable trauma deaths have been accomplished initially with panel reviews of pre-hospital and hospital charts. However, several investigators questioned the reliability and validity of this method because of low reproducibility of implicit judgments when they are made by different experts. Nevertheless, number of studies were published all around the world and ultimately gained some credibility, particularly in regions where comparisons were made before and after trauma system implementation with a resultant fall in mortality. During the last decade of century the method of comparing observed survival with probability of survival calculated from large trauma registries has obtained popularity. Preventable trauma deaths were identified as deaths occurred notwithstanding a high calculated probability of survival. In recent years, preventable trauma deaths studies have been replaced by population-based studies, which use databases representative of overall population, therefore with high epidemiologic value. These databases contain readily available information which carry out the advantage of objectivity and large numbers. Nowadays, population-based researches provide the strongest evidence regarding the effectiveness of trauma systems and trauma centers on patient outcomes.
Carl, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Blow; Knudsen, Nils
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol consumption is an important protective risk factor for many autoimmune diseases. We wished to study the association between alcohol consumption and autoimmune hypothyroidism. DESIGN: Population-based, case-control study, 1997-2001, Denmark. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnose......, or region of inhabitancy. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption seems to confer considerable protection against development of overt autoimmune hypothyroidism irrespective of sex and type of alcohol consumed.......OBJECTIVE: Alcohol consumption is an important protective risk factor for many autoimmune diseases. We wished to study the association between alcohol consumption and autoimmune hypothyroidism. DESIGN: Population-based, case-control study, 1997-2001, Denmark. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed...... of alcohol per week were as follows: 0 units/week, 1.98 (1.21-3.33); 11-20 units/week, 0.41 (0.20-0.83); and ≥21 units/week, 0.90 (0.41-2.00). Similar results were found for maximum previous alcohol consumption during a calendar year. No interaction was found with type of alcohol consumed (wine vs beer), sex...
Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is a disorder affecting components of the neuromuscular junction. Epidemiological studies show rising incidence and prevalence rates. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and prevalence of MG in the Republic of Ireland. Data sources included patient lists from consultant neurologists and ophthalmologists, a neuroimmunology laboratory, general practitioners and the Myasthenia Gravis Association. A total of 1,715 cases were identified, of which 706 definite, probable or possible autoimmune and congenital MG cases were included. The overall prevalence rate from the data obtained is 15.38\\/100,000. The study demonstrated a female preponderance (female:male of 1.3: 1) and some geographical variation within Ireland. The average incidence rate for the years 2000 to 2009 was 11.3 per year; the rate for the current decade is 18 per year. The increasing number of diagnoses may be due to improved access to diagnostic investigations and increasing awareness of the clinical manifestations.
Markkula, Ritva A; Kalso, Eija A; Kaprio, Jaakko A
Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a pain syndrome, the mechanisms and predictors of which are still unclear. We have earlier validated a set of FM-symptom questions for detecting possible FM in an epidemiological survey and thereby identified a cluster with “possible FM”. This study explores prospectively predictors for membership of that FM-symptom cluster. Methods ...
Byard, Roger W; Gilbert, John D
A prospective study was undertaken at Forensic Science SA over a 15-year period from July 2002 to June 2017 for all cases of adult (>18 years) suicidal hangings with decapitation. A total of 1446 cases of suicidal hangings were identified from a general population of approximately 1.5 million (1206 males-age range 18-97 years, average 42.6; and 240 females-age range 18-96 years, average 40.1). Only three cases of decapitation were found, all from long-drop hangings; these consisted of three males (ages 32-55 years; average 45 years). Spinal transections had occurred between the first and second, second and third, and third and fourth cervical vertebrae, respectively. In this study, the number of suicidal hangings with decapitation represented only 0.2% of the total number of hangings. These events are therefore extremely rare, most likely due to most suicidal hangings occurring from relatively low levels in a domestic environment. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Mäkinen, Tiina M.; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani
The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study ( n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women.
Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun
We investigated whether asthma predisposes patients to organic laryngeal lesions or increases dysphonia in those without organic laryngeal lesions. We performed a cross-sectional study with data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; 19,330 subjects from 2008 through 2011 were included. The associations of asthma with organic laryngeal lesions and dysphonia were analyzed using a simple/multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling while adjusting for confounding factors (age, sex, smoking status, stress level, and body mass index) that could contribute to dysphonia. Compared with non-asthma participants, the asthma patients tended to be older and female and to have higher stress levels. These factors were associated with dysphonia (Age, AOR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.14 = 1.23, P dysphonia. Compared with non-asthma participants, asthma patients who had not taken asthma medication recently showed a higher AOR (1.62; 95% CI = 1.0-2.42) for dysphonia, and asthma patients who had taken asthma medication recently showed the highest adjusted odds ratio for dysphonia (AOR = 1.97; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.28-3.02, P = 0.001). On multiple logistic regression analysis, vocal nodules, laryngeal polyps, and laryngitis were not associated with asthma (all P > 0.05). Asthma patients are predisposed to subjective dysphonia due to demographic and clinical characteristics (older age, female, and higher stress level) as well as to asthma itself. However, asthma was not associated with organic laryngeal lesions in this study.
Yassin A. Asaad
Full Text Available Background and objective: Energy drinks have become increasingly prevalent among young adults and adolescents in recent years, particularly young students and athletes who see the consumption of energy drinks as an easy and quick way to boost academic and athletic performance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of consumption of energy drinks in a sample of adolescent and adults in Erbil city as well as perceived benefits and its health hazards. Methods: A convenience sample of 600 individuals from different sectors and social groups of Erbil city was selected. Data was obtained through direct interview. The data was managed through SPSS program version 18, using appropriate statistical tests. Results: The prevalence of energy drinks consumption among the study population was 42.7%, especially adolescents and young adults (those ≤ 25 years and was more common among males than females (55.7% and 29.8%, respectively. The main reasons for its consumption were related to getting energy and improving the mood and performance (66.0% and 30.4%, respectively. 62.7% of participants think that it is harmful and could have adverse effects such as heartbeat irregularity and blood pressure swinging, addiction, and osteoporosis (46.2%, 33.7% and 13.2%, respectively. Televisions were the major source of advertisement (71.45. A significant statistical association had been found between the age, gender and educational status of the participants and consuming energy drinks (P = 0.001, 0.001 and 0.002, respectively. Conclusion: Energy drinks consumption found to be highly prevalent in adolescents and young adults in Erbil city, which calls for review and regulating the sale of these drinks including adolescents' education, raising community’s awareness, banning selling it in public places and increasing taxes.
Full Text Available Multimorbidity has been linked to a variety of negative outcomes although as yet, there has been little research on its association with loneliness. This study examined the association between physical multimorbidity (≥ 2 physical diseases and loneliness in the general population and its potential mediators. Data came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N = 7403, aged ≥16 years. Information was obtained on 20 doctor diagnosed physical conditions that were present in the previous year. An item from the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ was used to obtain information on loneliness. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. An increasing number of physical diseases was associated with higher odds for loneliness. Compared to no physical diseases, the odds ratio (OR (95% confidence interval: CI for loneliness increased from 1.34 (1.13-1.59 to 2.82 (2.11-3.78 between one and ≥5 physical diseases. This association was particularly strong in the youngest age group (i.e. 16-44 years. The loneliness-physical multimorbidity association was significantly mediated by stressful life events (% mediated 11.1%-30.5%, anxiety (30.2%, and depression (15.4%. Physical multimorbidity is associated with increased odds for loneliness. Prospective research is now needed to further elucidate this association and the factors that underlie it.
Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai
Multimorbidity has been linked to a variety of negative outcomes although as yet, there has been little research on its association with loneliness. This study examined the association between physical multimorbidity (≥ 2 physical diseases) and loneliness in the general population and its potential mediators. Data came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N = 7403, aged ≥16 years). Information was obtained on 20 doctor diagnosed physical conditions that were present in the previous year. An item from the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ) was used to obtain information on loneliness. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. An increasing number of physical diseases was associated with higher odds for loneliness. Compared to no physical diseases, the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval: CI) for loneliness increased from 1.34 (1.13-1.59) to 2.82 (2.11-3.78) between one and ≥5 physical diseases. This association was particularly strong in the youngest age group (i.e. 16-44 years). The loneliness-physical multimorbidity association was significantly mediated by stressful life events (% mediated 11.1%-30.5%), anxiety (30.2%), and depression (15.4%). Physical multimorbidity is associated with increased odds for loneliness. Prospective research is now needed to further elucidate this association and the factors that underlie it.
Barclay, Kieron; Kolk, Martin
This study uses Swedish population register data to investigate the relationship between birth order and mortality at ages 30 to 69 for Swedish cohorts born between 1938 and 1960, using a within-family comparison. The main analyses are conducted with discrete-time survival analysis using a within-family comparison, and the estimates are adjusted for age, mother's age at the time of birth, and cohort. Focusing on sibships ranging in size from two to six, we find that mortality risk in adulthood increases with later birth order. The results show that the relative effect of birth order is greater among women than among men. This pattern is consistent for all the major causes of death but is particularly pronounced for mortality attributable to cancers of the respiratory system and to external causes. Further analyses in which we adjust for adult socioeconomic status and adult educational attainment suggest that social pathways only mediate the relationship between birth order and mortality risk in adulthood to a limited degree.
Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T; Reading, Isabel C; Coggon, David; Cooper, Cyrus
Objectives To explore the relationship between occupational exposures and lateral and medial epicondylitis and the effect of epicondylitis on sickness absence in a population sample of working aged adults. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 9696 randomly selected adults aged 25-64 years involving a screening questionnaire and standardised physical examination. Age- and sex-specific prevalence rates of epicondylitis were estimated and associations with occupational risk factors explored. Results Among 6038 respondents, 636 (11%) reported elbow pain in the last week. 0.7% of those surveyed were diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis and 0.6% with medial epicondylitis. Lateral epicondylitis was associated with manual work (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.9-8.4). In multivariate analyses, repetitive bending/straightening elbow > 1 hour day was independently associated with lateral (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.5) and medial epicondylitis (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.8-14.3). 5% of adults with epicondylitis took sickness absence because of their elbow symptoms in the past 12 months (median 29 days). Conclusions Repetitive exposure to bending/straightening the elbow was a significant risk factor for medial and lateral epicondylitis. Epicondylitis is associated with prolonged sickness absence in 5% of affected working-aged adults. PMID:22019808
van der Zwan, Jan M; van Dijk, Boukje A C; Visser, Otto; van Krieken, Han J H J M; Capocaccia, Riccardo; Siesling, Sabine
The conventional definition for rare disease is based on prevalence. Because of differences in prognosis, a definition on the basis of incidence was deemed to be more appropriate for rare cancers. Within the European RARECARE project, a definition was introduced that defines cancers as rare when the crude incidence rate is less than six per 100 000 per year. In this study, we applied the RARECARE definition for rare cancer to the Netherlands; this to identify the usefulness of the definition in a single country and to provide more insight into the burden of rare cancers in the Netherlands. Data for 2004 through 2008 were extracted from the Netherlands Cancer Registry and classified according to the RARECARE entities (tumour groupings). Crude and European standardized incidence rates were calculated. Out of the 260 entities, 223 (86%) were rare according to the definition, accounting for 14 000 cancers (17% of all). Considerable fluctuations in crude rates over years were observed for the major group of cancers. Rare tumours in the Netherlands constituted 17% of all newly diagnosed tumours, but were divided over 223 different entities, indicating the challenge that faces clinicians. To make the definition of rare cancers better applicable, it should be refined by taking into consideration the sex-specific incidence for sex-specific cancer sites. Moreover, a mean incidence over 5 years will provide more solid insight into the burden, eliminating large fluctuations in time of most of the cancers.
von Brevern, M; Radtke, A; Lezius, F; Feldmann, M; Ziese, T; Lempert, T; Neuhauser, H
Objectives To examine the prevalence and incidence, clinical presentation, societal impact and comorbid conditions of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in the general population. Methods Cross‐sectional, nationally representative neurotological survey of the general adult population in Germany with a two stage sampling design: screening of 4869 participants from the German National Telephone Health Interview Survey 2003 (response rate 52%) for moderate or severe dizziness or vertigo, followed by validated neurotological interviews (n = 1003; response rate 87%). Diagnostic criteria for BPPV were at least five attacks of vestibular vertigo lasting <1 min without concomitant neurological symptoms and invariably provoked by typical changes in head position. In a concurrent validation study (n = 61) conducted in two specialised dizziness clinics, BPPV was detected by our telephone interview with a specificity of 92% and a sensitivity of 88% (positive predictive value 88%, negative predictive value 92%). Results BPPV accounted for 8% of individuals with moderate or severe dizziness/vertigo. The lifetime prevalence of BPPV was 2.4%, the 1 year prevalence was 1.6% and the 1 year incidence was 0.6%. The median duration of an episode was 2 weeks. In 86% of affected individuals, BPPV led to medical consultation, interruption of daily activities or sick leave. In total, only 8% of affected participants received effective treatment. On multivariate analysis, age, migraine, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and stroke were independently associated with BPPV. Conclusion BPPV is a common vestibular disorder leading to significant morbidity, psychosocial impact and medical costs. PMID:17135456
Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Nielsen, Jan; Kyvik, Kirsten O
, aged 20 to 71 years, representative of the general Danish population. Identical questions on pain were asked for the lumbar, thoracic and cervical regions. RESULTS: Low back pain was most common, followed by neck pain with thoracic pain being least common. Pain for at least 30 days in the past year......BACKGROUND: It is unclear to what extent spinal pain varies between genders and in relation to age. It was the purpose of this study to describe the self-reported prevalence of 1) pain ever and pain in the past year in each of the three spinal regions, 2) the duration of such pain over the past...... year, 3) pain radiating from these areas, and 4) pain in one, two or three areas. In addition, 5) to investigate if spinal pain reporting is affected by gender and 6) to see if it increases gradually with increasing age. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2002 on 34,902 twin individuals...
Huizink, A.C.; Ferdinand, R.F.; Ende, J. van den; Verhulst, F.C.
Objective To investigate whether using ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA) is preceded by symptoms of behavioural and emotional problems in childhood and early adolescence. Design Prospective, longitudinal, population based study. Setting The Dutch province of
A.C. Huizink (Anja); R.F. Ferdinand (Robert); J. van der Ende (Jan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank)
textabstractOBJECTIVE: To investigate whether using ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA) is preceded by symptoms of behavioural and emotional problems in childhood and early adolescence. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal, population based study SETTING: The Dutch
K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia); G. Mosis (Georgio); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne)
textabstractOBJECTIVE: To confirm and quantify any association between spironolactone and upper gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers. DESIGN: Population based case-control study. SETTING: A primary care information database in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: All people on the
Henry, M J; Pasco, J A; Seeman, E; Nicholson, G C; Sanders, K M; Kotowicz, M A
Fracture risk is determined by bone mineral density (BMD). The T-score, a measure of fracture risk, is the position of an individual's BMD in relation to a reference range. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of change in the T-score when different sampling techniques were used to produce the reference range. Reference ranges were derived from three samples, drawn from the same region: (1) an age-stratified population-based random sample, (2) unselected volunteers, and (3) a selected healthy subset of the population-based sample with no diseases or drugs known to affect bone. T-scores were calculated using the three reference ranges for a cohort of women who had sustained a fracture and as a group had a low mean BMD (ages 35-72 yr; n = 484). For most comparisons, the T-scores for the fracture cohort were more negative using the population reference range. The difference in T-scores reached 1.0 SD. The proportion of the fracture cohort classified as having osteoporosis at the spine was 26, 14, and 23% when the population, volunteer, and healthy reference ranges were applied, respectively. The use of inappropriate reference ranges results in substantial changes to T-scores and may lead to inappropriate management.
The impact of social factors on human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus co-infection in a minority region of Si-chuan, the People's Republic of China: a population-based survey and testing study.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV studies have been performed in Liangshan, most were focused only on HIV infection and based on a sampling survey. In order to fully understand HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV prevalence and related risk factors in this region, this study implemented in 2009, included a survey, physical examination, HIV and HCV test in two towns. METHODS: All residents in two towns of the Butuo county were provided a physical examination and blood tests for HIV and HCV, and then followed by an interview for questionnaire. RESULTS: In total, 10,104 residents (92.4% were enrolled and 9,179 blood samples were collected for HIV and HCV testing, 6,072 were from individuals >14 years old. The rates of HIV, HCV, and HIV/HCV co-infection were 11.4%, 14.0%, and 7.7%, respectively for >14-year-old residents. The 25-34 yr age group had the highest prevalence of HIV, HCV, and HIV/HCV co-infections, reaching 24.4%, 26.2% and 16.0%, respectively. Overall, males had a much higher prevalence of all infections than females (HIV: 16.3% vs. 6.8%, HCV: 24.6% vs. 3.9%, HIV/HCV co-infected: 14.7% vs. 1.1%, respectively; P = 0.000. Approximately half of intravenous drug users tested positive for HIV (48.7% and 68.4% tested positive for HCV. Logistic regression analysis showed that five factors were significantly associated with HIV and HCV infection: gender (odds ratio [OR] = 5.8, education (OR = 2.29; occupation (student as reference; farmer: OR = 5.02, migrant worker: OR = 6.12; drug abuse (OR = 18.0; and multiple sexual partners (OR = 2.92. Knowledge of HIV was not associated with infection. CONCLUSION: HIV and HCV prevalence in the Liangshan region is very serious and drug use, multiple sexual partners, and low education levels were the three main risk factors. The government should focus on improving education and personal health awareness while enhancing drug control programs.
The impact of social factors on human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus co-infection in a minority region of Si-chuan, the People's Republic of China: a population-based survey and testing study.
Dong, Caiting; Huang, Z Jennifer; Martin, Maria C; Huang, Jun; Liu, Honglu; Deng, Bin; Lai, Wenhong; Liu, Li; Yang, Yihui; Hu, Ying; Qin, Guangming; Zhang, Linglin; Song, Zhibin; Wei, Daying; Nan, Lei; Wang, Qixing; Deng, Hongxia; Zhang, Jianxun; Wong, Frank Y; Yang, Wen
While many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) studies have been performed in Liangshan, most were focused only on HIV infection and based on a sampling survey. In order to fully understand HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence and related risk factors in this region, this study implemented in 2009, included a survey, physical examination, HIV and HCV test in two towns. All residents in two towns of the Butuo county were provided a physical examination and blood tests for HIV and HCV, and then followed by an interview for questionnaire. In total, 10,104 residents (92.4%) were enrolled and 9,179 blood samples were collected for HIV and HCV testing, 6,072 were from individuals >14 years old. The rates of HIV, HCV, and HIV/HCV co-infection were 11.4%, 14.0%, and 7.7%, respectively for >14-year-old residents. The 25-34 yr age group had the highest prevalence of HIV, HCV, and HIV/HCV co-infections, reaching 24.4%, 26.2% and 16.0%, respectively. Overall, males had a much higher prevalence of all infections than females (HIV: 16.3% vs. 6.8%, HCV: 24.6% vs. 3.9%, HIV/HCV co-infected: 14.7% vs. 1.1%, respectively; P = 0.000). Approximately half of intravenous drug users tested positive for HIV (48.7%) and 68.4% tested positive for HCV. Logistic regression analysis showed that five factors were significantly associated with HIV and HCV infection: gender (odds ratio [OR] = 5.8), education (OR = 2.29); occupation (student as reference; farmer: OR = 5.02, migrant worker: OR = 6.12); drug abuse (OR = 18.0); and multiple sexual partners (OR = 2.92). Knowledge of HIV was not associated with infection. HIV and HCV prevalence in the Liangshan region is very serious and drug use, multiple sexual partners, and low education levels were the three main risk factors. The government should focus on improving education and personal health awareness while enhancing drug control programs.
Mikolajczyk Rafael T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papilloma virus (HPV types 6 and 11 account for 90 percent of anogenital warts (AGW. Assessment of a potential reduction of the incidence of AGW following introduction of HPV vaccines requires population-based incidence rates. The aim of this study was to estimate incidence rates of AGW in Germany, stratified by age, sex, and region. Additionally, the medical practitioner (gynaecologist, dermatologist, urologist etc. who made the initial diagnosis of AGW was assessed. Methods Retrospective cohort study in a population aged 10 to 79 years in a population-based healthcare insurance database. The database included more than 14 million insurance members from all over Germany during the years 2004-2006. A case of AGW was considered incident if a disease-free period of twelve months preceded the diagnosis. To assess regional variation, analyses were performed by federal state. Results The estimated incidence rate was 169.5/100,000 person-years for the German population aged 10 to 79 years. Most cases occurred in the 15 to 40 years age group. The incidence rate was higher and showed a peak at younger ages in females than in males. The highest incidence rates for both sexes were observed in the city-states Berlin, Hamburg and Bremen. In females, initial diagnosis of AGW was most frequently made by a gynaecologist (71.7%, whereas in males, AGW were most frequently diagnosed by a dermatologist (44.8% or urologist (25.1%. Conclusions Incidence of AGW in Germany is comparable with findings for other countries. As expected, most cases occurred in the younger age groups. The frequency of diagnoses of AGW differs between sexes and women and men receive treatment by doctors of different specialties.
Pedro J. Serrano-Castro
Full Text Available Background. This study assesses the lifetime and active prevalence of epilepsy in Spain in people older than 18 years. Methods. EPIBERIA is a population-based epidemiological study of epilepsy prevalence using data from three representative Spanish regions (health districts in Zaragoza, Almería, and Seville between 2012 and 2013. The study consisted of two phases: screening and confirmation. Participants completed a previously validated questionnaire (EPIBERIA questionnaire over the telephone. Results. A total of 1741 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 261 (14.99% raising a suspicion of epilepsy. Of these suspected cases, 216 (82.75% agreed to participate in phase 2. Of the phase 2 participants, 22 met the International League Against Epilepsy’s diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. The estimated lifetime prevalence, adjusted by age and sex per 1,000 people, was 14.87 (95% CI: 9.8–21.9. Active prevalence was 5.79 (95% CI: 2.8–10.6. No significant age, sex, or regional differences in prevalence were detected. Conclusions. EPIBERIA provides the most accurate estimate of epilepsy prevalence in the Mediterranean region based on its original methodology and its adherence to ILAE recommendations. We highlight that the lifetime prevalence and inactive epilepsy prevalence figures observed here were compared to other epidemiological studies.
Serrano-Castro, Pedro J.; Mauri-Llerda, Jose Angel; Hernández-Ramos, Francisco José; Sánchez-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Parejo-Carbonell, Beatriz; Quiroga-Subirana, Pablo; Vázquez-Gutierrez, Fernando; Santos-Lasaosa, Sonia; Mendez-Lucena, Carolina; Redondo-Verge, Luis; Tejero-Juste, Carlos; Morandeira-Rivas, Clara; Sancho-Rieger, Jerónimo; Matías-Guiu, Jorge
Background. This study assesses the lifetime and active prevalence of epilepsy in Spain in people older than 18 years. Methods. EPIBERIA is a population-based epidemiological study of epilepsy prevalence using data from three representative Spanish regions (health districts in Zaragoza, Almería, and Seville) between 2012 and 2013. The study consisted of two phases: screening and confirmation. Participants completed a previously validated questionnaire (EPIBERIA questionnaire) over the telephone. Results. A total of 1741 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 261 (14.99%) raising a suspicion of epilepsy. Of these suspected cases, 216 (82.75%) agreed to participate in phase 2. Of the phase 2 participants, 22 met the International League Against Epilepsy's diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. The estimated lifetime prevalence, adjusted by age and sex per 1,000 people, was 14.87 (95% CI: 9.8–21.9). Active prevalence was 5.79 (95% CI: 2.8–10.6). No significant age, sex, or regional differences in prevalence were detected. Conclusions. EPIBERIA provides the most accurate estimate of epilepsy prevalence in the Mediterranean region based on its original methodology and its adherence to ILAE recommendations. We highlight that the lifetime prevalence and inactive epilepsy prevalence figures observed here were compared to other epidemiological studies. PMID:26783554
Gabrielli, Ligia; Aquino, Estela M L
The measurement of excess body hair is not straightforward. As the modified Ferriman-Gallwey (mFG) score is unsuitable for self-assessment and requires specialist training, a short, self-administered questionnaire to identify hirsutism was constructed and validated for large-scale application, particularly targeting population-based studies. A validation study was conducted to assess a new hirsutism questionnaire. A total of 90 women aged 35-72 years who were enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) were evaluated. A self-administered instrument containing four questions was designed to evaluate five body areas: upper lip, chin, chest, lower abdomen, and thighs with respect to the current distribution of body hair and that before 35 years of age. A score of 0-4 was attributed to each region based on drawings provided in the instrument. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by reformulating the initial questions. An independent medical examination was conducted to apply the gold standard, the mFG score. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.87-0.99). A cut-off score of 5 showed the best balance between sensitivity (85%) and specificity (90%), with 88.9% accuracy. Spearman's correlation between current and past body hair score was calculated at 0.82 (P=0.000), and showed a test-retest reliability of 0.49, with a trend toward similar answers regarding changes in the quantity of body hair over time, irrespective of how the questions were asked (P=0.000). The accuracy and internal consistency of this self-administered questionnaire for the identification of hirsutism were good. Therefore, this questionnaire represents a useful tool for self-assessment of hirsutism in population-based studies. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.
Ferris, Mollie; Quan, Samuel; Kaplan, Belle S; Molodecky, Natalie; Ball, Chad G; Chernoff, Greg W; Bhala, Nij; Ghosh, Subrata; Dixon, Elijah; Ng, Siew; Kaplan, Gilaad G
We compared the incidence of appendicitis or appendectomy across the world and evaluated temporal trends. Population-based studies reported the incidence of appendicitis. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for population-based studies reporting the incidence of appendicitis or appendectomy. Time trends were explored using Poisson regression and reported as annual percent change (APC) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). APC were stratified by time periods and pooled using random effects models. Incidence since 2000 was pooled for regions in the Western world. The search retrieved 10,247 citations with 120 studies reporting on the incidence of appendicitis or appendectomy. During the 21st century the pooled incidence of appendicitis or appendectomy (in per 100,000 person-years) was 100 (95% CI: 91, 110) in Northern America, and the estimated number of cases in 2015 was 378,614. The pooled incidence ranged from 105 in Eastern Europe to 151 in Western Europe. In Western countries, the incidence of appendectomy steadily decreased since 1990 (APC after 1989=-1.54; 95% CI: -2.22, -0.86), whereas the incidence of appendicitis stabilized (APC=-0.36; 95% CI: -0.97, 0.26) for both perforated (APC=0.95; 95% CI: -0.25, 2.17) and nonperforated appendicitis (APC=0.44; 95% CI: -0.84, 1.73). In the 21st century, the incidence of appendicitis or appendectomy is high in newly industrialized countries in Asia (South Korea pooled: 206), the Middle East (Turkey pooled: 160), and Southern America (Chile: 202). Appendicitis is a global disease. The incidence of appendicitis is stable in most Western countries. Data from newly industrialized countries is sparse, but suggests that appendicitis is rising rapidly.
Weil, Alexander G; Wang, Anthony C; Westwick, Harrison J; Ibrahim, George M; Ariani, Rojine T; Crevier, Louis; Perreault, Sebastien; Davidson, Tom; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Fallah, Aria
Medulloblastoma is the most common form of brain malignancy of childhood. The mainstay of epidemiological data regarding childhood medulloblastoma is derived from case series, hence population-based studies are warranted to improve the accuracy of survival estimates. To utilize a big-data approach to update survival estimates in a contemporary cohort of children with medulloblastoma. We performed a population-based retrospective observational cohort study utilizing the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program database that captures all children, less than 20 years of age, between 1973 and 2012 in 18 geographical regions representing 28% of the US population. We included all participants with a presumed or histologically diagnosis of medulloblastoma. The main outcome of interest is survivors at 1, 5 and 10 years following diagnosis. A cohort of 1735 children with a median (interquartile range) age at diagnosis of 7 (4-11) years, with a diagnosis of medulloblastoma were identified. The incidence and prevalence of pediatric medulloblastoma has remained stable over the past 4 decades. There is a critical time point at 1990 when the overall survival has drastically improved. In the contemporary cohort (1990 onwards), the percentage of participants alive was 86, 70 and 63% at 1, 5 and 10 years, respectively. Multivariate Cox-Regression model demonstrated Radiation (HR 0.37; 95% CI 0.30-0.46, p < 0.001) and Surgery (HR 0.42; 95% CI 0.30-0.58, p < 0.001) independently predict survival. The probability of mortality from a neurological cause is <5% in patients who are alive 8 years following diagnosis. The SEER cohort analysis demonstrates significant improvements in pediatric medulloblastoma survival. In contrast to previous reports, the majority of patients survive in the modern era, and those alive 8 years following initial diagnosis are likely a long-term survivor. The importance of minimizing treatment-related toxicity is increasingly apparent given
Berg, J.F. van den; Miedema, H.M.E.; Tulen, J.H.M.; Hofman, A.; Neven, A.K.; Tiemeier, H.
Study Objectives: To investigate and explain sex differences in subjective and actigraphic sleep parameters in community-dwelling elderly persons. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was embedded in the Rotterdam Study, a population-based study. Participants: Nine hundred fifty-six
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is endemic in China; perinatal transmission is the main source of chronic HBV infection. Simultaneous administration of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG and hepatitis B vaccine is highly effective to prevent perinatal transmission of HBV; however, the effectiveness also depends on full adherence to the recommended protocols in daily practice. In the present investigation, we aimed to identify gaps in immunoprophylaxis of perinatal transmission of HBV between recommendations and routine practices in Jiangsu Province, China. Methods Totally 626 children from 6 cities and 8 rural areas across Jiangsu Province, China, born from February 2003 to December 2004, were enrolled; 298 were born to mothers with positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and 328 were born to HBsAg-negative mothers. Immunoprophylactic measures against hepatitis B were retrospectively reviewed for about half of the children by checking medical records or vaccination cards and the vaccine status was validated for most of children. Results Of 298 children born to HBV carrier mothers, 11 (3.7% were HBsAg positive, while none of 328 children born to non-carrier mothers was HBsAg positive (P Conclusions There are substantial gaps in the prevention of perinatal HBV infection between the recommendations and routine practices in China, which highlights the importance of full adherence to the recommendations to eliminate perinatal HBV infection in the endemic regions.
Maria de Lourdes de Souza
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: analyze trends in fertility rates and associations with perinatal outcomes for adolescents in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods: a population-based study covering 2006 to 2013 was carried out to evaluate associations between perinatal outcomes and age groups, using odds ratios, and Chi-squared tests. Results: differences in the fertility rate among female adolescents across regions and time period were observed, ranging from 40.9 to 72.0 per 1,000 in mothers aged 15-19 years. Adolescents had fewer prenatal care appointments than mothers ≥20 years, and a higher proportion had no partner. Mothers aged 15-19 years were more likely to experience preterm birth (OR:1.1; CI:1.08-1.13; p<0.001, have an infant with low birthweight (OR:1.1; CI:1.10-1.15; p<0.001 and low Apgar score at 5 minutes (OR:1.4; CI:1.34-1.45; p<0.001 than mothers ≥20 years, with the odds for adverse outcomes greater for those aged 10-14 years. Conclusion: this study provides evidence of fertility rates among adolescents remaining higher in regions of social and economic deprivation. Adolescent mothers and their infants more likely to experience adverse perinatal outcomes. Nurses, public health practitioners, health and social care professionals and educators need to work collaboratively to better target strategies for adolescents at greater risk; to help reduce fertility rates and improve outcomes.
Hansen, Julie S; Danielsen, Ditte H; Somnier, Finn E
INTRODUCTION: In previous studies of myasthenia gravis (MG), increased mortality has been reported. The aim of this study was to estimate mortality in patients with acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive (AChR-Ab-seropositive) MG in a nationwide population-based, long-term follow-up study...
Eberl, S.; Anayat, A.R.; Fulton, R.R.; Hooper, P.K.; Fulham, M.J.
The conventional measurement of the regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRGlc) with fluorodexoyglucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET) requires arterial or arterialised-venous (a-v) blood sampling at frequent intervals to obtain the plasma input function (IF). We evaluated the accuracy of rCMRGlc measurements using population-based IFs that were calibrated with two a-v blood samples. Population-based IFs were derived from: (1) the average of a-v IFs from 26 patients (Standard IF) and (2) a published model of FDG plasma concentration (Feng IF). Values for rCMRGlc calculated from the population-based IFs were compared with values obtained with IFs derived from frequent a-v blood sampling in 20 non-diabetic and six diabetic patients. Values for rCMRGlc calculated with the different IFs were highly correlated for both patient groups (r≥0.992) and root mean square residuals about the regression line were less than 0.24 mg/min/100 g. The Feng IF tended to underestimate high rCMRGlc. Both population-based IFs simplify the measurement of rCMRGlc with minimal loss in accuracy and require only two a-v blood samples for calibration. The reduced blood sampling requirements markedly reduce radiation exposure to the blood sampler. (orig.)
Youn, P.; Li, H.; Milano, M. T.; Stovall, M.; Constine, L. S.; Travis, L. B.
Background The increased risk of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers after Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is well established. However, no large population-based study has described the actuarial survival after subsequent GI cancers in HL survivors (HL-GI). Patients and methods For 209 patients with HL-GI cancers (105 colon, 35 stomach, 30 pancreas, 21 rectum, and 18 esophagus) and 484 165 patients with first primary GI cancers (GI-1), actuarial survival was compared, accounting for age, gender, race, GI cancer stage, radiation for HL, and other variables. Results Though survival of HL patients who developed localized stage colon cancer was similar to that of the GI-1 group, overall survival (OS) of HL patients with regional or distant stage colon cancer was reduced [hazard ratio, (HR) = 1.46, P = 0.01]. The HL survivors with regional or distant stage colon cancer in the transverse segment had an especially high risk of mortality (HR: 2.7, P = 0.001 for OS). For localized stomach cancer, OS was inferior among HL survivors (HR = 3.46, P = 0.006). Conclusions The HL patients who develop GI cancer experience significantly reduced survival compared with patients with a first primary GI cancer. Further research is needed to explain the inferior survival of HL patients and to define selection criteria for cancer screening in HL survivors. PMID:22855552
Full Text Available Background/Aims: Due to the increasing prevalence of risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD, kidney dysfunction becomes a major public health problem. We investigated the CKD prevalence and determined to what extent the variation of risk factors explains the different CKD prevalence in Germany. Methods: We analyzed data from 6,054 participants, aged 31 to 82 years, from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1 in Northeast Germany and the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA F4 Study in Southern Germany. Regional differences in selected percentiles corresponding to the cutpoints for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, 2 and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR, ≥30 mg/g were tested using quantile regression models that adjusted for CKD risk factors. Results: The prevalence of decreased eGFRcreatinine-cystatinC (5.9 vs. 3.1 %, p creatinine-cystatinC and high ACR. Conclusions: The CKD prevalence is higher in Northeast than in Southern Germany. Differences in the prevalence of risk factors partly explain the higher disease burden of CKD in Northeast than in Southern Germany.
Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh; Bultmann, Ute; Steenstra, Ivan
This study aims to determine the prevalence and duration of sickness benefit claims due to mental disorders and their association with economic activity, sex, age, work-relatedness and income replacement using a population-based study of sickness benefit claims (> 15 days) due to mental disorders in
Bjergved, Lena; Carlé, Allan; Jørgensen, Torben
thyrotropin (TSH), as well as change in thyroid peroxidase autoantibody (TPOAb) status. A random sample of 4649 people aged 18-65 years participated in a population-based study in the period 1997-1998. In the study presented here, 1749 non-pregnant women with no history of thyroid disease were included who...
Yang-Huang, J. (Junwen); A. van Grieken (Amy); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); H. Raat (Hein)
textabstractWe aimed to evaluate the association between family socioeconomic status and repeatedly measured child television viewing time from early childhood to the school period. We analyzed data on 3,561 Dutch children from the Generation R Study, a population-based study in the Netherlands.
Wit, M.A.S. de; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Wannet, W.J.B.; Vinje, J; Leusden, F. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van
A prospective population-based cohort study with a nested case- control study was conducted to estimate the incidence of gastroenteritis and the associated pathogens in the general Dutch population. Follow-up of two consecutive cohorts was performed by weekly reporting cards from december 1998 to
Hoekstra, P. J.; Lundervold, A. J.; Lie, S. A.; Gillberg, C.; Plessen, Kerstin J.
Children with tics often experience accompanying problems that may have more impact on their well being and quality of life than the tics themselves. The present study investigates characteristics and the course of associated problems. In a population-based follow-up study, we investigated the
Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei
Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…
Roy A. Wong-McClure
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS as found by the Central American Diabetes Initiative (CAMDI study for five major Central American populations: Belize (national; Costa Rica (San José; Guatemala (Guatemala City; Honduras (Tegucigalpa; and Nicaragua (Managua. METHODS: Study data on 6 185 adults aged 20 years or older with anthropometric and laboratory determination of MetS from population-based surveys were analyzed. Overall, the survey response rate was 82.0%. MetS prevalence was determined according to criteria from the Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program. The study's protocol was reviewed and approved by the bioethical committee of each country studied. RESULTS: The overall standardized prevalence of MetS in the Central American region was 30.3% (95% confidence interval (CI: 27.1-33.4. There was wide variability by gender and work conditions, with higher prevalence among females and unpaid workers. The standardized percentage of the population free of any component of MetS was lowest in Costa Rica (9.0%; CI: 6.5-11.4 and highest in Honduras (21.1%; CI: 16.4-25.9. CONCLUSIONS: Overall prevalence of MetS in Central America is high. Strengthening surveillance of chronic diseases and establishing effective programs for preventing cardiovascular diseases might reduce the risk of MetS in Central America.
João M. Pedro
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases and other non-communicable diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality, responsible for 38 million deaths in 2012, 75 % occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Most of these countries are facing a period of epidemiological transition, being confronted with an increased burden of non-communicable diseases, which challenge health systems mainly designed to deal with infectious diseases. With the adoption of the World Health Organization “Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of non-communicable diseases, 2013–2020”, the national dimension of risk factors for non-communicable diseases must be reported on a regular basis. Angola has no national surveillance system for non-communicable diseases, and periodic population-based studies can help to overcome this lack of information. CardioBengo will collect information on risk factors, awareness rates and prevalence of symptoms relevant to cardiovascular diseases, to assist decision makers in the implementation of prevention and treatment policies and programs. Methods CardioBengo is designed as a research structure that comprises a cross-sectional component, providing baseline information and the assembling of a cohort to follow-up the dynamics of cardiovascular diseases risk factors in the catchment area of the Dande Health and Demographic Surveillance System of the Health Research Centre of Angola, in Bengo Province, Angola. The World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance questionnaires and procedures will be used to collect information on a representative sex-age stratified sample, aged between 15 and 64 years old. Discussion CardioBengo will recruit the first population cohort in Angola designed to evaluate cardiovascular diseases risk factors. Using the structures in place of the Dande Health and Demographic Surveillance System and a reliable methodology that generates comparable results with other
Pedro, João M; Rosário, Edite; Brito, Miguel; Barros, Henrique
Cardiovascular diseases and other non-communicable diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality, responsible for 38 million deaths in 2012, 75 % occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Most of these countries are facing a period of epidemiological transition, being confronted with an increased burden of non-communicable diseases, which challenge health systems mainly designed to deal with infectious diseases. With the adoption of the World Health Organization "Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of non-communicable diseases, 2013-2020", the national dimension of risk factors for non-communicable diseases must be reported on a regular basis. Angola has no national surveillance system for non-communicable diseases, and periodic population-based studies can help to overcome this lack of information. CardioBengo will collect information on risk factors, awareness rates and prevalence of symptoms relevant to cardiovascular diseases, to assist decision makers in the implementation of prevention and treatment policies and programs. CardioBengo is designed as a research structure that comprises a cross-sectional component, providing baseline information and the assembling of a cohort to follow-up the dynamics of cardiovascular diseases risk factors in the catchment area of the Dande Health and Demographic Surveillance System of the Health Research Centre of Angola, in Bengo Province, Angola. The World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance questionnaires and procedures will be used to collect information on a representative sex-age stratified sample, aged between 15 and 64 years old. CardioBengo will recruit the first population cohort in Angola designed to evaluate cardiovascular diseases risk factors. Using the structures in place of the Dande Health and Demographic Surveillance System and a reliable methodology that generates comparable results with other regions and countries, this study will constitute a useful tool for
Romney, Martha C; Thomson, Erin; Kash, Kathryn
Due to the increased prevalence of obesity and associated direct and indirect costs to employers, weight management programs have become an integral component of employer and insurer benefits plans. The programs vary in foci, scope, breadth, and implementation. The aim of this study was to explore promising employer-sponsored population-based obesity management programs. A case study that utilized a telephonic semi-structured questionnaire was conducted with small and large organizations located in different regions of the United States that had been recruited to participate. Eight employers and 1 health care advocacy coalition who met the inclusion criteria were interviewed about features of their weight management programs. The case study revealed a number of themes consistent with reports in the literature and reflecting cited best practices. Key findings include confirmation that weight management is a significant component of the wellness strategy in all participating organizations because employers are invested in population health programs and cost savings. Based upon their experience and knowledge, occupational health specialists are responsible for designing, implementing, managing, and evaluating employee health programs. Almost all employers utilize electronic media as a prominent component of wellness and disease management initiatives. Experience has shown that incentives-both financial and nonmonetary-are effective motivators for employee engagement and outcomes. However, while employers report success, favorable outcomes have been difficult to quantify.
Kadojić, Dragutin; Demarin, Vida; Dikanović, Marinko; Lusić, Ivo; Tuskan-Mohar, Lidija; Trkanjec, Zlatko; Mihaljević, Ivan; Kadojić, Mira; Bitunjac, Milan; Vranjes, Zeljko
The aim of this population based neuroepidemiological study was to establish the real incidence rates of acute cerebrovascular disease (CVD): stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) in the Republic of Croatia. Multicentric study included 89 501 persons of all ages in four regional centres in Croatia: Zagreb, Osijek + Slavonski Brod, Rijeka and Split. The following incidence rates of stroke, expressed at population of 100 000, have been established: Zagreb 290.52, Osijek + Slavonski Brod 302.14, Rijeka 219.65, Split 195.82. Incidence rate of stroke for the Republic of Croatia is 251.39. The following incidence rates of TIA, expressed at population of 100,000, have been established: Zagreb 87.15, Osijek + Slavonski Brod 156.53, Rijeka 90.11, Split 59.10. Incidence rate of TIA for the Republic of Croatia is 100.55. In the continental part of Croatia (Zagreb, Osijek + Slavonski Brod) incidence rate of stroke is higher by 45%, while incidence rate of TIA is higher by 82% than in the coastal part of Croatia, probably due to different lifestyle and environmental factors. The study has shown relatively high incidence rates of acute CVD (stroke and TIA) in the Republic of Croatia, which proves that CVD are a great public health problem.
Westberg, Karin; Palmer, Gabriella; Hjern, Fredrik; Johansson, Hemming; Holm, Torbjörn; Martling, Anna
The rate of local recurrence of rectal cancer (LRRC) has decreased but the condition remains a therapeutic challenge. This study aimed to examine treatment and prognosis in patients with LRRC in Sweden. Special focus was directed towards potential differences between geographical regions and time periods. All patients with LRRC as first event, following primary surgery for rectal cancer performed during the period 1995-2002, were included in this national population-based cohort-study. Data were collected from the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry and from medical records. The cohort was divided into three time periods, based on the date of diagnosis of the LRRC. In total, 426 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Treatment with curative intent was performed in 149 patients (35%), including 121 patients who had a surgical resection of the LRRC. R0-resection was achieved in 64 patients (53%). Patients with a non-centrally located tumour were more likely to have positive resection margins (R1/R2) (OR 5.02, 95% CI:2.25-11.21). Five-year survival for patients resected with curative intent was 43% after R0-resection and 14% after R1-resection. There were no significant differences in treatment intention or R0-resection rate between time periods or regions. The risk of any failure was significantly higher in R1-resected patients compared with R0-resected patients (HR 2.04, 95% CI:1.22-3.40). A complete resection of the LRRC is essential for potentially curative treatment. Time period and region had no influence on either margin status or prognosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.
Leyland, K M; Gates, L S; Nevitt, M
OBJECTIVE: Population-based osteoarthritis (OA) cohorts provide vital data on risk factors and outcomes of OA, however the methods to define OA vary between cohorts. We aimed to provide recommendations for combining knee and hip OA data in extant and future population cohort studies, in order to ...
de Moor, M. H. M.; Beem, A. L.; Stubbe, J. H.; Boomsma, D. I.; de Geus, E. J. C.
To examine whether regular exercise is associated with anxiety, depression and personality in a large population-based sample as a function of gender and age. The sample consisted of adolescent and adult twins and their families (N=19,288) who participated in the study on lifestyle and health from
A.J.C. Slooter (Arjen); J.B. Bronzova (Juliana); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); C. van Broeckhoven (Christine); A. Hofman (Albert)
textabstractEstrogen use may be protective for Alzheimer's disease with late onset. However, the effects on early onset Alzheimer's disease are unclear. This issue was studied in a population based setting. For each female patient, a female control was matched on age (within 5
Calzolari, Elisa; Barisic, Ingeborg; Loane, Maria
BACKGROUND: This study describes the prevalence, associated anomalies, and demographic characteristics of cases of multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) in 19 population-based European registries (EUROCAT) covering 959,446 births in 2004 and 2010. METHODS: EUROCAT implemented a computer algorithm f...
No economic data from population-based studies exist on acute or late hospital, community, and indirect costs of stroke associated with atrial fibrillation (AF-stroke). Such data are essential for policy development, service planning, and cost-effectiveness analysis of new therapeutic agents.
Hof, Michel H.; Ravelli, Anita C. J.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.
In population-based observational studies, non-participation and delayed response to the invitation to participate are complications that often arise during the recruitment of a sample. When both are not properly dealt with, the composition of the sample can be different from the desired
Mulder, S.F.; Kranse, R.; Damhuis, R.A.; Wilt, J.H. de; Ouwendijk, R.J.; Kuipers, E.J.; Leerdam, M.E. van
BACKGROUND: A noticeable proportion of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients are diagnosed with synchronous CRC. Large population-based studies on the incidence, risk factors and prognosis of synchronous CRC are, however, scarce, and are needed for better determination of risks of synchronous CRC in
Background: Hypertension is becoming a common health problem worldwide with increasing life expectancy and increasing prevalence of risk factors. Epidemiological data on hypertension in Ghana is necessary to guide policy and develop effective interventions. Methods: A review of population-based studies on ...
Harboe, Zitta B; Thomsen, Reimar W; Riis, Anders
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between specific pneumococcal serotypes and mortality from invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a nationwide population-based...
Ensing, Sabine; Schaaf, Jelle M.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Mol, Ben W. J.; Ravelli, Anita C. J.
To examine the risk of recurrence of low Apgar score in a subsequent term singleton pregnancy. Population-based cohort study. The Netherlands. A total of 190,725 women with two subsequent singleton term live births between 1999 and 2007. We calculated the recurrence risk of low Apgar score after
Chung, Kuo-Hsuan; Lin, Herng-Ching
A 3-year nationwide population-based data set was used to explore methods of suicide (violent vs. nonviolent) and possible contributing factors among cancer patients in Taiwan. A total of 1,065 cancer inpatients who committed suicide were included as our study sample. The regression shows that those who had genitourinary cancer were 0.55 times (p…
BACKGROUND: The extent to which the high suicide rate in urban areas is influenced by exposures to risk factors for suicide other than urbanicity remains unknown. This population-based study aims to investigate suicide risk in relation to the level of urbanicity in the context of other factors...
Jokiranta, Elina; Sourander, Andre; Suominen, Auli; Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Brown, Alan S.; Sillanpää, Matti
The present population-based study examines associations between epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The cohort includes register data of 4,705 children born between 1987 and 2005 and diagnosed as cases of childhood autism, Asperger's syndrome or pervasive developmental disorders--not otherwise specified. Each case was matched to four…
Doiron, Dany; Burton, Paul; Marcon, Yannick; Gaye, Amadou; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Perola, Markus; Stolk, Ronald P; Foco, Luisa; Minelli, Cosetta; Waldenberger, Melanie; Holle, Rolf; Kvaløy, Kirsti; Hillege, Hans L; Tassé, Anne-Marie; Ferretti, Vincent; Fortier, Isabel
ABSTRACTS BACKGROUND: Individual-level data pooling of large population-based studies across research centres in international research projects faces many hurdles. The BioSHaRE (Biobank Standardisation and Harmonisation for Research Excellence in the European Union) project aims to address these
Fazelifarsani, Soulmaz; Souverein, Patrick C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/243074948; van der Vorst, Marja M J; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; de Boer, Anthonius|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075097346; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/266775098
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of chronic comorbidities among children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and to compare incidences with a group of children without diabetes. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Dutch PHARMO database (1998-2010). PATIENTS: All patients (<19 years old) with
Freedman, Brian H.; Kalb, Luther G.; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Stuart, Elizabeth A.
Despite speculation about an 80% divorce rate among parents of children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), very little empirical and no epidemiological research has addressed the issue of separation and divorce among this population. Data for this study was taken from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a population-based,…
Addo, J.; Agyemang, C.; Smeeth, L.; de-Graft Aikins, A.; Edusei, A. K.; Ogedegbe, O.
Hypertension is becoming a common health problem worldwide with increasing life expectancy and increasing prevalence of risk factors. Epidemiological data on hypertension in Ghana is necessary to guide policy and develop effective interventions. A review of population-based studies on hypertension
Gjesing, Anette P.; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup; Torekov, Signe Sørensen
-carriers (mean BMI: 28+/-5 kg/m(2)) (p>0.05) could be shown. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In a population-based study sample of 15,854 Danes no association between GHSR genotypes and measures of obesity and overweight was found. Also, analyses of GHSR haplotypes lack consistent associations with obesity related......BACKGROUND: The growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) is mediating hunger sensation when stimulated by its natural ligand ghrelin. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that common and rare variation in the GHSR locus are related to increased prevalence of obesity and overweight...... among Whites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a population-based study sample of 15,854 unrelated, middle-aged Danes, seven variants were genotyped to capture common variation in an 11 kbp region including GHSR. These were investigated for their individual and haplotypic association with obesity...
Souza, Maria de Lourdes de; Lynn, Fiona Ann; Johnston, Linda; Tavares, Eduardo Cardoso Teixeira; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria; Botelho, Lúcio José
analyze trends in fertility rates and associations with perinatal outcomes for adolescents in Santa Catarina, Brazil. a population-based study covering 2006 to 2013 was carried out to evaluate associations between perinatal outcomes and age groups, using odds ratios, and Chi-squared tests. differences in the fertility rate among female adolescents across regions and time period were observed, ranging from 40.9 to 72.0 per 1,000 in mothers aged 15-19 years. Adolescents had fewer prenatal care appointments than mothers ≥20 years, and a higher proportion had no partner. Mothers aged 15-19 years were more likely to experience preterm birth (OR:1.1; CI:1.08-1.13; ppobreza social y económica. Madres adolescentes y sus bebés tienen mayor probabilidad de efectos perinatales adversos. Enfermeros, trabajadores de salud pública, profesionales de salud y asistencia social y educadores deben colaborar para mejor dirigir estrategias a adolescentes con riesgo superior; para fines de ayudar a reducir las tasas de fertilidad y mejorar los resultados.
Bocca, Beatrice; Forte, Giovanni; Oggiano, Riccardo; Clemente, Simonetta; Asara, Yolande; Peruzzu, Angela; Farace, Cristiano; Pala, Salvatore; Fois, Alessandro Giuseppe; Pirina, Pietro; Madeddu, Roberto
The association between exposure to toxic metals and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was explored in a population-based case-control study in the Sardinia island (Italy), a region characterized by elevated rates of ALS cases. In 34 patients with ALS (mean age, 62 ± 10 years) and 30 controls (mean age, 65 ± 11 years), Al, Cd, Hg, Mn and Pb were determined in blood, hair and urine by sector field inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Results indicated that, in blood, concentrations of Al (p=0.045) and Pb were higher (p=0.026) in ALS patients than in control subjects. In hair, a depletion of Al (p=0.006) and Mn (p=0.032) concentrations in ALS subjects respect to controls was found. In urine, no significant differences between cases and controls were observed. Thus, some metals seemed to be associated with ALS degeneration, but a definitive conclusion is still far considering the multiple risk factors (genetic mutations, environmental toxicants and stressors) involved in the disease. Finally, the interpretation that deregulated metal concentrations can be a consequence of the degenerative process, rather than a cause, is also valid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Petris, Airton José; Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno de; Bortoletto, Maira Sayuri Sakay
The use of medications for the treatment of dyslipidemia is relevant in the control of cardiovascular disease. This article aims to analyze the prevalence, the use and the participation of the public sector in the supply of medication for adults aged 40 years and above using pharmacotherapy for dyslipidemia control living in a city in the southern region of Brazil. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted. Household interviews were staged with 1180 individuals aged over 40 living in Cambé, State of Paraná, of which 967 took laboratory examinations. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 69.2%, of which 16.1% were taking medication. Among individuals undergoing treatment for dyslipidemia, 22.2% had adequate test results. Lipid-lowering medication used were simvastatin (81.5%) and bezafibrate (6.5%), mainly obtained by direct payment to private pharmacies and drug stores (52.2%) and NHS services (33.6%). A high prevalence of dyslipidemias was observed in population terms, together with a low level of dyslipidemia control and low participation of the public sector regarding the supply of medication compared to acquisition through direct payment for medication in private pharmacies. These results suggest a limited range of public policy for control of dyslipidemia.
Menegaux, Florence; Lamy, Pierre-Jean; Rébillard, Xavier; Trétarre, Brigitte; Anger, Antoinette; Randrianasolo, Hasina; Mulot, Claire; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Iborra, François; Bringer, Jean-Pierre; Leizour, Benoit; Thuret, Rodolphe
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in male in most Western countries, including France. Despite a significant morbidity and mortality to a lesser extent, the etiology of prostate cancer remains largely unknown. Indeed, the only well-established risk factors to date are age, ethnicity and a family history of prostate cancer. We present, here, the rationale and design of the EPIdemiological study of Prostate CAncer (EPICAP), a population-based case–control study specifically designed to investigate the role of environmental and genetic factors in prostate cancer. The EPICAP study will particularly focused on the role of circadian disruption, chronic inflammation, hormonal and metabolic factors in the occurrence of prostate cancer. EPICAP is a population-based case–control study conducted in the département of Hérault in France. Eligible cases are all cases of prostate cancers newly diagnosed in 2012-2013 in men less than 75 years old and residing in the département of Hérault at the time of diagnosis. Controls are men of the same age as the cases and living in the département of Hérault, recruited in the general population. The sample will include a total of 1000 incident cases of prostate cancer and 1000 population-based controls over a 3-year period (2012-2014). The cases and controls are face-to-face interviewed using a standardized computed assisted questionnaire. The questions focus primarily on usual socio-demographic characteristics, personal and family medical history, lifestyle, leisure activities, residential and occupational history. Anthropometric measures and biological samples are also collected for cases and controls. The EPICAP study aims to answer key questions in prostate cancer etiology: (1) role of circadian disruption through the study of working hours, chronotype and duration/quality of sleep, (2) role of chronic inflammation and anti-inflammatory drugs, (3) role of hormonal and metabolic factors through a detailed questionnaire
Gouveia, Nélia; Rodrigues, Ana M.; Ramiro, Sofia; Machado, Pedro; Da Costa, Leonor Pereira; Mourão, Ana Filipa; Silva, Inês; Rego, Tânia; Laires, Pedro; André, Rui; Mauricio, Luís; Romeu, José Carlos; Tavares, Viviana; Cerol, Jorge; Canhão, Helena
BACKGROUND: The aim of this article was to describe and discuss several strategies and standard operating procedures undertaken in the EpiReumaPt study - which was the first Portuguese, national, cross-sectional population-based study of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Diseases (RMD). METHODS: The technical procedures, legal issues, management and practical questions were studied, analyzed and discussed with relevant stakeholders. During the 1st phase of EpiReumaPt the coordination team and Cen...
Schlett, C.L.; Weckbach, S.; Hendel, T.
The MRI study within the German National Cohort, a large-scale, population-based, longitudinal study in Germany, comprises comprehensive characterization and phenotyping of a total of 30 000 participants using 3-Tesla whole-body MR imaging. A multi-centric study design was established together with dedicated core facilities for e.g. managing incidental findings or providing quality assurance. As such, the study represents a unique opportunity to substantially impact imaging-based risk stratification leading to personalized and precision medicine. Supported by the developments in the field of computational science, the newly developing scientific field of radiomics has large potential for the future. In the present article we provide an overview on population-based imaging and Radiomics and conceptualize the rationale and design of the MRI study within the German National Cohort.
Beyea, Jason A; Rosen, Emily; Stephens, Trina; Nguyen, Paul; Hall, Stephen F
Objective Tympanostomy tube (TT) insertion is the most common ambulatory surgery performed on children. American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Founda-tion (AAO-HNSF) Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) recommend hearing testing for all pediatric TT candidates. The aim of this study was to assess audiometric testing in this population. Study Design Retrospective population-based cohort study. Setting All hospitals in the Canadian province of Ontario. Subjects and Methods All patients 12 years of age and younger who underwent at least 1 TT procedure between January 1993 and June 2016. The primary outcomes were the percentage of patients who underwent a hearing test within 1 year before and/or 1 year after surgery. Results A total of 316,599 bilateral TT procedures were performed during the study period (1993 to 2016). Presurgical hearing tests increased from 55.7% to 74.9%, and postsurgical hearing tests increased from 42.2% to 68.9%. Younger surgeons demonstrated a greater adherence to the CPGs (relative risk [RR], 1.22; 95% CI, 1.08-1.38; P = .001). Remarkably, there was not a spike in preoperative hearing tests following the introduction of the CPGs in 2013 (RR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.85-1.47; P = .432). Presurgical hearing testing ranged from 26.1% to 83.5% across health regions. Conclusion In this cohort of children who underwent TT placement, the trends of preoperative and postoperative audiometric testing are increasing but are still lower than recommended by the CPGs, despite a tripling of practicing audiologists. This study describes the current state of testing in Ontario and highlights issues of access to audiology services, possible parent preferences, and the importance of ongoing continuing medical education for all health care practitioners.
Waxman, Adam J.; Mink, Pamela J.; Devesa, Susan S.; Anderson, William F.; Weiss, Brendan M.; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.; McGlynn, Katherine A.; Landgren, Ola
Multiple myeloma (MM) is the most common hematologic malignancy in blacks. Some prior studies suggest inferior survival in blacks; others suggest similar survival. Using the original 9 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries, we conducted a large-scale population-based study including 5798 black and 28 939 white MM patients diagnosed 1973-2005, followed through 2006. Age-adjusted incidence rates, disease-specific survival, and relative survival rates were calculated by race, ag...
von Kobyletzki, Laura; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Breeze, Elizabeth; Larsson, Malin; Boman Lindström, Cecilia; Svensson, Åke
The aim of this study was to analyse factors associated with remission of atopic dermatitis (AD) in childhood. A population-based AD cohort of 894 children aged 1-3 years from a cross-sectional baseline study in 2000 was followed up in 2005. The association between remission, background, health, lifestyle, and environmental variables was estimated with crude and multivariable logistic regression. At follow-up, 52% of the children had remission. Independent factors at baseline predicting remis...
Chung, Shiu-Dong; Chen, Yi-Kuang; Chen, Yi-Hua; Lin, Herng-Ching
The imbalanced autonomic nervous system present in hyperthyroidism may cause lower urinary tract symptoms. Urinary incontinence (UI) is the most bothersome lower urinary tract symptom; however, in the literature, reports regarding urinary dysfunction and/or incontinence among hyperthyroid patients are scarce. This population-based cohort study aimed to examine the relationship between hyperthyroidism in women and the risk of developing UI in Taiwan. This study used data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. For this study, 10,817 female patients diagnosed with hyperthyroidism from 2001 to 2005 were recruited together with a comparison cohort of 54,085 matched enrollees who did not have a history of hyperthyroidism. All patients were tracked for a 3-year period from their index date to identify those who had a subsequent UI. The stratified Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute the risk of UI between study and comparison cohorts. During the follow-up period, of 64,169 patients, 173 (1·60%) from the hyperthyroidism group and 560 (1·04%) from the comparison group, had a diagnosis of UI. The regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for monthly income, geographic region, urbanization level of the community in which the patient resided, obesity and hysterectomy, patients with hyperthyroidism were more likely to have UI during the 3-year follow-up period than the comparison patients (hazard ratio = 1·54; 95% CI = 1·30-1·83; P hyperthyroidism at the 3-year follow-up. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Engberg, Susanne; Vistisen, Dorte; Lau, Cathrine
Objective: To estimate the progression rates to impaired glucose regulation (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance) and diabetes in the Danish population-based Inter99 study and in a high-risk subpopulation, separately. Research Design and Methods: From a population-based primary...... glucose regulation using the current World Health Organization classification criteria were calculated for the first time in a large European population-based study. The progression rates to diabetes show the same pattern as seen in the few similar European studies....... prevention study, the Inter99 study, 4,615 individuals without diabetes at baseline and with relevant follow-up data were divided into a low- and a high-risk group based on a risk estimate of ischemic heart disease or the presence of risk factors (smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity...... estimated directly from baseline to 5-year follow-up for all the participants, and from baseline through 1- and 3-, to 5-year follow-up for the high-risk individuals, separately. Results: In the combined low- and high-risk group, 2.1 per 100 person-years progressed from normal glucose tolerance to impaired...
Full Text Available Severe maternal morbidity conditions such as sepsis, embolism and cardiac arrest during the delivery hospitalization period can lead to extended length of hospital stays, life-long maternal health problems, and high medical costs. Most importantly, these conditions also contribute to the risk of maternal death. This population-based observational study proposed and evaluated the impact of expanding the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC measure of severe maternal morbidity by including additional comorbidities and intensive care admissions during delivery hospitalizations and examined associated factors. A New York State linked hospitalization and birth record database was used. Study participants included all New York State female residents, ages 10 to 55 years, who delivered a live infant in a New York acute care hospital between 2008 and 2013, inclusive. Incidence trends for both severe maternal morbidity measures were evaluated longitudinally. Associations between covariates and the two severe maternal morbidity measures were examined with logistic regression models, solved using generalized estimating equations and stratified by method of delivery. The New York expanded severe maternal morbidity measure identified 34,478 cases among 1,352,600 hospital deliveries (estimated incidence 2.55% representing a 3% increase in the number of cases compared to the CDC measure. Both estimates increased over the study period (p 1.5 included most measured comorbidities (e.g., pregnancy-induced hypertension, placentation disorder, multiple births, preterm birth, no prenatal care, hospitalization prior to delivery, higher levels of perinatal care birthing facilities and race/ethnicity. Expanding the measure for severe maternal morbidity during delivery to capture intensive care admissions provides a more sensitive estimate of disease burden. Perinatal regionalization in New York appears effective in routing high risk pregnancies to higher
Wiig, Ulrikke S; Zahl, Sverre M; Egge, Arild; Helseth, Eirik; Wester, Knut
Benign external hydrocephalus is defined as a rapidly increasing head circumference (occipitofrontal circumference) with characteristic radiological findings of increased subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid spaces on neuroimaging. The incidence of benign external hydrocephalus has not been previously reported, and there is no available information on the ratio of benign external hydrocephalus in the population of hydrocephalic children. This study is retrospective and population-based study, geographically covering two health regions in the southern half of Norway with a total mean population of 3.34 million in the ten-year study period, constituting approximately 75% of the Norwegian population. Children with a head circumference crossing two percentiles, or greater than the 97.5th percentile, and with typical imaging findings of enlarged frontal subarachnoid spaces with or without enlarged ventricles were included. Children were excluded if they had a history of head trauma, intracranial hemorrhage, central nervous system infection, other known causes of hydrocephalus, or were born preterm defined as birth before 37 weeks of gestation. A total of 176 children fitting the criteria were identified, giving an incidence of 0.4 per 1000 live births. One hundred fifty-two (86.4%) of the patients were male, and mean age at referral was 7.3 months. Increasing head circumference was the main reason for referral in 158 (89.8%) patients and the only finding in 60 (34.1%) patients. Thirty-seven (21%) children had normal ventricles on imaging; the remainder had increased ventricular size. The incidence of pediatric hydrocephalus in Norway is reported to be 0.75 per 1000 live births, thus benign external hydrocephalus accounts for approximately 50% of hydrocephalic conditions in this population. The incidence of benign external hydrocephalus was found to be 0.4 per 1000 live births in this population. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Breiting, L.; Dahlstrom, K.; Breiting, V.
Background Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin (PMCS) is a rare malignant tumor deriving from the sweat glands. It is typically located on the head and is often mistaken for a metastasis from a more common primary tumor of the breast or gastrointestinal tract. We present the first population......-based study of PMCS. Materials and methods Data on PMCS was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry, which has recorded incident cases of cancer on a nationwide basis since 1943. We extracted all patients diagnosed 1978-2003 with PMCS. Results Fifteen cases of PMCS have been registered during the study...... or PMCS related deaths were reported. Conclusion PMCS is a rare, slow-growing tumor which rarely metastasizes and is associated with low mortality. The age-standardized incidence rate, based on data from a population-based cancer registry of high quality and validity, is less than 0.1 per million. However...
Chang, Tzu-Pu; Lin, Yueh-Wen; Sung, Pi-Yu; Chuang, Hsun-Yang; Chung, Hsien-Yang; Liao, Wen-Ling
Background Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), the most common type of vertigo in the general population, is thought to be caused by dislodgement of otoliths from otolithic organs into the semicircular canals. In most cases, however, the cause behind the otolith dislodgement is unknown. Dental procedures, one of the most common medical treatments, are considered to be a possible cause of BPPV, although this has yet to be proven. This study is the first nationwide population-based cas...
Wu, Chieh-Hsin; Zhang, Zi-Hao; Wu, Ming-Kung; Wang, Chiu-Huan; Lu, Ying-Yi; Lin, Chih-Lung
Background Osteoporosis and migraine are both important public health problems and may have overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms. The aim of this study was to use a Taiwanese population-based dataset to assess migraine risk in osteoporosis patients. Methods The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to analyse data for 40,672 patients aged ?20?years who had been diagnosed with osteoporosis during 1996?2010. An additional 40,672 age-matched patients without osteoporos...
Lissbrant, Ingela Franck; Garmo, Hans; Widmark, Anders; Stattin, P?r
Background. Chemotherapy prolongs life and relieves symptoms in men with castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). There is limited information on a population level on the use of chemotherapy for CRPC. Material and methods. To assess the use of chemotherapy in men with CRPC we conducted a register-based nationwide population-based study in Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe) and a nationwide in-patient drug register (SALT database) between May 2009 and December 2010. We assumed that...
Lawton, Beverley; Howe, Anna S; Turner, Nikki; Filoche, Sara; Slatter, Tania; Devenish, Celia; Hung, Noelyn Anne
Emerging evidence suggests that HPV infection is associated with negative pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth (PTB), and pre-eclampsia. We aimed to determine if prior HPV vaccination reduced adverse pregnancy outcomes. A New Zealand population-based retrospective study linking first pregnancy outcome data (2008-2014 n = 35,646) with prior quadrivalent HPV vaccination status. Primary outcomes were likelihood (odds ratios, ORs) of PTB, pre-eclampsia, and stillbirth. Exposure groups were based on HPV vaccination. Adjusted ORs were calculated for each outcome, controlling for mother's age at delivery, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, health board region at time of delivery, and body mass index and smoking status at time of registration with maternity care provider. Mother's mean age at delivery was 19 (SD 2.1) years. Of 34,994 the pregnancies included in the final study analyses 62.3% of women were unvaccinated, 11.0% vaccinated with one or two doses and 27.7% vaccinated with three doses prior to pregnancy. PTB (OR: 0.87; CI 0.78, 0.96)) was significantly lower for women who previously received the HPV vaccine. A dose response effect was found with each successive dose received decreasing the likelihood of PTB. No associations between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups were shown for pre-eclampsia or stillbirth. Prior receipt of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was associated with a significant reduction in PTB (13%); suggesting that HPV vaccination may be effective in reducing PTB. The potential global public health impact is considerable and there is urgency to undertake further research to replicate and explore these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harnod, Tomor; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung
This nationwide population-based cohort study evaluated the risk of and risk factors for suicide attempt in poststroke patients in Taiwan. The poststroke and nonstroke cohorts consisted of 713 690 patients and 1 426 009 controls, respectively. Adults (aged >18 years) who received new stroke diagnoses according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM ; codes 430-438) between 2000 and 2011 were included in the poststroke cohort. We calculated the adjusted hazard ratio for suicide attempt ( ICD-9-CM codes E950-E959) after adjustment for age, sex, monthly income, urbanization level, occupation category, and various comorbidities. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to measure the cumulative incidence of suicide attempt, and the Fine and Gray method was used as a competing event when estimating death subhazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals between groups. The cumulative incidence of suicide attempt was higher in the poststroke cohort, and the adjusted hazard ratio of suicide attempt was 2.20 (95% confidence interval, 2.04-2.37) compared with that of the controls. The leading risk factors for poststroke suicide attempt were earning low monthly income (US dollars), living in less urbanized regions, doing manual labor, and having a stroke before age 50 years. The attempted suicide risk did not differ significantly between male and female patients in this study. These results convey crucial information to clinicians and governments for preventing suicide attempt in poststroke patients in Taiwan and other Asian countries. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.
Johansson, K; Hutcheon, J A; Bodnar, L M; Cnattingius, S; Stephansson, O
To study the association between total and early pregnancy (gain and risk of stillbirth, stratified by early-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Population-based cohort study. Stockholm-Gotland Region, Sweden. Pregnant women with singleton births (n = 160 560). Pregnancy weight gain was standardised into gestational age-specific z-scores. For analyses of total pregnancy weight gain, a matched design with an incidence density sampling approach was used. Findings were also contrasted with current Institute of Medicine (IOM) weight gain recommendations. Stillbirth defined as fetal death at ≥22 completed weeks of gestation. For all BMI categories, there was no statistical association between total or early pregnancy weight gain and stillbirth within the range of a weight gain z-score of -2.0 SD to +2.0 SD. Among normal-weight women, the adjusted odds ratio of stillbirth for lower (-2.0 to -1.0 SD) and higher (+1.0 to +1.9 SD) total weight gain was 0.85 (95% CI; 0.48-1.49) and 1.03 (0.60-1.77), respectively, as compared with the reference category. Further, there were no associations between total or early pregnancy weight gain and stillbirth within the range of weight gain currently recommended by the IOM. For the majority of the BMI categories, the point estimates at the extremes of weight gain values (gain and increased risks of high weight gain, but estimates were imprecise and not statistically significant. We found no associations between total or early pregnancy weight gain and stillbirth across the range of weight gain experienced by most women. There was no association between weight gain during pregnancy and stillbirth among most women. © 2017 Karolinska Institutet. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Wolniczak, Isabella; Cáceres-DelAguila, José A; Maguiña, Jorge L; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio
Among different factors, diet patterns seem to be related to depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the consumption of fruits and/or vegetables and depressive symptoms. A secondary data analysis was conducted using information from a population-based survey from 25 regions from Peru. The outcome was the presence of depressive symptoms according to the Patient Health Questionnaire (cutoff ≥15 to define major depressive syndrome); whereas the exposure was the self-reported consumption of fruits and/or vegetables (in tertiles and using WHO recommendation ≥5 servings/day). The association of interest was evaluated using Poisson regression models controlling for the complex-sample survey design and potential confounders. Data from 25,901 participants were analyzed, mean age 44.2 (SD: 17.7) and 13,944 (54.0%) women. Only 910 (3.8%; 95%CI: 3.5%-4.2%) individuals reported consuming ≥5 servings of fruits and/or vegetables/day; whereas 819 (2.8%; 95%CI: 2.5%-3.1%) had depressive symptoms. Those in the lowest tertile of fruits and/or vegetables consumption had greater prevalence of depressive symptoms (PR = 1.88; 95%CI: 1.39-2.55) than those in the highest tertile. This association was stronger with fruits (PR = 1.92; 95%CI: 1.46-2.53) than vegetables (PR = 1.42; 95%CI: 1.05-1.93) alone. An inverse relationship between consumption of fruits and/or vegetables and depressive symptoms is reported. Less than 5% of subjects reported consuming the amount of fruits and vegetables recommended by the WHO. There is a need to implement strategies to promote better diet patterns with potential impact on mental health.
Full Text Available Snakebite is a major public health problem in agricultural communities in the tropics leading to acute local and systemic impairments with resultant disabilities. Snakebite related long-term musculoskeletal disabilities have been a neglected area of research. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study in an agricultural community to describe the chronic musculoskeletal disabilities of snake envenoming.A sample representative of residents of a single district in a region of high incidence of snake envenoming was recruited to identify ever snakebite victims. They were evaluated for chronic musculoskeletal disabilities that had developed immediately or within four weeks after the snakebite and persisted over three months. In-depth interviews, validated musculoskeletal functional assessment criteria and specialists' examinations were utilised. Among the 816 victims, 26 (3.2%, 95% confidence interval: 2.2-4.6% had musculoskeletal disabilities, persisting on average for 13.4 years (SD = 14.4. The disabilities were mostly in lower limbs (61.5% and ranged from swelling (34.6%, muscle wasting (46.1%, reduced motion (61.5%, reduced muscle power (50%, impaired balance (26.9%, chronic non-healing ulcers (3.85%, abnormal gait (3.85%, fixed deformities (19.2% to amputations (15.4%. Based on disability patterns, six snakebite-related musculoskeletal syndromes were recognised. The offending snakes causing disabilities were cobra (30.8%, Russell's viper (26.9% and hump-nosed viper (7.7%. Cobra bites manifested muscle wasting (87.5%, reduced muscle power (87.5%, joint stiffness (62.5% and deformities (37.5% while viper bites manifested impaired balance (42.8%, pain (71.4% and swelling (71.4%.Snakebite envenoming is associated with considerable long-term musculoskeletal disabilities. Facilities for specialized care and rehabilitation need to be established in high risk areas.
Selassie, A W; Varma, A; Saunders, L L; Welldaregay, W
First, to evaluate the influence of comorbid diseases and concomitant injuries on the risk of in-hospital death after traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI). Second, to identify the risk characteristics of TSCI patients with likelihood of death. Population-based retrospective cohort study. Sixty-two acute care hospitals in South Carolina, USA. Records of 3389 TSCI patients hospitalized with acute TSCI were evaluated. Days elapsing from the date of injury to date of death established the survival time (T). Cox regression examined risk of in-hospital death as a function of counts of comorbid conditions and injuries along with their joint effects controlling for other covariates. Counts of comorbid conditions and injuries showed dose-dependent risk of death while in-hospital independent of demographical and clinical covariates. Hazard ratios (HR) for counts 3+, 2 and 1 comorbid conditions were 2.19 (P<0.001), 1.73 (P=0.005) and 1.20 (P=0.322), respectively. For counts of 4+, 3 and 2 other injuries were 1.85 (P<0.001), 1.81 (P<0.001) and 1.46 (P=0.022), respectively. The joint effect of the two was transadditive with statistically significant HR ranging from 1.72-3.14. Counts of comorbid conditions and injured body regions strongly indicate risk of in-hospital death after TSCI and their joint effects elicited dose-dependent gradient independent of demographical and clinical covariates. Assessing risk of in-hospital death based on joint use of counts of comorbid diseases and injuries is highly informative to target TSCI patients at high risk of dying.
Wu, Ran; Wang, Guang-Hai; Zhu, Hong; Jiang, Fan; Jiang, Chun-Lei
This study aimed to (1) provide data on normal sleep patterns in Chinese preschool children, (2) identify cross-cultural differences of sleep patterns among children from China and other countries, (3) estimate the prevalence of sleep duration not meeting the optimal amount, and (4) characterize delayed weekend sleep pattern. A population-based sample of 1,610 children aged 3-6 years was recruited from 10 cities across China. Parents completed questions about their child's sleep patterns adapted from the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ). The mean bedtime was 9:31 PM, wake time was 7:27 AM, nighttime sleep duration was 9 hours 30 minutes, daytime sleep duration was 1 hour 31 minutes, and total sleep duration was 11 hours 2 minutes. The children had a shorter nighttime sleep duration but longer daytime naps, resulting in no differences in total sleep duration compared with counterparts predominantly in the west. Of the children, 85.3% met the recommended amount of sleep of 10 to 13 hours, and 10.8% slept fewer than 10 hours. The prevalence of sleep less than 10 hours was higher in older children and children from eastern China. Children went to bed and woke up more than 30 minutes later on weekends than weekdays, accounting for 40.1% and 50%, respectively. Children in western China showed longer delay than children in eastern China ( P < .05). Age- and region-specific variability of sleep patterns are reported as well as insufficient sleep and delayed weekend sleep pattern in Chinese preschool children. The cross-cultural difference of sleep patterns was in temporal placement rather than sleep duration. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
Heskestad, Ben; Baardsen, Roald; Helseth, Eirik
it with previous Norwegian studies. METHODS: All head injured patients referred to Stavanger University Hospital during a one-year period (2003) were registered in a partly prospective and partly retrospective study. The catchment area for the hospital is strictly defined to a local population of 283...
von Heideken Wågert, Petra; Gustafson, Yngve; Kallin, Kristina; Jensen, Jane; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
Artikkelen omhandler en studie hvor hensikten var å beskrive forekomst av fall og fallrelaterte skader, og å identifisere predisponerende faktorer for fall hos eldre 85 år og eldre. The aim of this study was to describe incidences of falls and fall-related injuries, and to identify predisposing factors for falls in very old people in a prospective population-based follow-up study for falls. The study is part of the Umeå 85+ Study which includes half of the population aged 85, and the total...
Full Text Available Abstract Aims To analyze the relationship between exposure to chlorinated and aromatic organic solvents and malignant lymphoma in a multi-centre, population-based case-control study. Methods Male and female patients with malignant lymphoma (n = 710 between 18 and 80 years of age were prospectively recruited in six study regions in Germany (Ludwigshafen/Upper Palatinate, Heidelberg/Rhine-Neckar-County, Würzburg/Lower Frankonia, Hamburg, Bielefeld/Gütersloh, and Munich. For each newly recruited lymphoma case, a gender, region and age-matched (± 1 year of birth population control was drawn from the population registers. In a structured personal interview, we elicited a complete occupational history, including every occupational period that lasted at least one year. On the basis of job task-specific supplementary questionnaires, a trained occupational physician assessed the exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons (trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride and aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene, styrene. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking (in pack years and alcohol consumption. To increase the statistical power, patients with specific lymphoma subentities were additionally compared with the entire control group using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results We observed a statistically significant association between high exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons and malignant lymphoma (Odds ratio = 2.1; 95% confidence interval 1.1–4.3. In the analysis of lymphoma subentities, a pronounced risk elevation was found for follicular lymphoma and marginal zone lymphoma. When specific substances were considered, the association between trichloroethylene and malignant lymphoma was of borderline statistical significance. Aromatic hydrocarbons were not significantly associated with the lymphoma diagnosis
Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective and efficient care is required to prevent the spread of infectious pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB. We attempted to compare care quality among different healthcare institutions in Southern Taiwan. Methods This study conducted population-based retrospective cohort design. One tuberculosis sanatorium, 2 medical centers, 11 regional hospitals, and 15 district hospitals and primary practitioners in the study area had reported tuberculosis cases, registered from January 1 to June 30 2003. Those cases with sputum positive PTB were followed 15 months after anti-tuberculosis treatment initiation. Meanwhile, Level of conformance with diagnostic guidelines, efficiency of diagnostic and treatment process, and treatment were measured as main outcome. Association was investigated using Chi-square tests, Kruskal Wallis tests, Mann-Whiteney U tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis to evaluate outcome differences among different levels of institutions. Results The analyses included 421 patients. In comparison with patients receiving treatment at medical centers, regional hospitals, and district hospitals/primary practitioners, patients at the Chest Specialty Hospital were more likely to provide at least three sputum specimens (74.1% vs. 48.2%, 36.8%, and 50.0%, shorter workdays examining sputum smears (2.4 ± 2.4 days vs. 2.6 ± 2.1, 4.5 ± 3.1, and 3.5 ± 2.6 days, shorter interval between the first consultation and treatment (10.1 ± 18.3 days vs. 31.0 ± 53.6, 31.2 ± 70.4, and 25.4 ± 37.6 days, and a higher successful treatment rate (92.6% vs. 65.2%, 63.9%, and 68.0%. Furthermore, after adjusting age and gender, the patients treated by the pulmonologists and treated at Chest Specialty Hospital had significantly more successful treatment rate, of which odds ratios were 1.74 and 4.58 respectively. Conclusion Differences in care quality exist among different types of healthcare institutions and among individual physicians
Tsai, Ming-Shao; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Liu, Chia-Yen; Lin, Meng-Hung; Chang, Geng-He; Tsai, Yao-Te; Li, Hsueh-Yu; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Hsu, Cheng-Ming
Objective To investigate pneumonia risk among patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP). Study Design Retrospective population-based cohort study. Setting This study used data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a nationwide population-based database. Subjects and Methods A total of 419 patients newly diagnosed with UVFP between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2013, were identified from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, a nationally representative database of 1 million randomly selected patients. Moreover, 1676 patients without UVFP were matched to patients with UVFP at a 1:4 ratio based on age, sex, socioeconomic status, urbanization level, and site-specific cancers. Patients were followed up until death or the end of the study period (December 31, 2013). The primary outcome was the occurrence of pneumonia. Results The cumulative incidence of pneumonia was significantly higher for patients with UVFP than those without UFVP ( P < .001). The adjusted Cox proportional hazard model showed that UVFP was significantly associated with a higher incidence of pneumonia (hazard ratio, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.35-2.86; P < .001). Subgroup analyses demonstrated that UVFP was an independent risk factor of pneumonia for 4 subgroups: young (18-50 years), older (≥51 years), male, and cancer. Conclusion This is the first nationwide population-based cohort study to investigate the association between UVFP and pneumonia. The findings indicate that UVFP is an independent risk factor of pneumonia. Given the study results, physicians should be aware of the potential for pneumonia occurrence following UVFP.
VanDenHeuvel, A.; Fitzgerald, M.; Greiner, Birgit A.; Perry, Ivan J.
VanDenHeuvel A, Fitzgerald M, Greiner B, Perry IJ. Screening for autistic spectrum disorder at the 18-month developmental assessment: a population-based study. Ir Med J. 2007;100(8):565-7. The objectives of this study were to assess the feasibility of administering the CHecklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT) at the 18-month developmental check, estimate the prevalence of screening positive for autism at the first and second administrations of the CHAT and estimate the prevalence of diagnos...
Full Text Available In low income and middle income countries, neonatal mortality remains high despite the gradual reduction in under five mortality. Newborn death contributes for about 38% of all under five deaths. This study has identified the magnitude and independent predictors of neonatal mortality in rural Ethiopia.This population based nested case control study was conducted in rural West Gojam zone, Northern Ethiopia, among a cohort of pregnant women who gave birth between March 2011 and Feb 2012. The cohort was established by Maternal and Newborn Health in Ethiopia Partnership (MaNHEP project in 2010 by recruiting mothers in their third trimester, as identified by trained community volunteers. Once identified, women stayed in the cohort throughout their pregnancy period receiving Community Maternal and Newborn Health (CMNH training by health extension workers and community volunteers till the end of the first 48 hours postpartum. Cases were 75 mothers who lost their newborns to neonatal death and controls were 150 randomly selected mothers with neonates who survived the neonatal period. Data to identify cause of death were collected using the WHO standard verbal autopsy questionnaire after the culturally appropriate 40 days of bereavement period. Binomial logistic regression model was used to identify independent contributors to neonatal mortality.The neonatal mortality rate was AOR(95%CI = 18.6 (14.8, 23.2 per 1000 live births. Neonatal mortality declined with an increase in family size, neonates who were born among a family of more than two had lesser odds of death in the neonatal period than those who were born in a family of two AOR (95% CI = 0.13 (0.02, 0.71. Mothers who gave birth to 2-4 AOR(95%CI = 0.15 (0.05, 0.48 and 5+ children AOR(95%CI = 0.08 (0.02, 0.26 had lesser odds of losing their newborns to neonatal mortality. Previous history of losing a newborn to neonatal death also increased the odds of neonatal mortality during the last birth AOR
Shah, Baiju R; Griffiths, Rebecca; Hall, Stephen F
The highest rates of thyroid cancer are observed in Pacific Island nations as well as Australia and Asian countries bordering the Pacific. The objective of this study was to determine the risk for thyroid cancer among immigrants to Canada from Southeast and East Asia compared with immigrants from other regions and nonimmigrants. This was a population-based, longitudinal cohort study using health care administrative data to examine all residents of Ontario without pre-existing thyroid cancer. Individuals were followed from January 1997 or 5 years after they became eligible for health care coverage in Ontario, whichever came later. Patients were followed until March 2015 for incident-differentiated thyroid cancer, and then for recurrence. The study followed 14,659,733 individuals for a median of 17 years. Thyroid cancer incidence was 43.8 cases per 100,000 person-years among Southeast Asian immigrants, 28.6 cases per 100,000 person-years among East Asian immigrants, 21.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among other immigrants, and 14.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among nonimmigrants. Incidence was highest among immigrants from the Philippines (52.7 cases per 100,000 person-years), South Korea (33.5 cases per 100,000 person-years), and China (30.0 cases per 100,000 person-years). Adjusted hazard ratios for thyroid cancer compared with nonimmigrants were 2.66 (95% confidence interval, 2.48-2.84) for Southeast Asian immigrants, 1.87 (95% confidence interval, 1.75-2.00) for East Asian immigrants, and 1.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.45-1.57) for other immigrants. Immigrants were more likely to have papillary histology and stage I cancer. East Asian immigrants, but not Southeast Asian immigrants, had a lower risk of recurrence (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.94] and 1.01 [95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.26], respectively). Immigrants from Southeast and East Asia had markedly higher thyroid cancer incidence than nonimmigrants. At particularly elevated
Full Text Available Abstract Background Miscarriage is a common event but is remarkably difficult to measure in epidemiological studies. Few large-scale population-based studies have been conducted in the UK. Methods This was a population-based two-stage postal survey of reproductive histories of adult women living in the United Kingdom in 2001, sampled from the electronic electoral roll. In Stage 1 a short "screening" questionnaire was sent to over 60,000 randomly selected women in order to identify those aged 55 and under who had ever been pregnant or ever attempted to achieve a pregnancy, from whom a brief reproductive history was requested. Stage 2 involved a more lengthy questionnaire requesting detailed information on every pregnancy (and fertility problems, and questions relating to socio-demographic, behavioural and other factors for the most recent pregnancy in order to examine risk factors for miscarriage. Data on stillbirth, multiple birth and maternal age are compared to national data in order to assess response bias. Results The response rate was 49% for Stage 1 and 73% for the more targeted Stage 2. A total of 26,050 questionnaires were returned in Stage 1. Of the 17,748 women who were eligible on the grounds of age, 27% reported that they had never been pregnant and had never attempted to conceive a child. The remaining 13,035 women reported a total of 30,661 pregnancies. Comparison of key reproductive indicators (stillbirth and multiple birth rates and maternal age at first birth with national statistics showed that the data look remarkably similar to the general population. Conclusions This study has enabled the assembly of a large population-based dataset of women's reproductive histories which appears unbiased compared to the general UK population and which will enable investigation of hard-to-measure outcomes such as miscarriage and infertility.
Gretarsdottir, Helga M; Jonasson, Jon Gunnlaugur; Björnsson, Einar S
Esophageal food impaction (FI) is a common clinical problem with limited information on incidence. Previous population based studies are lacking. The incidence, main etiological factors, recurrence and outcome of FI was determined in the present study in a population based setting. This was a study of consecutive adult patients who presented with FI from 2008 to 2013 at the National University Hospital of Iceland. The mean crude incidence rate of FI was calculated. Retrospective analysis was undertaken on relevant clinical data such as type of bolus, management, complications, recurrence rate, risk factors for recurrence, and outcome. Overall 308 patients had endoscopically confirmed FI, males 199/308 (65%), median age 62 years. The mean crude incidence was 25 per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The types of FI was meat (68%), fish (12%), vegetable (4%) and other food/objects (16%). Causes for the FI included: esophageal strictures (45%), hiatal hernia (22%), eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) (16%) and esophageal carcinoma (2%). Recurrence appeared in 21%, in which 24/48 (50%) had EoE vs. 40/260 (15%) in others (p = 0.0001). The removal of the foreign body was successful in 98% of the cases during the first endoscopy. Endoscopic associated complications included four (1.3%) aspirations, one (0.3%) esophageal perforation and one Boerhaave syndrome at presentation (both had EoE). The incidence of FI is the highest reported to date. EoE was strongly associated with recurrence of FI. In a population based setting endoscopy is a safe and effective procedure for removing FI.
Binh, Tran Thanh; Tuan, Vo Phuoc; Dung, Ho Dang Quy; Tung, Pham Huu; Tri, Tran Dinh; Thuan, Ngo Phuong Minh; Tam, Le Quang; Nam, Bui Chi; Giang, Do Anh; Hoan, Phan Quoc; Uchida, Tomohisa; Trang, Tran Thi Huyen; Khien, Vu Van; Yamaoka, Yoshio
The Helicobacter pylori -induced burden of gastric cancer varies based on geographical regions and ethnic grouping. Vietnam is a multiethnic country with the highest incidence of gastric cancer in Southeast Asia, but previous studies focused only on the Kinh ethnic group. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using 494 volunteers (18-78 years old), from 13 ethnic groups in Daklak and Lao Cai provinces, Vietnam. H. pylori status was determined by multiple tests (rapid urease test, culture, histology, and serology). cagA and vacA genotypes were determined by PCR-based sequencing. The overall H. pylori infection rate was 38.1%. Multivariate analysis showed that variations in geographical region, age, and ethnicity were independent factors associated with the risk of H. pylori acquisition. Therefore, multicenter, multiethnic, population based study is essential to assess the H. pylori prevalence and its burden in the general population. Only the E De ethnicity carried strains with Western-type CagA (82%) and exhibited significantly lower gastric mucosal inflammation compared to other ethnic groups. However, the histological scores of Western-type CagA and East-Asian-type CagA within the E De group showed no significant differences. Thus, in addition to bacterial virulence factors, host factors are likely to be important determinants for gastric mucosal inflammation and contribute to the Asian enigma.
Zhao, Wei; Chen, Ying Qing; Hsu, Li
Population attributable fraction (PAF) is widely used to quantify the disease burden associated with a modifiable exposure in a population. It has been extended to a time-varying measure that provides additional information on when and how the exposure's impact varies over time for cohort studies. However, there is no estimation procedure for PAF using data that are collected from population-based case-control studies, which, because of time and cost efficiency, are commonly used for studying genetic and environmental risk factors of disease incidences. In this article, we show that time-varying PAF is identifiable from a case-control study and develop a novel estimator of PAF. Our estimator combines odds ratio estimates from logistic regression models and density estimates of the risk factor distribution conditional on failure times in cases from a kernel smoother. The proposed estimator is shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal with asymptotic variance that can be estimated empirically from the data. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed estimator performs well in finite sample sizes. Finally, the method is illustrated by a population-based case-control study of colorectal cancer. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.
Harding-Esch, Emma M; Kadimpeul, Julbert; Sarr, Boubacar; Sane, Awa; Badji, Souleymane; Laye, Mass; Sillah, Ansumana; Burr, Sarah E; MacLeod, David; Last, Anna R; Holland, Martin J; Mabey, David C; Bailey, Robin L
Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. We conducted the first population-based trachoma prevalence survey in the Casamance region of Senegal to enable the Senegalese National Eye Care Programme (NECP) to plan its trachoma control activities. The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines state that any individual with trachomatous trichiasis (TT) should be offered surgery, but that surgery should be prioritised where the prevalence is >0.1%, and that districts and communities with a trachomatous inflammation, follicular (TF) prevalence of ≥10% in 1-9 year-olds should receive mass antibiotic treatment annually for a minimum of three years, along with hygiene promotion and environmental improvement, before re-assessing the prevalence to determine whether treatment can be discontinued (when TF prevalence in 1-9 year-olds falls 1% in all districts. With a prevalence <5%, TF does not appear to be a significant public health problem in this region. However, TF monitoring and surveillance at sub-district level will be required to ensure that elimination targets are sustained and that TF does not re-emerge as a public health problem. TT surgery remains the priority for trachoma elimination efforts in the region, with an estimated 1819 TT surgeries to conduct.
Emma M. Harding-Esch
Full Text Available Abstract Background Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. We conducted the first population-based trachoma prevalence survey in the Casamance region of Senegal to enable the Senegalese National Eye Care Programme (NECP to plan its trachoma control activities. The World Health Organization (WHO guidelines state that any individual with trachomatous trichiasis (TT should be offered surgery, but that surgery should be prioritised where the prevalence is >0.1%, and that districts and communities with a trachomatous inflammation, follicular (TF prevalence of ≥10% in 1–9 year-olds should receive mass antibiotic treatment annually for a minimum of three years, along with hygiene promotion and environmental improvement, before re-assessing the prevalence to determine whether treatment can be discontinued (when TF prevalence in 1–9 year-olds falls 1% in all districts. Conclusion With a prevalence <5%, TF does not appear to be a significant public health problem in this region. However, TF monitoring and surveillance at sub-district level will be required to ensure that elimination targets are sustained and that TF does not re-emerge as a public health problem. TT surgery remains the priority for trachoma elimination efforts in the region, with an estimated 1819 TT surgeries to conduct.
Mehr, Sam; Frith, Katie; Barnes, Elizabeth H; Campbell, Dianne E
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal allergic disorder. Large population-based FPIES studies are lacking. We sought to determine the incidence and clinical characteristics of FPIES in Australian infants. An Australia-wide survey (2012-2014) was undertaken through the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit, with monthly notification of new cases of acute FPIES in infants aged less than 24 months by 1400 participating pediatricians. Two hundred thirty infants with FPIES were identified. The incidence of FPIES in Australian infants (disease and FPIES to fruits, vegetables, or both. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kj?r, Susanne Kr?ger
Objective To examine the effects of fertility drugs on overall risk of ovarian cancer using data from a large cohort of infertile women. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Danish hospitals and private fertility clinics. Participants 54?362 women with infertility problems referred to all Danish fertility clinics during 1963-98. The median age at first evaluation of infertility was 30 years (range 16-55 years), and the median age at the end of follow-up was 47 (range 18-81) years. In...
Trojner Bregar, Andreja; Blickstein, Isaac; Bržan Šimenc, Gabrijela; Janša, Vid; Verdenik, Ivan; Lučovnik, Miha; Tul, Nataša
To evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of being underweight before pregnancy. Cohort study of a large population-based dataset of singleton births was used to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes of pre-gravid underweight body mass index (BMI 4,000 g, less cesarean births and a lower incidence of gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders. A tradeoff exists between the advantages of being lean before pregnancy in terms of less maternal morbidity in return for gaining a more advanced gestational age and higher birth weight. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
van Zon, Sander K. R.; Scholtens, Salome; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Smidt, Nynke; Bultmann, Ute
Objectives: Insight into baseline participation rates and their determinants is crucial for designing future population-based biobank studies. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of baseline participation rates and their determinants in large longitudinal population-based
Tsai, Ming-Shao; Lee, Li-Ang; Tsai, Yao-Te; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Liu, Chia-Yen; Lin, Meng-Hung; Hsu, Cheng-Ming; Chen, Chin-Kuo; Li, Hsueh-Yu
To investigate the risk of vertigo in patients with sleep apnea. Retrospective cohort study. This study used data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a population-based database. A total of 5,025 patients who were newly diagnosed with sleep apnea between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2012, were identified from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, a nationally representative database of 1 million randomly selected patients. Moreover, 20,100 patients without sleep apnea were matched at a 1:4 ratio by age, sex, socioeconomic status, and urbanization level. Patients were followed up until death or the end of the study period (December 31, 2013). The primary outcome was the occurrence of vertigo. Patients with sleep apnea had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of vertigo than those without sleep apnea (P vertigo (hazard ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48-1.97; P diabetes mellitus, hypertension, stroke, and obesity. Sleep apnea was demonstrated to be an independent risk factor for vertigo. This is the first nationwide population-based cohort study to investigate the association between sleep apnea and vertigo. The findings strongly support that sleep apnea is an independent risk factor for vertigo. Based on the study results, physicians should be aware of potential vertigo occurrence following sleep apnea. 4. Laryngoscope, 128:763-768, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the epidemiologic and economic burden of diabetes mellitus (DM from a longitudinal population-based study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Lombardy Region includes 9.9 million individuals. Its DM population was identified through a data warehouse (DENALI, which matches with a probabilistic linkage demographic, clinical and economic data of different Healthcare Administrative databases. All individuals, who, during the year 2000 had an hospital discharge with a IDC-9 CM code 250.XX, and/or two consecutive prescriptions of drugs for diabetes (ATC code A10XXXX within one year, and/or an exemption from co-payment healthcare costs specific for DM, were selected and followed up to 9 years. We calculated prevalence, mortality and healthcare costs (hospitalizations, drugs and outpatient examinations/visits from the National Health Service's perspective. RESULTS: We identified 312,223 eligible subjects. The study population (51% male had a mean age of 66 (from 0.03 to 105.12 years at the index date. Prevalence ranged from 0.4% among subjects aged ≤45 years to 10.1% among those >85 years old. Overall 43.4 deaths per 1,000 patients per year were estimated, significantly (p<0.001 higher in men than women. Overall, 3,315€/patient-year were spent on average: hospitalizations were the cost driver (54.2% of total cost. Drugs contributed to 31.5%, outpatient claims represented 14.3% of total costs. Thirty-five percent of hospital costs were attributable to cerebro-/cardiovascular reasons, 6% to other complications of DM, and 4% to DM as a main diagnosis. Cardiovascular drugs contributed to 33.5% of total drug costs, 21.8% was attributable to class A (16.7% to class A10 and 4.3% to class B (2.4% to class B01 drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Merging different administrative databases can provide with many data from large populations observed for long time periods. DENALI shows to be an efficient instrument to obtain accurate estimates of burden of
Wallis, Belinda A; Watt, Kerrianne; Franklin, Richard C; Nixon, James W; Kimble, Roy M
This retrospective population-based study examined drowning location by the site of immersion for both fatal and non-fatal drowning events in Queensland. Drowning location is not routinely collected, and this study used data linkage to identify drowning sites. The resulting enhanced quality data quantify drowning incidence for specific locations by geographic region, age group and by severity for the first time. Linked data were accessed from the continuum of care (prehospital, emergency, hospital admission and death data) on fatal and non-fatal drowning episodes in children aged 0-19 years in Queensland for the years 2002-2008 inclusive. Drowning locations ranked in order of overall incidence were pools, inland water, coastal water, baths and other man-made water hazards. Swimming pools produced the highest incidence rates (7.31/100,000) for overall drowning events and were more often privately owned pools and in affluent neighbourhoods. Toddlers 0-4 years were most at risk around pools (23.94/100,000), and static water bodies such as dams and buckets-the fatality ratios were highest at these 2 locations for this age group. Children 5-14 years incurred the lowest incidence rates regardless of drowning location. Adolescents 15-19 years were more frequently involved in a drowning incident on the coast shoreline, followed by inland dynamic water bodies. Linked data have resulted in the most comprehensive data collection on drowning location and severity to date for children in the state of Queensland. Most mortality and morbidity could have been prevented by improving water safety through engaged supervision around pools and bath time, and a heightened awareness of buckets and man-made water hazards around the farm home for young children. These data provide a different approach to inform prevention strategies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Medina-Lezama, Josefina; Chirinos, Julio A; Zea Díaz, Humberto; Morey, Oscar; Bolanos, Juan F; Munoz-Atahualpa, Edgar; Chirinos-Pacheco, Julio
Latin America is undergoing the epidemiologic transition that occurred earlier in developed countries, and is likely to face a gigantic epidemic of heart disease in the next few years unless urgent action is taken. The first essential component of any effective cardiovascular disease (CVD) control program is to establish reliable estimates of cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality. However, such data from population-based studies in Latin America are still lacking. In this paper, we present the design and operation of PREVENCION (Estudio Peruano de Prevalencia de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares, for Peruvian Study of the Prevalence of Cardiovascular diseases). PREVENCION is an ongoing population-based study on a representative sample of the civilian non-institutionalized population of the second largest city in Peru. Its population is comparable to the rest of the Peruvian urban population and closely resembles other Latin American populations in countries such as Bolivia and Ecuador. Our study will contribute to the enormous task of understanding and preventing CVD in Latin America.
Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between changes in patient attributes and hospital attributes over time and to explore predictors of medical utilization and mortality rates in mechanical ventilation (MV patients in Taiwan.Providing effective medical care for MV patients is challenging and requires good planning and effective clinical decision making policies. Most studies of MV, however, have only analyzed a single regional ventilator weaning center or respiratory care unit, high-quality population-based studies of MV trends and outcomes are scarce.This population-based cohort study retrospectively analyzed 213,945 MV patients treated during 2004-2009.During the study period, the percentages of MV patients with the following characteristics significantly increased: age ≦ 65 years, treatment at a medical center, and treatment by a high-volume physician. In contrast, the percentages of MV patients treated at local hospitals and by low-volume physicians significantly decreased (P<0.001. Age, gender, Deyo-Charlson co-morbidity index, teaching hospital, hospital level, hospital volume, and physician volume were significantly associated with MV outcome (P<0.001. Over the 6-year period analyzed in this study, the estimated mean hospital treatment cost increased 48.8% whereas mean length of stay decreased 13.9%. The estimated mean overall survival time for MV patients was 16.4 months (SD 0.4 months, and the overall in-hospital 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 61.0%, 36.7%, 17.3%, and 9.6%, respectively.These population-based data revealed increases in the percentages of MV patients treated at medical centers and by high-volume physicians, especially in younger patients. Notably, although LOS for MV patients decreased, hospital treatment costs increased. Healthcare providers and patients should recognize that attributes of both the patient and the hospital may affect outcomes.
Liu, Ning; Farrugia, M Michèle; Vigod, Simone N; Urquia, Marcelo L; Ray, Joel G
A teenage woman's sexual health practices may be influenced by her mother's experience. We evaluated whether there is an intergenerational tendency for induced abortion between mothers and their teenage daughters. We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study involving daughters born in Ontario between 1992 and 1999. We evaluated the daughters' data for induced abortions between age 12 years and their 20th birthday. We assessed each mother's history of induced abortion for the period from 4 years before her daughter's birth to 12 years after (i.e., when her daughter turned 12 years of age). We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate a daughter's risk of having an induced abortion in relation to the mother's history of the same procedure. We adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for maternal age and world region of origin, mental or physical health problems in the daughter, mother- daughter cohabitation, neighbourhood-level rate of teen induced abortion, rural or urban residence, and income quintile. A total of 431 623 daughters were included in the analysis. The cumulative probability of teen induced abortion was 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.8%-10.4%) among daughters whose mother had an induced abortion, and 4.2% (95% CI 4.1%-4.3%) among daughters whose mother had no induced abortion, for an adjusted HR of 1.94 (95% CI 1.86-2.01). The adjusted HR of a teenaged daughter having an induced abortion in relation to number of maternal induced abortions was 1.77 (95% CI 1.69-1.85) with 1 maternal abortion, 2.04 (95% CI 1.91-2.18) with 2 maternal abortions, 2.39 (95% CI 2.19-2.62) with 3 maternal abortions and 2.54 (95% CI 2.33-2.77) with 4 or more maternal abortions, relative to none. We found that the risk of teen induced abortion was higher among daughters whose mother had had an induced abortion. Future research should explore the mechanisms for intergenerational induced abortion. © 2018 Joule Inc. or its licensors.
Full Text Available Henriette Thisted Horsdal,1,2 Michael Eriksen Benros,2,3 Ole Köhler-Forsberg,2–4 Jesper Krogh,3 Christiane Gasse1,2,5 1National Centre for Register-based Research, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus BSS, Aarhus University, Aarhus, 2The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, iPSYCH, Aarhus, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 4Psychosis Research Unit, Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov, 5Centre for Integrated Register-Based Research, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Objective: Schizophrenia and/or antipsychotic drug use are associated with metabolic abnormalities; however, knowledge regarding metabolic status and physician’s monitoring of metabolic status at first schizophrenia diagnosis is sparse. We assessed the prevalence of monitoring for metabolic blood abnormalities and characterized the metabolic profiles in people with a first-time schizophrenia diagnosis. Methods: This is a population-based cross-sectional study including all adults born in Denmark after January 1, 1955, with their first schizophrenia diagnosis between 2000 and 2012 in the Central Denmark Region. Information on metabolic parameters was obtained from a clinical laboratory information system. Associations were calculated using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, chi-square tests, logistic regression, and Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Results: A total of 2,452 people with a first-time schizophrenia diagnosis were identified, of whom 1,040 (42.4% were monitored for metabolic abnormalities. Among those monitored, 58.4% had an abnormal lipid profile and 13.8% had an abnormal glucose profile. People who had previously filled prescription(s for antipsychotic drugs were more likely to present an abnormal lipid measure (65.7% vs 46.8%, P<0.001 and abnormal glucose profile (16.4% vs 10.1%, P=0.01. Conclusion: Metabolic abnormalities are common at first
Liu, Ning; Farrugia, M. Michèle; Vigod, Simone N.; Urquia, Marcelo L.; Ray, Joel G.
BACKGROUND: A teenage woman’s sexual health practices may be influenced by her mother’s experience. We evaluated whether there is an intergenerational tendency for induced abortion between mothers and their teenage daughters. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study involving daughters born in Ontario between 1992 and 1999. We evaluated the daughters’ data for induced abortions between age 12 years and their 20th birthday. We assessed each mother’s history of induced abortion for the period from 4 years before her daughter’s birth to 12 years after (i.e., when her daughter turned 12 years of age). We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate a daughter’s risk of having an induced abortion in relation to the mother’s history of the same procedure. We adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for maternal age and world region of origin, mental or physical health problems in the daughter, mother– daughter cohabitation, neighbourhood-level rate of teen induced abortion, rural or urban residence, and income quintile. RESULTS: A total of 431 623 daughters were included in the analysis. The cumulative probability of teen induced abortion was 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.8%–10.4%) among daughters whose mother had an induced abortion, and 4.2% (95% CI 4.1%–4.3%) among daughters whose mother had no induced abortion, for an adjusted HR of 1.94 (95% CI 1.86–2.01). The adjusted HR of a teenaged daughter having an induced abortion in relation to number of maternal induced abortions was 1.77 (95% CI 1.69–1.85) with 1 maternal abortion, 2.04 (95% CI 1.91–2.18) with 2 maternal abortions, 2.39 (95% CI 2.19–2.62) with 3 maternal abortions and 2.54 (95% CI 2.33–2.77) with 4 or more maternal abortions, relative to none. INTERPRETATION: We found that the risk of teen induced abortion was higher among daughters whose mother had had an induced abortion. Future research should explore the mechanisms for intergenerational induced
Li, Linxin; Schulz, Ursula G; Kuker, Wilhelm; Rothwell, Peter M
To determine whether there is an association between previous migraine and cryptogenic TIA or ischemic stroke at older ages. We determined the age-specific associations of history of migraine and Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) subtype of TIA and ischemic stroke in a population-based cohort study (Oxford Vascular Study; 2002-2012). Among 1,810 eligible patients with TIA or ischemic stroke, 668 (36.9%) had cryptogenic events, of whom 187 (28.0%) had previous migraine. Migraine was more commonly associated with cryptogenic events than with those of known etiology (odds ratio [OR] 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.38-2.16, p TIA or stratified by sex or vascular territory of event. In this population-based study of stroke etiology stratified by age, migraine was most strongly associated with cryptogenic TIA and ischemic stroke, particularly at older ages, suggesting a causal role or a shared etiology. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
Papiernik, E.; Zeitlin, J.; Delmas, D.; Draper, E. S.; Gadzinowski, J.; Kuenzel, W.; Cuttini, M.; Di Lallo, D.; Weber, T.; Kollee, L.; Bekaert, A.; Breart, G.
Objective To study the impact of terminations of pregnancy (TOP) on very preterm mortality in Europe. Design European prospective population-based cohort study. Setting Ten regions from nine European countries participating in the MOSAIC (Models of OrganiSing Access to Intensive Care for very
Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Martín, Vicente; Llorca, Javier; Moreno, Victor; Altzibar, Jone M; Ardanaz, Eva; de Sanjosé, Sílvia; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Tardón, Adonina; Alguacil, Juan; Peiró, Rosana; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Navarro, Carmen; Pollán, Marina; Kogevinas, Manolis
We present the protocol of a large population-based case-control study of 5 common tumors in Spain (MCC-Spain) that evaluates environmental exposures and genetic factors. Between 2008-2013, 10,183 persons aged 20-85 years were enrolled in 23 hospitals and primary care centres in 12 Spanish provinces including 1,115 cases of a new diagnosis of prostate cancer, 1,750 of breast cancer, 2,171 of colorectal cancer, 492 of gastro-oesophageal cancer, 554 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and 4,101 population-based controls matched by frequency to cases by age, sex and region of residence. Participation rates ranged from 57% (stomach cancer) to 87% (CLL cases) and from 30% to 77% in controls. Participants completed a face-to-face computerized interview on sociodemographic factors, environmental exposures, occupation, medication, lifestyle, and personal and family medical history. In addition, participants completed a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire and telephone interviews. Blood samples were collected from 76% of participants while saliva samples were collected in CLL cases and participants refusing blood extractions. Clinical information was recorded for cases and paraffin blocks and/or fresh tumor samples are available in most collaborating hospitals. Genotyping was done through an exome array enriched with genetic markers in specific pathways. Multiple analyses are planned to assess the association of environmental, personal and genetic risk factors for each tumor and to identify pleiotropic effects. This study, conducted within the Spanish Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), is a unique initiative to evaluate etiological factors for common cancers and will promote cancer research and prevention in Spain. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Reilly, Colin; Atkinson, Patricia; Das, Krishna B; Chin, Richard F M; Aylett, Sarah E; Burch, Victoria; Gillberg, Christopher; Scott, Rod C; Neville, Brian G R
Improving health-related quality of life (HRQOL), rather than just reducing seizures, should be the principal goal in comprehensive management of childhood epilepsy. There is a lack of population-based data on predictors of HRQOL in childhood epilepsy. The Children with Epilepsy in Sussex Schools (CHESS) study is a prospective, population-based study involving school-aged children (5-15 years) with active epilepsy (on one or more AED and/or had a seizure in the last year) in a defined geographical area in the UK. Eighty-five of 115 (74% of eligible population) children underwent comprehensive psychological assessment including measures of cognition, behaviour, and motor functioning. Parents of the children completed the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE).Clinical data on eligible children was extracted using a standardised pro forma. Linear regression analysis was undertaken to identify factors significantly associated with total Quality of Life in this population. Factors independently significantly associated (p QOLCE scores were seizures before 24 months, cognitive impairment (IQ QOLCE when children with IQ < 50 were excluded from analysis. The majority of factors associated with parent reported HRQOL in active childhood epilepsy are related to neurobehavioural and/or psychosocial aspects of the condition. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Qureshi, Adnan I; Afzal, Mohammad Rauf; Suri, M Fareed K
There is a paucity of reliable data regarding incidence of acute spinal cord infarction in population-based studies. To determine the incidence of acute spinal cord infarction using a population-based design. Medical records and neuroimaging data of all patients with acute spinal cord infarction from Stearns and Benton Counties, Minnesota, between January 1, 2010 and May 31, 2014 were reviewed. Patients with a first-time diagnosis of spinal cord infarction were categorized as primary or secondary depending upon underlying etiology identified. We calculated the incidences of primary and secondary spinal cord infarction adjusted for age and sex based on the 2010 US census (189,093 resident populations). The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of spinal cord infarction was 3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-7.2] per100,000 person-years. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of primary and secondary spinal cord infarction was 1.5 [95% CI 0.6-3.6] and 1.6 [95% CI 0.6-3.6] per 100,000 person-years, respectively. The age-adjusted incidences among men and women were 1.5 [95%CI 0.6-3.7] and 4.6 [95% CI 2.2-8.7] per 100,000 person-years, respectively. No case fatality was observed at one month. We provide incidence rates for acute spinal cord infarction to assist in future studies and resource allocation.
Yokoyama, Yoshie; Oda, Terumi; Nagai, Noriyo; Sugimoto, Masako; Mizukami, Kenji
The occurrence of multiple births has been recognized as a risk factor for child maltreatment. However, few population-based studies have examined the relationship between multiple births and child maltreatment. This study aimed to evaluate the degree of risk of child maltreatment among singletons and multiple births in Japan and to identify factors associated with increased risk. Using population-based data, we analyzed the database of records on child maltreatment and medical checkups for infants aged 1.5 years filed at Nishinomiya City Public Health Center between April 2007 and March 2011. To protect personal information, the data were transferred to anonymized electronic files for analysis. After adjusting by logistic regression for each associated factor and gestation number, multiples themselves were not associated with the risk of child maltreatment. However, compared with singletons, multiples had a significantly higher rate of risk factors for child maltreatment, including low birth weight and neural abnormality. Moreover, compared with mothers of singleton, mothers of twins had a significantly higher rate of poor health, which is a risk factor of child maltreatment. Multiples were not associated with the risk of child maltreatment. However, compared with singletons, multiples and their mothers had a significantly higher rate of risk factors of child maltreatment.
Abdullah, Nor Aini; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Muhammad, Nor Asiah; Ali, Zainudin Mohamad; Ibrahim, Lailanor; Ibrahim Tamim, Nor Saleha; Mustafa, Amal Nasir; Kamaluddin, Muhammad Amir
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Malaysian women. Other than hospital-based results, there are no documented population-based survival rates of Malaysian women for breast cancers. This population- based retrospective cohort study was therefore conducted. Data were obtained from Health Informatics Centre, Ministry of Health Malaysia, National Cancer Registry and National Registration Department for the period from 1st Jan 2000 to 31st December 2005. Cases were captured by ICD-10 and linked to death certificates to identify the status. Only complete data were analysed. Survival time was calculated from the estimated date of diagnosis to the date of death or date of loss to follow-up. Observed survival rates were estimated by Kaplan- Meier method using SPSS Statistical Software version 17. A total of 10,230 complete data sets were analysed. The mean age at diagnosis was 50.6 years old. The overall 5-year survival rate was 49% with median survival time of 68.1 months. Indian women had a higher survival rate of 54% compared to Chinese women (49%) and Malays (45%). The overall 5-year survival rate of breast cancer patient among Malaysian women was still low for the cohort of 2000 to 2005 as compared to survival rates in developed nations. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the strategies for early detection and intervention.
Abolhassani, Nazanin; Castioni, Julien; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard
This study aimed to assess the prevalence, the change, and the determinants of change in polypharmacy in a population-based sample. Baseline (2003-2006) and follow-up (2009-2012) data are from 4679 participants aged between 35 and 75 years (53.5% women, mean age 52.6 ± 10.6 years) from the population of Lausanne, Switzerland. Polypharmacy was defined by the regular use of ≥5 drugs. Four categories of change were defined: never (no polypharmacy at baseline and follow-up), initiating (no polypharmacy at baseline but at follow-up), maintaining, or quitting. Polypharmacy increased from 7.7% at baseline to 15.3% at follow-up. Cardiovascular drugs were the most prescribed medicines at baseline and follow-up. Gender, age, obesity, smoking, previously diagnosed hypertension, or diabetes or dyslipidemia were significantly and independently associated with initiating and maintaining polypharmacy. In a population-based sample, prevalence of polypharmacy doubled over a 5.6-year period. The main determinants of initiating polypharmacy were age, overweight and obesity, smoking status, and previously diagnosed cardiovascular risk factors.
Zheng, T; Cantor, K P; Zhang, Y; Keim, S; Lynch, C F
A number of occupations and industries have been inconsistently associated with the risk of brain cancer. To further explore possible relationships, we conducted a population-based case-control study of brain glioma in the state of Iowa, involving 375 histologically confirmed incident cases and 2434 population-based controls. Among men, the industries and/or occupations that had a significantly increased risk for employment of more than 10 years included roofing, siding, and sheet metalworking; newspaper work; rubber and plastics products, particularly tires and inner tubes; miscellaneous manufacturing industries; wholesale trade of durable goods, grain, and field beans; cleaning and building service occupations; miscellaneous mechanics and repairers; and janitors and cleaners. Subjects who worked in plumbing, heating, and air conditioning; electrical services; gasoline service stations; and military occupations also experienced a significantly increased risk. Among women, significant excess risk was observed for occupations in agricultural services and farming, apparel and textile products, electrical and electronic equipment manufacturing, various retail sales, record-keeping, and restaurant service. Workers in industries with a potential for gasoline or motor exhaust exposures experienced a non-significant excess risk of brain glioma.
Steliarova-Foucher, Eva; Colombet, Murielle; Ries, Lynn A G; Moreno, Florencia; Dolya, Anastasia; Bray, Freddie; Hesseling, Peter; Shin, Hee Young; Stiller, Charles A
Cancer is a major cause of death in children worldwide, and the recorded incidence tends to increase with time. Internationally comparable data on childhood cancer incidence in the past two decades are scarce. This study aimed to provide internationally comparable local data on the incidence of childhood cancer to promote research of causes and implementation of childhood cancer control. This population-based registry study, devised by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in collaboration with the International Association of Cancer Registries, collected data on all malignancies and non-malignant neoplasms of the CNS diagnosed before age 20 years in populations covered by high-quality cancer registries with complete data for 2001-10. Incidence rates per million person-years for the 0-14 years and 0-19 years age groups were age-adjusted using the world standard population to provide age-standardised incidence rates (WSRs), using the age-specific incidence rates (ASR) for individual age groups (0-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, and 15-19 years). All rates were reported for 19 geographical areas or ethnicities by sex, age group, and cancer type. The regional WSRs for children aged 0-14 years were compared with comparable data obtained in the 1980s. Of 532 invited cancer registries, 153 registries from 62 countries, departments, and territories met quality standards, and contributed data for the entire decade of 2001-10. 385 509 incident cases in children aged 0-19 years occurring in 2·64 billion person-years were included. The overall WSR was 140·6 per million person-years in children aged 0-14 years (based on 284 649 cases), and the most common cancers were leukaemia (WSR 46·4), followed by CNS tumours (WSR 28·2), and lymphomas (WSR 15·2). In children aged 15-19 years (based on 100 860 cases), the ASR was 185·3 per million person-years, the most common being lymphomas (ASR 41·8) and the group of epithelial tumours and melanoma (ASR 39·5
Côté, Pierre; Cassidy, J. David; Carroll, Linda
Background: There are few population-based studies on the epidemiology of neck pain in the general population. Purpose: To synthesize the findings of two large population-based studies of the epidemiology of neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders from the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Study Design and Methods: We conducted two population-based cohort studies of neck pain and its related disability in Saskatchewan, Canada. First, the Saskatchewan Health and Back Pain Survey was designed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with neck pain in randomly selected adults. Second, we conducted a cohort study of the incidence and prognosis of whiplash and studied whether a change in the insurance system from tort to no-fault was related to a reduction in the number of whiplash claims and faster recovery. Results: In 1995, the six-month prevalence of neck pain was 54.2% and 4.6% of adults experienced disabling neck pain in the previous six-months. Neck pain was associated with education, comorbidities, smoking, self-reported general health and a history of neck injury in a motor vehicle collision. The incidence of treated and/or compensated whiplash injury was estimated at 834/100,000 adults in 1994, and dropped by 28% to 598/100,000 adults in 1995, after tort reform. Compared to tort, the median time-to-recovery was more than 230 days faster under no-fault. The strongest predictors of recovery were age, gender, education, injury severity, lawyer involvement and type of initial care provider. Conclusion: Neck pain is a public health problem. The incidence and prognosis of whiplash injuries are greatly influenced by compensation for pain and suffering, legal factors, injury severity and sociodemographic characteristics. Overall, neck pain is a multifaceted disabling problem that deserves more attention. When treating patients with neck pain, clinicians need to recognize that it is more than a physical problem and that its prognosis is influenced by
Faghihi, Mohammad; Hashemi, Hassan; Nabovati, Payam; Saatchi, Mohammad; Yekta, Abbasali; Rafati, Shokoofeh; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi
To determine the prevalence of amblyopia and its determinants in a population-based study in Mashhad County, Iran. This cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted on the population of Mashhad County aged >1 year using randomized stratified cluster sampling. Examinations were performed after selection of the participants and their free transportation to the sampling site. The examinations included the measurement of uncorrected and corrected visual acuity, cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refraction, cover testing, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and ophthalmoscopy. In this study, amblyopia was defined as best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/30 or less or 2-line interocular optotype acuity differences with no pathology. After considering the exclusion criteria, the data of 2739 individuals, 65.6% of whom were women, were analyzed. The mean age of the participants was 29.5±17.5 years. The prevalence of amblyopia was 4.6% (95% CI: 3.77%-5.43%) in the total population. The lowest prevalence was 2.24% in the age group 5-15 years (95% CI: 0.99%-3.48%) and the highest prevalence was 7.14% in the age group 55-65 years (95% CI: 2.64%-11.56%). Anisometropic amblyopia was observed in 45.24% of the amblyopic participants. Isometropic, mixed (strabismic/anisometropic), and strabismic amblyopia were other common causes of amblyopia, with a prevalence of 24.6%, 16.67%, and 13.49% in amblyopic patients, respectively. The odds ratio (OR) of having amblyopia for each 1-year increase in age was 1.02 (95% CI: 1.01-1.03). Amblyopia was less common in people with better socioeconomic status. This study showed the prevalence of amblyopia in all age groups in a population-based study for the first time. The findings of this study regarding the relatively high prevalence of amblyopia in the older population and its lower prevalence in young people indicate attention to amblyopia in recent years.
Kessing, Lars Vedel; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo
OBJECTIVES: A recent alarming finding suggested an increased risk of renal tumors among long-term lithium users. The objectives of the present study were to estimate rates of renal and upper urinary tract tumors (RUT), malignant and benign, among individuals exposed to successive prescriptions...... for lithium, anticonvulsants, and other psychotropic agents used for bipolar disorder, and among unexposed individuals. METHODS: This was a nationwide, population-based longitudinal study including time-specific data from all individuals exposed to lithium (n = 24,272) or anticonvulsants (n = 386,255), all...... individuals with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (n = 9,651), and a randomly selected sample of 1,500,000 from the Danish population. The study period was from 1995 to 2012, inclusive. Outcomes were hazard rate ratios (HR) for RUT in three groups: (i) combined malignant and benign, (ii) malignant, and (iii...
Full Text Available Innocent Ijezie Chukwuonye,1 Okechukwu Samuel Ogah,2 Ernest Ndukaife Anyabolu,3 Kenneth Arinze Ohagwu,1 Ogbonna Collins Nwabuko,4 Uwa Onwuchekwa,5 Miracle Erinma Chukwuonye,6 Emmanuel Chukwuebuka Obi,1 Efosa Oviasu7 1Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Abia State, 2Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University College Hospital Ibadan, Oyo State 3Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital Awka, Anambra State, 4Department of Haematology, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, 5Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba, 6Department of Family Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, 7Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria Background: The aim of this study was to identify and discuss published population-based studies carried out in Nigeria that have information on the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD and have also used the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI practice guidelines in defining CKD, with emphasis on the performance of three estimating equations for glomerular filtration rate (GFR – Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD, Cockcroft–Gault, and CKD epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI creatinine equation. Materials and methods: A systematic literature search was carried out in Google, MEDLINE, PubMed, and AJOL database, with the aim of identifying relevant population-based studies with information on the prevalence of CKD in a location in Nigeria. Results: Seven cross-sectional population-based studies were identified. Two of the studies used the Cockcroft–Gault and observed a prevalence of 24.4% and 26%. Four of the studies used the MDRD and the prevalences observed were 12.3%, 14.2%, 2.5%, and 13.4%. One of the studies used the CKD
Brinton, Louise A; Awuah, Baffour; Nat Clegg-Lamptey, Joe; Wiafe-Addai, Beatrice; Ansong, Daniel; Nyarko, Kofi M; Wiafe, Seth; Yarney, Joel; Biritwum, Richard; Brotzman, Michelle; Adjei, Andrew A; Adjei, Ernest; Aitpillah, Francis; Edusei, Lawrence; Dedey, Florence; Nyante, Sarah J; Oppong, Joseph; Osei-Bonsu, Ernest; Titiloye, Nicholas; Vanderpuye, Verna; Brew Abaidoo, Emma; Arhin, Bernard; Boakye, Isaac; Frempong, Margaret; Ohene Oti, Naomi; Okyne, Victoria; Figueroa, Jonine D
Although breast cancer is becoming more prevalent in Africa, few epidemiologic studies have been undertaken and appropriate methodologic approaches remain uncertain. We therefore conducted a population-based case-control study in Accra and Kumasi, Ghana, enrolling 2,202 women with lesions suspicious for breast cancer and 2,161 population controls. Biopsy tissue for cases prior to neoadjuvant therapy (if given), blood, saliva and fecal samples were sought for study subjects. Response rates, risk factor prevalences and odds ratios for established breast cancer risk factors were calculated. A total of 54.5% of the recruited cases were diagnosed with malignancies, 36.0% with benign conditions and 9.5% with indeterminate diagnoses. Response rates to interviews were 99.2% in cases and 91.9% in controls, with the vast majority of interviewed subjects providing saliva (97.9% in cases vs. 98.8% in controls) and blood (91.8% vs. 82.5%) samples; lower proportions (58.1% vs. 46.1%) provided fecal samples. While risk factor prevalences were unique as compared to women in other countries (e.g., less education, higher parity), cancer risk factors resembled patterns identified elsewhere (elevated risks associated with higher levels of education, familial histories of breast cancer, low parity and larger body sizes). Subjects with benign conditions were younger and exhibited higher socioeconomic profiles (e.g., higher education and lower parity) than those with malignancies, suggesting selective referral influences. While further defining breast cancer risk factors in Africa, this study showed that successful population-based interdisciplinary studies of cancer in Africa are possible but require close attention to diagnostic referral biases and standardized and documented approaches for high-quality data collection, including biospecimens. © 2017 UICC.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-artery intracranial atherosclerosis may be the most frequent cause of ischemic stroke worldwide. Traditional approaches have attempted to target the disease when it is already symptomatic. However, early detection of intracranial atherosclerosis may allow therapeutic intervention while the disease is still asymptomatic. The prevalence and natural history of asymptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis in Caucasians remain unclear. The aims of the Barcelona-ASymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis (ASIA study are (1 to determine the prevalence of ASIA in a moderate-high vascular risk population, (2 to study its prognostic impact on the risk of suffering future major ischemic events, and (3 to identify predictors of the development, progression and clinical expression of this condition. Methods/Design Cross-over and cohort, population-based study. A randomly selected representative sample of 1,503 subjects with a mild-moderate-high vascular risk (as defined by a REGICOR score ≥ 5% and with neither a history of cerebrovascular nor ischemic heart disease will be studied. At baseline, all individuals will undergo extracranial and transcranial Color-Coded Duplex (TCCD ultrasound examinations to detect presence and severity of extra and intracranial atherosclerosis. Intracranial stenoses will be assessed by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA. Clinical and demographic variables will be recorded and blood samples will be drawn to investigate clinical, biological and genetic factors associated with the presence of ASIA. A long-term clinical and sonographic follow-up will be conducted thereafter to identify predictors of disease progression and of incident vascular events. Discussion The Barcelona-ASIA is a population-based study aiming to evaluate the prevalence and clinical importance of asymptomatic intracranial large-artery atherosclerosis in Caucasians. The ASIA project may provide a unique scientific resource to better
López-Cancio, Elena; Dorado, Laura; Millán, Mónica; Reverté, Silvia; Suñol, Anna; Massuet, Anna; Mataró, María; Galán, Amparo; Alzamora, Maite; Pera, Guillem; Torán, Pere; Dávalos, Antoni; Arenillas, Juan F
Large-artery intracranial atherosclerosis may be the most frequent cause of ischemic stroke worldwide. Traditional approaches have attempted to target the disease when it is already symptomatic. However, early detection of intracranial atherosclerosis may allow therapeutic intervention while the disease is still asymptomatic. The prevalence and natural history of asymptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis in Caucasians remain unclear. The aims of the Barcelona-ASymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis (ASIA) study are (1) to determine the prevalence of ASIA in a moderate-high vascular risk population, (2) to study its prognostic impact on the risk of suffering future major ischemic events, and (3) to identify predictors of the development, progression and clinical expression of this condition. Cross-over and cohort, population-based study. A randomly selected representative sample of 1,503 subjects with a mild-moderate-high vascular risk (as defined by a REGICOR score ≥ 5%) and with neither a history of cerebrovascular nor ischemic heart disease will be studied. At baseline, all individuals will undergo extracranial and transcranial Color-Coded Duplex (TCCD) ultrasound examinations to detect presence and severity of extra and intracranial atherosclerosis. Intracranial stenoses will be assessed by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Clinical and demographic variables will be recorded and blood samples will be drawn to investigate clinical, biological and genetic factors associated with the presence of ASIA. A long-term clinical and sonographic follow-up will be conducted thereafter to identify predictors of disease progression and of incident vascular events. The Barcelona-ASIA is a population-based study aiming to evaluate the prevalence and clinical importance of asymptomatic intracranial large-artery atherosclerosis in Caucasians. The ASIA project may provide a unique scientific resource to better understand the dynamics of intracranial atherosclerosis from
Chen, Hong; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Copes, Ray; Hystad, Perry; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Tu, Karen; Brook, Jeffrey R; Goldberg, Mark S; Martin, Randall V; Murray, Brian J; Wilton, Andrew S; Kopp, Alexander; Burnett, Richard T
Emerging studies have implicated air pollution in the neurodegenerative processes. Less is known about the influence of air pollution, especially at the relatively low levels, on developing dementia. We conducted a population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada, where the concentrations of pollutants are among the lowest in the world, to assess whether air pollution exposure is associated with incident dementia. The study population comprised all Ontario residents who, on 1 April 2001, were 55-85years old, Canadian-born, and free of physician-diagnosed dementia (~2.1 million individuals). Follow-up extended until 2013. We used population-based health administrative databases with a validated algorithm to ascertain incident diagnosis of dementia as well as prevalent cases. Using satellite observations, land-use regression model, and an optimal interpolation method, we derived long-term average exposure to fine particulate matter (≤2.5μm in diameter) (PM 2.5 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and ozone (O 3 ), respectively at the subjects' historical residences based on a population-based registry. We used multilevel spatial random-effects Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for individual and contextual factors, such as diabetes, brain injury, and neighborhood income. We conducted various sensitivity analyses, such as lagging exposure up to 10years and considering a negative control outcome for which no (or weaker) association with air pollution is expected. We identified 257,816 incident cases of dementia in 2001-2013. We found a positive association between PM 2.5 and dementia incidence, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.04 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.05) for every interquartile-range increase in exposure to PM 2.5 . Similarly, NO 2 was associated with increased incidence of dementia (HR=1.10; 95% CI: 1.08-1.12). No association was found for O 3 . These associations were robust to all sensitivity analyses examined. These estimates translate to 6.1% of
Baheiraei, Azam; Bakouei, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Majdzadeh, Reza; Hosseni, Mostafa
Women's health is a public health priority. The origins of health inequalities are very complex. The present study was conducted to determine the association between social capital and health status in reproductive-age women in Tehran, Iran. In this population-based, cross-sectional study, the Social Capital Integrated Questionnaire, the SF-36 and socio-demographic questionnaires were used. Analysis of data by one-way ANOVA test and stepwise multiple linear regression showed that the manifestation dimensions of social capital (groups and networks, trust and solidarity, collective action and cooperation) can potentially lead to the outcome dimensions of social capital (social cohesion and inclusion, and empowerment and political action), which in turn affect health inequities after controlling for socio-demographic differences. © The Author(s) 2015.
Pedersen, Alma B; Mehnert, Frank; Overgaard, Søren
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic red blood cell transfusion is frequently used in total hip replacement surgery (THR). However, data on the prognosis of transfused patients are sparse. In this study we compared the risk of complications following THR in transfused and non-transfused patients. METHODS......: A population-based follow-up study was performed using data from medical databases in Denmark. We identified 28,087 primary THR procedures performed from 1999 to 2007, from which we computed a propensity score for red blood cell transfusion based on detailed data on patient-, procedure-, and hospital......-related characteristics. We were able to match 2,254 transfused with 2,254 non-transfused THR patients using the propensity score. RESULTS: Of the 28,087 THR patients, 9,063 (32.3%) received at least one red blood cell transfusion within 8 days of surgery. Transfused patients had higher 90-day mortality compared...
Patel, Vikram; Kirkwood, Betty R; Pednekar, Sulochana; Weiss, Helen; Mabey, David
The determinants of common mental disorders in women have not been described in longitudinal studies from a low-income country. Population-based cohort study of 2494 women aged 18 to 50 years, in India. The Revised Clinical Interview Schedule was used for the detection of common mental disorders. There were 39 incident cases of common mental disorder in 2166 participants eligible for analysis (12-month rate 1.8%, 95% CI 1.3-2.4%). The following baseline factors were independently associated with the risk for common mental disorder: poverty (low income and having difficulty making ends meet); being married as compared with being single; use of tobacco; experiencing abnormal vaginal discharge; reporting a chronic physical illness; and having higher psychological symptom scores at baseline. Programmes to reduce the burden of common mental disorder in women should target poorer women, women with chronic physical illness and who have gynaecological symptoms, and women who use tobacco.
from various Danish longitudinal registers. Data were analysed with conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: This study confirms that people living in more urbanized areas are at a higher risk of suicide than their counterparts in less urbanized areas. However, this excess risk is largely eliminated...... when adjusted for personal marital, income, and ethnic differences; it is even reversed when further adjusted for psychiatric status. Moreover, the impact of urbanicity on suicide risk differs significantly by sex and across age. Urban living reduces suicide risk significantly among men, especially......BACKGROUND: The extent to which the high suicide rate in urban areas is influenced by exposures to risk factors for suicide other than urbanicity remains unknown. This population-based study aims to investigate suicide risk in relation to the level of urbanicity in the context of other factors...
Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria A; Nelen, Vera; Bakker, Marian K; Gener, Blanca; Abramsky, Lenore; Addor, Marie-Claude; Queisser-Luft, Annette
To describe treatment, survival, and morbidity for liveborn infants with isolated transposition of great arteries (TGA). Population-based data from 7 European registries of congenital malformations (EUROCAT). Ninety-seven infants were diagnosed with isolated TGA and livebirth prevalence was 2.0 per 10,000 livebirths. The majority of infants were treated with prostaglandins (83%) and 57% had a catheter atrial septostomia performed. Arterial switch surgery was performed in 78 infants, other or unknown type of surgery was performed in 3 cases, and for 6 infants there was no information on surgery. At 1 year of age 69 infants were alive (71%) and 24 (25%) were dead (4 unknown). There were 10 deaths before surgery and 58% of all deaths took place during the first week. There was no statistically significant regional difference in mortality. Eight infants diagnosed prenatally all survived to 1 year and only 71% of infants diagnosed after birth survived (P = 0.08). Data on morbidity at 1 year of age was available for 57 infants. Fifty-one infants were reported with normal health and development. In this population-based study survival for liveborn infants with TGA is lower than in studies published from tertiary centers. Outcome for survivors at 1 year of age seems favorable.
Full Text Available Yang-Pei Chang,1 Chih-Jen Yang,2 Kai-Fang Hu,3 A-Ching Chao,4 Yu-Han Chang,5 Kun-Pin Hsieh,6 Jui-Hsiu Tsai,7 Pei-Shan Ho,8,9 Shen-Yang Lim101Department of Neurology, 2Department of Internal Medicine, 3Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, 4Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, 5Department of Management, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, 6School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, 7Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, 8Faculty of Dental Hygiene, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 9Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China; 10Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala lumpur, MalaysiaObjective: Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. However, few studies have been performed to explore the risk factors for pneumonia development in patients with PD.Methods: We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study of patients with PD to identify the risk factors for these patients developing pneumonia. Participants with newly diagnosed PD between 2000 and 2009 were enrolled from the 2000–2010 National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We compared patients with PD with an incidence of hospitalization with pneumonia vs those without, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the risk of pneumonia.Results: Of the 2,001 enrolled patients (mean follow-up duration 5.8 years, range: 2.7–14.7 years, 381 (19.0% had an incidence of hospitalization with pneumonia during the study period. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis identified older age group (≥80 years of age, hazard ratio [HR] =3.15 [95% confidence interval 2.32–4.28], male sex (HR =1.59 [1.29–1.96], certain geographic regions (northern, HR =1.36 [1.04–1.78], southern and eastern, HR =1.40 [1.05–1.88], rural areas (HR =1.34 [1.05–1.72], chronic heart
Rubanzana, Wilson; Ntaganira, Joseph; Freeman, Michael D; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L
Homicide is one of the leading causes of mortality in the World. Homicide risk factors vary significantly between countries and regions. In Rwanda, data on homicide victimization is unreliable because no standardized surveillance system exists. This study was undertaken to identify the risk factors for homicide victimization in Rwanda with particular attention on the latent effects of the 1994 genocide. A population-based matched case-control study was conducted, with subjects enrolled prospectively from May 2011 to May 2013. Cases of homicide victimization were identified via police reports, and crime details were provided by law enforcement agencies. Three controls were matched to each case by sex, 5-year age group and village of residence. Socioeconomic and personal background data, including genocide exposure, were provided via interview of a family member or through village administrators. Conditional logistic regression, stratified by gender status, was used to identify risk factors for homicide victimization. During the study period, 156 homicide victims were enrolled, of which 57 % were male and 43 % were female. The most common mechanisms of death were wounds inflicted by sharp instruments (knives or machetes; 41 %) followed by blunt force injuries (36.5 %). Final models indicated that risk of homicide victimhood increased with victim alcohol drinking patterns. There was a dose response noted for alcohol use: for minimal drinking versus none, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.1, 95%CI: 1,3-7.9; for moderate drinking versus none, aOR = 10.1, 95%CI: 3.7-24.9; and for heavy drinking versus none, aOR = 11.5, 95%CI: 3.6-36.8. Additionally, having no surviving parent (aOR = 2.7, 95%CI: 1.1-6.1), previous physical and/or sexual abuse (aOR = 28.1, 95%CI: 5.1-28.3) and drinking illicit brew and/or drug use (aOR = 7.7, 95%CI: 2.4-18.6) were associated with a higher risk of being killed. The test of interaction revealed that the variables that
Russel, M G V M; Ryan, B M; Dagnelie, P C; de Rooij, M; Sijbrandij, J; Feleus, A; Hesselink, M; Muris, J W; Stockbrugger, R
The majority of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have a normal life expectancy and therefore should not be weighted when applying for life assurance. There is scant literature on this topic. In this study our aim was to document and compare the incidence of difficulties in application for life and medical insurance in a population based cohort of IBD patients and matched population controls. A population based case control study of 1126 IBD patients and 1723 controls. Based on a detailed questionnaire, the frequency and type of difficulties encountered when applying for life and medical insurance in matched IBD and control populations were appraised. In comparison with controls, IBD patients had an 87-fold increased risk of encountering difficulties when applying for life assurance (odds ratio (OR) 87 (95% confidence interval (CI) 31-246)), with a heavily weighted premium being the most common problem. Patients of high educational status, with continuous disease activity, and who smoked had the highest odds of encountering such problems. Medical insurance difficulties were fivefold more common in IBD patients compared with controls (OR 5.4 (95% CI 2.3-13)) although no specific disease or patient characteristics were identified as associated with such difficulties. This is the first detailed case control study that has investigated insurance difficulties among IBD patients. Acquiring life and medical insurance constituted a major problem for IBD patients in this study. These results are likely to be more widely representative given that most insurance companies use international guidelines for risk assessment. In view of the recent advances in therapy and promising survival data on IBD patients, evidence based guidelines for risk assessment of IBD patients by insurance companies should be drawn up to prevent possible discriminatory practices.
Voaklander, D C; Rowe, B H; Dryden, D M; Pahal, J; Saar, P; Kelly, K D
Suicide among seniors is a significant health problem in north America, particularly for men in whom the rates rise steadily after 50 years of age. The goal of this study was to examine elder suicides identified from a large population-based database using case-control methods to determine disease and medication factors related to suicide. A population-based 1 : 5 case-control study was conducted comparing seniors aged 66 years and older who had died by suicide with age and sex-matched controls. Case data were obtained through British Columbia (BC) Vital Statistics, whereas controls were randomly selected from the BC Health Insurance Registry. Cases and controls were linked to the provincial PharmaCare database to determine medication use and the provincial Physician Claims and Inpatient Hospitalization databases to determine co-morbidity. Between 1993 and 2002 a total of 602 seniors died by suicide in BC giving an annual rate of 13.2 per 100,000. Firearms were the most common mechanism (28%), followed by hanging/suffocation (25%), self-poisoning (21%), and jumping from height (7%). In the adjusted logistic model, variables related to suicide included: lower socioeconomic status, depression/psychosis, neurosis, stroke, cancer, liver disease, parasuicide, benzodiazepine use, narcotic pain killer use and diuretic use. There was an elevated risk for those prescribed inappropriate benzodiazepines and for those using strong narcotic pain killers. This study is consistent with previous studies that have identified a relationship between medical or psychiatric co-morbidity and suicide in seniors. In addition, new and potentially useful information confirms that certain types and dosages of benzodiazepines are harmful to seniors and their use should be avoided.
Sun, Li-Min; Wu, Jung-Nan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Day, Jen-Der; Liang, Ji-An; Liou, Li-Ren; Kao, Chia-Hung
This study investigated the possible relationship between endocarditis and overall and individual cancer risk among study participants in Taiwan.We used data from the National Health Insurance program of Taiwan to conduct a population-based, observational, and retrospective cohort study. The case group consisted of 14,534 patients who were diagnosed with endocarditis between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. For the control group, 4 patients without endocarditis were frequency matched to each endocarditis patient according to age, sex, and index year. Competing risks regression analysis was conducted to determine the effect of endocarditis on cancer risk.A large difference was noted in Charlson comorbidity index between endocarditis and nonendocarditis patients. In patients with endocarditis, the risk for developing overall cancer was significant and 119% higher than in patients without endocarditis (adjusted subhazard ratio = 2.19, 95% confidence interval = 1.98-2.42). Regarding individual cancers, in addition to head and neck, uterus, female breast and hematological malignancies, the risks of developing colorectal cancer, and some digestive tract cancers were significantly higher. Additional analyses determined that the association of cancer with endocarditis is stronger within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis.This population-based cohort study found that patients with endocarditis are at a higher risk for colorectal cancer and other cancers in Taiwan. The risk was even higher within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis. It suggested that endocarditis is an early marker of colorectal cancer and other cancers. The underlying mechanisms must still be explored and may account for a shared risk factor of infection in both endocarditis and malignancy.
Parsaik, Ajay K; Singh, Balwinder; Roberts, Rosebud O; Pankratz, Shane; Edwards, Kelly K.; Geda, Yonas E; Gharib, H; Boeve, Bradley F; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C
IMPORTANCE Association of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is not established. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism with MCI in a large population based cohort. DESIGN A cross-sectional, population-based study. SETTING Olmsted County, Minnesota. PARTICIPANTS Randomly selected participants were aged 70 to 89 years on October 1, 2004, and were without documented prevalent dementia. A total of 2,050 participants were evaluated and underwent in-person interview, neurological evaluation and neuropsychological testing to assess performance in memory, attention/executive function, visuospatial, and language domains. Subjects were diagnosed by consensus as cognitively normal, MCI or dementia according to published criteria. Clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism was ascertained from a medical records-linkage system. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Association of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism with MCI. Results Among 1904 eligible participants, the frequency of MCI was 16% in 1450 subjects with normal thyroid function, 17% in 313 subjects with clinical hypothyroidism, and 18% in 141 subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism. After adjusting for covariates (age, gender, education, education years, sex, ApoE ε 4, depression, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, BMI and coronary artery disease) we found no significant association between clinical or subclinial hypothyroidism and MCI [OR 0.99 (95% CI 0.66–1.48) and OR 0.88 (95% CI 0.38–2.03) respectively]. No effect of gender interaction was seen on these effects. In stratified analysis, the odds of MCI with clinical and subclinical hypothyroidisn among males was 1.02 (95%CI, 0.57–1.82) and 1.29 (95%CI 0.68–2.44), among females was 1.04 (95% 0.66–1.66) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.37–2.02) respectively. Conclusion In this population based cohort of eldery, neither clinical nor subclinical hypothyrpodism was associated with MCI. Our findings
Fung, Chunkit; Fossa, Sophie D; Milano, Michael T; Oldenburg, Jan; Travis, Lois B
Increased risks of solid tumors after older radiotherapy strategies for testicular cancer (TC) are well established. Few population-based studies, however, focus on solid cancer risk among survivors of TC managed with nonradiotherapy approaches. We quantified the site-specific risk of solid cancers among testicular nonseminoma patients treated in the modern era of cisplatin-based chemotherapy, without radiotherapy. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for solid tumors were calculated for 12,691 patients with testicular nonseminoma reported to the population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (1980 to 2008) and treated initially with either chemotherapy (n = 6,013) or surgery (n = 6,678) without radiotherapy. Patients accrued 116,073 person-years of follow-up. Two hundred ten second solid cancers were observed. No increased risk followed surgery alone (SIR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.14; n = 99 solid cancers), whereas significantly increased 40% excesses (SIR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.73; n = 111 solid cancers) occurred after chemotherapy. Increased risks of solid cancers after chemotherapy were observed in most follow-up periods (median latency, 12.5 years), including more than 20 years after treatment (SIR, 1.54; 95% CI, 0.96 to 2.33); significantly increased three- to seven-fold risks occurred for cancers of the kidney (SIR, 3.37; 95% CI, 1.79 to 5.77), thyroid (SIR, 4.40; 95% CI, 2.19 to 7.88), and soft tissue (SIR, 7.49; 95% CI, 3.59 to 13.78). To our knowledge, this is the first large population-based series reporting significantly increased risks of solid cancers among patients with testicular nonseminoma treated in the modern era of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Subsequent analytic studies should focus on the evaluation of dose-response relationships, types of solid cancers, latency patterns, and interactions with other possible factors, including genetic susceptibility.
González-Pons, María; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Sevilla, Javier; Márquez-Lespier, Juan M; Morgan, Douglas; Pérez, Cynthia M; Cruz-Correa, Marcia
Helicobacter pylori is an important etiologic factor for peptic ulcers and gastric cancer, one of the top ten leading causes of cancer death in Puerto Rico. However, the prevalence of H. pylori infections in this population was previously unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the seroprevalence of H. pylori and its associated risk factors in Puerto Rico. A cross-sectional study was designed using an existing population-based biorepository. Seropositivity was determined using the Premier ™ H. pylori immunoassay. Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence was estimated with 95% confidence using marginal standardization following logistic regression. To assess the risk factors associated with H. pylori seropositivity, a multivariable log-binomial model was fitted to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 528 population-based serum samples were analyzed. The mean age of the study population was 41 ± 12 years, of whom 55.3% were females. The overall seroprevalence of H. pylori was 33.0% (95% CI = 28.3%-38.1%). Increasing age and having Puerto Rico. The H. pylori seroprevalence observed in Puerto Rico is similar to the seroprevalence reported in the overall population of the United States. The association between H. pylori seroprevalence and the risk factors analyzed offers insight into the epidemiology of gastric cancer in Puerto Rico and warrants further investigation. © 2017 The Authors. Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the risk of hip fracture and contributing factors in patients with erectile dysfunction(ED. This population-based study was performed using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The analysis included 4636 patients aged ≥ 40 years who had been diagnosed with ED (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes 302.72, 607.84 during 1996-2010. The control group included 18,544 randomly selected age-matched patients without ED (1:4 ratio. The association between ED and hip fracture risk was estimated using a Cox proportional hazard regression model. During the follow-up period, 59 (1.27% patients in the ED group and 140 (0.75% patients in the non-ED group developed hip fracture. After adjusting for covariates, the overall incidence of hip fracture was 3.74-times higher in the ED group than in the non-ED group (2.03 vs. 0.50 per 1000 person-years, respectively. The difference in the overall incidence of hip fracture was largest during the 3-year follow-up period (hazard ratio = 7.85; 95% confidence interval = 2.94-20.96; P <0.0001. To the best of our knowledge, this nationwide population-based study is the first to investigate the relationship between ED and subsequent hip fracture in an Asian population. The results showed that ED patients had a higher risk of developing hip fracture. Patients with ED, particularly those aged 40-59 years, should undergo bone mineral density examinations as early as possible and should take measures to reduce the risk of falls.
Hysing, Mari; Pallesen, Ståle; Stormark, Kjell M; Lundervold, Astri J; Sivertsen, Børge
The aim of the current study was to examine sleep patterns and rates of insomnia in a population-based study of adolescents aged 16-19 years. Gender differences in sleep patterns and insomnia, as well as a comparison of insomnia rates according to DSM-IV, DSM-V and quantitative criteria for insomnia (Behav. Res. Ther., 41, 2003, 427), were explored. We used a large population-based study in Hordaland county in Norway, conducted in 2012. The sample included 10,220 adolescents aged 16-18 years (54% girls). Self-reported sleep measurements included bedtime, rise time, time in bed, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, rate and frequency and duration of difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep and rate and frequency of tiredness and sleepiness. The adolescents reported short sleep duration on weekdays (mean 6:25 hours), resulting in a sleep deficiency of about 2 h. A majority of the adolescents (65%) reported sleep onset latency exceeding 30 min. Girls reported longer sleep onset latency and a higher rate of insomnia than boys, while boys reported later bedtimes and a larger weekday-weekend discrepancy on several sleep parameters. Insomnia prevalence rates ranged from a total prevalence of 23.8 (DSM-IV criteria), 18.5 (DSM-V criteria) and 13.6% (quantitative criteria for insomnia). We conclude that short sleep duration, long sleep onset latency and insomnia were prevalent in adolescents. This warrants attention as a public health concern in this age group. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.
Dandona, Lalit; Kumar, G Anil; Lakshmi, Vemu; Ahmed, G Md Mushtaq; Akbar, Mohammed; Ramgopal, Sri P; Sudha, Talasila; Alary, Michel; Dandona, Rakhi
Understanding about who acquires new HIV infection and the determinants of why some persons get infected and others do not is fundamental to controlling HIV in the population. We assess HIV incidence and its associations in the population of a high HIV burden district in Andhra Pradesh state in southern India by a population-based longitudinal cohort study. We re-surveyed a population-based cohort of 12,617 adults in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh for which we had reported a baseline HIV prevalence of 1.72% (rural 1.64%, urban 1.89%) among the 15-49 years age group in 2004-2005. We conducted interviews to assess risk behaviour and performed HIV testing again in 2010-2011. We assessed the rate of new HIV infection and its associations using multiple logistic regression. The participation rate in the follow-up was 74.9% and 63.9% of the baseline rural and urban samples, respectively. Over a mean follow-up of 5.63 years, the incidence of HIV was 1.26 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 0.83-1.69), after adjusting for slight compositional bias in the follow-up sample. The incidence per 1000 person-years was higher among rural men (1.68) than urban men (0.85), and among rural women (1.28) than urban women (0.54). The strongest association with incidence was a HIV positive spouse in the baseline for both men (odds ratio 266, 95% CI 62-1137) and women (odds ratio 28, 95% CI 9-88). Among men the other significant associations with HIV incidence were frequent use of condom for sex over the past 6 months, non-circumcision, more than one lifetime woman sex partner or ever visited sex worker, and transport-related occupation; for women the other significant associations were having had HIV testing other than antenatal check-up, previously married but currently not, and tobacco use. These first population-based cohort incidence data from India suggest that rural areas of high HIV burden states would need more attention to prevent new HIV infections, and that spouses of HIV
Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Sunde, Lone; Johansen, Christoffer
-up study of 213 women who received genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, 319 women who underwent mammography (Reference Group I), and a random sample of 1070 women from the general population (Reference Group II). RESULTS: Women who received genetic counseling decreased...... counseling, compared to a reduction of 5% (p=0.03) and 2% (p=0.01) in Reference Groups I and II, respectively. Risk communicated only in words, inaccurate risk perception at baseline, and presence of a familial mutation appeared to be predictors of inaccurate risk perception 12 months after counseling......BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore the impact of genetic counseling on perceived personal lifetime risk of breast cancer, the accuracy of risk perception, and possible predictors of inaccurate risk perception 1 year following counseling. METHODS: We conducted a population-based prospective follow...
Fernanda P. Moreira
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the serum leptin levels in cannabis smokers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional population-based study of participants between the ages of 18 and 35 years. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire covering sociodemographic data and the use of psychoactive substances. Leptin levels were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Results: Of the 911 participants, 6.7% were identified as cannabis smokers and had significantly lower leptin levels (p = 0.008. When stratified by gender, there was a significant decrease in leptin levels among male smokers (p = 0.039. Conclusion: Cannabis smoking was linked to leptin levels in men, suggesting that the response to biological signals may be different between men and women.
Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Frederiksen, Kirsten
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of fertility drugs on overall risk of ovarian cancer using data from a large cohort of infertile women. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Danish hospitals and private fertility clinics. PARTICIPANTS: 54,362 women with infertility problems referred...... confounding factors. RESULTS: Analyses within cohort showed no overall increased risk of ovarian cancer after any use of gonadotrophins (rate ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 1.37), clomifene (1.14, 0.79 to 1.64), human chorionic gonadotrophin (0.89, 0.62 to 1.29), or gonadotrophin releasing...... hormone (0.80, 0.42 to 1.51). Furthermore, no associations were found between all four groups of fertility drugs and number of cycles of use, length of follow-up, or parity. CONCLUSION: No convincing association was found between use of fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer....
Molinié, F; Leux, C; Delafosse, P; Ayrault-Piault, S; Arveux, P; Woronoff, A S; Guizard, A V; Velten, M; Ganry, O; Bara, S; Daubisse-Marliac, L; Tretarre, B
Waiting times are key indicators of a health's system performance, but are not routinely available in France. We studied waiting times for diagnosis and treatment according to patients' characteristics, tumours' characteristics and medical management options in a sample of 1494 breast cancers recorded in population-based registries. The median waiting time from the first imaging detection to the treatment initiation was 34 days. Older age, co-morbidity, smaller size of tumour, detection by organised screening, biopsy, increasing number of specimens removed, multidisciplinary consulting meetings and surgery as initial treatment were related to increased waiting times in multivariate models. Many of these factors were related to good practices guidelines. However, the strong influence of organised screening programme and the disparity of waiting times according to geographical areas were of concern. Better scheduling of diagnostic tests and treatment propositions should improve waiting times in the management of breast cancer in France. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Olesen, Charlotte; Thrane, Nana; Nielsen, G.L.
Background: Among the goals of gestational asthma, therapy is optimisation of pulmonary function. According to the US Food and Drug Administration, no asthma drugs can be considered ‘safe’ during pregnancy. Fear of adverse fetal effects may thus lead to restrictive use of asthma drugs during...... pregnancy, and no population-based studies concerning gestational asthma therapy exist. Objectives: To examine whether asthma drugs or changing intensity of asthma therapy during pregnancy was associated with deviations from expected values of gestational age, birth weight, length at birth, or malformations....... Methods: The Birth Registry was used to identify all 15,756 primiparous women who gave birth in the County of North Jutland between 1991 and 1996. According to the North Jutland Prescription Database, 303 of these women received prescriptions for asthma drugs during pregnancy. Women who did not purchase...
Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker
Background. Urban birth, a risk factor for schizophrenia, is more frequent among second-generation immigrants. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the increased risk for schizophrenia found in second-generation immigrants is explained by the degree of urbanization of birthplace...... for urbanization of birthplace and parental characteristics reduced these risks slightly. However, urbanization had a lesser effect in second-generation immigrants than in Danes. History of residence abroad was a risk factor for schizophrenia, regardless of whether parents were foreign-born or native Danes...... and/or factors related to parentage, such as geographic origin or history of residence abroad during upbringing.Method. Using data from the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS), we established a population-based cohort of 2.0 million Danes (persons born in Denmark). Schizophrenia in cohort members...
Park, Shin Hae; Lee, Ji Sung; Heo, Hwan; Suh, Young-Woo; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lim, Key Hwan; Moon, Nam Ju; Lee, Sung Jin; Park, Song Hee; Baek, Seung-Hee
To investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors of low vision and blindness in the Korean population. This cross-sectional, population-based study examined the ophthalmologic data of 22,135 Koreans aged ≥5 years from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, 2010-2012). According to the World Health Organization criteria, blindness was defined as visual acuity (VA) less than 20/400 in the better-seeing eye, and low vision as VA of 20/60 or worse but 20/400 or better in the better-seeing eye. The prevalence rates were calculated from either presenting VA (PVA) or best-corrected VA (BCVA). Multivariate regression analysis was conducted for adults aged ≥20 years. The overall prevalence rates of PVA-defined low vision and blindness were 4.98% and 0.26%, respectively, and those of BCVA-defined low vision and blindness were 0.46% and 0.05%, respectively. Prevalence increased rapidly above the age of 70 years. For subjects aged ≥70 years, the population-weighted prevalence rates of low vision, based on PVA and BCVA, were 12.85% and 3.87%, respectively, and the corresponding rates of blindness were 0.49% and 0.42%, respectively. The presenting vision problems were significantly associated with age (younger adults or elderly subjects), female sex, low educational level, and lowest household income, whereas the best-corrected vision problems were associated with age ≥ 70 years, a low educational level, and rural residence. This population-based study provides useful information for planning optimal public eye health care services in South Korea. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.
Mir, Heshaam M; Stepanova, Maria; Afendy, Hena; Cable, Rebecca; Younossi, Zobair M
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. In smaller studies, sleep apnea has been previously associated with NAFLD. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and independent associations of sleep disorders in patients with NAFLD using recent population-based data. Three cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) conducted between 2005 and 2010 were used. The diagnosis of NAFLD was established as elevated liver enzymes in the absence of all other causes of chronic liver disease. Sleep disorders were diagnosed using sleep disorder questionnaires completed by NHANES participants, and included self-reported history of sleep apnea, insomnia, and restless leg syndrome. The prevalence of sleep disorders was compared between those with and without NAFLD. A total of 10,541 adult NHANES participants with complete demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were included. Of those, 15.0% had NAFLD and 7.2% reported having sleep disorders. Of those with sleep disorders, 64.7% reported history of sleep apnea, 16.0% had history of insomnia, and 4.0% had restless leg syndrome. Individuals with NAFLD were more likely to be male (53.8% vs. 45.7%, P < 0.0001), obese (50.1% vs. 33.4%, P < 0.0001) and had higher prevalence of sleep disorders (9.1% vs. 6.9%, P = 0.0118). In multivariate analysis, having any sleep disorder, sleep apnea and insomnia were all independently associated with NAFLD [OR (95% CI) = 1.40 (1.11-1.76), OR = 1.39 (0.98-1.97), and OR = 2.17 (1.19-3.95); respectively)]. This large population-based data suggests that NAFLD is associated with sleep disorders. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, this association is most likely through metabolic conditions associated with NAFLD.
Ruige, J B; Dekker, J M; Blum, W F; Stehouwer, C D; Nijpels, G; Mooy, J; Kostense, P J; Bouter, L M; Heine, R J
OBJECTIVE: Leptin is thought to play a key role in the control of body weight. There is a complex interrelationship between leptin and insulin or insulin resistance, but it is unknown how leptin is regulated. We therefore explored, in a large population-based study of 2,484 Caucasian subjects aged
Reddy, R; Kafoa, B; Wainiqolo, I; Kool, B; Gentles, D; McCaig, E; Ameratunga, S
Workplace injury rates in low and middle-income countries are known to be high. Contemporary data on this topic from Pacific Island countries and territories are scant. To describe the epidemiology of fatal and hospitalized workplace injuries in Fiji using a population-based trauma registry. An analysis of data from a prospective population-based surveillance registry investigated the characteristics associated with workplace injuries resulting in death or hospital admission among people aged 15 years and older in Viti Levu, the largest island in the Republic of Fiji, from October 2005 to September 2006. Incidence rates were calculated using denominator data from the 2004-05 Fiji Employment Survey. One hundred and eighty-nine individuals met the study eligibility criteria (including nine deaths). This corresponded to annual injury-related hospitalization and death rates of 73.4 and 3.7 per 100 000 workers, respectively. Males accounted for 95% of injuries, and hospitalization rates were highest among those aged 15-29 years (33 per 100 000 workers). Fijian and Indian workers had similar rates of admission to hospital (38.3 and 31.8 per 100 000 workers, respectively). Fractures (40%) and 'cuts/bites/open wounds' (32%) were the commonest types of injury while 'being hit by a person or object' (34%), falls (27%) and 'cutting or piercing' injuries (27%) were the commonest mechanisms. Overall, 7% of injuries were deemed intentional. Acknowledging the likely underestimation of the overall burden of workplace injuries, these findings support the need to identify context-specific risk factors and effective approaches to preventing workplace injuries in Fiji.
Full Text Available Aims. The frequency of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs in the general population of Mexico is unknown. Methods. To determine the prevalence of FGIDs, associated depression, and health care utilization, a population-based sampling strategy was used to select 500 households in the State of Tlaxcala, in central Mexico. Household interviews were conducted by two trained physicians using the Rome II Modular Questionnaire, a health-care and medication used questionnaire and the CES-D depression scale. Results. The most common FGIDs were IBS: 16.0% (95% CI: 12.9–19.5; functional bloating: 10.8% (8.2–13.9; unspecified functional bowel disorder: 10.6% (8.0–13.6; and functional constipation (FC: 7.4% (5.3–10.1. Uninvestigated heartburn was common: 19.6% (16.2–23.4. All FGIDs were equally prevalent among both genders, except for IBS (P=0.001, IBS-C (P<0.001, IBS-A/M (P=0.049, and FC (P=0.039 which were more frequent in women. Subjects with FGIDs reported higher frequencies of medical visits: 34.6 versus 16.8%; use of medications: 40.7 versus 21.6%; (both P<0.001; and reported depression: 26.7 versus 6.7%, (P<0.001. Conclusion. In this first population-based study of FGIDs in Mexico, heartburn, IBS, functional distension, and FC were common. Only IBS, IBS-C, IBS-A/M, and FC were more frequent in women. Finally, FGIDs in Mexico had an increased burden of health care utilization and depression.
Hastrup, N; Osterlind, A; Drzewiecki, K T; Hou-Jensen, K
We examined 512 malignant melanomas, representing all newly diagnosed cutaneous malignant melanomas, excluding lentigo maligna melanomas, from the period October 1, 1982 to March 31, 1985 occurring in the region of eastern Denmark in patients aged 20-79 years for the presence of dysplastic nevus remnants. Criteria for the diagnosis of a dysplastic nevus remnant include all the following changes (a) lentiginous or epithelioid melanocyte hyperplasia, (b) cytologic melanocyte atypia, (c) eosinophilic fibroplasia, (d) lamellar fibroplasia, and (e) lymphocytic infiltration in the dermis. Dysplastic nevus remnants were found in association with 34 (7%) of the evaluable 512 malignant melanomas. Fourteen (41%) of the remnants were of compound nevus type. In nine (27%) of the remnants, atypia was pronounced. Most (62%) dysplastic nevus remnants were contiguous to thin superficial spreading melanomas. We conclude from this population-based study that about 7% of malignant melanomas arise in prior dysplastic nevi.
Beard John R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal, population-based, research is important if we are to better characterize the lifetime patterns and determinants of affective disorders. While studies of this type are becoming increasingly prevalent, there has been little discussion about the limitations of the methods commonly used. Methods Discussion paper including a brief review of key prospective population-based studies as the basis for a critical appraisal of current approaches. Results We identified a number of common methodological weaknesses that restrict the potential of longitudinal research to characterize the diversity, prognosis, and determinants of affective disorders over time. Most studies using comprehensive diagnostic instruments have either been of relatively brief duration, or have suffered from long periods between waves. Most etiologic research has focused on first onset diagnoses, although these may be relatively uncommon after early adulthood and the burden of mental disorders falls more heavily on individuals with recurring disorders. Analysis has tended to be based on changes in diagnostic status rather than anges in symptom levels, limiting study power. Diagnoses have generally been treated as homogeneous entities and few studies have explored whether diagnostic subtypes such as atypical depression vary in their etiology or prognosis. Little research has considered whether there are distinct trajectories of symptoms over time and most has focused on individual disorders such as depression, rather than considering the relationship over time between symptoms of different affective disorders. There has also been limited longitudinal research on factors in the physical or social environment that may influence the onset, recurrence or chronicity of symptoms. Conclusion Many important, and in some respects quite basic, questions remain about the trajectory of depression and anxiety disorders over the life course and the factors that
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on health equity which mainly utilises population-based surveys, may be hampered by serious selection bias due to a considerable number of invitees declining to participate. Sufficient information from all the non-responders is rarely available to quantify this bias. Predictors of attendance, magnitude and direction of non-response bias in prevalence estimates and association measures, are investigated based on information from all 40 888 invitees to the Oslo Health Study. Methods The analyses were based on linkage between public registers in Statistics Norway and the Oslo Health Study, a population-based survey conducted in 2000/2001 inviting all citizens aged 30, 40, 45, 59–60 and 75–76 years. Attendance was 46%. Weighted analyses, logistic regression and sensitivity analyses are performed to evaluate possible selection bias. Results The response rate was positively associated with age, educational attendance, total income, female gender, married, born in a Western county, living in the outer city residential regions and not receiving disability benefit. However, self-rated health, smoking, BMI and mental health (HCSL in the attendees differed only slightly from estimated prevalence values in the target population when weighted by the inverse of the probability of attendance. Observed values differed only moderately provided that the non-attending individuals differed from those attending by no more than 50%. Even though persons receiving disability benefit had lower attendance, the associations between disability and education, residential region and marital status were found to be unbiased. The association between country of birth and disability benefit was somewhat more evident among attendees. Conclusions Self-selection according to sociodemographic variables had little impact on prevalence estimates. As indicated by disability benefit, unhealthy persons attended to a lesser degree than healthy individuals
Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Selmer, Randi; Bjertness, Espen; Thelle, Dag
Background Research on health equity which mainly utilises population-based surveys, may be hampered by serious selection bias due to a considerable number of invitees declining to participate. Sufficient information from all the non-responders is rarely available to quantify this bias. Predictors of attendance, magnitude and direction of non-response bias in prevalence estimates and association measures, are investigated based on information from all 40 888 invitees to the Oslo Health Study. Methods The analyses were based on linkage between public registers in Statistics Norway and the Oslo Health Study, a population-based survey conducted in 2000/2001 inviting all citizens aged 30, 40, 45, 59–60 and 75–76 years. Attendance was 46%. Weighted analyses, logistic regression and sensitivity analyses are performed to evaluate possible selection bias. Results The response rate was positively associated with age, educational attendance, total income, female gender, married, born in a Western county, living in the outer city residential regions and not receiving disability benefit. However, self-rated health, smoking, BMI and mental health (HCSL) in the attendees differed only slightly from estimated prevalence values in the target population when weighted by the inverse of the probability of attendance. Observed values differed only moderately provided that the non-attending individuals differed from those attending by no more than 50%. Even though persons receiving disability benefit had lower attendance, the associations between disability and education, residential region and marital status were found to be unbiased. The association between country of birth and disability benefit was somewhat more evident among attendees. Conclusions Self-selection according to sociodemographic variables had little impact on prevalence estimates. As indicated by disability benefit, unhealthy persons attended to a lesser degree than healthy individuals, but social inequality in
Elflein, Heike M; Fresenius, Susanne; Lamparter, Julia; Pitz, Susanne; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Binder, Harald; Wild, Philipp; Mirshahi, Alireza
Amblyopia is due to insufficient development of the visual system in early childhood and is a major source of lifelong impairment of visual acuity. Too little is known about the prevalence of amblyopia in Germany and the frequency of its various causes. The Gutenberg Health Study of the University of Mainz Faculty of Medicine is an ongoing population-based, prospective, monocentric cohort study with 15 010 participants aged 35 to 74. All participants are examined for the presence of ocular, cardiovascular, neoplastic, metabolic, immunologic, and mental diseases. 3227 participants aged 35 to 44 underwent ophthalmological examination from 2007 to 2012. Amblyopia was defined as impaired visual acuity in the absence of any organic pathology capable of explaining the condition, and in the presence of a known risk factor for amblyopia. Amblyopia, when defined as a visual acuity less than or equal to 0.63, was present in 182 participants (5.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.9-6.5%), 120 of whom had a visual acuity less than or equal to 0.5 (3.7%, 95% CI 3.3-5.2%). A narrower definition of amblyopia requiring, in addition, an interocular difference in acuity of at least two lines yielded slightly lower prevalence figures: 5.0% (95% CI 4.2-5.8%) and 3.7% (95% CI 3.1-4.4%), respectively. The causes of amblyopia (visual acuity ≤ 0.63) were anisometropia (different refractive strengths of the two eyes) in 49% of participants, strabismus (a squint) in 23%, both of these factors in 17%, and visual deprivation in 2%. 3 patients (2%) had relative amblyopia due to a traumatic cataract sustained in early childhood. 7% of the participants with amblyopia had binocular amblyopia. This study yielded a prevalence figure of 5.6% for amblyopia in Germany-a higher figure than in other, comparable population-based studies, which have generally yielded figures of ca. 3% for visual acuity ≤ 0.63. The distribution of the causes of amblyopia is similar across studies.
Rodrigues, Iara Guimarães; Fraga, Gustavo Pereira; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo
The aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with the occurrence of falls among elderly adults in a population-based study (ISACamp 2008). A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out with two-stage cluster sampling. The sample was composed of 1,520 elderly adults living in the urban area of the city of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. The occurrence of falls was analyzed based on reports of the main accident occurred in the previous 12 months. Data on socioeconomic/demographic factors and adverse health conditions were tested for possible associations with the outcome. Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated and adjusted for gender and age using the Poisson multiple regression analysis. Falls were more frequent, after adjustment for gender and age, among female elderly participants (PR = 2.39; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.47 - 3.87), elderly adults (80 years old and older) (PR = 2.50; 95% CI 1.61 - 3.88), widowed (PR = 1.74; 95% CI 1.04 - 2.89) and among elderly adults who had rheumatism/arthritis/arthrosis (PR = 1.58; 95% CI 1.00 - 2.48), osteoporosis (PR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.18 - 2.49), asthma/bronchitis/emphysema (PR = 1,73; 95% CI 1.09 - 2.74), headache (PR = 1.59; 95% CI 1.07 - 2.38), mental common disorder (PR = 1.72; 95% CI 1.12 - 2.64), dizziness (PR = 2.82; 95% CI 1.98 - 4.02), insomnia (PR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.16 - 2.65), use of multiple medications (five or more) (PR = 2.50; 95% CI 1.12 - 5.56) and use of cane/walker (PR = 2.16; 95% CI 1.19 - 3,93). The present study shows segments of the elderly population who are more prone to falls through the identification of factors associated with this outcome. The findings can contribute to the planning of public health policies and programs addressed to the prevention of falls.
Iara Guimarães Rodrigues
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with the occurrence of falls among elderly adults in a population-based study (ISACamp 2008. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out with two-stage cluster sampling. The sample was composed of 1,520 elderly adults living in the urban area of the city of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. The occurrence of falls was analyzed based on reports of the main accident occurred in the previous 12 months. Data on socioeconomic/demographic factors and adverse health conditions were tested for possible associations with the outcome. Prevalence ratios (PR were estimated and adjusted for gender and age using the Poisson multiple regression analysis. Results: Falls were more frequent, after adjustment for gender and age, among female elderly participants (PR = 2.39; 95% confidence interval (95%CI 1.47 - 3.87, elderly adults (80 years old and older (PR = 2.50; 95%CI 1.61 - 3.88, widowed (PR = 1.74; 95%CI 1.04 - 2.89 and among elderly adults who had rheumatism/arthritis/arthrosis (PR = 1.58; 95%CI 1.00 - 2.48, osteoporosis (PR = 1.71; 95%CI 1.18 - 2.49, asthma/bronchitis/emphysema (PR = 1,73; 95%CI 1.09 - 2.74, headache (PR = 1.59; 95%CI 1.07 - 2.38, mental common disorder (PR = 1.72; 95%CI 1.12 - 2.64, dizziness (PR = 2.82; 95%CI 1.98 - 4.02, insomnia (PR = 1.75; 95%CI 1.16 - 2.65, use of multiple medications (five or more (PR = 2.50; 95%CI 1.12 - 5.56 and use of cane/walker (PR = 2.16; 95%CI 1.19 - 3,93. Conclusion: The present study shows segments of the elderly population who are more prone to falls through the identification of factors associated with this outcome. The findings can contribute to the planning of public health policies and programs addressed to the prevention of falls.
Wu, Hsin Hsu; Kuo, Chang Fu; Li, I Jung; Weng, Cheng Hao; Lee, Cheng Chia; Tu, Kun Hua; Liu, Shou Hsuan; Chen, Yung Chang; Yang, Chih Wei; Luo, Shue Fen; See, Lai Chu; Yu, Kuang Hui; Huang, Lu Hsiang; Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael; Tian, Ya Chung
Aggregation of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been observed in families of European origin, as well as those of African origin. However, it is not well documented if this disease aggregates in Asian families. Furthermore, the contribution of genetic factors and shared environmental factors to family aggregation remains unclear. Population-based cross-sectional cohort study. All 23,422,955 individuals registered in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database in 2013. Among these, 47.45%, 57.45%, 47.29%, and 1.51% had a known parent, child, sibling, or twin, respectively. We identified 87,849 patients who had a diagnosis of ESRD. Family history of ESRD. ESRD and heritability defined as the proportion of phenotypic variance attributable to genetic factors. Having an affected first-degree relative with ESRD was associated with an adjusted relative risk of 2.46 (95% CI, 2.32-2.62). Relative risks were 96.38 (95% CI, 48.3-192.34) for twins of patients with ESRD, 2.15 (95% CI, 2.02-2.29) for parents, 2.78 (95% CI, 2.53-3.05) for offspring, 4.96 (95% CI, 4.19-5.88) for siblings, and 1.66 (95% CI, 1.54-1.78) for spouses without genetic similarities. Heritability in this study was 31.1% to 11.4% for shared environmental factors and 57.5% for nonshared environmental factors. This was a registry database study and we did not have detailed information about clinical findings or the definite causes of ESRD. This whole population-based family study in Asia confirmed, in a Taiwanese population, that a family history of ESRD is a strong risk factor for this disease. Moderate heritability was noted and environmental factors were related to disease. Family history of ESRD is an important piece of clinical information. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
von Heideken Wågert, Petra; Gustafson, Yngve; Kallin, Kristina; Jensen, Jane; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
The aim of this study was to describe incidences of falls and fall-related injuries, and to identify predisposing factors for falls in very old people in a prospective population-based follow-up study for falls. The study is part of the Umeå 85+ Study which includes half of the population aged 85, and the total population aged 90 and > or =95 (-103), in Umeå, Sweden. Of the 253 people interviewed, 220 (87%) were followed up for falls for 6 months, of whom 109 lived in ordinary and 111 in institutional housing. A comprehensive geriatric baseline assessment was made through interviews and testing during home visits. Forty percent of the participants did fall a total 304 times, corresponding to 2.17 falls per Person Year (PY). It occurred 0.83 injuries per PY, including 0.14 fractures per PY. In a Cox regression analysis, the independent explanatory risk factors for time to first fall were dependency in activities of daily living (ADL), thyroid disorders, treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and occurrence of falls in the preceding year. It could be predicted that every seventh participant and every third of the people who did fall would suffer a fracture within 1 year. ADL, thyroid disorders and treatment with SSRIs should be considered in fall prevention programmes.
Blair, A; Zheng, T; Linos, A; Stewart, P A; Zhang, Y W; Cantor, K P
Studies have suggested that risk of leukemia may be associated with occupational or industrial exposures and risk may vary by the histological type of the disease. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Iowa and Minnesota to evaluate the association between various occupations, industries, and occupational exposures and leukemia risk. A total of 513 cases and 1,087 controls was included in the study. A lifetime occupational history and other risk factor information were collected through in-person interviews, and a job-exposure matrix was used to assess possible risks associated with specific exposures. A significantly increased risk of leukemia was observed among agricultural service industries and among nursing and healthcare workers. Janitors, cleaners, and light truck drivers also experienced increased risk. Those employed in plumbing, heating and air conditioning industries, and sales of nondurable goods (such as paints and varnishes) had an increased risk. Printers, painters, and workers in the food and metal industries had a nonsignificantly increased risk of leukemia. Analyses by specific exposures and histology of leukemia showed that risk of leukemia associated with occupational or industrial exposures may vary by histological type of the disease. An increased risk of leukemia among workers employed in agricultural industries, nursing and healthcare workers, and in a few occupations with possible exposure to solvents is consistent with earlier studies. Associations of risk with occupations not observed previously deserve further assessment. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Dreiher, Jacob; Freud, Tamar; Cohen, Arnon D.
Background. Diabetes has been associated with psoriasis, but little is known about the association between psoriatic arthritis and diabetes. Methods. Patients diagnosed with psoriatic arthritis by a rheumatologist were compared to age- and sex-matched patients without psoriatic arthritis regarding the prevalence of diabetes in a population-based cross-sectional study using logistic multivariate models. The study was performed utilizing the medical database of Clalit, the largest healthcare provider organization in Israel. Results. The study included 549 patients with psoriatic arthritis ≥21 years and 1,098 patients without psoriatic arthritis. The prevalence of diabetes in patients with psoriatic arthritis was increased as compared to the prevalence in patients without psoriatic arthritis (15.3% versus 10.7%, P value = 0.008). The difference was prominent among females (18.7% versus 10.3%, P < 0.001) but not among males (11.2% in patients with and without psoriatic arthritis, P = 1.000). In a multivariate analysis, psoriatic arthritis was associated with diabetes among females (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.02–2.52, P = 0.040) but not among males (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.42–1.22, P = 0.213). Conclusion. Our study suggests a possible association between psoriatic arthritis and diabetes in women. Women with psoriatic arthritis might be candidates for diabetes screening. PMID:23843781
Thijssen, Sandra; Wildeboer, Andrea; Muetzel, Ryan L; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; El Marroun, Hanan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; van der Lugt, Aad; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; White, Tonya
Prosocial behavior plays an important role in establishing and maintaining relationships with others and thus may have important developmental implications. This study examines the association between cortical thickness and prosocial behavior in a population-based sample of 6- to 9-year-old children. The present study was embedded within the Generation R Study. Magnetic resonance scans were acquired from 464 children whose parents had completed the prosocial scale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. To study the association between cortical thickness and prosocial behavior, we performed whole-brain surface-based analyses. Prosocial behavior was related to a thicker cortex in a cluster that covers part of the left superior frontal and rostral middle frontal cortex (p Gender moderated the association between prosocial behavior and cortical thickness in a cluster including the right rostral middle frontal and superior frontal cortex (p right superior parietal cortex, cuneus, and precuneus (p theory of mind (superior frontal cortex, rostral middle frontal cortex cuneus, and precuneus) and inhibitory control (superior frontal and rostral middle frontal cortex).
Ferrarini, Luca; van Lew, Baldur; Reiber, Johan H C; Gandin, Claudia; Galluzzo, Lucia; Scafato, Emanuele; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Milles, Julien; Pievani, Michela
Clinical studies have shown that hippocampal atrophy is present before dementia in people with memory deficits and can predict dementia development. The question remains whether this association holds in the general population. This is of interest for the possible use of hippocampal atrophy to screen population for preventive interventions. The aim of this study was to assess hippocampal volume and shape abnormalities in elderly adults with memory deficits in a cross-sectional population-based study. We included individuals participating in the Italian Project on the Epidemiology of Alzheimer Disease (IPREA) study: 75 cognitively normal individuals (HC), 31 individuals with memory deficits (MEM), and 31 individuals with memory deficits not otherwise specified (MEMnos). Hippocampal volumes and shape were extracted through manual tracing and the growing and adaptive meshes (GAMEs) shape-modeling algorithm. We investigated between-group differences in hippocampal volume and shape, and correlations with memory deficits. In MEM participants, hippocampal volumes were significantly smaller than in HC and were mildly associated with worse memory scores. Memory-associated shape changes mapped to the anterior hippocampus. Shape-based analysis detected no significant difference between MEM and HC, while MEMnos showed shape changes in the posterior hippocampus compared with HC and MEM groups. These findings support the discriminant validity of hippocampal volumetry as a biomarker of memory impairment in the general population. The detection of shape changes in MEMnos but not in MEM participants suggests that shape-based biomarkers might lack sensitivity to detect Alzheimer's-like pathology in the general population.
Li, Gu; Kung, Karson T F; Hines, Melissa
Lesbian and gay individuals have been reported to show more interest in other-sex, and/or less interest in same-sex, toys, playmates, and activities in childhood than heterosexual counterparts. Yet, most of the relevant evidence comes from retrospective studies or from prospective studies of clinically referred, extremely gender nonconforming children. In addition, findings are mixed regarding the relation between childhood gender-typed behavior and the later sexual orientation spectrum from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively lesbian/gay. The current study drew a sample (2,428 girls and 2,169 boys) from a population-based longitudinal study, and found that the levels of gender-typed behavior at ages 3.5 and 4.75 years, although less so at age 2.5 years, significantly and consistently predicted adolescents' sexual orientation at age 15 years, both when sexual orientation was conceptualized as 2 groups or as a spectrum. In addition, within-individual change in gender-typed behavior during the preschool years significantly related to adolescent sexual orientation, especially in boys. These results suggest that the factors contributing to the link between childhood gender-typed behavior and sexual orientation emerge during early development. Some of those factors are likely to be nonsocial, because nonheterosexual individuals appear to diverge from gender norms regardless of social encouragement to conform to gender roles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Hoekstra, P J; Lundervold, A J; Lie, S A; Gillberg, C; Plessen, Kerstin J
Children with tics often experience accompanying problems that may have more impact on their well being and quality of life than the tics themselves. The present study investigates characteristics and the course of associated problems. In a population-based follow-up study, we investigated the developmental trajectory of children with and without tics when they were 7-9 years old. Parents and teachers completed the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) when the children were 7-9 years (wave 1) and 4 years later (wave 2). Using strict criteria, we identified 38 children with tics in the cohort of 4,025 children (0.94% of the total cohort) with a preponderance of boys (78.9%). 22 children (57.9%) in the group with tics had only motor tics, and 16 (42.1%) had both motor and vocal tics. Children with tics had significantly higher parent- and teacher-rated SDQ total difficulty scores and subscale scores in both waves. Children with tics experienced an increase in emotional problems and in peer problems between the first and the second wave. This study in a general population indicates that the presence of tics is associated with a range of internalizing and externalizing difficulties, as well as problems in peer relationships. Moreover, our study indicates that emotional and peer problems tend to increase over time in the group of children with tics.
Rowell, Jessica L; Dowling, Nicole F; Yu, Wei; Yesupriya, Ajay; Zhang, Lyna; Gwinn, Marta
Pathogen genetics is already a mainstay of public health investigation and control efforts; now advances in technology make it possible to investigate the role of human genetic variation in the epidemiology of infectious diseases. To describe trends in this field, we analyzed articles that were published from 2001 through 2010 and indexed by the HuGE Navigator, a curated online database of PubMed abstracts in human genome epidemiology. We extracted the principal findings from all meta-analyses and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with an infectious disease-related outcome. Finally, we compared the representation of diseases in HuGE Navigator with their contributions to morbidity worldwide. We identified 3,730 articles on infectious diseases, including 27 meta-analyses and 23 GWAS. The number published each year increased from 148 in 2001 to 543 in 2010 but remained a small fraction (about 7%) of all studies in human genome epidemiology. Most articles were by authors from developed countries, but the percentage by authors from resource-limited countries increased from 9% to 25% during the period studied. The most commonly studied diseases were HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis B infection, hepatitis C infection, sepsis, and malaria. As genomic research methods become more affordable and accessible, population-based research on infectious diseases will be able to examine the role of variation in human as well as pathogen genomes. This approach offers new opportunities for understanding infectious disease susceptibility, severity, treatment, control, and prevention.
Sheri D Weiser
Full Text Available In Botswana, an estimated 24% of adults ages 15-49 years are infected with HIV. While alcohol use is strongly associated with HIV infection in Africa, few population-based studies have characterized the association of alcohol use with specific high-risk sexual behaviors.We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study of 1,268 adults from five districts in Botswana using a stratified two-stage probability sample design. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess correlates of heavy alcohol consumption (>14 drinks/week for women, and >21 drinks/week for men as a dependent variable. We also assessed gender-specific associations between alcohol use as a primary independent variable (categorized as none, moderate, problem and heavy drinking and several risky sex outcomes including: (a having unprotected sex with a nonmonogamous partner; (b having multiple sexual partners; and (c paying for or selling sex in exchange for money or other resources. Criteria for heavy drinking were met by 31% of men and 17% of women. Adjusted correlates of heavy alcohol use included male gender, intergenerational relationships (age gap > or =10 y, higher education, and living with a sexual partner. Among men, heavy alcohol use was associated with higher odds of all risky sex outcomes examined, including unprotected sex (AOR = 3.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65 to 7.32, multiple partners (AOR = 3.08; 95% CI, 1.95 to 4.87, and paying for sex (AOR = 3.65; 95% CI, 2.58 to 12.37. Similarly, among women, heavy alcohol consumption was associated with higher odds of unprotected sex (AOR = 3.28; 95% CI, 1.71 to 6.28, multiple partners (AOR = 3.05; 95% CI, 1.83 to 5.07, and selling sex (AOR = 8.50; 95% CI, 3.41 to 21.18. A dose-response relationship was seen between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors, with moderate drinkers at lower risk than both problem and heavy drinkers.Alcohol use is associated with multiple risks for HIV transmission among both men
Jackson, S E; Steptoe, A; Beeken, R J; Croker, H; Wardle, J
Despite a wealth of experimental studies on weight bias, little is known about weight discrimination at the population level. This study examined the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of perceived weight discrimination in a large population-based sample of older adults. Data were from 5307 adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; a population-based cohort of men and women aged ⩾50 years. Weight discrimination was reported for five domains (less respect/courtesy; treated as less clever; poorer treatment in medical settings; poorer service in restaurants/stores; threatened/harassed) at wave 5 (2010-2011). Height and weight were measured at wave 4 (2008-2009). We used logistic regression to test the odds of weight discrimination in relation to weight status, age, sex, wealth, education and marital status. Perceived weight discrimination in any domain was reported by 4.6% of participants, ranging from 0.8% in the normal-weight participants through 0.9, 6.7, 24.2 and 35.1% in individuals who were overweight or met criteria for class I, II and III obesity. Overall, and in each situation, odds of perceived weight discrimination were higher in younger and less wealthy individuals. There was no interaction between weight status and any socio-demographic variable. Relative to normal-weight participants, odds ratios for any perceived weight discrimination were 1.13 (95% confidence interval 0.53-2.40) in those who were overweight, 8.86 (4.65-16.88) in those with class I obesity, 35.06 (18.30-67.16) in class II obese and 56.43 (27.72-114.87) in class III obese. Our results indicate that rates of perceived weight discrimination are comparatively low in individuals who are overweight or have class I obesity, but for those with class II/III obesity, >10% had experienced discrimination in each domain, and >20% had been treated with less respect or courtesy. These findings have implications for public policy and highlight the need for effective interventions
Oud, Lavi; Watkins, Phillip
Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a rare complication in pregnant women. There have been no population-level data reported to date on its epidemiology, clinical features, resource utilization, and outcomes. This was a retrospective, population-based cohort study, using the Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File to identify pregnancy-associated hospitalizations for the years 2001-2010. Hospitalizations with a diagnosis of NF were then identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 728.86. Denominator data for incidence estimates were derived from the Texas Center for Health Statistics reports of live births, abortions and fetal deaths, and previously reported population-based, age-specific linkage data on miscarriage, and were used to estimate the annual total number of pregnancies (TEP). The incidence of pregnancy-associated NF (PANF), hospitalization type, clinical features, resource utilization and outcomes were examined. There were 4,060,201 pregnancy-associated hospitalizations and 148 PANF hospitalizations during study period. Postpartum hospitalizations accounted for 82.4% of all PANF events, and intensive care unit care was required in 61.5%. The key trends noted between 2001-2002 and 2009-2010 included rising incidence of PANF from 1.1 vs. 3.8 per 100,000 TEP-years (P = 0.0001), chronic comorbidities 0% vs. 31.7% (P = 0.0777), and development of organ failure in 9.1% vs. 31.7% (P = 0.0302). There was no significant change in total hospital charges or hospital length of stay. Three patients (2%) died in the hospital and 55% of survivors had routine home discharge. The present cohort of PANF is the largest reported to date. The incidence of PANF rose nearly 3.5-fold over the past decade, with most events developing following delivery hospitalization. Chronic illness has been increasingly present, along with rising severity of illness. The majority of patients required ICU care. Hospital mortality was
Amie C Hayley
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS is often associated with increased adiposity, particularly when assessed in the context of samples of sleep-disordered patients; however, it is unclear if this relationship is sustained among non-clinical, population-based cohorts. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between EDS and a number of body composition markers among a population-based sample of men and women. METHODS: This study assessed 1066 women aged 21-94 yr (median = 51 yr, IQR 35-66, and 911 men aged 24-92 yr (median = 60 yr, IQR 46-73 who participated in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study (GOS between the years 2001 and 2008. Total body fat mass was determined from whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, and anthropometric parameters (weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Lifestyle and health information was collected via self-report. Sleepiness was assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS. Scores of ≥ 10 were considered indicative of EDS. RESULTS: Women: After adjusting for age, alcohol intake, antidepressant medication use and physical activity, EDS was associated with greater waist circumference and body mass index (BMI. EDS was also associated with 1.5-1.6-fold increased odds of being overweight or obese. Men: After adjusting for age, alcohol use, physical activity and smoking status, EDS was associated with greater BMI. These findings were not explained by the use of sedative or antidepressant medication. EDS was also associated with 1.5-fold increased likelihood of being obese, independent of these factors. No differences in lean mass, %body fat, or %lean mass were detected between those with and without EDS for men or women. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that EDS is associated with several anthropometric adiposity profiles, independent of associated lifestyle and health factors. Among women, symptoms of EDS are pervasive at both overweight and obese BMI classifications
Rossat, A; Fantino, B; Bongue, B; Colvez, A; Nitenberg, C; Annweiler, C; Beauchet, O
While the association between benzodiazepines (BZD) and single fall is long-known, the association between BZD and recurrent falls has been few studied. The aims of this study were 1) to examine whether BZD were associated with recurrent falls while taking into account the effect of potential confounders, and 2) to determine whether there was an interaction in terms of risk of falls between BZD and balance impairment in a community-dwelling population-based adults aged 65 and older. Cross-sectional. Three health centers in North-East of France. 7643 community-dwelling volunteers aged 65 and older. The use of BZD, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), the One Leg Balance (OLB) test, the Five Times Sit-To-Stand test (FTSS), and a history of falls were recorded. Subjects were separated into 4 groups based on the number of falls: 0, 1, 2 and ≥ 3 falls. Among the 1456 (19.2%) fallers, 994 (13.0%) were single fallers and 462 (6.1%) were recurrent fallers (i.e., > 2 falls). The number of falls increased significantly with age (Incident Rate Ratio (IRR)=1.04, P falls. After adjustment only the advance in age (IRR=1.02, P falls. The current study shows that the age, the female gender, the use of clobazam or prazepam and a low score at OLB are related to the recurrence of falls.
Mills, James L; Troendle, James; Conley, Mary R; Carter, Tonia; Druschel, Charlotte M
Background: Obesity affects almost one-third of pregnant women and causes many complications, including neural tube defects. It is not clear whether the risk of congenital heart defects, the most common malformations, is also increased. Objective: This study was conducted to determine whether obesity is associated with an increased risk of congenital heart defects. Design: A population-based, nested, case-control study was conducted in infants born with congenital heart defects and unaffected controls from the cohort of all births (n = 1,536,828) between 1993 and 2003 in New York State, excluding New York City. The type of congenital heart defect, maternal body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), and other risk factors were obtained from the Congenital Malformations Registry and vital records. Mothers of 7392 congenital heart defect cases and 56,304 unaffected controls were studied. Results: All obese women (BMI ≥ 30) were significantly more likely than normal-weight women (BMI: 19–24.9) to have children with a congenital heart defect [odds ratio (OR): 1.15; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.23; P heart defects with increasing maternal obesity (P heart syndrome, aortic stenosis, pulmonic stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Conclusions: Obese, but not overweight, women are at significantly increased risk of bearing children with a range of congenital heart defects, and the risk increases with increasing BMI. Weight reduction as a way to reduce risk should be investigated. PMID:20375192
Wang, Zhenjie; Du, Wei; Pang, Lihua; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying
In the study described herein, we investigated and explored the association between wealth inequality and the risk of mental disability in the Chinese population. We used nationally represented, population-based data from the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, conducted in 2006. A total of 1,724,398 study subjects between the ages of 15 and 64, including 10,095 subjects with mental disability only, were used for the analysis. Wealth status was estimated by a wealth index that was derived from a principal component analysis of 10 household assets and four other variables related to wealth. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for mental disability for each category, with the lowest quintile category as the referent. Confounding variables under consideration were age, gender, residence area, marital status, ethnicity, education, current employment status, household size, house type, homeownership and living arrangement. The distribution of various types and severities of mental disability differed significantly by wealth index category in the present population. Wealth index category had a positive association with mild mental disability (p for trend disability (p for trend disability when all severities of mental disability were taken into consideration. This study's results suggest that wealth is a significant factor in the distribution of mental disability and it might have different influences on various types and severities of mental disability.
Mohsen, Hassan; Haddad, Pascale; Allam, Ayman; Hassan, Azza
International studies show that most people prefer to die at home; however, hospitals remain the most common place of death (PoD). This study aims to investigate the patterns in PoD and the associated factors, which are crucial for end-of-life cancer care enhancement. This retrospective, population-based study analyzed all registered cancer deaths in Qatar between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2012 (n = 1,224). The main outcome measures were patient characteristics: age, gender, nationality, cancer diagnosis, year of death, and PoD. Time trends for age-standardized proportions of death in individual PoDs were evaluated using chi-square analysis. Odds ratio (OR) were determined for variables associated with the most preferred (acute palliative care unit [APCU] and hematology/oncology ward) versus least preferred (ICU and general medicine ward) PoDs in Qatar, stratified by nationality. The hematology/oncology ward was the most common PoD (32.4%; 95% CI 26.7-35.3%) followed by ICU (31.4%; 95% CI 28.7-34.3%), APCU (26.9%; 95% CI 24.3-29.6%), and general medicine ward (9.2%; 95% CI 7.6-11.1%). APCU trended upward (+0.057/year; pQatar occur in hospital. As home was the preferred PoD for most people, effective home care and hospice programs are needed to improve end-of-life cancer care.
Olafsdottir, Linda Bjork; Gudjonsson, Hallgrimur; Jonsdottir, Heidur Hrund; Thjodleifsson, Bjarni
To study the natural history and prevalence of heartburn at a 10-year interval, and to study the effect of heartburn on various symptoms and activities. A population-based postal study was carried out. Questionnaires were mailed to the same age- and gender-stratified random sample of the Icelandic population (aged 18-75 years) in 1996 and again in 2006. Subjects were classified with heartburn if they reported heartburn in the preceding year and/or week, based on the definition of heartburn. Heartburn in the preceding year was reported in 42.8% (1996) and 44.2% (2006) of subjects, with a strong relationship between those who experienced heartburn in both years. Heartburn in the preceding week was diagnosed in 20.8%. There was a significant relationship between heartburn, dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. Individuals with a body mass index (BMI) below or higher than normal weight were more likely to have heartburn. Heartburn caused by food or beverages was reported very often by 20.0% of subjects. Heartburn is a common and chronic condition. Subjects with a BMI below or higher than normal weight are more likely to experience heartburn. Heartburn has a great impact on daily activities, sleep and quality of life.
Sampaio, Clara; Sousa, Ariane Sampaio; Fraga, Luis Gustavo A; Veiga, Maria Luiza; Bastos Netto, José Murillo; Barroso, Ubirajara
To evaluate the correlation between constipation and lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) and nocturnal enuresis in a population-based study. This is a cross-sectional study. The criteria for inclusion were children and adolescents of between 5 and 17 years and who agreed to sign the informed consent form. The study excluded students with neurological problems or who had documented abnormalities of the urinary tract. To identify the presence and severity of LUTD, we used the Voiding Dysfunction Symptom Score (DVSS). To evaluate the presence of constipation, Rome III questionnaire was used. We interviewed 829 children and adolescents, of which 416 (50.18%) were male. The mean (SD) age was 9.1 (±2.9) years. The overall prevalence of LUTD was 9.1%, predominantly in girls (15 versus 3.1%, p urinary symptoms that are independent predictors of the presence of constipation. The presence of infrequent urination ( p = 0.004) and holding maneuvers ( p urinary symptoms, infrequent voiding and holding maneuvers are independent factors of urinary expressions in constipated children. Children with more severe constipation have more prominent urinary symptoms. The presence of enuresis was not associated with constipation.
Zeidan, Rouba Karen; Farah, Rita; Chahine, Mirna N; Asmar, Roland; Hosseini, Hassan; Salameh, Pascale; Pathak, Atul
Lebanon is experiencing a growing epidemic of coronary heart diseases (CHDs), as most low- and middle-income countries currently are. However, this growth can be attenuated if effective preventive strategies are adopted. To provide the first national population-based prevalence of CHD and to describe the profile of Lebanese adults with prevalent CHD. We carried out a cross-sectional study using a multistage cluster sample across Lebanon. We interviewed residents aged 40 years and older using a questionnaire that captured the presence of CHDs and their risk factors (RFs). Our study showed that 13.4% of the Lebanese population aged ≥40 years suffer from a prevalent CHD. CHD seemed to appear more prematurely than in developed countries, and males seemed to be more subject to CHD than females until a certain age. CHD was associated with older age, male sex, a lower economic situation, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, having a family history of premature cardiovascular diseases, and suffering from diabetes. However, smoking and waist circumference did not seem to have an independent effect on CHD, but rather an effect mediated by biological RFs. This is the first nationwide endeavor conducted in Lebanon to assess the prevalence of CHD. This study also confirms the relevance of the classic RFs of CHD and their applicability to the Lebanese population, thus allowing for prevention strategies.
Nayan, Madhur; Juurlink, David N; Austin, Peter C; Macdonald, Erin M; Finelli, Antonio; Kulkarni, Girish S; Hamilton, Robert J
Exposure to commonly prescribed medications may be associated with cancer risk. However, there is limited data in kidney cancer. Furthermore, methods of classifying cumulative medication exposure in previous studies may be prone to bias. We conducted a population-based case-control study of 10,377 incident kidney cancer cases aged ≥66 years matched with 35,939 controls on age, sex, history of hypertension, comorbidity score, and geographic location. Cumulative exposure to commonly prescribed medications hypothesised to modulate cancer risk was obtained using prescription claims data. We modelled exposure in four different fashions: (1) as continuous exposures using (a) fractional polynomials (which allow for a non-linear relationship between an exposure and outcome) or (b) assuming linear relationships; and 2) as dichotomous exposures denoting (a) ≥3 years versus kidney cancer. The directions of association were relatively consistent across analyses; however, the magnitudes were sensitive to the method of analysis. When utilising fractional polynomials, increasing cumulative exposure to acetylsalicylic acid, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and proton-pump inhibitors was associated with significantly reduced risk of kidney cancer, while increasing exposure to antihypertensive drugs was associated with significantly increased risk. Our study provides impetus to further explore the effect of commonly prescribed medications on carcinogenesis to identify modifiable pharmacological interventions to reduce the risk of kidney cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this article was to describe and discuss several strategies and standard operating procedures undertaken in the EpiReumaPt study – which was the first Portuguese, national, cross-sectional population-based study of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Diseases (RMD. Methods: The technical procedures, legal issues, management and practical questions were studied, analyzed and discussed with relevant stakeholders. During the 1st phase of EpiReumaPt the coordination team and Centro de Estudos de Sondagens e Opinião (CESOP worked to recruit and interview 10,661 subjects. The 2nd phase involved the participation of a multidisciplinary team, several local authorities, a specialized vehicle (“mobile unit” and a specific software program for the clinical appointments. The development of specific recruitment strategies improved the participation rate. Blood samples were collected and sent to Biobanco-IMM and to a central lab for immediate measurements. In the 3rd phase the RMD diagnosis were validated by a team of three experienced rheumatologists - clinical data, imaging and lab test results were revised according to previously published classification criteria. Conclusion: EpiReumaPt was a nationwide project successfully conducted, which followed critical logistic/coordination and research strategies. EpiReumaPt methodology and coordination could be used as an example for other epidemiologic endeavors and public health policies.
Roberts, Calpurnyia B.; Jang, Thomas L.; Shao, Yu-Hsuan; Kabadi, Shaum; Moore, Dirk F.; Lu-Yao, Grace L.
The aim of this study was to assess the treatment patterns and 3 to 12-month complication rates associated with receiving prostate cryotherapy in a population-based study. Men > 65 years diagnosed with incident localized prostate cancer in Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) - Medicare linked database from 2004 to 2005 were identified. A total of 21,344 men were included in the study, of which 380 were treated initially with cryotherapy. Recipients of cryotherapy versus aggressive forms of prostate therapy (i.e. radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy) were more likely to be older, have one co-morbidity, low income, live in the South, and be diagnosed with indolent cancer. Complication rates increased from 3 to 12 months following cryotherapy. By the twelfth month, the rates for urinary incontinence, lower urinary tract obstruction, erectile dysfunction, and bowel bleeding reached 9.8%, 28.7%, 20.1%, and 3.3%, respectively. Diagnoses of hydronephrosis, urinary fistula, or bowel fistula were not evident. The rates of corrective invasive procedures for lower urinary tract obstruction and erectile dysfunction were both cryotherapy were modest; however, diagnoses for lower urinary tract obstruction and erectile dysfunction were common. PMID:21519347
Chen, Hsiu-Pin; Tsai, Yung-Fong; Lin, Jr-Rung; Liu, Fu-Chao; Yu, Huang-Ping
The aim of the present large population-based cohort study is to explore the risk factors of age-related mortality in liver transplant recipients in Taiwan. Basic information and data on medical comorbidities for 2938 patients who received liver transplants between July 1, 1998, and December 31, 2012, were extracted from the National Health Insurance Research Database on the basis of ICD-9-codes. Mortality risks were analyzed after adjusting for preoperative comorbidities and compared among age cohorts. All patients were followed up until the study endpoint or death. This study finally included 2588 adults and 350 children [2068 (70.4%) male and 870 (29.6%) female patients]. The median age at transplantation was 52 (interquartile range, 43-58) years. Recipients were categorized into the following age cohorts: recipients (≥60 years), especially dialysis patients, have a higher mortality rate, possibly because they have more medical comorbidities. Our findings should make clinicians aware of the need for better risk stratification among elderly liver transplantation candidates.
Full Text Available Objective. It is highly debated whether associations between osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are independent of cardiovascular risk factors. We aimed to explore the associations between quantitative ultrasound (QUS parameters at the heel with the carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT, the presence of carotid artery plaques, and the ankle-brachial index (ABI. Methods. The study population comprised 5680 men and women aged 20–93 years from two population-based cohort studies: Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP and SHIP-Trend. QUS measurements were performed at the heel. The extracranial carotid arteries were examined with B-mode ultrasonography. ABI was measured in a subgroup of 3853 participants. Analyses of variance and linear and logistic regression models were calculated and adjusted for major cardiovascular risk factors. Results. Men but not women had significantly increased odds for carotid artery plaques with decreasing QUS parameters independent of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Beyond this, the QUS parameters were not significantly associated with IMT or ABI in fully adjusted models. Conclusions. Our data argue against an independent role of bone metabolism in atherosclerotic changes in women. Yet, in men, associations with advanced atherosclerosis, exist. Thus, men presenting with clinical signs of osteoporosis may be at increased risk for atherosclerotic disease.
Lange, V; Dörr, M; Schminke, U; Völzke, H; Nauck, M; Wallaschofski, H; Hannemann, A
It is highly debated whether associations between osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are independent of cardiovascular risk factors. We aimed to explore the associations between quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters at the heel with the carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), the presence of carotid artery plaques, and the ankle-brachial index (ABI). The study population comprised 5680 men and women aged 20-93 years from two population-based cohort studies: Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) and SHIP-Trend. QUS measurements were performed at the heel. The extracranial carotid arteries were examined with B-mode ultrasonography. ABI was measured in a subgroup of 3853 participants. Analyses of variance and linear and logistic regression models were calculated and adjusted for major cardiovascular risk factors. Men but not women had significantly increased odds for carotid artery plaques with decreasing QUS parameters independent of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Beyond this, the QUS parameters were not significantly associated with IMT or ABI in fully adjusted models. Our data argue against an independent role of bone metabolism in atherosclerotic changes in women. Yet, in men, associations with advanced atherosclerosis, exist. Thus, men presenting with clinical signs of osteoporosis may be at increased risk for atherosclerotic disease.
Sun, Li-Min; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Jeng, Long-Bin; Li, Tsai-Chung; Wu, Shih-Chi; Kao, Chia-Hung
Splenectomy has been suggested to have an impact on immunological function, and subsequent development of cancer has been recognized as a possible adverse effect of splenectomy. This study evaluated the possible association between splenectomy and malignancy in Taiwan. A cohort study consisted of including 2,603 patients with nontraumatic and 2,295 patients with traumatic splenectomy, and then randomly frequency matched with 4 participants without splenectomy. The Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was conducted to estimate the influence of splenectomy on cancer risk. Both nontraumatic and traumatic splenectomy had a significantly higher risk for overall cancer development (adjusted hazard ratios are 2.64 and 1.29 for nontraumatic and traumatic reasons, respectively). After adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, patients with splenectomy were associated with significantly higher risks for developing certain gastrointestinal tract cancers, other head and neck cancers, and hematological malignancies, and the phenomenon is more prominent in nontraumatic splenectomy group. This nationwide population-based study found that people with splenectomy have higher risks of developing overall cancer, as well as certain site-specific cancers, especially for patients with nontraumatic reasons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jeffrey S Chang
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma, including intra- and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, is a rare but highly lethal cancer. Despite effort in finding the risk factors of cholangiocarcinoma, the causes of most cholangiocarcinoma remain unknown. This study utilized a population-based case-control design using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD of Taiwan to assess the medical conditions associated with cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: 5,157 incident cases of cholangiocarcinoma diagnosed during 2004 to 2008 and 20,628 controls matched to the cases on sex, age, and time of diagnosis (reference date for the controls were identified from the NHIRD. Medical risk factors were ascertained from the NHIRD for each individual. Conditional logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between cholangiocarcinoma and each medical risk factor. RESULTS: The results showed that factors associated with an increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma included cholangitis, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, cirrhosis of liver, alcoholic liver disease, chronic non-alcoholic liver disease, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, diabetes, chronic pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and peptic ulcer. In addition, sex and age differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the association between cholangiocarcinoma and several less established risk factors, including diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and peptic ulcer (proxy for the presence of Helicobacter Pylori. Future studies should focus on finding additional environmental and genetic causes of cholangiocarcinoma.
Sourander, Andre; Brunstein Klomek, Anat; Ikonen, Maria; Lindroos, Jarna; Luntamo, Terhi; Koskelainen, Merja; Ristkari, Terja; Helenius, Hans
To our knowledge, no population study examining psychosocial and psychiatric risk factors associated with cyberbullying among adolescents exists. To study cross-sectional associations between cyberbullying and psychiatric and psychosomatic problems among adolescents. Population-based cross-sectional study. Finland. The sample consists of 2215 Finnish adolescents aged 13 to 16 years with complete information about cyberbullying and cybervictimization. Self-reports of cyberbullying and cybervictimization during the past 6 months. In the total sample, 4.8% were cybervictims only, 7.4% were cyberbullies only, and 5.4% were cyberbully-victims. Cybervictim-only status was associated with living in a family with other than 2 biological parents, perceived difficulties, emotional and peer problems, headache, recurrent abdominal pain, sleeping difficulties, and not feeling safe at school. Cyberbully-only status was associated with perceived difficulties, hyperactivity, conduct problems, low prosocial behavior, frequent smoking and drunkenness, headache, and not feeling safe at school. Cyberbully-victim status was associated with all of these risk factors. Among cybervictims, being cyberbullied by a same-sex or opposite-sex adult, by an unknown person, and by a group of people were associated with fear for safety, indicating possible trauma. Both cyberbullying and cybervictimization are associated with psychiatric and psychosomatic problems. The most troubled are those who are both cyberbullies and cybervictims. This indicates the need for new strategies for cyberbullying prevention and intervention.
Liu, Chien-Liang; Cheng, Shih-Ping; Lin, Hui-Wen; Lai, Yuen-Liang
The causative relationship between autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid cancer remains a controversial issue. The aim of this population-based study was to investigate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with thyroiditis. From the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID2005) of Taiwan, we identified adult patients newly diagnosed with thyroiditis between 2004 and 2009 (n = 1,654). The comparison cohort (n = 8,270) included five randomly selected age- and sex-matched controls for each patient in the study cohort. All patients were followed up from the date of cohort entry until they developed thyroid cancer or to the end of 2010. Multivariate Cox regression was used to assess the risk of developing thyroid cancer. A total of 1,000 bootstrap replicates were created for internal validation. A total of 35 patients developed thyroid cancer during the study period, of whom 24 were from the thyroiditis cohort and 11 were from the comparison cohort (incidence 353 and 22 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the hazard ratio (HR) for thyroid cancer in patients with thyroiditis was 13.24 (95 % CI 6.40-27.39). Excluding cancers occurring within 1 year of follow-up, the HR remained significantly increased (6.64; 95 % CI 2.35-18.75). Hypothyroidism was not an independent factor associated with the occurrence of thyroid cancer. We found an increased risk for the development of thyroid cancer after a diagnosis of thyroiditis, independent of comorbidities.
Yu, Tsung-Hsien; Chou, Ying-Yi; Wei, Chung-Jen; Tung, Yu-Chi
The volume-outcome relationship has been discussed for over 30 years; however, the findings are inconsistent. This might be due to the heterogeneity of service volume definitions and categorization methods. This study takes percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as an example to examine whether the service volume was associated with PCI 30-day mortality, given different service volume definitions and categorization methods. A population-based, cross-sectional multilevel study was conducted. Two definitions of physician and hospital volume were used: (1) the cumulative PCI volume in a previous year before each PCI; (2) the cumulative PCI volume within the study period. The volume was further treated in three ways: (1) a categorical variable based on the American Heart Association's recommendation; (2) a semi-data-driven categorical variable based on k-means clustering algorithm; and (3) a data-driven categorical variable based on the Generalized Additive Model. The results showed that, after adjusting the patient-, physician-, and hospital-level covariates, physician volume was associated inversely with PCI 30-day mortality, but hospital volume was not, no matter which definitions and categorization methods of service volume were applied. Physician volume is negatively associated with PCI 30-day mortality, but the results might vary because of definition and categorization method.
Hysing, Mari; Harvey, Allison G; Linton, Steven J; Askeland, Kristin G; Sivertsen, Børge
The aim of the current study was to assess the association between sleep duration and sleep patterns and academic performance in 16-19 year-old adolescents using registry-based academic grades. A large population-based study from Norway conducted in 2012, the youth@hordaland-survey, surveyed 7798 adolescents aged 16-19 years (53.5% girls). The survey was linked with objective outcome data on school performance. Self-reported sleep measures provided information on sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep deficit and bedtime differences between weekday and weekend. School performance [grade point average (GPA)] was obtained from official administrative registries. Most sleep parameters were associated with increased risk for poor school performance. After adjusting for sociodemographic information, short sleep duration and sleep deficit were the sleep measures with the highest odds of poor GPA (lowest quartile). Weekday bedtime was associated significantly with GPA, with adolescents going to bed between 22:00 and 23:00 hours having the best GPA. Also, delayed sleep schedule during weekends was associated with poor academic performance. The associations were somewhat reduced after additional adjustment for non-attendance at school, but remained significant in the fully adjusted models. In conclusion, the demonstrated relationship between sleep problems and poor academic performance suggests that careful assessment of sleep is warranted when adolescents are underperforming at school. Future studies are needed on the association between impaired sleep in adolescence and later functioning in adulthood. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.
Wellapuli, Nimali; Ekanayake, Lilani
To determine risk factors for chronic periodontitis in 30-60 year olds in Sri Lanka. Cases and controls for this population based unmatched case-control study were identified from a broader cross-sectional study which was conducted to determine the prevalence of chronic periodontitis in 30-60 year old adults in Colombo district Sri Lanka. The study included 694 cases and 706 controls. Data were collected by means of a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire to obtain information about socio-demographic and behavioural factors, a physical examination to record anthropometric measurements and an oral examination. Being a male, a Muslim, belonging to the 45-60 year old age group, having less than 12 years of education, using the finger to clean teeth, current smoking, current betel quid chewing, self-reported diabetes and hypertension emerged as risk factors for chronic periodontitis. Several socio-demographic and behavioural factors as well as co-morbid conditions emerged as independent risk factors for chronic periodontits in this population. The findings could be used for planning programmes to reduce the burden of chronic periodontits in Colombo district Sri Lanka.
Full Text Available Zhenchong Xiong,1–3,* Guangzheng Deng,1–3,* Xinjian Huang,1–3,* Xing Li,1–3 Xinhua Xie,1–3 Jin Wang,1–3 Zeyu Shuang,1–3 Xi Wang1–3 1Department of Breast Surgery, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China; 2State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou, China; 3Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Bone is one of the most common sites of breast cancer metastasis, and population-based studies of patients with bone metastasis in initial metastatic breast cancer (MBC are lacking. Materials and methods: From 2010 to 2013, 245,707 breast cancer patients and 8901 patients diagnosed with initial bone metastasis were identified by Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database of the National Cancer Institute. Multivariate logistic and Cox regression were used to identify predictive factors for the presence of bone metastasis and prognosis factors. Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank test were used for survival analysis. Results: Eight thousand nine hundred one patients with initial MBC had bone involvement, accounting for 3.6% of the entire cohort and 62.5% of the patients with initial MBC. Also, 70.5% of patients with bone metastasis were hormone receptor (HR positive (HR+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2]−: 57.6%; HR+/HER2+: 12.9%. Patients with initial bone metastasis had a better 5-year survival rate compared to those with initial brain, liver, or lung metastasis. HR+/HER2− and HR+/HER2+ breast cancer had a propensity of bone metastasis in the entire cohort and were correlated with better prognosis in patients with initial bone metastasis. Local surgery had significantly improved overall survival in initial MBC patients with bone metastasis. Conclusion: Our study has provided population-based estimates of epidemiologic characteristics and prognosis in patients with bone metastasis at the time of
Rose, Louise; Scales, Damon C; Atzema, Clare; Burns, Karen E A; Gray, Sara; Doing, Christina; Kiss, Alex; Rubenfeld, Gordon; Lee, Jacques S
Hospital emergency department (ED) strain is common in North America. Excessive strain may result in prolonged ED length of stay and may lead to worse outcomes for patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). To describe patient, ED, and hospital characteristics associated with prolonged ED length of stay for adult patients admitted from EDs to ICUs. We conducted a population-based cohort study in the Province of Ontario, Canada, including patients admitted to an adult ICU from an ED and excluding only interhospital transfers and scheduled visits. Using regression modeling, we examined associations between patient- and hospital-level characteristics and two ED performance measures: length of stay in the ED of more than 6 hours and 90-day mortality. From April 2007 to March 2012, 261,274 adults presented to 118 EDs in Ontario, generating 314,836 ICU admissions. This activity represented 4.1% of all adult ED visits (incidence, 1,374 ICU admissions/100,000 ED visits). Median (interquartile range) ED length of stay was 7 (4-13) hours. Less than half (41.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 41.2-41.5) of these patients had an ED length of stay of 6 hours or less, whereas 10.5% (95% CI, 10.4-10.6) stayed 24 hours or longer. Hospital characteristics associated with ED length of stay more than 6 hours included shift-level ED crowding (mean length of stay of patients of similar acuity registering during same 8 h epoch) (odds ratio [OR], 1.19/h; 95% CI, 1.19-1.19), ED annual visit volume (OR, 1.01/1,000 patients; 95% CI, 1.01-1.01), time of ED presentation (00:00-07:59) (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.38-1.45), and ICU functioning at greater than 20% above the average annual census (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.08-1.12). ED length of stay more than 6 hours was not associated with 90-day mortality after adjustment for selected confounders (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.97-1.02). In this population-based study, less than half of adult ED patients were admitted to an ICU 6 hours or less after arrival to
Keller, J J; Lin, C-C; Kang, J-H; Lin, H-C
This population-based case-control analysis investigated the association between osteoporosis and prior urinary calculus (UC) in Taiwan. We succeeded in detecting an association between osteoporosis and prior UC (adjusted odds ratio = 1.66). This association was consistent and significant regardless of stone location. UC has been demonstrated to be a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures, but no studies to date have directly investigated the association between UC and osteoporosis. This case-control analysis aimed to investigate the association of osteoporosis with prior UC using a population-based dataset in Taiwan. We first identified 39,840 cases ≥40 years who received their first-time diagnosis of osteoporosis between 2002 and 2009 and then randomly selected 79,680 controls. We used conditional logistic regression analyses to compute the odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) for having been previously diagnosed with UC between cases and controls. The OR of having been previously diagnosed with UC for patients with osteoporosis was 1.66 (95 % CI = 1.59-1.73) when compared to controls after adjusting for geographic location, urbanization level, type I diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, hyperlipidemia, rheumatoid arthritis, stroke, renal disease, Parkinson's disease, hyperthyroidism, chronic hepatopathy, Cushing's syndrome, malabsorption, gastrectomy, obesity, and alcohol abuse/alcohol dependence syndrome. The results consistently showed that osteoporosis was significantly associated with a previous diagnosis of UC regardless of stone location; the adjusted ORs of prior kidney calculus, ureter calculus, bladder calculus, and unspecified calculus when compared to controls were 1.71 (95 % CI = 1.61-1.81), 1.60 (95 % CI = 1.47-1.74), 1.59 (95 % CI = 1.23-2.04), and 1.69 (95 % CI = 1.59-1.80), respectively. This study succeeded in detecting an association between osteoporosis and prior UC. In addition
Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple studies have demonstrated that rates of smoking and nicotine dependence are increased in individuals with anxiety disorders. However, significant variability exists in the epidemiological literature exploring this relationship, including study design (cross-sectional versus prospective, the population assessed (random sample versus clinical population and diagnostic instrument utilized. Methods We undertook a systematic review of population-based observational studies that utilized recognized structured clinical diagnostic criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM or International Classification of Diseases (ICD for anxiety disorder diagnosis to investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders. Results In total, 47 studies met the predefined inclusion criteria, with 12 studies providing prospective information and 5 studies providing quasiprospective information. The available evidence suggests that some baseline anxiety disorders are a risk factor for initiation of smoking and nicotine dependence, although the evidence is heterogeneous and many studies did not control for the effect of comorbid substance use disorders. The identified evidence however appeared to more consistently support cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence as being a risk factor for development of some anxiety disorders (for example, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, although these findings were not replicated in all studies. A number of inconsistencies in the literature were identified. Conclusions Although many studies have demonstrated increased rates of smoking and nicotine dependence in individuals with anxiety disorders, there is a limited and heterogeneous literature that has prospectively examined this relationship in population studies using validated diagnostic criteria. The most consistent evidence supports smoking and nicotine dependence as
Lett, Caio; Valadares, Ana L R; Baccaro, Luiz F; Pedro, Adriana O; Filho, Jeffrey L; Lima, Marcelo; Costa-Paiva, Lucia
The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between age at menopause and sexual dysfunction and the components of sexual function in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional population-based study, data of 540 women aged 45 to 60 years regarding the age they were when they achieved menopause and its association with sexual dysfunction (evaluated using the Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire) were obtained through interviews. We assessed the data for associations between age at menopause and sexual dysfunction and demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics. Age at menopause was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Arousal (dysfunction) was the only component of sexual function that was associated with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and early menopause (P = 0.01). It was reported by 64.2% of women with POI (women 45 years, respectively (P = 0.04). In women with POI or early menopause, Poisson regression analysis showed that having a partner with sexual problems (prevalence ratio [PR] = 6.6; 95% CI: 3.3-13,2; P POI. The major factors affecting this association were having a partner with sexual problems, dyspareunia, and no satisfaction with the partner as a lover. These findings highlight the importance of evaluating partner problems and improving lubrication in these groups of women.
Wang, Zhenjie; Du, Wei; Pang, Lihua; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying
In the study described herein, we investigated and explored the association between wealth inequality and the risk of mental disability in the Chinese population. We used nationally represented, population-based data from the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, conducted in 2006. A total of 1,724,398 study subjects between the ages of 15 and 64, including 10,095 subjects with mental disability only, were used for the analysis. Wealth status was estimated by a wealth index that was derived from a principal component analysis of 10 household assets and four other variables related to wealth. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for mental disability for each category, with the lowest quintile category as the referent. Confounding variables under consideration were age, gender, residence area, marital status, ethnicity, education, current employment status, household size, house type, homeownership and living arrangement. The distribution of various types and severities of mental disability differed significantly by wealth index category in the present population. Wealth index category had a positive association with mild mental disability (p for trend wealth index category had a significant, inverse association with mental disability when all severities of mental disability were taken into consideration. This study’s results suggest that wealth is a significant factor in the distribution of mental disability and it might have different influences on various types and severities of mental disability. PMID:26492258
Thaíse Campos Mondin
Full Text Available Abstract This article seeks to analyze the association between sexual violence, manic and depressive episodes, and suicide risk among young adults. This is a cross-sectional population-based study carried out with young people between 18 and 24 years of age in a town in southern Brazil. The sample was selected through clusters. The prevalence of sexual violence, manic, depressive and mixed episodes and suicide risk were evaluated, as well as the association between them. The chi-square test and Poisson regression were used for statistical analysis. The study sample comprised 1,560 subjects. Among these, 3.1% had suffered sexual violence at some point in their life. The prevalence of depressive, mixed episodes, and (hypomanic episodes were 10%, 2.4% and 2.3%, respectively. Suicide risk had a prevalence of 8.6% in the total sample. Young people who have suffered sexual violence are more likely to be subject to mood changes or suicide risk than those who have not (p < 0.05, except for the occurrence of (hypomanic episodes. These results revealed a strong association between sexual violence and depressive and mixed episodes and suicide risk.
Grelat, Natacha; Houot, Hélène; Pujol, Sophie; Levain, Jean-Pierre; Defrance, Jérôme; Mariet, Anne-Sophie; Mauny, Frédéric
Acoustical and non-acoustical factors influencing noise annoyance in adults have been well-documented in recent years; however, similar knowledge is lacking in children. The aim of this study was to quantify the annoyance caused by chronic ambient noise at home in children and to assess the relationship between these children′s noise annoyance level and individual and contextual factors in the surrounding urban area. A cross sectional population-based study was conducted including 517 children attending primary school in a European city. Noise annoyance was measured using a self-report questionnaire adapted for children. Six noise exposure level indicators were built at different locations at increasing distances from the child′s bedroom window using a validated strategic noise map. Multilevel logistic models were constructed to investigate factors associated with noise annoyance in children. Noise indicators in front of the child′s bedroom (p ≤ 0.01), family residential satisfaction (p ≤ 0.03) and socioeconomic characteristics of the individuals and their neighbourhood (p ≤ 0.05) remained associated with child annoyance. These findings illustrate the complex relationships between our environment, how we may perceive it, social factors and health. Better understanding of these relationships will undoubtedly allow us to more effectively quantify the actual effect of noise on human health. PMID:27801858
Eva M Kingma
Full Text Available Low intelligence has been associated with poor health and mortality, but underlying mechanisms remain obscure. We hypothesized that low intelligence is associated with accelerated biological ageing as reflected by telomere length; we suggested potential mediation of this association by unhealthy behaviors and low socioeconomic position. The study was performed in a longitudinal population-based cohort study of 895 participants (46.8% males. Intelligence was measured with the Generalized Aptitude-Test Battery at mean age 52.8 years (33-79 years, SD=11.3. Leukocyte telomere length was measured by PCR. Lifestyle and socioeconomic factors were assessed using written self-report measures. Linear regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, and telomere length measured at the first assessment wave (T1, showed that low intelligence was associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length at approximately 2 years follow-up (beta= .081, t=2.160, p= .031. Nearly 40% of this association was explained by an unhealthy lifestyle, while low socioeconomic position did not add any significant mediation. Low intelligence may be a risk factor for accelerated biological ageing, thereby providing an explanation for its association with poor health and mortality.
Ratnasabapathy, Yogini; Broad, Joanna; Baskett, Jonathan; Pledger, Megan; Marshall, Jane; Bonita, Ruth
To measure the occurrence of shoulder pain after stroke. To identify the factors that predict risk of shoulder pain after stroke. Auckland Stroke Study, population-based case-cohort study. All cases of stroke, including those managed outside hospital, over a 12-month period ending February 1992 were considered in Auckland. Self-reported shoulder pain at one week, one month and six months after the onset of stroke for each person. A total of 1,761 stroke events were identified. Self-reported shoulder pain among survivors increased from 256/1474 (17%) at one week, to 261/1,336 (20%) at one month and 284/1,201 (23%) at six months. Shoulder pain was positively associated with motor deficit, side of deficit and severity of deficit. In those surviving to six months after stroke, the risk of shoulder pain was higher in those with severe upper limb motor deficit (odds ratio (OR) 4.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.06-7.98) and in diabetics (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.15-2.14). Risk of shoulder pain increased with time and was lower for those in institutional care. Shoulder pain after stroke is common, especially in patients with severe sensorimotor deficits, diabetics and those living at home. Appropriate management may reduce the rate of occurrence.
Oliveira, G; Diogo, L; Grazina, M; Garcia, P; Ataíde, A; Marques, C; Miguel, T; Borges, L; Vicente, A M; Oliveira, C R
A minority of cases of autism has been associated with several different organic conditions, including bioenergetic metabolism deficiency. In a population-based study, we screened associated medical conditions in a group of 120 children with autism (current age range 11y 5mo to 14y 4mo, mean age 12y 11mo [SD 9.6mo], male:female ratio 2.9:1). Children were diagnosed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria, the Autism Diagnostic Interview--Revised, and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale; 76% were diagnosed with typical autism and 24% with atypical autism. Cognitive functional level was assessed with the Griffiths scale and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and was in the normal range in 17%. Epilepsy was present in 19 patients. Plasma lactate levels were measured in 69 patients, and in 14 we found hyperlactacidemia. Five of 11 patients studied were classified with definite mitochondrial respiratory chain disorder, suggesting that this might be one of the most common disorders associated with autism (5 of 69; 7.2%) and warranting further investigation.
Ananth, Cande V; Vintzileos, Anthony M
Small for gestational age (SGA) can occur following a pathological process or may represent constitutionally small fetuses. However, distinguishing these processes is often difficult, especially in large studies, where the term SGA is often used as a proxy for restricted fetal growth. Since biologic variation in fetal size is largely a third trimester phenomenon, we hypothesized that the definition of SGA at term may include a sizeable proportion of constitutionally small fetuses. In contrast, since biologic variation in fetal size is not fully expressed in (early) preterm gestations, it is plausible that SGA in early preterm gestations would comprise a large proportion of growth restricted fetuses. We compared mortality and morbidity rates between SGA and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) babies. A population-based study of over 19million non-malformed, singleton births (1995-04) in the United States was performed. Gestational age (24-44weeks) was based on a clinical estimate. SGA and AGA were defined as sex-specific birthweight constitutionally small.
da Silva, Luciana; Kupek, Emil; Peres, Karen G
The aim of this study was to investigate the associated factors of changes in symptoms of xerostomia (SOX) in adults aged 20-59. A prospective population-based study was conducted in 2009 (n = 1720) and 2012 (n = 1222) in the urban area of Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. Information on SOX was collected in both years together with age, family income, years of schooling, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, changes in the body mass index (BMI; kg/m²), medicine use, self-reported diagnosis of chronic diseases, change in hypertension status and in the use and need for dentures, and number of remaining teeth. Associated factors with changes in SOX were investigated using multinomial logistic regression, considering those who had never reported this symptom as the reference. Prevalence of regular SOX was equal to 3.8% (95% CI: 2.9-5.1) and irregular (one period only) equal to 12.2% (95% CI: 10.2-14.5). Age, smoking habit, medicine use, self-reported diagnosis of depression, and weight gain increased the probability of regular SOX, whereas highest schooling level was associated with lower probability of this symptom. General and psychosocial health influenced the number of episodes of xerostomia symptoms, calling for multidisciplinary actions to prevent common risk behaviors for oral and general diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Danielle Cristina Guimarães da Silva
Full Text Available Abstract The article describes the relative frequency ok of risk and protective behaviors for chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs in adults residing in Viçosa, Brazil. A cross-section-al population-based study including 1,226 adults living in the municipality. We used a structured questionnaire containing questions sociodemographic and behavioral The risk and protection factors evaluated were: smoking, physical activity, excessive consumption of alcohol and food consumption. The proportion of risk and protection factors was calculated in the total population, according to gender, education and socioeconomic status. The studied population has a high frequency of risk factors for NCDs, such as excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, habit of consuming whole milk, habit of eating meat with visible fat, regular consumption of soft drinks and 78.5% did not achieve the minimum recommendation for physical activity in leisure time. With regard to protective factors, 86.2% of the population reported regular consumption of fruits and vegetables, and 73%, of beans. It was found the highest frequency of risk factors in among males, in younger people and middle socioeconomic status. This population has an urgent need for public policy of municipal planning to change this current scenario.
Pedrotti Moreira, Fernanda; Wiener, Carolina David; Jansen, Karen; Portela, Luis Valmor; Lara, Diogo R; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Oses, Jean Pierre
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of childhood trauma in cytokine serum levels of individuals with MDD. This was a cross-sectional study population-based, with people aged 18 to 35. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I) measured to current major depressive disorder (MDD). To evaluate traumatic experiences during childhood, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was applied. Serum TNF- α, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA using a commercial kit. The total sample comprised 166 young adults, of these: 40.4% were subjects with MDD and childhood trauma and 59.6% were diagnosed with MDD without childhood trauma. In relation to serum interleukin levels, subjects with childhood trauma showed a significantly higher serum IL-6 (p = 0.013) and IL-10 levels (p = 0.022) to compare no childhood trauma. Subjects with childhood trauma was observed positive correlation between serum IL-6 and physical abuse (r = 0.232, p = 0.035) and emotional abuse (r = 0.460, p ≤ 0.001). Moreover, IL-10 were positive correlation with physical abuse (r = 0.258, p = 0.013). TNF- α was not associated with childhood trauma. Childhood maltreatment may result higher inflammation dysregulation in individuals with depression than individuals that no has childhood maltreatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Legosz, Margot; Wells, Helene; Kemp, Robert
Ecstasy (MDMA) use is relatively common among young adults in many developed countries. However, little is known about how young non-users are first introduced to Ecstasy, including the relative contribution of peer networks and individual risk factors. We assess the role of social contact with Ecstasy-using peers in regard to young adults' exposure to offers of Ecstasy, using data from the Natural History Study, a population-based study conducted in Australia. Population screening of young adults (19- to 23-year-olds) identified a sample of young Ecstasy users (N = 315) and a comparison group of Ecstasy-naïve participants (N = 199). Two outcomes are considered: being exposed to any Ecstasy offers and being exposed to > 3 offers. Extensive social contact with Ecstasy users was defined as knowing > 10 Ecstasy users. Of the Ecstasy-naïve young adults, > 40% had ever received Ecstasy offers. Extensive social contact with Ecstasy users independently predicted exposure to multiple (> 3) Ecstasy offers for Ecstasy-naïve young adults. These findings indicate that Ecstasy offers are widespread among users and non-users of Ecstasy. For non-users, exposure to Ecstasy offers occurs through social contact with drug-using peers independently of individual risk factors. The pervasiveness of Ecstasy offers suggests that universal education concerning Ecstasy use is required.
Cremonini, F; Camilleri, M; Clark, MM; Beebe, TJ; Locke, GR; Zinsmeister, AR; Herrick, LM; Talley, NJ
Background The psychological symptoms associated with binge eating disorder (BED) have been well documented. However, the physical symptoms associated with BED have not been explored. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms such as heartburn and diarrhea are more prevalent in obese adults, but the associations remain unexplained. Patients with bulimia have increased gastric capacity. The objective of the study was to examine if the severity of binge eating episodes would be associated with upper and lower GI symptoms. Methods Population-based survey of community residents through a mailed questionnaire measuring GI symptoms, frequency of binge eating episodes and physical activity level. The association of GI symptoms with frequency of binge eating episodes was assessed using logistic regression models adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and physical activity level. Results In 4096 subjects, BED was present in 6.1%. After adjusting for BMI, age, gender, race, diabetes mellitus, socioeconomic status and physical activity level, BED was independently associated with the following upper GI symptoms: acid regurgitation (P symptoms: diarrhea (P symptoms in the general population, independent of the level of obesity. The relationship between increased GI symptoms and physiological responses to increased volume and calorie loads, nutritional selections and rapidity of food ingestion in individuals with BED deserves further study. PMID:19139750
Yvette M. Bordelon
Full Text Available We assessed degree of Parkinson disease motor symptom improvement with medication among subjects enrolled in an ongoing, population-based study in Central California. The motor section of the unified Parkinson disease rating scale (UPDRS was performed on subjects in both OFF and ON medication states, and difference between these scores was used as an indicator of symptomatic benefit. Higher OFF minus ON scores correlated with more severe baseline symptoms. There was equivalent improvement on the motor UPDRS scale for subjects divided according to medication classes used: levodopa alone 7.3 points, levodopa plus other medications 8.5 points, and dopamine agonists but not levodopa 6.1 points. In addition, there was no difference in the magnitude of improvement when subjects were divided according to Parkinson disease subtype, defined as tremor dominant, akinetic-rigid, or mixed. In this community-based sample, these values are within the range of a clinically important difference as defined by previous studies.
Su, Jian-An; Cheng, Bi-Hua; Huang, Yin-Cheng; Lee, Chuan-Pin; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Lu, Mong-Liang; Hsu, Chung-Yao; Lee, Yena; McIntyre, Roger S; Chin Lin, Tzu; Chin-Hung Chen, Vincent
The co-primary aims are: 1) to compare the risk of fracture between adults with bipolar disorder and those without bipolar disorder; and 2) to assess whether lithium, anticonvulsants and antipsychotics reduce risk of fracture among individuals with bipolar disorder. The analysis herein is a population-based retrospective cohort study, utilizing the National Health Insurance (NHI) medical claims data collected between 1997 and 2013 in Taiwan. We identified 3705 cases with incident diagnoses of bipolar disorder during study period and 37,050 matched controls without bipolar diagnoses. Incident diagnosis of fracture was operationalized as any bone fracture after the diagnosis of bipolar disorder or after the matched index date for controls. Bipolar patients had significantly higher risk of facture when compared to matched controls (17.6% versus 11.7%, respectively pbipolar disorder and a prior history of psychiatric hospitalization were had higher risk for bone fracture than those without prior history of psychiatric hospitalization when compared to match controls. Higher cumulative dose of antipsychotics or mood stabilizers did not increase the risk of fracture. The diagnoses of bipolar disorder were not confirmed with structured clinical interview. Drug adherence, exact exposure dosage, smoking, lifestyle, nutrition and exercise habits were unable to be assessed in our dataset. Bipolar disorder is associated with increased risk of fracture, and higher cumulative dose of mood stabilizers and antipsychotics did not further increase the risk of fracture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Burge, Frederick I.; Lawson, Beverley J.; Johnston, Grace M.; Grunfeld, Eva
Background Inequalities in access to palliative care programs (PCP) by age have been shown to exist in Canada and elsewhere. Few studies have been able to provide greater insight by simultaneously adjusting for multiple demographic, health service, and socio-cultural indicators. Objective To re-examine the relationship between age and registration to specialized community-based PCP programs among cancer patients and identify the multiple indicators contributing to these inequalities. Methods This retrospective, population-based study was a secondary data analysis of linked individual level information extracted from 6 administrative health databases and contextual (neighborhood level) data from provincial and census information. Subjects included all adults who died due to cancer between 1998 and 2003 living within 2 District Health Authorities in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The relationship between registration in a PCP and age was examined using hierarchical nonlinear regression modeling techniques. Identification of potential patient and ecologic contributing indicators was guided by Andersen’s conceptual model of health service utilization. Results Overall, 66% of 7511 subjects were registered with a PCP. Older subjects were significantly less likely than those center had a major impact on registration. Conclusions Age continues to be a significant predictor of PCP registration in Nova Scotia even after controlling for the confounding effects of many new demographic, health service, and ecologic indicators. PMID:19300309
Feng, Jui-Ying; Chang, Yi-Ting; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Fetzer, Susan; Wang, Jung-Der
Reported cases of child maltreatment are increasing in Taiwan. Yet, comprehensive epidemiological characteristics of adolescents' exposure over the wide spectrum of violence are still lacking. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and magnitude of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents. A population-based study was conducted with 5,276 adolescents aged 12-18 from 35 schools in 17 cities and townships to determine the prevalence of five forms of child maltreatment in Taiwan. A total of 5,236 adolescents completed anonymous, self-report, structured questionnaires. Most adolescents (91%, n=4,788) experienced at least one form of maltreatment with 83% (n=4,347) exposed during the previous year. Violence exposure was the most common type of child maltreatment experienced, followed by psychological abuse, physical abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse. Adolescents reported an average of 7.4 (SD=5.87) victimizations over their lifetime and 4.8 (SD=4.82) victimizations during the past year. Females reported a higher rate of neglect, while males reported a higher rate of sexual abuse. Most of the sexual abuse perpetrators were known by their victims. Adolescents' victimization and polyvictimization from child maltreatment in Taiwan deserves a review and modification of national control and prevention policies. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
von Kobyletzki, Laura B; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Breeze, Elizabeth; Larsson, Malin; Lindström, Cecilia Boman; Svensson, Åke
The aim of this study was to analyse factors associated with remission of atopic dermatitis (AD) in childhood. A population-based AD cohort of 894 children aged 1-3 years from a cross-sectional baseline study in 2000 was followed up in 2005. The association between remission, background, health, lifestyle, and environmental variables was estimated with crude and multivariable logistic regression. At follow-up, 52% of the children had remission. Independent factors at baseline predicting remission were: milder eczema (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.43; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.16-1.77); later onset of eczema (aOR 1.40; 95% CI 1.08-1.80); non-flexural eczema (aOR 2.57; 95% CI 1.62-4.09); no food allergy (aOR 1.51; 95% CI 1.11-2.04), and rural living (aOR 1.48; 95% CI 1.07-2.05). Certain aspects of AD and rural living were important for remission, but despite the initial hypotheses to the contrary, the environmental factors examined in this paper were not substantial predictors of remission.
Brynolf, Anne; Johansson, Stefan; Appelgren, Ester; Lynoe, Niels; Edstedt Bonamy, Anna-Karin
To investigate potential violations of patient confidentiality or other breaches of medical ethics committed by physicians and medical students active on the social networking site Twitter. Population-based cross-sectional observational study. The social networking site Twitter (Swedish-speaking users, n=298819). Physicians and medical students (Swedish-speaking users, n=237) active on the social networking site Twitter between July 2007 and March 2012. Postings that reflect unprofessional behaviour and ethical breaches among physicians and medical students. In all, 237 Twitter accounts were established as held by physicians and medical students and a total of 13 780 tweets were analysed by content. In all, 276 (1.9%) tweets were labelled as 'unprofessional'. Among these, 26 (0.2%) tweets written by 15 (6.3%) physicians and medical students included information that could violate patient privacy. No information on the personal ID number or names was disclosed, but parts of the patient documentation or otherwise specific indicatory information on patients were found. Unprofessional tweets were more common among users writing under a pseudonym and among medical students. In this study of physicians and medical students on Twitter, we observed potential violations of patient privacy and other breaches of medical ethics. Our findings underline that every physician and medical student has to consider his or her presence on social networking sites. It remains to be investigated if the introduction of social networking site guidelines for medical professionals will improve awareness.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lower lung function is associated with an elevated systemic white cell count in men. However, these observations have not been demonstrated in a representative population that includes females and may be susceptible to confounding by recent airway infections or recent cigarette smoking. We tested the hypothesis that lung function is inversely associated with systemic white cell count in a population-based study. METHODS: The study population consisted adults aged 17-90+ years who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who did not report a recent cough, cold or acute illness in a non-smoking and smoking population. RESULTS: In non-smoking adults with the highest quintile of the total white cell count had a FEV(1 125.3 ml lower than those in the lowest quintile (95% confidence interval CI: -163.1 to -87.5. Adults with the highest quintile of the total white cell count had a FVC 151.1 ml lower than those in the lowest quintile (95% confidence interval CI: -195.0 to -107.2. Similar associations were observed for granulocytes, mononuclear cells and lymphocytes. In current smokers, similar smaller associations observed for total white cell count, granulocytes and mononuclear cells. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic cellular inflammation levels are inversely associated with lung function in a population of both non-smokers and smokers without acute illnesses. This may contribute to the increased mortality observed in individuals with a higher baseline white cell count.
Liu, Feng-Cheng; Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Te-Yu; Shen, Chih-Hao; Chou, Yu-Ching; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Kuen-Tze; Kao, Chia-Hung
The effects of the inflammatory mediators involved in systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) on subsequent Parkinson disease have been reported, but no relevant studies have focused on the association between the 2 diseases. This nationwide population-based study evaluated the risk of Parkinson disease in patients with SLE.We identified 12,817 patients in the Taiwan National Health Insurance database diagnosed with SLE between 2000 and 2010 and compared the incidence rate of Parkinson disease among these patients with that among 51,268 randomly selected age and sex-matched non-SLE patients. A Cox multivariable proportional-hazards model was used to evaluate the risk factors of Parkinson disease in the SLE cohort.We observed an inverse association between a diagnosis of SLE and the risk of subsequent Parkinson disease, with the crude hazard ratio (HR) being 0.60 (95% confidence interval 0.45-0.79) and adjusted HR being 0.68 (95% confidence interval 0.51-0.90). The cumulative incidence of Parkinson disease was 0.83% lower in the SLE cohort than in the non-SLE cohort. The adjusted HR of Parkinson disease decreased as the follow-up duration increased and was decreased among older lupus patients with comorbidity.We determined that patients with SLE had a decreased risk of subsequent Parkinson disease. Further research is required to elucidate the underlying mechanism.
Sturup, Joakim; Karlberg, Daniel; Kristiansson, Marianne
The clearance rates for homicides have decreased internationally. This retrospective population-based study of all Swedish homicide incidents between 2007 and 2009 (n=264) aims to investigate factors associated with solvability in homicides. Victims were identified in an autopsy registry and offenders in a criminal-conviction registry. Autopsy reports, police files, court verdicts and criminal records were systematically collected and linked. The clearance rate was 86.4% (n=228), and almost three quarters of cases (71.9%) were solved within the first week. Nine factors were significantly associated with the case status; however, only four factors remained significant in the multivariate logistic-regression model. Cases were more likely to be solved if there was an eyewitness and if the victim was intoxicated with alcohol. Moreover, cases were less likely to be solved if the victim had a criminal record in the past five years and was killed by a firearm. In the final model, a Cox proportional-hazards model, where time to arrest was taken into account, only alcohol intoxication were positively and firearms negatively significantly associated with clearance status. The study concludes that cases involving these factors should be granted extra, intensive and lasting resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Matzopoulos, Richard G; Thompson, Mary Lou; Myers, Jonathan E
We assessed the effectiveness of South Africa's Firearm Control Act (FCA), passed in 2000, on firearm homicide rates compared with rates of nonfirearm homicide across 5 South African cities from 2001 to 2005. We conducted a retrospective population-based study of 37 067 firearm and nonfirearm homicide cases. Generalized linear models helped estimate and compare time trends of firearm and nonfirearm homicides, adjusting for age, sex, race, day of week, city, year of death, and population size. There was a statistically significant decreasing trend regarding firearm homicides from 2001, with an adjusted year-on-year homicide rate ratio of 0.864 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.848, 0.880), representing a decrease of 13.6% per annum. The year-on-year decrease in nonfirearm homicide rates was also significant, but considerably lower at 0.976 (95% CI = 0.954, 0.997). Results suggest that 4585 (95% CI = 4427, 4723) lives were saved across 5 cities from 2001 to 2005 because of the FCA. Strength, timing and consistent decline suggest stricter gun control mediated by the FCA accounted for a significant decrease in homicide overall, and firearm homicide in particular, during the study period.
Hovén, Emma; Lannering, Birgitta; Gustafsson, Göran; Boman, Krister K
This study examines information needs and satisfaction with provided information among childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumor survivors and their parents. In a population-based sample of 697 adult survivors in Sweden, 518 survivors and 551 parents provided data. Information needs and satisfaction with information were studied using a multi-dimensional standardized questionnaire addressing information-related issues. Overall, 52% of the survivors and 48% of the parents reported no, or only minor, satisfaction with the extent of provided information, and 51% of the survivors expressed a need for more information than provided. The information received was found useful (to some extent/very much) by 53%, while 47% did not find it useful, or to a minor degree only. Obtaining written material was associated with greater satisfaction and usefulness of information. Dissatisfaction with information was associated with longer time since diagnosis, poorer current health status and female sex. The survivors experienced unmet information needs vis-à-vis late effects, illness education, rehabilitation and psychological services. Overall, parents were more dissatisfied than the survivors. These findings have implications for improvements in information delivery. Information in childhood CNS tumor care and follow-up should specifically address issues where insufficiency was identified, and recognize persistent and with time changing needs at the successive stages of long-term survivorship.
Full Text Available The early life environment appears to have a persistent impact on asthma risk. We hypothesize that environmental factors related to rural life mediate lower asthma prevalence in rural populations, and aimed to investigate an urban-rural gradient, assessed by place of upbringing, for asthma. The population-based Respiratory Health In Northern Europe (RHINE study includes subjects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia born 1945–1973. The present analysis encompasses questionnaire data on 11,123 RHINE subjects. Six categories of place of upbringing were defined: farm with livestock, farm without livestock, village in rural area, small town, city suburb and inner city. The association of place of upbringing with asthma onset was analysed with Cox regression adjusted for relevant confounders. Subjects growing up on livestock farms had less asthma (8% than subjects growing up in inner cities (11% (hazard ratio 0.72 95% CI 0.57–0.91, and a significant urban-rural gradient was observed across six urbanisation levels (p = 0.02. An urban-rural gradient was only evident among women, smokers and for late-onset asthma. Analyses on wheeze and place of upbringing revealed similar results. In conclusion, this study suggests a protective effect of livestock farm upbringing on asthma development and an urban-rural gradient in a Northern European population.
Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Roy, Adity; Chan, Keith Tsz-Kit; Kobayashi, Karen M
Filipino Americans form the second-largest Asian American and Pacific Islanders subgroup. Growing evidence suggests that Filipino Americans have higher rates of diabetes than non-Hispanic whites. The key objectives of this study are 1) to determine the prevalence of diabetes in non-obese Filipino Americans compared to non-obese non-Hispanic whites, and 2) to identify risk factors for diabetes in non-obese Filipino men and women. Secondary analysis of population-based data from combined waves (2007, 2009 and 2011) of the adult California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). The study sample was restricted to non-obese Filipino Americans (n = 1629) and non-Hispanic whites (n = 72 072). Non-obese Filipino Americans had more than twice the odds of diabetes compared to non-Hispanic whites, even after correcting for several known risk factors (OR = 2.80, p < 0.001). For non-obese Filipino men, older age, poverty, cigarette smoking, and being overweight are associated with increased odds for diabetes, while older age was the only factor associated with diabetes among Filipina women. Diabetes prevention approaches need to be targeted towards non-obese Filipino Americans, due to their high risk of diabetes.
Chung, Peter Chi-Ho; Chen, Hsiu-Pin; Lin, Jr-Rung; Liu, Fu-Chao; Yu, Huang-Ping
Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess whether preoperative chronic renal failure (CRF) affects the rates of postoperative complications and survival after liver transplantation. Methods This population-based retrospective cohort study included 2,931 recipients of liver transplantation performed between 1998 and 2012, enrolled from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients were divided into two groups, based on the presence or absence of preoperative CRF. Results The overall estimated survival rate of liver transplantation recipients (LTRs) with preoperative CRF was significantly lower than that of patients without preoperative CRF (P=0.0085). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of duration of intensive care unit stay, total hospital stay, bacteremia, postoperative bleeding, and pneumonia during hospitalization. Long-term adverse effects, including cerebrovascular disease and coronary heart disease, were not different between patients with versus without CRF. Conclusion These findings suggest that LTRs with preoperative CRF have a higher rate of mortality. PMID:28008264
Chung, Jae Ho; Kim, Jung Bin; Kim, Ji Hyun
Stroke is known to be associated with an increase in the risk for suicide. However, there are very few population-based studies investigating the risk of suicidal ideation and attempts in patients with stroke. The purpose of this study was to compare the risk of suicidal ideation and attempts between patients with stroke and population without stroke using nationwide survey data. Individual-level data were obtained from 228,735 participants (4560 with stroke and 224,175 without stroke) of the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey. Demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, physical health status, and mental health status were compared between patients with stroke and population without stroke. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to investigate the independent effects of the stroke on suicidal ideation and attempts. Stroke patients had more depressive mood (12.6 %) than population without stroke (5.7 %, p suicidal ideation (24.4 %) and attempts (1.3 %) than population without stroke (9.8 and 0.4 %, respectively; both p suicidal ideation (OR 1.65, 95 % CI 1.52-1.79) and suicidal attempts (OR 1.64, 95 % CI 1.21-2.22), adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic factors, and physical health and mental health factors. We found that stroke increased the risk for suicidal ideation and attempts, independent of other factors that are known to be associated with suicidality, suggesting that stroke per se may be an independent risk factor for suicidality.
Objectives: To describe breastfeeding mediators among women at pre-marital stage in Iran. Methods: Using the simple randomized sampling method, 450 participants were enrolled in this population-based cross-sectional study. A structured questionnaire was used in order to collect data. Results: Eighty eight percent of the participants reported that had not met breastfeeding education previously. The available sources of information for 65% of respondents were radio and television. Seventy nine percent did not know any breastfeeding consultant. Mean score of participants' knowledge was lower than 50 score. Nearly 50% participants claimed the breastfeeding to be as a common barrier for their job and learning. Only 14% had intended to initiate breastfeeding immediately after childbearing. Mean score of perceived self efficacy about breastfeeding was less than 50 percent. Conclusion: Breastfeeding mediators among Iranian women at premarital stage are not in favorable situation. Findings of this study suggest a need for more breastfeeding education programs for Iranian women at premarital stage. (author)
Li, Dongfang; Li, Daojuan; Song, Guohui; Liang, Di; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Yachen; Gao, Zhaoyu; He, Yutong
Cixian is one of the high-risk areas for upper gastrointestinal cancer in China and the world. From 2005, comprehensive population-based screening for upper gastrointestinal cancers has been conducted in Cixian. The aim of this study was to investigate population-based cancer survival from 2003 to 2013 and to explore the effect of screening on upper gastrointestinal cancer survival in Cixian. Observed survival was estimated using the life table method. The expected survival from the general population was calculated using all-cause mortality data from the population of Cixian with the EdererII method. Cixian cancer registry, with a total coverage of 6.88 million person years, recorded 19,628 cancer patients diagnosed during 2003-2013. In Cixian, from 2003 to 2013, there were 19,628 newly cancer cases and 13,984 cancer deaths, with an incidence rate of 285.37/100,000 and mortality rate of 203.31/100,000. The overall five-year relative cancer survival for patients diagnosed in Cixian in 2003-2013 was 22.53%. The relative survival for all cancers combined in Cixian had an overall upward trend from 2003 to 2013. Among upper gastrointestinal cancer in Cixian, the five-year relative survival for cardia gastric cancer was highest at 30.42%, followed by oesophageal cancer at 25.37% and noncardia gastric cancer at 18.93%. In 2013, the five-year relative survival for oesophageal cancer, cardia gastric cancer, and noncardia gastric cancer patients aged 45-69 years was 39.97% (95% CI: 34.52-45.43%), 51.74% (95% CI: 42.09-60.86%), and 37.43% (95% CI: 26.93-48.17%), respectively, the absolute values increasing 14.11%, 16.71%, and 14.92% compared with that in 2003. There is an increasing trend in overall survival for upper gastrointestinal cancer with early screening and treatment of cancer in Cixian. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Iyer, Prasad G; Borah, Bijan J; Heien, Herbert C; Das, Ananya; Cooper, Gregory S; Chak, Amitabh
Central obesity could increase the risk for Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma by mechanical and/or metabolic mechanisms, such as hyperinsulinemia. We performed an epidemiologic study to determine whether prior type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is associated with BE. We performed a population-based case-control study using the General Practice Research Database, a UK primary care database that contains information on more than 8 million subjects, to identify cases of BE (using previously validated codes; n = 14,245) and matched controls without BE (by age, sex, enrollment date, duration of follow-up evaluation, and practice region by incidence density sampling; n = 70,361). We assessed the association of a prior diagnosis of DM2 with BE using conditional univariate and multivariable regression analysis. Confounders assessed included smoking, obesity measured by body mass index (BMI), and gastroesophageal reflux disease. BE cases were more likely than controls to have smoked (52.4% vs 49.9%), have a higher mean BMI (27.2 vs 26.9), and a higher prevalence of DM2 than controls (5.8% vs 5.3%). On multivariable analysis, DM2 was associated with a 49% increase in the risk of BE, independent of other known risk factors (odds ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.91). This association was stronger in women than men. Results remained stable with sensitivity analyses. In a large population-based case-control study, DM2 was a risk factor for BE, independent of obesity (as measured by BMI) and other risk factors (smoking and gastroesophageal reflux disease). These data suggest that metabolic pathways related to DM2 should be explored in BE pathogenesis and esophageal carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hvid-Jensen, Frederik; Nielsen, Rikke B; Pedersen, Lars; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Larsen, Finn B; Thomsen, Reimar W
Lifestyle factors may influence observed associations between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) usage and health outcomes. The aim of the study reported here was to examine characteristics and differences in lifestyle among PPI users and nonusers. This cross-sectional study utilized data from a 2006 population-based health survey of 21,637 persons in the Central Danish Region. All persons using prescribed PPIs were identified through linkage to a population-based prescription database. Biometric measures and prevalence of smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, diet, and physical exercise were analyzed, comparing PPI users with nonusers. Among 10,129 (46.8%) male and 11,508 (53.2%) female survey respondents, 1,356 (13.4%) males and 1,691 (14.7%) females reported ever use of PPIs. PPI users were more obese (16.7%) than nonusers (13.1%), with an age- and sex-standardized prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-1.4). The prevalence of smokers was also higher in the PPI group (26.2% vs 22.3% [PR =1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3]), as was the prevalence of ex-smokers (41.0% vs 32.0% [PR =1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.2]). Unhealthy diet was slightly more common among PPI users than among nonusers (15.4% vs 13.0%), with a PR of 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1-1.3). Physical exercise level and alcohol consumption were similar in the two groups. Hospital-diagnosed comorbidity was observed in 35% of PPI users (a Charlson Comorbidity Index score of 1 or more) compared with only 15% among nonusers. PPI users are more obese, smoke more, and have significantly more comorbidities than PPI nonusers. These data are important when evaluating unmeasured confounding in observational studies of PPI effects.
Ashmore, Joseph H; Lesko, Samuel M; Miller, Paige E; Cross, Amanda J; Muscat, Joshua E; Zhu, Junjia; Liao, Jason; Harper, Gregory; Lazarus, Philip; Hartman, Terryl J
We evaluated the role of dietary iron, heme iron, and supplemental iron on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in a population-based case-control study in Pennsylvania, including 1005 incident cases and 1062 controls. Diet was assessed through a modified food frequency questionnaire that included supplement use and a meat-specific module. Cases reported intakes for the year before diagnosis, whereas controls reported intakes for the year before interview. Heme iron intake was calculated using a new heme database developed by the US National Cancer Institute. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. After multivariate adjustment, there were no significant associations between heme iron or total iron intake and CRC incidence. Dietary iron intake was inversely associated with CRC among women (OR Q5 vs. Q1=0.45; 95% CI=0.22-0.92), but not among men. Supplemental iron intake of more than 18 mg/day versus none was positively associated with CRC incidence (OR=2.31; 95% CI=1.48-3.59; P-trendconsumption of more than 18 mg/day of supplemental iron may increase risk for CRC.
Lee, A J; Lee, J; Saw, S-M; Gazzard, G; Koh, D; Widjaja, D; Tan, D T H
Aim: To determine the prevalence and identify associated risk factors for dry eye syndrome in a population in Sumatra, Indonesia. Methods: A one stage cluster sampling procedure was conducted to randomly select 100 households in each of the five rural villages and one provincial town of the Riau province, Indonesia, from April to June 2001. Interviewers collected demographic, lifestyle, and medical data from 1058 participants aged 21 years or over. Symptoms of dry eye were assessed using a six item validated questionnaire. Presence of one or more of the six dry eye symptoms often or all the time was analysed. Presence of pterygium was documented. Results: Prevalence of one or more of the six dry eye symptoms often or all the time adjusted for age was 27.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 24.8 to 30.2). After adjusting for all significant variables, independent risk factors for dry eye were pterygium (p<0.001, multivariate odds ratio (OR) 1.8; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.5) and a history of current cigarette smoking (p=0.05, multivariate OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.2). Conclusions: This population based study provides prevalence rates of dry eye symptoms in a tropical developing nation. From our findings, pterygium is a possible independent risk factor for dry eye symptoms. PMID:12446361
Sakallioglu, O; Polat, C; Akyigit, A; Cetiner, H; Duzer, S
To investigate the likelihood of allergic rhinitis and potential co-morbidities, and to assess whether allergic rhinitis is associated with arterial blood pressure and hypertension. In this population-based study, 369 adults with allergic rhinitis and asthma were assessed via a questionnaire and immunoglobulin E levels. There were four groups: control (n = 90), allergic rhinitis (n = 99), asthma (n = 87) and hypertension (n = 93). Arterial blood pressure was measured in all groups. There were no significant differences in systolic or diastolic blood pressure between males and females in any group. Pairwise comparisons revealed no significant differences between: the control and allergic rhinitis groups, the control and asthma groups, or the allergic rhinitis and asthma groups. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure values of males and females were significantly higher in the hypertension group than the allergic rhinitis group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure for seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis patients. Rhinitis was not associated with increased blood pressure. Allergic rhinitis can coincide with asthma and hypertension. The findings do not support the need for blood pressure follow up in allergic rhinitis patients.
Repalust, Anja; Šević, Sandra; Rihtar, Stanko; Štulhofer, Aleksandar
Considering that programmatic data suggest a recent rise in vaccine refusal in Croatia, this study, first of its kind in Southeast Europe, aimed to estimate the prevalence, and sociodemographic, and sociocultural determinants of childhood vaccine refusal and hesitancy (CVRH) intentions among Croatian adults. Multi-stage stratified population-based survey included 1000 individuals aged 18-88 years (M age = 47.7, SD = 17.8), of whom 51.7% were women. The outcome, a categorical indicator, distinguished among individuals who would approve vaccinating their children (vaccine accepting), those who would approve some but not all vaccines (vaccine hesitant), and those who would refuse vaccination (vaccine refusing). A sizeable minority of participants was characterized by childhood vaccine refusal (10.6%) and hesitancy intentions (19.5%). In a multivariate assessment controlling for parenthood, the odds of vaccine hesitancy were significantly increased by a younger age (AOR = 1.96-3.03, p Croatia. Following the social contagion model, future research should move beyond individual-level approach and take into account social interaction and social network effects.
Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger
To examine the effects of fertility drugs on overall risk of ovarian cancer using data from a large cohort of infertile women. Population based cohort study. Danish hospitals and private fertility clinics. 54,362 women with infertility problems referred to all Danish fertility clinics during 1963-98. The median age at first evaluation of infertility was 30 years (range 16-55 years), and the median age at the end of follow-up was 47 (range 18-81) years. Included in the analysis were 156 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (cases) and 1241 subcohort members identified in the cohort during follow-up in 2006. Effect of four groups of fertility drugs (gonadotrophins, clomifene citrate, human chorionic gonadotrophin, and gonadotrophin releasing hormone) on overall risk of ovarian cancer after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Analyses within cohort showed no overall increased risk of ovarian cancer after any use of gonadotrophins (rate ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 1.37), clomifene (1.14, 0.79 to 1.64), human chorionic gonadotrophin (0.89, 0.62 to 1.29), or gonadotrophin releasing hormone (0.80, 0.42 to 1.51). Furthermore, no associations were found between all four groups of fertility drugs and number of cycles of use, length of follow-up, or parity. No convincing association was found between use of fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer.
Sagy, Iftach; Salman, Amjad Abu; Kezerle, Louise; Erez, Offer; Yoel, Idan; Barski, Leonid
Peri-partum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a clinical heart failure that usually develops during the final stage of pregnancy or the first months following delivery. High maternal serum uric acid concentrations have been previous associated with heart failure and preeclampsia. 1) To explored the clinical characteristics of PPCM patients; and 2) to determine the association between maternal serum uric acid concentrations and PPCM. This is a retrospective population based case control study. Cases and controls were matched 1:4 (for gestational age, medical history of cardiac conditions and creatinine); conditional logistic regression was used to identify clinical parameters that were associated with PPCM. The prevalence of peripartum cardiomyopathy at our institution was 1-3832 deliveries (42/160,964). In a matched multivariate analysis high maternal serum uric acid concentrations were associated with PPCM (O.R 1.336, 95% C.I 1.003-1.778). Uric acid concentrations were higher within the Non-Jewish patients and mothers of male infant with PPCM in compare to those without PPCM (p value 0.003 and 0.01 respectively). PPCM patients had increased maternal serum uric acid concentrations. This observation aligns with previous report regarding the increased uric acid concentration in women with preeclampsia and congestive heart failure, suggestive of a common underlying mechanism that mediates the myocardial damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mehring, Michael; Donnachie, Ewan; Mutschler, Robert; Hofmann, Frank; Keller, Manfred; Schneider, Antonius
The primary aim of the disease management program (DMP) for patients with asthma is to improve health outcomes and to reduce costs. Five years after its introduction in Germany, no consensus has yet been reached as to whether DMP has been effective in reaching these goals. To evaluate the DMP for asthma in Bavaria using routinely collected subject medical records. A longitudinal population-based study encompassing over 100,000 DMP participants between 2006 (when the program began) and 2010. The prescription rate of oral corticosteroids dropped from 15.7% in 2006 to 13.6% in 2007, and again from 7.5% in 2008 to 5.9% in 2010 (P management education increased from 4.4% to 23.4% (P management. The proportion of subjects requiring hospitalization decreased. Our results suggest that the German DMP for asthma has been effective in enhancing the quality of care in regard to an improved symptom frequency, adherence to guidelines, pharmacotherapy, and hospitalization.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased serum levels of homocysteine and uric acid have each been associated with cardiovascular risk. We analyzed whether homocysteine and uric acid were associated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR and albuminuria independently of each other. We also investigated the association of MTHFR polymorphisms related to homocysteine with albuminuria to get further insight into causality. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study in Caucasians (n = 5913. Hyperhomocysteinemia was defined as total serum homocysteine ≥ 15 μmol/L. Albuminuria was defined as urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio > 30 mg/g. Results Uric acid was associated positively with homocysteine (r = 0.246 in men and r = 0.287 in women, P P for trend P P = 0.004 were significantly associated with albuminuria, independently of hypertension and type 2 diabetes. The 2-fold higher risk of albuminuria associated with hyperhomocysteinemia was similar to the risk associated with hypertension or diabetes. MTHFR alleles related to higher homocysteine were associated with increased risk of albuminuria. Conclusions In the general adult population, elevated serum homocysteine and uric acid were associated with albuminuria independently of each other and of renal function.
Drouillard, Antoine; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Rollot, Fabien; Faivre, Jean; Jooste, Valérie; Lepage, Côme
Traditionally, survival estimates have been reported as survival from the time of diagnosis. A patient's probability of survival changes according to time elapsed since the diagnosis and this is known as conditional survival. The aim was to estimate 5-year net conditional survival in patients with colorectal cancer in a well-defined French population at yearly intervals up to 5 years. Our study included 18,300 colorectal cancers diagnosed between 1976 and 2008 and registered in the population-based digestive cancer registry of Burgundy (France). We calculated conditional 5-year net survival, using the Pohar Perme estimator, for every additional year survived after diagnosis from 1 to 5 years. The initial 5-year net survival estimates varied between 89% for stage I and 9% for advanced stage cancer. The corresponding 5-year net survival for patients alive after 5 years was 95% and 75%. Stage II and III patients who survived 5 years had a similar probability of surviving 5 more years, respectively 87% and 84%. For survivors after the first year following diagnosis, five-year conditional net survival was similar regardless of age class and period of diagnosis. For colorectal cancer survivors, conditional net survival provides relevant and complementary prognostic information for patients and clinicians. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keaney, John J; Groarke, John D; Galvin, Zita; McGorrian, Catherine; McCann, Hugh A; Sugrue, Declan; Keelan, Edward; Galvin, Joseph; Blake, Gavin; Mahon, Niall G; O'Neill, James
To ascertain whether a name can influence a person's health, by assessing whether people with the surname "Brady" have an increased prevalence of bradycardia. Retrospective, population based cohort study. One university teaching hospital in Dublin, Ireland. People with the surname "Brady" in Dublin, determined through use of an online telephone directory. Prevalence of participants who had pacemakers inserted for bradycardia between 1 January 2007 and 28 February 2013. 579 (0.36%) of 161,967 people who were listed on the Dublin telephone listings had the surname "Brady." The proportion of pacemaker recipients was significantly higher among Bradys (n=8, 1.38%) than among non-Bradys (n=991, 0.61%; P=0.03). The unadjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for pacemaker implantation among individuals with the surname Brady compared with individuals with other surnames was 2.27 (1.13 to 4.57). Patients named Brady are at increased risk of needing pacemaker implantation compared with the general population. This finding shows a potential role for nominative determinism in health.
Groarke, John D; Galvin, Zita; McGorrian, Catherine; McCann, Hugh A; Sugrue, Declan; Keelan, Edward; Galvin, Joseph; Blake, Gavin; Mahon, Niall G; O’Neill, James
Objective To ascertain whether a name can influence a person’s health, by assessing whether people with the surname “Brady” have an increased prevalence of bradycardia. Design Retrospective, population based cohort study. Setting One university teaching hospital in Dublin, Ireland. Participants People with the surname “Brady” in Dublin, determined through use of an online telephone directory. Main outcome measure Prevalence of participants who had pacemakers inserted for bradycardia between 1 January 2007 and 28 February 2013. Results 579 (0.36%) of 161 967 people who were listed on the Dublin telephone listings had the surname “Brady.” The proportion of pacemaker recipients was significantly higher among Bradys (n=8, 1.38%) than among non-Bradys (n=991, 0.61%; P=0.03). The unadjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for pacemaker implantation among individuals with the surname Brady compared with individuals with other surnames was 2.27 (1.13 to 4.57). Conclusions Patients named Brady are at increased risk of needing pacemaker implantation compared with the general population. This finding shows a potential role for nominative determinism in health. PMID:24336304
Würtz, Else Toft; Schlünssen, Vivi; Malling, Tine Halsen; Hansen, Jens Georg; Omland, Øyvind
The aim was to explore the impact of occupation on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a cross-sectional population-based study among subjects aged 45 to 84 years. In a stratified sampling 89 general practitioners practices (GPP) in Denmark recruited 3106 males and 1636 females through the Danish Civil Registration System. COPD was defined by spirometry by the 2.5(th)-centile Lower Limit of Normal of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. Information about smoking, occupational exposure and the respective occupations were obtained from questionnaires. Occupations followed the Danish adaptation of The International Standard Classification of Occupations, revision 1988 (DISCO-88). Exposure to vapour, gas, dust (organic and inorganic), and fume (VGDF) in each occupation (yes/no) was evaluated by two independent specialist in occupational medicine. Exposures were divided in no, low, medium, and high exposure as 0, occupation with VGDF exposure. Adjusted for smoking, age, sex, and GPP a dose-dependent association of COPD was found among workers in jobs with high organic dust exposure, with OR 1.56 (95% CI 1.09-2.24). Restricted to agriculture the OR was 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33). No association was observed for workers in jobs with inorganic dust, fume/gas, or vapour exposures. In summary, occupational organic dust exposure was associated to the prevalence of COPD.
Galli, Luigina; Facchetti, Susanna; Raffetti, Elena; Donato, Francesco; D'Anna, Mauro
The daily occupation as a swine breeder involves exposure to several bacterial components and organic dusts and inhalation of a large amount of allergens. To investigate the risk of respiratory diseases and atopy in swine breeders compared with the general population living in the same area. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in an agricultural area of northern Italy that enrolled a random sample of resident male breeders and non-breeders. Demographic features, comorbidities, and presence of allergic respiratory disease were retrieved through interview. Prick tests for common allergens were performed. An evaluation of pollen and mold in air samples taken inside and outside some swine confinement buildings also was performed. One hundred one male breeders (78 native-born, mean age ± SD 43.0 ± 11.1 years) and 82 non-breeders (43.0 ± 11.1 years) were enrolled. When restricting the analysis to native-born subjects, breeders vs non-breeders showed a lower prevalence of respiratory allergy (12.8% vs 31.1%, respectively, P = .002), asthma (6.4% vs 15.8%, P = .059), rhinitis (16.7% vs 51.2%, P increase, and might decrease, the risk of pollen sensitization and allergic disease. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Juvenal Soares Dias-da-Costa
Full Text Available We aimed to measure the prevalence of physical inactivity (PI during leisure time and to identify variables associated with it in a southern Brazilian adult population. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out, covering a multiple-stage sample of 1,968 subjects aged 20-69 years. Weekly participation in leisure-time physical activity was addressed. For each activity, energy expenditure was calculated using data on duration, metabolic equivalent, and body weight. Energy expenditures of individual activities were summed to give a weekly total. PI was defined as fewer than 1,000 kilocalories per week. The prevalence of PI was 80.7% (95%CI: 78.9-82.4. After adjusted analyses, the following variables were positively associated with the outcome: female gender, age, living with a partner, and smoking. Schooling and economic status were inversely associated with PI. Chronically undernourished individuals were significantly more likely to be inactive. We found no differences according to skin color or alcohol consumption. In conclusion, the prevalence of PI in this adult population was higher than in populations from developed countries, but the associated variables were similar.
Full Text Available Little is known about the relationship between temperament and character inventory (TCI profiles and depressive symptoms. Personality profiles are useful, because personality traits may have different effects on depressive symptoms when combined with different combinations of other traits. Participants were from the population-based Young Finns study with repeated measurements in 1997, 2001, and 2007 (=1402 to 1902. TCI was administered in 1997 and mild depressive symptoms (modified Beck’s depression inventory, BDI were reported in 1997, 2001, and 2007. BDI-II was also administered in 2007. We found that high harm avoidance and low self-directedness related strongly to depressive symptoms. In addition, sensitive (NHR and fanatical people (ScT were especially vulnerable to depressive symptoms. high novelty seeking and reward dependence increased depressive symptoms when harm avoidance was high. These associations were very similar in cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis. Personality profiles help in understanding the complex associations between depressive symptoms and personality.
Peplonska, Beata; Stewart, Patricia; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Rusiecki, Jennifer; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Lissowska, Jolanta; Bardin-Mikolajczak, Alicja; Zatonski, Witold; Gromiec, Jan; Brzeznicki, Slawomir; Brinton, Louise A; Blair, Aaron
The etiology of breast cancer is not well understood and the role of occupational exposures in breast carcinogenesis is still uncertain. The population-based case-control study included 2,386 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed in 2000-2003, and 2,502 controls. Lifetime occupational histories and information on other potential breast cancer risk factors were obtained through personal interviews. Conditional logistic regression analyses calculated odds ratios (ORs) associated with various occupations and industries after control for potential confounders. We found statistically significant excesses of breast cancer among engineers (OR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.0-3.8), economists (2.1; 1.1-3.8), sales occupations-retail (1.2; 1.0-1.5), and other sales occupations (1.2; 1.0-1.5). Industries showing significantly elevated risks included special trade contractors (2.2; 1.2-4.3), electronic and electric equipment manufacturers (1.7; 1.1-2.7); and public administration/general government n.e.c. (2.7; 1.3-5.7). Each of these findings was supported by a statistically significant positive trend for duration of employment (Pelectronic and electric equipment manufacturing industry and for the occupations with potential exposure to magnetic fields deserve further evaluation.
Lin, Diaozhu; Sun, Kan; Li, Feng; Qi, Yiqin; Ren, Meng; Huang, Chulin; Tang, Juying; Xue, Shengneng; Li, Yan; Yan, Li
Our objective was to evaluate the association between habitual daytime napping and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. We conducted a population-based study of 8,547 subjects aged 40 years or older. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to a harmonized definition from a joint statement and the recommended thresholds for the Chinese population. Information about sleep duration was self-reported. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the no daytime napping group, the 0 to 1 hour daytime napping group and the more than 1 hour daytime napping group were 35.0%, 36.0% and 44.5% among the females (Pnapping hours were positively associated with parameters of metabolic syndrome in the female subjects, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose (Pnapping females, napping for more than 1 hour was independently associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.72). Compared to the female subjects in the no daytime napping group, those habitually napped for more than 1 hour exhibited 46% and 26% increases in the prevalence of central obesity and hypertriglyceridemia (all Pnapping hours and metabolic syndrome among the male subjects. Daytime napping is associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged non-obese Chinese women. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Warner, E. L.; Fluchel, M.; Sweeney, C.; Smith, K. R.; Kirchhoff, A. C.; Fluchel, M.; Wright, J.
Population-based studies are needed to estimate the prevalence of underweight or overweight/obese childhood cancer survivors. Procedure. Adult survivors (diagnosed ≤20 years) were identified from the linked Utah Cancer Registry and Utah Population Database. We included survivors currently aged ≥20 years and ≥5 years from diagnosis (N=1060), and a comparison cohort selected on birth year and sex (N=5410). BMI was calculated from driver license data available from 2000 to 2010. Multivariable generalized linear regression models were used to calculate prevalence relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of BMI outcomes for survivors and the comparison cohort. Results. Average time since diagnosis was 18.5 years (SD=7.8), and mean age at BMI for both groups was 30.5 (survivors SD-= 7.7, comparison SD=8.0). Considering all diagnoses, survivors were not at higher risk for being underweight or overweight/obese than the comparison. Male central nervous system tumor survivors were overweight (RR=1.12, 95% CI 1.01 - 1.23) more often than the comparison. Female survivors, who were diagnosed at age 10 and under, had a 10% higher risk of being obese than survivors diagnosed at ages 16-20 (P<0.05). Conclusion. While certain groups of childhood cancer survivors are at risk for being overweight/obese, in general they do not differ from population estimates.
Lebwohl, Benjamin; Nobel, Yael R; Green, Peter H R; Blaser, Martin J; Ludvigsson, Jonas F
Patients with celiac disease are at increased risk for infections such as tuberculosis, influenza, and pneumococcal pneumonia. However, little is known about the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients with celiac disease. We identified patients with celiac disease based on intestinal biopsies submitted to all pathology departments in Sweden over a 39-year period (from July 1969 through February 2008). We compared risk of CDI (based on stratified Cox proportional hazards models) among patients with celiac disease vs. without celiac disease (controls) matched by age, sex, and calendar period. We identified 28,339 patients with celiac disease and 141,588 controls; neither group had a history of CDI. The incidence of CDI was 56/100,000 person-years among patients with celiac disease and 26/100,000 person-years among controls, yielding an overall hazard ratio (HR) of 2.01 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.64-2.47; Pceliac disease (HR, 5.20; 95% CI, 2.81-9.62; Pceliac disease and controls. In a large population-based cohort study, patients with celiac disease had significantly higher incidence of CDI than controls. This finding is consistent with prior findings of higher rates of other infections in patients with celiac disease, and suggests the possibility of altered gut immunity and/or microbial composition in patients with celiac disease.
Wu, Jun-Qing; Li, Yu-Yan; Ren, Jing-Chao; Zhao, Rui; Zhou, Ying; Gao, Er-Sheng
To determine whether induced abortion (IA) increases breast cancer (BC) risk. A population-based case-control study was performed from Dec, 2000 to November, 2004 in Shanghai, China, where IA could be verified through the family planning network and client medical records. Structured questionnaires were completed by 1,517 cases with primary invasive epithelial breast cancer and 1,573 controls frequency- matched to cases for age group. The information was supplemented and verified by the family planning records. Statistical analysis was conducted with SAS 9.0. After adjusting for potential confounders, induced abortions were not found to be associated with breast cancer with OR=0.94 (95%CI= 0.79-1.11). Compared to parous women without induced abortion, parous women with 3 or more times induced abortion (OR=0.66, 95%CI=0.46 to 0.95) and women with 3 or more times induced abortion after the first live birth (OR=0.66, 95%CI =0.45 to 0.97) showed a lower risk of breast cancer, after adjustment for age, level of education, annual income per capita, age at menarche, menopause, parity times, spontaneous abortion, age at first live birth, breast-feeding, oral contraceptives, hormones drug, breast disease, BMI, drinking alcohol, drinking tea, taking vitamin/calcium tablet, physical activity, vocation, history of breast cancer, eating the bean. The results suggest that a history of induced abortions may not increase the risk of breast cancer.
Lossius, Morten I; Alfstad, Kristin Å; Van Roy, Betty; Mowinckel, Petter; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne; Gjerstad, Leif; Nakken, Karl O
In comparison with controls, youth with epilepsy (YWE) have greater psychosocial problems. However, information about their sexual behavior is sparse. We have performed a large, population-based questionnaire study to examine differences in sexual behavior between YWE and controls. A randomly chosen cohort of youth (13-19 years) from Akershus county, Norway (n=19,995) was asked to complete a questionnaire anonymously with questions on epilepsy and sexual activity. The response rate was 85%. Two hundred forty-seven participants reported having or having had epilepsy, i.e., a lifetime epilepsy prevalence of 1.2%. Compared with controls, a higher proportion of YWE reported having had sexual intercourse (43.6% vs. 35.3%, p=0.009). The mean age at sexual debut was significantly lower in YWE than in controls (14.0 years vs. 15.0 years, pcontraceptives at their last sexual intercourse compared with controls (31.6% vs. 22.3%, p=0.03). Ten percent of YWE, compared with 2% of the controls, reported that they had been forced into their first sexual intercourse. In YWE, some aspects of sexual behavior differ from those of their peers, with earlier sexual debut and less frequent use of contraceptives. More attention should be directed toward this subject, aiming at avoiding unwanted pregnancies and potential emotional traumas in this already vulnerable patient group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Precise mechanisms of atrial fibrillation (AF are uncertain, but their association with esophageal disorders has been recently proposed. The association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, the most common gastroesophageal disorder, and AF remains undetermined. We therefore aimed to investigate the association between GERD and later development of AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with GERD were identified from the 1,000,000-person cohort dataset sampled from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database. The study cohort comprised 29,688 newly diagnosed adult GERD patients; 29,597 randomly selected age-, gender-, comobidity-matched subjects comprised the comparison cohort. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed as a means of comparing the AF-free survival rate for the two cohorts. During a maximum three years of follow-up, a total of 351 patients experienced AF, including 184 (0.62% patients in the GERD cohort and 167 (0.56% in the control group. The log-rank test showed that patients with GERD had significantly higher incidence of AF than those without GERD (p = 0.024. After Cox proportional hazard regression model analysis, GERD was independently associated with the increased risk of AF (hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.61, p = 0.013. CONCLUSION: GERD was independently associated with an increased risk of future AF in a nationwide population-based cohort.
Groppo, Elisabetta; De Gennaro, Riccardo; Granieri, Gino; Fazio, Patrik; Cesnik, Edward; Granieri, Enrico; Casetta, Ilaria
The reported annual incidence of juvenile stroke ranges from 9 to 47 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. We sought to estimate the incidence of first-ever stroke in young adults through a population-based stroke registry in a well-defined and stable population. We planned to collect all cases of new stroke in people aged 15-44 years in Ferrara, Italy, over the period 2002-2007. During the surveillance period, a first-ever stroke was diagnosed in 39 patients, giving a mean annual crude incidence rate of 12.1 cases per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 8.6-16.5), 9.1 when adjusted to the European population. The overall 30-day case fatality rate was 7.7, 21.4% for hemorrhagic stroke. The incidence rate was in the range of estimates detected in western countries. The case-fatality rate was lower than that reported in less recent studies. The stroke subtype predicted the probability of death and the outcome.
Shaji, K S; Raju, D; Sathesh, V; Krishnakumar, P; Punnoose, Varghese P; Kiran, P S; Mini, B S; Kumar, Shibu; Anish, P K; Kaimal, Ganga G; Gupthan, Lekshmy; Sumesh, T P; Nikhil, U G; Cyriac, Nisha; Vinod, M D; Kumar, R Prasad; Chandran, Ramesh; Rejani, P P; Amrutha, R; Mahesh; Anand, T N
Estimates of psychiatric morbidity in the community will help service development. Participation of trained nonspecialist health-care providers will facilitate scaling up of services in resource-limited settings. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of priority mental health problems in populations served by the District Mental Health Program (DMHP). This is a population-based cross-sectional survey. We did stratified cluster sampling of households in five districts of Kerala. Trained Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) identified people who had symptoms suggestive of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Clinicians evaluated the information collected by the ASHAs and designated individuals as probable cases of psychosis or noncases. Screening instruments such as General Health Questionnaire-12, CAGE questionnaire, and Everyday Abilities Scale for India were used for identifying common mental disorders (CMDs), clinically significant alcohol-related problems, and functional impairment. We found 12.43% of the adult population affected by mental health conditions. We found CMD as most common with a prevalence of 9%. The prevalence of psychosis was 0.71%, clinically significant alcohol-related problems was 1.46%, and dementia and other cognitive impairments was 1.26%. We found informant-based case finding to be useful in the identification of psychosis. Mental health problems are common. Nonspecialist health-care providers can be trained to identify psychiatric morbidity in the community. Their participation will help in narrowing the treatment gap. Embedding operational research to DMHP will make scaling up more efficient.
Full Text Available Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is considered the leading cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular morbidity. Several risk factors of PAD have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, we hypothesize that the incidence of PAD is higher in the schizophrenia population than in the general population.The patients in this population-based cohort study were selected from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database on the basis of the claims data from 2000 to 2011. We compared the incidence of PAD between schizophrenia and nonschizophrenia cohorts. Cox proportional hazard regression models were employed for analyzing the risk of PAD after adjustment for sex, age, and comorbidities.The adjusted hazard ratio (HR for PAD in the schizophrenia cohort was 1.26-fold higher than that in the nonschizophrenia cohort. Furthermore, patients with schizophrenia using atypical antipsychotics exhibited a high adjusted HR for PAD.Compared with the general population, the risk of PAD is higher among patients with schizophrenia. Early diagnosis and intervention can mitigate complications resulting from cardiovascular diseases and lower mortality.
Bae, Jung Min; Choi, Kwang Hyun; Jung, Han Mi; Kim, Sook Young; Kim, Miri; Kim, Gyung Moon; Yu, Dong Soo; Lee, Young Bok
Subsequent vitiligo after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been described sporadically in case series. To investigate the incidence and risk factors of subsequent vitiligo after HSCT. A nationwide, population-based cohort study was performed using the Korean National Health Insurance Claims Database from 2009 to 2013. All HSCT recipients who had undergone HSCT between 2010 and 2011 and not treatment for vitiligo in 2009 (to exclude preexisting active vitiligo) were included in the HSCT recipient group, and an age- and sex-matched control group without HSCT was also established. A total of 2747 HSCT recipients and 8241 controls were enrolled. Newly acquired vitiligo occurred in 1.06% of HSCT recipients between 2010 and 2013, and there was a significant increase (OR 3.130, 95% CI 1.859-5.271) in cases of vitiligo in HSCT recipients compared with controls (0.34%). Allogeneic HSCT (OR 5.593, 95% CI 1.628-19.213) and bone marrow-sourced stem cells (as compared with peripheral blood-sourced stem cells; OR 2.492, 95% CI 1.114-5.576) were independently associated with the development of vitiligo after HSCT. Medical record review was not available. Vitiligo developed at a significantly increased rate after HSCT compared with controls. Allogeneic HSCT and bone marrow-sourced stem cells were independent risk factors. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Liu, Feng-Cheng; Chiu, Yu-Hsiang; Chang, Hsin-An; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Huang, San-Yuan; Lu, Ru-Band; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Kao, Yu-Chen; Chiang, Wei-Shan; Tsao, Chang-Hui; Wu, Yung-Fu; Chou, Yu-Ching; Lin, Fu-Huang; Chien, Wu-Chien
Fibromyalgia is a syndrome of chronic pain and other symptoms and is associated with patient discomfort and other diseases. This nationwide matched-cohort population-based study aimed to investigate the association between fibromyalgia and the risk of developing dementia, and to clarify the association between fibromyalgia and dementia. A total of 41,612 patients of age ≥50 years with newly diagnosed fibromyalgia between January 1, and December 31, 2000 were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, along with 124,836 controls matched for sex and age. After adjusting for any confounding factors, Fine and Gray competing risk analysis was used to compare the risk of developing dementia during the 10 years of follow-up. Of the study subjects, 1,704 from 41,612 fibromyalgia patients (21.23 per 1,000 person-years) developed dementia when compared to 4,419 from 124,836 controls (18.94 per 1,000 person-years). Fine and Gray competing risk analysis revealed that the study subjects were more likely to develop dementia (hazard ratio: 2.29, 95% CI: 2.16-2.42; P dementia in this study. The study subjects with fibromyalgia had a 2.77-fold risk of dementia in comparison to the control group. Therefore, further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the association between fibromyalgia and the risk of dementia. Copyright © 2018 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atherothrombotic diseases including cerebrovascular disease (CVD, coronary artery disease (CAD, and peripheral arterial disease (PAD, contribute to the major causes of death in the world. Although several studies showed the association between polyvascular disease and poor cardiovascular (CV outcomes in Asian population, there was no large-scale study to validate this relationship in this population. METHODS AND RESULTS: This retrospective cohort study included patients with a diagnosis of CVD, CAD, or PAD from the database contained in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Bureau during 2001-2004. A total of 19954 patients were enrolled in this study. The atherothrombotic disease score was defined according to the number of atherothrombotic disease. The study endpoints included acute coronary syndrome (ACS, all strokes, vascular procedures, in hospital mortality, and so on. The event rate of ischemic stroke (18.2% was higher than that of acute myocardial infarction (5.7% in our patients (P = 0.0006. In the multivariate Cox regression analyses, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs of each increment of atherothrombotic disease score in predicting ACS, all strokes, vascular procedures, and in hospital mortality were 1.41, 1.66, 1.30, and 1.14, respectively (P≦0.0169. CONCLUSIONS: This large population-based longitudinal study in patients with atherothrombotic disease demonstrated the risk of subsequent ischemic stroke was higher than that of subsequent AMI. In addition, the subsequent adverse CV events including ACS, all stroke, vascular procedures, and in hospital mortality were progressively increased as the increase of atherothrombotic disease score.
Hohenblum, Philipp; Steinbichl, Philipp; Raffesberg, Wolfgang; Weiss, Stefan; Moche, Wolfgang; Vallant, Birgit; Scharf, Sigrid; Haluza, Daniela; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael; Piegler, Brigitte; Wallner, Peter; Hutter, Hans-Peter
Humans are exposed to a broad variety of man-made chemicals. Human biomonitoring (HBM) data reveal the individual body burden irrespective of sources and routes of uptake. A first population-based study was started in Austria in 2008 and was finished at the end of May 2011. This cross sectional study aims at documenting the extent, the distribution and the determinants of human exposure to industrial chemicals as well as proving the feasibility of a representative HBM study. Overall, 150 volunteers (50 families) were selected by stratified random sampling. Exposure to phthalates, trisphosphates, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), bisphenol A (along with nonyl- and octyl phenol) and methyl mercury was assessed. Sixteen of 18 PBDE determined were detected above the limit of quantification (LOQ) in blood samples with #153 and #197 the most abundant species. Bisphenol A in urine was measured in a subsample of 25 with only 4 samples found above the LOQ. In 3 of 100 urine samples at least one of 8 trisphosphate compounds assessed was above the LOQ. These first analytical results of the human biomonitoring data show that the body burden of the Austrian population with respect to the assessed compounds is comparable to or even lower than in other European countries. Overall, the study revealed that in order to develop a feasible protocol for representative human biomonitoring studies procedures have to be optimized to allow for non-invasive sampling of body tissues in accordance with the main metabolic pathways. Procedures of participants' recruitment were, however, labor intensive and have to be improved. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Haugland, Siren; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Bøe, Tormod; Hysing, Mari
School absenteeism is linked to a range of health concerns, health risk behaviors and school dropout. It is therefore important to evaluate the extent to which adolescents with absenteeism are in contact with health care and other services. The aim of the current study was to investigate service use of Norwegian adolescents with moderate and high absenteeism in comparison to students with lower rates of absence. The study employs data from a population-based study from 2012 targeting all pupils in upper secondary education in Hordaland County, Norway (the youth@hordaland-survey). A total of 8988 adolescents between the ages of 16 and 18 were included in the present study. Information on service use was based on adolescent self-report data collected in the youth@hordaland-survey. Absence data was collected using administrative data provided by the Hordaland County Council. High absence (defined as being absent 15% or more the past semester) was found among 10.1% of the adolescents. Compared to their peers with low absence (less than 3% absence the past semester), adolescents with high absence were more likely to be in contact with all the services studied, including mental health services (odds ratio (OR) 3.96), adolescent health clinics (OR 2.11) and their general practitioner (GP) (OR 1.94). Frequency of contact was higher among adolescents with moderate and high absence and there seems to be a gradient of service use corresponding to the level of absence. Still, 40% of the adolescents with high absence had not been in contact with any services. Adolescents with high absence had increased use of services, although a group of youth at risk seems to be without such contact. This finding suggests a potential to address school absenteeism through systematic collaboration between schools and health personnel.
Wilson, Nicholas; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia; Morros, Rosa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Javaid, M Kassim; Cooper, Cyrus; Arden, Nigel K; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel
Patients with OA use different drugs in their search for relief. We aimed to study the prevalence of use and combinations of different medications for OA in a population-based cohort of OA patients in Catalonia, Spain, while characterizing users of each of the drugs available, with a particular focus on cardiovascular risk factors. Data were obtained from the Sistema d'Informació per al Desenvolupament de l'Investigació en Atenció Primària (SIDIAP) database, which includes electronic medical records and pharmacy invoice data for >5 million people from Catalonia. Study participants were those with a clinical diagnosis of OA in 2006-10. Drugs studied included oral and topical NSAIDs, analgesics (paracetamol, metamizole), opioids (tramadol, fentanyl), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors and symptomatic slow-acting drugs in OA. Drug utilization was described using medication possession ratios (MPRs), equivalent to the proportion of days covered with the drug of interest. The annual incidence of new users in the first year after OA diagnosis from 2006 to 2010 was estimated for all studied drugs among newly diagnosed OA patients using Poisson regression. We identified 238 536 study participants. The most common regimen of treatment consisted of at least three drugs (53.9% of patients). The drugs most frequently used regularly (MPR ≥50%) were chondroitin (21.2%), glucosamine (15.8%) and oral NSAIDs (14.4%). The incidence of the use of opioids, COX-2 inhibitors and chondroitin increased over the 5 year period, whereas all others decreased. Drug combinations are common in the treatment of OA patients, who are thus exposed to potential drug interactions, with unknown impacts on their health. The increasing use of opioids and COX-2 inhibitors is noteworthy because of the potential impact on safety and costs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email
Full Text Available Objective: The association between Kawasaki disease and autism has rarely been studied in Asian populations. By using a nationwide Taiwanese population-based claims database, we tested the hypothesis that Kawasaki disease may increase the risk of autism in Taiwan. Materials and Methods: Our study cohort consisted of patients who had received the diagnosis of Kawasaki disease (ICD-9-CM: 446.1 between 1997 and 2005 (N = 563. For a comparison cohort, five age- and gender-matched control patients for every patient in the study cohort were selected using random sampling (N = 2,815. All subjects were tracked for 5 years from the date of cohort entry to identify whether they had developed autism (ICD-9-CM code 299.0 or not. Cox proportional hazard regressions were then performed to evaluate 5-year autism-free survival rates. Results: The main finding of this study was that patients with Kawasaki disease seem to not be at increased risk of developing autism. Of the total patients, four patients developed autism during the 5-year follow-up period, among whom two were Kawasaki disease patients and two were in the comparison cohort. Further, the adjusted hazard ratios (AHR (AHR: 4.81; 95% confidence interval: 0.68–34.35; P = 0.117 did not show any statistical significance between the Kawasaki disease group and the control group during the 5-year follow-up. Conclusion: Our study indicated that patients with Kawasaki disease are not at increased risk of autism.
Jung, Yoon Suk; Han, Minkyung; Kim, Won Ho; Park, Sohee; Cheon, Jae Hee
The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing in East Asia; however, population-based data from this region are lacking. We conducted a nationwide, population-based study to examine the incidence and disease course of IBD in South Korea. Using the National Health Insurance claims data, we collected data on patients diagnosed with IBD [10,049 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 5595 with Crohn's disease (CD)] from 2011 to 2014. During the study period, the average annual incidence of UC was 5.0 per 10 5 , while that of CD was 2.8 per 10 5 . Among patients with UC, the cumulative rates of surgery 1 and 4 years after diagnosis were 1.0 and 2.0%; those among patients with CD were 9.0 and 13.9%, respectively. The 1- and 4-year cumulative rates of moderate- to high-dose corticosteroid use were, respectively, 26.6 and 45.2% among patients with UC, and 29.9 and 50.8% among those with CD. Similarly, the 1- and 4-year cumulative rates of immunomodulator use were 14.1 and 26.4% among patients with UC, and 58.3 and 76.1% among those with CD, respectively. With regard to biologic use, the 1- and 4-year cumulative rates were 3.0 and 9.0% among patients with UC, and 11.1 and 31.7% among those with CD, respectively. The recent incidence of IBD in South Korea has been the highest in East Asia. Patients who had been diagnosed recently with IBD showed lower rates of surgery and higher rates of immunomodulator and biologic use compared to those reported ever in South Korea.
Hugo You-Hsien Lin
Full Text Available Nonapnea sleep disorders (NASD and sleep-related problems are associated with poor health outcomes. However, the association between NASD and the development and prognosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD has not been investigated thoroughly. We explored the association between CKD and NASD in Taiwan.We conducted a population-based study using the Taiwan National Health Insurance database with1,000,000 representative data for the period from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2009. We investigated the incidence and risk of CKD in 7,006 newly diagnosed NASD cases compared with 21,018 people without NASD matched according to age, sex, index year, urbanization, region, and monthly income at a 1:3 ratio.The subsequent risk of CKD was 1.48-foldhigher in the NASD cohort than in the control cohort (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26-1.73, p< 0.001. Men, older age, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and gout were significant factors associated with the increased risk of CKD (p< 0.001. Among different types of NASDs, patients with insomnia had a 52% increased risk of developing CKD (95%CI = 1.23-1.84; P<0.01, whereas patients with sleep disturbance had a 49%increased risk of subsequent CKD (95% CI = 1.19-1.87; P<0.001. Younger women (aged < 65 years were at a high risk of CKD with NASD (adjusted hazard ratio, [HR] = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.35-2.40, p< 0.001.In this nationwide population-based cohort study, patients with NASD, particularly men of all ages and women aged younger than 65 years, were at high risk of CKD.
Weng, Jianping; Zhou, Zhiguang; Guo, Lixin; Zhu, Dalong; Ji, Linong; Luo, Xiaoping; Mu, Yiming; Jia, Weiping
To estimate the incidence of type 1 diabetes in all age groups in China during 2010-13. Population based, registry study using data from multiple independent sources. National registration system in all 505 hospitals providing diabetes care, and communities of patients with diabetes in 13 areas across China, covering more than 133 million person years at risk, approximately 10% of the whole population. 5018 people of all ages with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and resident in the study areas from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2013. Incidence of type 1 diabetes per 100 000 person years by age, sex, and study area. Type 1 diabetes was doctor diagnosed and further validated by onsite follow-up. Completeness of case ascertainment was assessed using the capture mark recapture method. 5018 cases of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes were ascertained: 1239 participants were aged China was 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.18 to 1.84). Incidence per 100 000 persons years by age group was 1.93 (0.83 to 3.03) for 0-14 years, 1.28 (0.45 to 2.11) for 15-29 years, and 0.69 (0.00 to 1.51) for ≥30 years, with a peak in age group 10-14 years. The incidence in under 15s was positively correlated with latitude (r=0.88, PChina occurred among adults. The incidence of type 1 diabetes in Chinese children was among the lowest reported in the study. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Kohorst, John J.; Bruce, Alison J.; Torgerson, Rochelle R.; Schenck, Louis A.; Davis, Mark D. P.
Objective To calculate the incidence of burning mouth syndrome (BMS) in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 2000 to 2010. Patients and Methods Using the medical record linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, we identified newly diagnosed cases of BMS from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2010. Diagnoses were confirmed through the presence of burning pain symptoms of the oral mucosa with normal oral examination findings and no associated clinical signs. Incidence was estimated using decennial census data for Olmsted County. Results In total, 169 incident cases were identified, representing an annual age- and sex-adjusted incidence of BMS of 11.4 per 100,000 person-years. Age-adjusted incidence was significantly higher in women than men (18.8 [95% CI, 16.4–22.9] vs 3.7 [95% CI, 2.6–5.7] per 100,000 person-years [P<.001]). Postmenopausal women aged 50 to 89 years had the highest disease incidence, with the maximal rate in women aged 70 to 79 years (70.3 per 100,000 person-years). After age 50 years, BMS incidence in men and women significantly increased across age-groups (P=.02). Olmsted County study participants were predominantly white, which is a study limitation. In addition, diagnostic criteria for identifying BMS in the present study may not apply for all situations because no diagnostic criteria are universally recognized for identifying BMS. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first population-based incidence study of BMS reported to date. The data show that BMS is an uncommon disease highly associated with female sex and advancing age. PMID:25176397
Montazeri, Ali; Baradaran, Hamid; Omidvari, Sepideh; Azin, Seyed Ali; Ebadi, Mehdi; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza; Harirchi, Amir Mahmood; Shariati, Mohammad
An earthquake measuring 6.3 on the Richter scale struck the city of Bam in Iran on the 26th of December 2003 at 5.26 A.M. It was devastating, and left over 40,000 dead and around 30,000 injured. The profound tragedy of thousands killed has caused emotional and psychological trauma for tens of thousands of people who have survived. A study was carried out to assess psychological distress among Bam earthquake survivors and factors associated with severe mental health in those who survived the tragedy. This was a population-based study measuring psychological distress among the survivors of Bam earthquake in Iran. Using a multi-stage stratified sampling method a random sample of individuals aged 15 years and over living in Bam were interviewed. Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). In all 916 survivors were interviewed. The mean age of the respondents was 32.9 years (SD = 12.4), mostly were males (53%), married (66%) and had secondary school education (50%). Forty-one percent reported they lost 3 to 5 members of their family in the earthquake. In addition the findings showed that 58% of the respondents suffered from severe mental health as measured by the GHQ-12 and this was three times higher than reported psychological distress among the general population. There were significant differences between sub-groups of the study sample with regard to their psychological distress. The results of the logistic regression analysis also indicated that female gender; lower education, unemployment, and loss of family members were associated with severe psychological distress among earthquake victims. The study findings indicated that the amount of psychological distress among earthquake survivors was high and there is an urgent need to deliver mental health care to disaster victims in local medical settings and to reduce negative health impacts of the earthquake adequate psychological counseling is needed for those who
Li, Daniel Q; Kim, Richard B; McArthur, Eric; Fleet, Jamie L; Hegele, Robert A; Shah, Baiju R; Weir, Matthew A; Molnar, Amber O; Dixon, Stephanie; Tu, Jack V; Anand, Sonia; Garg, Amit X
Compared to Caucasians, Chinese achieve a higher blood concentration of statin for a given dose. It remains unknown whether this translates to increased risk of serious statin-associated adverse events amongst Chinese patients. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of older adults (mean age, 74 years) newly prescribed a statin in Ontario, Canada between 2002 and 2013, where 19,033 Chinese (assessed through a validated surname algorithm) were matched (1:3) by propensity score to 57,099 non-Chinese. This study used linked healthcare databases. The follow-up observation period (mean 1.1, maximum 10.8 years) was similar between groups, as were the reasons for censoring the observation period (end of follow-up, death, or statin discontinuation). Forty-seven percent (47%) of Chinese were initiated on a higher than recommended statin dose. Compared to non-Chinese, Chinese ethnicity did not associate with any of the four serious statin-associated adverse events assessed in this study [rhabdomyolysis hazard ratio (HR) 0.61 (95% CI 0.28 to 1.34), incident diabetes HR 1.02 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.30), acute kidney injury HR 0.90 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.13), or all-cause mortality HR 0.88 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.05)]. Similar results were observed in subgroups defined by statin type and dose. We observed no higher risk of serious statin toxicity in Chinese than matched non-Chinese older adults with similar indicators of baseline health. Regulatory agencies should review available data, including findings from our study, to decide if a change in their statin dosing recommendations for people of Chinese ethnicity is warranted.
Chang, Fung-Wei; Lee, Wen-Ying; Liu, Yueh-Ping; Yang, Jing-Jung; Chen, Shu-Pin; Cheng, Kuan-Chen; Lin, Yan-Cen; Ho, Te-Wei; Chiu, Feng-Hsiang; Hsu, Ren-Jun; Liu, Jui-Ming
Understanding mothers' economic conditions and postpartum depression (PPD) is important for determining how they will take care of themselves and their infants during the postnatal period, especially for low-income families. This study examined the relationship between economic conditions and PPD to elucidate the effect of economic contraction on PPD. Our population-based nationwide study used 2000-2013 the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. A total of 1240 newly diagnosed PPD patients were recruited. We used the database of the Directorate General of Budget, Accounting, and Statistics of Executive Yuan of Taiwan for national economic indicators. The correlation between economic indicators and PPD was examined. The PPD incidence was positively correlated with yearly unemployment rate, consumer price index, and gross domestic product. During the great recession of 2008-2009, PPD was positively correlated with inflation rate. Consumer price index had a positive correlation with PPD incidence per month when comparing PPD in 2010 with the economic indicators during the great recession. As this retrospective study evaluated macroeconomic indicators, it is unclear whether the macroeconomic indicators' effect on PPD totally reflects the effect of true personal economic status on PPD. There was a significant association between PPD and economic conditions. This study shows that mothers' familial environment plays an important role in the development of PPD. The impact of the worldwide economic downturn of the great recession on women is persistent. This useful finding may give health policy planners a hint of early discovering and dealing with PPD when worldwide economic downturn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chen, Zhi; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Woodrow, Jennifer; Zhu, Yun; Roebothan, Barbara; Mclaughlin, John R; Parfrey, Patrick S
The relationship between major dietary patterns and colorectal cancer (CRC) in other populations largely remains consistent across studies. The objective of the present study is to assess if dietary patterns are associated with the risk of CRC in the population of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). Data from a population based case-control study in the province of NL were analyzed, including 506 CRC patients (306 men and 200 women) and 673 controls (400 men and 273 women), aged 20-74 years. Dietary habits were assessed by a 169-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between dietary patterns and the CRC risk. Three major dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis, namely a Meat-diet pattern, a Plant-based diet pattern and a Sugary-diet pattern. In combination the three dietary patterns explained 74% of the total variance in food intake. Results suggest that the Meat-diet and the Sugary-diet increased the risk of CRC with corresponding odds ratios (ORs) of 1.84 (95% CI: 1.19-2.86) and 2.26 (95% CI: 1.39-3.66) for people in the highest intake quintile compared to those in the lowest. Whereas plant-based diet pattern decreases the risk of CRC with a corresponding OR of 0.55 (95% CI: 0.35-0.87). Even though odds ratios (ORs) were not always statistically significant, largely similar associations across three cancer sites were found: the proximal colon, the distal colon, and the rectum. The finding that Meat-diet/Sugary-diet patterns increased and Plant-based diet pattern decreased the risk of CRC would guide the promotion of healthy eating for primary prevention of CRC in this population.
Bakolis, I; Hooper, R; Thompson, R L; Shaheen, S O
Epidemiological studies of diet and asthma have focused on relations with intakes of individual nutrients and foods and evidence has been conflicting. Few studies have examined associations with dietary patterns. We carried out a population-based case-control study of asthma in adults aged between 16 and 50 in South London, UK. Information about usual diet was obtained by food frequency questionnaire and we used principal components analysis to define five dietary patterns in controls. We used logistic and linear regression, controlling for confounders, to relate these patterns to asthma, asthma severity, rhinitis and chronic bronchitis in 599 cases and 854 controls. Overall, there was weak evidence that a 'vegetarian' dietary pattern was positively associated with asthma [adjusted odds ratio comparing top vs bottom quintile of pattern score 1.43 (95% CI: 0.93-2.20), P trend 0.075], and a 'traditional' pattern (meat and vegetables) was negatively associated [OR 0.68 (0.45-1.03), P trend 0.071]. These associations were stronger amongst nonsupplement users (P trend 0.030 and 0.001, respectively), and the association with the 'vegetarian' pattern was stronger amongst whites (P trend 0.008). No associations were observed with asthma severity. A 'prudent' dietary pattern (wholemeal bread, fish and vegetables) was positively associated with chronic bronchitis [OR 2.61 (1.13-6.05), P trend 0.025], especially amongst nonsupplement users (P trend 0.002). Overall there were no clear relations between dietary patterns and adult asthma; associations in nonsupplement users and whites require confirmation. The finding for chronic bronchitis was unexpected and also requires replication.
Paul, Nicola L M; Simoni, Michela; Chandratheva, Arvind; Rothwell, Peter M
Many guidelines recommend emergency assessment for patients with ≥2 TIAs within 7 days, perhaps in recognition of the capsular warning syndrome. However, it is unclear whether all patients with multiple TIAs are at high early risk of stroke and whether treatable underlying pathologies are more prevalent in this group. We studied clinical characteristics, Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification, and risk of stroke in 1,000 consecutive patients with incident and recurrent TIAs in a prospective, population-based study (Oxford Vascular Study). Of 1,000 patients with TIAs, 170 had a further TIA within 7 days (105 within 24 hours). Multiple TIAs were not associated with carotid stenosis or atrial fibrillation, and much of the 10.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.5-15.9) risk of stroke during the 7 days after the first TIA was due to patients with small-vessel disease (SVD) etiology (10 of 24 vs 8 of 146, odds ratio [OR] = 12.3, 95% CI 3.7-41.9, p TIA was similar to the risk after a single TIA in patients with non-SVD TIA (8 of 146 [5.5%] vs 76 of 830 [9.2%], OR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.25-1.3, p = 0.20). Of the 9 patients with stroke after a capsular warning syndrome, all had the recurrent TIA within 24 hours after the first TIA, and the subsequent stroke occurred within 72 hours of the second TIA in 8. The ABCD2 scores of all preceding TIAs were ≥4 in all 9 patients with capsular warning syndrome before stroke. Capsular warning syndrome is rare (1.5% of TIA presentations) but has a poor prognosis (7-day stroke risk of 60%). Otherwise, recurrent TIA within 7 days is not associated with a greater stroke risk than that after a single TIA.
Levy, Sharon; Katusic, Slavica K.; Colligan, Robert C.; Weaver, Amy L.; Killian, Jill M.; Voigt, Robert G.; Barbaresi, William J.
Background Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are known to be at significantly greater risk for the development of substance use disorders (SUD) compared to peers. Impulsivity, which could lead to higher levels of drug use, is a known symptom of ADHD and likely accounts, in part, for this relationship. Other factors, such as a biologically increased susceptibility to substance dependence (addiction), may also play a role. Objective This report further examines the relationships between childhood ADHD, adolescent- onset SUD, and substance abuse and substance dependence in adulthood. Method Individuals with childhood ADHD and non-ADHD controls from the same population-based birth cohort were invited to participate in a prospective outcome study. Participants completed a structured neuropsychiatric interview with modules for SUD and a psychosocial questionnaire. Information on adolescent SUD was obtained retrospectively, in a previous study, from medical and school records. Associations were summarized using odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs estimated from logistic regression models adjusted for age and gender. Results A total of 232 ADHD cases and 335 non-ADHD controls participated (mean age, 27.0 and 28.6 years, respectively). ADHD cases were more likely than controls to have a SUD diagnosed in adolescence and were more likely to have alcohol (adjusted OR 14.38, 95% CI 1.49–138.88) and drug (adjusted OR 3.48, 95% CI 1.38–8.79) dependence in adulthood. The subgroup of participating ADHD cases who did not have SUD during adolescence were no more likely than controls to develop new onset alcohol dependence as adults, although they were significantly more likely to develop new onset drug dependence. Conclusions Our study found preliminary evidence that adults with childhood ADHD are more susceptible than peers to developing drug dependence, a disorder associated with neurological changes in the brain. The relationship between ADHD and
da Silva, Ariovaldo; Costa, Esther Coelho; Gomes, João Bosco; Leite, Frederico Motta; Gomez, Rodrigo Santiago; Vasconcelos, Luiz Paulo; Krymchantowski, Abouch; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio
Studies using resources of a public family health program to estimate the prevalence of chronic daily headaches (CDH) are lacking. To estimate the 1-year prevalence of CDH, as well as the presence of associated psychiatric and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) comorbidities, on the entire population of a city representative of the rural area of Brazil. This was a cross-sectional, population-based, 2-phase study. In the first phase, health agents interviewed all individuals older than 10 years, in a rural area of Brazil. In the second stage, all individuals who reported headaches on 4 or more days per week were then evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. CDH were classified according to the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2). Medication overuse headache was diagnosed, as per the ICHD-2, after detoxification trials. Psychiatric comorbidities and TMD were diagnosed based on the DSM-IV and on the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders criteria, respectively. A total of 1631 subjects participated in the direct interviews. Of them, 57 (3.6%) had CDH. Chronic migraine was the most common of the CDH (21, 36.8%). Chronic tension-type headache (10, 17.5%), medication overuse headache (13, 22.8%) and probable medication overuse headache (10, 17.5%) were also common. Psychiatric disorders were observed in 38 (67.3%) of the CDH subjects. TMD were seen in 33 (58.1)% of them. The prevalence of CDH in the rural area of Brazil is similar to what has been reported in previous studies. A significant proportion of them have psychiatric comorbidities and/or TMD. In this sample, comorbidities were as frequent as reported in convenience samples from tertiary headache centers.
Full Text Available AIMS & BACKGROUNDS: Although inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are emerging and increasing in China, epidemiologic data are rarely available. This study was to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of IBD in Northern China. METHODS: This is a prospective, population-based study of incidence of IBD in Daqing, Heilongjiang province of Northern China from March 1, 2012 to February 28, 2013. All incident patients with IBD were clinically identified by IBD specialist group from five main General Hospitals covering the healthcare service for 1,343,364 residents in the urban areas of Daqing. IBD cases included in this study were followed-up for three months for diagnosis confirmation. RESULTS: A total of 27 new IBD cases including 25 cases of ulcerative colitis (UC and 2 cases of Crohn's disease (CD were identified. The population at risk was 1,343,364 person years. Age-adjusted incidence for total IBD, CD and UC were 1.77, 0.13, and 1.64 per 100,000 population, respectively. A male predominance was found in CD patients (male to female ratio was 2 ∶ 0. In contrast, no obvious gender predominance was found in UC patients (male to female ratio was 1 ∶ 1.1. CD patients were diagnosed at an average age of 39.5 years. The main disease phenotypes of UC were distal colitis with a 24% of proctitis and 56% of left-sided colitis. The mean diagnostic age of UC patients was 48.9 years. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on the incidence of IBD in the Northern Chinese population. A lower incidence of IBD, similar male predominance for CD, similar disease phenotype of UC, and lower disease activity was observed in Daqing compared to that in Southern China.
Gausman, Jewel; Perkins, Jessica M; Lee, Hwa-Young; Mejia-Guevara, Ivan; Nam, You-Seon; Lee, Jong-Koo; Oh, Juhwan; Subramanian, S V
Dietary diversity (DD) measures dietary variation in children. Factors at the child, community, and state levels may be associated with poor child nutritional outcomes. However, few studies have examined the role of macro-level factors on child DD. This study seeks to 1) describe the distribution of child DD in India, 2) examine the variation in DD attributable to the child, community and state levels, and 3) explore the relationship between community socioeconomic context and child DD. Using nationally representative data from children aged 6-23 months in India, multilevel models were used to determine the associations between child DD and individual- and community-level factors. There was substantial variation in child DD score across demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. In an age and sex-only adjusted regression model, the largest portion of variation in child DD was attributable to the child level (75%) while the portions of variance attributable to the community-level and state level were similar to each other (15% and 11%). Including individual-level socioeconomic factors explained 35.6 percent of the total variation attributed to child DD at the community level and 24.8 percent of the total variation attributed to child DD at the state level. Finally, measures of community disadvantage were associated with child DD in when added to the fully adjusted model. This study suggests that both individual and contextual factors are associated with child DD. These results suggest that a population-based approach combined with a targeted intervention for at-risk children may be needed to improve child DD in India. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Recent studies indicate that death certificate-based single-cause-of-death diagnoses can substantially underestimate the contribution of sepsis to mortality in the general population and among maternal decedents. There are no population-based data in the United States on the patterns of the contribution of sepsis to pregnancy-associated deaths. We studied the Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File to identify pregnancy-associated hospitalizations with reported hospital death during 2001-2010. We then examined the annual reporting of sepsis, and that of other reported most common causes of maternal death, including hemorrhage, embolism, preeclampsia/eclampsia, cardiovascular conditions, cardiomyopathy, cerebrovascular accidents, and anesthesia complications. The annual rate of sepsis among decedents, its trend over time, and changes of its annual rank among other examined potential causes of maternal death were assessed. There were 557 pregnancy-associated hospital deaths during study period. Sepsis was reported in 131 (23.5%) decedents. Sepsis has been increasingly reported among decedents, rising by 9.1%/year (P = 0.0025). The rank of sepsis, as compared to the other examined potential causes of maternal death rose from the 5th in 2001 to 1st since 2008. At the end of the last decade, sepsis has been reported in 28.1% of pregnancy-associated deaths. More than one potential cause of maternal death was reported in 39% of decedents. Sepsis has become the most commonly reported potential cause of death among maternal decedents in the present cohort, noted in over 1 in 4 fatal hospitalizations by the end of the last decade. Although causality cannot be inferred from administrative data, given its known contribution to maternal death, it is likely that sepsis plays an increasing role in fatal maternal hospital outcomes. The prevalent co-reporting of multiple potential causes of maternal death in the present cohort underscores the complexity of determining the sources of
Kim, Minkyeong; Oh, Jong-Hyun; Park, Choul Yong; Lee, Sang Wha
Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface. No epidemiologic reports have yet been published about the relationship between DED and allergic rhinitis or sensitization to allergens. To investigate the association between DED and allergic conditions in the general adult Korean population. This population-based cross-sectional study included 17,542 individuals (ages ≥ 19 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2010 to 2012. Data for total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and allergen-specific IgE levels were available for 1857 subjects. Data were analyzed by using logistic regression to determine the association of DED with allergy or allergic conditions, including allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, asthma, increased total serum IgE, and sensitization to house-dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae), dog, and cockroach allergens. The prevalence of DED, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and asthma was 10.4, 13.1, 2.2, and 3.3%, respectively. The prevalence of the increased total serum IgE level and sensitization to D. farinae, dog, and cockroach allergens was 34.6, 15.7, 1.0, and 2.8%, respectively. After adjusting for general characteristics, DED was significantly associated with allergic rhinitis (odds ratio 1.58 [95% confidence interval, 1.38-1.81]) and D. farinae sensitization (odds ratio 1.80 [95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.79]). This study demonstrated a close association between DED and both allergic rhinitis and D. farinae sensitization in Korean adults. Further studies are warranted to establish temporal relationships between DED and allergic rhinitis.
Theophil, Constanze; Jürgens, Clemens; Großjohann, Rico; Kempin, Robert; Ittermann, Till; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Tost, Frank H W
Background Interdisciplinary investigations of possible connections between general diseases and ophthalmological changes are difficult to perform in the clinical environment. But they are gaining in importance as a result of the age-related increase in chronic diseases. The collection of health-related parameters in the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) project allows to derive conclusions for the general population. Methods The population-based SHIP trend study was conducted between 2008 and 2012 in Greifswald. The baseline cohort included 4420 subjects (response 50.1%) at the age of 20 to 84 years. The pre-existence of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and smoking status were questioned in a standardized questionnaire, the blood pressure and the HbA 1c were determined by the laboratory. The vascular diameter of retinal arterioles and venules were determined by means of non-mydriatic fundus images and the retinal arterial (CRAE) and venous equivalent (CRVE) were calculated therefrom. The association of diabetes mellitus, HbA 1c , smoking status and blood pressure with the retinal vascular parameters was tested for age and sex with linear regression models. Results In 3218 subjects with evaluable standardized fundus photographs, significant associations of elevated HbA 1c (> 6.5%), smoking status and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were found with the retinal vessel widths CRAE and CRVE. Anamnestic diabetes mellitus, on the other hand, was not associated with any of the vascular parameters. Conclusion This research study reveals a relevant correlation between general diseases and the retinal blood flow in the eye. Therefore, general diseases can induce ophthalmological changes and eye examination can provide information for the assessment of general diseases. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chun Sen; Laurberg, Peter
Objectives Pregnancy loss in women suffering from hyperthyroidism has been described in case reports, but the risk of pregnancy loss caused by maternal hyperthyroidism in a population is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association between maternal hyperthyroidism and pregnancy loss in a population-based cohort study. Study Design All pregnancies in Denmark from 1997 to 2008 leading to hospital visits (n = 1,062,862) were identified in nationwide registers together with information on maternal hyperthyroidism for up to 2 years after the pregnancy [hospital diagnosis/prescription of antithyroid drug (ATD)]. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for spontaneous abortion (gestational age hyperthyroidism was diagnosed before/during the pregnancy (n = 5,229), spontaneous abortion occurred more often both in women treated before the pregnancy alone [aHR 1.28 (95% CI 1.18-1.40)] and in women treated with ATD in early pregnancy [1.18 (1.07-1.31)]. When maternal hyperthyroidism was diagnosed and treated for the first time in the 2-year period after the pregnancy (n = 2,361), there was a high risk that the pregnancy under study had terminated with a stillbirth [2.12 (1.30-3.47)]. Conclusions Both early (spontaneous abortion) and late (stillbirth) pregnancy loss were more common in women suffering from hyperthyroidism. Inadequately treated hyperthyroidism in early pregnancy may have been involved in spontaneous abortion, and undetected high maternal thyroid hormone levels present in late pregnancy may have attributed to an increased risk of stillbirth. PMID:25538898
Mohsen, Hassan; Haddad, Pascale; Allam, Ayman; Hassan, Azza
Background International studies show that most people prefer to die at home; however, hospitals remain the most common place of death (PoD). This study aims to investigate the patterns in PoD and the associated factors, which are crucial for end-of-life cancer care enhancement. Method This retrospective, population-based study analyzed all registered cancer deaths in Qatar between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2012 (n = 1,224). The main outcome measures were patient characteristics: age, gender, nationality, cancer diagnosis, year of death, and PoD. Time trends for age-standardized proportions of death in individual PoDs were evaluated using chi-square analysis. Odds ratio (OR) were determined for variables associated with the most preferred (acute palliative care unit [APCU] and hematology/oncology ward) versus least preferred (ICU and general medicine ward) PoDs in Qatar, stratified by nationality. Results The hematology/oncology ward was the most common PoD (32.4%; 95% CI 26.7–35.3%) followed by ICU (31.4%; 95% CI 28.7–34.3%), APCU (26.9%; 95% CI 24.3–29.6%), and general medicine ward (9.2%; 95% CI 7.6–11.1%). APCU trended upward (+0.057/year; pQatar occur in hospital. As home was the preferred PoD for most people, effective home care and hospice programs are needed to improve end-of-life cancer care. PMID:25536076
Nurminen, Janne; Puustinen, Juha; Piirtola, Maarit; Vahlberg, Tero; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa
There is evidence that the use of any psychotropic and the concomitant use of two or more benzodiazepines are related to an increased risk of fractures in old age. However, also controversial results exist. The aim was to describe associations between the use of a psychotropic drug, or the concomitant use of two or more of these drugs and the risk of fractures in a population aged 65 years or over. This study was a part of a prospective longitudinal population-based study carried out in the municipality of Lieto, South-Western Finland. The objective was to describe gender-specific associations between the use of one psychotropic drug [benzodiazepine (BZD), antipsychotic (AP) or antidepressant (AD)] or the concomitant use of two or more psychotropic drugs and the risk of fractures in a population 65 years or over. Subjects were participants in the first wave of the Lieto study in 1990-1991, and they were followed up until the end of 1996. Information about fractures confirmed with radiology reports in 1,177 subjects (482 men and 695 women) during the follow-up was collected from medical records. Two follow-up periods (three and six years) were used, and previously found risk factors of fractures were adjusted as confounding factors separately for men and women. The Poisson regression model was used in the analyses. The concomitant use of two or more BZDs and the concomitant use of two or more APs were related to an increased risk of fractures during both follow-up periods after adjusting for confounding factors in men. No similar associations were found in women. The concomitant use of several BZDs and that of several APs are associated with an increase in the risk of fractures in older men. Our findings show only risk relations. We cannot draw the conclusion that these drug combinations are causes of fractures.
Haasum, Y; Fastbom, J; Fratiglioni, L; Johnell, K
In this population-based study of more than 2,600 elderly, people with dementia received less preventive treatment for osteoporosis compared to people without dementia, although osteoporotic fractures were more common in patients with dementia. Thus, our results indicate an undertreatment of osteoporosis in dementia. This study compares the use of osteoporosis drugs in elderly with and without dementia, taking into account osteoporotic fractures and type of housing. We analyzed data from the baseline examination (2001-2004) of The Swedish National Study on Aging and Care- Kungsholmen (SNAC-K), Stockholm, Sweden. Participants were aged ≥ 66 years (n = 2610). We analysed the use of bisphosphonates, raloxifene, and calcium/vitamin D combinations in relation to clinically based dementia diagnosis. Information about osteoporotic fractures during the previous 4 years was obtained from the Swedish National Patient Register. We used logistic regression to analyze the association between dementia status and use of osteoporosis drugs. Osteoporosis drugs (mainly calcium/vitamin D combinations) were used by 5% of the persons with dementia and 12% of the persons without dementia. Furthermore, 25% of the persons with dementia and 7% of the persons without dementia had had at least one osteoporotic fracture during the past 4 years. After controlling for age, sex, osteoporotic fractures, and type of housing (own home or institution), persons with dementia were less likely to use osteoporosis drugs than persons without dementia (OR = 0.34; 95% CI, 0.19-0.59). Our results indicate an undertreatment of osteoporosis in persons with dementia, although osteoporotic fractures are common among these patients.
Wu Chou, Ana Isabel; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. This population-based cohort study aimed to examine the association between breast cancer in female schizophrenia patients and its association with the use of antipsychotics drugs. All study subjects were selected from the Taiwan Insurance Claims Data (1998-2008). We compared the risk for breast cancer between female schizophrenia patients receiving antipsychotics (n=29,641) with female patients without any serious mental illnesses nor receiving antipsychotic drugs (n=59,282). We also compared between patients on 1) first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) alone; 2) combination of first and second generation antipsychotics (SGAs); and 3) SGAs alone. We then stratified those on SGAs into two subgroups according to their prolactin-elevating properties: risperidone (RIS), paliperidone (PAL) or amisulpride (AMI) and all other SGAs. After adjusting for confounding factors, the risk of breast cancer in female schizophrenia patients was 1.94 higher than the non-schizophrenia cohort (aHR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.43-2.63). Schizophrenia patients receiving a combination of FGAs and SGAs had a slightly higher risk of breast cancer than non-schizophrenic patients (aHR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.56-3.01). Patients on RIS, PAL, and AMI had a 1.96-fold risk of breast cancer compared to the non-schizophrenic cohort (95% CI: 1.36-2.82). This study raises awareness among both clinicians and patients about the importance of breast cancer screening and the promotion of healthy lifestyle choices. Due to the nature of our database, confounding factors - such as parity, obesity, hormone therapy, and smoking - could not be controlled for. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ashley S. Felix
Full Text Available Aberrant expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK inhibitors is implicated in the carcinogenesis of many cancers, including ovarian and endometrial cancers. We examined associations between CDK inhibitor expression, cancer risk factors, tumor characteristics, and survival outcomes among ovarian and endometrial cancer patients enrolled in a population-based case control study. Expression (negative vs. positive of three CDK inhibitors (p16, p21, p27 and ki67 was examined with immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for associations between biomarkers, risk factors, and tumor characteristics. Survival outcomes were available for ovarian cancer patients and examined using Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards regression. Among ovarian cancer patients (n=175, positive p21 expression was associated with endometrioid tumors (OR=12.22, 95% CI=1.45-102.78 and higher overall survival (log-rank p=0.002. In Cox models adjusted for stage, grade, and histology, the association between p21 expression and overall survival was borderline significant (hazard ratio=0.65, 95% CI=0.42-1.05. Among endometrial cancer patients (n=289, positive p21 expression was inversely associated with age (OR ≥ 65 years of age=0.25, 95% CI=0.07-0.84 and current smoking status (OR: 0.33, 95% CI 0.15, 0.72 compared to negative expression. Our study showed heterogeneity in expression of cell-cycle proteins associated with risk factors and tumor characteristics of gynecologic cancers. Future studies to assess these markers of etiological classification and behavior may be warranted.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence by an intimate partner is increasingly recognized as an important public and reproductive health issue. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence is associated with induced abortion and pregnancy loss from other causes and to compare this with other, more commonly recognized explanatory factors. Methods This study analyzes the data of the Tanzania section of the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence, a large population-based cross-sectional survey of women of reproductive age in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania, conducted from 2001 to 2002. All women who answered positively to at least one of the questions about specific acts of physical or sexual violence committed by a partner towards her at any point in her life were considered to have experienced intimate partner violence. Associations between self reported induced abortion and pregnancy loss with intimate partner violence were analysed using multiple regression models. Results Lifetime physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence was reported by 41% and 56% of ever partnered, ever pregnant women in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya respectively. Among the ever pregnant, ever partnered women, 23% experienced involuntary pregnancy loss, while 7% reported induced abortion. Even after adjusting for other explanatory factors, women who experienced intimate partner violence were 1.6 (95%CI: 1.06,1.60 times more likely to report an pregnancy loss and 1.9 (95%CI: 1.30,2.89 times more likely to report an induced abortion. Intimate partner violence had a stronger influence on induced abortion and pregnancy loss than women's age, socio-economic status, and number of live born children. Conclusions Intimate partner violence is likely to be an important influence on levels of induced abortion and pregnancy loss in Tanzania. Preventing intimate partner violence may therefore be beneficial
Wirén, Sara M; Drevin, Linda I; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Akre, Olof; Holmberg, Erik C; Robinson, David E; Garmo, Hans G; Stattin, Pär E
Previous studies have shown a decreased risk of prostate cancer for childless men; however, the cause of the association remains to be elucidated. The aim of our study was to assess the risk of prostate cancer by fatherhood status, also considering potential confounding factors. In a case-control study in Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden 2.0, a nationwide, population-based cohort, data on number of children, marital status, education, comorbidity and tumor characteristics obtained through nationwide healthcare registers and demographic databases for 117,328 prostate cancer cases and 562,644 controls, matched on birth year and county of residence, were analyzed. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for prostate cancer overall and by risk category, adjusting for marital status and education. Childless men had a decreased risk of prostate cancer compared to fathers, OR = 0.83 (95% CI = 0.82-0.84), and risk was lower for low-risk prostate cancer, OR = 0.74 (95% CI = 0.72-0.77), than for metastatic prostate cancer, OR = 0.93 (95% CI = 0.90-0.97). Adjustment for marital status and education attenuated the association in the low-risk category, adjusted OR = 0.87 (95% CI = 0.84-0.91), whereas OR for metastatic cancer remained virtually unchanged, adjusted OR = 0.92 (95% CI = 0.88-0.96). Our data indicate that the association between fatherhood status and prostate cancer to a large part is due to socioeconomic factors influencing healthcare-seeking behavior including testing of prostate-specific antigen levels. Copyright © 2013 UICC.
Wirén, Sara M; Drevin, Linda I; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Akre, Olof; Holmberg, Erik C; Robinson, David E; Garmo, Hans G; Stattin, Pär E
Previous studies have shown a decreased risk of prostate cancer for childless men; however, the cause of the association remains to be elucidated. The aim of our study was to assess the risk of prostate cancer by fatherhood status, also considering potential confounding factors. In a case–control study in Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden 2.0, a nationwide, population-based cohort, data on number of children, marital status, education, comorbidity and tumor characteristics obtained through nationwide healthcare registers and demographic databases for 117,328 prostate cancer cases and 562,644 controls, matched on birth year and county of residence, were analyzed. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for prostate cancer overall and by risk category, adjusting for marital status and education. Childless men had a decreased risk of prostate cancer compared to fathers, OR = 0.83 (95% CI = 0.82–0.84), and risk was lower for low-risk prostate cancer, OR = 0.74 (95% CI = 0.72–0.77), than for metastatic prostate cancer, OR = 0.93 (95% CI = 0.90–0.97). Adjustment for marital status and education attenuated the association in the low-risk category, adjusted OR = 0.87 (95% CI = 0.84–0.91), whereas OR for metastatic cancer remained virtually unchanged, adjusted OR = 0.92 (95% CI = 0.88–0.96). Our data indicate that the association between fatherhood status and prostate cancer to a large part is due to socioeconomic factors influencing healthcare-seeking behavior including testing of prostate-specific antigen levels. PMID:23354735
Shu, X.O.; Gao, Y.T.; Brinton, L.A.; Linet, M.S.; Tu, J.T.; Zheng, W.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr.
A population-based case-control interview study of 309 childhood leukemia cases and 618 healthy population control children was conducted in urban Shanghai, China. Like some studies in other countries, excess risks for both acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) were associated with intrauterine and paternal preconception diagnostic x-ray exposure, and with maternal employment in the chemical and agricultural industries during pregnancy. ANLL was linked to maternal occupational exposure to benzene during pregnancy, whereas both ALL and ANLL were significantly associated with maternal exposure to gasoline and the patient's prior use of chloramphenicol. New findings, previously unsuspected, included an association of ANLL with younger maternal age at menarche (odds ratio [OR] = 4.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-13.9); a protective effect for long-term (greater than 1 year) use of cod liver oil containing vitamins A and D for both ALL (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2-0.9) and ANLL (OR = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-1.0); and excess risks of ANLL among children whose mothers were employed in metal refining and processing (OR = 4.6; 95% CI = 1.3-17.2) and of ALL associated with maternal occupational exposure to pesticides (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.1-11.2). No relationships were found with late maternal age, certain congenital disorders, or familial occurrence, which have been related to childhood leukemia in other studies. In contrast with other reports, an excess of leukemia, primarily ANLL, occurred among second or later-born rather than firstborn children
Full Text Available Background: Caring for stroke patients leads to caregiver (CG strain. The aims of this study are to identify factors related to increased CG burden in stroke survivors in a census-defined population and to assess the relationship between patient characteristics and CG stress. Materials and Methods: In a prospective population-based study, 223 first ever stroke (FES were identified over a 1-year period. At 28 days, 127 (56.9% were alive and 79 (35% died, and 17 were lost to follow-up. One hundred and eleven CGs of 127 FES survivors agreed to participate. The level of stress was assessed by two scales: Oberst Caregiving Burden Scale (OCBS and the Caregivers Strain Index (CSI in CGs of survivors with mild stroke Modified Rankin Scale (MRS 1-2 and in those with significant disability (MRS 3-5. Results: The mean age of CGs was 45.6 years, approximately 22 years younger than that of the patients (67.5 years. Eighty-nine (80% of the CGs were females and only 22 (20% were males. Urinary incontinence (P=0.000008, morbidity at 28 days by MRS (P=0.0051, female gender (P=0.0183 and moderate to severe neurological deficit by National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS on admission (P=0.0254 were factors in FES cases leading to major CGs stress. CG factors responsible for major stress were long caregiving hours (P≤0.000001, anxiety (P≤0.000001, disturbed night sleep ( P≤0.000001, financial stress (P=0.0000108, younger age (P=0.0021 and CGs being daughter-in-laws (P=0.012. Conclusion: Similar studies using uniform methodologies would help to identify factors responsible for major CG stress. Integrated stroke rehabilitation services should address CG issues to local situations and include practical training in simple nursing skills and counseling sessions to help reduce CG burden.
Pavlov, Nikolay; Haynes, Alan Gary; Stucki, Armin; Jüni, Peter; Ott, Sebastian Robert
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide and is associated with a growing and substantial socioeconomic burden. Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT), recommended by current treatment guidelines for COPD patients with severe chronic hypoxemia, has shown to reduce mortality in this population. The aim of our study was to assess the standardized mortality ratios of incident and prevalent LTOT users and to identify predictors of mortality. We conducted a 2-year follow-up population-based cohort study comprising all COPD patients receiving LTOT in the canton of Bern, Switzerland. Comparing age- and sex-adjusted standardized mortality ratios, we examined associations between all-cause mortality and patient characteristics at baseline. To avoid immortal time bias, data for incident (receiving LTOT <6 months) and prevalent users were analyzed separately. At baseline, 475 patients (20% incident users, n=93) were receiving LTOT because of COPD (48/100,000 inhabitants). Mortality of incident and prevalent LTOT users was 41% versus 27%, respectively, p <0.007, and standardized mortality ratios were 8.02 (95% CI: 5.64-11.41) versus 5.90 (95% CI: 4.79-7.25), respectively. Type 2 respiratory failure was associated with higher standardized mortality ratios among incident LTOT users (60.57, 95% CI: 11.82-310.45, p =0.038). Two-year mortality rate of COPD patients on incident LTOT was somewhat lower in our study than in older cohorts but remained high compared to the general population, especially in younger patients receiving LTOT <6 months. Type 2 respiratory failure was associated with mortality.
Mijnarends, Donja M.; Koster, Annemarie; Schols, Jos M. G. A.; Meijers, Judith M. M.; Halfens, Ruud J. G.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Jónsson, Pálmi V.; Meirelles, Osorio; Harris, Tamara
Background: the prevalence of sarcopenia increases with age. Physical activity might slow the rate of muscle loss and therewith the incidence of sarcopenia. Objective: to examine the association of physical activity with incident sarcopenia over a 5-year period. Design: data from the population-based Age, Gene/Environment, Susceptibility–Reykjavik Study were used. Setting: people residing in the Reykjavik area at the start of the study. Subjects: the study included people aged 66–93 years (n = 2309). Methods: the amount of moderate–vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed by a self-reported questionnaire. Sarcopenia was identified using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People algorithm, including muscle mass (computed tomography imaging), grip strength (computerised dynamometer) and gait speed (6 m). Results: mean age of the participants was 74.9 ± 4.7 years. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 7.3% at baseline and 16.8% at follow-up. The incidence proportion of sarcopenia over 5 years was 14.8% in the least-active individuals and 9.0% in the most-active individuals. Compared with the least-active participants, those reporting a moderate–high amount of MVPA had a significantly lower likelihood of incident sarcopenia (OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.45–0.91). Participants with a high amount of MVPA had higher baseline levels of muscle mass, strength and walking speed, but baseline MVPA was not associated with the rate of muscle loss. Conclusion: a higher amount of MVPA seems to contribute to counteracting the development of sarcopenia. To delay the onset of sarcopenia and its potential adverse outcomes, attention should be paid to increasing physical activity levels in older adults. PMID:27189729
Mikalsen, Ingvild Bruun; Skeiseid, Liliane; Tveit, Line Merete; Engelsvold, David Hugo; Øymar, Knut
The prevalence of childhood asthma has increased, although the rate of hospitalization for asthma seems to decrease. In Norway, the rate of hospital admission for childhood asthma from 1984 to 2000 increased. The aim of this study was to assess further trends in hospital admissions for childhood asthma up to 2010. A population-based study including children 1-13 yrs of age hospitalized for asthma during six periods from 1984/1985 to 2009/2010 in Rogaland, Norway, was performed. Medical records from 1536 admissions (1050 children) were studied; and gender, age, number of admissions, length of hospital stay, medications and symptoms were recorded. For all age groups, the rate of admissions per 10.000 increased from 20.1 in 1984/85 to 33.7 in 1989/90, but declined to 14.4 in 2009/2010. Rates were highest in boys (OR 1.87; 95% CI: 1.69, 2.09), younger age groups (OR 2.51; 2.38, 2.64) and decreased from 1984 to 2010 (OR 0.92; 0.88, 0.94). The rates of readmissions were higher than for primary admissions (OR 1.33; 1.19, 1.47). From 1984 to 2010, there was an increased use of inhaled corticosteroids prior to admission (6 to 51%) and started at discharge (7 to 37%), and systemic steroids given during admission (19 to 83%). There has been a substantial decline in the rate of hospital admissions for childhood asthma after 1989/1990, with major differences between age groups and genders. The decline could be due to improved care of children with asthma or a real reduction in asthma exacerbations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Maghsoudlou, Siavash; Cnattingius, Sven; Montgomery, Scott; Aarabi, Mohsen; Semnani, Shahriar; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Bahmanyar, Shahram
Use of narcotic or "recreational" drugs has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm delivery. However, the associations might be confounded by other factors related to high-risk behaviours. This is the first study to investigate the association between traditional opium use during pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery. We performed a population-based cohort study in the rural areas of the Golestan province, Iran between 2008 and 2010. We randomly selected 920 women who used (usually smoked) opium during pregnancy and 920 women who did not. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between the opium use during pregnancy and preterm delivery and adjustment was made for potential confounding factors. This study shows compared with non-use of opium and tobacco, use of only opium during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.05-2.32), and the risk was more than two-fold increased among dual users of opium and tobacco (OR = 2.31; 95% CI 1.37-3.90). We observed that opium use only was associated with a doubled risk for preterm caesarean delivery (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.10-3.82) but not for preterm vaginal delivery (OR = 1.25; 95% CI 0.75-2.07). Dual use of opium and tobacco was associated with a substantially increased risk of vaginal preterm delivery (OR = 2.58; 95% CI 1.41-4.71). Opium use during pregnancy among non-tobacco smokers is associated with an increased risk of preterm caesarean delivery, indicating an increased risk of a compromised foetus before or during labour. Women who use both opium and smoked during pregnancy have an increased risk of preterm vaginal delivery, indicating an increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk factors for breast cancer were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Results Compared with subjects with no supplementation, 10 years or longer supplementation of zinc had multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of 0.46 (0.25-0.85 for premenopausal women, while supplementation of 10 years or longer of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc had multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs of 0.74 (0.59, 0.92, 0.58 (0.36, 0.95, 0.79 (0.63-0.99, 0.75 (0.58, 0.97, and 0.47 (0.28-0.78, respectively, for postmenopausal women. No significant effect of antioxidants from dietary sources (including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and zinc or from supplementation less than 10 years was observed. Conclusions This study suggests that supplementation of zinc in premenopausal women, and supplementation of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc in postmenopausal women for 10 or more years may protect women from developing breast cancer. However, we were unable to determine the overall effect of total dose or intake from both diet and supplement.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Previous studies indicate an association between sleep problems and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. Although both these conditions separately have moderate heritabilities, confounding by genetic factors has not previously been taken into account. This study aimed to reveal the association between sleep problems and GERD, while adjusting for heredity and other potential confounding factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional population-based study included all 8,014 same-sexed twins of at least 65 years of age and born in Sweden between 1886 and 1958, who participated in telephone interviews in 1998-2002. Three logistic regression models were used 1 external control analysis, 2 within-pair co-twin analysis with dizygotic (DZ twin pairs discordant for GERD, and 3 within-pair co-twin analysis with monozygotic (MZ twin pairs discordant for GERD. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated and adjusted for established risk factors for GERD, i.e. sex, age, body mass index (BMI, tobacco smoking, and educational level. RESULTS: A dose-response association was identified between increasing levels of sleep problems and GERD in the external control analysis. Individuals who often experienced sleep problems had a two-fold increased occurrence of GERD compared to those who seldom had sleep problems (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.8-2.4. The corresponding association was of similar strength in the co-twin analysis including 356 DZ pairs (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.6-3.4, and in the co-twin analysis including 210 MZ pairs (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.9-2.7. CONCLUSION: A dose-dependent association between sleep problems and GERD remains after taking heredity and other known risk factors for GERD into account.
Nikolian, Vahagn C; Kamdar, Neil S; Regenbogen, Scott E; Morris, Arden M; Byrn, John C; Suwanabol, Pasithorn A; Campbell, Darrell A; Hendren, Samantha
Anastomotic leak is a major source of morbidity in colorectal operations and has become an area of interest in performance metrics. It is unclear whether anastomotic leak is associated primarily with surgeons' technical performance or explained better by patient characteristics and institutional factors. We sought to establish if anastomotic leak could serve as a valid quality metric in colorectal operations by evaluating provider variation after adjusting for patient factors. We performed a retrospective cohort study of colorectal resection patients in the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative. Clinically relevant patient and operative factors were tested for association with anastomotic leak. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to derive risk-adjusted rates of anastomotic leak. Of 9,192 colorectal resections, 244 (2.7%) had a documented anastomotic leak. The incidence of anastomotic leak was 3.0% for patients with pelvic anastomoses and 2.5% for those with intra-abdominal anastomoses. Multivariable analysis showed that a greater operative duration, male sex, body mass index >30 kg/m 2 , tobacco use, chronic immunosuppressive medications, thrombocytosis (platelet count >400 × 10 9 /L), and urgent/emergency operations were independently associated with anastomotic leak (C-statistic = 0.75). After accounting for patient and procedural risk factors, 5 hospitals had a significantly greater incidence of postoperative anastomotic leak. This population-based study shows that risk factors for anastomotic leak include male sex, obesity, tobacco use, immunosuppression, thrombocytosis, greater operative duration, and urgent/emergency operation; models including these factors predict most of the variation in anastomotic leak rates. This study suggests that anastomotic leak can serve as a valid metric that can identify opportunities for quality improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dørheim, Signe K.; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Eberhard-Gran, Malin
Background Insomnia and depression are strongly interrelated. This study aimed to describe changes in sleep across childbirth, and to evaluate whether insomnia in pregnancy is a predictor of postpartum depression. Methods A longitudinal, population-based study was conducted among perinatal women giving birth at Akershus University Hospital, Norway. Women received questionnaires in weeks 17 and 32 of pregnancy and eight weeks postpartum. This paper presents data from 2,088 of 4,662 women with complete data for insomnia and depression in week 32 of pregnancy and eight weeks postpartum. Sleep times, wake-up times and average sleep durations were self-reported. The Bergen Insomnia Scale (BIS) was used to measure insomnia. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to measure depressive symptoms. Results After delivery, sleep duration was reduced by 49 minutes (to 6.5 hours), and mean sleep efficiency was reduced from 84% to 75%. However, self-reported insomnia scores (BIS) improved from 17.2 to 15.4, and the reported prevalence of insomnia decreased from 61.6% to 53.8%. High EPDS scores and anxiety in pregnancy, fear of delivery, previous depression, primiparity, and higher educational level were risk factors for both postpartum insomnia and depression. Insomnia did not predict postpartum depression in women with no prior history of depression, whereas women who recovered from depression had residual insomnia. Limitations Depression and insomnia were not verified by clinical interviews. Women with depressive symptoms were less likely to remain in the study. Conclusions Although women slept fewer hours at night after delivery compared to during late pregnancy, and reported more nights with nighttime awakenings, their self-reported insomnia scores improved, and the prevalence of insomnia according to the DSM-IV criteria decreased. Insomnia in pregnancy may be a marker for postpartum recurrence of depression among women with previous depression. PMID
Kao, Li-Ting; Chen, Yi-Hua; Lin, Herng-Ching; Chung, Shiu-Dong
This study aimed to investigate the most prescribed medications and principle diagnoses for category D and X drugs during pregnancy using a population-based dataset in Taiwan. The data for the present study were sourced from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. We selected 14 125 women who had live singleton births between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2011. In total, 217 226 prescriptions prescribed to these pregnant women were identified. Of the total 217 226 prescriptions, 1.1% were category D or X drugs; in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy, 1.8%, 0.7%, and 0.5% of prescriptions were category D or X drugs, respectively. Progestins (15.3%) and propylthiouracil (10.7%) were the two most frequently prescribed category D or X drugs during pregnancy. In particular, progestins (20.4%) and estrogens (15.6%) were the most frequently prescribed category D or X drug in the first trimester of pregnancy. Propylthiouracil was the most prescribed category D or X drug in the second (20.3%) and third trimesters (23.1%) of pregnancy, respectively. The most common principal diagnosis during pregnancy was "disorders of menstruation and other abnormal bleeding from the female genital tract" (22% of all principal diagnoses for prescribing category D and X drugs). Our study found that the physicians obviously reduced the use of category D and X drugs for women after becoming aware that they were pregnant. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Teraguchi, M; Yoshimura, N; Hashizume, H; Yamada, H; Oka, H; Minamide, A; Nagata, K; Ishimoto, Y; Kagotani, R; Kawaguchi, H; Tanaka, S; Akune, T; Nakamura, K; Muraki, S; Yoshida, M
The present study examined the progression, incidence, and risk factors for intervertebral disc degeneration (DD) throughout the lumbar spine using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a large population-based cohort. We followed up 617 subjects for more than 4 years as part of the Wakayama Spine Study. 1) "Progression of DD" in each of the entire, upper (L1/2 to L3/4) and lower (L4/5 and L5/S1) lumbar spine was defined as Pfirrmann grade progression at follow-up in at least one disc in the affected region. 2) "Incidence of DD" in each of these regions was defined if all discs were grade 3 or lower (white disc) at baseline, and at least one disc had progressed to grade 4 or higher (black disc) at follow-up. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the risk factors for progression and incidence of DD. DD progression and incidence in the entire lumbar spine were 52.0% and 31.6% in men, and 60.4% and 44.7% in women, respectively. Women was associated with DD progression in the upper lumbar spine (odds ratio [OR] = 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18-2.42). Aging was associated with the incidence of DD in each region (entire: OR = 1.14, CI = 1.06-1.14; upper: OR = 1.10, CI = 1.05-1.15; lower: OR = 1.11, CI = 1.05-1.19). Diabetes mellitus (DM) was associated with the incidence of DD in the upper lumbar spine (OR = 6.83, CI = 1.07-133.7). This 4-year longitudinal study is the first to demonstrate DD progression and incidence in the lumbar spine and their risk factors in a large population-based cohort. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hart, C.; Vet, R. de; Moran, P.; Hatch, S.L.; Dean, K.
PURPOSE: To establish the prevalence of victimisation in a UK population-based sample and to investigate the association between mental disorder and victimisation in both cross-sectional and prospective manner, whilst adjusting for potential confounds. METHODS: Data from the National Child
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intellectually disabled patients have various comorbidities, but their risks of adverse surgical outcomes have not been examined. This study assesses pre-existing comorbidities, adjusted risks of postoperative major morbidities and mortality in intellectually disabled surgical patients. METHODS: A nationwide population-based study was conducted in patients who underwent inpatient major surgery in Taiwan between 2004 and 2007. Four controls for each patient were randomly selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Preoperative major comorbidities, postoperative major complications and 30-day in-hospital mortality were compared between patients with and without intellectual disability. Use of medical services also was analyzed. Adjusted odds ratios using multivariate logistic regression analyses with 95% confidence intervals were applied to verify intellectual disability's impact. RESULTS: Controls were compared with 3983 surgical patients with intellectual disability. Risks for postoperative major complications were increased in patients with intellectual disability, including acute renal failure (odds ratio 3.81, 95% confidence interval 2.28 to 6.37, pneumonia (odds ratio 2.01, 1.61 to 2.49, postoperative bleeding (odds ratio 1.35, 1.09 to 1.68 and septicemia (odds ratio 2.43, 1.85 to 3.21 without significant differences in overall mortality. Disability severity was positively correlated with postoperative septicemia risk. Medical service use was also significantly higher in surgical patients with intellectual disability. CONCLUSION: Intellectual disability significantly increases the risk of overall major complications after major surgery. Our findings show a need for integrated and revised protocols for postoperative management to improve care for intellectually disabled surgical patients.
Kao, Chia-Hung; Sun, Li-Min; Liang, Ji-An; Chang, Shih-Ni; Sung, Fung-Chang; Muo, Chih-Hsin
To evaluate the relationship between the use of zolpidem and subsequent cancer risk in Taiwanese patients. We used data from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan to investigate whether use of zolpidem was related to cancer risk. For the study cohort, we identified 14,950 patients who had received a first prescription for zolpidem from January 1, 1998, through December 31, 2000. For each zolpidem user, we selected randomly 4 comparison patients without a history of using zolpidem who were frequency-matched by sex, age, and year of the index date. Incidence rates of all cancers and selected site-specific cancers were measured by the end of 2009, and related hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the cancer were measured as well. The risk of developing any cancer was greater in patients using zolpidem than in nonusers (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.55-1.82). The stratified analysis showed that the overall HR for high-dosage zolpidem (≥300 mg/y) was 2.38. The site-specific cancer risk was the highest for oral cancer (HR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.57-3.56), followed by kidney cancer, esophageal cancer, breast cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, and bladder cancer (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.06-2.41). Men were at higher risk than women. This population-based study revealed some unexpected findings, suggesting that the use of zolpidem may be associated with an increased risk of subsequent cancer. Further large-scale and in-depth investigations in this area are warranted. Copyright © 2012 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Friis, Karina; Østergaard, Jeanette; Reese, Sidsel; Lasgaard, Mathias
Previous studies indicate that young people who have positive attitudes towards illicit drugs are more inclined to experiment with them. The first aim of our study was to identify the sociodemographic and risk behaviour characteristics of young people (16-24 years) with positive attitudes towards illicit drug use. The second aim was to identify the characteristics of young people with positive attitudes towards illicit drugs among those who had never tried drugs, those who had tried cannabis but no other illicit drugs, and those who regularly used cannabis and/or had tried other illicit drugs. The analysis was based on a population-based survey from 2013 ( N = 3812). Multiple logistic regression was used to analyse the association between sociodemographic and risk behaviour characteristics and positive attitudes towards illicit drugs. Young men had twice the odds of having positive attitudes towards illicit drug use compared with young women (AOR = 2.1). Also, young age, being single, being employed, smoking tobacco, practising unprotected sex, and experimental cannabis use were associated with positive attitudes towards illicit drug use. Finally, use of cannabis at least 10 times during the previous year and/or use of other illicit drugs had the strongest association with positive attitudes to illicit drug use (AOR = 6.0). Young people who have positive attitudes towards illicit drug use are characterized by a broad range of risky behaviours. These findings may help to identify young people at risk of initiating illicit drug use and thereby support the development and implementation of prevention programmes.
Full Text Available Anil Mor, Sinna P Ulrichsen, Elisabeth Svensson, Klara Berencsi, Reimar W Thomsen Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Background: To reduce the increasing burden of pneumonia hospitalizations, we need to understand their determinants. Being married may decrease the risk of severe infections, due to better social support and healthier lifestyle. Patients and methods: In this population-based case-control study, we identified all adult patients with a first-time pneumonia-related hospitalization between 1994 and 2008 in Northern Denmark. For each case, ten sex- and age-matched population controls were selected from Denmark's Civil Registration System. We performed conditional logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for pneumonia hospitalization among persons who were divorced, widowed, or never married, as compared with married persons, adjusting for age, sex, 19 different comorbidities, alcoholism-related conditions, immunosuppressant use, urbanization, and living with small children. Results: The study included 67,162 patients with a pneumonia-related hospitalization and 671,620 matched population controls. Compared with controls, the pneumonia patients were more likely to be divorced (10% versus 7% or never married (13% versus 11%. Divorced and never-married patients were much more likely to have previous diagnoses of alcoholism-related conditions (18% and 11%, respectively compared with married (3% and widowed (6% patients. The adjusted OR for pneumonia-related hospitalization was increased, at 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-1.33 among divorced; 1.15 (95% CI: 1.12-1.17 among widowed; and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.29-1.37 among never-married individuals as compared with those who were married. Conclusion: Married individuals have a decreased risk of being hospitalized with pneumonia compared with never-married, divorced, and widowed patients
Martin-de-las-Heras, Stella; Velasco, Casilda; Luna, Juan de Dios; Martin, Aurelia
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and unintended pregnancy are public health issues that can affect the health and well-being of women and their children. However, the relationship between IPV and women's ability to control their fertility has not been adequately explored. To investigate the association between unintended pregnancy and emotional or physical violence perpetrated by partners around pregnancy. A population-based study was undertaken, recruiting women (n=779) at the hospital obstetric departments and gathering social and family data. IPV was diagnosed by using the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA). Data were gathered by trained midwives in 15 public hospitals in southern Spain and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. The pregnancy was reported to be unintended by 118 (15.1%) of the study population. Unintended pregnancy was significantly associated with: physical and/or emotional IPV around pregnancy, age, marital status, cohabitation, educational level, and employment status. After adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, emotional IPV around pregnancy was significantly associated with an unintended pregnancy (AOR=2.5; 95% CI=1.5-4.3). Being in a non-committed relationship was a risk factor (AOR=3.5; 95% CI=1.8-6.1) and being in employment a protective factor (AOR=0.4; 95% CI=0.2-0.8) for an unintended pregnancy. Women who report an unintended pregnancy may be experiencing emotional IPV. The risk of emotional IPV is higher if women reporting an unintended pregnancy are in a committed relationship, married, or in employment. A better understanding of the relationship between unintended pregnancy and violence can aid midwives about potential reproductive health risk factors associated with abuse. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Caroline S. Duchaine
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health problems (MHP are the leading cause of disability worldwide. The inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP and MHP has been well documented. There is prospective evidence that factors from the work environment, including adverse psychosocial work factors, could contribute to the development of MHP including psychological distress. However, the contribution of psychosocial work factors to social inequalities in MHP remains unclear. This study evaluates the contribution of psychosocial work factors from two highly supported models, the Demand-Control-Support (DCS and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI models to SEP inequalities of psychological distress in men and women from a population-based sample of Quebec workers. Methods Data were collected during a survey on working conditions, health and safety at work. SEP was evaluated using education, occupation and household income. Psychosocial work factors and psychological distress were assessed using validated instruments. Mean differences (MD in the score of psychological distress were estimated separately for men and women. Results Low education level and low household income were associated with psychological distress among men (MD, 0.56 (95% CI 0.06; 1.05 and 1.26 (95% CI 0.79; 1.73 respectively. In men, the contribution of psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models to the association between household income and psychological distress ranged from 9% to 24%. No clear inequalities were observed among women. Conclusions These results suggest that psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models contribute to explain a part of social inequalities in psychological distress among men. Psychosocial factors at work are frequent and modifiable. The present study supports the relevance of targeting these factors for the primary prevention of MHP and for health policies aiming to reduce social inequalities in mental health.
Duchaine, Caroline S; Ndjaboué, Ruth; Levesque, Manon; Vézina, Michel; Trudel, Xavier; Gilbert-Ouimet, Mahée; Dionne, Clermont E; Mâsse, Benoît; Pearce, Neil; Brisson, Chantal
Mental health problems (MHP) are the leading cause of disability worldwide. The inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and MHP has been well documented. There is prospective evidence that factors from the work environment, including adverse psychosocial work factors, could contribute to the development of MHP including psychological distress. However, the contribution of psychosocial work factors to social inequalities in MHP remains unclear. This study evaluates the contribution of psychosocial work factors from two highly supported models, the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models to SEP inequalities of psychological distress in men and women from a population-based sample of Quebec workers. Data were collected during a survey on working conditions, health and safety at work. SEP was evaluated using education, occupation and household income. Psychosocial work factors and psychological distress were assessed using validated instruments. Mean differences (MD) in the score of psychological distress were estimated separately for men and women. Low education level and low household income were associated with psychological distress among men (MD, 0.56 (95% CI 0.06; 1.05) and 1.26 (95% CI 0.79; 1.73) respectively). In men, the contribution of psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models to the association between household income and psychological distress ranged from 9% to 24%. No clear inequalities were observed among women. These results suggest that psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models contribute to explain a part of social inequalities in psychological distress among men. Psychosocial factors at work are frequent and modifiable. The present study supports the relevance of targeting these factors for the primary prevention of MHP and for health policies aiming to reduce social inequalities in mental health.
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that unemployment is a great problem both to the exposed individual and to the whole society. Unemployment is reported as more common among young people compared to the general level of unemployment. Inequity in health status and life-satisfaction is related to unemployment. The purpose of this population-based study was to describe QOL among unemployed young people compared to those who are not unemployed, and to analyse variables related to QOL for the respective groups. Methods The sample consisted of 264 young unemployed individuals and 528 working or studying individuals as a reference group. They all received a questionnaire about civil status, educational level, immigration, employment status, self-reported health, self-esteem, social support, social network, spare time, dwelling, economy and personal characteristics. The response rate was 72%. The significance of differences between proportions was tested by Fisher's exact test or by χ2 test. Multivariate analysis was carried out by means of a logistic regression model. Results Our results balance the predominant picture of youth unemployment as a principally negative experience. Although the unemployed reported lower levels of QOL than the reference group, a majority of unemployed young adults reported good QOL, and 24% even experienced higher QOL after being unemployed. Positive QOL related not only to good health, but also to high self-esteem, satisfaction with spare time and broad latitude for decision-making. Conclusion Even if QOL is good among a majority of unemployed young adults, inequalities in QOL were demonstrated. To create more equity in health, individuals who report reduced subjective health, especially anxiety need extra attention and support. Efforts should aim at empowering unemployed young adults by identifying their concerns and resources, and by creating individual programmes in relation not only to education and work, but also
Genebra, Caio Vitor Dos Santos; Maciel, Nicoly Machado; Bento, Thiago Paulo Frascareli; Simeão, Sandra Fiorelli Almeida Penteado; Vitta, Alberto De
Neck pain is a musculoskeletal condition with high prevalence that may affect the physical, social, and psychological aspects of the individual, contributing to the increase in costs in society and business. To determine the prevalence of neck pain and associated factors in a population-based sample of adults aged 20 and more. Cross-sectional study based on a population survey. A total number of 600 individuals were interviewed in their homes, and the following data were collected: (1) participant characteristics (demographic, socioeconomic, and work-related aspects) using a pre-coded questionnaire; (2) physical activity level using the IPAQ; and (3) musculoskeletal symptoms using the Nordic questionnaire. Descriptive, bivariate, and Poisson regression analyses were performed. The prevalence of neck pain was 20.3% (95% CI 17.3-23.7). The adjusted analyses showed that individuals who were widowers or separated (PR=2.26; 1.42-5.88), had a low income (PR=1.32; 1.22-6.27) or low educational level (PR=1.83; 1.02-5.26), worked while sitting and leaning (PR=1.55; 1.08-2.40), and who reported having two or more diseases (PR=1.71; 1.55-6.31) remained associated with neck pain. This study reveals the high prevalence of neck pain and remarkable association with widowed/separated people who have low income and low educational level, who perform their occupational activities in sitting and leaning positions, and who reported having two or more diseases. Knowledge of these risk factors will contribute to the development of forms of assistance in which neck pain can be prevented and better managed. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte; Thygesen, Malene; Pedersen, Carsten B; Sigsgaard, Torben
Nitrate in drinking water may increase risk of colorectal cancer due to endogenous transformation into carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds. Epidemiological studies are few and often challenged by their limited ability of estimating long-term exposure on a detailed individual level. We exploited population-based health register data, linked in time and space with longitudinal drinking water quality data, on an individual level to study the association between long-term drinking water nitrate exposure and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Individual nitrate exposure was calculated for 2.7 million adults based on drinking water quality analyses at public waterworks and private wells between 1978 and 2011. For the main analyses, 1.7 million individuals with highest exposure assessment quality were included. Follow-up started at age 35. We identified 5,944 incident CRC cases during 23 million person-years at risk. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of nitrate exposure on the risk of CRC, colon and rectal cancer. Persons exposed to the highest level of drinking water nitrate had an HR of 1.16 (95% CI: 1.08-1.25) for CRC compared with persons exposed to the lowest level. We found statistically significant increased risks at drinking water levels above 3.87 mg/L, well below the current drinking water standard of 50 mg/L. Our results add to the existing evidence suggesting increased CRC risk at drinking water nitrate concentrations below the current drinking water standard. A discussion on the adequacy of the drinking water standard in regards to chronic effects is warranted. © 2018 UICC.
Haack, Ricardo Lanzetta; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Cesar, Juraci Almeida
To assess the prevalence and risk factors for sunburn in young people. Population-based cross-sectional study using a multiple-stage sampling carried out with people living in the urban area of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, between October and December 2005. Data was collected from interviews with 1.604 subjects using a standardized pre-coded questionnaire about their family and another questionnaire applied to those aged between ten and 29 years for assessing the occurrence of sunburn episodes. Sunburn was defined as skin burning after sun exposure. Chi-square test with Yates' correction was used to compare proportions and Poisson regression with design effect control and robust adjustment of variance was applied in the multivariate analysis. Of those aged between 10 and 29 years, 1,412 reported sun exposure in the last summer. Losses and refusals were 5.5%. A total of 48.7% of the interviewees reported sunburn in the last year. The following variables were associated with sunburn in the multivariate analysis: white skin (PR=1.41; 95% CI: 1.12;1.79); higher skin sensitivity to sun exposure (PR=1.84; 95% CI: 1.64;2.06); age between 15 and 19 years (PR=1.30; 95% CI: 1.12;1.50); belonging to the higher quartile of income (PR=1.20; 95% CI: 1.01;1.42); and irregular use of sunscreens (PR=1.23; 95% CI: 1.08;1.42). The prevalence of sunburn in the population studied was high mainly among white young people with higher skin sensitivity, higher income and who used sunscreens irregularly. Sun exposure during safe times and with adequate protection should be promoted.
Ghazali, Sarah; Czuzoj-Shulman, Nicholas; Spence, Andrea R; Mishkin, Daniel S; Abenhaim, Haim A
To determine the incidence of pregnancy in liver transplant (LT) patients in a large population-based cohort and to determine the maternal and fetal risks associated with these pregnancies. We conducted an age-matched cohort study using the US Healthcare and Utilization project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2003-2011. We used unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for baseline characteristics, to estimate the likelihood of common obstetric complications in the LT group compared with age-matched nontransplant patients. There were 7 288 712 deliveries and an estimated incidence of 2.1 LTs/100 000 deliveries over the nine-year study period. LT patients had higher rates of maternal complications including hypertensive disorders (OR 6.5, 95% CI: 4.4-9.5), gestational diabetes (OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0-3.5), anemia (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.1-4.9), thrombocytopenia (OR 27.5, 95% CI: 12.7-59.8) and genitourinary tract infections (OR 4.2, 95% CI: 1.8-9.8). Deliveries among women with LT had higher risks of cesarean section (OR 2.9, 95% CI: 2.0-4.1), postpartum hemorrhage (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 1.7-6.2) and blood transfusion (OR 18.7, 95% CI: 8.5-41.0). Fetal complications in LT patients included preterm delivery (OR 4.7, 95% CI: 3.2-7.0), intrauterine growth restriction (OR 4.1, 95% CI: 2.1-7.7) and congenital anomalies (OR 6.0, 95% CI: 1.1-32.0). Although pregnancies in LT recipients are feasible, they are associated with a high rate of maternal and fetal morbidities. Close antenatal surveillance is recommended.
Zheng, Tongzhang; Cantor, Kenneth P; Zhang, Yawei; Lynch, Charles F
While considerable efforts have been made to investigate the role of occupation and industry in the risk of bladder cancer, many reported associations have not been consistent, and strong evidence of increased risk is apparent for few occupational groups. To further examine the issue, a large, population-based, case-control study was conducted in the state of Iowa among both men and women. A total of 1452 incident bladder cancer cases and 2434 controls were included in the study. Occupational history was collected from respondents for each job held for 5 years or longer since age 16. Among men, excess risk was observed for industries including plumbing, heating, and air conditioning (odds ratio [OR], = 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 5.0); rubber and plastic products (OR = 3.1; 95% CI, 1.2 to 8.5), motor vehicle parts and supplies (OR = 4.5; 95% CI, 1.2 to 16.5), and occupations including supervisors for transportation and material moving (OR = 6.5; 95% CI, 1.4 to 29.9), material-moving-equipment operators (OR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.6), automobile mechanics (OR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.6), painters (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.0 to 7.7), and metal- and plastic-working machine operators (OR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.4). Among women, significant excess risk was observed for secondary school teachers and record clerks. Housekeepers and butlers and workers in laundering and dry cleaning were also at increased risk. In conclusion, these results suggest that occupational exposures may play a significant role in the risk of bladder cancer.
Full Text Available Recently dietary pattern analysis has emerged as a way for examining diet-disease relations in Alzheimer’s disease. In contrast with the conventional approach, which focuses on a single nutrient or a few nutrients or foods, this method considers overall eating patterns. We examined the dietary patterns defined by factor analysis using data collected with a food-frequency questionnaire in people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD as compared to healthy controls. The diet data were obtained during population based study of the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease in a population in Poland. Stratified sampling and random selection strategies were combined to obtain a representative population for screening (age group > 55. From the population screened three times, 71 people were diagnosed with Alzheimer’s according to DSM-IV, and were recruited for further diet risk factors assessment. A group of people with Alzheimer disease (n = 71; F/M 42/29 and the same number of healthy, age and gender matched control were recruited for the study. Patients and their caregivers as well as controls were presented with a food frequency questionnaire based on the 12 food groups. Factor analysis (principal component was used to derive food patterns. The analysis was conducted using the factor procedure. The factors were rotated by an orthogonal transformation (Varimax rotation to achieve simpler structure with greater interpretability. Using factor analysis, we identified major eating patterns, one for Alzheimer’s patients and a different one for control group. The AD dietary pattern, FACTOR AD was characterized by a high intake of meat, butter, high-fat dairy products, eggs, and refined sugar, whereas the other pattern, (FACTOR C was characterized by a high intake of grains and vegetables. These data indicate the existence of dietary patterns defined by factor analysis with data from a food frequency questionnaire, characteristic for Alzheimer’s disease in a
Butow, P N; Bell, M L; Aldridge, L J; Sze, M; Eisenbruch, M; Jefford, M; Schofield, P; Girgis, A; King, M; Duggal, P S; McGrane, J; Goldstein, D
Social suffering, language difficulties, and cultural factors may all make the cancer experience more difficult for immigrants. This study aimed to document unmet needs, and variables associated with these, in a population-based sample of first-generation immigrants and Anglo-Australians who had survived cancer. Participants were recruited via Australian cancer registries. Eligible cancer survivors had a new diagnosis 1-6 years earlier and were aged between 18 and 80 years at diagnosis. Eligible immigrant participants and parents were born in a country where Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin, Cantonese, and other dialects), or Greek is spoken, and they spoke one of these languages. A random sample of English-speaking Anglo-Australian-born controls was recruited. Five hundred ninety-six patients (277 immigrants) were recruited to the study (response rate, 26%). Compared to Anglo-Australians, the adjusted odds ratio of Chinese immigrants for at least one unmet information/support need was 5.1 (95% CI 3.1, 8.3) and for any unmet physical need was 3.1 (95% CI 1.9, 5.1). For Greek, these were 2.0 (95% CI 1.1, 4.0) and 2.7 (95% CI 1.4, 5.2). Arabic patients had elevated, but not statistically significant, odds ratios compared to Anglo-Australians. Written information and having a specialist, support services, and other health professionals who spoke their language were in the top ten unmet needs amongst immigrants. Immigrant cancer survivors, several years after initial diagnosis, are more likely to have an unmet need for information or for help with a physical problem than Anglo-Australians. They strongly desire information and support in their own language.
Full Text Available The risk of ventricular arrhythmia with citalopram and escitalopram is controversial. In this study we investigated the association between these two drugs and the risk of ventricular arrhythmia.We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of older adults (mean age 76 years from 2002 to 2012 in Ontario, Canada, newly prescribed citalopram (n = 137 701 or escitalopram (n = 38 436, compared to those prescribed referent antidepressants sertraline or paroxetine (n = 96 620. After inverse probability of treatment weighting using a propensity score, the baseline characteristics of the comparison groups were similar. The primary outcome was a hospital encounter with ventricular arrhythmia within 90 days of a new prescription, assessed using hospital diagnostic codes. The secondary outcome was all-cause mortality within 90 days.Citalopram was associated with a higher risk of a hospital encounter with ventricular arrhythmia compared with referent antidepressants (0.06% vs. 0.04%, relative risk [RR] 1.53, 95% confidence intervals [CI]1.03 to 2.29, and a higher risk of mortality (3.49% vs. 3.12%, RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.18. Escitalopram was not associated with a higher risk of ventricular arrhythmia compared with the referent antidepressants (0.03% vs. 0.04%, RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.68, but was associated with a higher risk of mortality (2.86% vs. 2.63%, RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.18.Among older adults, initiation of citalopram compared to two referent antidepressants was associated with a small but statistically significant increase in the 90-day risk of a hospital encounter for ventricular arrhythmia.
Qirjazi, Elena; McArthur, Eric; Nash, Danielle M; Dixon, Stephanie N; Weir, Matthew A; Vasudev, Akshya; Jandoc, Racquel; Gula, Lorne J; Oliver, Matthew J; Wald, Ron; Garg, Amit X
The risk of ventricular arrhythmia with citalopram and escitalopram is controversial. In this study we investigated the association between these two drugs and the risk of ventricular arrhythmia. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of older adults (mean age 76 years) from 2002 to 2012 in Ontario, Canada, newly prescribed citalopram (n = 137 701) or escitalopram (n = 38 436), compared to those prescribed referent antidepressants sertraline or paroxetine (n = 96 620). After inverse probability of treatment weighting using a propensity score, the baseline characteristics of the comparison groups were similar. The primary outcome was a hospital encounter with ventricular arrhythmia within 90 days of a new prescription, assessed using hospital diagnostic codes. The secondary outcome was all-cause mortality within 90 days. Citalopram was associated with a higher risk of a hospital encounter with ventricular arrhythmia compared with referent antidepressants (0.06% vs. 0.04%, relative risk [RR] 1.53, 95% confidence intervals [CI]1.03 to 2.29), and a higher risk of mortality (3.49% vs. 3.12%, RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.18). Escitalopram was not associated with a higher risk of ventricular arrhythmia compared with the referent antidepressants (0.03% vs. 0.04%, RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.68), but was associated with a higher risk of mortality (2.86% vs. 2.63%, RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.18). Among older adults, initiation of citalopram compared to two referent antidepressants was associated with a small but statistically significant increase in the 90-day risk of a hospital encounter for ventricular arrhythmia.
Valenzuela, Michael J; Leon, Irene; Suo, Chao; Piamba, Diana Martinez; Kochan, Nicole; Brodaty, Henry; Sachdev, Perminder
Cognitive lifestyle may be an important modifiable risk factor for dementia but has not yet been comprehensively studied in healthy elderly. To examine gender- and lifespan-related differences in cognitive lifestyle in a population-based cohort. 872 individuals from the second wave of the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study (MAS) cohort were invited to complete the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire (LEQ), a validated measure of cognitive lifestyle. Of 555 questionnaires returned (64%), 253 were excluded due to prior diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment, leaving n = 302 cognitively-intact elders (mean age 80.1 years, ±SD 4.7, 40.1% men). Total LEQ was significantly higher in men (97.9 ± 20.0) than women (90.0 ± 24.5), resulting mainly from midlife LEQ differences. Men were more likely to have worked in managerial or professional jobs (73.8% versus 39.5% women), and twice as likely to have supervised large groups of workers. In late life, women were significantly more likely to be living alone (68.1% versus 25.4% men), but otherwise significantly more engaged in specific cognitive activities, including reading novels (72.3% versus 52.0% men) and incorporating volunteer work (31.9% versus 19.7% men) and socializing (59.0% versus 37.0% men) into their typical day. Over the adult lifespan, it was more common for men and women to transition between LEQ tertiles than remain the same. Cognitive lifestyle changes over the adult lifespan and exhibits a range of gender-based differences. While older women are more likely to be living alone they generally lead a more active current cognitive lifestyle.
Yang, Fei; Johansson, Anna L V; Pedersen, Nancy L; Fang, Fang; Gatz, Margaret; Wirdefeldt, Karin
Little is known about the role of socioeconomic status in relation to Parkinson's disease (PD) risk, and no study has investigated whether the impact of socioeconomic status on all-cause mortality differs between individuals with and without PD.In this population-based prospective study, over 4.6 million Swedish inhabitants who participated in the Swedish census in 1980 were followed from 1981 to 2010. The incidence rate of PD and incidence rate ratio were estimated for the association between socioeconomic status and PD risk. Age-standardized mortality rate and hazard ratio (HR) were estimated for the association between socioeconomic status and all-cause mortality for individuals with and without PD.During follow-up, 66,332 incident PD cases at a mean age of 76.0 years were recorded. Compared to individuals with the highest socioeconomic status (high nonmanual workers), all other socioeconomic groups (manual or nonmanual and self-employed workers) had a lower PD risk. All-cause mortality rates were higher in individuals with lower socioeconomic status compared with high nonmanual workers, but relative risks for all-cause mortality were lower in PD patients than in non-PD individuals (e.g., for low manual workers, HR: 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.15 for PD patients; HR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.35-1.36 for non-PD individuals).Individuals with lower socioeconomic status had a lower PD incidence compared to the highest socioeconomic group. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with higher all-cause mortality among individuals with and without PD, but such impact was weaker among PD patients.
Tsai, Ming-Yen; Hu, Wen-Long; Lin, Che-Chen; Lee, Yi-Chiao; Chen, Shih-Yu; Hung, Yu-Chiang; Chen, Yung-Hsiang
Certain Chinese herbal products (CHPs) may protect against the progression of heart failure (HF). However, there is a lack of research regarding the use of CHPs in patients with HF. The aims of this study were to analyze CHPs usage patterns in patients with HF and to identify the frequency and combination of CHPs most commonly used for HF. This retrospective, nationwide, population-based cohort study was conducted using a randomly sampled cohort of one million patients selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) for the years 2000-2010 in Taiwan. CHP use and the top ten most frequently prescribed formulae and single herbs for treating HF were assessed, including total formulae number and average and frequency of prescriptions. Demographic characteristics, including sex and age at diagnosis of HF, were examined, together with existing comorbidities. The cohort included 19,988 newly diagnosed AD patients, who were given CHP treatment for HF between 2000 and 2010. Among them, female patients (53.3%) and those over 65years old (63.9%) were more likely to use CM. After adjusting for demographic factors, HF patients suffering from coronary artery disease (CAD) were more likely to seek traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment than those with non-TCM users (57.6% vs. 52.6%). Zhi-Gan-Cao-Tang (4.07%) and Danshen (5.13%) were the most frequent formula CHP and single CHP prescribed by TCM practitioners for treating HF, respectively. Most people with HF who consumed CHPs used CHPs to supplement Yang-Qi, nourish the Ying-blood, and strengthen the heart spirit as complementary medicines to relieve HF-related symptoms, in addition to using standard anti-HF treatments. Further large-scale, randomized clinical trials are warranted in order to determine the effectiveness and safety of these herbal medicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This general population-based study examined associations between violence and mental health, musculoskeletal pain, and early disability pension. The prevalence and consequences of good vs. poor adjustment (resilience vs. vulnerability following encounters with violence were also examined. Data were based on the sixth wave of the "Tromsø Study" (N = 12,981; 65.7% response rate, 53.4% women, M-age = 57.5 years, SD-age = 12.7 years. Self-reported data on psychological (threats and physical violence (beaten/kicked, mental health (anxiety/depression, musculoskeletal pain (MSP, and granting of disability pension (DP were collected. Men suffered more violent events during childhood than women did, and vice versa during adulthood. Psychological violence implied poorer mental health and slightly more MSP than physical violence. The risk of MSP was highest for violence occurring during childhood in women and during the last year for men. A dose-response relationship between an increasing number of violent encounters and poorer health was observed. About 58% of individuals reported no negative impact of violence (hence, resilience group, whereas 42% considered themselves as more vulnerable following encounters with violence. Regression analyses indicated comparable mental health but slightly more MSP in the resilience group compared to the unexposed group, whereas the vulnerable group had significantly worse health overall and a higher risk of early granting of DP. Resilience is not an all-or-nothing matter, as physical ailments may characterize individuals adapting well following encounters with violence.
Thunqvist, Per; Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif; Winberg, Anna; Fellman, Vineta; Domellöf, Magnus; Melén, Erik; Norman, Mikael; Hallberg, Jenny
Follow-up studies of children and young adults born very-to-moderately preterm show persistent and significant lung function deficits. The aim of the study was to determine lung function and airway mechanics in school-aged children born in 2004 to 2007 and extremely preterm (after 22-26 weeks of gestation). In a population-based cohort of children born extremely preterm and controls born at term (n = 350), follow-up at 6½-years-of-age was performed using spirometry and impulse oscillometry. Associations to gestational age, smallness for gestational age (SGA), and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) were assessed. Children born extremely preterm had lower forced vital capacity (FVC, z-score: -0.7, 95%CI: -1.0;-0.4), forced expiratory volume (FEV 1 , z-score: -1.1, 95%CI: -1.4; -0.8), higher frequency-dependence of resistance (R 5-20 , 0.09, 95%CI: 0.05; 0.12 kPa · L -1 · s -1 ) and larger area under the reactance curve (AX, 0.78, 95%CI: 0.49; 1.07 kPa · L -1 ) than controls. In children born at 22-24 weeks of gestation, 24% had FVC and 44% had FEV 1 below the lower limit of normal. SGA and severe BPD only marginally contributed to pulmonary outcomes. Asthma-like disease was reported in 40% of extremely preterm children and 15% of controls. Many children born extremely preterm have altered airway mechanics and significant obstructive reduction in lung function. This warrants consideration for treatment and continued follow-up. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kao, Chia-Hong; Sun, Li-Min; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Kao, Chia-Hung; Weng, Ming-Wei
Little information is available regarding the risk of nongenitourinary (GU) cancers in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). The authors conducted a nationwide population-based study to investigate whether a higher risk of non-GU cancer is seen among patients with SCI.Data retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan were used in this study. A total of 41,900 patients diagnosed with SCI between 2000 and 2011 were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database and comprised the SCI cohort. Each of these patients was randomly frequency matched with 4 people from the general population (without SCI) according to age, sex, comorbidities, and index year. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals and determine how SCI affected non-GU cancer risk.No significant difference in overall non-GU cancer risk was observed between the SCI and control groups. The patients with SCI exhibited a significantly higher risk of developing esophageal, liver, and hematologic malignancies compared with those without SCI. By contrast, the SCI cohort had a significantly lower risk of colorectal cancer compared with the non-SCI cohort (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval = 0.69-0.93). Additional stratified analyses by sex, age, and follow-up duration revealed various correlations between SCI and non-GU cancer risk.The patients with SCI exhibited higher risk of esophageal, liver, and hematologic malignancies but a lower risk of colorectal cancer compared with those without SCI. The diverse patterns of cancer risk among the patients with SCI may be related to the complications of chronic SCI.
Stickley, Andrew; Leinsalu, Mall
Several studies have linked childhood hunger to an increased risk for later depression. However, as yet, there has been little research on this relation in adults of all ages or whether there are sex differences in this association. The current study examined these issues using data from a national population-based sample. Data were analyzed from 5095 adults aged 25-84 collected during the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006. Information was obtained on the frequency of going to bed hungry in childhood and on depressive symptoms using the Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between hunger and depression while controlling for other demographic, socioeconomic and health-related variables. In a fully adjusted model, going to bed hungry in childhood either sometimes or often was associated with significantly increased odds for depressive symptoms. When the analysis was stratified by sex the association was more evident in men where any frequency of childhood hunger was linked to adult depression while only women who had experienced hunger often had higher odds for depressive symptoms in the final model. Data on childhood hunger were retrospectively reported and may have been affected by recall bias. We also lacked information on potentially relevant variables such as other childhood adversities that might have been important for the observed associations. Childhood hunger is associated with an increased risk for depressive symptoms among adults. Preventing hunger in childhood may be important for mental health across the life course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Moura, Mirian Conceicao; Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Eduardo, Emanoel Junio; Zago, Yuri S S P; Freitas, Ricardo Del Negro Barroso; Casulari, Luiz Augusto
To determine the prognostic factors associated with survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis at diagnosis. This retrospective population-based study evaluated 218 patients treated with riluzole between 2005 and 2014 and described their clinical and demographic profiles after the analysis of clinical data and records from the mortality information system in the Federal District, Brazil. Cox multivariate regression analysis was conducted for the parameters found. The study sample consisted of 132 men and 86 women with a mean age at disease onset of 57.2±12.3 years; 77.6% of them were Caucasian. The mean periods between disease onset and diagnosis were 22.7 months among men and 23.5 months among women, and the mean survival periods were 45.7±47.0 months among men and 39.3±29.8 months among women. In addition, 80.3% patients presented non-bulbar-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and 19.7% presented bulbar-onset. Cox regression analysis indicated worse prognosis for body mass index (BMI) 75 years (RR: 12.47, 95% CI: 3.51-44.26), and bulbar-onset (RR: 4.56, 95% CI: 2.06-10.12). Electromyography did not confirm the diagnosis in 55.6% of the suspected cases and in 27.9% of the bulbar-onset cases. The factors associated with lower survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were age >75 years, BMI <25 kg/m2, and bulbar-onset.
Elvander, C; Dahlberg, J; Andersson, G; Cnattingius, S
To investigate the relationship between mode of first delivery and probability of subsequent childbearing. Population-based study. Nationwide study in Sweden. A cohort of 771 690 women who delivered their first singleton infant in Sweden between 1992 and 2010. Using Cox's proportional-hazards regression models, risks of subsequent childbearing were compared across four modes of delivery. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated, using 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Probability of having a second and third child; interpregnancy interval. Compared with women who had a spontaneous vaginal first delivery, women who delivered by vacuum extraction were less likely to have a second pregnancy (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.97), and the probabilities of a second childbirth were substantially lower among women with a previous emergency caesarean section (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.84-0.86) or an elective caesarean section (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.80-0.83). There were no clinically important differences in the median time between first and second pregnancy by mode of first delivery. Compared with women younger than 30 years of age, older women were more negatively affected by a vacuum extraction with respect to the probability of having a second child. A primary vacuum extraction decreased the probability of having a third child by 4%, but having two consecutive vacuum extraction deliveries did not further alter the probability. A first delivery by vacuum extraction does not reduce the probability of subsequent childbearing to the same extent as a first delivery by emergency or elective caesarean section. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Axelsson, Lars; Andersson, Ingemar H; Edén, Lena; Ejlertsson, Göran
It is well known that unemployment is a great problem both to the exposed individual and to the whole society. Unemployment is reported as more common among young people compared to the general level of unemployment. Inequity in health status and life-satisfaction is related to unemployment. The purpose of this population-based study was to describe QOL among unemployed young people compared to those who are not unemployed, and to analyse variables related to QOL for the respective groups. The sample consisted of 264 young unemployed individuals and 528 working or studying individuals as a reference group. They all received a questionnaire about civil status, educational level, immigration, employment status, self-reported health, self-esteem, social support, social network, spare time, dwelling, economy and personal characteristics. The response rate was 72%. The significance of differences between proportions was tested by Fisher's exact test or by chi2 test. Multivariate analysis was carried out by means of a logistic regression model. Our results balance the predominant picture of youth unemployment as a principally negative experience. Although the unemployed reported lower levels of QOL than the reference group, a majority of unemployed young adults reported good QOL, and 24% even experienced higher QOL after being unemployed. Positive QOL related not only to good health, but also to high self-esteem, satisfaction with spare time and broad latitude for decision-making. Even if QOL is good among a majority of unemployed young adults, inequalities in QOL were demonstrated. To create more equity in health, individuals who report reduced subjective health, especially anxiety need extra attention and support. Efforts should aim at empowering unemployed young adults by identifying their concerns and resources, and by creating individual programmes in relation not only to education and work, but also to personal development.
Full Text Available This nationwide population-based study aims to explore the relationship between polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS and subsequent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM.Data from 1998-2012 Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were used for this study. ICD9-CM codes 256.4X and 648.X were used separately for the diagnoses of PCOS and GDM, which were further confirmed by records of blood tests or ultrasonography to ensure the accuracy of the diagnoses. Women diagnosed at 45 years of age, and those diagnosed with overt diabetes mellitus or GDM prior to PCOS were excluded. During pregnancy, each woman with a previous diagnosis of PCOS was age-matched to 10 women without PCOS. Odds ratios (ORs for risk of GDM were calculated by logistic regression analysis with adjustment for economic status and co-morbidities.Among 7,629 eligible women with a valid PCOS diagnosis, 3,109 (42.87% had subsequent pregnancies. GDM occurred frequently among women with a history of PCOS as compared to those without PCOS (20.46% vs. 10.54%, p0.05. If not used after conception, OHAs did not reduce the risk of GDM (adjusted OR = 1.20; 95% CI:0.88-1.62.A history of PCOS is a significant and independent risk factor for development of GDM. Medication for PCOS or pre-pregnancy use of OHAs does not reduce the risk of GDM. When at-risk women become pregnant, they require closer surveillance for maternal and fetal well-being, and should follow a strict diet and adhere to weight gain control to avoid obstetric complications due to GDM.
Bowen Jennifer R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP is used widely to provide respiratory support for neonates, and is often the first treatment choice in tertiary centres. Recent trials have demonstrated that CPAP reduces need for intubation and ventilation for infants born at 25-28 weeks gestation, and at > 32weeks, in non-tertiary hospitals, CPAP reduces need for transfer to NICU. The aim of this study was to examine recent population trends in the use of neonatal continuous positive airway pressure. Methods We undertook a population-based cohort study of all 696,816 liveborn neonates ≥24 weeks gestation in New South Wales (NSW Australia, 2001-2008. Data were obtained from linked birth and hospitalizations records, including neonatal transfers. The primary outcome was CPAP without mechanical ventilation (via endotracheal intubation between birth and discharge from the hospital system. Analyses were stratified by age ≤32 and > 32 weeks gestation. Results Neonates receiving any ventilatory support increased from 1,480 (17.9/1000 in 2001 to 2,486 (26.9/1000 in 2008, including 461 (5.6/1000 to 1,465 (15.8/1000 neonates who received CPAP alone. There was a concurrent decrease in mechanical ventilation use from 12.3 to 11.0/1000. The increase in CPAP use was greater among neonates > 32 weeks (from 3.2 to 11.8/1000 compared with neonates ≤32 weeks (from 18.1 to 32.7/1000. The proportion of CPAP > 32 weeks initiated in non-tertiary hospitals increased from 6% to 30%. Conclusions The use of neonatal CPAP is increasing, especially > 32 weeks gestation and among non-tertiary hospitals. Recommendations are required regarding which infants should be considered for CPAP, resources necessary for a unit to offer CPAP and monitoring of longer term outcomes.
Roberts, Christine L; Badgery-Parker, Tim; Algert, Charles S; Bowen, Jennifer R; Nassar, Natasha
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is used widely to provide respiratory support for neonates, and is often the first treatment choice in tertiary centres. Recent trials have demonstrated that CPAP reduces need for intubation and ventilation for infants born at 25-28 weeks gestation, and at > 32 weeks, in non-tertiary hospitals, CPAP reduces need for transfer to NICU. The aim of this study was to examine recent population trends in the use of neonatal continuous positive airway pressure. We undertook a population-based cohort study of all 696,816 liveborn neonates ≥24 weeks gestation in New South Wales (NSW) Australia, 2001-2008. Data were obtained from linked birth and hospitalizations records, including neonatal transfers. The primary outcome was CPAP without mechanical ventilation (via endotracheal intubation) between birth and discharge from the hospital system. Analyses were stratified by age ≤32 and > 32 weeks gestation. Neonates receiving any ventilatory support increased from 1,480 (17.9/1000) in 2001 to 2,486 (26.9/1000) in 2008, including 461 (5.6/1000) to 1,465 (15.8/1000) neonates who received CPAP alone. There was a concurrent decrease in mechanical ventilation use from 12.3 to 11.0/1000. The increase in CPAP use was greater among neonates > 32 weeks (from 3.2 to 11.8/1000) compared with neonates ≤32 weeks (from 18.1 to 32.7/1000). The proportion of CPAP > 32 weeks initiated in non-tertiary hospitals increased from 6% to 30%. The use of neonatal CPAP is increasing, especially > 32 weeks gestation and among non-tertiary hospitals. Recommendations are required regarding which infants should be considered for CPAP, resources necessary for a unit to offer CPAP and monitoring of longer term outcomes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Allogeneic red blood cell transfusion is frequently used in total hip replacement surgery (THR. However, data on the prognosis of transfused patients are sparse. In this study we compared the risk of complications following THR in transfused and non-transfused patients. Methods A population-based follow-up study was performed using data from medical databases in Denmark. We identified 28,087 primary THR procedures performed from 1999 to 2007, from which we computed a propensity score for red blood cell transfusion based on detailed data on patient-, procedure-, and hospital-related characteristics. We were able to match 2,254 transfused with 2,254 non-transfused THR patients using the propensity score. Results Of the 28,087 THR patients, 9,063 (32.3% received at least one red blood cell transfusion within 8 days of surgery. Transfused patients had higher 90-day mortality compared with matched non-transfused patients: the adjusted OR was 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.2-3.8. Blood transfusion was also associated with increased odds of pneumonia (OR 2.1; CI: 1.2-3.8, whereas the associations with cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events (OR 1.4; CI: 0.9-2.2 and venous thromboembolism (OR 1.2; CI: 0.7-2.1 did not reach statistical significance. The adjusted OR of reoperation due to infection was 0.6 (CI: 0.1-2.9. Conclusions Red blood cell transfusion was associated with an adverse prognosis following primary THR, in particular with increased odds of death and pneumonia. Although the odds estimates may partly reflect unmeasured bias due to blood loss, they indicate the need for careful assessment of the risk versus benefit of transfusion even in relation to routine THR procedures.
Samantha Caesar de Andrade, PhD
Full Text Available This study aimed to monitor diet quality and associated factors in adolescents, adults and older adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study involving 2376 individuals surveyed in 2003, and 1662 individuals in 2008 (Health Survey of São Paulo, ISA-Capital. Participants were of both sexes and aged 12 to 19 years old (adolescents, 20 to 59 years old (adults and 60 years old or over (older adults. Food intake was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method while diet quality was determined by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R. The prevalence of descriptive variables for 2003 and 2008 was compared adopting a confidence interval of 95%. The means of total BHEI-R score and its components for 2003 and 2008 were compared for each age group. Associations between the BHEI-R and independent variables were evaluated for each survey year using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the mean BHEI-R increased (54.9 vs. 56.4 points over the five-year period. However, the age group evaluation showed a deterioration in diet quality of adolescents, influenced by a decrease in scores for dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, total grains, oils and SoFAAS (solid fat, alcohol and added sugar components. In the 2008 survey, adults had a higher BHEI-R score, by 6.1 points on average, compared to adolescents. Compared to older adults, this difference was 10.7 points. The diet quality remains a concern, especially among adolescents, that had the worst results compared to the other age groups.
Chen, Chih-Chiang; Chang, Yun-Ting; Liu, Han-Nan; Chen, Yi-Ju
Alopecia areata (AA) is an organ-specific autoimmune disorder. Defective immune system related disorders are prone to increase the risk of cancer formation. However, the association among AA and variety of cancer types had never been studied. A nationwide population-based matched cohort study was conducted to evaluate the cancer risk in patients with AA. Records from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were analyzed. Cases of AA from 1997 to 2013 and cancers registered in the catastrophic illness profile from the same time period were collected. The standard incidence ratio (SIR) of each cancer was calculated. In total, 2099 cancers among 162,499 patients with AA and without prior cancers were identified. The overall cancer risks in AA patients were slightly decreased, especially among male subjects (SIR: 0.89). Refer to individual cancer, the cancer risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (SIR: 0.59), upper GI cancer (SIR: 0.70), liver cancer (SIR: 0.82), uterine, and cervix cancer (SIR: 0.84) were significantly lower in patients with AA. In contrast, AA patients were inclined to have lymphoma, breast cancer, kidney, and urinary bladder cancer with the SIR of 1.55, 2.93, and 2.95, respectively. Age stratified analyses revealed female AA patients younger than 50 years old have even higher risk of breast cancer (SIR: 3.37). Further sensitivity analysis showed similar results after excluding major autoimmune disorders. Cancer risk in AA patients is organ specific, and it is not associated with the underlying autoimmune disorders in patients with AA. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lachaud, James; Donnelly, Peter D; Henry, David; Kornas, Kathy; Calzavara, Andrew; Bornbaum, Catherine; Rosella, Laura
Homicide - a lethal expression of violence - has garnered little attention from public health researchers and health policy makers, despite the fact that homicides are a cause of preventable and premature death. Identifying populations at risk and the upstream determinants of homicide are important for addressing inequalities that hinder population health. This population-based study investigates the public health significance of homicides in Ontario, Canada, over the period of 1999-2012. We quantified the relative burden of homicides by comparing the socioeconomic gradient in homicides with the leading causes of death, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and neoplasm, and estimated the potential years of life lost (PYLL) due to homicide. We linked vital statistics from the Office of the Registrar General Deaths register (ORG-D) with Census and administrative data for all Ontario residents. We extracted all homicide, neoplasm, and cardiovascular deaths from 1999 to 2012, using International Classification of Diseases codes. For socioeconomic status (SES), we used two dimensions of the Ontario Marginalization Index (ON-Marg): material deprivation and residential instability. Trends were summarized across deprivation indices using age-specific rates, rate ratios, and PYLL. Young males, 15-29 years old, were the main victims of homicide with a rate of 3.85 [IC 95%: 3.56; 4.13] per 100,000 population and experienced an upward trend over the study period. The socioeconomic neighbourhood gradient was substantial and higher than the gradient for both cardiovascular and neoplasms. Finally, the PYLL due to homicide were 63,512 and 24,066 years for males and females, respectively. Homicides are an important cause of death among young males, and populations living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Our findings raise concerns about the burden of homicides in the Canadian population and the importance of addressing social determinants to address these premature deaths.
Chang, Susan M; Barker, Fred G
Social factors influence cancer treatment choices, potentially affecting patient survival. In the current study, the authors studied the interrelations between marital status, treatment received, and survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GM), using population-based data. The data source was the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Public Use Database, 1988-2001, 2004 release, all registries. Multivariate logistic, ordinal, and Cox regression analyses adjusted for demographic and clinical variables were used. Of 10,987 patients with GM, 67% were married, 31% were unmarried, and 2% were of unknown marital status. Tumors were slightly larger at the time of diagnosis in unmarried patients (49% of unmarried patients had tumors larger than 45 mm vs. 45% of married patients; P = 0.004, multivariate analysis). Unmarried patients were less likely to undergo surgical resection (vs. biopsy; 75% of unmarried patients vs. 78% of married patients) and were less likely to receive postoperative radiation therapy (RT) (70% of unmarried patients vs. 79% of married patients). On multivariate analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for resection (vs. biopsy) in unmarried patients was 0.88 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.79-0.98; P = 0.02), and the OR for RT in unmarried patients was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.62-0.77; P Unmarried patients more often refused both surgical resection and RT. Unmarried patients who underwent surgical resection and RT were found to have a shorter survival than similarly treated married patients (hazard ratio for unmarried patients, 1.10; P = 0.003). Unmarried patients with GM presented with larger tumors, were less likely to undergo both surgical resection and postoperative RT, and had a shorter survival after diagnosis when compared with married patients, even after adjustment for treatment and other prognostic factors. (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.
Claus, J.J.; Breteler, M.M.B.; Hasan, D.; Krenning, E.P.; Bots, M.L.; Grobbee, D.E.; Swieten, J.C. van; Harskamp, F. van; Hofman, A.
We studied risk factors for cerebral vascular disease (blood pressure and hypertension, factor VIIc, factor VIIIc, fibrinogen), indicators of atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness and plaques in the carotid artery) and cerebral white matter lesions in relation to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 60 persons (aged 65-85 years) recruited from a population-based study. rCBF was assessed with single-photon emission tomography using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO). Statistical analysis was performed with multiple linear regression with adjustment for age, sex and ventricle-to-brain ratio. A significant positive association was found between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and temporo-parietal rCBF. In analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for the relation of low diastolic blood pressure (≤60 mmHg) and low temporo-parietal rCBF. Levels of plasma fibrinogen were inversely related to parietal rCBF, with a threshold effect of high fibrinogen levels (>3.2 g/l) and low rCBF. Increased atherosclerosis was related to low rCBF in all cortical regions, but these associations were not significant. No consistent relation was observed between severity of cerebral white matter lesions and rCBF. Our results may have implications for blood pressure control in the elderly population. (orig.)
Koshida, Shigeki; Ono, Tetsuo; Tsuji, Shunichiro; Murakami, Takashi; Arima, Hisatomi; Takahashi, Kentaro
Fetal movement is the most common method to evaluate fetal well-being. Furthermore, maternal perception of decreased fetal movements is associated with perinatal demise. Previously, we showed that perception of decreased fetal movements was the most common reason for mothers visiting the outpatient department among those who had stillbirths in our region. Further investigation of stillbirths with decreased fetal movements is essential to find a possible way of preventing stillbirth. To investigate maternal reaction time after their perceiving decreased fetal movements among stillbirths in our region of Japan. This is a population-based study of stillbirths in Shiga Prefecture, Japan conducted from 2007 to 2011. We sent a questionnaire to each obstetrician who had submitted the stillbirth certificate. We reviewed and evaluated the questionnaires returned from the obstetricians. There were 66 cases (35%) with decreased fetal movements among 188 stillbirths in Shiga during the study period. The number of maternal visits to outpatient department after perception of decreased fetal movements within 24h was only seven (11%) among 64 stillbirths diagnosed at outpatient department. We conclude that delayed maternal visit after perceiving decreased fetal movements is frequently observed in stillbirths. Promoting more thorough maternal education on fetal movements, including emphasizing earlier visitation after perceiving decreased fetal movements, may prevent stillbirths. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Andrews, Carin; Peterson, Stefan; Wabwire Mangen, Fred; Eliasson, Ann Christin; Forssberg, Hans
Few population-based studies of cerebral palsy have been done in low-income and middle-income countries. We aimed to examine cerebral palsy prevalence and subtypes, functional impairments, and presumed time of injury in children in Uganda. In this population-based study, we used a nested, three-stage, cross-sectional method (Iganga-Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance System [HDSS]) to screen for cerebral palsy in children aged 2-17 years in a rural eastern Uganda district. A specialist team confirmed the diagnosis and determined the subtype, motor function (according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS]), and possible time of brain injury for each child. Triangulation and interviews with key village informants were used to identify additional cases of suspected cerebral palsy. We estimated crude and adjusted cerebral palsy prevalence. We did χ 2 analyses to examine differences between the group screened at stage 1 and the entire population and regression analyses to investigate associations between the number of cases and age, GMFCS level, subtype, and time of injury. We used data from the March 1, 2015, to June 30, 2015, surveillance round of the Iganga-Mayuge HDSS. 31 756 children were screened for cerebral palsy, which was confirmed in 86 (19%) of 442 children who screened positive in the first screening stage. The crude cerebral palsy prevalence was 2·7 (95% CI 2·2-3·3) per 1000 children, and prevalence increased to 2·9 (2·4-3·6) per 1000 children after adjustment for attrition. The prevalence was lower in older (8-17 years) than in younger (cerebral palsy was the most common subtype (45 [46%] of 97 children) followed by bilateral cerebral palsy (39 [40%] of 97 children). 14 (27%) of 51 children aged 2-7 years had severe cerebral palsy (GMFCS levels 4-5) compared with only five (12%) of 42 children aged 8-17 years. Few children (two [2%] of 97) diagnosed with cerebral palsy were born preterm. Post-neonatal events were the
Zou, Yaming; Leung, Ricky; Lin, Shao; Yang, Mingan; Lu, Tao; Li, Xianyun; Gu, Jing; Hao, Chun; Dong, Guanghui; Hao, Yuantao
Suicide intervention programs have been guided by findings that attitude towards suicide and suicidal behavior may be causally linked. These findings also make it imperative to identify the factors that influence attitudes towards suicide. However, there has been little research on attitudes towards suicide among the general population, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. This population-based, cross-sectional study investigated the associated factors of attitudes towards suicide among a representative sample of urban and rural adult residents in China. A multi-stage, stratified random sampling approach was implemented to select participants. Data were collected by a survey using the Scale of Public Attitudes about Suicide (SPAS). The survey also collected some socio-demographic factors and suicidal history of participants. Statistical tests were conducted to identify associated factors that account for variations in attitudes towards suicide. The residents in China generally hold a neutral attitude towards suicide. Attitudes towards suicide among Chinese residents were associated with age, duration of formal education, marital status, job and suicidal ideation. Different attitudinal subscales seemed not to share the same risk factors. However, gender, ethnicity, religious belief, housing style and economic status might not influence residents' attitudes towards suicide. Attitudes towards suicide among Chinese urban and rural residents generally had no statistical difference with one notable exception: opinions on whether or not suicides and suicide attempts are different phenomena. Age, duration of formal education, marital status, job and suicidal ideation seem to have an impact on attitudes towards suicide among residents. Urban and rural residents have similar attitudes towards suicide with the only statistically significance difference being their opinions on whether or not suicides and suicide attempts are different phenomena.
Mocellin, Simone; Nitti, Donato
Cutaneous melanoma in situ (CMIS) is a nosologic entity surrounded by health concerns and unsolved debates. We aimed to shed some light on CMIS by means of a large population-based study. Patients with histologic diagnosis of CMIS were identified from the Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) database. The records of 93,863 cases of CMIS were available for analysis. CMIS incidence has been steadily increasing over the past 3 decades at a rate higher than any other in situ or invasive tumor, including invasive skin melanoma (annual percentage change [APC]: 9.5% versus 3.6%, respectively). Despite its noninvasive nature, CMIS is treated with excision margins wider than 1 cm in more than one third of cases. CMIS is associated with an increased risk of invasive melanoma (standardized incidence ratio [SIR]: 8.08; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.66-8.57), with an estimated 3:5 invasive/in situ ratio; surprisingly, it is also associated with a reduced risk of gastrointestinal (SIR: 0.78, CI: 0.72-0.84) and lung (SIR: 0.65, CI: 0.59-0.71) cancers. Relative survival analysis shows that persons with CMIS have a life expectancy equal to that of the general population. CMIS is increasingly diagnosed and is often overtreated, although it does not affect the life expectancy of its carriers. Patients with CMIS have an increased risk of developing invasive melanoma (which warrants their enrollment in screening programs) but also a reduced risk of some epithelial cancers, which raises the intriguing hypothesis that genetic/environmental risk factors for some tumors may oppose the pathogenesis of others.
Heeramun, Ragini; Magnusson, Cecilia; Gumpert, Clara Hellner; Granath, Sven; Lundberg, Michael; Dalman, Christina; Rai, Dheeraj
Recent systematic reviews have highlighted that the relationship between autism and violent offending is still unclear, but some cases have received extensive media scrutiny. We investigated whether autism is associated with convictions for violent crimes, and studied the associated risk and protective factors. We analyzed data from the Stockholm Youth Cohort, a total population-based record-linkage cohort in Stockholm County comprising 295,734 individuals followed up between 15 and 27 years of age. Of these, 5,739 individuals had a recorded autism diagnosis. The main outcome measure was a conviction for violent crimes identified using the Swedish National Crime Register. Individuals with autism, particularly those without intellectual disability, initially appeared to have a higher risk of violent offending (adjusted relative risk = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.23-1.58). However, these associations markedly attenuated after co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or conduct disorder were taken into account (adjusted relative risk = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.75-0.97). Among individuals with autism, male sex and psychiatric conditions were the strongest predictors of violent criminality, along with parental criminal and psychiatric history and socioeconomic characteristics. There was some evidence that a delayed diagnosis of autism was associated with a greater risk of violent crime. Better school performance and intellectual disability appeared to be protective. An initially observed association between autism and violent crimes at a population level was explained by comorbidity with ADHD and conduct disorder. Better understanding and management of comorbid psychopathology in autism may potentially help preventive action against offending behaviors in people with autism. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Al-Hasan, Majdi N.; Lahr, Brian D.; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E.; Baddour, Larry M.
Enterobacter species are the fourth most common cause of gram-negative bloodstream infection (BSI). We examined temporal changes and seasonal variation in the incidence rate of Enterobacter spp. BSI, estimated 28-day and 1-year mortality, and determined in vitro antimicrobial resistance rates of Enterobacter spp. bloodstream isolates in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1/1/1998 to 12/31/2007. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to examine temporal changes and seasonal variation in incidence rate and Kaplan-Meier method to estimate 28-day and 1-year mortality. The median age of patients with Enterobacter spp. BSI was 58 years and 53% were female. The overall age- and gender-adjusted incidence rate of Enterobacter spp. BSI was 3.3/100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3-4.4). There was a linear trend of increasing incidence rate from 0.8 (95% CI: 0-1.9) to 6.2 (95% CI: 3.0-9.3) per 100,000 person-years between 1998 and 2007 (p=0.002). There was no significant difference in the incidence rate of Enterobacter spp. BSI during the warmest four months compared to the remainder of the year (incidence rate ratio 1.06 [95% CI: 0.47-2.01]). The overall 28-day and 1-year mortality rates of Enterobacter spp. BSI were 21% (95% CI: 8-34%) and 38% (95% CI: 22-53%), respectively. Up to 13% of Enterobacter spp. bloodstream isolates were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. To our knowledge, this is the first population-based study to describe the epidemiology and outcome of Enterobacter spp. BSI. The increase in incidence rate of Enterobacter spp. BSI over the past decade, coupled with its associated antimicrobial resistance, dictate more investigation of this syndrome. PMID:20518795
Iversen, Ditte S; Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Ovesen, Per G
We aimed to investigate the change in prevalence of overweight and obesity in pregnant Danish women from 2004 to 2012, and investigate whether increasing parity was associated with a change in body mass index (BMI) prevalence. We obtained a population-based cohort from the Danish Medical Birth Registry consisting of all Danish women giving birth in 2004-2012 (n = 572 321). This registry contains information on 99.8% of all births in Denmark. We calculated the overall change in prepregnancy BMI status among pregnant women in Denmark, and a multiple linear regression model with adjustment for several potential confounders was used to examine the change in prepregnancy BMI with increasing parity. In 2004, the prevalence of prepregnancy overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 25) and obesity alone (BMI ≥ 30) was 31.9 and 11%, respectively. In 2012, the prevalence had reached 34.2 and 12.8%. The mean BMI increased for every additional parity from 23.80 (95% CI 23.77-23.82) in parity group 1 to 26.70 (26.52-26.90) in parity group 5+. A multiple linear regression adjusted for potential confounders showed that women on average gained 0.62 (0.58-0.65) BMI units after every additional birth. This study showed a 7.2% increase in overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 25) and a 16.4% increase in obesity alone (BMI ≥ 30) for pregnant women in Denmark from 2004 to 2012. In addition, an increase in interpregnancy BMI was seen at every additional delivery, suggesting that obesity is an increasing challenge in obstetrics. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Laurberg, Peter
Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disease. The frequency of pregnancy loss in women with known hypothyroidism as opposed to women with a later diagnosis of hypothyroidism has not been evaluated and compared with other common endocrine diseases. Population-based cohort study using Danish nationwide registers. All pregnancies in Denmark, 1997-2008, resulting in live birth (n = 732 533), spontaneous abortion (n = 112 487) or stillbirth (n = 2937) were identified together with information on maternal hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and diabetes. Cox model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for spontaneous abortion and stillbirth, reference: no hypo- or hyperthyroidism or diabetes (n = 824 310). We identified 4951 pregnancies where maternal hypothyroidism was diagnosed before the pregnancy (group 1) and 2464 pregnancies where maternal hypothyroidism was diagnosed in the 2-year period after the pregnancy (group 2). In group 1, 825 pregnancies (16·7%) resulted in spontaneous abortion which was more frequent than in nonexposed (13·2%), (aHR 1·19 (95%CI 1·12-1·27)), and of the same magnitude as in hyperthyroidism (17·2%, P = 0·5) and diabetes (17·5%, P = 0·2) diagnosed before the pregnancy. In group 2, the frequency was 12·2% (aHR 0·92 (0·84-1·02)). In group 2, 16 pregnancies (0·65%) resulted in stillbirth which was more frequent than in nonexposed (0·36%), (aHR 1·81 (1·11-2·97)), of the same magnitude as in hyperthyroidism (0·82%, P = 0·5) and less frequent than in diabetes (2·9%, P hyperthyroidism and in particular diabetes. We hypothesize that undetected or insufficiently treated maternal disease in the pregnancy may be of causal importance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Almeida, Hiram Larangeira de; Reichert, Felipe Fossati; Santos, Iná da Silva dos; Haack, Ricardo Lanzetta; Horta, Bernardo Lessa
Sunlight exposure is responsible for a large number of dermatological diseases. We estimated the prevalence of sunlight exposure and its associated factors in adults from southern Brazil in a cross-sectional, population-based study. We investigated a representative sample of individuals aged ≥ 20 years (n=3,136). Sunlight exposure and its associated factors were evaluated in two distinct situations: at leisure time and at work. The time period investigated ranged from December 2004 to March 2005, comprising 120 days of the highest ultraviolet index in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, in southern Brazil. The participants were asked about sunlight exposure for at least 20 minutes between 10 A.M. and 4 P.M. The analysis was stratified by sex, and sunlight exposure was grouped into five categories. Among the 3,136 participants, prevalence of sunlight exposure at the beach was 32.8% (95% CI, 30.3 - 35.2) and 26.3% (95% CI, 24.2 28.3) among men and women, respectively. The prevalence at work was 39.8% (95% CI, 37.2 - 42.4) among men and 10.5% (95% CI, 9.1 - 12.0) among women. Age was inversely associated with sunlight exposure. Family income and achieved schooling were positively associated with sunlight exposure at leisure time and inversely associated with sunglight exposure at work. Self-reported skin color was not associated. Knowledge of any friend or relative who has been affected by skin cancer was positively associated with sunlight exposure among men at work. Despite the media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of sunlight exposure during a period of high ultraviolet index.
Meltzer-Brody, S; Larsen, J T; Petersen, L; Guintivano, J; Florio, A Di; Miller, W C; Sullivan, P F; Munk-Olsen, T
Trauma histories may increase risk of perinatal psychiatric episodes. We designed an epidemiological population-based cohort study to explore if adverse childhood experiences (ACE) in girls increases risk of later postpartum psychiatric episodes. Using Danish registers, we identified women born in Denmark between January 1980 and December 1998 (129,439 childbirths). Exposure variables were ACE between ages 0 and 15 including: (1) family disruption, (2) parental somatic illness, (3) parental labor market exclusion, (4) parental criminality, (5) parental death, (6) placement in out-of-home care, (7) parental psychopathology excluding substance use, and (8) parental substance use disorder. Primary outcome was first occurrence of in- or outpatient contact 0-6 months postpartum at a psychiatric treatment facility with any psychiatric diagnoses, ICD-10, F00-F99 (N = 651). We conducted survival analyses using Cox proportional hazard regressions of postpartum psychiatric episodes. Approximately 52% of the sample experienced ACE, significantly increasing risk of any postpartum psychiatric diagnosis. Highest risks were observed among women who experienced out-of-home placement, hazard ratio (HR) 2.57 (95% CI: 1.90-3.48). Women experiencing two adverse life events had higher risks of postpartum psychiatric diagnosis HR: 1.88 (95% CI: 1.51-2.36), compared to those with one ACE, HR: 1.24 (95% CI: 1.03-49) and no ACE, HR: 1.00 (reference group). ACE primarily due to parental psychopathology and disability contributes to increased risk of postpartum psychiatric episodes; and greater numbers of ACE increases risk for postpartum psychiatric illness with an observed dose-response effect. Future work should explore genetic and environmental factors that increase risk and/or confer resilience. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Reid, Susan M; Meehan, Elaine M; Arnup, Sarah J; Reddihough, Dinah S
A population-based observational study design was used to describe the epidemiology of intellectual disability in cerebral palsy (CP) in terms of clinical and neuroimaging associations, and to report the impact of intellectual disability on utilization of health services and length of survival. Population CP registry data were used to retrospectively assess the frequency of intellectual disability and strength of associations between intellectual disability and mobility, epilepsy, vision, hearing, communication, and neuroimaging patterns (n=1141). Data linkage was undertaken to assess usage of hospital inpatient and emergency department services. Survival analysis was performed in a 30-year birth cohort (n=3248). Intellectual disability, present in 45% of the cohort, was associated with non-ambulation (47% vs 8%), later walking (mean 2y 7mo vs 1y 9mo), hypotonic (8% vs 1%) or dyskinetic (9% vs 5%) CP, a quadriplegic pattern of motor impairment (42% vs 5%), epilepsy (52% vs 12%), more emergency and multi-day hospital admissions, and reduced 35-year survival (96% vs 71%). Grey matter injuries (13% vs 6%), malformations (18% vs 6%), and miscellaneous neuroimaging patterns (12% vs 4%) were more common in people with intellectual disability. Intellectual disability adds substantially to the overall medical complexity in CP and may increase health and mortality disparities. Cerebral maldevelopments and grey matter injuries are associated with higher intellectual disability rates. Health care is more 'crisis-driven' and 'reactive' in children with co-occurring intellectual disability. Length of survival is reduced in individuals with CP and co-occurring intellectual disability. © 2018 Mac Keith Press.
Greinacher, Andreas; Fendrich, Konstanze; Brzenska, Ralf; Kiefel, Volker; Hoffmann, Wolfgang
Data on blood recipients are sparse and unconnected to data on blood donors. The objective was to analyze the impact of the demographic change on future blood demand and supply in a German federal state. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted. For all in-hospital transfused red blood cells (RBCs; n = 95,477), in the German federal state Mecklenburg-Pomerania in 2005, characteristics of the patient and the blood donor (118,406 blood donations) were obtained. Population data were used to predict blood demand and supply until 2020. By 2020 the population increase of those aged 65 years or more (+26.4%) in Mecklenburg-Pomerania will be paralleled by a decrease of the potential donor population (18-68 years; -16.1%). Assuming stable rates per age group until 2020, the demand for in-hospital blood transfusions will increase by approximately 25% (24,000 RBC units) while blood donations will decrease by approximately 27% (32,000 RBC units). The resulting, predicted shortfall is 47% of demand for in-hospital patients (56,000 RBC units). Validation using historical data (1997-2007) showed that the model predicted the RBC demand with a deviation of only 1.2%. Demographic changes are particularly pronounced in former East Germany, but by 2030 most European countries will face a similar situation. The decrease of younger age groups requires an increase of blood donation rates and interdisciplinary approaches to reduce the need for transfusion to maintain sufficient blood supply. Demography is a major determinant of future transfusion demand. All efforts should be made by Western societies to systematically obtain data on blood donors and recipients to develop strategies to meet future blood demand. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.
Stamilio David M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts to elucidate risk factors for placental abruption are imperative due to the severity of complications it produces for both mother and fetus, and its contribution to preterm birth. Ethnicity-based differences in risk of placental abruption and preterm birth have been reported. We tested the hypotheses that race, after adjusting for other factors, is associated with the risk of placental abruption at specific gestational ages, and that there is a greater contribution of placental abruption to the increased risk of preterm birth in Black mothers, compared to White mothers. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study using the Missouri Department of Health's maternally-linked database of all births in Missouri (1989–1997 to assess racial effects on placental abruption and the contribution of placental abruption to preterm birth, at different gestational age categories (n = 664,303. Results Among 108,806 births to Black mothers and 555,497 births to White mothers, 1.02% (95% CI 0.96–1.08 of Black births were complicated by placental abruption, compared to 0.71% (95% CI 0.69–0.73 of White births (aOR 1.32, 95% CI 1.22–1.43. The magnitude of risk of placental abruption for Black mothers, compared to White mothers, increased with younger gestational age categories. The risk of placental abruption resulting in term and extreme preterm births ( Conclusion Black women have an increased risk of placental abruption compared to White women, even when controlling for known coexisting risk factors. This risk increase is greatest at the earliest preterm gestational ages when outcomes are the poorest. The relative contribution of placental abruption to term births was greater in Black women, whereas the relative contribution of placental abruption to preterm birth was greater in White women.
Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Roy, Abhik; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Green, Peter H R; Emilsson, Louise
Partner burden is common in celiac disease (CD), but it is unclear if parents of children with CD have increased burden, and if this may translate into depression and anxiety meriting healthcare. Nationwide population-based study of 41,753 parents and spouses ("caregivers") to 29,096 celiac patients and 215,752 caregivers to 144,522 matched controls. Caregivers were identified from the Swedish Total Population Register, and linked to data on psychiatric disease in the National Patient Registry. Hazard ratios (HRs) for depression, anxiety, and (as a reference outcome measure) bipolar disorder were examined in a lifetime fashion but also in temporal relationship to date of CD diagnosis using Cox regression. A priori, we focused on parents of individuals diagnosed ≤19 years of age (children at the age of disease onset) and spouses of individuals diagnosed in adulthood, as such parents and spouses ("high-risk caregivers") were most likely to live together with the patient at time of disease onset. On Cox analysis, depression was 11% more common in high-risk caregivers (HR=1.11: 95%CI=1.03-1.19) than in control caregivers while anxiety was 7% more common (HR=1.07: 95%CI=0.98-1.16). Combining anxiety and depression into a composite outcome measure, there was an 8% statistically significant risk increase (95%CI=1.02-1.14). The highest excess risks for both depression and anxiety were seen just before and 4-8 years after the CD diagnosis. In contrast, bipolar disorder was not more common in caregivers to CD patients. Caregivers to patients with CD may be at increased risk of severe burden. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marly A Cardoso
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although iron deficiency is considered to be the main cause of anemia in children worldwide, other contributors to childhood anemia remain little studied in developing countries. We estimated the relative contributions of different factors to anemia in a population-based, cross-sectional survey. METHODOLOGY: We obtained venous blood samples from 1111 children aged 6 months to 10 years living in the frontier town of Acrelândia, northwest Brazil, to estimate the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency by measuring hemoglobin, erythrocyte indices, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, and C-reactive protein concentrations. Children were simultaneously screened for vitamin A, vitamin B(12, and folate deficiencies; intestinal parasite infections; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; and sickle cell trait carriage. Multiple Poisson regression and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR were used to describe associations between anemia and the independent variables. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and iron-deficiency anemia were 13.6%, 45.4%, and 10.3%, respectively. Children whose families were in the highest income quartile, compared with the lowest, had a lower risk of anemia (aPR, 0.60; 95%CI, 0.37-0.98. Child age (2 pregnancies, 2.01; 1.40-2.87 were positively associated with anemia. Other associated correlates were iron deficiency (2.1; 1.4-3.0, vitamin B(12 (1.4; 1.0-2.2, and folate (2.0; 1.3-3.1 deficiencies, and C-reactive protein concentrations (>5 mg/L, 1.5; 1.1-2.2. CONCLUSIONS: Addressing morbidities and multiple nutritional deficiencies in children and mothers and improving the purchasing power of poorer families are potentially important interventions to reduce the burden of anemia.
Bell, J C; Raynes-Greenow, C; Turner, R; Bower, C; Dodson, A; Nicholls, W; Nassar, N
Educational attainment is important in shaping young people's life prospects. To investigate whether being born with orofacial cleft (OFC) affects school performance, we compared school test results between children born with and without OFC. Using record-linked datasets, we conducted a population-based cohort study of children liveborn in Western Australia 1980-2010 with a diagnosis of OFC on the Register of Developmental Anomalies, and a random sample of 6603 children born without OFC. We compared odds ratios for meeting national minimum standards in five domains (reading, numeracy, writing, spelling, grammar and punctuation), and adjusted OR (aOR) for children with cleft lip only (CLO), cleft lip and palate (CL + P) and cleft palate only (CPO) for each domain. Results from two testing programs (WALNA and NAPLAN) were available for 3238 (89%) children expected to participate. Most met the national minimum standards. Compared with children without OFC, children with CPO were less likely to meet minimum standards for NAPLAN reading (aOR 0.57 [95%CI 0.34, 0.96]) grammar and punctuation (aOR 0.49 [95%CI 0.32, 0.76]), WALNA writing (aOR 0.66 [95%CI 0.47, 0.92]), and WALNA and NAPLAN numeracy (aOR 0.64 [95%CI 0.43, 0.95] and aOR 0.47 [95%CI 0.28, 0.82]), respectively. Children with CL + P had significantly lower odds for reaching the spelling standard in NAPLAN tests (aOR 0.52 [95%CI 0.29, 0.94]). Children with CLO had similar odds for reaching all minimum standards. Children born with OFC, particularly children with CPO, should be monitored to identify learning difficulties early, to enable intervention to maximize school attainment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cooper, Matthew N; McNamara, Kaitrin A R; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Davis, Elizabeth A; Jones, Timothy W
Our aim was to examine the school performance of children with type 1 diabetes in comparison to their peers, exploring changes over time, and the impact of clinical factors on school performance. The study included data on 666 children with type 1 diabetes from the Western Australia Children's Diabetes Database. (WACDD), a population-based registry, and 3260 school and school year matched non-diabetic children. Records from the National Assessment Program - Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) (2008-2011), which examines four educational outcome domains and is administered annually to all years 3, 5, 7, and 9 children in Australia, were sourced for both groups. Clinical data were obtained for the children with diabetes from the WACDD. No significant difference was observed between those with type 1 diabetes and their peers, across any of the tested domains and school years analysed. No decline over time was observed, and no decline following diagnosis was observed. Type 1 diabetes was associated with decreased school attendance, 3% fewer days attended per year. Poorer glycaemic control [higher haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)] was associated with a lower test score [0.2-0.3 SD per 1% (10.9 mmol/mol) increase in HbA1c], and with poorer attendance [1.8% decrease per 1% (10.9 mmol/mol) increase in HbA1c]. No association was observed with history of severe hypoglycaemia, diabetic ketoacidosis or age of onset and school test scores. These results suggest that type 1 diabetes is not associated with a significant decrement in school performance, as assessed by NAPLAN. The association of poorer glycaemic control with poorer school performance serves as further evidence for clinicians to focus on improving glycaemic control. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Katan, Ognjen; Michelena, Hector I.; Avierinos, Jean-Francois; Mahoney, Douglas W.; DeSimone, Daniel C.; Baddour, Larry M.; Suri, Rakesh M.; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice
Objective To determine the incidence and predictors of infective endocarditis in a population-based cohort of mitral valve prolapse(MVP) patients. Patients and methods We identified all adult Olmsted County residents with MVP diagnosed by echocardiography from January 1989 to December 1998 and cross-matched them with the Rochester Epidemiologic Project-identified Olmsted County cases of infective endocarditis(IE) from January 1986 to December 2006. We retrospectively analyzed and de-novo confirmed each IE case using the modified Duke criteria. Results There were 896 Olmsted County residents with echocardiographic MVP diagnosis, mean age 53±21 years, 565(63%) women. Mean follow-up was 11±5 years. The 15-year cohort-risk of IE after MVP diagnosis was 1.1±0.4%; incidence of 86.6[95% CI, 43.3–173.2]cases per 100,000 person-years; age- and sex-adjusted relative-risk of IE in MVP of 8.1[95% CI: 3.6–18.0] compared to the County general population(PMVP patients with ≥moderate mitral regurgitation(289.5[108.7–771.2] cases per 100,000 person-years, P=.02 compared to MVP adults is higher than previously reported in case-control tertiary care-center studies. MVP patients with ≥moderate mitral regurgitation or a flail leaflet are at notable risk of developing IE as compared to those without mitral regurgitation. PMID:26856780
Lars Haukali Omland
Full Text Available Lars Haukali Omland1, Dora Körmendiné Farkas2, Peter Jepsen2,3, Niels Obel1, Lars Pedersen21Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, Denmark; 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology, 3Department of Medicine V (Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, DenmarkBackground: Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is associated with an increased risk of primary liver cancer; however, 5- and 10-year risk estimates are needed. The association of HCV with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL is uncertain and the association with other cancers is unknown.Method: We conducted a nationwide, population-based cohort study of 4,349 HCV-infected patients in Denmark, computing standardized incidence ratios (SIR of cancer incidence in HCV infected patients compared with cancer incidence of the general population. We calculated 5-and 10-year risks of developing cancer, stratifying our analyses based on the presence of HIV coinfection and cirrhosis.Results: We recorded an increased risk of primary liver cancer (SIR: 76.63 [95% CI: 51.69–109.40], NHL (SIR: 1.89 [95% CI: 0.39–5.52], and several smoking- and alcohol-related cancers in HCV infected patients without HIV coinfection. HCV-infected patients without HIV coinfection had a 6.3% (95% CI: 4.6%–8.7% risk of developing cancer and 2.0% (95% CI: 1.1%–3.8% risk of developing primary liver cancer within 10 years.Conclusion: We confirmed the association of HCV infection with primary liver cancer and NHL. We also observed an association between HCV infection and alcohol- and smoking-related cancers.Keywords: hepatitis C virus, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, standardized incidence ratio, cancer
Zheng, T.Z.; Niu, S.R.; Lu, B.Y.; Fan, X.E.; Sun, F.Y.; Wang, J.P.; Zhang, Y.W.; Zhang, B.; Owens, P.; Hao, L.Y.; Li, Y.D.; Leaderer, B. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Epidemiology & Public Health
A population-based case-control study was conducted in Shunyi County, People's Republic of China, in January 1999 and March 2001 to investigate the risk factors for childhood asthma. An increased risk of childhood asthma was associated with smoking by relatives in front of the mother while she was pregnant with the child (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 1.6) and with smoking by relatives in front of the child (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). The risk increased with the increasing number of smokers and the total minutes of smoking by relatives in front of both the child and the mother while she was pregnant with the child. An increased risk was observed for use of coal for heating (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). Those who reported using coal for cooking without ventilation also had an increased risk (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.5). An increased risk was observed for those who reported having molds or fungi on the ceilings of their houses (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.9) or inside the child's room (OR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.2). An increased risk was also found for those having both a dog and a cat as pets (OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.3) or for finding both cockroaches and rats inside their houses (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.8).
McGrath, John J; Eyles, Darryl W; Pedersen, Carsten B; Anderson, Cameron; Ko, Pauline; Burne, Thomas H; Norgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Hougaard, David M; Mortensen, Preben B
Clues from the epidemiology of schizophrenia suggest that low levels of developmental vitamin D may be associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. To directly examine the association between neonatal vitamin D status and risk of schizophrenia. Individually matched case-control study drawn from a population-based cohort. Danish national health registers and neonatal biobank. A total of 424 individuals with schizophrenia and 424 controls matched for sex and date of birth. The concentration of 25 hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25[OH]D3) was assessed from neonatal dried blood samples using a highly sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy method. Relative risks were calculated for the matched pairs when examined for quintiles of 25(OH)D3. Compared with neonates in the fourth quintile (with 25[OH]D3 concentrations between 40.5 and 50.9 nmol/L), those in each of the lower 3 quintiles had a significantly increased risk of schizophrenia (2-fold elevated risk). Unexpectedly, those in the highest quintile also had a significantly increased risk of schizophrenia. Based on this analysis, the population-attributable fraction associated with neonatal vitamin D status was 44%. The relationship was not explained by a wide range of potential confounding or interacting variables. Both low and high concentrations of neonatal vitamin D are associated with increased risk of schizophrenia, and it is feasible that this exposure could contribute to a sizeable proportion of cases in Denmark. In light of the substantial public health implications of this finding, there is an urgent need to further explore the effect of vitamin D status on brain development and later mental health.
Wagner, Katia Jakovljevic Pudla; Bastos, João Luiz Dornelles; Navarro, Albert; Gonzalez-Chica, David Alejandro; Boing, Antonio Fernando
OBJECTIVE To test whether there is an association between socioeconomic status in childhood and measures of body mass index, waist circumference and the presence of overall and abdominal obesity in adult life. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study, including a sample of adults (22-63 years old) living in Florianópolis, Southern Brazil. The socioeconomic status in childhood was analyzed through the education level of the participant's parents. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured by previously trained interviewers. Linear and logistic regressions with adjustment for confounding factors and stratification of data according to gender were used. RESULTS Of the 1,222 adults evaluated, 20.4% (95%CI 18.1-22.8) presented overall obesity and 24.8% (95%CI 22.4-27.4), abdominal obesity. The body mass index and waist circumference averages among women were, respectively, 1.2 kg/m2 (95%CI -2.3- -0.04) and 2.8 cm (95%CI -5.3- -0.2) lower among those with higher socioeconomic status in childhood. Among men, waist circumference was 3.9 cm (95%CI 1.0-6.8) higher in individuals with higher socioeconomic status in childhood. Regarding obesity, women of higher socioeconomic status in childhood had lower odds of abdominal obesity (OR = 0.56, 95%CI 0.34-0.90), and no such association was observed among men. CONCLUSIONS The socioeconomic status in childhood influences body mass index, waist circumference and obesity in adults, with a difference in the direction of association according to gender. The higher socioeconomic status among men and the lower socioeconomic status among women were associated with higher adiposity indicators.
Kort, D; van Rein, N; van der Meer, F J M; Vermaas, H W; Wiersma, N; Cannegieter, S C; Lijfering, W M
Essentials Literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is scarce. We assessed neighborhood SES with VTE risk in a population of over 1.4 million inhabitants. Higher neighborhood SES was associated with lower incidence of VTE. These findings are helpful to inform policy and resource allocation in health systems. Background The association between socioeconomic status and arterial cardiovascular disease is well established. However, despite its high burden of disability-adjusted life years, little research has been carried out to determine whether socioeconomic status is associated with venous thromboembolism. Objective To determine if neighborhood socioeconomic status is associated with venous thromboembolism in a population-based study from the Netherlands. Methods We identified all patients aged 15 years and older with a first event of venous thromboembolism from inhabitants who lived in the urban districts of The Hague, Leiden and Utrecht in the Netherlands in 2008-2012. Neighborhood socioeconomic status was based on the status score, which combines educational level, income and unemployment on a four-digit postal code level. Incidence rate ratios of venous thromboembolism were calculated for different levels of neighborhood socioeconomic status, with adjustments for age and sex. Results A total of 7373 patients with a first venous thromboembolism (median age 61 years; 50% deep vein thrombosis) were identified among more than 1.4 million inhabitants. Higher neighborhood SES was associated with lower incidence of VTE. In the two highest status score groups (i.e. the 95-99th and > 99th percentile), the adjusted incidence rate ratios were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-1.00) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.69-0.93), respectively, compared with the reference status score group (i.e. 30-70th percentile). Conclusions High neighborhood socioeconomic status is associated with a lower risk of first venous thromboembolism. © 2017
Fisher, Mark C; Rai, Sharan K; Lu, Na; Zhang, Yuqing; Choi, Hyon K
Gout, the most common inflammatory arthritis, is associated with premature mortality. Whether this mortality gap has improved over time, as observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), is unknown. Using an electronic medical record database representative of the UK general population, we identified incident gout cases and controls between 1999 and 2014. The gout cohort was divided based on year of diagnosis into early (1999-2006) and late (2007-2014) cohorts. We compared the mortality rates and HRs, adjusting for potential confounders between the cohorts. We conducted sensitivity analyses among patients with gout who received at least one prescription for urate-lowering therapy, which has been found to have a validity of 90%. In both cohorts, patients with gout showed similar levels of excess mortality compared with their corresponding comparison cohort (ie, 29.1 vs 23.5 deaths/1000 person-years and 23.0 vs 18.8 deaths/1000 person-years in the early and late cohorts, respectively). The corresponding mortality HRs were 1.25 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.30) and 1.24 (95% CI 1.20 to 1.29), and the multivariable HRs were 1.10 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.15) and 1.09 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.13), respectively (both p values for interaction >0.72). Our sensitivity analyses showed similar findings (both p values for interaction >0.88). This general population-based cohort study indicates that the level of premature mortality among patients with gout remains unimproved over the past 16 years, unlike RA during the same period. This unclosing premature mortality gap calls for improved management of gout and its comorbidities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Shaji, K. S.; Raju, D.; Sathesh, V; Krishnakumar, P.; Punnoose, Varghese P.; Kiran, P. S; Mini, B. S.; Kumar, Shibu; Anish, P. K; Kaimal, Ganga G.; Gupthan, Lekshmy; Sumesh, T. P.; Nikhil, U. G; Cyriac, Nisha; Vinod, M. D.; Kumar, R. Prasad; Chandran, Ramesh; Rejani, P. P; Amrutha, R; Mahesh; Anand, TN
Background: Estimates of psychiatric morbidity in the community will help service development. Participation of trained nonspecialist health-care providers will facilitate scaling up of services in resource-limited settings. Aims: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of priority mental health problems in populations served by the District Mental Health Program (DMHP). Settings and Design: This is a population-based cross-sectional survey. Materials and Methods: We did stratified cluster sampling of households in five districts of Kerala. Trained Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) identified people who had symptoms suggestive of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Clinicians evaluated the information collected by the ASHAs and designated individuals as probable cases of psychosis or noncases. Screening instruments such as General Health Questionnaire-12, CAGE questionnaire, and Everyday Abilities Scale for India were used for identifying common mental disorders (CMDs), clinically significant alcohol-related problems, and functional impairment. Results: We found 12.43% of the adult population affected by mental health conditions. We found CMD as most common with a prevalence of 9%. The prevalence of psychosis was 0.71%, clinically significant alcohol-related problems was 1.46%, and dementia and other cognitive impairments was 1.26%. We found informant-based case finding to be useful in the identification of psychosis. Conclusions: Mental health problems are common. Nonspecialist health-care providers can be trained to identify psychiatric morbidity in the community. Their participation will help in narrowing the treatment gap. Embedding operational research to DMHP will make scaling up more efficient. PMID:28827860
Blume, Heidi K; Loch, Christian M; Li, Christopher I
To investigate the association between maternal socioeconomic status and the risk of encephalopathy in full-term newborns. Population-based case-control study. Washington State births from 1994 through 2002 recorded in the linked Washington State Birth Registry and Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System. Cases (n = 1060) were singleton full-term newborns with Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnoses of seizures, birth asphyxia, central nervous system dysfunction, or cerebral irritability. Control cases (n = 5330) were singleton full-term newborns selected from the same database. Main Exposures Socioeconomic status was defined by median income of the census tract of the mother's residence, number of years of maternal educational achievement, or maternal insurance status. Odds ratios estimating the risk of encephalopathy associated with disadvantaged socioeconomic status were calculated in 3 separate analyses using multivariate adjusted logistic regression. Newborns of mothers living in neighborhoods in which residents have a low median income were at increased risk of encephalopathy compared with newborns in neighborhoods in which residents have a median income more than 3 times the poverty level (adjusted odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.3). There was also a trend for increasing risk of encephalopathy associated with decreasing neighborhood income (PNewborns of mothers with less than 12 years of educational achievement had a higher risk of encephalopathy compared with newborns of mothers with more than 16 years of educational achievement (adjusted odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3). Newborns of mothers receiving public insurance also had a higher risk of encephalopathy compared with newborns of mothers who have commercial insurance (adjusted odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.7). Disadvantaged socioeconomic status was independently
Creamer, Gowan; Civil, Ian; Ng, Alex; Adams, David; Cacala, Shas; Koelmeyer, Timothy; Thompson, John
To investigate the role of Māori and Pacific ethnicity within the severe trauma and population demographics of Auckland, New Zealand. A population-based study utilising prospectively gathered trauma databases and coronial autopsy information. Population data was derived from Statistics New Zealand resident population projections for the year 2004. The geographic boundaries of the Auckland district health boards (Waitemata DHB, Auckland DHB and Counties-Manukau DHB). Severe injury was defined as death or injury severity score more than 15. Combining data from coronial autopsy and four hospital trauma databases provided age, gender, ethnicity, mechanism, mortality and hospitalisation information for severely injured Aucklanders. Māori and Pacific had increased risk of severe injury and injury-related mortality. A major gender difference is apparent: Māori female at increased risk and Pacific female at decreased risk compared to the remaining female population; both Māori and Pacific male have high severe injury rate than the remaining population. The relative risk for severe injury (and mortality) for Māori RR=2.38 (RR=2.80) and Pacific RR=1.49 (RR=1.59) is higher than the remaining population, the highest risk (and more statistically significant) is seen in the 15-29 age group (Māori RR=2.87, Pacific RR=2.57). Road traffic crashes account for the greatest proportion of injuries in all groups. Māori have relatively higher rates of hanging and assault-related injury and death; Pacific have relatively higher rates of falls and assault. Ethnicity is a factor in severe injury and mortality rates in Auckland. Age is an important influence on these rates. Although mechanism of injury varies between ethnic groups, no particular mechanism of injury accounts for the overall differences between groups.
Ojard, Connor; Donnelly, John P; Safford, Monika M; Griffin, Russell; Wang, Henry E
To characterize the relationship between stress and future risk of sepsis. We also evaluated the role of depression in this relationship. We used population-based data on 30,183 participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke cohort, characterizing stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). We identified incident sepsis events as hospitalizations for a serious infection with the presence of at least two systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria. We assessed associations between PSS and incidence of sepsis for 1 and 10 years of follow-up, adjusting for demographics and chronic medical conditions and assessing the role of health behaviors and CES-D in these relationships. In 2003 to 2012, 1500 participants experienced an episode of sepsis. Mean PSS and CES-D scores were 3.2 (2.9) and 1.2 (2.1). PSS was associated with increased 1-year adjusted incidence of sepsis (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.21 per PSS standard deviation, 95% confidence interval = 1.06-1.38); multivariable adjustment for health behaviors and CES-D did not change this association (1.20, 1.03-1.39). PSS was also associated with increased 10-year adjusted incidence of sepsis (HR = 1.07 per PSS standard deviation; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.13). Multivariable adjustment showed that health behaviors did not affect this long-term association, whereas the addition of CES-D reduced the association between PSS and sepsis during 10-year follow-up (HR = 1.04, 0.98-1.11). Increased stress was associated with higher 1-year adjusted incidence of sepsis, even after accounting for depressive symptoms. The association between stress and 10-year adjusted incidence of sepsis was also significant, but this association was reduced when adjusting for depressive symptoms. Reduction of stress may limit short-term sepsis risk.
Monma, Yasutake; Niu, Kaijun; Iwasaki, Koh; Tomita, Naoki; Nakaya, Naoki; Hozawa, Atsushi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Takayama, Shin; Seki, Takashi; Takeda, Takashi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Ebihara, Satoru; Arai, Hiroyuki; Nagatomi, Ryoichi; Tsuji, Ichiro
Diet is considered an important factor for bone health, but is composed of a wide variety of foods containing complex combinations of nutrients. Therefore we investigated the relationship between dietary patterns and fall-related fractures in the elderly. We designed a population-based prospective survey of 1178 elderly people in Japan in 2002. Dietary intake was assessed with a 75-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), from which dietary patterns were created by factor analysis from 27 food groups. The frequency of fall-related fracture was investigated based on insurance claim records from 2002 until 2006. The relationship between the incidence of fall-related fracture and modifiable factors, including dietary patterns, were examined. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the relationships between dietary patterns and incidence of fall-related fracture with adjustment for age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI) and energy intake. Among 877 participants who agreed to a 4 year follow-up, 28 suffered from a fall-related fracture. Three dietary patterns were identified: mainly vegetable, mainly meat and mainly traditional Japanese. The moderately confirmed (see statistical methods) groups with a Meat pattern showed a reduced risk of fall-related fracture (Hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.13 - 0.94) after adjustment for age, gender, BMI and energy intake. The Vegetable pattern showed a significant risk increase (Hazard ratio = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.03 - 6.90) after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. The Traditional Japanese pattern had no relationship to the risk of fall-related fracture. The results of this study have the potential to reduce fall-related fracture risk in elderly Japanese. The results should be interpreted in light of the overall low meat intake of the Japanese population.
Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Reichert, Felipe Fossati; dos Santos, Iná da Silva; Haack, Ricardo Lanzetta; Horta, Bernardo Lessa
BACKGROUND Sunlight exposure is responsible for a large number of dermatological diseases. OBJECTIVE We estimated the prevalence of sunlight exposure and its associated factors in adults from southern Brazil in a cross-sectional, population-based study. METHODS We investigated a representative sample of individuals aged ≥ 20 years (n=3,136). Sunlight exposure and its associated factors were evaluated in two distinct situations: at leisure time and at work. The time period investigated ranged from December 2004 to March 2005, comprising 120 days of the highest ultraviolet index in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, in southern Brazil. The participants were asked about sunlight exposure for at least 20 minutes between 10 A.M. and 4 P.M. The analysis was stratified by sex, and sunlight exposure was grouped into five categories. RESULTS Among the 3,136 participants, prevalence of sunlight exposure at the beach was 32.8% (95% CI, 30.3 - 35.2) and 26.3% (95% CI, 24.2 28.3) among men and women, respectively. The prevalence at work was 39.8% (95% CI, 37.2 - 42.4) among men and 10.5% (95% CI, 9.1 - 12.0) among women. Age was inversely associated with sunlight exposure. Family income and achieved schooling were positively associated with sunlight exposure at leisure time and inversely associated with sunglight exposure at work. Self-reported skin color was not associated. Knowledge of any friend or relative who has been affected by skin cancer was positively associated with sunlight exposure among men at work. CONCLUSION Despite the media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of sunlight exposure during a period of high ultraviolet index. PMID:24068126
Li, Hao-Ming; Yeh, Lee-Ren; Huang, Ying-Kai; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung
The incidence and association between appendicitis and barium examination (BE) remain unclear. Such potential risk may be omitted. We conducted a longitudinal, nationwide, population-based cohort study to investigate the association between BE and appendicitis risk. From the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, a total of 24,885 patients who underwent BE between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 were enrolled in a BE cohort; an additional 98,384 subjects without BE exposure were selected as a non-BE cohort, matched by age, sex, and index date. The cumulative incidences of subsequent appendicitis in the BE and non-BE cohorts were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were employed to calculate the appendicitis risk between the groups. The cumulative incidence of appendicitis was higher in the BE cohort than in the non-BE cohort (P = .001). The overall incidence rates of appendicitis for the BE and non-BE cohorts were 1.19 and 0.80 per 1000 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for sex, age, and comorbidities, the risk of appendicitis was higher in the BE cohort (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.23-1.73) compared with the non-BE cohort, especially in the first 2 months (adjusted hazard ratio = 9.72, 95% confidence interval = 4.65-20.3). BE was associated with an increased, time-dependent appendicitis risk. Clinicians should be aware of this potential risk to avoid delayed diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet is considered an important factor for bone health, but is composed of a wide variety of foods containing complex combinations of nutrients. Therefore we investigated the relationship between dietary patterns and fall-related fractures in the elderly. Methods We designed a population-based prospective survey of 1178 elderly people in Japan in 2002. Dietary intake was assessed with a 75-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, from which dietary patterns were created by factor analysis from 27 food groups. The frequency of fall-related fracture was investigated based on insurance claim records from 2002 until 2006. The relationship between the incidence of fall-related fracture and modifiable factors, including dietary patterns, were examined. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the relationships between dietary patterns and incidence of fall-related fracture with adjustment for age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI and energy intake. Results Among 877 participants who agreed to a 4 year follow-up, 28 suffered from a fall-related fracture. Three dietary patterns were identified: mainly vegetable, mainly meat and mainly traditional Japanese. The moderately confirmed (see statistical methods groups with a Meat pattern showed a reduced risk of fall-related fracture (Hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.13 - 0.94 after adjustment for age, gender, BMI and energy intake. The Vegetable pattern showed a significant risk increase (Hazard ratio = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.03 - 6.90 after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. The Traditional Japanese pattern had no relationship to the risk of fall-related fracture. Conclusions The results of this study have the potential to reduce fall-related fracture risk in elderly Japanese. The results should be interpreted in light of the overall low meat intake of the Japanese population.
Keller, Joseph J; Chen, Yi-Kuang; Lin, Herng-Ching
Study Type--Disease prevalence study (cohort design) Level of Evidence 2a. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Several studies have estimated the potential association of urinary calculus (UC) with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, previous literature focusing on this issue tended to evaluate the impact of kidney stones alone on incident CKD, with no studies having been conducted investigating the association between CKD and stone formation in other portions of the urological system. We found that patients with CKD were consistently more likely than comparison subjects to have been previously diagnosed with kidney calculus (odds ratio [OR] 2.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.95-2.27), ureter calculus (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.51-1.85), bladder calculus (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.13-1.98), and unspecified calculus (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.74-2.06). We concluded that there was an association between CKD and UC regardless of stone location. • To explore the association of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with prior kidney calculus, ureter calculus, and bladder calculus using a population-based dataset in Taiwan. Several studies have estimated the potential association of urinary calculus (UC) with CKD. However, previous literature focusing on this issue tended to evaluate the impact of kidney stones alone on incident CKD, with no studies having been conducted investigating the association between CKD and stone formation in other portions of the urological system. • We identified 21,474 patients who received their first-time diagnosis of CKD between 2001 and 2009. • The 21,474 controls were frequency-matched with cases for sex, age group, and index year. • We used conditional logistic regression analyses to compute the odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) as an estimation of association between CKD and having been previously diagnosed with UC. • The results show that compared with controls, the OR of prior UC for cases was 1
Full Text Available Background: A number of case reports have suggested a possible association between atypical antipsychotic medications and hyponatremia. Currently, there are no reliable estimates of hyponatremia risk from atypical antipsychotic drugs. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the 30-day risk of hospitalization with hyponatremia in older adults dispensed an atypical antipsychotic drug relative to no antipsychotic use. Design: The design of this study was a retrospective, population-based cohort study. Setting: The setting of this study was in Ontario, Canada, from 2003 to 2012. Patients: Adults 65 years or older with an identified psychiatric condition who were newly dispensed risperidone, olanzapine, or quetiapine in the community setting compared to adults with similar indicators of baseline health who were not dispensed such a prescription. Measurements: The primary outcome was the 30-day risk of hospitalization with hyponatremia. The tracer outcome (an outcome that is not expected to be influenced by the study drugs was the 30-day risk of hospitalization with bowel obstruction. These outcomes were assessed using hospital diagnosis codes. Methods: Using health administrative data, we applied a propensity score technique to match antipsychotic users 1:1 to non-users of antipsychotic drugs (58,008 patients in each group. We used conditional logistic regression to compare outcomes among the matched users and non-users. Results: A total of 104 baseline characteristics were well-balanced between the two matched groups. Atypical antipsychotic use compared to non-use was associated with an increased risk of hospitalization with hyponatremia within 30 days (86/58,008 (0.15 % versus 53/58,008 (0.09 %; relative risk 1.62 (95 % confidence interval (CI 1.15 to 2.29; absolute risk increase 0.06 % (95 % CI 0.02 to 0.10. The limited number of events precluded some additional analyses to confirm if the association was robust. Atypical
Kieboom, Brenda C T; Ligthart, Symen; Dehghan, Abbas; Kurstjens, Steef; de Baaij, Jeroen H F; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Zietse, Robert; Stricker, Bruno H; Hoorn, Ewout J
Previous studies have found an association between serum magnesium and incident diabetes; however, this association may be due to reverse causation, whereby diabetes may induce urinary magnesium loss. In contrast, in prediabetes (defined as impaired fasting glucose), serum glucose levels are below the threshold for urinary magnesium wasting and, hence, unlikely to influence serum magnesium levels. Thus, to study the directionality of the association between serum magnesium levels and diabetes, we investigated its association with prediabetes. We also investigated whether magnesium-regulating genes influence diabetes risk through serum magnesium levels. Additionally, we quantified the effect of insulin resistance in the association between serum magnesium levels and diabetes risk. Within the population-based Rotterdam Study, we used Cox models, adjusted for age, sex, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, kidney function, serum levels of electrolytes and diuretic use, to study the association between serum magnesium and prediabetes/diabetes. In addition, we performed two mediation analyses: (1) to study if common genetic variation in eight magnesium-regulating genes influence diabetes risk through serum magnesium levels; and (2) to quantify the proportion of the effect of serum magnesium levels on diabetes that is mediated through insulin resistance (quantified by HOMA-IR). A total of 8555 participants (mean age, 64.7 years; median follow-up, 5.7 years) with normal glucose levels (mean ± SD: 5.46 ± 0.58 mmol/l) at baseline were included. A 0.1 mmol/l decrease in serum magnesium level was associated with an increase in diabetes risk (HR 1.18 [95% CI 1.04, 1.33]), confirming findings from previous studies. Of interest, a similar association was found between serum magnesium levels and prediabetes risk (HR 1.12 [95% CI 1.01, 1.25]). Genetic variation in CLDN19, CNNM2, FXYD2, SLC41A2, and TRPM6 significantly influenced diabetes risk (p prediabetes 13.4% was
Background Motorcycle sales, registration and use are increasing in many countries. The epidemiological literature on risk factors for motorcycle injury is becoming outdated, due to changes in rider demography, licensing regulations, traffic mix and density, road environments, and motorcycle designs and technologies. Further, the potential contribution of road infrastructure and travel speed has not yet been examined. Methods/design A population based case–control study together with a nested case-crossover study is planned. Cases will be motorcycle riders who are injured but not killed in a motorcycle crash on a public road within 150 km radius of Melbourne, Australia, and admitted to one of the study hospitals. Controls will be motorcycle riders who ride through the crash site on the same type of day (weekday or weekend) within an hour of the crash time. Data on rider, bike, and trip characteristics will be collected from the participants by questionnaire. Data on crash site characteristics will be collected in a structured site inspection, and travel speed for the cases will be estimated from these data. Travel speed for the controls will be measured prior to recruitment with a radar traffic detection device as they ride through the crash site. Control sites for the case-crossover study will be selected 1 km upstream from the crash site and matched on either intersection status or road curvature (either straight or cornered). If the initial site selected does not match the case site on these characteristics, then the closest matching site on the case route will be selected. Conditional multivariate logistic regression models will be used to compare risk between the matched case and control riders and to examine associations between road infrastructure and road environment characteristics and crash occurrence. Interactions between type of site and speed will be tested to determine if site type is an effect modifier of the relationship between speed and crash
Slottje, Pauline; Yzermans, C Joris; Korevaar, Joke C; Hooiveld, Mariëtte; Vermeulen, Roel C H
Occupational and environmental exposures remain important modifiable risk factors of public health. Existing cohort studies are often limited by the level of detail of data collected on these factors and health. It is also often assumed that the more healthy group is over-represented in cohort studies, which is of concern for their external validity. In this cohort profile, we describe how we set up the population-based Occupational and Environmental Health Cohort Study (AMIGO) to longitudinally study occupational and environmental determinants of diseases and well-being from a multidisciplinary and life course point of view. Reviewed by the Medical Ethics Research Committee of the University Medical Center Utrecht (protocol 10-268/C). All cohort members participate voluntarily and gave informed consent prior to their inclusion. 14,829 adult cohort members (16% of those invited) consented and filled in the online baseline questionnaire. Determinants include chemical, biological, physical (eg, electromagnetic fields), and psychosocial factors. Priority health outcomes include cancer, neurological, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and non-specific symptoms. Owing to the recruitment strategy via general practitioners of an established network, we also collect longitudinal data registered in their electronic medical records including symptoms, diagnosis and treatments. Besides the advantage of health outcomes that cannot be easily captured longitudinally by other means, this created a unique opportunity to assess health-related participation bias by comparing general practitioner-registered prevalence rates in the cohort and its source population. We found no indications of such a systematic bias. The major assets of the AMIGO approach are its detailed occupational and environmental determinants in combination with the longitudinal health data registered in general practice besides linkage to cancer and mortality registries and self-reported health. We are now
Mataix-Cols, David; Isomura, Kayoko; Pérez-Vigil, Ana; Chang, Zheng; Rück, Christian; Larsson, K Johan; Leckman, James F; Serlachius, Eva; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul
Tic disorders, including Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorders (CTDs), are assumed to be strongly familial and heritable. Although gene-searching efforts are well under way, precise estimates of familial risk and heritability are lacking. Previous controlled family studies were small and typically conducted within specialist clinics, resulting in potential ascertainment biases. They were also underpowered to disentangle genetic from environmental factors that contribute to the observed familiality. Twin studies have been either very small or based on parent-reported tics in population-based (nonclinical) twin samples. To provide unbiased estimates of familial risk and heritability of tic disorders at the population level. In this population cohort, multigenerational family study, we used a validated algorithm to identify 4826 individuals diagnosed as having TS or CTDs (76.2% male) in the Swedish National Patient Register from January 1, 1969, through December 31, 2009. We studied risks for TS or CTDs in all biological relatives of probands compared with relatives of unaffected individuals (matched on a 1:10 ratio) from the general population. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the heritability of tic disorders. The risk for tic disorders among relatives of probands with tic disorders increased proportionally to the degree of genetic relatedness. The risks for first-degree relatives (odds ratio [OR], 18.69; 95% CI, 14.53-24.05) were significantly higher than for second-degree relatives (OR, 4.58; 95% CI, 3.22-6.52) and third-degree relatives (OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 2.08-4.51). First-degree relatives at similar genetic distances (eg, parents, siblings, and offspring) had similar risks for tic disorders despite different degrees of shared environment. The risks for full siblings (50% genetic similarity; OR, 17.68; 95% CI, 12.90-24.23) were significantly higher than those for maternal half siblings (25% genetic similarity; OR, 4.41; 95
Meier, Sandra M; Petersen, Liselotte; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben B; Laursen, Thomas M
Summary Background Depression and anxiety disorders are highly comorbid conditions and a worldwide disease burden; however, large-scale studies delineating their association are scarce. In this retrospective study, we aimed to assess the effect of severe anxiety disorders on the risk and course of depression. Methods We did a population-based cohort study with prospectively gathered data in Denmark using data from three Danish population registers: The Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the Danish National Hospital Registry. We selected the cohort from people born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1955, and Dec 31, 2002, who we followed up from Jan 1, 1994, to Dec 31, 2012. The cohort was restricted to individuals with known parents. First, we investigated the effect of specific anxiety diagnoses on risk of single depressive episodes and recurrent depressive disorder. Second, we investigated the effect of comorbid anxiety on risk of readmission for depression, adjusting for sex, age, calendar year, parental age, place at residence at time of birth, and the interaction of age with sex. Findings We included 3 380 059 individuals in our study cohort. The adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for single depressive episodes was 3·0 (95% CI 2·8–3·1, pdepressive disorder was 5·0 (4·8–5·2) in patients with severe anxiety disorders compared with the general population. Compared with control individuals, the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders were more likely to be diagnosed with single depressive episodes (1·9, 1·8–2·0) or recurrent depressive disorder (2·1, 1·9–2·2). Comorbid anxiety increased the readmission rates in both patients with single depressive episodes and patients with recurrent depressive disorder. Interpretation Severe anxiety constitutes a significant risk factor for depression. Focusing on specific anxiety disorders might help to identify individuals at risk of depression, thereby providing new
Full Text Available Abstract Background An earthquake measuring 6.3 on the Richter scale struck the city of Bam in Iran on the 26th of December 2003 at 5.26 A.M. It was devastating, and left over 40,000 dead and around 30,000 injured. The profound tragedy of thousands killed has caused emotional and psychological trauma for tens of thousands of people who have survived. A study was carried out to assess psychological distress among Bam earthquake survivors and factors associated with severe mental health in those who survived the tragedy. Methods This was a population-based study measuring psychological distress among the survivors of Bam earthquake in Iran. Using a multi-stage stratified sampling method a random sample of individuals aged 15 years and over living in Bam were interviewed. Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Results In all 916 survivors were interviewed. The mean age of the respondents was 32.9 years (SD = 12.4, mostly were males (53%, married (66% and had secondary school education (50%. Forty-one percent reported they lost 3 to 5 members of their family in the earthquake. In addition the findings showed that 58% of the respondents suffered from severe mental health as measured by the GHQ-12 and this was three times higher than reported psychological distress among the general population. There were significant differences between sub-groups of the study sample with regard to their psychological distress. The results of the logistic regression analysis also indicated that female gender; lower education, unemployment, and loss of family members were associated with severe psychological distress among earthquake victims. Conclusion The study findings indicated that the amount of psychological distress among earthquake survivors was high and there is an urgent need to deliver mental health care to disaster victims in local medical settings and to reduce negative health impacts of the earthquake
García-Pérez, Javier; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; González-Sánchez, Mario; Cortés Barragán, Rosa Ana; Maqueda Blasco, Jerónimo; González-Galarzo, María Carmen; Alba, Miguel Ángel; van der Haar, Rudolf; Casas, Silvia; Vicente, Cándida; Medina, Pilar; Ederra, María; Santamariña, Carmen; Moreno, María Pilar; Casanova, Francisco; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Moreo, Pilar; Ascunce, Nieves; García, Montse; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Llobet, Rafael; Lope, Virginia
High mammographic density is one of the main risk factors for breast cancer. Although several occupations have been associated with breast cancer, there are no previous occupational studies exploring the association with mammographic density. Our objective was to identify occupations associated with high mammographic density in Spanish female workers. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of occupational determinants of high mammographic density in Spain, based on 1476 women, aged 45-68 years, recruited from seven screening centers within the Spanish Breast Cancer Screening Program network. Reproductive, family, personal, and occupational history data were collected. The latest occupation of each woman was collected and coded according to the 1994 National Classification of Occupations. Mammographic density was assessed from the cranio-caudal mammogram of the left breast using a semi-automated computer-assisted tool. Association between mammographic density and occupation was evaluated by using mixed linear regression models, using log-transformed percentage of mammographic density as dependent variable. Models were adjusted for age, body mass index, menopausal status, parity, smoking, alcohol intake, educational level, type of mammography, first-degree relative with breast cancer, and hormonal replacement therapy use. Screening center and professional reader were included as random effects terms. Mammographic density was higher, although non-statistically significant, among secondary school teachers (e β = 1.41; 95%CI =