WorldWideScience

Sample records for regional pixe facility

  1. PIXE facility at Centro Atomico Bariloche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limandri, S.; Rodriguez, L. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Olivares, C.; Bernardi, G. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Suarez, S. [lnstituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: A Tandem accelerator, NEC Pelletron 5SDH, has been recently installed at Centro Atomico Bariloche, Argentina. This facility provides the local scientific community the opportunity to use nuclear techniques in different fields such as material science, environment (air, soil and food), biology, archaeology, etc.). The ion beam techniques available in our laboratory includes the ones commonly used in material analysis, i. e., PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission), RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy), PIGE (proton induced gamma ray emission), channeling and ERDA (elastic recall detection analysis). The line used for material analysis consists of a NEC-RC43 Endstation with setups and detectors for all the techniques above mentioned. This communication includes a description of the system facility and the main associated equipment, in particular that for PIXE measurements. In addition, we show some recent applications of PIXE to the study of archaeological ceramics, smokeless gun powders, and the experimental determination of the efficiency or our SDD detector. The detector efficiency was estimated for energies between 0.27 and 25 keV. The method applied is based on the comparison of X-ray characteristic intensities excited by 2-MeV protons in bulk samples with theoretical predictions. The results are compared with efficiency values obtained by the product of the window transmission and the detector quantum efficiency. Element constituents of black, white, brown and ocher pigments from Aguada Culture (600-900 before present) were studied. The results obtained are compared with measurements performed at the Laboratorio de Implantacao Ionica-UFRGS. This study is helpful to interpret the social, political economic and cultural contexts of pre-Inca societies and the interaction among different sites. Traces amounts present in seven smokeless gun powders commonly used in Argentina were determined. The powders were deposited on a carbon tape and the

  2. PIXE facility at Centro Atómico Bariloche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limandri, S. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina (CONICET) (Argentina); Olivares, C. [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. E. Bustillo 9500, San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Rodriguez, L. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina (CONICET) (Argentina); Bernardi, G. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina (CONICET) (Argentina); Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. E. Bustillo 9500, San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Suárez, S., E-mail: suarez@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina (CONICET) (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. E. Bustillo 9500, San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina)

    2014-01-01

    A 1.7 MeV tandem accelerator has been recently installed at Centro Atómico Bariloche, Argentina. This communication includes a brief description of the system facility with the main associated equipment, in particular that used for PIXE measurements. The X-ray detector efficiency was experimentally determined by comparing X-ray characteristic spectra with theoretical predictions. The knowledge of this parameter allows us to perform quantification without standards with good precision. We show some recent applications of PIXE in archaeology and forensic science done at our laboratory. In the archaeological field we determined elements constituent of pastes and black, white, brown and ocher pigments from Aguada Portezuelo Culture (600–900 AD). This study allowed us to infer about the presence of psilomelante mineral (a mineral with barium) as precursor of some black pigments. In the forensic field we determined trace elements that are present in seven gunpowders commonly used in Argentina. We note that any gunpowder can be distinguished by the presence of trace elements.

  3. PIXE facility at Jordan Van-de-Graaff accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, N.; Hallak, A.; Al-Saleh, K.; Arafah, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) set-up was constructed and optimized for routine elemental analysis at the University of Jordan Van de Graaff accelerator (JOVAC). Some important features of the system are described. Testing was carried out using some standards. Applications to Jordanian currencies are discussed.

  4. Programs for visualization, handling and quantification of PIXE maps at the AGLAE facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichon, L., E-mail: laurent.pichon@culture.fr [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, C2RMF, Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 Quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Fédération de recherche NewAGLAE, FR3506 CNRS, Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, Chimie ParisTech, Palais du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France); Calligaro, T. [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, C2RMF, Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 Quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Fédération de recherche NewAGLAE, FR3506 CNRS, Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, Chimie ParisTech, Palais du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France); PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech-CNRS, Institut de Recherche Chimie Paris, UMR8247, 75005 Paris (France); Lemasson, Q.; Moignard, B.; Pacheco, C. [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, C2RMF, Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 Quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Fédération de recherche NewAGLAE, FR3506 CNRS, Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, Chimie ParisTech, Palais du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France)

    2015-11-15

    The external beam setup of the AGLAE facility has been developed in order to combine PIXE with PIGE, EBS and recently IBIL for the analysis of cultural heritage artefacts. The upgraded external beam end-station integrates five large solid angle X-ray detectors either to reduce the risk of damage on sensitive artworks by decreasing the beam intensity or to routinely acquire elemental maps at various scales. While many programs are available to process PIXE maps acquired with nuclear microprobes, a software to process the major and trace elements PIXE maps point by point using GUPIX is not available. The present paper describes three programs developed for the AGLAE facility to process numerous maps obtained with multiple detectors. AGLAEMAP allows to handle maps and pixel groups within maps, TRAUPIXE to process quantitatively PIXE spectra of all pixels and DATAIMAGING to display the resulting quantitative elemental maps. The benefits of this software suite are demonstrated by processing a dataset acquired on a pellet of geostandard reference material and on a terre mêlée pottery shard sample created by the famous ceramist Bernard Palissy (1510–1589), highlighting chemical elements present in this polychrome ceramic.

  5. The PixFEL project: Progress towards a fine pitch X-ray imaging camera for next generation FEL facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, G.; Batignani, G.; Benkechkache, M. A.; Bettarini, S.; Casarosa, G.; Comotti, D.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Fabris, L.; Forti, F.; Grassi, M.; Lodola, L.; Malcovati, P.; Manghisoni, M.; Mendicino, R.; Morsani, F.; Paladino, A.; Pancheri, L.; Paoloni, E.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Vacchi, C.; Verzellesi, G.; Xu, H.

    2016-07-01

    The INFN PixFEL project is developing the fundamental building blocks for a large area X-ray imaging camera to be deployed at next generation free electron laser (FEL) facilities with unprecedented intensity. Improvement in performance beyond the state of art in imaging instrumentation will be explored adopting advanced technologies like active edge sensors, a 65 nm node CMOS process and vertical integration. These are the key ingredients of the PixFEL project to realize a seamless large area focal plane instrument composed by a matrix of multilayer four-side buttable tiles. In order to minimize the dead area and reduce ambiguities in image reconstruction, a fine pitch active edge thick sensor is being optimized to cope with very high intensity photon flux, up to 104 photons per pixel, in the range from 1 to 10 keV. A low noise analog front-end channel with this wide dynamic range and a novel dynamic compression feature, together with a low power 10 bit analog to digital conversion up to 5 MHz, has been realized in a 110 μm pitch with a 65 nm CMOS process. Vertical interconnection of two CMOS tiers will be also explored in the future to build a four-side buttable readout chip with high density memories. In the long run the objective of the PixFEL project is to build a flexible X-ray imaging camera for operation both in burst mode, like at the European X-FEL, or in continuous mode with the high frame rates anticipated for future FEL facilities.

  6. PIXE analysis of hair samples from artisanal mining communities in the Acupan region, Benguet, Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, Eligia E-mail: bebeng@up.edu.ph; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.; Murao, S. E-mail: s.murao@aist.go.jp

    2004-06-01

    The mountainous regions of Benguet Province in the Philippines is home to some 10,000 small-scale miners who make out a living by extracting gold. In these communities, the method of extraction still involves the use of mercury, via amalgamation. In the separation of gold from mercury the method involves the release of mercury vapor into the atmosphere. This is therefore expected to affect the people living in the nearby areas. This study involves the accumulation of baseline data on the extent of mercury contamination in humans through the analysis of their hair. In 1989, Hursh et al. [Arch. Environ. Health 44 (2) (1989) 120] studied human volunteers and found that uptake of mercury vapor through the skin is only about 1% of the uptake through inhalation [World Health Organization, IPCS, EHC118, Inorganic Mercury, Geneva, 1991, p. 42]. In this light, any residual mercury which might have deposited in human hair is speculated to give an indication of how much mercury vapor the subject could have actually inhaled. A high concentration of mercury in the sample can therefore be indicative of the high rate of intake of the mercury vapor through inhalation. A sampling of the community consisted of both male (83%) and female (17%) subjects who ranged in age from 8 to 66 years old. Hair analysis was done using particle induced X-ray emission at the Iwate Medical University through Dr. Sera. With Zn set as a standard element, the rest of the elements were determined using the standard-free method. In order to obtain the conversion coefficient for hair samples, many hair samples were analyzed by this method and the internal standard method which involves the preparation of the hair samples by chemical ashing. The results obtained were comparable. The PIXE results for these samples showed the analysis of 26 elements but for our purposes, however, only the mercury analysis will be considered. Results of the analysis showed the hair samples to contain 0-27 ppm, with only seven

  7. Application of PIXE to the characterization of vitreous dacites from archaeolgical sites in the Atacama region in northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, J.R.; Cancino, S. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago 1 (Chile); Miranda, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago 1 (Chile)], E-mail: pjmirand@gmail.com; Dinator, M.I. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago 1 (Chile); Seelenfreund, A. [Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano, Condell 343, Providencia, Santiago (Chile)

    2007-11-15

    Geochemical characterization studies using PIXE were carried out on 21 vitreous dacite artifacts from early formative archaeological sites in the Atacama region, in northern Chile, and on 13 samples taken from two potential volcanic sources located within the region. Performing statistical analyses it was possible to obtain elemental concentration patterns for the archaeological samples of this material and match some of these artifacts with the geological source samples.

  8. Region 7 Title V facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web map shows the Region 7 Title V facilities (Clean Air Act major sources), any Class I areas within 300 km of R7 States, and any Tribal areas within 50 miles...

  9. Evaluation and mapping of PM{sub 2.5} atmospheric aerosols in Arasia region using PIXE and gravimetric measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roumie, M. [Accelerator Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, CNRSL, Beirut (Lebanon); Chiari, M. [INFN, Firenze and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Srour, A. [Accelerator Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, CNRSL, Beirut (Lebanon); Sa’adeh, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Reslan, A. [Accelerator Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, CNRSL, Beirut (Lebanon); Sultan, M. [Ministry of Science and Technology MOST, Baghdad (Iraq); Ahmad, M. [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria AECS, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Calzolai, G.; Nava, S. [INFN, Firenze and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Zubaidi, Th. [Ministry of Science and Technology MOST, Baghdad (Iraq); Rihawy, M.S. [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria AECS, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Hussein, T. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Department of Physics, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Arafah, D.-E. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Karydas, A.G.; Simon, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA, Vienna (Austria); Nsouli, B. [Accelerator Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, CNRSL, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2016-03-15

    The present work is a part of a scientific study conducted among several Arab countries in west Asia, under an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regional technical cooperation project for Arasia region. The project aims at producing for the first time a database of particulate matter (PM) elemental concentrations in the region that will help in future air quality studies in order to identify commonalities and differences in the presence and contribution of fingerprint pollution sources among the Arasia Member States. The first regional campaign was launched simultaneously in Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan, Syria and United Arab Emirates, using a harmonized sampling and analysis protocol of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} samples. Different samples, collected between October 2014 and February 2015, from the participating countries, were analyzed by PIXE technique and gravimetric measurements were also carried out. The first results of the study will be discussed in a regional perspective. Our study shows that concentrations of fine aerosol fractions are often exceeding the WHO standard values as well as showing some disparities in the obtained values between the different sampling sites. However, some trend similarities of variations with time could also be observed, suggesting a common influence by trans-boundary or external sources of air pollution.

  10. PIXE gadgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demortier, G.; Morciaux, Y.

    1994-03-01

    Various solutions for accurate and quantitative analysis of bulk materials by PIXE are presented. The measurements are made in a non vacuum geometry (samples are irradiated at atmospheric pressure after the incident proton beam has crossed a thin aluminium foil) or in a vacuum chamber. Gadgets for the monitoring of the proton beam, for the easy change and the accurate positioning of the target samples, for the corrections of matrix effects, for the handling of very small and irregular samples, for the analysis of liquids and for the measurement of thick layers are discussed.

  11. A new small-footprint external-beam PIXE facility for cultural heritage applications using pulsed proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadrucci, M.; Bazzano, G.; Borgognoni, F.; Chiari, M.; Mazzinghi, A.; Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Ruberto, C.; Taccetti, F.

    2017-09-01

    In the framework of the COBRA project, elemental analyses of cultural heritage objects based on the particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) are planned in a collaboration between the APAM laboratory of ENEA-Frascati and the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence. With this aim a 3-7 MeV pulsed proton beam, driven by the injector of the protontherapy accelerator under construction for the TOP-IMPLART project, will be used to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique with a small-footprint pulsed accelerator to Italian small and medium enterprises interested in the composition analysis of ancient artifacts. The experimental set-up for PIXE analysis on the TOP-IMPLART machine consists of a modified assembly of the vertical beam line usually dedicated to radiobiology experiments: the beam produced by the injector (RFQ + DTL, a PL7 ACCSYSHITACHI model) is bent to 90° by a magnet, is collimated by a 300 μm aperture inserted in the end nozzle and extracted into ambient pressure by an exit window consisting of a Upilex foil 7.5 μm thick. The beam is pulsed with a variable pulse duration of 20-100 μs and a repetition rate variable from 10 to 100 Hz. The X-ray detection system is based on a Ketek Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) with 7 mm2 active area and 450 μm thickness, with a thin Beryllium entrance window (8 μm). The results of the calibration of this new PIXE set-up using thick target standards and of the analysis of the preliminary measurements on pigments are presented.

  12. Study of the elemental composition of aerosols in the Candiota region of Brazil using the PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, C.F.; Teixeira, E.C. E-mail: gerpro.pesquisa@fepam.rs.gov.br; Yoneama, M.L.; Dias, J.F

    2004-10-01

    The scope of this study was to determine the concentration and composition of atmospheric particles in the Candiota region of Brazil using HV PM{sub 10} and Dichotomous (PM{sub 10-2.5} and PM{sub 2.5}) samplers. Four sampling sites at an average distance of about 35 km from a coal-fired thermoelectric power plant were selected: Acegua, Aeroporto, 8 de Agosto and Pedras Altas. Samples were collected from December 2000 to December 2001, and their PM{sub 10} mass concentrations (coarse and fine particles) were determined. Moreover, the concentration of the elements Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Br were obtained through the PIXE technique. The average mass concentrations of coarse and fine particles were found to be well below the daily (150 {mu}g m{sup -3}) and annual average (50 {mu}g m{sup -3}) air quality standards established by the country's legislation. The high enrichment factors observed in the fine fraction particulate (<2.5 {mu}m) suggests that anthropogenic activities were the dominant source for elements such as S, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Br. Analysis performed with HV PM{sub 10} samples showed a grouping of the elements Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe, indicating coal and earth crust as the possible sources of these elements, whereas the presence of S is associated to coal combustion. The elements Cr, Ni and Cu characterise the influence of the power plant, while the presence of Cl and Br is associated with the presence of marine salts in the area.

  13. Corrosion studies with pixe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar Chaudhri, M.; Crawford, A.

    1981-03-01

    To investigate the possible causes of corrosion of some of the tooth paste tubes of a major international cosmetic product manufacturer, the elemental compositions of corroded and clean unused tubes were compared, using PIXE. It was observed that some of the corroded tubes contained much higher amounts of Ti, Fe, Ga and Zn than the clean tubes, while the concentrations of Cr and Ni showed no significant difference between the two types of tubes. Only certain regions of one of the tubes were found to contain higher concentrations of Cu. Those regions were badly corroded and had the highest concentrations of Ti, Fe, Ga and Zn, too. It is suggested that the presence of higher amounts of Ti, Fe, Ga and Zn, and especially of Cu, in the aluminium sheets used to manufacture the tooth paste tubes, may be one of the reasons for the corrosion of some of the tooth paste tubes.

  14. PIXE Analysis of Ceramic Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    High, Elizabeth; Lamm, Larry; Schurr, Mark; Stech, Edward; Wiescher, Michael

    2009-10-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emissions, or PIXE, is a nuclear physics technique used as a non-destructive material analysis method which gives a detailed and comprehensive profile of the elemental composition of a target. Using the University of Notre Dame KN and FN accelerators in the ISNAP laboratory a beam of particles, here protons, is accelerated and used to knock out electrons from lower orbitals within the target resulting in characteristic X-rays. Under optimum operating conditions data from PIXE can not only give information about which elements are present in a sample but also their relative abundances in parts per million. In a previous run done in collaboration with the Anthropology Department at the University of Notre Dame pottery shards from the Collier Lodge, located in northwest Indiana, were analyzed and only relative abundances were able to be compared between samples. We are now implementing a new setup into the beam-line which will incorporate the ability to take Rutherford Back Scattering, or RBS, measurements of the beam during the PIXE runs, which will allow for a standard normalization for the runs and give the facility the ability to acquire a more absolute and quantitative analysis of the data. Initial results using the same pottery shards as a comparative data set will be presented.

  15. Regional Park-n-Ride Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Southwestern Pennsylvania Commission maintains an inventory of the region’s park-n-ride facilities that contains detailed information for each of the more than...

  16. Inside PixInsight

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    In this book, Warren Keller reveals the secrets of astro-image processing software PixInsight in a practical and easy to follow manner, allowing the reader to produce stunning astrophotographs from even mediocre data. As the first comprehensive post-processing platform to be created by astro-imagers for astro-imagers, it has for many, replaced the generic graphics editors as the software of choice. With clear instructions from Keller, astrophotographers can get the most from its tools to create amazing images. Capable of complex post-processing routines, PixInsight is also an advanced pre-processing software, through which astrophotographers calibrate and stack their exposures into completed master files.This is the most comprehensive resource on PixInsight to date. With screenshots to help illustrate the process, it is a vital guide.

  17. Regional Inequality of Sport Facilities in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Çiftçi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of social utility of distribution of intercity sport facilities in Turkey for people. Atkinson indices were used in the study. Statistical data of TUIK was used for the application. The index coefficients revealed an imbalance in the regional distribution of sport facilities for the people, and a substantial loss of social utility for the people. According to the values calculated for people, the levels of social utility of total sport facili...

  18. External-RBS, PIXE and NRA analysis for ancient swords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hellen C.; Added, Nemitala; Silva, Tiago F.; Rodrigues, C. L.

    2015-02-01

    Elemental composition of the steel of two ancient swords (Japanese and Damascus from a private collection) was characterized using in air IBA techniques. Our results contribute for the understanding the processes of manufacturing (hammering and quenching) and surface treatments applied in these swords. The Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) measurements along the Damascus blade allowed to identify and to trace a superficial concentration profile for the elements such Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and As, while results for the Japanese blade showed only the presence of iron. The carbon content on the surface was also investigated using a resonant region in the Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) measurements and the results have shown a slightly difference between the surfaces under investigation. In order to investigate the nitrogen content on surface, that could explain the hardening process, we used Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and the results shown that nitrogen content was under our detection limit for the technique (0.3% in mass). The measurements of PIXE, NRA and EBS were taken using the external beam setup installed at Lamfi - São Paulo/Brazil, the latter being successfully implemented for the first time in this facility.

  19. Colorants used in ancient Egyptian glassmaking: Specialized studies using PIXE spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C. P.; McGovern, P. E.; Fleming, S. J.

    1990-01-01

    Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectrometry has several practical advantages over other analytical techniques currently used in the study of ancient glass. It is nondestructive, it can conveniently determine a glassmaking recipe (i.e. the primary constituents used) within a single X-ray spectrum, it has superior detection limits for the minor and trace elements that are most influential in glass coloration, and, when run in a microbeam mode (with an analysis area as small as 10 -2 mm 2), it can provide valuable spatial resolution in the study of individual regions of decoration on multicolored vessels and jewelry. This paper discusses the current operation of the Bartol PIXE facility, with emphasis on the use of customized selective filters which allow high-sensitive measurements for trace elements in glass matrices complicated by the presence of high levels of copper, iron and lead. PIXE data recently obtained for artifacts and manufacturing debris from the New Kingdom workshop site at El-Amarna provides a practical application of these concepts.

  20. Colorants used in ancient Egyptian glassmaking; Specialized studies using PIXE spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swann, C.P.; McGovern, P.E. (Bartol Research Inst., Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (USA)); Fleming, S.J. (MASCA, Univ. Museum, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectrometry has several practical advantages over other analytical techniques currently used in the study of ancient glass. It is nondestructive, it can conveniently determine a glassmaking recipe (i.e. the primary constituents used) within a single X-ray spectrum, it has superior detection limits for the minor and trace elements that are most influential in glass coloration, and, when run in a microbeam mode (with an analysis area as small as 10{sup -2} mm{sup 2}), it can provide valuable spatial resolution in the study of individual regions of decoration on multicolored vessels and jewelry. This paper discusses the current operation of the Bartol PIXE facility, with emphasis on the use of customized selective filters which allow high-sensitive measurements for trace elements in glass matrices complicated by the presence of high levels of copper, iron and lead. PIXE data recently obtained for artifacts and manufacturing debris from the New Kingdom workshop site at El-Amarna provides a practical application of these concepts. (orig.).

  1. US EPA Region 4 RMP Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — To improve public health and the environment, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) collects information about facilities, sites, or places...

  2. PIXE studies of pollutants in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczyk, S.; Kajfosz, J.; Hrynkiewicz, A. Z.; Curzydło, J.

    1981-03-01

    Both industrial and road traffic pollutions were studied by PIXE by determining the trace elements accumulated in different plant tissues from affected areas. The PIXE method was proved to be adequate and convenient for monitoring many of the pollutants.

  3. The performance of GridPix detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilevych, Y.; Blanco Carballo, V.M.; Breur, S.; Fransen, M.; van der Graaf, H.; Hartjes, F.; Hessey, N.; Kalter, R.; Ketel, T.; Koppert, W.C.; Rogers, M.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J.

    2009-01-01

    The GridPix detector is an assembly of a TimePix pixel chip, covered with a layer of silicon rich silicon nitride (SiRN) as protection against discharges, an integrated MPGD grid (InGrid), a drift gap and a cathode plane. GridPix detectors have been tested using a test beam at DESY. Measurements

  4. The VeloPix ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikela, T.; Ballabriga, R.; Buytaert, J.; Llopart, X.; Wong, W.; Campbell, M.; Wyllie, K.; van Beuzekom, M.; Schipper, J.; Miryala, S.; Gromov, V.

    2017-01-01

    VeloPix, a 130 nm CMOS technology chip with data driven and zero suppressed readout, will be used as a readout chip for the hybrid pixel system of the LHCb Vertex Locator (VELO) upgrade. The upgrade, scheduled for LHC Run-3, will enable the experiment to be read out at 40 MHz in trigger-less mode, with event selection being performed in the CPU farm. The highest occupancy ASICs will experience rates of more than 900 Mhits/s, and the closest pixels are 5.1 mm from the LHC beams. This paper will present the VeloPix ASIC along with the first test results without a sensor.

  5. Sample inhomogeneity in PIXE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajfosz, J.; Szymczyk, S.; Kornaś, G.

    1984-04-01

    The influence of sample inhomogeneity on the precision of analytical results obtained by PIXE was investigated. A simple method for the determination of sample inhomogeneity is proposed and its applicability is shown on a series of examples. Differences in the distribution of individual elements in samples were observed.

  6. System of pattern analysis of PIXE spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murozono, K.; Iwasaki, S.; Inoue, J.; Ishii, K.; Kitamura, M. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.

    1996-07-01

    We have developed an analysis system based on the pattern analysis method. By testing the system, several difficulties of the present method have been identified. We found the following solutions for them: pre-selection of candidate elements in a sample and the use of a proper absorber. The pre-selection of the candidate elements will not be a serious drawback in the industrial PIXE, because it will be easy to pre-process the spectra for a few samples in the beginning of the mass processing of samples of the same kind. On the other hand, reduction of the efficiency due to the use of funny filter is significant only in the lower energy region, where we usually do not suffer from insufficient yields of lighter elements in common samples. The selection of the most suitable filter requires PIXE user to be deeply experienced. In particular, it is not easy to choose the best filter to suppress the yield of peak of an abundant element as the absorption edge filter. It will be important task to find a set of suitable combination of representative samples and corresponding filters. Furthermore, the peak profile model should be improved from the simple Gaussian approximation to more realistic ones with exponential tail, flat component below the peak and escape peaks, etc. It is also necessary to develop a theoretical approach for the background shape of the bremsstrahlung. (J.P.N.)

  7. PIXE analysis of historical paintings: Is the gain worth the risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaro, T.; Gonzalez, V.; Pichon, L.

    2015-11-01

    The PIXE analysis of easel paintings constitutes a challenging task. Despite recognized merits and a few emblematic applications, PIXE has never been routinely applied to these fragile, complex and precious targets. The present work discusses the place of PIXE in the study of easel paintings and opens up perspectives for a more systematic usage of this analytical technique. Progress achieved since decades in the implementation of PIXE to study such fragile cultural heritage artefacts is reviewed, notably at the LABEC laboratory in Italy and at the AGLAE facility of the C2RMF in France. Two specific techniques developed for paintings are detailed and exemplified on Renaissance painting masterpieces: differential PIXE for paint layers depth profiling and multi-scale elemental mapping for the imaging of pigment distribution. Beam-induced damage, a major concern, notably depends on the employed beam fluence in particle/cm2 or μC/cm2. After recalling previous works on damage induced in chemical products comparable to pigments, we present the behaviour under different fluences of protons of a few MeV (1-300 μC/cm2) of targets having high resemblance to historical easel paintings: pellets of specially synthesized lead white pigments, layers of lead white mixed with linseed oil and areas containing lead white of two 19th century paintworks. The results shed new lights on the behaviour of paintworks under the beam and pave the way to strategies for damage mitigation. In particular, the lowering of PIXE performance induced by the decrease of the beam fluence sets a trade-off between risk of damage and gained information which also impacts the PIXE scanning protocol for paintings. As an illustration of an adequate adjustment of this balance, we report the exploratory application of PIXE mapping to a large area of a 19th century easel painting without damage. The recorded elemental maps are compared to elemental maps collected on the same area using laboratory-based scanning

  8. New results of GridPix TPCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graaf, Harry van der, E-mail: vdgraaf@nikhef.n [Science Park 105 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    The Gossip detector, being a GridPix TPC equipped with a thin layer of gas, is a promising alternative for Si tracking detectors. In addition, GridPix would be an interesting way to read out the gaseous phase volume of bi-phase Liquid Xe cryostats of v-less double beta decay and rare event (i.e. WIMP) search experiments.

  9. Archaeological obsidian from La Sierra Gorda Mexico, by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez-Cossio, D.; Terreros, E.; Quiroz-Moreno, J.; Romero-Sanchez, S. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Calligaro, T.F. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, UMR 171, Palais du Louvre-Porte des Lions, 14, Quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Tenorio, D. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico)], E-mail: dolores.tenorio@inin.gob.mx; Jimenez-Reyes, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Los Rios, M. de [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2009-04-15

    The chemical compositions of 42 obsidian pre-Hispanic artifacts from Tancama and Purisima, both archaeological sites of La Sierra Gorda Valleys, Mexico, were analyzed by PIXE technique. These obsidians came from four sources: Sierra de Pachuca Hidalgo, Paraiso Queretaro, Ucareo Michoacan and mainly from Zacualtipan/Metzquititlan Hidalgo. According to archaeological evidences, La Sierra Gorda valleys participated in commercial exchange with other regional sites, from Classic to Post-classic periods (A.D. 300-1500)

  10. Pix proteins and the evolution of centrioles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh R Woodland

    Full Text Available We have made a wide phylogenetic survey of Pix proteins, which are constituents of vertebrate centrioles in most eukaryotes. We have also surveyed the presence and structure of flagella or cilia and centrioles in these organisms, as far as is possible from published information. We find that Pix proteins are present in a vast range of eukaryotes, but not all. Where centrioles are absent so are Pix proteins. If one considers the maintenance of Pix proteins over evolutionary time scales, our analysis would suggest that their key function is to make cilia and flagella, and the same is true of centrioles. Moreover, this survey raises the possibility that Pix proteins are only maintained to make cilia and flagella that undulate, and even then only when they are constructed by transporting ciliary constituents up the cilium using the intraflagellar transport (IFT system. We also find that Pix proteins have become generally divergent within Ecdysozoa and between this group and other taxa. This correlates with a simplification of centrioles within Ecdysozoa and a loss or divergence of cilia/flagella. Thus Pix proteins act as a weathervane to indicate changes in centriole function, whose core activity is to make cilia and flagella.

  11. Multiobjective location analysis of regional energy facility siting problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, R.L.; Cohon, J.L.

    1976-10-01

    This report is one of a continuing series of policy analysis and model development studies in the area of energy facility siting prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory Regional Energy Studies Program. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory a sophisticated approach based on political interaction analysis has been developed as an adjunct to their siting model, allowing resolution of regional siting issues in the context of a prediction of political feasibility (Yaffee, 1976). And at Brookhaven, emphasis has been on the development of operations research approaches that could interface with the ensemble of energy systems analysis models resident at BNL's National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems, and the regional environmental impact models at the BNL Atmospheric and Oceanographic Sciences divisions (Meier, 1975). As an initial step in the development of such an operations research approach to regional siting policy analysis, this report presents an exploratory analysis of two areas of inquiry that appear especially promising. The first, examined in Chapter II, rests on the application of location theory, an area of inquiry that has seen a strong resurgence in the recent mathematical geography and regional economics literature as a result of its ability to address a rather large number of facility planning problems, in both the private and public sectors. The second area of inquiry, the focus of Chapter III, is multi-objective programming, a formalization of the notion that siting decision making is an adversary process, in which a resolution of conflicting objectives is the key issue. Multi-objective location modeling, a merger of the two areas of inquiry, may provide a useful analytical framework for regional energy planning. The Regional Energy Facility Location Model, which is based on such a merger, is presented in Chapter IV, and various extensions of the basic model formulation are presented in Appendices.

  12. Combined XRF and PIXE analysis of flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, N.S.; Al-Saleh, K.A.

    Combined X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) techniques were used for the determination of trace and minor elements in two different samples of flour purchased at the local market. The significance of some of the elements found in the samples is discussed from the viewpoint of nutrition. It is also shown that XRF can be a useful complementary technique for PIXE analysis of flour.

  13. Analysis of iron gall inks by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budnar, Milos [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, p.p. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: milos.budnar@ijs.si; Ursic, Mitja [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, p.p. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Simcic, Jure [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, p.p. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, Primoz [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, p.p. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kolar, Jana [National University Library, Turjaska 1, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Selih, Vid Simon [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Askerceva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Strlic, Matija [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Askerceva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-02-15

    Micro- or non-destructive analytical approach is an imperative when analysing historical artefacts. Due to its practically non-destructive character, proton induced X-ray spectrometry (PIXE) has become a method of choice for the study of historical documents. In the present paper, use of in-air PIXE method for analysis of iron gall inks applied at handwriting of documents is evaluated. The errors arising from the non-uniform ink deposit, proton penetration depth and size of the proton beam versus width of ink lines, effects of surface roughness, as well as the importance of the PIXE set-up geometry on the accuracy of the results are discussed. It follows that the main problems can be attributed to the fact that PIXE is a surface technique and that the analysis is limited to a small amount of material, while ink deposit on the paper is usually non-uniform in depth as well as on the paper surface. Despite possible systematic uncertainties when applying the PIXE method, good correlation between determinations obtained by PIXE and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) on model samples clearly demonstrate that the errors are well within a reasonable limit of a few percents.

  14. Characterization of human kidney stones using micro-PIXE and RBS: A comparative study between two different populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Cape Town (South Africa)], E-mail: pineda@tlabs.ac.za; Eisa, M.E.M. [Department of Physics, Sudan University of Science and Technology, P.O.Box 407, Khartoum (Sudan); Rodgers, A.L. [Head Chemistry Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa)

    2009-03-15

    The micro-PIXE and RBS techniques are used to investigate the matrix as well as the trace elemental composition of calcium-rich human tissues on a microscopic scale. This paper deals with the spatial distribution of trace metals in hard human tissues such as kidney stone concretions, undertaken at the nuclear microprobe (NMP) facility. Relevant information about ion beam techniques used for material characterization will be discussed. Mapping correlation between different trace metals to extract information related to micro-regions composition will be illustrated with an application using proton energies of 1.5 and 3.0 MeV and applied to a comparative study for human kidney stone concretions nucleation region analysis from two different population groups (Sudan and South Africa)

  15. EPA Facilities and Regional Boundaries Service, US, 2012, US EPA, SEGS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This SEGS web service contains EPA facilities, EPA facilities labels, small- and large-scale versions of EPA region boundaries, and EPA region boundaries extended to...

  16. PIXE Analysis of Artificial Turf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, Skye; Chalise, Sajju; Porat, Zachary; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, there has been debate regarding the use of the crumb rubber infill in artificial turf on high school and college campuses due to the potential presence of heavy metals and carcinogenic chemicals. We performed Proton-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of artificial turf infill and blade samples collected from high school and college campuses around the Capital District of NYS to search for potentially toxic substances. Crumb rubber pellets were made by mixing 1g of rubber infill and 1g of epoxy. The pellets and the turf blades were bombarded with 2.2 MeV proton beams from a 1.1-MV tandem Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory and x-ray energy spectra were collected with an Amptek silicon drift detector. We analyzed the spectra using GUPIX software to determine the elemental concentrations of the samples. The turf infill showed significant levels of Ti, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, and Pb. The highest concentration of Br in the crumb rubber was 1500 +/-100 ppm while the highest detectable amount of Pb concentration was 110 +/-20 ppm. The artificial turf blades showed significant levels of Ti, Fe, and Zn with only the yellow blade showing concentrations of V and Bi.

  17. A comparison of quantitative reconstruction techniques for PIXE-tomography analysis applied to biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, D.G., E-mail: dgbeasley@ctn.ist.utl.pt [IST/C2TN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [IST/C2TN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Barberet, Ph.; Bourret, S.; Devès, G.; Gordillo, N.; Michelet, C. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Le Trequesser, Q. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Institut de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Bordeaux (ICMCB, UPR9048) CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, 87 avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France); Marques, A.C. [IST/IPFN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Seznec, H. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Silva, R.C. da [IST/IPFN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal)

    2014-07-15

    The tomographic reconstruction of biological specimens requires robust algorithms, able to deal with low density contrast and low element concentrations. At the IST/ITN microprobe facility new GPU-accelerated reconstruction software, JPIXET, has been developed, which can significantly increase the speed of quantitative reconstruction of Proton Induced X-ray Emission Tomography (PIXE-T) data. It has a user-friendly graphical user interface for pre-processing, data analysis and reconstruction of PIXE-T and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy Tomography (STIM-T). The reconstruction of PIXE-T data is performed using either an algorithm based on a GPU-accelerated version of the Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximisation (MLEM) method or a GPU-accelerated version of the Discrete Image Space Reconstruction Algorithm (DISRA) (Sakellariou (2001) [2]). The original DISRA, its accelerated version, and the MLEM algorithm, were compared for the reconstruction of a biological sample of Caenorhabditis elegans – a small worm. This sample was analysed at the microbeam line of the AIFIRA facility of CENBG, Bordeaux. A qualitative PIXE-T reconstruction was obtained using the CENBG software package TomoRebuild (Habchi et al. (2013) [6]). The effects of pre-processing and experimental conditions on the elemental concentrations are discussed.

  18. [Cardinal problems of the regional bacteriological laboratories of tuberculosis facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, S A; Puzanov, V A; Sabgaĭda, T P; Antonova, N V; Kazakov, A S

    2008-01-01

    Restructuring the health care system and the epidemiological situation associated with tuberculosis result in an increased burden on the bacteriological laboratories (BLs) of tuberculosis facilities. At present, there are no statistical data that enable one to estimate the capacity of a laboratory service to assure the adequate quality and efficiency of bacteriological diagnosis. To assess the state of the headquarters BLs of tuberculosis facilities, the authors have worked out a questionnaire to glean necessary information on the activity of the laboratories to such an extent that suffices to reveal cardinal problems in the work of individual laboratories and the laboratory network as a whole. Out of the 48 questionnaires sent from the regional BLs, the data available from 22 laboratories that had fully answered all the questions were analyzed. The data obtained are referred to as of 2004, i.e. when the current antituberculous care projects were launched, which is of significance in organizing the monitoring of a laboratory service and in assessing the progress of the projects. The authors have identified the following cardinal problems: inadequate readiness of most laboratories to fully perform their incumbent functions; no coordination in providing data at the regional and federal levels; inefficient laboratory diagnosis that is associated with the disintegration of the curatorial institution, with neither reference relations no united external or internal quality control programs, with the lack of expertise and the undermanning of the laboratories, with the obsolete list of staff members and the obsolete standards for calculation of their loads, with the deterioration of a material and technical base, and with the unconformity of equipment to the state-of-the-art technologies. In order to solve the above problems, the authors offer a laboratory service monitoring system based on the proposed questionnaire, followed by the computerization of data collection and

  19. PIXE determination of Pb in wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsonya, A.; Guguianu, O.; Demeter, I.; Hollós-Nagy, Katalin; Kovács, I.; Szőkefalvi-Nagy, Z.

    2002-04-01

    The permissible level of the Pb content in wine varies in the range of 200-300 μg/l in different countries. These values are below the detection limit for standard PIXE spectrometry. Initiated by an intercomparison action of The International Measurement Evaluation Programme (IMEP, Geel, Belgium), an attempt was made to lower the detection limit of PIXE without introducing any additional chemical steps. Wine samples of 5 ml were gradually condensed below an infrared lamp and 8 μl aliquots were taken from time to time and pipetted onto filter paper. The samples were analysed by standard PIXE technique, with the analyte addition method used for calibration. A detection limit of about 50 ppb was finally achieved. Comparing this value to the permissible levels, this simple and fast technique can be used for screening purposes. As an application, the lead content of three Hungarian market wines was also measured.

  20. Region 9 NPDES Facilities - Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  1. Region 9 NPDES Facilities 2012- Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  2. PIXE analysis of historical paintings: Is the gain worth the risk?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calligaro, T. [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, C2RMF, Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 Quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech – CNRS, Institut de Recherche Chimie Paris, UMR8247, 75005 Paris (France); Fédération de recherche NewAGLAE, FR3506 CNRS – Ministère de la Culture – IRCP, Palais du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France); Gonzalez, V. [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, C2RMF, Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 Quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech – CNRS, Institut de Recherche Chimie Paris, UMR8247, 75005 Paris (France); Pichon, L. [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, C2RMF, Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 Quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Fédération de recherche NewAGLAE, FR3506 CNRS – Ministère de la Culture – IRCP, Palais du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France)

    2015-11-15

    The PIXE analysis of easel paintings constitutes a challenging task. Despite recognized merits and a few emblematic applications, PIXE has never been routinely applied to these fragile, complex and precious targets. The present work discusses the place of PIXE in the study of easel paintings and opens up perspectives for a more systematic usage of this analytical technique. Progress achieved since decades in the implementation of PIXE to study such fragile cultural heritage artefacts is reviewed, notably at the LABEC laboratory in Italy and at the AGLAE facility of the C2RMF in France. Two specific techniques developed for paintings are detailed and exemplified on Renaissance painting masterpieces: differential PIXE for paint layers depth profiling and multi-scale elemental mapping for the imaging of pigment distribution. Beam-induced damage, a major concern, notably depends on the employed beam fluence in particle/cm{sup 2} or μC/cm{sup 2}. After recalling previous works on damage induced in chemical products comparable to pigments, we present the behaviour under different fluences of protons of a few MeV (1–300 μC/cm{sup 2}) of targets having high resemblance to historical easel paintings: pellets of specially synthesized lead white pigments, layers of lead white mixed with linseed oil and areas containing lead white of two 19th century paintworks. The results shed new lights on the behaviour of paintworks under the beam and pave the way to strategies for damage mitigation. In particular, the lowering of PIXE performance induced by the decrease of the beam fluence sets a trade-off between risk of damage and gained information which also impacts the PIXE scanning protocol for paintings. As an illustration of an adequate adjustment of this balance, we report the exploratory application of PIXE mapping to a large area of a 19th century easel painting without damage. The recorded elemental maps are compared to elemental maps collected on the same area using

  3. PIXE applications to the toxicological field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, C.E.I. dos; Dias, J.F.; Jobim, P.F.C.; Yoneama, M.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Laboratorio de Implantacao Ionica; Andrade, V.M. [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Criciuma, SC (Brazil). Laboratorio de Biologia Celular e Molecular; Amaral, L.; Silva, J. da [Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Canoas, RS (Brazil). Laboratorio de Toxicologia Generica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the toxicological properties of some chemical elements in different type of biological samples. lon beam techniques, in particular PIXE, have been successfully used to analyze the elemental composition of food, beverage, plants and animal tissues. In this context, the PIXE line of the lon Implantation Laboratory (Porto Alegre, Brazil) have been used in the last few years to study food and beverage processing and biological specimens exposed to contaminated environment. The aim of this study is to present some of our results using PIXE analysis applied to toxicological research field. For instance, a recent published research [1] investigated the genotoxic and mutagenic effects in tobacco farmers exposed to metal-based formulated pesticides. Levels of Mg, AI, CI, Zn, Cr and Br, elements associated with DNA damage, were higher in the blood samples of tobacco farmers exposed to pesticide than in the non-exposed group. The occupational genotoxicity among copper smelters was also investigated [2]. The elemental content of blood samples were analyzed by PIXE. DNA damage in the peripheral blood Iymphocytes of workers exposed to copper smelter was observed. However, no clear correlation was found between the metal content and DNA damage. [1] F. R. da Silva, J. da Silva, M. C. AlIgayer, C. F. Simon, J. F. Dias, C. E. I. dos Santos, M. Salvador, C. Branco, N. B. Schneider, V. Kahl, P. Rohr, K. Kvitko, J. Hazard. Mat., 225-226 (2012) 81-90. (author)

  4. Computer program package for PIXE spectra evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajfosz, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1992-12-31

    The computer programs described here were developed for calculating the concentrations of elements in samples analysed by the PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) method from the X-ray spectra obtained in those analyses. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs.

  5. USEPA Geospatial Metadata EPA Region 2 All Regulated Facilities GIS layer PUB.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This ArcGIS 10.2 point feature class (All Regulated Facilities [R2] Public contains a unique record for every EPA Regulated Facility in EPA Region 2 (NYS, NJ, Puerto...

  6. Mutational and structural studies of the PixD BLUF output signal that affects light-regulated interactions with PixE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hua; Dragnea, Vladimira; Wu, Qiong; Gardner, Kevin H; Bauer, Carl E

    2011-07-26

    PixD (Slr1694) is a BLUF (blue-light-using FAD) photoreceptor used by the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 to control phototaxis toward blue light. In this study, we probe the involvement of a conserved Tyr8-Gln50-Met93 triad in promoting an output signal upon blue light excitation of the bound flavin. Analysis of acrylamide quenching of Trp91 fluorescence shows that the side chain of this residue remains partially solvent exposed in both the lit and dark states. Mutational analysis demonstrates that substitution mutations at Tyr8 and Gln50 result in the loss of the photocycle while a mutation of Met93 does not appreciably disturb the formation of the light-excited state and only minimally accelerates its decay from 5.7 to 4.5 s. However, mutations of Tyr8, Gln50, and Met93 disrupt the ability of PixD dimers to interact with PixE to form a higher-order PixD(10)-PixE(5) complex, which is indicative of a lit conformational state. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray crystallographic analyses confirm that a Tyr8 to Phe mutation is locked in a pseudo-light-excited state revealing flexible areas in PixD that likely constitute part of an output signal upon light excitation of wild-type PixD. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. Region 9 National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates...

  8. Correctional Facilities, United States, 2015, EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent correctional facilities associated with a single NAICS code. Establishment-specific information, except...

  9. On the characterization of the “Paris” meteorite using PIXE, RBS and micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noun, M. [Accelerator Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, CNRSL, Beirut (Lebanon); Institut de Physique Nucléaire d’Orsay, UMR 8608, Université Paris Sud, Paris (France); Roumie, M., E-mail: mroumie@cnrs.edu.lb [Accelerator Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, CNRSL, Beirut (Lebanon); Calligaro, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des musées de France, CNRS UMR 171, Palais du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France); Nsouli, B. [Accelerator Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, CNRSL, Beirut (Lebanon); Brunetto, R.; Baklouti, D.; D’Hendecourt, L. [Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, UMR 8617, Université Paris-Sud, Bat 121, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Della-Negra, S. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d’Orsay, UMR 8608, Université Paris Sud, Paris (France)

    2013-07-01

    “Paris” meteorite is a CM type carbonaceous chondrite, a primitive meteorite whose parent body has been formed in the early stage of the solar system and that has experienced low alterations (thermal and aqueous) since its formation. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and micro-PIXE techniques were used to characterize the elemental content and chemical composition of a “Paris” meteorite fragment from MNHN-France (Musée National d’Histoire Naturelle). As expected for a carbonaceous chondrite, macro-PIXE analysis revealed high overall concentrations in Fe, Si, Mg, while RBS showed 55 at.% of O and 7.7 at.% of C in average. Among the other elements, macro-PIXE analysis shows a relative enrichment of the fragment analyzed in Ca. Besides, a carbonaceous chondrite is a heterogeneous composite of different sized mineral and organic grains. Thus, we used a micro-beam to scan and analyze some micron-sized inclusions. By micro-PIXE analysis, it was possible to identify two types of crystals and an inclusion containing less than 0.1 wt.% of molybdenum.

  10. Tier II Facilities, Nevada, 2014, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent the locations of Tier II facilities. Reporting to the State of Nevada includes information on hazardous...

  11. Healthcare Facilities, US and Territories, 2015, EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent healthcare facilities associated with a single NAICS code. Establishment-specific information except the...

  12. Tier II Facilities, Hawaii, 2014, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent the locations of Tier II facilities. Reporting to the State of Hawaii includes information on hazardous...

  13. EPA Facilities and Regional Boundaries Download Package, US, 2012, US EPA, SEGS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This downloadable package contains the following layers: EPA facility points, EPA region boundary polygons and EPA region boundary polygons extended to the 200nm...

  14. Prehispanic goldwork technology study by PIXE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro; Climent Font, Aurelio; Gutierrez Neira, Patricia Carolina; Perea, Alicia; Fernandez Esquivel, Patricia; Rovira Llorens, Salvador; Ruvalcaba Sil, José Luis; Verde, Ana

    2014-08-01

    Technological characterization of pre-Hispanic gold metallurgy has still a wide deficit of analytical data. A set of 103 pieces from the so called "Quimbaya's treasure" (QT) and the "Costa Rica collection" (CRC) of the Museo de America of Madrid were submitted to IBA analysis (PIXE and RBS) at the CMAM in three phases and the metal composition was determined. Only in a limited number of cases, due to the dramatic erosion of the gilded layer, produced by abrasive cleaning methods applied after the discovery and before the seventies, it was possible to determine also the sequence of layers, which gives information on the manufacture technology and the type and purity of the metals. PIXE results are reported and discussed. Data show that the CRC objects have very high gold levels (>80% in weight) while the QT have a more variable composition with significant Cu levels associated to the so called Tumbaga-alloy. In the cases where polishing had a tolerable effect, PIXE (and RBS), point to depletion gilding as a standard finishing process in the Costa Rica production, resulting in a gold rich surface alloy, while the variable composition of the QT objects may well be linked to deliberate colour choice.

  15. PIXE and XRF Analysis of Roman Denarii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Cecilia; Raddell, Mark; Manukyan, Khachatur; Stech, Edward; Wiescher, Michael

    2017-09-01

    A set of Roman Denarii from the republican to the imperial period (140BC-240AD) has been studied using X-ray fluorescent (XRF) scanning and proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) techniques. XRF and PIXE are commonly used in the study of cultural heritage objects because they are nondestructive. The combination of these two methods is also unique because of the ability to penetrate the sample with a broader spectrum of depths and energies than either could achieve on its own. The coins are from a large span of Roman history and their analysis serves to follow the economic and political change of the era using the relative silver and copper contents in each sample. In addition to analyzing the samples, the study sought to compare these two common analysis techniques and to explore the use of a standard to examine any shortcomings in either of the methods. Data sets were compared and then adjusted to a calibration curve which was created from the analysis of a number of standard solutions. The concentrations of the standard solutions were confirmed using inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. Through this we were able to assemble results which will progress the basis of understanding of PIXE and XRF techniques as well as increase the wealth of knowledge of Ancient Roman currency.

  16. Prehispanic goldwork technology study by PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.zucchiatti@uam.es [Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Calle de Faraday 3, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Climent Font, Aurelio [Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Calle de Faraday 3, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Gutierrez Neira, Patricia Carolina; Perea, Alicia [Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, Calle Albasanz 26-28, Madrid 28037 (Spain); Fernandez Esquivel, Patricia [Fundación Museos, Banco Central de Costa Rica, San José (Costa Rica); Rovira Llorens, Salvador [Museo Arqueológico Nacional, Calle Serrano 13, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Ruvalcaba Sil, José Luis [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Mexici DF 28006 (Mexico); Verde, Ana [Museo de América, Avda. de los Reyes Católicos 6, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Technological characterization of pre-Hispanic gold metallurgy has still a wide deficit of analytical data. A set of 103 pieces from the so called “Quimbaya’s treasure” (QT) and the “Costa Rica collection” (CRC) of the Museo de America of Madrid were submitted to IBA analysis (PIXE and RBS) at the CMAM in three phases and the metal composition was determined. Only in a limited number of cases, due to the dramatic erosion of the gilded layer, produced by abrasive cleaning methods applied after the discovery and before the seventies, it was possible to determine also the sequence of layers, which gives information on the manufacture technology and the type and purity of the metals. PIXE results are reported and discussed. Data show that the CRC objects have very high gold levels (>80% in weight) while the QT have a more variable composition with significant Cu levels associated to the so called Tumbaga-alloy. In the cases where polishing had a tolerable effect, PIXE (and RBS), point to depletion gilding as a standard finishing process in the Costa Rica production, resulting in a gold rich surface alloy, while the variable composition of the QT objects may well be linked to deliberate colour choice.

  17. Silver surface enrichment in ancient coins studied by micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ager, F.J., E-mail: fjager@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC-J. Andalucía), C/ Thomas Alva Edison 7, E-41092 Seville (Spain); Departamento de Física Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville (Spain); Moreno-Suárez, A.I. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC-J. Andalucía), C/ Thomas Alva Edison 7, E-41092 Seville (Spain); Departamento de Física Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville (Spain); Scrivano, S.; Ortega-Feliu, I. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC-J. Andalucía), C/ Thomas Alva Edison 7, E-41092 Seville (Spain); Gómez-Tubío, B. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC-J. Andalucía), C/ Thomas Alva Edison 7, E-41092 Seville (Spain); Departamento de Física Aplicada III, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville (Spain); Respaldiza, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC-J. Andalucía), C/ Thomas Alva Edison 7, E-41092 Seville (Spain); Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    The surface enrichment of archeological silver–copper alloys, either intentional or due to corrosion processes, has been known for many years. The most used non-destructive techniques, such as particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) are surface techniques, with penetration depths typically ranging from a few microns to a few tens of microns. Therefore, these techniques could produce results which are not representative of the bulk composition of the alloy. In order to gain insight into the silver enrichment process and the effects on the data obtained with these techniques, a set of silver roman denarii were cross sectioned and analyzed at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores micro-PIXE facility. Elemental maps show silver surface enriched layers up to 250 μm thick. Besides, silver-enriched surface layers are not found for alloys with 96–98 wt.% Ag.

  18. Silver surface enrichment in ancient coins studied by micro-PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, F. J.; Moreno-Suárez, A. I.; Scrivano, S.; Ortega-Feliu, I.; Gómez-Tubío, B.; Respaldiza, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    The surface enrichment of archeological silver-copper alloys, either intentional or due to corrosion processes, has been known for many years. The most used non-destructive techniques, such as particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) are surface techniques, with penetration depths typically ranging from a few microns to a few tens of microns. Therefore, these techniques could produce results which are not representative of the bulk composition of the alloy. In order to gain insight into the silver enrichment process and the effects on the data obtained with these techniques, a set of silver roman denarii were cross sectioned and analyzed at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores micro-PIXE facility. Elemental maps show silver surface enriched layers up to 250 μm thick. Besides, silver-enriched surface layers are not found for alloys with 96-98 wt.% Ag.

  19. Investigation on trace and major elements in anti-asthmatic medicinal plants by PIXE and PIGE techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhanisana Devi, R.K., E-mail: bhanisanark@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur 795003 (India); Nandakumar Sarma, H. [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur 795003 (India); Kumar, Sanjiv [National Centre for Compositional Characterization of Materials (NCCCM), Hyderabad 500062 (India)

    2015-01-15

    Five widely used anti-asthmatic medicinal plants of north-eastern region of India have been investigated by using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced Gamma ray Emission (PIGE) techniques. The elements namely K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se and Br were detected with different concentrations (in ppm level) by PIXE technique whereas light elements namely F, Na, Mg, Al, P and Cl by PIGE technique in the studied plants. No toxic heavy metals such as Hg, Pb, Cd were detected. Analysis was performed on thick targets (pellets) prepared using the powders of specimens through a series of processing steps. Thick targets of plant based Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) were served as standardization of PIXE and PIGE set up. The trace elements present in the studied plants have been correlated with their medicinal properties.

  20. Treatment, Storage and Disposal (TSD) Corrective Action Facility Polygons, Region 9, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RCRA Treatment, Storage and Disposal facilities (TSDs) are facilities that have treated, stored or disposed of hazardous wastes. They are required to clean up...

  1. Facility Response Plan (FRP) Points, Region 9, 2014, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A Facility Response Plan (FRP) demonstrates a facility's preparedness to respond to a worst case oil discharge. Under the Clean Water Act, as amended by the Oil...

  2. Facility Response Plan (FRP) Inspected Points, Region 9, 2014, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A Facility Response Plan (FRP) demonstrates a facility's preparedness to respond to a worst case oil discharge. Under the Clean Water Act, as amended by the Oil...

  3. Facility Response Plan (FRP) Points, Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A Facility Response Plan (FRP) demonstrates a facility's preparedness to respond to a worst case oil discharge. Under the Clean Water Act, as amended by the Oil...

  4. Facility Response Plan (FRP) Points, Region 9, 2013, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A Facility Response Plan (FRP) demonstrates a facility's preparedness to respond to a worst case oil discharge. Under the Clean Water Act, as amended by the Oil...

  5. An efficient algorithm for the single facility location problem with polyhedral norms and disk-shaped demand regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, Andre; Grigoriev, Alexander; Winokurow, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    The single facility location problem with demand regions seeks for a facility location minimizing the sum of the distances from n demand regions to the facility. The demand regions represent sales markets where the transportation costs are negligible. In this paper, we assume that all demand regions

  6. Matrix effects in PIXE analysis of aerosols and ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havránek, V; Kucera, J; Horáková, J; Vosecek, V; Smolík, J; Schwarz, J; Sýkorová, I

    1999-01-01

    A comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) results for size-fractionated atmospheric aerosols ("coarse" and "fine" fractions with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter of 2-10 microns and effect. Somewhat lower PIXE results were also obtained for the fine fraction of atmospheric aerosols. A correction is also needed for irregularly shaped deposits of combustion aerosols collected by a cascade impactor in 11 size fractions ranging from 0.016 to 14.3 microns, as well as for thick samples of fly and bottom ashes. An equivalent layer thickness (ELT) model is proposed to correct the matrix effects in PIXE. The approaches for the calculation of ELT using a comparison of PIXE and INAA results or by comparing PIXE results obtained using two different incident proton beam energies (1.31 and 2.35 MeV) are described. The correction for the ash pellets and irregular deposits are also discussed.

  7. Determination of some heavy metals in wetlands by PIXE; Determinacion de algunos metales pesados en jales por medio de PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez O, J.; Rios M, C. [UAZ, 98160 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    In this work the results of the analysis are presented, using the PIXE technique (Proton Induced X-ray Emission), in soil samples of the El Bordo, Vetagrande, Zacatecas, before and after subjecting them to a lixiviation process for the recovering of gold, silver and mercury. This community is part of the mining region nearer to the Zacatecas city municipality, region in which the mining exploitation dates from the colonial time. During almost 350 years the 'yard benefit' method was used or amalgamation with mercury, process that besides having used big quantities of mercury, generated a great quantity of mineral waste calls 'mine wetlands', those that were accumulating, crawled by the rains, toward the streams that end in the prey 'The Pedernalillo'. The dispersion of wetlands them it has extended from the prey until the communities of Tacoaleche, Zoquite, Lampotal and El Bordo, embracing an approximate area of 16 x 2 Km{sup 2} and forming with the course of the time an accumulated of several millions of tons. In order to determining if the process of recovery of gold, silver and mercury make soluble to other contained metals in these wastes, samples were gathered in an area of 600 m{sup 2} in the community of The Border, Vetagrande, Zacatecas. Half of the samples were subjected to the lixiviation process in a local metal recovery plant and the other part was analyzed without processing. The analysis of both types of samples by means of the PIXE was carried out in the University of Arizona in Tucson. (Author)

  8. Evidence for enhanced aluminum concentration in brain tissue from Alzheimer's disease patients using PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debray, M. E.; Kreiner, A. J.; Buhler, M.; Cardona, M. A.; Hojman, D.; Kesque, J. M.; Levinton, G.; Menéndez, J. J.; Naab, F.; Ozafrán, M. J.; Somacal, H.; Vázquez, M. E.; Grahmann, H.; Davidson, M.; Davidson, J.; Levin, M. E.; Mangone, C. A.; Caccuri, R. L.; Tokuda, A.; Eurnekian, A. A.; González, D.; López, C.; Roses, O. E.

    1997-02-01

    The Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) analytical technique with 16O ion beams (18 MeV) was applied to the study of elemental composition at different brain regions of patients with a confirmed post-mortem diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and in samples from control subjects. The results obtained in the actual study show a clear correlation between occurrence of Alzheimer's disease and the presence and increased concentration of aluminum (Al).

  9. PIXE analysis of human dental cementum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhri, M. Anwar

    1984-04-01

    The elemental composition of dental cementum, from teeth of children with ages between 11 and 14 years, has been determined using the well-established PIXE technique. This was carried out in situ, that is, without having to remove the cementum from the dental roots, and thus avoiding any contamination. A number of elements, such as Na, Mg, Al, P, Cl, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr and Zr were detected in cementum, and their absolute concentrations determined. In certain select cases, the cementum from different parts of the same tooth was also investigated in order to study any changes in its elemental composition along the root axis.

  10. PIXE analysis of medieval silver coins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelouahed, H. Ben, E-mail: habdelou@cern.ch [Centre National des Sciences et Technologies Nucleaires (CNSTN), Pole technologique, 2020 Sidi Thabet, Tunis (Tunisia); Gharbi, F. [Centre National des Sciences et Technologies Nucleaires (CNSTN), Pole technologique, 2020 Sidi Thabet, Tunis (Tunisia); Roumie, M. [IBA Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Baccouche, S. [Centre National des Sciences et Technologies Nucleaires (CNSTN), Pole technologique, 2020 Sidi Thabet, Tunis (Tunisia); Romdhane, K. Ben [Faculte des lettres et des sciences humaines, Universite de Tunis (Tunisia); Nsouli, B. [IBA Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Trabelsi, A. [Centre National des Sciences et Technologies Nucleaires (CNSTN), Pole technologique, 2020 Sidi Thabet, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2010-01-15

    We applied the proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analytical technique to twenty-eight medieval silver coins, selected from the Tunisian treasury. The purpose is to study the fineness evolution from the beginning of the 7th to the 15th centuries AD. Each silver coin was cleaned with a diluted acid solution and then exposed to a 3 MeV proton beam from a 1.7 MV tandem accelerator. To allow the simultaneous detection of light and heavy elements, a funny aluminum filter was positioned in front of the Si(Li) detector entrance which is placed at 135{sup o} to the beam direction. The elements Cu, Pb, and Au were observed in the studied coins along with the major component silver. The concentration of Ag, presumably the main constituent of the coins, varies from 55% to 99%. This significant variation in the concentration of the major constituent reveals the economical difficulties encountered by each dynasty. It could be also attributed to differences in the composition of the silver mines used to strike the coins in different locations. That fineness evolution also reflects the poor quality of the control practices during this medieval period. In order to verify the ability of PIXE analytical method to distinguish between apparently similar coins, we applied hierarchical cluster analysis to our results to classify them into different subgroups of similar elemental composition.

  11. Micro-PIXE and micro-SR-XRF studies for Romanian archaeological gold identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, B.

    2009-04-01

    For gold, trace elements are more significant for provenancing archaeological artifacts than the main components: Platinum Group Elements (PGE), Sn, Te, Sb, Hg, Pb, but also high melting point elements, such as Ta and Nb. Several small fragments of native Carpathian gold were studied using micro-PIXE technique at the AGLAE accelerator, Louvre Museum and at the Legnaro AN2000 microbeam facility, and using SR-XRF at BESSY synchrotron. The goal of the study was to identify the trace elements, especially Sn, Sb and Te. At BESSY, the SR-XRF measurements were performed in air by using a 34 keV beam to excite the characteristic X-lines in Sn-Sb-Te region. We found Sn to be present in placers from Valea Arieşului and Valea Pianului, Sb in primary gold from Zlatna, Ruda-Brad, Valea Morii, Runculeţ-Straja and Pb in primary gold from Brǎdişor-Brad, Zlatna, Runculeţ-Straja, Valea Morii, Muşariu-Brad. Ten native gold nuggets and several fragments of objects coming from Visigothic Pietroasa "The Golden Brood Hen with Its Chickens" hoard were analyzed using micro-PIXE technique at the AGLAE accelerator, Louvre Museum, Paris and at the Legnaro AN2000 microbeam facility. We found Te in primary gold from Brǎdişor-Brad, Muşariu-Brad (different samples from BESSY analyzed ones), and Roşia Montanǎ, Sb in primary gold at Bucium-Izbiţa. For Pietroasa hoard, we found Sn in the Oenochoe cup and small fibula, indicating that alluvial gold - probably from Anatolia (Pactolus river) - was used. We also detected Ta inclusions in the large fibula, indicating that Ural Mountains (the only region where Ta and Au minerals are together) gold was (at least partially) used. A spectacular application to nine Dacian gold bracelets (belonging to National History Museum of Romania) authentication is presented. These bracelets look like spirals and are based on the same artistic idea, are centred around the same theme. The number of spiral varies from 6 to 8. When uncoiled, some bracelets

  12. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Facility Points, Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates...

  13. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Facility Points, Region 9, 2011, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates...

  14. The elemental status of ancient human bones from Edesheim/Rheinland-Pfalz determined by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankuhn, S.; Vogt, J.; Butz, T. [Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    We report on ion beam investigations of 40 bone samples from the archaeological site Edesheim/Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany, a burial site of a Merowingian population (6-8th century AD). The samples were prepared as pellets from the so-called WARD's triangle. This region is an inner part of the femoral neck and one of the areas of high fracture risk in the case of osteoporosis. The experiments were carried out with an 1.5 MeV H{sup +} beam at the 2 MV VAN DE GRAAFF accelerator of the University of Leipzig. Simultaneously to the PIXE measurements, PBS and PICE spectra were recorded. We will present a correlation matrix for 11 selected elements detected by PIXE, which exhibits trends and dependences from which preliminary information on various diagenetic processes can be derived. (author)

  15. Role of βPix in the kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eStaruschenko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Small GTPases function as molecular switches in cell signaling, alternating between an inactive, GDP-bound state, and active GTP-bound state. βPix is one of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs that catalyze the exchange of bound GDP for ambient GTP. The central goal of this review article is to summarize recent findings on βPix and the role it plays in kidney pathology and physiology. Recent studies shed new light on several key questions concerning the signaling mechanisms mediated by βPix. This manuscript provides a review of the various mechanisms whereby βPix has been shown to function within the kidney through a wide range of actions. Both canonical GEF activity and non-canonical signaling pathways mediated by βPix are discussed. Distribution patterns of βPix in the kidney will be also covered. Much has yet to be discerned, but it is clear that βPix plays a significant role in the kidney.

  16. {open_quotes}Radon{close_quotes} - the system of Soviet designed regional waste management facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, W.C.; Reisman, A.; Purvis, E.E. III

    1997-07-01

    The Soviet Union established a system of specialized regional facilities to dispose of radioactive waste generated by sources other than the nuclear fuel cycle. The system had 16 facilities in Russia, 5 in Ukraine, one in each of the other CIS states, and one in each of the Baltic Republics. These facilities are still being used. The major generators of radioactive waste they process these are research and industrial organizations, medical and agricultural institution and other activities not related to nuclear power. Waste handled by these facilities is mainly beta- and gamma-emitting nuclides with half lives of less than 30 years. The long-lived and alpha-emitting isotopic content is insignificant. Most of the radwaste has low and medium radioactivity levels. The facilities also handle spent radiation sources, which are highly radioactive and contain 95-98 percent of the activity of all the radwaste buried at these facilities.

  17. Micro-Pixe Studies on Native Transylvanian Gold for Archaeological Artifacts Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristea-Stan, Daniela; Constaninescu, Bogdan; Ceccato, Daniele; Pacheco, Claire; Pichon, Laurent; Luculescu, Catalin

    2014-02-01

    Determination of the geological provenance of gold is a powerful argument in the authentication of ancient gold artifacts. Small samples (hundreds of microns) of native gold from Transylvanian deposits were scanned by micro-PIXE to obtain information on the natural Au-Ag alloy composition and on the presence of trace elements such as Sn, Sb, and Cu. The experiments were performed at the AGLAE Louvre and LNL AN2000 accelerators. Mineral identification was confirmed by a micro-mineralogical study using the INFLPR-Magurele Scanning Electron Microscope associated with an Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) facility.

  18. PIXE analysis on Maya blue in Prehispanic and colonial mural paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, DF 09340 (Mexico); Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP 166, F-30842 Grenoble (France); Solis, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico)]. E-mail: corina@fisica.unam.mx; Reyes-Valerio, C. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologi' a e Historia, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2006-08-15

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) experiments have been carried out at the AGLAE facility (Paris) on several mural samples containing Maya blue from different Prehispanic archaeological sites (Cacaxtla, El Tajin, Tamuin, Santa Cecilia Acatitlan) and from several colonial convents in the Mexican plateau (Jiutepec, Totimehuacan, Tezontepec and Cuauhtinchan). The analysis of the concentration of several elements permitted to extract some information on the technique used for painting the mural, usually fresco. Principal component analysis permitted to classify the samples into groups. This grouping is discussed in relation to geographic and historic data.

  19. Analytical method used for PIXE analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassot, E. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Universite Blaise Pascal, 24, Avenue des Landais, F-63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)]. E-mail: chassot@clermont.in2p3.fr; Irigaray, J.L. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Universite Blaise Pascal, 24, Avenue des Landais, F-63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Terver, S. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Clermont-Ferrand, Service d' Orthopedie et de Traumatologie, Chirurgie Plastique et Reconstructive II, Universite d' Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand Cedex (France); Vanneuville, G. [Faculte de Medecine, Laboratoire d' Anatomie, Universite d' Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand Cedex (France)

    2005-04-01

    Some metallic prostheses undergo physico-chemical modifications a few years after their implantation. The organism reaction leads to a corrosion process. Consequently, liberation of metallic debris or wear might be observed. The purpose of our analysis was to determine the importance, in surrounding tissues, of the contamination by metallic elements released from joint prosthesis and to localise it. We analysed two types of samples: the first ones were taken during surgical procedure and the other ones were extracted in post-mortem tissues. PIXE technique (Particles Induced X-ray Emission) with a 50 {mu}m proton beam and 3 MeV of energy is an efficient technique to analyse these tissues. We used it to determine qualitatively and quantitatively trace element contamination, and we have developed an analytical method based on the {chi} {sup 2} distribution to separate the different contributions of the different elements, to detect the possible correlation between these metallic elements.

  20. A dual-PIXE tomography setup for reconstruction of Germanium in ICF target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, N.; Lu, H. Y.; Wang, Q.; Meng, J.; Gao, D. Z.; Zhang, Y. J.; Liang, X. X.; Zhang, W.; Li, J.; Ma, X. J.; Shen, H.

    2017-08-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is one type of fusion energy research which could initiate nuclear fusion reactions through heating and compressing thermonuclear fuel. Compared to a pure plastic target, Germanium doping into the CH ablator layer by Glow Discharge Polymer (GDP) technique can increase the ablation velocity and the standoff distance between the ablation front and laser-deposition region. During target fabrication process, quantitative doping of Ge should be accurately controlled. Particle Induced X-ray Emission Tomography (PIXE-T) can make not only quantification of the concentration, but also reconstruction of the spatial distribution of doped element. The Si (Li) detector for PIXE tomography technique had a disadvantage of low counting rate. To make up this deficiency, another detector of Si (Li) with the same configuration positioned at the opposite side with the same detective angle 135° have been implemented. Simultaneously acquired elemental maps of Ge obtained using two detectors may be different because of the X-ray absorption along the X-ray exit route in the target. In this paper, the X-ray detection efficiency is drastically improved by this dual-PIXE tomography system.

  1. Advanced, enhanced HEX program for PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, A. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kneen, M. A.

    1993-04-01

    The REX code and subsequent HEX code, originating at Florida State University, have been extensively used for PIXE spectra fitting. In 1989 we produced a renovated HEX package: WITS-HEX, enabling the original Fortran program to be more accessible to the PIXE community. We modernised the user interface by replacing the batch mode of operation with an integrated, menu-driven environment. We added the ability to edit support data files from within the program, provided detailed feedback during the fitting process and enhanced spectral plots using high resolution colour graphics. Our prototype also permitted the inclusion of many more peaks and absorption coefficients into the element library than the original HEX, permitting a more extensive element request list to be used during the fitting operation. We have now completed the second phase of the renewal of HEX. The man-machine interface has been upgraded to conform to the IBM SAA Common User Access (CUA) standard. This eliminated several of the sequential (modal) human-computer dialogues, replacing them with a single parallel system. The support utility used in WITS-HEX to convert the binary format of spectra captured using foreign data acquisition systems has been replaced by code to directly access data in ASCII format. The program is now equipped with context-sensitive help and a tutorial. The polynomial background model has been supplemented by a digital filter model, eliminating the associated instability from the fitting process and other spectral features modelled. The program has been validated by comparing results with those obtained from the former versions: WITS-HEX and HEX. A demonstration version is available on request for evaluation purposes.

  2. A minisum model with forbidden regions for locating a semi-desirable facility in the plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik

    Most facilities in today's technological society may be classified as semi-desirable. That is, the facility provides a benefit or service to society, while adversely affecting the quality of life or social values in a number of possible ways. The paper proposes a location model for a new semi......-desirable facility which accounts for the service costs by a standard minisum objective with arbitrary travel distance function. The social costs are imputed by specifying around each demand point or population center a convex forbidden region, also defined by an arbitrary distance metric, in which the new facility...... may not be located. A general solution algorithm is suggested, and the methodology applied to circular forbidden regions and special travel distance functions....

  3. Regional energy facility location models for power system planning and policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, B.F.

    1983-01-01

    Location models can be used to choose locations for sets of power plants and other energy facilities within single or multistate regions. Because such models can simultaneously consider generation, transmission, fuel supply, and environmental constraints and costs, they can assist in electric system planning. They can also facilitate realistic environmental analysis of energy policies by bridging the gap between national energy models, which project regional energy demands, and pollution dispersion models, which require specific facility locations and pollutant discharge rates. Energy facility location models can also be tools of policy analysis in their own right. They have been applied to environmental questions, such as the impact of alternative air pollution regulations, and economic issues, such as the effect of electric utility deregulation upon electricity prices.

  4. EPA Facilities and Regional Boundaries Service, US, 2012, US EPA, SEGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SEGS web service contains EPA facilities, EPA facilities labels, small- and large-scale versions of EPA region boundaries, and EPA region boundaries extended to the 200nm Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Small scale EPA boundaries and boundaries extended to the EEZ render at scales of less than 5 million, large scale EPA boundaries draw at scales greater than or equal to 5 million. EPA facilities labels draw at scales greater than 2 million. Data used to create this web service are available as a separate download at the Secondary Linkage listed above. Full FGDC metadata records for each layer may be found by clicking the layer name in the web service table of contents (available through the online link provided above) and viewing the layer description. This SEGS dataset was produced by EPA through the Office of Environmental Information.

  5. Lapis lazuli provenance study by means of micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Re, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.re@to.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Universita di Torino, Via Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); INFN Sezione di Torino and Centre of Excellence ' Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces' , Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Giudice, Alessandro Lo [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Universita di Torino, Via Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); INFN Sezione di Torino and Centre of Excellence ' Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces' , Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Angelici, Debora [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Universita di Torino, Via Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Calusi, Silvia; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Massi, Mirko [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita and INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Pratesi, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra and Museo di Storia Naturale, Universita di Firenze, Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    In this paper we report about the micro-PIXE characterisation of lapis lazuli, for a provenance study of this semi-precious stone, used for glyptic as early as 7000 years ago. The final aim is to find markers permitting to identify the origin of the raw material coming from three quarries in regions of historical importance: Afghanistan, Pamir Mountains and Siberia. This may help to reconstruct trade routes, especially for ancient objects for which written testimonies are scanty or absent at all. Due to the heterogeneity of lapis lazuli we concentrate our attention on single phases instead of the whole stone; in particular we focused on two of the main phases: lazurite, responsible for the blue colour, and diopside, the most frequent accessory mineral. This study was preceded and completed by means of microanalysis with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDX) and Cold-Cathodoluminescence (cold-CL) analysis. Despite the limited number of analysed samples, results are sufficient to exclude/suggest a few features as provenance markers, partly confirming what has been previously published in literature.

  6. Micro PIXE investigations. Time sequencing studies in degenerative diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, F.; Minqin, R.; Patricia Thong ps [Research Centre for Nuclear Microscopy, Dept. of Physics, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    1999-07-01

    The simultaneously applied techniques of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM), have been successful in mapping and quantifying trace elements during the progression of several human diseases, in particular those degenerative diseases which have a corresponding animal model. In atherosclerosis, iron has been shown to be present in increased concentrations at the early stage of lesion formation, and when the animal model has been kept anaemic, the artery wall shows a reduced uptake of iron and a delay in lesion formation compared with controls. In Parkinson's disease, there is also an increased concentration of iron in the substantia nigra region of the brain. Although the increase in bulk iron appears to lag behind the dopaminergic cell death, we have detected an increase in localized deposits of iron at the onset of cell death. These two results infer that iron may play a role in both diseases, perhaps through the mediation of free radicals. The induction of epilepsy through the injection of kainic acid has shown that the cell death is accompanied by an increase in calcium levels as early as one day after injection. The increase in calcium is consistent with activation of phospholipase A{sub 2} and free radical damage. (author)

  7. {mu}PIXE for a {mu}Brain: The vinegar fly's brain, antenna, sensilla hairs and eye ion concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinert, Anja, E-mail: areinert@ice.mpg.de [Department of Evolutionary Neuroethology, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Hans-Knoell-Strasse 8, 07745 Jena (Germany); Barapatre, Nirav [Institute for Experimental Physics II, University of Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Sachse, Silke [Department of Evolutionary Neuroethology, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Hans-Knoell-Strasse 8, 07745 Jena (Germany); Reinert, Tilo [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle, 76203 Denton, TX (United States)

    2011-10-15

    The vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster is used as model organism to study a variety of different scientific purposes. Thus, our laboratory studies the olfactory system by neurobiological experiments. These techniques are often disruptive and need to compensate or exchange the body fluid, the lymph, with an artificial Ringer's solution in defined compartments of the fly. The solution mainly contains Na, Cl, K and Ca and is to keep physiological conditions. Therefore, the knowledge about the ion concentrations in the respective Drosophila lymph is required for a correct mixture of the ions. This paper presents the spatially resolved concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in lyophilised head cryosections of Drosophila by using quantitative {mu}PIXE at the ion beam facility LIPSION in Leipzig. The PIXE maps enable a detailed analysis of particular regions of interest down to a spatial resolution of 0.5 {mu}m. We quantified the ion concentrations especially in the brain, the antenna and its sensilla hairs acting as the olfactory organ of the fly, in the compound eye and in the mouthparts. The averaged element concentrations of these main compartments are (in descending order): P: 90 mM, K: 81 mM, S: 38 mM, Cl: 18 mM, Ca: 4.9 mM, Fe: 1.4 mM, Zn: 1.2 mM, Cu: 0.06 mM. Certain structures or cavities possess a remarkably high concentration of particular elements and might reflect the different functions of the compartments. An example presented in more detail is the composition of the compound eye. Conclusively, our findings on the ion concentrations might be useful for the mixture of the Drosophila Ringer's solution to ensure physiological conditions in experiments.

  8. Aurora Flash X-Ray Facility as a Source-Region EMP Simulator,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    displacemeni- current can be neglected, but consideration of the two extre-mes is useful for a cualitative understanding.) When "local effects dominate...Use of the AURORA Machine as a Source-Region Simulator an Antenna CouL Lng Analysis Facility, Proceedings of NATO D_-fense Rer- ch Groui Seminar

  9. A retrospective audit of antibiotic prescriptions in primary health-care facilities in Eastern Region, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahiabu, Mary-Anne; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Biritwum, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Region, Ghana using the WHO/International Network for the Rational Use of Drugs rational drug use indicators. Using a systematic sampling procedure, 400 prescriptions were selected per facility for the period April 2010 to March 2011. Rational drug use indicators were assessed in the descriptive analysis...

  10. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, T. E-mail: tsuyoshi@termite.kuwri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 {mu}g/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 {mu}g/g). A block of wood (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 {mu}g/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 {mu}g/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  11. Facilities for Territorial Medicine: the experiences of Piedmont and Lombardy Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Capolongo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the demographic transition and epidemiological has made the health system hospital-centric obsolete and has highlighted the need for a new organization focused on territorial health community, taking charge of the patient, on team work and can ensure, through dedicated facilities, continuity of care and integration of social welfare.The main changes in the regulatory field have thus oriented investments both structural and economic towards poles to network with hospitals that represent new points of reference for the health of citizens, where primary care services are integrated with the territory and the specialized services of the Public Health departments.These facilities provide the organizational paradigm to which the regional realities must strive.The article reports recent experiments conducted within the regions of Piedmont and Lombardy in this sector and the ongoing research in the field of CNETO on behalf of the Lombardy Region.

  12. PIXE analysis of ancient Indian coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajivaliei, M.; Garg, M. L.; Handa, D. K.; Govil, K. L.; Kakavand, T.; Vijayan, V.; Singh, K. P.; Govil, I. M.

    1999-04-01

    A number of coins of Hindu Shahis Dynasty of Kabul (990-1015 A.D.) have been analysed using proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. The 3 MeV proton beam from the Pelletron Accelerator at the Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India was used for the production of X-rays. The X-rays were detected by Si(Li) detector ( FWHM=180 eV at 5.9 keV) placed at 90° to the beam direction. For the reliable calibration of the analytical system, thin foils of Micromatter standards of Fe, CuS, KCl, and RbNO 3 were used. The computer code GUPIX was employed to get concentration of trace elements in these coins. The elements Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, As, Sb, Pb, and Bi were detected in these coins alongwith the major component of Cu and Ag. The coins were classified in two groups, coins no. 3, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19 as copper or billon coins having major component of copper, while coins no. 6, 17, 20, 21, 22 as silver coins having the major component of silver. The first group seems to belong to lower denomination while the other group belongs to higher denomination coins. There is a strong positive correlation between lead and zinc and also a strong negative correlation between copper and silver. The weight of coins varied between 3.05 and 3.39 gram. The comparison of our results with that of the ores of various mines indicates that the source of copper in these coins is from Khetri mine in Rajasthan. Silver seems to come from Afghanistan since it is not reported to occur as a primary mineral in ancient India.

  13. Using Tools of Strategic Management in Medical Facilities of Lublin Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworzynska Magdalena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to evaluate the use of tools of strategic management in hospitals in Lublin region. The study was conducted among 14 medical entities from the area of Lublin Voivodeship. The survey was addressed to economic directors or chief accountants of health care facilities and sent by post. The questionnaire was also helpful in conducting an in-depth interview as it provided a required structure. As part of the interviews with managers of health care facilities, information beyond the questionnaire was acquired, e.g. about the mission. According to studies, most health care facilities develop strategic plans (71.4%. For 21.4% of the studied facilities, the strategic plan is known mainly to management. In contrast, 28.6% of entities do not have a strategic plan. The presented results of the research can increase the effectiveness of activities in each area of the health care facility, continuous process improvement and rapid response to changes in the environment.

  14. Development of a microbeam PIXE system for additive light elements in structural materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, A.; Sasa, K.; Ishii, S.; Kurosawa, M.; Tomita, S.; Shiina, Y.; Shiki, S.; Fujii, G.; Ukibe, M.; Ohkubo, M.; Uedono, A.; Kita, E.

    2017-08-01

    A new submicron scanning nuclear microprobe beam line was constructed in early 2016 at the accelerator facility of the University of Tsukuba, Japan. A microbeam scanning endstage (OM-2000, Oxford Microbeams, Oxford, UK) was installed at the end of this system. The distance from the object slit to the target position is 8730 mm and the working distance is 180 mm. This ion microbeam system will be used mainly for X-ray imaging of two-dimensional distributions of light elements in structural materials using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). A silicon drift detector (SDD) with a thin window of Si3N4 was installed to detect characteristic X-rays emitted from light elements such as B, C, and N, which are common additive elements in structural materials. In addition, a superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) array detector is going to be installed to perform PIXE measurements more efficiently. By combining a microbeam scanning technology with the X-ray detectors, we plan to obtain two-dimensional maps of additive light elements in structural materials. Experiments for obtaining proton microbeams are ongoing, and a 6 MeV proton beam with a diameter of between 12 and 20 μm has been obtained to date.

  15. PIXE identification of the provenance of ferruginous rocks used by Neanderthals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, François; Bodu, Pierre; Dubreuil, Olivier; Salomon, Hélène

    2014-07-01

    Les Bossats, near Ormesson, France, is a newly discovered late Mousterian open air site dated to around 47,000 years ago by thermoluminescence. The archaeological level, fossilized by loess, revealed a rich industry based on the discoid mode, associated with numerous fragments of red and yellow iron oxide-rich rocks showing clear traces of powder production (abrasion, striation, scraping), which are exceptional remains for this remote period. Archeological material and geological samples from the close environment were studied by PIXE and by petrographical observations made on thin sections. The geological sources were identified by means of PIXE analyses on two IBA facilities: AGLAE (2 MV tandem) at the C2RMF in Paris and the cyclotron of the IPNAS (University of Liège). We paid particular attention to the comparison of results obtained on both installations by using the same set of geological standards and by a fine evaluation of the limit of detection relative to each trace elements of interest for both experimental set ups. The elemental fingerprint of one geological source of iron-rich concretions corresponds clearly with the archaeological collection. At least, this investigation demonstrates that the colouring materials were minutely selected in the close neighbouring of the site by the Neanderthals.

  16. PIXE identification of the provenance of ferruginous rocks used by Neanderthals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathis, François, E-mail: francois.mathis@ulg.ac.be [Centre Européen d’Archéométrie, University of Liège (Belgium); Bodu, Pierre [ARSCAN, UMR4071 CNRS, MAE, Nanterre (France); Dubreuil, Olivier [Centre Spatial de Liège, Liège (Belgium); Salomon, Hélène [Service de Préhistoire, University of Liège, Liège (Belgium)

    2014-07-15

    Les Bossats, near Ormesson, France, is a newly discovered late Mousterian open air site dated to around 47,000 years ago by thermoluminescence. The archaeological level, fossilized by loess, revealed a rich industry based on the discoid mode, associated with numerous fragments of red and yellow iron oxide-rich rocks showing clear traces of powder production (abrasion, striation, scraping), which are exceptional remains for this remote period. Archeological material and geological samples from the close environment were studied by PIXE and by petrographical observations made on thin sections. The geological sources were identified by means of PIXE analyses on two IBA facilities: AGLAE (2 MV tandem) at the C2RMF in Paris and the cyclotron of the IPNAS (University of Liège). We paid particular attention to the comparison of results obtained on both installations by using the same set of geological standards and by a fine evaluation of the limit of detection relative to each trace elements of interest for both experimental set ups. The elemental fingerprint of one geological source of iron-rich concretions corresponds clearly with the archaeological collection. At least, this investigation demonstrates that the colouring materials were minutely selected in the close neighbouring of the site by the Neanderthals.

  17. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in long term care facilities in two regions of Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wals, Philippe; Carbonneau, Michel; Payette, Hélène; Niyonsenga, Théophile

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the use of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in long term care facilities. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey in a random sample of 30 facilities in two regions of Quebec. Information was collected from the general manager or the chief of nursing, all consultant physicians and a random sample of 20 residents in each facility. RESULTS: Twenty-nine centres agreed to participate. The mean influenza vaccination rate was 70%, and was not influenced by differences in the types of facilities or the organization of the programs for immunization. The main obstacle to influenza vaccination reported by physicians was nonacceptance by a significant proportion of residents. Of the residents who did not initially request influenza vaccine, only 64% accepted vaccination when it was offered. The vast majority of residents were satisfied with the information they had received and the respect shown for their freedom of choice. Forty per cent of residents were unfit to provide a valid consent and the vaccination rate was 76% in this group. Only one-third of the physicians regularly obtained authorization from a relative or the legal guardian before prescribing vaccination for incompetent residents. None of the facilities studied had an effective program for pneumococcal vaccination, only 43% of the physicians reported any use of pneumococcal vaccine and 98% of residents had never heard of the vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The national objective of 95% coverage with influenza vaccine will be difficult to achieve in long term care facilities, mainly because a minority of residents are not likely to be convinced of the benefit of immunization. Much remains to be done to promote and administer pneumococcal vaccine in this setting. PMID:22514453

  18. Expert Images for All Audiences: The AstroPix Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Robert; Llamas, Jacob; Wyatt, Ryan Jason; Christensen, Lars

    2018-01-01

    The AstroPix project provides one-stop-shopping for an extensive collection of the finest astronomical imagery, sourced from some of the world’s most prominent observatories. The archive is made possible by a grassroots effort to tag publicly-released imagery using the Astronomical Visualization Metadata (AVM) standard, which captures rich contextual information for each image. While the site has been in development for many years, it is now supported under NASA’s Universe of Learning collaboration, and AstroPix has been updated and deployed to cloud services. The AVM tags provide many unique features including spectral color assignments, sky context (using AAS WorldWide Telescope APIs), and direct links to the original source material on the web. The 7,000+ assets currently include imagery provided by Chandra, ESO, GALEX, Herschel, Hubble, NuSTAR, Spitzer, and WISE. The assets are also provided for use in the planetarium community by supporting the Data2Dome (D2D) initiative. AstroPix imagery is designed to be used in a variety of unique ways that benefit formal and informal education as well as astronomers and the general public. Observatories can add their own image archives to AstroPix by tagging their assets and providing a simple XML feed, increasing the value of their data to the community at large.

  19. CdTe detector based PIXE mapping of geological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, P.C., E-mail: cchaves@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Taborda, A. [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Oliveira, D.P.S. de [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia (LNEG), Apartado 7586, 2611-901 Alfragide (Portugal); Reis, M.A. [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal)

    2014-01-01

    A sample collected from a borehole drilled approximately 10 km ESE of Bragança, Trás-os-Montes, was analysed by standard and high energy PIXE at both CTN (previous ITN) PIXE setups. The sample is a fine-grained metapyroxenite grading to coarse-grained in the base with disseminated sulphides and fine veinlets of pyrrhotite and pyrite. Matrix composition was obtained at the standard PIXE setup using a 1.25 MeV H{sup +} beam at three different spots. Medium and high Z elemental concentrations were then determined using the DT2fit and DT2simul codes (Reis et al., 2008, 2013 [1,2]), on the spectra obtained in the High Resolution and High Energy (HRHE)-PIXE setup (Chaves et al., 2013 [3]) by irradiation of the sample with a 3.8 MeV proton beam provided by the CTN 3 MV Tandetron accelerator. In this paper we present results, discuss detection limits of the method and the added value of the use of the CdTe detector in this context.

  20. Regional health care planning: a methodology to cluster facilities using community utilization patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamater, Paul L; Shortridge, Ashton M; Messina, Joseph P

    2013-08-22

    Community-based health care planning and regulation necessitates grouping facilities and areal units into regions of similar health care use. Limited research has explored the methodologies used in creating these regions. We offer a new methodology that clusters facilities based on similarities in patient utilization patterns and geographic location. Our case study focused on Hospital Groups in Michigan, the allocation units used for predicting future inpatient hospital bed demand in the state's Bed Need Methodology. The scientific, practical, and political concerns that were considered throughout the formulation and development of the methodology are detailed. The clustering methodology employs a 2-step K-means + Ward's clustering algorithm to group hospitals. The final number of clusters is selected using a heuristic that integrates both a statistical-based measure of cluster fit and characteristics of the resulting Hospital Groups. Using recent hospital utilization data, the clustering methodology identified 33 Hospital Groups in Michigan. Despite being developed within the politically charged climate of Certificate of Need regulation, we have provided an objective, replicable, and sustainable methodology to create Hospital Groups. Because the methodology is built upon theoretically sound principles of clustering analysis and health care service utilization, it is highly transferable across applications and suitable for grouping facilities or areal units.

  1. Scanning-PIXE analysis of gold lace embroideries in a relic of St. Francis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliori, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy)], E-mail: migliori@fi.infn.it; Grassi, N.; Mando, P.A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    In this work, we describe the compositional analysis performed by scanning-mode PIXE on the metal threads of a XIII century embroidery. The precious work analysed is the pillow-case used to cover the pillow, on which - according to tradition - St. Francis of Assisi was resting his head when he died. Measurements were performed in order to characterise the embroideries of the two sides and the passementerie in the lateral hems. Several areas, each of the order of two square millimetres, were scanned with a 3 MeV proton external beam of 20 {mu}m size on target, using the external micro-beam facility of our laboratory, with list-mode acquisition. Analysis of elemental maps and spectra from selected homogeneous sub-areas allowed us to extract the quantitative composition of the gilded tape and estimates of its thickness.

  2. Heterogeneous intratumoral distribution of gadolinium nanoparticles within U87 human glioblastoma xenografts unveiled by micro-PIXE imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Asuncion; Roudeau, Stéphane; L'Homel, Baptiste; Pouzoulet, Frédéric; Bonnet-Boissinot, Sarah; Prezado, Yolanda; Ortega, Richard

    2017-04-15

    Metallic nanoparticles have great potential in cancer radiotherapy as theranostic drugs since, they serve simultaneously as contrast agents for medical imaging and as radio-therapy sensitizers. As with other anticancer drugs, intratumoral diffusion is one of the main limiting factors for therapeutic efficiency. To date, a few reports have investigated the intratumoral distribution of metallic nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to determine the quantitative distribution of gadolinium (Gd) nanoparticles after direct intratumoral injection within U87 human glioblastoma tumors grafted in mice, using micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) imaging. AGuIX (Activation and Guiding of Irradiation by X-ray) 3 nm particles composed of a polysiloxane network surrounded by gadolinium chelates were used. PIXE results indicate that the direct injection of Gd nanoparticles in tumors results in their heterogeneous diffusion, probably related to variations in tumor density. All tumor regions contain Gd, but with markedly different concentrations, with a more than 250-fold difference. Also Gd can diffuse to the healthy adjacent tissue. This study highlights the usefulness of mapping the distribution of metallic nanoparticles at the intratumoral level, and proposes PIXE as an imaging modality to probe the quantitative distribution of metallic nanoparticles in tumors from experimental animal models with micrometer resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Making regional facility location decisions: the example of Hospital do Oeste Norte, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Jorge; Antunes Ferreira, J; Condessa, Beatriz

    2014-11-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to the debate on the decision-making process for the location of large public facilities, responding to the growing demand for greater rationality in public investment whilst still offering services of quality and addressing the problem of spatial friction. The specific problem analysed in this paper is the need to define the best location for a public hospital in a particular region of Portugal. The singularity of the approach adopted lies above all in the segmentation into macro-location and micro-location.

  4. Making regional facility location decisions: the example of Hospital do Oeste Norte, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gonçalves

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to contribute to the debate on the decision-making process for the location of large public facilities, responding to the growing demand for greater rationality in public investment whilst still offering services of quality and addressing the problem of spatial friction. The specific problem analysed in this paper is the need to define the best location for a public hospital in a particular region of Portugal. The singularity of the approach adopted lies above all in the seg- mentation into macro-location and micro-location.

  5. Regional differences in the potential exposure of US minority populations to hazardous facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Nieves, A.L. (Wheaton Coll., Wheaton, IL (United States) Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    In the literature that examines the distribution of environmental disamenities of various types, there is considerable documentation that minority groups and lower income groups are more likely to be exposed. Such differential exposure has been attributed to environmental racism'' by some authors, but there has been no systematic investigation of the factors and dynamics underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-American, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range facility types and explores the degree to which this may be related to urban and income factors.

  6. Efficiency calibration of an HPGe X-ray detector for quantitative PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulware, Stephen J., E-mail: Stephenmulware@my.unt.edu; Baxley, Jacob D., E-mail: jacob.baxley351@topper.wku.edu; Rout, Bibhudutta, E-mail: bibhu@unt.edu; Reinert, Tilo, E-mail: tilo@unt.edu

    2014-08-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) is an analytical technique, which provides reliably and accurately quantitative results without the need of standards when the efficiency of the X-ray detection system is calibrated. The ion beam microprobe of the Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory at the University of North Texas is equipped with a 100 mm{sup 2} high purity germanium X-ray detector (Canberra GUL0110 Ultra-LEGe). In order to calibrate the efficiency of the detector for standard less PIXE analysis we have measured the X-ray yield of a set of commercially available X-ray fluorescence standards. The set contained elements from low atomic number Z = 11 (sodium) to higher atomic numbers to cover the X-ray energy region from 1.25 keV to about 20 keV where the detector is most efficient. The effective charge was obtained from the proton backscattering yield of a calibrated particle detector.

  7. Application of PIXE analysis to investigation of plants cultivated with contaminated soil of Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, K.; Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Ishizaki, A.; Arai, H.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Takahashi, H.; Sera, K.; Sasaki, H.; Sasaki, K.; Sawamura, T.

    2014-08-01

    We present a method to research low radioactive cesium contaminated plants by the use of PIXE analysis. Highly contaminated regions still remain in the Fukushima prefecture. We collected wild plants growing in this area, that is, Butterbur, Welsh onion, Alpine leek and White clover and measured their specific activities of 137Cs and 40K. We also measured 137Cs and 40K specific activities of soil under these plants. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of 137Cs were ∼0.02 for 4 wild plants and those of 40K were ∼0.5 except for White clover. Using PIXE analysis, we measured the concentration of mineral elements in these plants. Among mineral elements, we noted the concentrations of additional alkali metal elements such as Na, K and Rb. The experimental results showed that the concentration of Rb was proportional to the specific activities of 137Cs except for Welsh onion and other elements had no strong correlation with 137Cs. These results indicate that there may be correlations between the adsorption of Cs and Rb.

  8. Application of PIXE analysis to investigation of plants cultivated with contaminated soil of Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, K., E-mail: keizo.ishii@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Research Center for Remediation Engineering of Living Environments Contaminated with Radioisotopes, Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Ishizaki, A.; Arai, H.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Takahashi, H. [Research Center for Remediation Engineering of Living Environments Contaminated with Radioisotopes, Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Sera, K. [Cyclotron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, 348-58 Tomegamori, Takizawa, Iwate 020-0173 (Japan); Sasaki, H.; Sasaki, K.; Sawamura, T. [Sasaki Taro memorial PIXE Center, Asano-cho 5, Hakodate 040-0076 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We present a method to research low radioactive cesium contaminated plants by the use of PIXE analysis. Highly contaminated regions still remain in the Fukushima prefecture. We collected wild plants growing in this area, that is, Butterbur, Welsh onion, Alpine leek and White clover and measured their specific activities of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K. We also measured {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K specific activities of soil under these plants. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs were ∼0.02 for 4 wild plants and those of {sup 40}K were ∼0.5 except for White clover. Using PIXE analysis, we measured the concentration of mineral elements in these plants. Among mineral elements, we noted the concentrations of additional alkali metal elements such as Na, K and Rb. The experimental results showed that the concentration of Rb was proportional to the specific activities of {sup 137}Cs except for Welsh onion and other elements had no strong correlation with {sup 137}Cs. These results indicate that there may be correlations between the adsorption of Cs and Rb.

  9. Micro-PIXE mapping of mineral distribution in mature grain of two pearl millet cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnis-Ndimba, R., E-mail: rminnis@tlabs.ac.za [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Kruger, J.; Taylor, J.R.N. [Department of Food Science and Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being, University of Pretoria (South Africa); Mtshali, C. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Bellville (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) was used to map the distribution of several nutritionally important minerals found in the grain tissue of two cultivars of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.). The distribution maps revealed that the predominant localisation of minerals was within the germ (consisting of the scutellum and embryo) and the outer grain layers (specifically the pericarp and aleurone); whilst the bulk of the endosperm tissue featured relatively low concentrations of the surveyed minerals. Within the germ, the scutellum was revealed as a major storage tissue for P and K, whilst Ca, Mn and Zn were more prominent within the embryo. Fe was revealed to have a distinctive distribution pattern, confined to the dorsal end of the scutellum; but was also highly concentrated in the outer grain layers. Interestingly, the hilar region was also revealed as a site of high accumulation of minerals, particularly for S, Ca, Mn, Fe and Zn, which may be part of a defensive strategy against infection or damage. Differences between the two cultivars, in terms of the bulk Fe and P content obtained via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), concurred with the average concentration data determined from the analysis of micro-PIXE spectra specifically extracted from the endosperm tissue.

  10. PIXE analysis of low concentration aluminum in brain tissues of an Alzheimer's disease patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, R.; Hanaichi, T.; Takeuchi, T.; Ektessabi, A. M.

    1999-06-01

    An excess accumulation and presence of metal ions may significantly alter a brain cell's normal functions. There have been increasing efforts in recent years to measure and quantify the density and distribution of excessive accumulations of constituent elements (such as Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ca) in the brain, as well as the presence and distribution of contaminating elements (such as Al). This is particularly important in cases of neuropathological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and ALS. The aim of this paper was to measure the Al present in the temporal cortex of the brain of an Alzheimer's disease patient. The specimens were taken from an unfixed autopsy brain which has been preserved for a period of 4 years in the deep freezer at -80 °C. Proton Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy was used for the measurement of Al concentration in this brain tissue. A tandem accelerator with 2 MeV of energy was also used. In order to increase the sensitivity of the signals in the low energy region of the spectra, the absorbers were removed. The results show that the peak height depends on the measurement site. However, in certain cases an extremely high concentration of Al was observed in the PIXE spectra, with an intensity higher than those in the other major elements of the brain's matrix element. Samples from tissues affected by the same disease were analyzed using the EDX analyzer. The results are quantitatively in very good agreement with those of the PIXE analysis.

  11. PIXE characterization of by-products resulting from the zinc recycling of industrial cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freemantle, C.S. [School of Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering and DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Pilot Tools (Pty) (Ltd), P.O. Box 27420, Benrose 2011 (South Africa); Sacks, N. [School of Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering and DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Topic, M. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health & Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Bellville (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    By-product materials of the widely used zinc recycling process of cemented carbides have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy and micro-PIXE techniques have identified elemental concentrations, distributions and purity of by-product materials from an industrial zinc recycling plant. Cobalt surface enrichment, lamellar microstructures of varying composition, including alternating tungsten carbide (WC) grains and globular cobalt, and regions of excess zinc contamination were found in materials with incomplete zinc penetration. Liquid Co–Zn formation occurred above 72 wt.% Zn at the furnace temperature of 930 °C, and was extracted towards the surface of poorly zinc infiltrated material, primarily by the vacuum used for zinc distillation. Surface enrichment was not observed in material that was zinc infiltrated to the sample center, which was more friable and exhibited more homogeneous porosity and elemental concentrations. The result of incomplete zinc infiltration was an enriched surface zone of up to 60 wt.% Co, compared to an original sample composition of ∼10–15 wt.% Co. The impact on resulting powders could be higher or inhomogeneous cobalt content, as well as unacceptably high zinc concentrations. PIXE has proven it can be a powerful technique for solving industrial problems in the cemented carbide cutting tool industry, by identifying trace elements and their locations (such as Zn to 0.1 wt.% accuracy), as well as the distribution of major elements within WC–Co materials.

  12. Paintings on copper by the Flemish artist Frans Francken II: PIXE characterization by external microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corregidor, V., E-mail: vicky.corregidor@ctn.ist.utl.pt [IPFN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2695-066 Sacavém (Portugal); Oliveira, A.R. [CCR-Centro de Conservação e Restauro, R. do Ginjal, 11, 2950-685 Palmela (Portugal); Rodrigues, P.A. [LATR, Instituto Superior Técnico, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2695-066 Sacavém (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [C2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2695-066 Sacavém (Portugal)

    2015-04-01

    Resorting to an external proton microbeam, PIXE analyses of three oil paintings on copper support dated from the XVII century and attributed to the Flemish artist Frans Francken II, were undertaken. The present work aims to contribute to the compositional study of the painting materials employed by XVII century artists that exploited copper as a support for oil painting, and specifically the materials used by Francken’s workshop, particularly copper plates. Because of the low thickness of the pictorial layers of this type of paintings and its non-destructive character, PIXE is the ideal technique to study the elemental composition of the paintings. Several spots in each painting were chosen for analysis in order to cover almost all the pigments used in the colour palette. Lead and calcium were detected in practically every analysed regions, probably related to the presence of lead white and chalk, usually used as ground layer on copper paintings. Small quantities of gold were also detected, which is present in many of this artist’s works to embellish some details of the representations. Also this work reports the first application of the external proton microbeam set-up available at CTN/IST in Portugal for the characterization of oil paintings.

  13. Drug utilization in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mengistu Kebede, Dereje Kebebe Borga, Eshetu Mulisa Bobasa Department of Pharmacy, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: Sustaining the availability and rational use of safe and effective drugs is a major problem in developing countries. Irrational drug use affects quality of health care more than accessibility of drugs. Objective: To assess drug utilization in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone from January 21–28, 2012 by using structured questionnaires. Results: Of 50 prescribers and 30 dispensers, 58% and 83.3% were males, respectively. The result showed that majority of prescribers agreed on availability of essential drugs (72% and had access to up-to-date drug information (76%. However, 43.3% of dispensers didn't get access to up-to-date drug information. 86% and 88% of prescribers note cost of drugs and stick to standard treatment guidelines of Ethiopia during prescription, respectively. All drug dispensers check the name of the drug (100%, age of the patient (90%, the dosage form of drug (96.7%, the route of administration (90%, the duration of therapy (86.7%, and frequency of administration (86.7% for prescription papers. Conclusion: In general, drug utilization at the study sites was found to be good, although there are major deviations from the concept of rational drug use. Keywords: drug utilizations, rational drug use, health facilities

  14. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olise, Felix S.; Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P.; Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO3) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO3 levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about -16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples.

  15. Elemental Levels Analyzed by PIXE in Florida Alligators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuharik, J. C.; Kravchenko, I. I.; Dunnam, F. E.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Ross, J. P.

    2003-08-01

    Unusual and alarming mortality of alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) has been reported from Lake Griffin, Florida, where almost 400 dead alligators have been observed since 1997. In addition, the hatch rate for alligator eggs around Lake Griffin fell below 10% and remains low (30-45%) while the normal hatch rate is typically 80%. Standard diagnostic methods have been ineffective in determining the cause of the phenomenon. Many possibilities have been considered including pollutants, nutrition, and toxic algae. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis is highly suitable for investigating concentrations of a wide range of elements in animal tissue. Liver, kidney and spinal cord tissues from healthy and sick alligators have been analyzed by PIXE for elemental content. Initial results showed positive correlation between certain elements and neural impairment and morbidity of alligators in Lake Griffin, but have failed to prove significant.

  16. PIXE analysis of Thaumatococcus danielli in Osun State of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O., E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk [Centre for Energy Research and Development (CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Osinkolu, G.A.; Pelemo, D.A.; Obiajunwa, E.I. [Centre for Energy Research and Development (CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Oladele, A.T. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife (Nigeria)

    2014-01-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was employed for the determination of elemental compositions of Thaumatococcus danielli (T. danielli) {Marantaceae} (Benn.) Benth [miraculous berry] in Osun State of Nigeria. The objective is to show the usefulness of T. danielli and especially the beneficial effects of the mineral concentrations from the leaves and fruits of T. danielli. The results show the detection of seventeen elements at different concentrations, and their beneficial effects to humans were discussed.

  17. PIXE and NRA environmental studies by means of lichen indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynkiewicz, A. Z.; Szymczyk, S.; Kajfosz, J.; Olech, M.

    1980-01-01

    The trace element accumulating and integrating properties of epiphytic lichens were used for the study of air pollutions in Southern Poland. For the investigation of fluorine pollution by an aluminium plant the 19F(p, p'γ) 19F nuclear reaction, whereas for Pb and Br traffic pollution and heavy elements industrial pollution the PIXE method was used. The applicability of the lichen indicator method in environmental studies is discussed.

  18. Metal trace analysis by PIXE and PDMS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias da Cunha, K. E-mail: kenya@ird.gov.br; Barros Leite, C.V. E-mail: cvbl@fis.puc-rio.br

    2002-03-01

    The risk for the human health due to exposure to aerosols depends on the intake pattern, the mass concentration and the speciation of the elements present in airborne particles. In this work plasma desorption mass spectrometry (PDMS) was used as complementary technique to the particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique to characterize aerosol samples collected in the environment. The PIXE technique allows the identification of the elements present in the sample and to determine their mass concentrations. The mass spectrometry (PDMS) was used to identify the speciation of these elements present in the samples. The aerosol samples were collected using a 6-stage cascade impactor (CI) in two sites of Rio de Janeiro City. One is an island (Fundao Island) in the Guanabara Bay close to an industrial zone and the other, in Gavea, is a residential zone close to a lagoon and to the seashore. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) measured indicated that the airborne particulates were in the fine fraction of the aerosols collected in both locations. In order to identify the contribution of the seawater particles from the Guanabara Bay in the aerosols, seawater samples were also collected at Fundao Island. The samples were analyzed by PIXE and PDMS techniques. The analysis of the results suggests that the aerosols are different in both sampling sites and also exist a contribution from the Guanabara Bay seawater particles to the aerosols collected in the Fundao Island. PIXE allows identification and quantification of the elements heavier than Na (Z=11) while PDMS allows identification of organic and inorganic compounds present in the samples, as these techniques are used as complementary techniques they provide important information about the aerosols characterization.

  19. DeltaPhage—a novel helper phage for high-valence pIX phagemid display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilssen, Nicolay R.; Frigstad, Terje; Pollmann, Sylvie; Roos, Norbert; Bogen, Bjarne; Sandlie, Inger; Løset, Geir Å.

    2012-01-01

    Phage display has been instrumental in discovery of novel binding peptides and folded domains for the past two decades. We recently reported a novel pIX phagemid display system that is characterized by a strong preference for phagemid packaging combined with low display levels, two key features that support highly efficient affinity selection. However, high diversity in selected repertoires are intimately coupled to high display levels during initial selection rounds. To incorporate this additional feature into the pIX display system, we have developed a novel helper phage termed DeltaPhage that allows for high-valence display on pIX. This was obtained by inserting two amber mutations close to the pIX start codon, but after the pVII translational stop, conditionally inactivating the helper phage encoded pIX. Until now, the general notion has been that display on pIX is dependent on wild-type complementation, making high-valence display unachievable. However, we found that DeltaPhage does facilitate high-valence pIX display when used with a non-suppressor host. Here, we report a side-by-side comparison with pIII display, and we find that this novel helper phage complements existing pIX phagemid display systems to allow both low and high-valence display, making pIX display a complete and efficient alternative to existing pIII phagemid display systems. PMID:22539265

  20. PIXE analysis of caries related trace elements in tooth enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annegarn, H. J.; Jodaikin, A.; Cleaton-Jones, P. E.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Madiba, C. C. P.; Bibby, D.

    1981-03-01

    PIXE analysis has been applied to a set of twenty human teeth to determine trace element concentration in enamel from areas susceptible to dental caries (mesial and distal contact points) and in areas less susceptible to the disease (buccal surfaces), with the aim of determining the possible roles of trace elements in the curious process. The samples were caries-free anterior incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from subjects 10-30 years of age. Prior to extraction of the sample teeth, a detailed dental history and examination was carried out in each individual. PIXE analysis, using a 3 MeV proton beam of 1 mm diameter, allowed the determination of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb above detection limits. As demonstrated in this work, the enhanced sensitivity of PIXE analysis over electron microprobe analysis, and the capability of localised surface analysis compared with the pooled samples required for neutron activation analysis, makes it a powerful and useful technique in dental analysis.

  1. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olise, Felix S., E-mail: felix_olise@rushpost.com [Department of Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 220005 (Nigeria); Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P. [CFA: Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A. [IST/CTN: Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear (CTN), EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); CFA: Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The PIXE technique has been used to determine K and Br in a major Nigerian food item. • Samples were analysed using two proton beam energies, namely 1.25 MeV and 2.15 MeV. • Mismatched Ca results reflect its nature and accuracy/precision of the procedure. • Explanations for the presence of the contaminant in the samples are presented. • Other sources originating from erroneous burning of dangerous products suspected. -- Abstract: The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO{sub 3}) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO{sub 3} levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about −16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples.

  2. Environmental applications of PIXE at the Institute of Physics, UNAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis, C.; Mireles, A.; Andrade, E. [IFUNAM, AP 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Zolezzi R, H. [Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, UNAM, CU, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: corina@fisica.unam.mx

    2007-07-01

    The particle induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE), developed by Johansson and colleagues in Lund, Sweden, in the 70's has been used since then in a high number of studies requiring detection and quantification of trace elements at high sensitivity (better than I mg/kg). PIXE is grouped among the nuclear analytical techniques because the samples are bombarded with particles (protons generally) accelerated in an accelerator. When protons interact with matter an X-Ray spectrum is produced by the deexcitation of atoms in the sample. From this spectrum the elements contained in the sample as well as their concentrations can be determined. In this work we describe the PIXE technique and several applications in the environmental field developed at the Institute of Physics of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (IFUNAM). These practical applications include field studies for analyses of suspended particles in air using tree leaves, irrigation water quality based on heavy metal analyses, and analyses of trace elements in plants cultivated in waste water irrigated soil. (Author)

  3. Calibration of a PIXE system for analysis of environmental aerosols; Calibracion de un sistema PIXE para analisis de aerosoles ambientales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldape, F.; Diaz, R.V.; Anguiano, G.; Flores M, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1991-04-15

    The results of the calibration of the PIXE system for analysis of environmental aerosols in the CNM is presented. The system was calibrated in order to lead to the project study of environmental aerosols using PIXE from the qualitative dimension to the quantitative one. Part of this work it was carried out in collaboration with the expert of the IAEA Dr. D. Crumpton. The calibration of the system it was achieved bombarding thin targets of well-known composition with protons of 2.5 MeV. Using this technique it was determined the absolute elementary concentration in samples of atmospheric aerosols. As an example the calculation of the lead concentration in one of them whose result was of 662 {+-} 49 ng m{sup -3} is presented. This value agrees with the measurements made in the Crocker Nuclear Lab of the UCD. Its are also discussed the reproducibility and precision of the used technique. (Author)

  4. PIXE analysis of the obsidian support of two paintings from the Louvre by Murillo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calligaro, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, CNRS UMR 171, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Chiappero, P.J. [Dep. Histoire de la Terre, Museum National d ' Histoire Naturelle, USM201, 6I rue Bufon, 75005 Paris (France); Gendron, F.; Gonthier, E. [Dep. de Prehistoire, Institut de Paleontologie Humaine, Museum National d ' Histoire Naturelle, 1 rue Panhard, 75013 Paris (France); Meslay, O. [Departement des peintures, Musee du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France); Poupeau, G. [lnstiut de Recherche sur les Archeomateriaux, UMR 5060 CNRS-Universite Bordeaux 3, Maison de l ' Archeologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607, Pessac (France); Tenorio, D. [ININ, km 36 carretera Mexico-Toluca, CP 52045, Edo. Mex. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The very unusual black backings of two paintings by the Spanish master Murillo (1617-1682) representing Passion Scenes, on display at the Louvre museum, have been analyzed by PIXE with the AGLAE facility of the C2RMF. The support proved to be obsidian, a natural volcanic glass widely employed to produce archaeological artefacts, in particular in South and Meso-America. Five archaeological artifacts with similar shape to the paintings called 'obsidian mirrors', originating from Mexico and belonging to the collections of the Musee de l'Homme in Paris, have been analyzed and the composition of four of them showed to be very similar to Murillo obsidians. The comparison with the results obtained on reference obsidian samples from Mexican sources and with data from the literature by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) suggested that the Ucareo/Zinapecuaro, Michoacan, Mexico is the source of the obsidian employed for the paintings. A field trip to this area was therefore organized to collect samples whose natural slab shape and chemical composition confirmed the Ucareo provenance hypothesis. The rectangular backing of Murillo paintings are unlikely archaeological artefacts but rather objects specially made after the Spanish conquest by Meso american craftsmen, among which some were exported to Europe where Murillo spent all his life. The observation, in the walls of the church and other Christian monuments in Ucareo, of obsidian inlays, a material of particular significance in the pre-Hispanic culture, underlines the complex intrication of native culture and European influences which are also carried by Murillo paintings. Meanwhile, a third painting on obsidian by Murillo as been identified in the Museum of Fine Arts of Houston, Texas, U.S.A. This study also points out that even if the ranges of elements dosed by PIXE and INAA do not fully overlap, the measurements obtained by both techniques can be efficiently used for provenancing obsidians

  5. Microvax-based data management and reduction system for the regional planetary image facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R.; Guinness, E.; Slavney, S.; Weiss, B.

    1987-01-01

    Presented is a progress report for the Regional Planetary Image Facilities (RPIF) prototype image data management and reduction system being jointly implemented by Washington University and the USGS, Flagstaff. The system will consist of a MicroVAX with a high capacity (approx 300 megabyte) disk drive, a compact disk player, an image display buffer, a videodisk player, USGS image processing software, and SYSTEM 1032 - a commercial relational database management package. The USGS, Flagstaff, will transfer their image processing software including radiometric and geometric calibration routines, to the MicroVAX environment. Washington University will have primary responsibility for developing the database management aspects of the system and for integrating the various aspects into a working system.

  6. Locational response to regulatory policy: a regional analysis of energy facility location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1978-01-01

    The Brookhaven Regional Energy Facility Siting Model has been applied to a simulation of a number of alternative regulatory strategies that affect the location of power plants. An analysis of alternative definitions of Best Available Control Technology, as called for by the 1977 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, and associated revisions of New Source Performance Standards, are shown to have significant influence over least-cost locations of coal-burning power plants, with the result that despite large reductions of SO/sub 2/ emissions under the more-stringent emissions limitations, the locational shifts under cost-minimizing behavior results in higher population exposure to SO/sub 2/. The impacts of River Basin Commission policy on low-flow objectives and on state regulatory policy in limiting interstate power transfers are also examined.

  7. Western Regional Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement: Rulemaking for Small Power Production and Cogeneration Facilities - Exemptions for Geothermal Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, Jack M.; Nalder, Nan; Berger, Glen

    1981-02-01

    Section 643 of the Energy Security Act of 1980 directed the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to develop rules to further encourage geothermal development by Small Power Production Facilities. This rule amends rules previously established in Dockets No. RM79-54 and 55 under Section 201 and 210 of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). The analysis shows that the rules are expected to stimulate the development of up to 1,200 MW of capacity for electrical generation from geothermal facilities by 1995--1,110 MW more than predicted in the original PURPA EIS. This Final Supplemental EIS to the DEIS, issued by FERC in June 1980, forecasts likely near term development and analyzes environmental effects anticipated to occur due to development of geothermal resources in the Western United States as a result of this additional rulemaking.

  8. A retrospective audit of antibiotic prescriptions in primary health-care facilities in Eastern Region, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahiabu, Mary-Anne; Tersbøl, Britt P; Biritwum, Richard; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Magnussen, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to antibiotics is increasing globally and is a threat to public health. Research has demonstrated a correlation between antibiotic use and resistance development. Developing countries are the most affected by resistance because of high infectious disease burden, limited access to quality assured antibiotics and more optimal drugs and poor antibiotic use practices. The appropriate use of antibiotics to slow the pace of resistance development is crucial. The study retrospectively assessed antibiotic prescription practices in four public and private primary health-care facilities in Eastern Region, Ghana using the WHO/International Network for the Rational Use of Drugs rational drug use indicators. Using a systematic sampling procedure, 400 prescriptions were selected per facility for the period April 2010 to March 2011. Rational drug use indicators were assessed in the descriptive analysis and logistic regression was used to explore for predictors of antibiotic prescription. Average number of medicines prescribed per encounter was 4.01, and 59.9% of prescriptions had antibiotics whilst 24.2% had injections. In total, 79.2% and 88.1% of prescribed medicines were generics and from the national essential medicine list, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, health facility type (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42, 2.95), patient age (OR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.97, 0.98), number of medicines on a prescription (OR = 1.85; 95% CI: 1.63, 2.10) and ‘no malaria drug’ on prescription (OR = 5.05; 95% CI: 2.08, 12.25) were associated with an antibiotic prescription. A diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infection was positively associated with antibiotic use. The level of antibiotic use varied depending on the health facility type and was generally high compared with the national average estimated in 2008. Interventions that reduce diagnostic uncertainty in illness management should be considered. The National Health

  9. Newborn care practices at home and in health facilities in 4 regions of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is one of the ten countries with the highest number of neonatal deaths globally, and only 1 in 10 women deliver with a skilled attendant. Promotion of essential newborn care practices is one strategy for improving newborn health outcomes that can be delivered in communities as well as facilities. This article describes newborn care practices reported by recently-delivered women (RDWs) in four regions of Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a household survey with two-stage cluster sampling to assess newborn care practices among women who delivered a live baby in the period 1 to 7 months prior to data collection. Results The majority of women made one antenatal care (ANC) visit to a health facility, although less than half made four or more visits and women were most likely to deliver their babies at home. About one-fifth of RDWs in this survey had contact with Health Extension Workers (HEWS) during ANC, but nurse/midwives were the most common providers, and few women had postnatal contact with any health provider. Common beneficial newborn care practices included exclusive breastfeeding (87.6%), wrapping the baby before delivery of the placenta (82.3%), and dry cord care (65.2%). Practices contrary to WHO recommendations that were reported in this population of recent mothers include bathing during the first 24 hours of life (74.7%), application of butter and other substances to the cord (19.9%), and discarding of colostrum milk (44.5%). The results suggest that there are not large differences for most essential newborn care indicators between facility and home deliveries, with the exception of delayed bathing and skin-to-skin care. Conclusions Improving newborn care and newborn health outcomes in Ethiopia will likely require a multifaceted approach. Given low facility delivery rates, community-based promotion of preventive newborn care practices, which has been effective in other settings, is an important strategy. For this strategy to be

  10. Heavy metal distribution in Suillus luteus mycorrhizas - as revealed by micro-PIXE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnau, K.; Przybyłowicz, W. J.; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, J.

    2001-07-01

    Suillus luteus/Pinus sylvestris mycorrhizas, collected from zinc wastes in Southern Poland, were selected as potential biofilters on the basis of earlier studies carried out with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) microanalytical system coupled to scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Using the National Accelerator Centre (NAC) nuclear microprobe, elemental concentrations in the ectomycorrhiza parts were for the first time estimated quantitatively. Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) true elemental maps from freeze-dried and chemically fixed mycorrhizas revealed strong accumulation of Ca, Fe, Zn and Pb within the fungal mantle and in the rhizomorph. Vascular tissue was enriched with P, S and K, while high concentrations of Si and Cl were present in the endodermis. Cu was the only element showing elevated concentrations in the cortex region. Elemental losses and redistributions were found in mycorrhizas prepared by chemical fixation. Some problems related to elemental imaging are discussed.

  11. PIXE and ICP-MS Analysis of Andrographis Paniculata Medicinal Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar Rao, J.; Naidu, B. G.; Sarita, P.; Srikanth, S.; Naga Raju, G. J.

    2017-08-01

    The concentrations of elements Li, Be, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Ba, Pb and U in Andrographis Paniculata medicinal plant used in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus were determined by using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) techniques. This plant was collected from four different geographical locations in Andhra Pradesh, India in order to assess the regional variation of elemental concentrations. Appreciable levels of K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu and Zn determined in this plant can be correlated to the antidiabetic property of Andrographis Paniculata since these elements are known to regulate and potentiate insulin action. Presence of toxic elements As, Cd and Pb necessitates the adoption of precautionary measures while prescribing dosage of the herbal medicine prepared from this plant for the treatment diabetes mellitus.

  12. The Australian millipede Dicranogonus pix Jeekel, 1982 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae: a species with and without paranota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mesibov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dicranogonus pix Jeekel, 1982 occurs in Victoria and Tasmania, Australia, including the islands in eastern Bass Strait between the two States. There is only slight gonopod variation across this range, but D. pix populations with and without paranota are separated in Bass Strait by the ca 50 km-wide gap between the Kent and Furneaux Groups of islands.

  13. Study of pollution in the El Jadida-Safi Atlantic coastal zone (Morocco) by using PIXE and SSNTD methods

    CERN Document Server

    Erramli, H; Misdaq, M A; Sauvage, T; Ramboz, Claire

    2008-01-01

    In this work PIXE experiments were performed for measuring heavy and light elements (ranging from aluminium to lead) concentrations inside various polluted and unpolluted soils as well as liquid samples collected from different phosphate factory sewers in the El Jadida-Safi Atlantic coastal region (Morocco). In addition, uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th) contents were evaluated in the same samples studied by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The influence of the phosphate industry wastes on the concentrations of both radioactive and non-radioactive elements of the samples studied was investigated.

  14. Tuberculosis Laboratory Diagnosis Quality Assurance among Public Health Facilities in West Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Hailu, Hiwot Amare; Fola, Abebe Alemu; Derebe, Mulatu Melese; Kebede, Aimro Tadese; Kebede, Abayneh Admas; Emiru, Manamnot Agegne; Gelaw, Zelalem Dessie

    2015-01-01

    Reliable smear microscopy is an important component of Directly Observed Treatment Scheme (DOTS) strategy for TB control program in countries with limited resources. Despite external quality assessment is established in Ethiopia, there is lower TB detection rate (48%) in Amhara region compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate (70%). This highlights the quality of smear microscopy needs to be evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the quality of sputum smear microscopy performance among health center laboratories in West Amhara region, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from July 08, 2013 to July 07, 2014. Data were collected from 201 public health center laboratories using a structured questionnaire. Slides were collected based on Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) method and rechecked blindly by trained laboratory technologists. The data were entered into EPI info V.7 and smear quality indicators and AFB results were analyzed by SPSS version 20. Among 201 laboratories enrolled in this study, 47 (23.4%) laboratories had major errors. Forty one (20.4%) laboratories had a total of 67 false negative and 29 (14.4%) laboratories had a total of 68 false positive results. Specimen quality, smear thickness and evenness were found poor in 134 (66.7%), 133 (66.2%) and 126 (62.7%) laboratories, respectively. Unavailability of microscope lens cleaning solution (AOR: 2.90; 95% CI: 1.25-6.75; P: 0.013) and dirty smears (AOR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.14-6.18; P: 0.024) were correlated with false negative results whereas no previous EQA participation (AOR: 3.43; 95% CI: 1. 39-8.45; P: 0.007) was associated with false positive results. The performance of health facilities for sputum smear microscopy was relatively poor in West Amhara region. Hence, strengthening the EQA program and technical support on sputum smear microscopy are recommended to ensure quality tuberculosis diagnostic service.

  15. Tuberculosis Laboratory Diagnosis Quality Assurance among Public Health Facilities in West Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melashu Balew Shiferaw

    Full Text Available Reliable smear microscopy is an important component of Directly Observed Treatment Scheme (DOTS strategy for TB control program in countries with limited resources. Despite external quality assessment is established in Ethiopia, there is lower TB detection rate (48% in Amhara region compared to the World Health Organization (WHO estimate (70%. This highlights the quality of smear microscopy needs to be evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the quality of sputum smear microscopy performance among health center laboratories in West Amhara region, Ethiopia.A cross sectional study was conducted from July 08, 2013 to July 07, 2014. Data were collected from 201 public health center laboratories using a structured questionnaire. Slides were collected based on Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS method and rechecked blindly by trained laboratory technologists. The data were entered into EPI info V.7 and smear quality indicators and AFB results were analyzed by SPSS version 20.Among 201 laboratories enrolled in this study, 47 (23.4% laboratories had major errors. Forty one (20.4% laboratories had a total of 67 false negative and 29 (14.4% laboratories had a total of 68 false positive results. Specimen quality, smear thickness and evenness were found poor in 134 (66.7%, 133 (66.2% and 126 (62.7% laboratories, respectively. Unavailability of microscope lens cleaning solution (AOR: 2.90; 95% CI: 1.25-6.75; P: 0.013 and dirty smears (AOR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.14-6.18; P: 0.024 were correlated with false negative results whereas no previous EQA participation (AOR: 3.43; 95% CI: 1. 39-8.45; P: 0.007 was associated with false positive results.The performance of health facilities for sputum smear microscopy was relatively poor in West Amhara region. Hence, strengthening the EQA program and technical support on sputum smear microscopy are recommended to ensure quality tuberculosis diagnostic service.

  16. An Examination of the Determinants of The Mode of Transport to Primary Health Facilities in A Developing Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka Otun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to primary health facilities is a key determinant of the overall well being of the population in an area.   In rural regions were distances to public facilities are usually longer compared to urban areas, it is not clear if people are still willing to walk to use these facilities. It is pertinent therefore to clarify such uncertainty since walking distance is a standard measure used to plan such public facilities particularly in rural regions. The objective  of this study therefore is to provide a framework to determine the factors that will influence a health care service seeker in a developing region to walk or use other means of transport to a primary health facility.  The case study for this research is Ijebu North Local Government Area of Ogun state made up of eleven urban and rural wards. One hundred and fifty households were selected at random for interview. Logit regression was used to describe how some predictor variables were used to explain the likelihood of a particular household walking to a primary health facility. The predicting model  in this study was able to classify 80.0% of the cases correctly.   This simply shows that the predictors (independent variables contribute to the predicting power of the logistic regression model.   The  pseudo R-squares of Cox and Snell’s R-square and Nagelkerke’s R also show that our logistic model is relevant to predicting whether a household will walk or use a vehicle while attending a health facility.   In our study, we noted that settlement status (p=0.00  and transport cost to health facility (p=0.00 contributed significantly to the prediction.  This study also reveals that the odds for household members in an urban area to walk to the health facility often used  is 88.1%  lower than the odds for a household in a rural area.   It was revealed that households that are poor are 49% times more likely to walk to the health facility they frequently used. The knowledge

  17. c-Cbl regulates αPix-mediated cell migration and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Min Woo; Park, Ji Ho; Yoo, Hee Min; Yang, Seung Wook; Oh, Kyu Hee; Ka, Seung Hyeun; Park, Dong Eun [School of Biological Sciences and Institute for Protein Metabolism, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soon-Tae [Department of Neurology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Chin Ha, E-mail: chchung@snu.ac.kr [School of Biological Sciences and Institute for Protein Metabolism, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • c-Cbl ubiquitinates αPix for proteasome-mediated degradation. • C6 and A172 glioma cells lack c-Cbl, which leads to stabilization of αPix. • The accumulated αPix promotes migration and invasion of the cancer cells. • The lack of c-Cbl in the cells appears responsible for their malignant behavior. - Abstract: c-Cbl, a RING-type ubiquitin E3 ligase, down-regulates receptor tyrosine kinases, including EGF receptor, and inhibits cell proliferation. Moreover, c-Cbl mutations are frequently found in patients with myeloid neoplasm. Therefore, c-Cbl is known as a tumor suppressor. αPix is expressed only in highly proliferative and mobile cells, including immune cells, and up-regulated in certain invasive tumors, such as glioblastoma multiforme. Here, we showed that c-Cbl serves as an ubiquitin E3 ligase for proteasome-mediated degradation of αPix, but not βPix. Remarkably, the rat C6 and human A172 glioma cells were unable to express c-Cbl, which leads to a dramatic accumulation of αPix. Depletion of αPix by shRNA markedly reduced the ability of the glioma cells to migrate and invade, whereas complementation of shRNA-insensitive αPix promoted it. These results indicate that c-Cbl negatively regulates αPix-mediated cell migration and invasion and the lack of c-Cbl in the C6 and A172 glioma cells is responsible for their malignant behavior.

  18. PIXE-PIGE analysis of late roman glass fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Tubio, B. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Escuela de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)]. E-mail: tubio@us.es; Ontalba Salamanca, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain); Ortega-Feliu, I. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Thomas A. Edison s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Respaldiza, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Thomas A. Edison s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Amores Carredano, F. [Departamento de Prehistoria y Arqueologia, Universidad de Sevilla, C/Dona Maria de Padilla s/n, 41010 Sevilla (Spain); Gonzalez-Acuna, D. [Departamento de Geografia, Historia y Filosofia, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. de Utrera Km 1, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    A set of Roman glass fragments, excavated at Sevilla and dated in the 5th century A.D., has been analysed by PIXE and PIGE techniques using the external beam set-up of the 3 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator of the CNA at the University of Sevilla. Using a simple quantification method, based on the indirect charge calculation on the sample by monitoring the X-ray induced by the proton beam on the exit window, the composition of the glasses has been determined. From the obtained results, the use of soda as flux has been inferred and colouring manufacture procedures have been identified.

  19. Quality of tuberculosis care in six health facilities of Afar Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girma, Anteneh; H/Mariam, Damen; Deribe, Kebede

    2010-07-01

    Quality tuberculosis care plays an important role in the status of tuberculosis (TB) control, treatment completion and adherence. Nonetheless, very little is known about the quality of TB care in public health facilities in Ethiopia. In this study we assessed the quality of TB care delivery in Afar Region of Ethiopia. A descriptive cross sectional health institution based survey with both semi-structured and structured questionnaires was employed. A mix of complementary techniques was administered Data were collected between 5th February and 10th March 2007 from six health institutions. Records were reviewed for 270 patients, exit interviews were made for 209 patients, six providers were interviewed & 49 patients were observed Data was collected by trained nurses and analyzed using SPSS 11.0 statistical software. The study had showed that delivery of materials, drugs and supplies for tuberculosis control activities were fairly good. Staffing qualities were poor and patterns of supervision were weak. A relatively higher proportion of patients were dissatisfied with the appropriateness and adequacy of working hours (63.6%) and waiting time (70.3%). Statistically significant correlation was observed between process quality and output quality (clients' satisfaction) parameters (p .001). Continues quality improvement mechanisms to improve the different aspects of the programme and adherence to the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Program guideline could be important interventions to enhance the quality of care delivery. An expanded community-based study to better guide quality DOTS program in pastoralist communities is crucial.

  20. The effects of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel on regional economy; Kaeytetyn ydinpolttoaineen loppusijoituslaitoksen aluetaloudelliset vaikutukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakso, S. [Seppo Laakso Urban Research (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    The study deals with the economic effects of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel on the alternative location municipalities - Eurajoki, Kuhmo, Loviisa and Aeaenekoski - and their neighbouring areas (in Finland). The economic influence of the facility on industrials, employment, population, property markets, community structure and local public economics are analysed applying the approach of regional economics. The evaluation of the facility`s effects on employment is based on the input-output analysis. Both the direct and indirect effects of the construction and the functioning of the facility are taken into account in the analysis. According to the results the total increase in employment caused by the construction of the facility is about 350 persons annually, at national level. Some 150 persons of this are estimated to live in the wider region and 100-150 persons in the facility`s influence area consisting of the location municipality and neighbouring municipalities. This amount is reached at the top stage of construction (around the year 2018). At the production stage - after the year 2020 - the facility`s effects on employment will be concentrated significantly more on the location municipality and the rest of the influence area than on the rest of the country, compared with the construction stage. The estimated employment growth in the production stage is approximately 160 persons at national level of which 100-120 persons live in the candidate municipality and in the rest of the influence area. There is a direct link between local employment and population development. The growth of jobs attracts immigrants affecting the development of both the number and the structure of population. The facility`s effects on population development in the alternative location municipalities are analysed using comparative population forecasts based on demographic population projection methods. According to the results the job growth caused by the facility will

  1. PIXE measurements of Renaissance silverpoint drawings at VERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milota, Petra; Reiche, Ina; Duval, Alain; Forstner, Oliver; Guicharnaud, Hélène; Kutschera, Walter; Merchel, Silke; Priller, Alfred; Schreiner, Manfred; Steier, Peter; Thobois, Elisabeth; Wallner, Anton; Wünschek, Barbara; Golser, Robin

    2008-05-01

    Silverpoint drawings from the Renaissance are among the most precious and rarest treasures of graphical art. Our research group is particularly interested in the analysis of silverpoint drawings by Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528). A very sensitive and non-destructive analytical method, either spatially resolved synchrotron-radiation induced X-ray fluorescence (SY-XRF) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), is needed to determine the chemical composition of the very faint silver marks on such drawings. Dürer drawings from the collection of the Albertina, Vienna, were analyzed to amend existing data on Dürer drawings. For this purpose an external-beam PIXE setup was installed at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA). It allows to analyze a spot of ∼0.15 mm on the object in air with 3 MeV protons, and to detect the emitted X-rays that are characteristic for the chemical composition with very good sensitivity and without harming the precious objects. After successful measurements on artificial test samples, four original silverpoint drawings were investigated: two portraits from Albrecht Dürer's very early period (self-portrait and portrait of his father) and two drawings from Dürer's sketch book of his travel to the Netherlands 1520/21.

  2. VeloPix ASIC for the LHCb VELO Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Cid Vidal, Xabier

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb Vertex Detector (VELO) will be upgraded in 2018 along with the other subsystems of LHCb in order to enable full detector readout at 40 MHz. LHCb will run without a hardware trigger and all data will be fed directly to the software triggering algorithms in the CPU farm. The upgraded VELO is a lightweight silicon hybrid pixel detector with 55 um square pixels, operating in vacuum in close proximity to the LHC beams. The readout will be provided by a dedicated front end ASIC, dubbed VeloPix, matched to the LHCb luminosity requirements. VeloPix is a binary pixel chip with a matrix of 256 x 256 pixels, covering an area of 2 cm^2. It is designed in a 130 nm CMOS technology, and is closely related to the Timepix3, from the Medipix family of ASICs. The principal challenge that the chip has to meet is a hit rate of up to 900 Mhits/s/ASIC, resulting in a data rate of more than 16 Gbit/s. Combining pixels into groups of 2x4 super-pixels enables the use of shared logic and a reduction of bandwidth due to combine...

  3. Pre-Hispanic ceramics analyzed using PIXE and radiographic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, S.C., E-mail: sclima@mae.usp.br [Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rizzutto, M.A., E-mail: rizzutto@if.usp.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Added, N.; Barbosa, M.D.L.; Trindade, G.F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fleming, M.I.D.A. [Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    Ceramics objects are the most common artifacts found during excavation of archaeological sites and often depicts cultural habits and manufacturing technologies of the culture. The determination of macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the ceramic objects such as the ceramic porosity, addition of tempers in the clay, main chemical components and the trace elements present in the ceramic can reveal many aspects about the manufacturing processes used by the culture, its degree of development, the provenance of the raw materials and the exchange networks. Also the radiography can help to investigate the manufactured processes, the size of the tempers used and the conservation status of the artifacts. In this present work two non-destructive techniques, radiography and PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) were used to characterize one set of thirty-six pre-Hispanic ceramic pieces from the Chimu Culture conserved in the Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia (MAE/USP). The PIXE analyses performed in the external beam setup at LAMFI (Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais por Feixes Ionicos) allowed measure the principal chemical elements such as Al, Si, K, Ti, Fe and Ca, present in this group of pieces. X-ray imagings allowed identify the manufacture processes, the granularity of the tempers used, as well as the similarity and the differences between the pieces studied.

  4. PIXE measurements of Renaissance silverpoint drawings at VERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milota, Petra [Faculty of Physics, Isotope Research, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Reiche, Ina; Duval, Alain [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS UMR 171, Palais du Louvre, F-75001 Paris (France); Forstner, Oliver [Faculty of Physics, Isotope Research, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Guicharnaud, Helene [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS UMR 171, Palais du Louvre, F-75001 Paris (France); Kutschera, Walter [Faculty of Physics, Isotope Research, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Merchel, Silke [Centre Europeen de Recherche et d' Enseignement des Geosciences de l' Environnement (CEREGE), CNRS UMR 6635, F-13545 Aix en Provence (France); Priller, Alfred [Faculty of Physics, Isotope Research, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schreiner, Manfred [Institute of Science and Technology in Art, Academy of Fine Arts Vienna, A-1010 Vienna (Austria); Steier, Peter [Faculty of Physics, Isotope Research, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Thobois, Elisabeth [Albertina, Albertinaplatz 1, A-1010 Vienna (Austria); Wallner, Anton; Wuenschek, Barbara [Faculty of Physics, Isotope Research, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Golser, Robin [Faculty of Physics, Isotope Research, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: robin.golser@univie.ac.at

    2008-05-15

    Silverpoint drawings from the Renaissance are among the most precious and rarest treasures of graphical art. Our research group is particularly interested in the analysis of silverpoint drawings by Albrecht Duerer (1471-1528). A very sensitive and non-destructive analytical method, either spatially resolved synchrotron-radiation induced X-ray fluorescence (SY-XRF) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), is needed to determine the chemical composition of the very faint silver marks on such drawings. Duerer drawings from the collection of the Albertina, Vienna, were analyzed to amend existing data on Duerer drawings. For this purpose an external-beam PIXE setup was installed at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA). It allows to analyze a spot of {approx}0.15 mm on the object in air with 3 MeV protons, and to detect the emitted X-rays that are characteristic for the chemical composition with very good sensitivity and without harming the precious objects. After successful measurements on artificial test samples, four original silverpoint drawings were investigated: two portraits from Albrecht Duerer's very early period (self-portrait and portrait of his father) and two drawings from Duerer's sketch book of his travel to the Netherlands 1520/21.

  5. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Makanju, O. V.; Haque, A. M. I.; Buoso, M. C.; Ceccato, D.; Cherubini, R.; Moschini, G.

    1996-06-01

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the 19F(p, p'γ) 19F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed.

  6. Pre-Hispanic ceramics analyzed using PIXE and radiographic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, S. C.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Added, N.; Barbosa, M. D. L.; Trindade, G. F.; Fleming, M. I. D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Ceramics objects are the most common artifacts found during excavation of archaeological sites and often depicts cultural habits and manufacturing technologies of the culture. The determination of macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the ceramic objects such as the ceramic porosity, addition of tempers in the clay, main chemical components and the trace elements present in the ceramic can reveal many aspects about the manufacturing processes used by the culture, its degree of development, the provenance of the raw materials and the exchange networks. Also the radiography can help to investigate the manufactured processes, the size of the tempers used and the conservation status of the artifacts. In this present work two non-destructive techniques, radiography and PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) were used to characterize one set of thirty-six pre-Hispanic ceramic pieces from the Chimu Culture conserved in the Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia (MAE/USP). The PIXE analyses performed in the external beam setup at LAMFI (Laboratório de Análise de Materiais por Feixes Iônicos) allowed measure the principal chemical elements such as Al, Si, K, Ti, Fe and Ca, present in this group of pieces. X-ray imagings allowed identify the manufacture processes, the granularity of the tempers used, as well as the similarity and the differences between the pieces studied.

  7. Improvements in PIXE analysis of hourly particulate matter samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzolai, G., E-mail: calzolai@fi.infn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Lucarelli, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Chiari, M.; Nava, S. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Giannoni, M. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Carraresi, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Prati, P. [Department of Physics, University of Genoa and INFN Division of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Vecchi, R. [Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Milano and INFN Division of Milan, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    Most air quality studies on particulate matter (PM) are based on 24-h averaged data; however, many PM emissions as well as their atmospheric dilution processes change within a few hours. Samplings of PM with 1-h resolution can be performed by the streaker sampler (PIXE International Corporation), which is designed to separate the fine (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and the coarse (aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm) fractions of PM. These samples are efficiently analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) at the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence (Italy), equipped with a 3 MV Tandetron accelerator, thanks to an optimized external-beam set-up, a convenient choice of the beam energy and suitable collecting substrates. A detailed description of the adopted set-up and results from a methodological study on the detection limits for the selection of the optimal beam energy are shown; the outcomes of the research on alternative collecting substrates, which produce a lower background during the measurements, and with lower contaminations, are also discussed.

  8. A minisum model with forbidden regions for locating a semi-desirable facility in the plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Brimberg, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Most facilities in today's technological society may be classified as semi-desirable. That is, the facility provides a benefit or service to society, while adversely affecting the quality of life or social values in a number of possible ways. The paper proposes a location model for a new semi-des...

  9. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) present and future. Ryushisen reiki X sen bunsekiho (PIXE) no genjo to shorai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uda, M. (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Science and Engineering)

    1992-07-10

    The principle of measurement of PIXE are explained. It has in comparison with SEM and EPM, the following characteristics such as; very short measurement and analysis time, developed detection sensitivity for more than 100 elements, no need of pretreatment, undestructive analysis method in the air, possibility of trace element analysis by using micro specimen and information input of chemical bonding condition. Bio-medical applications have been, the microanalysis of multi elements in light element matrix forming living body and the diagnosis of kidney cancer and other diseases. Environmental applications have been, detection of the composition of sea water and the detection of the pollutants of the rivers by elements concentration distribution. It is also applied for managing the amount of impurities in electronic materials and monitoring the emitted elements from fusion reactor. It is used for archaeological analysis such as, analysis of gold fixing in ancient Rome and earthernware analysis of ancient China. As for the chemical bonding condition, the small difference of chemical bonding has been able to be observed clearly as a difference of strength over the multiple spectra, and PIXE has prospects in multiple fields. 24 refs., 21 figs.

  10. Anaerobic Digestion Facility List, US and Territories, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This table lists anaerobic digestion (AD) facilities associated with the Food Waste Recipient Count by Zip Code GIS dataset. This table identifies operational AD...

  11. Regional Stormwater Management Facility System at the School of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Wolter, Matthias

    1996-01-01

    Continuing development of the Virginia Tech campus is increasing downstream flooding and water quality problems. To address these problems, the University has proposed the construction of a stormwater management facility to control the quantity and quality of stormwater releases to Strouble Creek, a tributary of the New River. The overall goal of this project is to design a stormwater management facility proposed for the Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech i...

  12. Application of PIXE to study ancient Iranian silver coins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliaiy, P.; Shokouhi, F.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Rahighi, J. [Van de Graaff Laboratory, AEOI, Tehran (Iran); Andami, P.; Dilmaghani, J.; Etezadi, M. [Tamashagah-e-Pool, General Office of Museums, MDFIR, Tehran (Iran)

    1999-07-01

    Ancient Iranian silver coins minted in various parts of the ancient Iran from Transoxiana to Mesopotamia over a time span of 460 years (247BC-208AD) during Parthians dynasty were analysed by PIXE with a 2.2 MeV proton beam. Forty seven silver coins owned by Tamashagah-e-Pool (museum of money) in Tehran were examined in this study. The possible correlation between the composition of coins and the minting time or the minting location of coins has been the prime objective of the present study. Elemental analysis of ancient coins could also reveal the direct relation with the political and economical situation and also with the metallurgy of the minting time. Results on the contents of principal component elements (Fe, Ni, Cu, As, Br, Ag, Sn, Sb, Ba, Au and Pb) are presented and discussed. (author)

  13. Evaluation of metal trace detachment from dosing pumps using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, Omar, E-mail: omar.lozanogarcia@unamur.be [Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Mejia, Jorge [Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Laloy, Julie; Alpan, Lütfiye [Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Centre (NTHC), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Toussaint, Olivier [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Cellular Biology (URBC), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Dogné, Jean-Michel [Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Centre (NTHC), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Lucas, Stéphane [Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2014-07-15

    Metal trace detachment evaluation is essential for instruments destined for pharmaceutical applications, such as pumps. Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used to determine and quantify metal traces originated from stainless steel and ceramic dosing pumps. Metal traces were quantified from either distilled water samples or cellulose filters in two tests: a short-term test of 16 h mimicking a daily cycle of a dosing pump for industrial applications, and a long-term test of 9 days evaluating the pump wearing. The main result is that ceramic dosing pumps present lower metal detachment than stainless steel counterparts. Traces of Si and Al were found originating from pieces around the pumps (pipes and joints)

  14. Compositional study of Parthian silver coins using PIXE technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajivaliei, M.; Khademi Nadooshan, F.

    2012-10-01

    The study of the elemental composition of silver coins minted in the Ecbatana mint houses during the Parthian period can help to elucidate key questions such as provenance of the silver metal and the socio-economic situation of that period. Commercial activity and population growth increased the demand for silver, forcing the Parthian to look for new sources of this metal. The aim of this work is to study the chemical composition of some Parthian coins to find any relation between the mines used for extraction of silver and the actual silver coins minted at that time. Using PIXE technique, the metallic elements Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ag, Au, and Pb were observed. The results show that Parthian's kings used almost two types of mines for their coins.

  15. PIXE analysis of Italian ink drawings of the XVI century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchiatti, A. [Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, Ctra de Colmenar km 15, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Climent-Font, A. [Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, Ctra de Colmenar km 15, 28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: acf@unam.es; Enguita, O. [Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, Ctra de Colmenar km 15, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Jimenez, M.T. [Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, Ctra de Colmenar km 15, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Finaldi, G. [Museo del Prado, Madrid (Spain); Garrido, C. [Museo del Prado, Madrid (Spain); Matillas, J.M. [Museo del Prado, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-10-15

    The composition of inks in a group of 24 drawings of ten XVI century Italian painters, has been determined by PIXE at the external micro-beam line of the Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales of the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid. Ink elemental thicknesses have been determined by comparison with a set of certified thin standards. A comprehensive comparison of inks has also been performed by renormalisation of spectra and definition of an ink-to-ink distance. The elemental compositions and the ink-to-ink distances give consistent results that are generally in line with the appearance of the drawings and add relevant instrumental information to the stylistic observation, revealing for example the presence of retouches and additions in different parts of a drawing. Cluster analysis performed on a subgroup of 13 artefacts from the Genoese painter Luca Cambiaso and his school has revealed a partition that separates neatly the work of the master from that of his followers.

  16. Tang dynasty (618-907) bowl measured with PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, M.; Käyhkö, M.; Hahn, G.; von Uexküll-Güldenband, N.; Sajavaara, T.

    2017-09-01

    Brownish bowl originating from an underwater shipwreck located near Belitung island in the Java Sea, some 600 km south-east from Singapore, has been measured with particle induced X-ray emission. This study was a pilot project for the - now a spin-off company - Recenart research team where one target was to evaluate the authenticity of the different type of art objects. PIXE measurements were done from three different material positions from a single bowl received from a customer. These locations were categorized as a bluish/greenish pigment (under glaze), thick glaze and the body clay. When the obtained data was compared to the other references from different dynasties and kiln sites, the closest match was indeed the Tang dynasty, Tongguan/Ghangsha kiln-site potsherds - from where the bowl in question was also suspected to originate.

  17. Analysis of elements in lake sediment samples by PIXE spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelarescu, E. D.; Radulescu, C.; Stihi, C.; Bretcan, P.; Tanislav, D.; Dulama, I. D.; Stirbescu, R. M.; Teodorescu, S.; Bucurica, I. A.; Andrei, R.; Morarescu, C.

    2017-09-01

    This work aims to determine the concentrations of several elements (e.g. Pb, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cr, and Fe) from lake sediments, in order to characterize their origin and evolution. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique using the 3 MV Tandetron™ particle accelerator from National Institute for R&D in Physics and Nuclear Engineering ;Horia Hulubei; (IFIN-HH), Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, was applied. Sediment cores from different salt lakes from Romania (i.e. Amara Lake, Caineni Lake, and Movila Miresii Lake) were collected, in August 2015. The content of Pb, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni from sediment samples show similarities with other data presented in literature and international regulation. The Zn was the only element with a higher content in all samples (e.g. maximum 401.7-517.3 mg/kg d.w.).

  18. PIXE study on ancient pottery from Chinese Shanghai area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, H.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Zhang, Z.Q. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Song, J. [Shanghai Museum, Shanghai 200003 (China); Gao, M.H. [Department of Cultural Relics and Museology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhu, D. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Lin, J.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Feng, S.L. [Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2006-08-15

    Shanghai is the largest city in China, and it also has a very long history. Archaeologists have found that six thousand yeas ago, there were ancient people living at Songze, Qingpu County, Shanghai. This paper reports the study of ancient potteries unearthed from the Guangfulin site located at Songjiang, Shanghai. The potteries unearthed from Guangfulin site belonged to two different culture types: the Liangzhu culture type (local culture) and a new culture, which might be derived from elsewhere. PIXE has been used to measure the chemical compositions of samples and factor analysis was used. Experimental results show that the compositions of the pottery from the two phases are different from each other. It means that the raw materials used to make the ancient pottery originate from different places. This results support the idea suggested by archaeologists that a group of ancient people migrated to the Shanghai area from some other place 4000 years ago.

  19. [Rate and level of contamination of potentially dangerous water supply facilities in Moscow region by Legionella pneumophila].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovskiĭ, I S; Novokshonova, I V; Sadretdinova, O V; Gruzdeva, O A; Aliapkina, Iu S; Karpova, T I; Dronina, Iu E; Fokina, V G; Shustrova, N M

    2010-01-01

    To assess rate and level of contamination by Legionella pneumophila of cooling water systems in industrial facilities as well as hot water supply systems of administrative buildings in Moscow region. Cooling water systems of 8 industrial facilities and hot water supply systems of 12 administrative buildings or complexes located in Moscow or Moscow region were examined. Samples of water, washes and biofilms were studied by bacteriologic methods and RT-PCR. Results. Significant level of contamination of water systems by L. pneumophila was revealed in examined objects. Rate of contamination of cooling water systems in industrial facilities was 70%. The agent was detected in stagnant, end-capped, and rarely used segments of all hot water supply systems during decrease of water temperature to 36-52 degrees C. Visual detection of natural biofilms on the object correlated with high concentration of L. pneumophila in water samples. In some cases, associations of L. pneumophila with Pseudomonas aeruginosa were detected, including water samples from supply systems of 2 healthcare facilities. Obtained results confirm the importance of implementation of modem concept of legionellosis prevention in our country, based on regular quantitative monitoring for Legionella in potentially dangerous water objects and conduction of preventative measures if contamination exceeds acceptable level.

  20. Determination of the elemental status of ancient human bones from Bockenheim/Rheinland-Pfalz by PIGE and PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankuhn, St. E-mail: jankuhn@rz.uni-leipzig.de; Vogt, J.; Butz, T

    2000-03-01

    Continuing the investigations on ancient human bones of the Merowingian period (6-8th century AD) [St. Jankuhn, T. Butz, R.-H. Flagmeyer, T. Reinert, J. Vogt, J. Hammerl, R. Protsch von Zieten, M. Wolf, H. Baumann, K. Bethge, I. Symietz, in: J.L. Duggan, I.L. Morgan (Eds.), CP392, Appl. of Accelerators in Res. and Ind., AIP, Woodbury, NY, 1997, p. 575], we have prepared a series of 57 samples of bone from the so-called Ward's triangle. This region is an inner part of the femoral neck and one of the areas of high fracture risk in the case of osteoporosis. The bones were excavated from a former cemetery near Bockenheim/Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany. Firstly, the sample preparation method will be described. Secondly, the experimental setup will be outlined for the ion beam methods proton backscattering (PBS), proton induced {gamma}-ray emission (PIGE), and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) which are implemented simultaneously at the 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator of the Universitaet Leipzig. Thirdly, the concentrations of the main and trace elements will be presented in the form of a correlation matrix for the elements detected by PIGE and PIXE. From this, a correlation coefficient matrix is derived whose values will be discussed in detail.

  1. Study of Z > 18 elements concentration in tree rings from surroundings forests of the Mexico Valley using external beam PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calva-Vazquez, G. [Laboratorio de Contaminacion Atmosferica, FES Zaragoza, UNAM, Calzada I. Zaragoza esq., Av. Guelatao s/n, 09230 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Razo-Angel, G. [Laboratorio de Contaminacion Atmosferica, FES Zaragoza, UNAM, Calzada I. Zaragoza esq., Av. Guelatao s/n, 09230 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Rodriguez-Fernandez, L. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Ruvalcaba-Sil, J.L. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, DF (Mexico)]. E-mail: sil@fisica.unam.mx

    2006-08-15

    The concentration of elements with Z > 18 is measured in tree rings from forests at the surroundings of the Mexico Valley: El Chico National Park (ECP) and Desierto de los Leones National Park (DLP). The analysis was done by simultaneous PIXE-RBS using an external proton beam on tree rings of Pine and Sacred fir (species Pinus montezumae and Abies religiosa, respectively). This study provides information about the elemental concentration in trees of those parks during the years from 1965 to 2003. Typical elements such as K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr and Pb were detected using PIXE technique while the wood matrix composition (mainly C and O) was determined by RBS. In general, elemental contents present large variations but concentrations oscillate around the mean value during this period of time. Nevertheless, the measurements showed some trends for Fe and Zn in the tree-rings elemental composition that may be correlated to recent volcanic activities in the region. The low Mn contents indicate soil acidification in DLP from 1968 and the forest decline in ECP during the last 15 years.

  2. Study of Z > 18 elements concentration in tree rings from surroundings forests of the Mexico Valley using external beam PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calva-Vázquez, G.; Razo-Angel, G.; Rodríguez-Fernández, L.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.

    2006-08-01

    The concentration of elements with Z > 18 is measured in tree rings from forests at the surroundings of the Mexico Valley: El Chico National Park (ECP) and Desierto de los Leones National Park (DLP). The analysis was done by simultaneous PIXE-RBS using an external proton beam on tree rings of Pine and Sacred fir (species Pinus montezumae and Abies religiosa, respectively). This study provides information about the elemental concentration in trees of those parks during the years from 1965 to 2003. Typical elements such as K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr and Pb were detected using PIXE technique while the wood matrix composition (mainly C and O) was determined by RBS. In general, elemental contents present large variations but concentrations oscillate around the mean value during this period of time. Nevertheless, the measurements showed some trends for Fe and Zn in the tree-rings elemental composition that may be correlated to recent volcanic activities in the region. The low Mn contents indicate soil acidification in DLP from 1968 and the forest decline in ECP during the last 15 years.

  3. External beam milli-PIXE as analytical tool for Neolithic obsidian provenance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinescu, B.; Cristea-Stan, D. [National Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering Horia Hulubei, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kovács, I.; Szõkefalvi-Nagy, Z. [Wigner Research Centre for Phyics, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Obsidian is the most important archaeological material used for tools and weapons before metals appearance. Its geological sources are limited and concentrated in few geographical zones: Armenia, Eastern Anatolia, Italian Lipari and Sardinia islands, Greek Melos and Yali islands, Hungarian and Slovak Tokaj Mountains. Due to this fact, in Mesolithic and Neolithic periods obsidian was the first archaeological material intensively traded even at long distances. To determine the geological provenance of obsidian and to identify the prehistoric long-range trade routes and possible population migrations elemental concentration ratios can help a 101, since each geological source has its 'fingerprints'. In this work external milli-PIXE technique was applied for elemental concentration ratio determinations in some Neolithic tools found in Transylvania and in the lron Gales region near Danube, and on few relevant geological samples (Slovak Tokaj Mountains, Lipari,Armenia). In Transylvania (the North-Western part of Romania, a region surrounded by Carpathian Mountains), Neolithic obsidian tools were discovered mainly in three regions: North-West - Oradea (near the border with Hungary, Slovakia and Ukraine), Centre -Cluj and Southwest- Banat (near the border with Serbia). A special case is lron Gales - Mesolithic and Early Neolithic sites, directly related to the appearance of agriculture replacing the Mesolithic economy based on hunting and fishing. Three long-distance trade routes could be considered: from Caucasus Mountains via North of the Black Sea, from Greek islands or Asia Minor via ex-Yugoslavia area or via Greece-Bulgaria or from Central Europe- Tokaj Mountains in the case of obsidian. As provenance 'fingerprints', we focused on Ti to Mn, and Rb-Sr-Y-Zr ratios. The measurements were performed at the external milli-PIXE beam-line of the 5MV VdG accelerator of the Wigner RCP. Proton energy of 3MeV and beam currents in the range of 1 ±1 D

  4. Artificial neural networks applied to quantitative elemental analysis of organic material using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, R. [Universidad Tecnologica Metropolitana, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Jose Pedro Alessandri 1242, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: rcorrea@utem.cl; Chesta, M.A. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Medina Allende s/n Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)]. E-mail: chesta@famaf.unc.edu.ar; Morales, J.R. [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Fisica, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: rmorales@uchile.cl; Dinator, M.I. [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Fisica, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: mdinator@uchile.cl; Requena, I. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Ciencias de la Computacion e Inteligencia Artificial, Daniel Saucedo Aranda s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: requena@decsai.ugr.es; Vila, I. [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Ecologia, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: limnolog@uchile.cl

    2006-08-15

    An artificial neural network (ANN) has been trained with real-sample PIXE (particle X-ray induced emission) spectra of organic substances. Following the training stage ANN was applied to a subset of similar samples thus obtaining the elemental concentrations in muscle, liver and gills of Cyprinus carpio. Concentrations obtained with the ANN method are in full agreement with results from one standard analytical procedure, showing the high potentiality of ANN in PIXE quantitative analyses.

  5. Measurement of the pollutants on the surface of crystal slice using PIXE

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu Guang Hua; Wang Xin Fu; Zhou Hong Yu

    2001-01-01

    The analytical sensitivity and detection limit and the applications of the PIXE technique or the samples of crystal slice are presented. The crystal slices implanted with oxygen ions at different implantation machines are polluted with element Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu etc. during oxygen ion implantation. These results show that PIXE method has high sensitivity and is non-destructive for measuring pollutants, and is suitable in this research field

  6. STIM evaluation in GeoPIXE to complement the quantitative dynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallon, J. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)], E-mail: Jan.Pallon@nuclear.lu.se; Ryan, C.G. [CSIRO Exploration and Mining, Geosciences, Monash University, Clayton VIC 3168 (Australia); Physics Department, University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); CODES Centre of Excellence, University of Tasmania, Hobart TAS 7001 (Australia); Arteaga Marrero, N.; Elfman, M.; Kristiansson, P.; Nilsson, E.J.C.; Nilsson, C. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2009-06-15

    The GeoPIXE software for quantitative PIXE trace element imaging and analysis is a well established package for evaluation of characteristic X-ray data for both PIXE and SXRF. For the case of microbeam applications on semi-thick samples knowledge of the local areal density distribution is important for precise quantification. A technique is reported to achieve this using the measurement of beam particle energy loss as it traverses the sample, as in scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM). New functionality is added to the GeoPIXE code through integration of routines for STIM sorting of event-by-event data to create elemental maps of the mean energy after traversing the sample. Integration of stopping powers for a given sample matrix then permits the measured energy loss to be related to the local areal density. In a further step, this information is used for X-ray absorption corrections made directly to the PIXE analysis results. As a complement, user-written plugins operating on single STIM spectra have been used to compare the estimated areal density from chosen spots with the corresponding values calculated with the new GeoPIXE routines. The additions made to the code allow a more precise quantification to be done on inhomogeneous, semi-thick samples.

  7. Analysis of the archaeological pieces with the PIXE technique; Analisis de piezas arqueologicas con la tecnica PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenorio C, D. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The handling of physical-nuclear techniques for the analysis of archaeological pieces it was carried out by first time in 1956 by the doctors Oppenheimer and Dodsom (in the United States); who wrote about the wide utilities of the neutron activation analysis (NAA), this technique requires of a nuclear reactor that could be considered like one a factory of thermal neutrons necessary to carry out this analysis. The first experiments in that were applied the NAA were on ceramic coming from the Mediterranean, in those that the relationships of the elements of sodium and manganese were determined to know their elementary composition and to identify the origin of their manufacture. Later on other study techniques were applied in archaeological materials, as the X-ray fluorescence, Moessbauer spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, PIXE analysis (particle induced x-ray emission), among other, this last is the matter that we will present in this work. (Author)

  8. Race, region and risk: An examination of minority proximity to noxious facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The past decade has given rise to terms like environmental racism, eco-racism, and environmental inequities to characterize a disproportional distribution of environmental disamenities among minority communities. Much of the literature supports the contention that racial and ethnic minorities and low-income groups bear a disproportionate burden of risk from hazardous activities and substances in the environment. This study expands the scope of prior studies by employing county-level data for the entire nation and including a broad range of facility types associated with environmental disamenities. In addition, it addresses the issue of the distribution of noxious facilities among white and non-white populations in an attempt to determine the relative exposure to risk among different racial and ethnic groups. In addition, the authors also explore the relative importance of nonurban versus urban residence.

  9. PIXE analysis of pre-colonial pottery from Sambaqui do Panaquatira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeoka, R.A.; Appoloni, C.R., E-mail: renatoikeoka@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (CCE/UEL), PR (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica; Rizzutto, M.A.; Silva, T.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LAMFI/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais por Feixes Ionicos; Bandeira, A.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The study of cultural heritage of ancient people through fossils, monuments and engines has fundamental importance in the construction of the memory of any society. Such knowledge can be acquired by researches in archaeological sites and the detailed study of the different kind of objects which can be found in these places. This work deals with objects from the Sambaqui of Panaquatira located in Sao Luis do Maranhao (Brazil). Ancient civilizations that inhabited that territory were characterized as fishing populations - catchers - hunters and ceramists. From a selection of 95 pottery fragments of surface; 5 to 10 cm; 20 to 30 cm; 40 to 50 cm; 65 to 70 cm; 80 to 90 cm; 90 to 100 cm; 130 to 140 cm and 160 to 170 cm stratigraphic levels, a representative set was analyzed using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) methodology. PIXE measurements were performed with an external beam setup with ~2.4 MeV proton beam in the LAMFI laboratory using three X-ray detectors, two Si-PIN detectors and one HPGe with standard spectrometry electronics; each spectrum was taken for 600s. The spectra analyses were performed with the Quantitative X-Ray Analysis Software (WinQXAS), distributed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The elements Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe and Zn were identified in the different fragments. It was analysed the kind of applied treatment on the concave and convex sides in relation to the ceramic paste of the fragments. From the determination of the elemental composition of the fragments, it was possible to identify that the elements Ti, Mn, Fe and Zn are present in the fragments with larger amounts at concave and convex sides, compared to the ceramic paste, indicating a different surface treatment that leads to an enrichment of these elements. One fragment from the 20-25cm stratigraphy has a lighter colour region which is characterized by containing the highest concentration of the elements Ti, Ca, Ti, Cr and Mn. (author)

  10. Impact of free delivery care on health facility delivery and insurance coverage in Ghana's Brong Ahafo Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susie Dzakpasu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many sub-Saharan countries, including Ghana, have introduced policies to provide free medical care to pregnant women. The impact of these policies, particularly on access to health services among the poor, has not been evaluated using rigorous methods, and so the empirical basis for defending these policies is weak. In Ghana, a recent report also cast doubt on the current mechanism of delivering free care--the National Health Insurance Scheme. Longitudinal surveillance data from two randomized controlled trials conducted in the Brong Ahafo Region provided a unique opportunity to assess the impact of Ghana's policies. METHODS: We used time-series methods to assess the impact of Ghana's 2005 policy on free delivery care and its 2008 policy on free national health insurance for pregnant women. We estimated their impacts on facility delivery and insurance coverage, and on socioeconomic differentials in these outcomes after controlling for temporal trends and seasonality. RESULTS: Facility delivery has been increasing significantly over time. The 2005 and 2008 policies were associated with significant jumps in coverage of 2.3% (p = 0.015 and 7.5% (p<0.001, respectively after the policies were introduced. Health insurance coverage also jumped significantly (17.5%, p<0.001 after the 2008 policy. The increases in facility delivery and insurance were greatest among the poorest, leading to a decline in socioeconomic inequality in both outcomes. CONCLUSION: Providing free care, particularly through free health insurance, has been effective in increasing facility delivery overall in the Brong Ahafo Region, and especially among the poor. This finding should be considered when evaluating the impact of the National Health Insurance Scheme and in supporting the continuation and expansion of free delivery care.

  11. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Lestiani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Particle samples in the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preffered, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment.

  12. A microPIXE investigation of the interaction of cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe with the culture medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rombouts, P.M.M. [Ion Beam Centre, Advanced Technology Institute, School of Electronics and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Gomez-Morilla, I. [Ion Beam Centre, Advanced Technology Institute, School of Electronics and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Grime, G.W. [Ion Beam Centre, Advanced Technology Institute, School of Electronics and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Webb, R.P. [Ion Beam Centre, Advanced Technology Institute, School of Electronics and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Cuenca, L. [Fluids and Systems Research Centre, School of Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Rodriguez, R. [Fluids and Systems Research Centre, School of Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Browton, M. [Ion Beam Centre, Advanced Technology Institute, School of Electronics and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Wardell, N. [School of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Underwood, B. [Fluids and Systems Research Centre, School of Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Kirkby, N.F. [Fluids and Systems Research Centre, School of Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Kirkby, K.J. [Ion Beam Centre, Advanced Technology Institute, School of Electronics and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: k.kirkby@surrey.ac.uk

    2007-07-15

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe) is a eucaryotic cell type similar to mammalian cells but much more simple. As it also executes its cell cycle rapidly it is very useful for investigating basic processes in cells. In this paper we report a feasibility study of the applicability of microPIXE to investigate the interaction between S. pombe cells and the surrounding culture medium. Cells were cultured in various growth medium prior to preparation for analysis. 1 {mu}l drops of medium and cells were spotted onto polypropylene foils held in contact with a polished copper block previously cooled in liquid nitrogen. The samples were dehydrated by freeze-drying. Micro PIXE analysis was carried out with the IBC microbeam facility using a beam of 2.5 MeV protons focused to 1-2 {mu}m diameter. Initially no elemental contrast was observed between the cells and the medium, but by modifying the dilution of the cell suspension, the cells could be distinguished from the surrounding medium through an increased concentration of P and reduced concentration of Cl. The distribution of Na in the medium around the cells showed evidence of the action of the Na pump. Sporulation appears to be induced in the cells by adding Cu to the growth medium and the uptake of Cu by the cells could be clearly observed. This study shows that it is possible to analyse the mass transport of elements in and out of cells In the future this will enable concentration gradients to be analysed and allow the rate of production or consumption of individual cells to be calculated. By observing these patterns for individual cells (not populations) at various known points in the cell cycle, fundamental data can be derived.

  13. A microPIXE investigation of the interaction of cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe with the culture medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, P. M. M.; Gomez-Morilla, I.; Grime, G. W.; Webb, R. P.; Cuenca, L.; Rodriguez, R.; Browton, M.; Wardell, N.; Underwood, B.; Kirkby, N. F.; Kirkby, K. J.

    2007-07-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe ( S. pombe) is a eucaryotic cell type similar to mammalian cells but much more simple. As it also executes its cell cycle rapidly it is very useful for investigating basic processes in cells. In this paper we report a feasibility study of the applicability of microPIXE to investigate the interaction between S. pombe cells and the surrounding culture medium. Cells were cultured in various growth medium prior to preparation for analysis. 1 μl drops of medium and cells were spotted onto polypropylene foils held in contact with a polished copper block previously cooled in liquid nitrogen. The samples were dehydrated by freeze-drying. Micro PIXE analysis was carried out with the IBC microbeam facility using a beam of 2.5 MeV protons focused to 1-2 μm diameter. Initially no elemental contrast was observed between the cells and the medium, but by modifying the dilution of the cell suspension, the cells could be distinguished from the surrounding medium through an increased concentration of P and reduced concentration of Cl. The distribution of Na in the medium around the cells showed evidence of the action of the Na pump. Sporulation appears to be induced in the cells by adding Cu to the growth medium and the uptake of Cu by the cells could be clearly observed. This study shows that it is possible to analyse the mass transport of elements in and out of cells In the future this will enable concentration gradients to be analysed and allow the rate of production or consumption of individual cells to be calculated. By observing these patterns for individual cells (not populations) at various known points in the cell cycle, fundamental data can be derived.

  14. LePix-A high resistivity, fully depleted monolithic pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Giubilato, P; Mugnier, H; Bisello, D; Marchioro, A; Snoeys, W; Denes, P; Pantano, D; Rousset, J; Mattiazzo, S; Kloukinas, K; Potenza, A; Rivetti, A; Chalmet, P

    2013-01-01

    The LePix project explores monolithic pixel sensors fabricated in a 90 nm CMOS technology built over a lightly doped substrate. This approach keeps the advantages usually offered by Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), like a low input capacitance, having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line, and adds the benefit of charge collection by drift from a depleted region several tens of microns deep into the substrate, therefore providing an excellent signal to noise ratio and a radiation tolerance superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. Such sensors are expected to offer significant cost savings and reduction of power consumption for the same performance, leading to the use of much less material in the detector (less cooling and less copper), addressing one of the main limitations of present day particle tracking systems. The latest evolution of the project uses detectors thinned down to 50 mu m to obtain back illuminated sensors operated in full depletion mode. By back processin...

  15. Assessing the impacts of regional characteristics on the location of manufacturing facilities: A review of recent methods and findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzonetti, F.J. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geography; Hemphill, R.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.

    1992-01-01

    This report gives federal agencies background information to help them assess the impacts that siting a nuclear-waste storage facility could have on industries making location decisions in various regions of influence. It reviews two major research methods used to analyze reasons for location choices: economic-based or econometric methods and survey-based factor-ranking methods. It summarizes the results of studies that have used these methods, identifying and ranking factors shown to be important to industries making location decisions throughout the nation and in western states. Neither economic-based nor survey-based studies have shown the public`s perceptions of a region to be an important determinant in the selection of new manufacturing sites, although consideration of the level of amenities is gaining importance in the West. In general, available studies are inconclusive with respect to the extent to which perceptions about hazards play a role in the location of manufacturing facilities in any region of the nation.

  16. Assessing the impacts of regional characteristics on the location of manufacturing facilities: A review of recent methods and findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzonetti, F.J. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geography); Hemphill, R.C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.)

    1992-01-01

    This report gives federal agencies background information to help them assess the impacts that siting a nuclear-waste storage facility could have on industries making location decisions in various regions of influence. It reviews two major research methods used to analyze reasons for location choices: economic-based or econometric methods and survey-based factor-ranking methods. It summarizes the results of studies that have used these methods, identifying and ranking factors shown to be important to industries making location decisions throughout the nation and in western states. Neither economic-based nor survey-based studies have shown the public's perceptions of a region to be an important determinant in the selection of new manufacturing sites, although consideration of the level of amenities is gaining importance in the West. In general, available studies are inconclusive with respect to the extent to which perceptions about hazards play a role in the location of manufacturing facilities in any region of the nation.

  17. Socioeconomic assessment of defense waste processing facility impacts in the Savannah River Plant region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E.; Reed, J.H.; Stevenson, R.H.

    1981-09-01

    The DWPF will immobilize highly radioactive defense wastes for storage on site until shipment to an approved federal repository for radioactive wastes. This document assesses the socioeconomic impacts of constructing and operating the proposed facility and presents the assessment methodology. Because various schedules and various ways of staging the construction of the DWPF are considered and because in some of these instances a large nearby construction project (the Vogtle Nuclear Power Station) may influence the socioeconomic impacts, four scenarios involving different facility options and schedules are assessed. In general, the impacts were found not to be large. In the scenario where the socioeconomic effects were the greatest, it was found that there are likely to be some impacts on schools in Barnwell County as well as a shortage of mobile homes in that county. Aiken, Allendale, and Bamberg counties are also likely to experience slight-to-moderate housing shortages. Minor impacts are anticipated for fire and police services, roads, traffic, and land use. There will be noticeable economic impact from the project. Other scenarios had fewer socioeconomic impacts.

  18. Impact of E4 Training and Field Auditing of GSA Heartland Region Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Gowri, Krishnan; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.

    2012-04-01

    To assess the impact of energy efficiency expert evaluation (E4) training and field audits performed since 2007, the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) undertook a follow-up study on the implementation of E4 recommendations and an analysis of energy savings. The building property manager and O and M contractor of each facility were interviewed to obtain feedback and implementation status of the E4 recommendations. Overall, there were more than 160 recommendations documented in the E4 reports; about 50% of these recommendations were fully implemented and the remaining 50% either partially implemented or not implemented. In four buildings, the E4 recommendations were aligned with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) projects replacing HVAC equipment or upgrading the building control system. The E4 recommendations were not followed-up in two buildings because of uncertainty of the long-term use of the facility or personnel changes. Results of this followon study are reported in this document.

  19. Vapor Intrusion Facility Points, South Bay CA, 2014, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — POINT locations for the South Bay Vapor Instrusion Sites were derived from the NPL data for Region 9. One site, Philips Semiconductor, was extracted from the...

  20. VeloPix ASIC development for LHCb VELO upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beuzekom, M.; Buytaert, J.; Campbell, M.; Collins, P.; Gromov, V.; Kluit, R.; Llopart, X.; Poikela, T.; Wyllie, K.; Zivkovic, V.

    2013-12-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2018, will transform the readout of the entire experiment to a triggerless system operating at 40 MHz. All data reduction algorithms will be run in a high level software farm, and will have access to event information from all subdetectors. This approach will give great power and flexibility in accessing the physics channels of interest in the future, in particular the identification of flavour tagged events with displaced vertices. The data acquisition and front end electronics systems require significant modification to cope with the enormous throughput of data. For the silicon vertex locator (VELO) a dedicated development is underway for a new ASIC, VeloPix, which will be a derivative of the Timepix/Medipix family of chips. The chip will be radiation hard and be able to cope with pixel hit rates of above 500 MHz, highly non-uniformly distributed over the 2 cm2 chip area. The chip will incorporate local intelligence in the pixels for time-over-threshold measurements, time-stamping and sparse readout. It must in addition be low power, radiation hard, and immune to single event upsets. In order to cope with the datarates and use the pixel area most effectively, an on-chip data compression scheme will integrated. This paper will describe the requirements of the LHCb VELO upgrade, and give an overview of the digital architecture being developed specifically for the readout chip.

  1. VeloPix ASIC development for LHCb VELO upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuzekom, M. van, E-mail: martinb@nikhef.nl [Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Buytaert, J.; Campbell, M.; Collins, P. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gromov, V.; Kluit, R. [Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Llopart, X. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Poikela, T. [University of Turku, Department of Information Technology, FI-20014 Turun yliopisto (Finland); CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Wyllie, K. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Zivkovic, V. [Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-12-11

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2018, will transform the readout of the entire experiment to a triggerless system operating at 40 MHz. All data reduction algorithms will be run in a high level software farm, and will have access to event information from all subdetectors. This approach will give great power and flexibility in accessing the physics channels of interest in the future, in particular the identification of flavour tagged events with displaced vertices. The data acquisition and front end electronics systems require significant modification to cope with the enormous throughput of data. For the silicon vertex locator (VELO) a dedicated development is underway for a new ASIC, VeloPix, which will be a derivative of the Timepix/Medipix family of chips. The chip will be radiation hard and be able to cope with pixel hit rates of above 500 MHz, highly non-uniformly distributed over the 2 cm{sup 2} chip area. The chip will incorporate local intelligence in the pixels for time-over-threshold measurements, time-stamping and sparse readout. It must in addition be low power, radiation hard, and immune to single event upsets. In order to cope with the datarates and use the pixel area most effectively, an on-chip data compression scheme will integrated. This paper will describe the requirements of the LHCb VELO upgrade, and give an overview of the digital architecture being developed specifically for the readout chip.

  2. PIXE analysis of cancer-afflicted human bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, G.J. Naga; Sarita, P.; Kumar, M. Ravi [Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam (India); Reddy, S. Bhuloka [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam (India)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used for analysis of trace elements in small quantities of biological samples. Both the biological samples of normal and cancer-afflicted human bladder tissues were studied. The present experiment was performed using a 3 MV pelletron accelerator at the Institute of Physics in Bhubaneswar, India. A proton beam of 3 MeV energy was used to excite the samples. NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver Tissue was used as external standards for the determination of trace element concentration in the biological tissue samples. The elements CI, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Se were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The concentrations of Ti and Zn are lower (p < 0.005) and that of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cu are significantly higher (p < 0.001) in cancerous tissues than that in normal tissues. The deficiency or excess of different trace elements observed in the cancer tissues relative to the normal tissues of bladder are correlated to the pathology of cancer. (author)

  3. Diamond exploration and mantle structure imaging using PIXE microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, C.G.; Griffin, W.L.; Win, T.T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    Geochemical methods of diamond exploration rely on recognizing indicator minerals that formed in the earth`s upper mantle, within the diamond stability field, and were entrained in rapidly rising volatile-rich magmas and emplaced in or on the crust. Diamond is only stable at high pressure. Therefore, diamond exploration commonly targets prospects containing high pressure minerals, such as low-Ca, high-Cr (`G10`) garnets and high-Cr chromites, similar to inclusions in diamonds. However, this procedure can be ambiguous; some barren pipes contain abundant `G10` garnets. while such garnets are extremely rare in the Argyle pipe, the world`s largest diamond producer. Similarly, high-Cr chromites are shed by a wide variety of barren rock types. PIXE microanalysis of trace elements in concentrate garnets and chromites from kimberlites and other volcanic rocks helps to remove the ambiguities by pinning down the source temperature (T), pressure (P) and local (paleo)geotherm (P-T relation), which permits the rich store of trace element information in these minerals, reflecting rock chemistry and metasomatic processes, to be placed in a stratigraphic context. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Application of PIXE to study ancient Iranian silver coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajivaliei, M.; Mohammadifar, Y.; Ghiyasi, K.; Jaleh, B.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Oliaiy, P.

    2008-04-01

    A number of ancient Iranian silver coins belonging to Khosrau II (592-626 A.D.) minted during Sasanians dynasty were analyzed using proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. The 2 MeV proton beam with a current of 2-3 nA from AEOI, Van de Graaff accelerator was used to bombard the coins. The characteristic X-rays emitted from the samples, were detected by a Si(Li) detector from ORTEC with an energy resolution of 170 eV at 5.9 keV. The detector was placed in the beam direction at 135°. The elements Cl, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Au and Pb were observed in the coins along with the major component silver. The percentage of silver varied between 85.87 and 93.39%. The possible correlation between the composition of coins and the minting time or the minting location of coins was the prime goal. There was a negative correlation between copper and silver. The weight of coins varied between 4.02 and 4.30 g. Going through the results, it seems that the local mines were used to die-strike the coins. The obtained results are in good agreement with archaeological records.

  5. PIXE study of the kinetics of biomaterials ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, G.; Robaye, G.; Braye, F.; Oudadesse, H.; Irigaray, J. L.

    1994-05-01

    Biomaterials are frequently implanted in bones. This implantation is followed by a phenomenon of ossification. The purpose of this work was to study the time evolution of the gradient of characteristic atomic element's concentrations in the bone, the implant and the bone-implant interface. We have studied two types of neutral biomaterials: pure synthetic hydroxyapatite and porite's asteroid coral. The animal implantations have been made on sheep of the same age and sex having received the same basic diet. The implantations have been made in the cortical femur. On both sides of the implant, at the same distance, two screws were placed to allow further determination of the position of the implant. The PIXE method is particularly suitable here because of the possibility to analyze directly the samples without any preparation and to choose easily the dimensions of beam used for the gradient study. The X-rays have been detected with an ultra LEGe instead of the usual Si(Li) device to avoid the Si escape peak associated with the K α X-ray of calcium, the major constituent of bone. This peak is particularly disturbing here because its energy corresponds to the K α line of phosphorus, an important constituent of bone. The results of these determinations are presented and discussed.

  6. VeloPix ASIC development for LHCb VELO upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    van Beuzekom, M; Campbell, M; Collins, P; Gromov, V; Kluit, R; Llopart, X; Poikela, T; Wyllie, K; Zivkovic, V

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2018, will transform the readout of the entire experiment to a triggerless system operating at 40 MHz. All data reduction algorithms will be run in a high level software farm, and will have access to event information from all subdetectors. This approach will give great power and fl exibility in accessing the physics channels of interest in the future, in particular the identi fi cation of fl avour tagged events with displaced vertices. The data acquisition and front end electronics systems require signi fi cant modi fi cation to cope with the enormous throughput of data. For the silicon vertex locator (VELO) a dedicated development is underway for a new ASIC, VeloPix, which will be a derivative of the Timepix/Medipix family of chips. The chip will be radiation hard and be able to cope with pixel hit rates of above 500 MHz, highly non-uniformly distributed over the 2 cm 2 chip area. The chip will incorporate local intelligence in the pixels for time-over-thresho...

  7. Estimating spatial accessibility to facilities on the regional scale: an extended commuting-based interaction potential model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charreire Hélène

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing interest in the study of the relationships between individual health-related behaviours (e.g. food intake and physical activity and measurements of spatial accessibility to the associated facilities (e.g. food outlets and sport facilities. The aim of this study is to propose measurements of spatial accessibility to facilities on the regional scale, using aggregated data. We first used a potential accessibility model that partly makes it possible to overcome the limitations of the most frequently used indices such as the count of opportunities within a given neighbourhood. We then propose an extended model in order to take into account both home and work-based accessibility for a commuting population. Results Potential accessibility estimation provides a very different picture of the accessibility levels experienced by the population than the more classical "number of opportunities per census tract" index. The extended model for commuters increases the overall accessibility levels but this increase differs according to the urbanisation level. Strongest increases are observed in some rural municipalities with initial low accessibility levels. Distance to major urban poles seems to play an essential role. Conclusions Accessibility is a multi-dimensional concept that should integrate some aspects of travel behaviour. Our work supports the evidence that the choice of appropriate accessibility indices including both residential and non-residential environmental features is necessary. Such models have potential implications for providing relevant information to policy-makers in the field of public health.

  8. Mining the Midden: A Facility for Dynamic Waste Harvesting at the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Aaron

    Mining the Midden intends to re-frame the sanitary landfill as a new typology of public land containing an embodied energy of cultural and material value. By reconnecting the public with the landfill and seriously exposing its layers of history and then digesting both mined and new waste within an industrial facility of materials recovery and plasma gasification technology waste-to-energy plant. The sequence of experience for a public visitor begins where the waste is transformed to energy and flows in the opposite direction of the trash through the facility and then into the active landfill mining operation which is the large site component of the project. The mine is flanked by the visitor path, which is suspended from the soldier piles of the excavation system and allows the visitor to interpret along the 1/3 mile path their personal connection to the waste stream and the consumption patterns which drive our waste. Interpretation results from multi-sensory experience of the open mine and its connection to the processing structure as one hovers above, through moments of seeing through structural glass lagging directly into the sectional cut of the landfill, and through cultural artifacts harvested by landfill archaeologists which are displayed in rhythm with the structure and lagging. The culmination of the prescribed path is a narrow cut which frames the view of Mt. Rainier in the distance and opens up a visual connection with the remaining majority of the landfill which have up to this point been blocked by the small mountain of trash which they just walked up and through. This thesis intends that by confronting people with the juxtapositions of 2 potentially destructive mounds or mountains, and how we as a culture value and protect land while we simultaneously dump our rubbish on other lands, this experience will make the visitor more conscious of ones personal contribution to our culture of disposable commodities.

  9. York Region integrated solid waste processing and transfer facility : cash flow analysis of alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balfour, B. [Gartner Lee Ltd., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Cash flow modeling exercises of the two tier waste management system in York Region was presented to encourage decision-makers to think in terms of total system costs and how to achieve a desired diversion rate. The York Region consists of 9 municipalities which collect their own waste. The region is responsible for its treatment and disposal. This paper have shown that modeling of realistic options gives decision-makers the opportunity to see the financial impact of different types of waste management systems and provides them with the potential to view the critical parameters in the cost of waste management. This paper demonstrated through modelling the impacts of various alternatives such as collection, processing, transfer and disposal, and identified achievable diversions.

  10. A βPIX-PAK2 complex confers protection against Scrib-dependent and cadherin-mediated apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Scott R; Bell, Jennifer H; Frödin, Morten

    2012-01-01

    During epithelial morphogenesis, a complex comprising the βPIX (PAK-interacting exchange factor β) and class I PAKs (p21-activated kinases) is recruited to adherens junctions. Scrib, the mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila polarity determinant and tumor suppressor Scribble, binds βPIX directly. ...

  11. Element determination of fine particles in environmental aerosols using PIXE; Determinacion elemental de paticulas finas en aerosoles ambientales usando PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia O, B. [ITT, 50000 Toluca (Mexico); Aldape U, F. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: gaolivab@gmail.com

    2007-07-01

    The Mexico city is classified as one of the more populated cities of the world which presents a decrease in the air quality and that gives place to a severe problematic in atmospheric pollution. To cooperate in the solution of this problem it is necessary to carry out studies that allow a better knowledge of the atmosphere of the city. This study presents the results of a monitoring campaign of fine particle carried out from September 21 to December 12, 2001 in three sites of the Mexico City center area. The samples were collected every third day with a collector type unit of heaped filters (Gent). The analysis of these samples was carried out in the 2 MV accelerator of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) applying the PIXE technique and with this analysis its were identified in the samples approximately 15 elements in each one of the 3 sites and was calculated the concentration in that its were present. With these results a database was created and by means of it mathematical treatment the Enrichment factor (FE), the time series of each element and the multiple correlation matrix were evaluated. The obtained results showed that the Civil Registration site (Salto del Agua) it was the more polluted coinciding that to a bigger concentration of activities a bigger increase in the pollution is generated. (Author)

  12. GridPix: An integrated readout system for gaseous detectors with a pixel chip as anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graaf, Harry van der [NIKHEF, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: vdgraaf@nikhef.nl

    2007-10-01

    GridPix is a gas-filled detector in which a Micro Pattern Gas Detector is combined with a CMOS pixel chip. In a next step, a procedure to construct a grid onto a Si wafer, using chip production technology ('wafer post-processing'), has been developed. Protection against discharges are under study, and an ageing test of a Micromegas chamber has been carried out, after verifying the chamber's proportionality at a very high dose rate. The GridPix detector can be applied as X-ray imaging device. With a drift gap of only 1 mm, GridPix could be well applied as radiation hard, low power, (and therefore) low-mass vertex (track) detector. New developments in CMOS pixel chips, forming the core of the detector, are presented.

  13. Detection and quantitative determination by PIXE of the mutagen Sn{sup 2+} in yeast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viau, C.M. [Departamento de Biofisica/Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS (Brazil); Yoneama, M.-L. [Instituto de Fisica, UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, CEP 91501-970, CP 15051, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: jfdias@if.ufrgs.br; Dias, J.F. [Instituto de Fisica, UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, CEP 91501-970, CP 15051, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pungartnik, C. [Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, UESC, Ilheus, BA (Brazil); Brendel, M. [Departamento de Biofisica/Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS (Brazil); Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, UESC, Ilheus, BA (Brazil); Henriques, J.A.P. [Departamento de Biofisica/Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS (Brazil); Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, ULBRA, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2006-08-15

    The main goal of this work was to determine the concentration of Sn{sup 2+} ions in cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to correlate their quantity with the genotoxicity of intracellularly accumulated metal ions. The intracellular metal content of yeast cells was determined by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) after cell exposure to SnCl{sub 2}. To that end, a thick target protocol was developed for PIXE analysis. The samples were irradiated with a 2 MeV proton beam, while the induced X-rays were detected with a high-purity germanium detector. The results of the toxicity of SnCl{sub 2} and the PIXE analysis performed with two different yeast strains (haploid and diploid) suggest that the exposure of haploid and diploid yeast to Sn{sup 2+} induces DNA lesions and that the absorption depends on the genetic background of each strain.

  14. GridPix: An integrated readout system for gaseous detectors with a pixel chip as anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Graaf, Harry

    2007-10-01

    GridPix is a gas-filled detector in which a Micro Pattern Gas Detector is combined with a CMOS pixel chip. In a next step, a procedure to construct a grid onto a Si wafer, using chip production technology ('wafer post-processing'), has been developed. Protection against discharges are under study, and an ageing test of a Micromegas chamber has been carried out, after verifying the chamber's proportionality at a very high dose rate. The GridPix detector can be applied as X-ray imaging device. With a drift gap of only 1 mm, GridPix could be well applied as radiation hard, low power, (and therefore) low-mass vertex (track) detector. New developments in CMOS pixel chips, forming the core of the detector, are presented.

  15. Development of two-dimensional mapping technique by in-air-PIXE with metal capillary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, N., E-mail: ean.fujita@cc.nara-wu.ac.j [Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Nara Women' s University, Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Ishii, K.; Ogawa, H. [Department of Physics, Nara Women' s University, Nara 630-8506 (Japan)

    2011-05-01

    We have developed the two-dimensional mapping technique with in-air-PIXE (2D-PIXE) using a metal capillary as a guide to extract ion beam to air. The metal capillary is the conventional injection needle with a 200 {mu}m inside diameter. For the target which is the character made of the copper wires on aluminum basement, 2D-PIXE measurements were performed by irradiating 3 MeV proton beam. As a result, the character was tend to be restored clearly by this method. We discuss about the result of the two-dimensional map from a viewpoint of the signal-to-noise ratio and the resolution. This technique is expected to be applicable to various fields such as biology, nano-technology, archeology and so on.

  16. Building a fingerprint database for modern art materials: PIXE analysis of commercial painting and drawing media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchiatti, A., E-mail: alessandro.zucchiatti@uam.es [Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/ Faraday 3, Madrid (Spain); Climent-Font, A. [Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/ Faraday 3, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Avda. Francisco Tomás y Valiente 7, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gómez-Tejedor, J. García [Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Departamento de Restauración, Calle Santa Isabel, 52, 28012 Madrid (Spain); Martina, S. [Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/ Faraday 3, Madrid (Spain); Universitá degli Studi di Torino, Turin (Italy); Muro García, C.; Gimeno, E.; Hernández, P.; Canelo, N. [Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Departamento de Restauración, Calle Santa Isabel, 52, 28012 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    We have examined by PIXE (and by RBS in parallel) about 180 samples of commercial painting and drawing media including pencils, pastels, waxes, inks, paints and paper. Given the high PIXE sensitivity we produced X-ray spectra at low collected charges and currents, operating in good conservation conditions. For drawing media containing inorganic components or a unique marker element, we have defined colouring agent fingerprints which correspond, when applicable, to the composition declared by the manufacturer. For thin layers, the ratios of areal densities of elements are close to those expected given the declared composition, which is promising from the perspective of compiling the database. The quantitative PIXE and RBS analysis of part of the set of samples is provided.

  17. Refinement of major- and minor-element PIXE analysis of rocks and minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heirwegh, Christopher M., E-mail: cheirweg@uoguelph.ca [Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G2W1 (Canada); Campbell, John L. [Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G2W1 (Canada); Czamanske, Gerald K. [U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Precision calibration of PIXE system for quantifying major element constituents in silicates. • Use of new mass attenuation coefficient database in GUPIX fundamental parameters analysis. • Identification of and correction for an energy calibration non-linearity found in SDD spectra. • PIXE quantification of major and minor constituents to within single percent accuracy. • Results validated by previous electron microprobe and chemical analyses. - Abstract: An attempt has been made to assess the accuracy of the particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) fundamental parameters with standards approach to quantifying major- and minor-element constituents of silicate glasses and minerals. A deviation from linearity at low energies in the channel-energy calibration relationship was identified as a source of undesired residues in GUPIX-fitting. A correction for this effect was developed using a general-purpose spectrum fitting program and was incorporated in GUPIX. The PIXE spectra of sixteen well-characterized electron microprobe standards were then processed. Complementary electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) measurements were used to support the comparison of the PIXE results with previous characterizations. Major element concentrations were found to differ on average from literature values as follows: SiO{sub 2} (−0.28 ± 0.12%), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0.72 ± 0.74%), MgO (0.11 ± 0.63%), Na{sub 2}O (−2.6 ± 1.2%), K{sub 2}O (1.1 ± 0.7%), CaO (−0.35 ± 0.37%), TiO{sub 2} (2.5 ± 1.9%), MnO (0.8 ± 4.7%), FeO (0.98 ± 0.93%). These results indicate that major and minor elemental analysis can be achieved with high accuracy using the present Guelph micro-PIXE setup.

  18. Identification of deposit types of natural corundum by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chulapakorn, T. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Intarasiri, S., E-mail: saweat@gmail.com [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Bootkul, D., E-mail: mo_duangkhae@gmail.com [Department of General Science (Gems and Jewelry), Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Sukhumvit 23, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Singkarat, S. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2014-07-15

    Natural corundum, one of the most important exports of Thailand, is a rare, durable and valuable gemstone. The value of these precious stones is determined by their visual appearances, including brilliance, color, fire (light dispersion) and luster. Corundum is an allochromatic mineral whose trace element concentration depends on the origin and has influence on price setting. This work attempts to use an alternative method to identify the geological deposits of rubies and sapphires found in the Thai market which came from various countries, e.g., Africa, Cambodia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand and USA. Interrelations between most important major trace elements are the main results of this work. Quantitative analysis of trace elements were performed by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique, using 2-MeV proton beam generated and accelerated by the 1.7 MV tandem accelerator at Chiang Mai University. The trace elements of interest are Ti, Cr, Fe and Ga. We have found that the relationships between the ratios of trace element concentration can be used to classify the deposit type. Moreover, this method shows a clear separation between two main types of geological deposits, basaltic and metamorphic deposits, which further helps in determining the gemstone origin. For example, the gemstones from Cambodia, Thailand and the USA can be classified as the basaltic deposits with their high concentration in Fe but low in Ti, while the gemstones from Africa, Myanmar and Sri Lanka are metamorphic deposits because they have low Fe but high Ti concentrations. Both deposits required plots of pairs of trace elements and their ratios in population field appearance in order to distinguish their origins. The advantageous of these methods appear to be a new and a sustainable procedure for determining gemstone origins.

  19. Identification of deposit types of natural corundum by PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulapakorn, T.; Intarasiri, S.; Bootkul, D.; Singkarat, S.

    2014-07-01

    Natural corundum, one of the most important exports of Thailand, is a rare, durable and valuable gemstone. The value of these precious stones is determined by their visual appearances, including brilliance, color, fire (light dispersion) and luster. Corundum is an allochromatic mineral whose trace element concentration depends on the origin and has influence on price setting. This work attempts to use an alternative method to identify the geological deposits of rubies and sapphires found in the Thai market which came from various countries, e.g., Africa, Cambodia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand and USA. Interrelations between most important major trace elements are the main results of this work. Quantitative analysis of trace elements were performed by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique, using 2-MeV proton beam generated and accelerated by the 1.7 MV tandem accelerator at Chiang Mai University. The trace elements of interest are Ti, Cr, Fe and Ga. We have found that the relationships between the ratios of trace element concentration can be used to classify the deposit type. Moreover, this method shows a clear separation between two main types of geological deposits, basaltic and metamorphic deposits, which further helps in determining the gemstone origin. For example, the gemstones from Cambodia, Thailand and the USA can be classified as the basaltic deposits with their high concentration in Fe but low in Ti, while the gemstones from Africa, Myanmar and Sri Lanka are metamorphic deposits because they have low Fe but high Ti concentrations. Both deposits required plots of pairs of trace elements and their ratios in population field appearance in order to distinguish their origins. The advantageous of these methods appear to be a new and a sustainable procedure for determining gemstone origins.

  20. Micro-PIXE study of metal loss from dental amalgam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesat, Ridthee; Sudprasert, Wanwisa; Guibert, Edouard; Wang, Liping; Chappuis, Thibault; Whitlow, Harry J.

    2017-08-01

    Mercury amalgams have been a topic of controversy ever since their introduction over 150 years ago as a dental material. An interesting question is if metals are released from the amalgam into the enamel and dentine tissue. To elucidate this PIXE mapping was used to investigate metal redistribution in an extracted molar tooth with a ∼30 year old high-Cu content amalgam filling. The tooth was sectioned and polished, and elemental mapping carried out on the amalgam/enamel, bulk amalgam and the wear surface of the amalgam. As expected, the amalgam was multiphase amalgam comprising of Cu-rich and Ag-rich grains with non-uniform distribution of Hg. The amalgam/dentine interface was clearly defined with amalgam elements on one side and C and P from hydroxyapatite on the other side with evidence of only slight interface corrosion. The peaks for Cu Hg and Zn were isolated from interfering signals with concentrations in the enamel tissue, observed to be at, or below the method detection limit. The proximity in energy of the Sn L α and Ca K α , peaks and the background on the Hg M α gave signal overlap which increased the MDL for these elements. Remarkably, a course grain texture in the amalgam was observed just below the biting surface of the amalgam which might be associated with tribochemical processes from mastication. This coupled with the clear absence of the amalgam metals from tooth tissue, even in close proximity to the interface, suggests that for this sample, release of Hg occurred via erosion or dissolution in saliva.

  1. Determining treatment outcome of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases in Afar Regional State, Ethiopia: A retrospective facility based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafess, Ketema; Mengistu, Belete; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Sisay, Solomon

    2016-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) declared tuberculosis (TB) as a global public health emergency and recommended directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) as a standard strategy to control the disease. In Ethiopia the strategy was started in 1992 as a pilot in the Arsi and Bale zone, Oromia Region. The DOTS strategy has been subsequently scaled up in the country and implemented at a national level reaching better coverage, although there are recognizable variations from region to region and district to district. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the DOTS strategy on smear-positive pulmonary TB case findings and their treatment outcomes in the Afar Regional State, Ethiopia, from 2003 to 2012 and from 2002 to 2011, respectively. A health facility-based retrospective study was conducted. Data were collected and reported on a quarterly basis using the WHO reporting format for TB case findings and their treatment outcomes from all DOTS-implementing health facilities in all zones of the region to the Federal Ministry of Health. A total of 34,894 of TB cases had been registered in the period from 2003 to 2012. Out of these, 11,595 (33.2%) were smear-positive pulmonary TB, 13,859 (39.7%) smear-negative pulmonary TB, and 9838 (28.2%) extrapulmonary TB. The case detection rate (CDR) of smear-positive pulmonary TB had increased from 18.3% to 37.2%, with the average value being 32% (standard deviation=6.8) from the total TB cases to its peak of 39% in 2008. The treatment success rate (TSR) had an average value of 86.2% from 2002 to 2011 with its peak value being 96.5% in 2007. Moreover, the average values of treatment defaulter and treatment failure rate were 2.9% and 2.7%, respectively. The implementation for the DOTS strategy in the area improved the CDR of smear-positive TB, although it is unacceptably lower than the recommended WHO target of 70%. Additionally, the WHO target of 85% for TSR had already been achieved in the region. However, continued

  2. PIXE analysis of cystic fibrosis sweat samples with an external proton beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, F.; Massonnet, B.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE analysis with an external proton beam is used to study, in four control and five cystic fibrosis children, the elemental composition of sweat samples collected from different parts of the body during entire body hyperthermia. We observe no significant difference of sweat rates and of temperature variations between the two groups during sweat test. The statistical study of results obtained by PIXE analysis allows us to pick out amongst 8 elements studied, 6 elements (Na, Cl, Ca, Mn, Cu, Br) significatively different between the two groups of subjects. Using regression analysis, Na, Cl and Br concentrations could be used in a predictive equation of the state of health.

  3. Energy Efficiency Investments in Public Facilities - Developing a Pilot Mechanism for Russia and Chelyabinsk Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Roshchanka, Volha; Parker, Steven A.; Baranovskiy, Aleksandr

    2012-01-01

    Russian public sector buildings tend to be very inefficient, which creates vast opportunities for savings. This paper reviews opportunities to implement energy efficiency projects in Russian public buildings, created by new Russian legislation and regulations. Given Russia's limited experience with energy performance contracts (EPCs), a pilot project can help test an implementation mechanism. The authors use Chelyabinsk Region as an example to discuss opportunities, challenges and solutions to financing and implementing an EPC in Russia, navigating through federal requirements and specific local conditions.

  4. Ecological surveys of the proposed high explosives wastewater treatment facility region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarmann, T.

    1995-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) proposes to improve its treatment of wastewater from high explosives (HE) research and development activities. The proposed project would focus on a concerted waste minimization effort to greatly reduce the amount of wastewater needing treatment. The result would be a 99% decrease in the HE wastewater volume, from the current level of 6,760,000 L/mo (1,786,000 gal./mo) to 41,200 L/mo (11,000 gal./mo). This reduction would entail closure of HE wastewater outfalls, affecting some wetland areas that depend on HE wastewater effluents. The outfalls also provide drinking water for many wildlife species. Terminating the flow of effluents at outfalls would represent an improvement in water quality in the LANL region but locally could have a negative effect on some wetlands and wildlife species. None of the affected species are protected by any state or federal endangered species laws. The purpose of this report is to briefly discuss the different biological studies that have been done in the region of the project area. This report is written to give biological information and baseline data and the biota of the project area.

  5. Brookhaven Regional Energy Facility Siting Model (REFS): model development and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P.; Hobbs, B.; Ketcham, G.; McCoy, M.; Stern, R.

    1979-06-01

    A siting methodology developed specifically to bridge the gap between regional-energy-system scenarios and environmental transport models is documented. Development of the model is described in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 described the basic structure of such a model. Additional chapters on model development cover: generation, transmission, demand disaggregation, the interface to other models, computational aspects, the coal sector, water resource considerations, and air quality considerations. These subjects comprise Part I. Part II, Model Applications, covers: analysis of water resource constraints, water resource issues in the New York Power Pool, water resource issues in the New England Power Pool, water resource issues in the Pennsylvania-Jersey-Maryland Power Pool, and a summary of water resource constraint analysis. (MCW)

  6. Nuclear power-related facilities and neighboring land price: a case study on the Mutsu-Ogawara region, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Fumihiro; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Asano, Kota

    2011-12-01

    From the perspective of risk, nuclear-power-related facilities (NPRFs) are often regarded as locally undesirable land use. However, construction of NPRFs contributes to social infrastructural improvement and job creation in the host communities. This raises a question: How large are these positive and negative effects? To approach this question from an economic viewpoint, we estimated the hedonic land price function for the Mutsu-Ogawara region of Japan from 1976 to 2004 and analyzed year-by-year fluctuations in land prices around the NPRFs located there. Land prices increased gradually in the neighborhood of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities (NFCFs) in Rokkasho Village, except for some falling (i) from 1982 to 1983 (the first official announcement of the project of construction came in 1983), (ii) from 1987 to 1988 (in 1988, the construction began and opposition movements against the project reached their peak), and (iii) from 1998 to 1999 (the pilot carry-in of spent fuels into the reprocessing plant began in 1998). Land prices around the Higashidori Nuclear Power Plant decreased during the period 1981-1982, when the Tohoku Electric Power Corp. and Tokyo Electric Power Corp. announced their joint construction plan. On the other hand, we obtained some results, even though not significant, indicating that land prices around Ohminato and Sekinehama harbors changed with the arrival and departure of the nuclear ship Mutsu, which suffered a radiation leak in 1974. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Tennessee Valley region study: potential year 2000 radiological dose to population resulting from nuclear facility operations. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A companion report, DOE/ET-0064/1, presents a geographic, cultural, and demographic profile of the Tennessee Valley Region study area. This report describes the calculations of radionuclide release and transport and of the resultant dose to the regional population, assuming a projected installed capacity of 220,000 MW in the year 2000, of which 144,000 MW would be nuclear. All elements of the fuel cycle were assumed to be in operation. The radiological dose was calculated as a one-year dose based on ingestion of 35 different food types as well as for nine non-food pathways, and was reported as dose to the total body and for six specific organs for each of four age groups (infant, child, teen, and adult). Results indicate that the average individual would receive an incremental dose of 7 x 10/sup -4/ millirems in the year 2000 from the operation of nuclear facilities within and adjacent to the region, five orders of magnitude smaller than the dose from naturally occurring radiation in the area. The major contributor to dose was found to be tritium, and the most significant pathways were immersion in air, inhalation of air, transpiration of tritium (absorption through the skin), and exposure radionuclide-containing soil. 60 references.

  8. [The spa-health resort and touristic-recreational facilities of the region: the methodological aspects of their development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilina, V M; Kolesnikova, N V; Kolesnikov, N G

    2016-01-01

    The correction and optimization of the motor activity of the patients are currently the main priorities of all rehabilitative and recreational activities based at the spa and health resort facilities. The forms of such activities include walking tours and excursion trips. In other words, the excursion potential is one of the very important attributes of the recreational recourses. Under the current conditions characterized by the rapid socio-economic changes, the studies concerning the structural and functional transformation of spa and health resorts, recreational and tourist facilities acquire special importance, both from the humanitarian and economic points of view. The results of these studies may greatly contribute to the organization and the further development of rehabilitative and recreational activities based at the spa and health resort facilities, recreational and tourist centers taking into consideration their evolution. The objective of the present article is to analyze the structure and functions of the recreation and tourist centres as well as the modes of their cooperation with the spa and health resort facilities. In other words, these structures and their functions are both the object and the subject of the present study. The methodology of the study is based on the logical analysis of the development of the recreational and tourist systems in the framework of the evolutionary approach. (1) the notions of «tourist destination» and «recreation» have been substantiated; (2) the results of the studies carried out at the Institute of Physical Culture, Sports and Tourism and the Petrozavodsk State University have been used to elaborate the affiliate international Master Degree program «Project management in the tourism industry». The main emphasis in this program is placed on the necessity and methods of the improvement of recreational activities and more efficacious utilization of the climatic factors and the health resort infrastructure as

  9. PIXE analysis of Thaumatococcus danielli in Osun state of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O.; Osinkolu, G.A.; Pelemo, D.A., E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk [Centre for Energy Research and Development (CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-lfe (Nigeria); Oladele, A.T. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Facully of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-lfe (Nigeria)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Thaumatococcus danielli (Marantaceae Benn.) Benth [Miraculous berry] is a multi-purpose perennial herb that is widely distributed in the tropical rainforest areas of West Africa. The leaves are simple, broad with slender stems connected underground to the perennial rhizomes. Farmers grow it in pockets within cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and kola (Cola nitida) plantations in South western Nigeria, Ghana and Cameroon. Propagation is mainly by rhizomes cuttings and occasionally by the seed. T. danielli plays very important roles in the rural economy generating income for the peasant farmers and traders. T. danielli is used mainly in three ways by the people. The leaves are used in food wrapping because of its very good flavour and its preservative ability; and roof thatching while the stem is locally used as straw in weaving mats and in making baskets, bags, hats, hand fans and other artistic works. Research has shown that the fruits of T.danielli contain low-calorie protein named 'Thaumatin' which is about 2000 times as sweet as sucrose. The stems also can be processed to produce fibre industrially in addition to the industrial potential of Thaumatin. Thaumatin have been implicated to be suitable sweetener for diabetes patients. However, despite the great economic values, potentials and benefits of T. danielli, there is hardly any data on its elemental compositions. This work therefore presents the elemental composition of T. danielli plant's parts (Ieaves, stems, fruits (mesocarps), seeds and roots (rhizomes)) from six different towns in Osun State of Nigeria using the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The 2.0 MV collimated proton beam from the NEC 1.7 MV 5SDH Tandem accelerator of the Centre for Energy Research and Development(CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-lfe, Nigeria was employed for the measurements. The results showed the detection of elements which include K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Sr, Zn, Pb, Br, and CI at various

  10. Frontline staff motivation levels and health care quality in rural and urban primary health facilities: a baseline study in the Greater Accra and Western regions of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward

    2016-12-01

    The population of Ghana is increasingly becoming urbanized with about 70 % of the estimated 26.9 million people living in urban and peri-urban areas. Nonetheless, eight out of the ten regions in Ghana remain predominantly rural where only 32.1 % of the national health sector workforce works. Doctor-patient ratio in a predominantly rural region is about 1:18,257 compared to 1:4,099 in an urban region. These rural-urban inequities significantly account for the inability of Ghana to attain the health related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) before the end of 2015. To ascertain whether or not rural-urban differences exist in health worker motivation levels and quality of health care in health facilities accredited by the National Health Insurance Authority in Ghana. This is a baseline quantitative study conducted in 2012 among 324 health workers in 64 accredited clinics located in 9 rural and 7 urban districts in Ghana. Ordered logistic regression was performed to determine the relationship between facility geographic location (rural/urban) and staff motivation levels, and quality health care standards. Quality health care and patient safety standards were averagely low in the sampled health facilities. Even though health workers in rural facilities were more de-motivated by poor availability of resources and drugs than their counterparts in urban facilities (p health care and patient safety standards were relatively better in rural facilities. For Ghana to attain the newly formulated sustainable development goals on health, there is the need for health authorities to address the existing rural-urban imbalances in health worker motivation and quality health care standards in primary healthcare facilities. Future studies should compare staff motivation levels and quality standards in accredited and non-accredited health facilities since the current study was limited to health facilities accredited by the National Health Insurance Authority.

  11. Macromolecular crowding effects on reactions of TePixD (Tll0078).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyooka, Tsuguyoshi; Tanaka, Keisuke; Okajima, Koji; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Tokutomi, Satoru; Terazima, Masahide

    2011-01-01

    To reveal macromolecular crowding effects on a chemical reaction of a BLUF (sensors of blue light using FAD) protein (PixD from a thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 [TePixD, Tll0078]), the photoreaction was studied at various concentrations of the macromolecule Ficoll-70 by UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy and the pulsed laser-induced transient grating (TG) method. The absorption spectrum did not change with varying concentration of Ficoll-70. The crowding did not affect the quantum yield of the spectral red shift reaction, recovery rate of the product, rate constant of the volume change reaction and the magnitude of the volume change. However, the magnitude of the TG signal representing the diffusion-sensitive conformation change significantly increased on addition of Ficoll-70. This dependence was attributed to the crowding effect on the TePixD decamer-pentamer equilibrium in the solution. This result indicates that the TePixD reaction is more efficient in cellular than in in vitro conditions. © 2010 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2010 The American Society of Photobiology.

  12. Charge protection characterisation and drift time resolution improvement for GridPix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppert, W.J.C.; Fransen, M.; van Bakel, N.; van der Graaf, H.; Hartjes, F.; Timmermans, J.; Visser, J.; Kluit, R.; Gromov, V.; Zappon, F.; Blanco Carballo, V.M.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Bilevych, Y.; Bilevych, Y.

    2011-01-01

    A GridPix detector is a gaseous detector capable of detecting single primary electrons from ionising particles. Such a detector consists of a pixel chip as active anode covered with a thin layer of silicon rich silicon nitride (SiRN) for protection against discharges. A layer of 8 JlIl1 SiRN, and

  13. Application of micro-PIXE, MRI and light microscopy for research in wood science and dendroecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merela, M. [University of Ljubljana, BF, Dep. of Wood Science and Technology, Rozna dolina VIII/34, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: primoz.pelicon@ijs.si; Vavpetic, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Regvar, M.; Vogel-Mikus, K. [University of Ljubljana, BF, Dep. of Biology, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sersa, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Policnik, H. [ERICo Velenje, Ecological Research and Industrial Co-operation, Koroska 58, SI-3320 Velenje (Slovenia); Pokorny, B. [ERICo Velenje, Ecological Research and Industrial Co-operation, Koroska 58, SI-3320 Velenje (Slovenia); Slovenian Forestry Institute, Vecna pot 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Levanic, T. [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Vecna pot 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Oven, P. [University of Ljubljana, BF, Dep. of Wood Science and Technology, Rozna dolina VIII/34, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-06-15

    Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) branches were topped and after five months the wound response was analyzed by PIXE, 3D-MRI and light microscopy. From freshly cut and deeply frozen sample 30 {mu}m thick longitudinal-radial tissue sections were prepared for anatomical investigations and micro-PIXE analysis. Light microscopy revealed the structural response to wounding, i.e. occurrence of the reaction zone between the exposed and dehydrated dead tissue and healthy sound wood. The reaction zone was characterized by tylosis in vessels and accumulation of colored deposits in parenchyma cells, fibres and vessels. 3D MRI of a parallel sample showed that the moisture content in the reaction zone was three times higher than in normal healthy wood. Micro-PIXE mapping at margins of compromised wood in beech revealed an increased concentration of potassium in the reaction zone. The increase in the calcium concentration was associated with the dehydrated tissue adjacent to reaction zones. In addition, micro-PIXE was used to determine the elemental distribution in annual tree rings. This may be relevant for retrospective assessment of environmental pollution in wood by measuring yearly increments as a biomonitoring tool. The analysis of European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) wood revealed a high similarity between optical characteristics (i.e. late versus earlywood) and elemental (e.g. Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Zn) distribution.

  14. Measurement of trace elements in lubricating oils by the PIXE method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaskola, M.; Kucharski, M.; Zemlo, L. (Institute of Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland)); Babinski, B. (Wojskowy Instytut Techniki Pancernej i Samochodowej, Warszawa (Poland))

    1981-01-01

    A beam of 2 to 2.5 MeV protons has been used to excite X-ray emission from a lubricating oil sample. The X-rays have been detected using a Si(Li) solid state detector. The experimental arrangement for the PIXE method is also described.

  15. An indirect method to measure the electric charge deposited on insulators during PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinator, M.I.; Cancino, S.A.; Miranda, P.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile); Morales, J.R. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: rmorales@uchile.cl; Seelenfreund, A. [Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano, Condell 343, Providencia, Santiago (Chile)

    2007-10-15

    Total charge deposited by a proton beam in an insulator during PIXE analysis has been indirectly determined using a Mylar film coated with cobalt. Elemental concentrations in the samples, pieces of volcanic glass, were obtained and compared to concentrations determined by ICP OES on the same samples. The strong agreement between these results shows the accuracy of the charge determined by this method.

  16. PIXE analysis of trace elements in tissues of rats treated with anticonvulsants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, R.W.; Van Rinsvelt, H.A.; Kinyua, A.M.; O' Neill, M.P.; Wilder, B.J.; Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P.F.

    1987-04-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate metals in epilepsy. Anticonvulsant drugs are noted to alter levels of metals in humans and animals. PIXE analysis was used to investigate effects of three anticonvulsant drugs on tissue and brain cortex trace elements. The content of zinc and copper was increased in liver and spleen of rats treated with anticonvulsants while selenium was decreased in cortex.

  17. Obsidians from the Kerkennah Islands (eastern Tunisia) and the PIXE elemental compositions of the Mediterranean peralkaline obsidians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier; Poupeau, Gérard; Boussofara, Ridha; Dubernet, Stéphan; Moretto, Philippe; Compin, Matthieu; Mulazzani, Simone

    2015-09-01

    The provenance of 37 obsidians from the Kerkennah Islands (central Mediterranean Sea) was determined by PIXE. It is shown that they came from the two main obsidian sources, Balata dei Turchi and Lago di Venere, of the Pantelleria Island. A comparison of the PIXE elemental composition of geological vs. archaeological obsidians of central and western Mediterranean shows that their sources present elemental compositions homogeneous enough to make possible sourcing studies. However, a comparison between the distributions of geological and archaeological obsidians chemistry shows that the PIXE source qualifications do not cover yet the whole of their internal variations.

  18. Vapor Intrusion Facility Boundary Polygons (Approximate Extent of Contamination), South Bay CA, 2014, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Theses polygons represent the approximate extent of contamination for Vapor Intrusion facilities. Polygons for non-Federal Facility sites were updated in January,...

  19. External beam's nozzle design for the CRC cyclotron PIXE/PIGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeon-Gyeong; Kim, Yu-Seok

    2015-02-01

    Recently, 13-MeV proton cyclotrons have been applied to non-destructive trace element analytical techniques, such as proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE). A new extended beam line has been designed for PIXE/PIGE measurements in order to deliver protons to the target with minimal losses, thus reducing secondary radiation. A target chamber for PIXE/PIGE measurements is installed at the end of the extended beam line, and the beam size may be optimized by using a series of collimators that are located in front of the target. The optimized proton beam, with low currents (˜nA) for PIXE/PIGE experiments, requires a small beam size with variable energies from ˜10 keV to 3 MeV. Based on the ionization cross-section curve, a 3-MeV proton beam has been determined to be suitable for PIXE/PIGE measurements. Therefore, the 13-MeV protons extracted from the cyclotron must be reduced to 3 MeV, and this is achieved through the incorporation of an energy degrader. The appropriate thickness of the energy degrader has been estimated by using the stopping range in matter (SRIM) program. Also, suitable materials must be used for the construction of the collimator and the energy degrader in order to meet the requirements of low neutron activation due to the application of protons. In this study, we evaluated a number of suitable materials with low neutron yields and with little energy spread as the beam passes through the energy degrader and collimator. The appropriate thickness of the energy degrader for the reduction of the proton energy from 13 MeV to 3 MeV was determined using the SRIM code. Also, the neutron yield at the nozzle was estimated using the MCNPX code.

  20. Evaluation of cryoanalysis as a tool for analyzing elemental distribution in “live” tardigrades using micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, E.J.C., E-mail: charlotta.nilsson@nuclear.lu.se [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Pallon, J., E-mail: jan.pallon@nuclear.lu.se [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Przybylowicz, W.J., E-mail: przybylowicz@tlabs.ac.za [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Wang, Y.D., E-mail: yaodongw@hotmail.com [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Jönsson, K.I., E-mail: ingemar.jonsson@hkr.se [School of Education and Environment, Kristianstad University, SE-291 88 Kristianstad (Sweden); Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-08-01

    Although heavy on labor and equipment, thus not often applied, cryoanalysis of frozen hydrated biological specimens can provide information that better reflects the living state of the organism, compared with analysis in the freeze-dried state. In this paper we report a study where the cryoanalysis facility with cryosectioning capabilities at Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, South Africa was employed to evaluate the usefulness of combining three ion beam analytical methods (μPIXE, RBS and STIM) to analyze a biological target where a better elemental compositional description is needed – the tardigrade. Imaging as well as quantification results are of interest. In a previous study, the element composition and redistribution of elements in the desiccated and active states of two tardigrade species was investigated. This study included analysis of both whole and sectioned tardigrades, and the aim was to analyze each specimen twice; first frozen hydrated and later freeze-dried. The combination of the three analytical techniques proved useful: elements from C to Rb in the tardigrades could be determined and certain differences in distribution of elements between the frozen hydrated and the freeze-dried states were observed. RBS on frozen hydrated specimens provided knowledge of matrix elements.

  1. Use of micro-PIXE analysis for the identification of contaminants in the metal deposition on a CMS pitch adapter

    CERN Document Server

    Massi, M; Fedi, M E; Arilli, C; Grassi, N; Mando, P A; Migliori, A; Focardi, E

    2004-01-01

    In the silicon tracker for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the forthcoming Large Hadron Collider of CERN, each silicon sensor is connected to the front-end electronics by a pitch adapter, the structure of which consists of a fan of very thin chromium strips coated with a few microns aluminium deposition, on a glass support. The absence of contaminants in the depositions is of crucial importance for the electrical and mechanical reliability of the micro-bonding connections. The PIXE set-up of the Florence external micro-beam facility appeared to be suitable to analyse the metal deposition of an adapter, on which the micro-bonds had shown mechanical and electrical problems. Our measurements pointed out a significant copper contamination of the metal deposition on the faulty adapter, while no copper was detected in another one, which showed a correct behaviour at bonding. This suggests a possible role of Cu impurities in the encountered problems during micro-bonding.

  2. New markers to identify the provenance of lapis lazuli: trace elements in pyrite by means of micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Re, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Angelici, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Torino (Italy); Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Torino (Italy); Lo Giudice, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Torino (Italy); Maupas, E. [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Torino (Italy); Giuntini, L.; Calusi, S.; Massi, M.; Mando, P.A. [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Gelli, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Borghi, A. [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Torino (Italy); Gallo, L.M. [Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino (Italy); Pratesi, G. [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Firenze (Italy); Museo di Storia Naturale, Firenze (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Lapis lazuli has been used for glyptics and carving since the fifth millennium BC to produce jewels, amulets, seals, inlays, etc; the identification of the origin of the stone used for carving artworks may be valuable for reconstructing old trade routes. Since ancient lapis lazuli art objects are precious, only non-destructive techniques can be used to identify their provenance, and ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques allow us to characterise this stone in a fully non-invasive way. In addition, by using an ion microprobe, we have been able to focus the analysis on single crystals, as their typical dimensions may range from a few microns to hundreds of microns. Provenance markers, identified in previous IBA studies and already presented elsewhere, were based on the presence/absence of mineral phases, on the presence/quantity of trace elements inside a phase and on characteristic features of the luminescence spectra. In this work, a systematic study on pyrite crystals, a common accessory mineral in lapis lazuli, was carried out, following a multi-technique approach: optical microscopy and SEM-EDX to select crystals for successive trace element micro-PIXE measurements at two Italian facilities, the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro and the INFN LABEC laboratory in Firenze. The results of this work allowed us to obtain new markers for lapis lazuli provenance identification. (orig.)

  3. Fast mapping of gold jewellery from ancient Egypt with PIXE: Searching for hard-solders and PGE inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasson, Quentin; Moignard, Brice; Pacheco, Claire; Pichon, Laurent; Filomena Guerra, Maria

    2015-10-01

    A new PIXE setup at the external beamline of the AGLAE accelerator is assessed for fast mapping the joining regions and the PGE inclusions of nine Egyptian gold items from the Louvre museum collection, dated to the end of the 2nd Intermediate Period and to the New Kingdom. The setup is composed of a cluster of SDD detectors divided in two "super detectors" dedicated to analyse the matrix and the trace elements. It provides the possibility to realise large and/or fast maps on artefacts by scanning the beam over the sample surface. Different softwares have been developed or updated to visualise, process, and quantify the data. By using this setup, we could determine the elemental distribution of major elements Au, Ag and Cu on the different joining regions, estimate the composition of the brazes, and show that they were produced by adding Cu to the base gold alloy. By fast mapping the PGE inclusions we could reveal a large variety of compositions within a single object. In addition to the expected Ir-Os-Ru system inclusions, we could also show for several inclusions the presence of another element, Pt. For a region where PGE inclusions overlap the joining area we could show that fast mapping allows to determine the compositions of the inclusion, the brazing alloy, and the base-alloy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-linearity issues and multiple ionization satellites in the PIXE portion of spectra from the Mars alpha particle X-ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, John L., E-mail: icampbel@uoguelph.ca; Heirwegh, Christopher M.; Ganly, Brianna

    2016-09-15

    Spectra from the laboratory and flight versions of the Curiosity rover’s alpha particle X-ray spectrometer were fitted with an in-house version of GUPIX, revealing departures from linear behavior of the energy-channel relationships in the low X-ray energy region where alpha particle PIXE is the dominant excitation mechanism. The apparent energy shifts for the lightest elements present were attributed in part to multiple ionization satellites and in part to issues within the detector and/or the pulse processing chain. No specific issue was identified, but the second of these options was considered to be the more probable. Approximate corrections were derived and then applied within the GUAPX code which is designed specifically for quantitative evaluation of APXS spectra. The quality of fit was significantly improved. The peak areas of the light elements Na, Mg, Al and Si were changed by only a few percent in most spectra. The changes for elements with higher atomic number were generally smaller, with a few exceptions. Overall, the percentage peak area changes are much smaller than the overall uncertainties in derived concentrations, which are largely attributable to the effects of rock heterogeneity. The magnitude of the satellite contributions suggests the need to incorporate these routinely in accelerator-based PIXE using helium beams.

  5. The Ranking of the Regions with Regard to Their Sports Facilities to Improve Their Planning in Sport: The Case of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Leonor; Burillo, Pablo; Garcia-Tascon, Marta; Salinero, Juan J.

    2009-01-01

    Sports facility planning by the public authorities should be considered to be one of the main policies to have an indirect influence on the aim of ensuring a healthy population, as well as reducing its physical inactivity. Our research aims to study and compare the state of sports infrastructures in the regions of Spain, using a synthetic…

  6. Elemental analysis of aerosols collected at the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory with PIXE technique complemented with SEM/EDX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheletti, M.I., E-mail: micheletti@ifir-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (IFIR) - CONICET/UNR, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 bis (2000), Rosario (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, UNR, Suipacha 531 (2000), Rosario (Argentina); CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas), Avda. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Murruni, L.G. [Servicio Geologico Minero Argentino (SEGEMAR), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Debray, M.E. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de Gral. San Martin, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rosenbusch, M. [CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas), Avda. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Graf, M. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (IFIR) - CONICET/UNR, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 bis (2000), Rosario (Argentina); and others

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize surface aerosols at the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory located at Pampa Amarilla, near Malarguee city, in the Andes region of Argentina, with experimental sampling techniques used for the first time in a cosmic ray observatory, adding to information provided by the existing Auger aerosol monitors. A good knowledge of the optical attenuation due to aerosols is crucial for a good reconstruction of the signals from cosmic ray showers detected by the fluorescence detectors of the Observatory. Aerosols were collected in filters, during the Southern Hemisphere winter and spring in 2008. Concentrations in PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 filters were determined by gravimetric analysis and their elemental composition by the PIXE technique, complemented with SEM/EDX. Low aerosol concentrations were measured during the sampling period. The mean total mass PM10 (=PM2.5 + PM2.5-10 fractions) value was [mean(se)] 9.8(1.0) {mu}g/m{sup 3} [sd = 5.9 {mu}g/m{sup 3}]. The mean PM10 value during winter was 7(1.1) {mu}g/m{sup 3} [sd = 4.5 {mu}g/m{sup 3}], about half of the 13.1(1.5) [sd = 5.7 {mu}g/m{sup 3}] measured during springtime. The PM2.5 fraction was approximately 30% of the PM10 fraction. PIXE results gave levels of S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe in the analyzed aerosol samples, showing that these elements correspond to 25% and 13% of the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 total mass respectively. The rest of the mass was due to the elements with low Z (below 16) which cannot be detected by our X-ray setup. Comparison with SEM/EDX analysis showed that most of them were Si and Al (aluminosilicates). Our results indicate that most of the aerosols at the Auger Observatory would most likely come from the soil of the region. Due to its vast atmospheric monitoring network, the Auger Observatory is an interesting reference site for further atmospheric studies.

  7. Results from the nuclear microprobe PIXE analysis of selected rare earth fluor compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollerman, William A. E-mail: hollerman@louisiana.edu; Gates, Earl; Boudreaux, Philip; Glass, Gary A

    2002-04-01

    Most previous research measures fluorescence properties over the macroscopic regime. Properties of individual microscopic grains could be significantly different than those measured over the macroscopic scale. Until recently, it was difficult to measure properties of individual fluor grains. Existing characterization techniques like scanning electron microscopy are not practical, since the resulting fluorescence masks the electron surface profile. Starting in September 2000, a research program was initiated at the Acadiana Research Laboratory to determine microscopic fluorescence properties for selected inorganic rare earth compounds. The initial phase of this program utilized microscopic proton induced X-ray emission ({mu}PIXE) to characterize the elemental composition of individual fluor grains. Results show that both individual grains and small clusters of grains could be seen using {mu}PIXE. Maps of this type can be used to estimate grain dimensions for the selected rare earth fluor. This technique is a new and innovative method to characterize a fluor material.

  8. Results from the nuclear microprobe PIXE analysis of selected rare earth fluor compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollerman, William A.; Gates, Earl; Boudreaux, Philip; Glass, Gary A.

    2002-04-01

    Most previous research measures fluorescence properties over the macroscopic regime. Properties of individual microscopic grains could be significantly different than those measured over the macroscopic scale. Until recently, it was difficult to measure properties of individual fluor grains. Existing characterization techniques like scanning electron microscopy are not practical, since the resulting fluorescence masks the electron surface profile. Starting in September 2000, a research program was initiated at the Acadiana Research Laboratory to determine microscopic fluorescence properties for selected inorganic rare earth compounds. The initial phase of this program utilized microscopic proton induced X-ray emission (μPIXE) to characterize the elemental composition of individual fluor grains. Results show that both individual grains and small clusters of grains could be seen using μPIXE. Maps of this type can be used to estimate grain dimensions for the selected rare earth fluor. This technique is a new and innovative method to characterize a fluor material.

  9. Study by PIXE method of trace elements transferred from prostheses to soft tissues and organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudadesse, H. E-mail: hassane.oudadesse@univ-rennes1.froudadess@clermont.in2p3.fr; Guibert, G.; Chassot, E.; Irigaray, J.L.; Terver, S.; Vanneuville, G.; Tessier, Y.; Sauvage, T.; Blondiaux, G

    2002-05-01

    Some metallic prostheses inserted in human hip undergo physico-chemical modification, a few years after their implantation. Tissues surrounding these prostheses are damaged by metallic element transfer. Surgeons in Clermont-Ferrand Hospital (France) recover tissues of abnormal coloration that were in contact with metallic implants. PIXE technique (particles induced X-ray emission) with a 400 {mu}m proton beam and 3 MeV of energy is an efficient technique to analyze these tissues and to detect elements, which are transferred from prosthesis to tissues. PIXE analyses were carried at the CERI-CNRS Laboratory. We have applied this method to determine qualitatively and quantitatively trace elements migration from metallic implants to surrounding tissues and organs, like kidney, spleen, liver, lymphatic gland and lung.

  10. Optimization of PIXE quantitative system to assist the traceability of pearl and other gemstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S., E-mail: s.murao@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, (Japan); Sera, K. [Cyclotron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, Takizawa, Iwate (Japan); Goto, S.; Takahashi, C. [Takizawa Laboratory, Japan Radioisotope Association, Takizawa, Iwate (Japan); Cartier, L. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Basel (Switzerland); Nakashima, K. [Yamagata University, Yamagata, (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: A recent rise of social attention towards ethical consumerism, ethical jewellery, blood diamonds and the traceability of gemstones has challenged scientists to construct analytical systems to deliver in line with such expectations by offering traceability solutions. It is important to develop traceability protocols for gemstones and pearls that are ethically traded, as this will further encourage members of the trade to engage in ethical and fair trade practices. Of various kinds of available methods, Proton/particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) seems to be robust and promising in this context because of its trace element analysis capabilities without destruction. The authors conducted both vacuum and in-air experiments to optimize conditions to identify important peaks and to quantify the signals that correspond to gemstone materials from specific geographic origins. PIXE results for cultured pearls from Micronesia and commercial-quality crystals from Pakistan, both sources of fair trade gemstone materials, will be presented. (author)

  11. Quantitative assay of element mass inventories in single cell biological systems with micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogrinc, Nina [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); LOTRIČ Metrology, Selca 163, SI-4227 Selca (Slovenia); Pelicon, Primož, E-mail: primoz.pelicon@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vavpetič, Primož; Kelemen, Mitja; Grlj, Nataša; Jeromel, Luka [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Tomić, Sergej [Medical Faculty of the Military Medical Academy, University of Defense, Crnotravska 17, Belgrade (Serbia); Čolić, Miodrag [Medical Faculty of the Military Medical Academy, University of Defense, Crnotravska 17, Belgrade (Serbia); Medical Faculty, University of Niš, Boulevard of Dr. Zoran Djindjić 81, 18000 Niš (Serbia); Beran, Alfred [Dipartimento di Oceanografia Biologica, Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e Geofisica Sperimentale, Via Auguste Piccard 54, 34151 Trieste (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Elemental concentrations in micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) maps of elements in biological tissue slices have been determined using auxiliary information on the sample matrix composition from EBS (Elastic Backscattering Spectroscopy) and STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy). The thin sample approximation may be used for evaluating micro-PIXE data in cases, where X-ray absorption in the sample can be neglected and the mass of elements in a selected area can be estimated. The resulting sensitivity amounts to an impressive 10{sup −12} g of the selected elements. Two cases are presented as examples. In the first, we determined the total mass of gold nanoparticles internalized by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC). In the second, an inventory of the mass of elements in the micro-particulate material adsorbed at the wall of the lorica of the microzooplankton species Tintinnopsis radix has been created.

  12. Silver surface enrichment controlled by simultaneous RBS for reliable PIXE analysis of ancient coins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, L. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF) - Palais du Louvre, Porte des Lions, 14 Quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); INSTN/UESMS - CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: lucile.beck@culture.fr; Alloin, E. [Pole d' Archeologie Interdepartemental Rhenan - 2 Allee Thomas Edison ZA Sud - CIRSUD, 67600 Selestat (France); Berthier, C.; Reveillon, S. [INSTN/UESMS - CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Costa, V. [Institut de Restauration et de Recherches Archeologiques et Paleometallurgiques (IRRAP), 60200 Compiegne (France)

    2008-05-15

    Evidence of silver surface enrichment of ancient silver-copper coins has been pointed out in the past years. Surface enrichment can be fortuitous or intentional. In this paper, we have investigated the cleaning procedures usually performed after excavation or in museums. We have shown that chemicals or commercial products routinely used dissolve preferentially the copper phase and consequently contribute to the silver surface enrichment. As a result, surface analyses such as PIXE or XRF can be strongly affected by this effect. By using simultaneously RBS and PIXE, it is possible to check through the silver surface enrichment and then select the reliable measurements, characteristic of the bulk composition. Results on coins recently discovered and mechanically or chemically cleaned are presented.

  13. Silver surface enrichment controlled by simultaneous RBS for reliable PIXE analysis of ancient coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, L.; Alloin, E.; Berthier, C.; Réveillon, S.; Costa, V.

    2008-05-01

    Evidence of silver surface enrichment of ancient silver-copper coins has been pointed out in the past years. Surface enrichment can be fortuitous or intentional. In this paper, we have investigated the cleaning procedures usually performed after excavation or in museums. We have shown that chemicals or commercial products routinely used dissolve preferentially the copper phase and consequently contribute to the silver surface enrichment. As a result, surface analyses such as PIXE or XRF can be strongly affected by this effect. By using simultaneously RBS and PIXE, it is possible to check through the silver surface enrichment and then select the reliable measurements, characteristic of the bulk composition. Results on coins recently discovered and mechanically or chemically cleaned are presented.

  14. K, L, and M shell datasets for PIXE spectrum fitting and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, David D., E-mail: dcz@ansto.gov.au; Crawford, Jagoda; Siegele, Rainer

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Differences between several datasets commonly used by PIXE codes for spectrum fitting and concentration estimates have been highlighted. • A preferred option dataset was selected which includes ionisation cross sections, fluorescence yield, Coster–Kronig probabilities and X-ray line emission rates for K, L and M subshells. • For PIXE codes differences of several tens of percent can be seen for selected elements for L and M lines depending on the data sets selected. - Abstract: Routine PIXE analysis programs, like GUPIX, GEOPIXE and PIXAN generally perform at least two key functions firstly, the fitting of K, L and M characteristic lines X-ray lines to a background, including unfolding of overlapping lines and secondly, the use of a fitted primary Kα, Lα or Mα line area to determine the elemental concentration in a given matrix. To achieve these two results to better than 3–5% the data sets for fluorescence yields, emission rates, Coster–Kronig transitions and ionisation cross sections should be determined to better than 3%. There are many different theoretical and experimental K, L and M datasets for these parameters. How they are applied and used in analysis programs can vary the results obtained for both fitting and concentration determinations. Here we discuss several commonly used datasets for fluorescence yields, emission rates, Coster–Kronig transitions and ionisation cross sections for K, L and M subshells and suggests an optimum set to obtain consistent results for PIXE analyses across a range of elements with atomic numbers from 5 ⩽ Z ⩽ 100.

  15. Microbeam PIXE analysis of platinum resistant and sensitive ovarian cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeynes, J.C.G., E-mail: J.C.Jeynes@surrey.ac.u [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Bailey, M.J. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Coley, H. [Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Kirkby, K.J.; Jeynes, C. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Microbeam PIXE was used to analyse platinum in single ovarian cancer cells. Carboplatin sensitive and resistant cells were grown as a monolayer on polypropylene and treated with either carboplatin or cisplatin. Pt from the carboplatin could not be detected. The Pt from cisplatin in the cells could be detected, and significantly more Zn was found in the resistant cells compared to the sensitive cells. The sensitive cells probably accumulated more cisplatin than the resistant ones.

  16. Comparison of PIXE and SXRF for kinetic studies in cell pharmacology of platinum and gold compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, F. (Faculte de Medecine de Creteil (France). Lab. de Biophysique Laboratoire d' Analyse par Activation Pierre-Sue - Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Chevallier, P. (Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France)); Tapiero, H. (Hopital Paul-Brousse, 94 - Villejuif (France)); Massiot, P.; Piccot, D. (Laboratoire d' Analyse par Activation Pierre-Sue - Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Galle, P. (Faculte de Medecine de Creteil (France). Lab. de Biophysique); Silvestro, L. (Turin Univ. (Italy). Facolta di Medicina); Arizti, P. (Universidad Pais Vasco, Leioa (Spain). Facultad de Medicina)

    1991-01-01

    The analytical conditions in PIXE and SXRF are studied in order to optimize the detection of platinum and gold compounds in the cell and in their subcellular fractions. Calibration curves, reproducibility and detection limits were obtained with both techniques and compared. The best detection limit was achieved with SXRF. Preliminary data on the cellular pharmacokinetics of cisplatinum and gold selective distribution in nuclei were obtained by the above techniques. (author).

  17. PIXE analysis of cave sediments, prehispanic paintings and obsidian cutting tools from Baja California Sur caves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, J.; Oliver, A.; Dacal, A.; Ruvalcaba, J.L.; Cruz, F.; Ortiz, M.E. (Inst. de Fisica, Univ. Nacional Automoma Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)); Vinas, R. (Inst. de Investigaciones Antropologicas, Univ. Nacional Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1993-04-01

    Elemental PIXE analysis of cave sediments, minerals, pigments of the prehispanic paintings and obsidian cutting tools from caves in Baja California Sur has been carried out with a 0.7 MeV proton beam. The elements analysed in this sample set (Al to Co) provide an idea of the environment of the caves. The obsidian data analysis suggests that the human communities who made these painting used more than one obsidian source to manufacture cutting tools. (orig.).

  18. Investigation into the Origin and Character of Surficial Sedimentary Deposits at the Midshore Regional Solid Waste Facility near Easton, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, Joseph P.; Newell, Wayne L.; DeJong, Benjamin D.

    2009-01-01

    A temporary exposure at the Midshore Regional Solid Waste Facility near Easton, MD, provided an opportunity to document the characteristics of the complex assemblage of surficial facies in that area. This unusually large cross section allowed interpretation of the changing processes that shaped the landscape in response to climate change through the late Pleistocene. Eight stratigraphic units were recognized: (1) gray, fossiliferous, muddy silt of the marine Miocene Choptank Formation; (2) coarse, crossbedded conglomerate of the late Miocene to Pliocene fluvial Pensauken Formation; (3) bioturbated muddy conglomerate interpreted as deposits of small colluvial fans; (4) pebbly, quartzose sand overlying a planar erosional surface reflecting a marine transgression; (5) irregular pods and lenses of sand and gravel deformed into bowl-shaped folds and faulted, which are interpreted as wind deposits over a semipermanent snow cover (niveo-aeolian deposits); (6) crossbedded sand and conglomerate with abundant mud partings indicating tidal influences on sinuous stream channels; (7) heavily bioturbated silt and sand with abundant root casts and flattened vesicles interpreted as aeolian loess deposits in marshy fens; and (8) pebbly sand and mud with scattered boulders and cobbles that reflect modern infill of the excavation by the operators. Soils formed on units 3, 4, and 7. Superimposed on units 4, 5, and 7 is evidence of deep freezing and permafrost development and subsequent thermokarst development after thawing, which includes large, complexly filled wedge-shaped cracks, deformed bedding and faults, fluid-injection structures, and spherical blobs of sand and mud. Each of the stratigraphic units has irregular distributions and lateral changes. The results of this study provide a unique insight into the geometry of surficial deposits that will help facilitate mapping of units, interpretation of cored intervals, and understanding of ground-penetrating radar profiles. The

  19. Facility Location for Solid Waste Management through Compilation and Multicriterial Ranking of Optimal Decentralised Scenarios: A Case Study for the Region of Peloponesse in Southern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karagiannidis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the problem of locating solid waste management facilities.Specifically, it studies and proposes optimal alternative solutions for the Greek Region of Peloponnese,by examining facilities for transferring, sorting, treating and landfilling of wastes. Quantitative and qualitative databases concerning the current solid waste management at the Region have been created and used by the model. A customized mixed-integer linear network model has been developed and solved for various evaluation criteria on a single-criterion basis by the use of a location-allocation modeling framework.The solutions resulting from the parametrical application of the multicriterial method ELECTRE III are then ranked for the entire criteria-spectrum. The best alternative scenario is presented for the Region in accordance with current legislation on waste management, which maximizes environmental benefits and promotes recycling, in the frame of sustainable waste management.

  20. Trace element mapping of pyrite from Archean gold deposits - A comparison between PIXE and EPMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agangi, A.; Przybyłowicz, W.; Hofmann, A.

    2015-04-01

    Chemical zoning of pyrites can record the evolution of mineralising fluids at widely varying P-T conditions ranging from diagenesis to medium-grade metamorphism. If preserved, zoning can reveal growth textures, brecciation and veining, resorption and recrystallisation events, thus shedding light on the processes that contributed to ore formation. Chemical zoning of sulfides is invisible in optical microscopy, but can be studied by chemical etching, high-contrast back-scattering electron images, and elemental imaging. In this study we compared micro-PIXE and WDS-EPMA elemental maps on the chemically zoned pyrites in mineralised vein-bearing samples from the Sheba and Fairview gold mines in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Elemental images show complex distribution of trace elements, suggesting multiple events of pyrite crystallisation and gold deposition. EPMA maps show fine-scale variations reflecting growth and recrystallisation textures marked, in particular, by variations of As, Ni, and Co. In PIXE maps, gold occurs both as finely-distributed and discrete inclusions, suggesting incorporation in the pyrite structure as solid solution, and deposition as electrum inclusions, respectively. Micro-PIXE and EPMA provide complementary information, forming together a powerful tool to obtain information on chemical zoning of pyrites in ore deposits.

  1. Energy Resolution Optimization of the Yale ``PIXeY'' Two-Phase Xenon Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destefano, Nicholas; Gai, Moshe; McKinsey, Daniel; Bernard, Ethan; Wahl, Christopher; Edwards, Blair; Horn, Markus; Larsen, Nicole; Tennyson, Brian

    2015-04-01

    PIXeY (Particle Identification in Xenon at Yale) is a two-phase (liquid/gas) xenon prototype detector with 3-kg active mass. The two-phase xenon technology has many applications that include gamma-ray imaging, neutrinoless double beta decay searches, dark matter searches, and 4 π gamma-ray detectors for studies in Nuclear Astrophysics. PIXeY was built to optimize energy resolution, position resolution, and gamma/neutron discrimination. A number of fiducial cuts and correction factors were used to optimize energy resolution. The light and charge signals were corrected by the spatial location of the event within the detector, taking into account effects such as the electron lifetime, geometric light collection, and any other position and field-dependent variations. The energy spectrum of various sources was studied by varying the cathode, anode, and PMT voltages. Optimal configurations for the drift and scintillation fields were found for energies ranging from 41.5 keV (83m Kr) to 2.61 MeV (228 Th), resolving the light signal and keeping the charge signal unsaturated. In addition, after optimizing for the energy resolution of Cs-137 (662 keV) the value obtained was 1.4% σ/E. Once the energy resolution studies have concluded, PIXeY will serve as a platform for future improvements, including multiple optical volumes and single-wire readout for R&D on gamma-ray imaging.

  2. GIT1 and βPIX Are Essential for GABAA Receptor Synaptic Stability and Inhibitory Neurotransmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine R. Smith

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective inhibitory synaptic transmission requires efficient stabilization of GABAA receptors (GABAARs at synapses, which is essential for maintaining the correct excitatory-inhibitory balance in the brain. However, the signaling mechanisms that locally regulate synaptic GABAAR membrane dynamics remain poorly understood. Using a combination of molecular, imaging, and electrophysiological approaches, we delineate a GIT1/βPIX/Rac1/PAK signaling pathway that modulates F-actin and is important for maintaining surface GABAAR levels, inhibitory synapse integrity, and synapse strength. We show that GIT1 and βPIX are required for synaptic GABAAR surface stability through the activity of the GTPase Rac1 and downstream effector PAK. Manipulating this pathway using RNAi, dominant-negative and pharmacological approaches leads to a disruption of GABAAR clustering and decrease in the strength of synaptic inhibition. Thus, the GIT1/βPIX/Rac1/PAK pathway plays a crucial role in regulating GABAAR synaptic stability and hence inhibitory synaptic transmission with important implications for inhibitory plasticity and information processing in the brain.

  3. PIXE and XRF analysis of particulate matter samples: an inter-laboratory comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzolai, Giulia [University of Florence, Physics Department and INFN, Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Florence) (Italy); Chiari, Massimo [INFN, National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Florence (Italy); Lucarelli, Franco [University of Florence, Physics Department and INFN, Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Florence) (Italy)], E-mail: lucarelli@fi.infn.it; Mazzei, Federico [University of Genoa, Physics Department and INFN, Genoa (Italy); Nava, Silvia [INFN, National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Florence (Italy); Prati, Paolo [University of Genoa, Physics Department and INFN, Genoa (Italy); Valli, Gianluigi; Vecchi, Roberta [University of Milan, Applied General Physics Institute and INFN, Milan (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    PIXE and XRF are very effective techniques in atmospheric aerosol investigation, therefore they are extensively used by the authors. In this work an inter-laboratory comparison of the results obtained analysing several samples (collected on different substrata) with both techniques is presented: the samples were analysed by PIXE (in Florence, at the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator of LABEC laboratory) and by XRF (in Genoa and Milan, where two Oxford XRF instruments are operational). The results of the three sets of measurements are in good agreement for all the analysed samples. The aim of this work was also to compare PIXE and XRF performance in atmospheric aerosol analysis with the routine set-up currently in use at the three laboratories, to determine the best technique to be applied depending on the substratum used for aerosol sampling and the main elements of interest for each specific research project. Results of the comparison between the minimum detection limits of both techniques will be shown for all the measured elements, for different substrata (Teflon, polycarbonate and cellulose mixed esters)

  4. RIFLE: regional impact of facility location on the economy. User's guide, volume 2. Maryland economic, fiscal, and social impact assessment model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, P.D.; Harms, P.L.

    1983-02-01

    This user's guide describes the non-computerized models in the RIFLE (Regional Impact of Facility Location on the Economy) system. The RIFLE system consists of seven computerized models and three non-computerized models which can be used to analyze the economic, demographic, and fiscal impacts of major facilities upon the counties in which they are located and adjacent counties. Volume II describes the non-computerized models in the RIFLE system. These models represent an alternative approach to estimating costs of providing government services to in-migrating households.

  5. Notification: EPA Region 10 Management Controls Over Allowing Substantial Public Funds to Construct the Spokane County Wastewater Treatment Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    January 20, 2012. This EPA's OIG is initiating a review from an OIG hotline complaint regarding whether federal funds were properly used to construct the new Spokane County wastewater treatment facility in accordance with 40 CFR 35, Subpart K.

  6. RIFLE: regional impact of facility location on the economy. User's guide, volume 1. Maryland economic, fiscal, and social impact assessment model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, P.D.

    1983-02-01

    RIFLE (Regional Impact of Facility Location on the Economy) is the computerized version of the Maryland Economic, Fiscal and Social Impact Assessment Model. It consists of a system of seven computerized models and three non-computerized models which can be used to analyze the economic, demographic, and fiscal impacts of major facilities upon the counties in which they are located and adjacent counties. The User's Manual is intended to assist the user of RIFLE in preparing input data required to execute the computerized system as well as in choosing among the many options available for analyzing facility impacts. Volume I provides the user with a guide for interpreting results and a sample run card deck to serve as a reference for applications of the model. Flowcharts, which outline the necessary inputs and outputs of the computerized models have also been included.

  7. Evaluation of specimen preparation techniques for micro-PIXE localisation of elements in hyperaccumulating plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachenko, Anthony G. [Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)], E-mail: a.kachenko@usyd.edu.au; Siegele, Rainer; Bhatia, Naveen P. [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Singh, Balwant [Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Ionescu, Mihail [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Hybanthus floribundus subsp. floribundus, a rare Australian Ni-hyperaccumulating shrub and Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana, an Australian naturalized As-hyperaccumulating fern are promising species for use in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission ({mu}-PIXE) spectroscopy was used to map the elemental distribution of the accumulated metal(loid)s, Ca and K in leaf or pinnule tissues of the two plant species. Samples were prepared by two contrasting specimen preparation techniques: freeze-substitution in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and freeze-drying. The specimens were analysed to compare the suitability of each technique in preserving (i) the spatial elemental distribution and (ii) the tissue structure of the specimens. Further, the {mu}-PIXE results were compared with concentration of elements in the bulk tissue obtained by ICP-AES analysis. In H. floribundus subsp. floribundus, {mu}-PIXE analysis revealed Ni, Ca and K concentrations in freeze-dried leaf tissues were at par with bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps illustrated that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermal tissues (1% DW) and least concentration was found in spongy mesophyll tissues (0.53% DW). Conversely, elemental distribution maps of THF freeze-substituted tissues indicated significantly lower Ni, Ca and K concentrations than freeze-dried specimens and bulk tissue concentrations. Moreover, Ni concentrations were uniform across the whole specimen and no localisation was observed. In P. calomelanos var. austroamericana freeze-dried pinnule tissues, {mu}-PIXE revealed statistically similar As, Ca and K concentrations as compared to bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps showed that As localisation was relatively uniform across the whole specimen. Once again, THF freeze-substituted tissues revealed a significant loss of As compared to freeze-dried specimens and the concentrations obtained by bulk tissue

  8. PIXE investigation of Roman metal archaeological objects from the Municipium Tifernum Mataurense area (S. Angelo in Vado, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogante, M., E-mail: main@roganteengineering.it [Rogante Engineering Office, Contrada San Michele n. 61, 62012 Civitanova Marche (Italy); Kovács, I. [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly Thege Str., 29-33, 1121 Budapest (Hungary); Rosta, L. [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly Thege Str., 29-33, 1121 Budapest (Hungary); Stortoni, E. [University of Macerata, Department of Educational Sciences, Cultural Heritage and Tourism, Polo didattico “L.Bertelli”, P.le Bertelli n. 1, 62100 Macerata (Italy); Szőkefalvi-Nagy, Z. [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly Thege Str., 29-33, 1121 Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-11-15

    Six rather different bronze archaeological artefacts discovered over time in the Tifernum Mataurense area (S. Angelo in Vado, Marche Region, Italy) did not fit by visual inspection to the findings collected in nearby archaeological sites and they differ from each other, too. The primary goal of this work was to obtain data from the elemental composition of using a fast non-destructive quantitative analytical method. To do that the external milli-beam particle induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (external milli-beam PIXE) was chosen. Taking into account that not any invasive actions as burnishing, scratching or chemical treatment were allowed and the surface of the objects was rather corroded or patinated, the results obtained can be considered to be rather informative, only. Even these informative results, however, are useful to set up a classification of the objects according to the chemical composition and provide complementary near-surface composition information to the bulk data expected from cold neutron PGAA analyses to be performed.

  9. Void and cavity determination in micro-PIXE analysis of composed material using binocular detectors: A computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami Hatam, Ebrahim

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a new method to determine the location, size and depth of the pores in the material that is based on the asymmetry in the X-ray yield induced by proton micro-beam acquired in samples by a pair of X-ray detectors. Most of the samples have cavities within their structures that may affect the quantitative elemental concentration. Although, there are several methods to measure the porosity that are based on a physical fact. Here, we demonstrate a study that is based on the lack of X-ray absorption induced by proton along the void region. In fact, we have different X-ray absorption along the sample which results in asymmetry X-ray yield in two spectrometers positioned at backward of the probing beam. The presented approach introduces an asymmetry factor of the X-ray intensity in each of the detector to obtain an image asymmetry map. Our calculation was employed on silicon-based devices to estimate the size of the proposed cavity and the localized depth of the hole in composed material in micro-PIXE analysis. It was deduced that the presented approach is sensitive to the depth and the size of the hole in the composed material.

  10. Site specific risk assessment of an energy-from-waste thermal treatment facility in Durham Region, Ontario, Canada. Part A: Human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollson, Christopher A; Knopper, Loren D; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Jayasinghe, Ruwan

    2014-01-01

    The regions of Durham and York in Ontario, Canada have partnered to construct an energy-from-waste thermal treatment facility as part of a long term strategy for the management of their municipal solid waste. This paper presents the results of a comprehensive human health risk assessment for this facility. This assessment was based on extensive sampling of baseline environmental conditions (e.g., collection and analysis of air, soil, water, and biota samples) as well as detailed site specific modeling to predict facility-related emissions of 87 identified contaminants of potential concern. Emissions were estimated for both the approved initial operating design capacity of the facility (140,000 tonnes per year) and for the maximum design capacity (400,000 tonnes per year). For the 140,000 tonnes per year scenario, this assessment indicated that facility-related emissions are unlikely to cause adverse health risks to local residents, farmers, or other receptors (e.g., recreational users). For the 400,000 tonnes per year scenarios, slightly elevated risks were noted with respect to inhalation (hydrogen chloride) and infant consumption of breast milk (dioxins and furans), but only during predicted 'upset conditions' (i.e. facility start-up, shutdown, and loss of air pollution control) that represent unusual and/or transient occurrences. However, current provincial regulations require that additional environmental screening would be mandatory prior to expansion of the facility beyond the initial approved capacity (140,000 tonnes per year). Therefore, the potential risks due to upset conditions for the 400,000 tonnes per year scenario should be more closely investigated if future expansion is pursued. © 2013.

  11. Recent applications of PIXE spectrometry in archaeology. Pt. 1; Observations on the early development of copper metallurgy in the Old World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, S.J. (MASCA, Univ. Museum, Univ. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Swann, C.P. (Bartol Research Inst., Univ. Delaware, Newark, DE (United States))

    1993-04-01

    The early development of copper metallurgy can be characterized by three steps of innovation: (i) Exploitation of native copper resources for simple tool-making as early as the 7th millennium B.C. in the Near East; (ii) the recovery of copper metal from minerals such as malachite, by smelting, during the 5th millennium B.C., both in the Near East and in eastern Europe; and (iii) the deliberate alloying of copper and tin, to make bronze, circa 2800 B.C. in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq). This paper reviews the technological aspects associated the first two of these steps, comparing compositional patterns (as determined by PIXE spectrometry) for the copper metallurgy of various regions including the Middle Danube basin, the Tigris basin, and the Iranian Plateau. (orig.).

  12. Application of vertical-beam in-air PIXE to surface analysis of plant root exposed to aluminum stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Satoshi; Mae, Tadahiko [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Inoue, Jun-ichi; Murozono, Keisuke; Matsuyama, Sigeo; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Iwasaki, Sin; Ishii, Keizo

    1997-12-31

    Elemental composition of living cells and tissues reflects their physiological function and status. However, it has been difficult to know in-situ elemental distribution by conventional analytical methods. In-air PIXE seems suitable for surface analysis of living cells and tissues because any treatment (e.g. freeze drying, digestion) is not required before and during measurement. We applied Via (vertical-beam in-air) PIXE to surface analysis of plant roots exposed to aluminum (Al). Aluminum stress is a major factor that limits elongation of plant roots in acid soils. We previously reported decrease in atomic ratio of potassium to phosphorus (K/P ratio) of dried root-tip of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) under Al stress using in-vacuum PIXE. In Via PIXE, 5 to 7-minute irradiation by 3 MeV proton beams of 200 pA was sufficient to obtain X-ray spectra without drying root samples. Decrease in K/P ratio in surface cells of root-tips was observed by short-term (6-8 h) exposure of root to Al. Via PIXE is recognized as a powerful tool for in-situ surface analysis of plant material. (author)

  13. New Generation GridPix: Development and characterisation of pixelated gaseous detectors based on the Timepix3 chip

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082958; Hessey, Nigel

    Due to the increasing demands of high energy physics experiments there is a need for particle detectors which enable high precision measurements. In this regard, the GridPix detector is a novel detector concept which combines the benefits of a pixel chip with an integrated gas amplification structure. The resulting unit is a detector sensitive to single electrons with a great potential for particle tracking and energy loss measurements. This thesis is focusing on the development of a new generation of GridPix detectors based on the Timepix3 chip, which implements a high resolution Time to Digital Converter (TDC) in each pixel. After an introductory chapter describing the motivation behind GridPix, the manuscript presents the physics of gaseous detectors in chapter 2 along with the gaseous detectors used for particle tracking in chapter 3. Chapters 4 and 5 are focusing on the tracking performance of GridPix detectors. Chapter 4 presents results obtained with a GridPix detector based on a small scale prototy...

  14. On the autarchic use of solely PIXE data in particulate matter source apportionment studies by receptor modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucarelli, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN)-Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Nava, S., E-mail: nava@fi.infn.it [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN)-Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Calzolai, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Chiari, M. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN)-Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Giannoni, M.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of aerosol samples allows simultaneous detection of several elements, including important tracers of many particulate matter sources. This capability, together with the possibility of analyzing a high number of samples in very short times, makes PIXE a very effective tool for source apportionment studies by receptor modeling. However, important aerosol components, like nitrates, OC and EC, cannot be assessed by PIXE: this limitation may strongly compromise the results of a source apportionment study if based on PIXE data alone. In this work, an experimental dataset characterised by an extended chemical speciation (elements, EC–OC, ions) is used to test the effect of reducing input species in the application of one of the most widely used receptor model, namely Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). The main effect of using only PIXE data is that the secondary nitrate source is not identified and the contribution of biomass burning is overestimated, probably due to the similar seasonal pattern of these two sources.

  15. The Plan of management for the Agave Lanscape and the ancient industrial facilities of Tequila, the cultural heritage as a trigger of regional development, commitments and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Arriola, Ignacio; Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (inaph)

    2014-01-01

    The text explores the values as cultural heritage of the region of the volcano of Tequila, newly inscribed on the World Heritagelist of UNESCO in the category of cultural landscape, as well as the challenges and commitments to the international communityto their preservation on the formulation and implementation of a plan of management for the “Agave landscape and theancient industrial facilities of Tequila”.The document is divided into three parts. The first discusses the criteria and the cu...

  16. Study of paleodiet by means of the PIXE analysis of ancient human bones from Teotihuacan; Estudio de paleodieta mediante el analisis PIXE de restos oseos de Teotihuacan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruvalcaba S, J.L.; Becerra R, V. [IFUNAM, A.P. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    This work focuses on the study of the paleodiet of individuals from Teotihuacan corresponding to the end of the Classic period and Mazapa phase. The analysis lies on the chemical composition variability of major and trace elements, such as Ca, Fe, Zn, Sr, and Ba among others, of bone remains. Particle Induced X-ray Emission Spectrometry (PIXE) was used to analyze the individual bone remains and sediments associated to the burial context. The bone remains were stripped of their external layer by mechanical cleaning, then powdered to prepare pellets. The bone and sediment pellets were irradiated using a 3 MeV proton beam and an external beam setup. Elemental concentrations of Ca, Fe, Zn, Sr and Ba, among other elements, were measured in bones and sediments from the archaeological excavations. An evaluation of the sample preparation, the effects of the archaeological context, as well as the paleodiet results are presented. (Author) 20 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Characterization of pre-Hispanic pottery from Teotihuacan, Mexico, by a combined PIXE-RBS and XRD analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.; Ontalba Salamanca, M. A.; Manzanilla, L.; Miranda, J.; Cañetas Ortega, J.; López, C.

    1999-04-01

    A combined analysis of IBA techniques (Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS)) and a complementary study by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were performed to characterize pottery corresponding to the Epiclassic period (A.D. 700-900) from Teotihuacan, Mexico. Elemental compositions of pottery samples were measured by simultaneous PIXE and RBS using 2.6 MeV protons. Red, white and brown pottery pigments were studied by non-vacuum PIXE and a proton beam of 3 MeV. The various mineralogical phases of the pottery were identified by XRD. From pottery elemental compositions and its mineralogical phases, some differences among the pottery samples and groups were established.

  18. Characterization of pre-Hispanic pottery from Teotihuacan, Mexico, by a combined PIXE-RBS and XRD analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruvalcaba-Sil, J.L.; Ontalba Salamanca, M.A.; Manzanilla, L.; Miranda, J.; Canetas Ortega, J.; Lopez, C

    1999-04-02

    A combined analysis of IBA techniques (Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS)) and a complementary study by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were performed to characterize pottery corresponding to the Epiclassic period (A.D. 700-900) from Teotihuacan, Mexico. Elemental compositions of pottery samples were measured by simultaneous PIXE and RBS using 2.6 MeV protons. Red, white and brown pottery pigments were studied by non-vacuum PIXE and a proton beam of 3 MeV. The various mineralogical phases of the pottery were identified by XRD. From pottery elemental compositions and its mineralogical phases, some differences among the pottery samples and groups were established.

  19. PIXE and PIGE techniques for the analysis of Antarctic ice dust and continental sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, F. [Environmental Sciences Department (DISAT), University of Milan-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Chemistry Department, University of Florence, Sesto Fiorentino (Florence) (Italy); Calzolai, G. [INFN, Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze), Florence (Italy); Caporali, S.; Castellano, E. [Chemistry Department, University of Florence, Sesto Fiorentino (Florence) (Italy); Chiari, M. [INFN, Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze), Florence (Italy)], E-mail: chiari@fi.infn.it; Lucarelli, F. [Physics Department and INFN, University of Florence, Sesto Fiorentino (Florence) (Italy); Maggi, V. [Environmental Sciences Department (DISAT), University of Milan-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Nava, S. [INFN, Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze), Florence (Italy); Sala, M. [Earth Science Department, University of Milan, Milan (Italy); MNA, Antarctic National Museum, Sienna (Italy); Udisti, R. [Chemistry Department, University of Florence, Sesto Fiorentino (Florence) (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    An analytical procedure has been implemented in this work for an accurate geochemical characterization and quantitative analysis of the fine dust (particles diameter < 5 {mu}m) trapped in Antarctic ice cores and the fine fraction of potential source areas (PSA) sediments by size selection, filtering and PIXE-PIGE combined measurements. The underestimation of concentrations of the lighter elements, like Na, Mg, Al and Si, due to X-ray self-absorption inside each individual aerosol particle, was also evaluated and the analytical overall accuracy tested by means of measurements performed on size selected certified mineral standards.

  20. PIXE/RBS as a tool to study cementitious materials: Application to the dynamic leaching of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorente, I., E-mail: irene@cenim.csic.e [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Castellote, M. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion ' Eduardo Torroja' (IETcc-CSIC), Serrano Galvache, 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Arrabal, R. [Parque Cientifico de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, Einstein 13, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ynsa, M.D.; Munoz-Martin, A. [Centro de Microanalisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Viedma, P.G. de; Castillo, A.; Martinez, I.; Andrade, C. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion ' Eduardo Torroja' (IETcc-CSIC), Serrano Galvache, 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Zuloaga, P.; Ordonez, M. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA), Emilio Vargas, 7, 28043 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    The suitability of the application of Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques such as Particle Induced X-ray Emission spectrometry (PIXE) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) to elemental depth profiling in concrete is analysed, studying hardened samples of concrete prior to and after a dynamic leaching test. A calibration of the data has been done by comparing the results obtained by IBA techniques with those obtained by Chemical and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG/DTA). From PIXE and RBS data relevant information about the migration of minor elements, within the concrete matrix after leaching is obtained.

  1. Trace metal content in aspirin and women's cosmetics via proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hichwa, B.P.; Pun, D.D.; Wang, D.

    1981-04-01

    A multielemental analysis to determine the trace metal content of generic and name-brand aspirins and name-brand lipsticks was done via proton induced x-ray (PIXE) measurements. The Hope College PIXE system is described as well as the target preparation methods. The trace metal content of twelve brands of aspirin and aspirin substitutes and fourteen brands of lipstick are reported. Detection limits for most elements are in the range of 100 parts per billion (ppb) to 10 parts per million (ppm).

  2. Elemental distribution in reproductive and neural organs of the Epilachna nylanderi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a phytophage of nickel hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddii (Asterales: Asteraceae) by micro-PIXE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, Jolanta; Orłowska, Elżbieta; Augustyniak, Maria; Nakonieczny, Mirosław; Tarnawska, Monika; Przybyłowicz, Wojciech; Migula, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of metal hyperaccumulation by plants is often explained by a pathogen or herbivore defense hypothesis. However, some insects feeding on metal hyperaccumulating plants are adapted to the high level of metals in plant tissues. Former studies on species that feed on the leaves of Berkheya coddii Roessler 1958 (Asteraceae), a nickel-hyperaccumulating plant, demonstrated several protective mechanisms involved in internal distribution, immobilization, and elimination of Ni from the midgut and Malpighian tubules. These species are mainly coleopterans, including the lady beetle, Epilachna nylanderi (Mulsant 1850) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), collected from the ultramafic ecosystem near Barberton in South Africa. By performing particle-induced X-ray emission microanalysis elemental microanalysis (PIXE), this study examined whether Ni may be harmful to internal body systems that decide on insect reactivity (central nervous system [CNS]), their reproduction, and the relationships between Ni and other micronutrients. Data on elemental distribution of nine selected elements in target organs of E. nylanderi were compared with the existing data for other insect species adapted to the excess of metals. Micro-PIXE maps of seven regions of the CNS showed Ni mainly in the neural connectives, while cerebral ganglia were better protected. Concentrations of other bivalent metals were lower than those of Ni. Testis, compared with other reproductive organs, showed low amounts of Ni. Zn was effectively regulated at physiological dietary levels. In insects exposed to excess dietary Zn, it was also accumulated in the reproductive organs. Comparison of E. nylanderii with other insects that ingest hyperaccumulating plants, especially chrysomelid Chrysolina clathrata (Clark) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), showed lower protection of the CNS and reproductive organs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  3. Disability, residential environment and social participation: factors influencing daily mobility of persons living in residential care facilities in two regions of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapegno, Noémie; Ravaud, Jean-François

    2017-09-29

    Despite the context of individualization of public policies and promotion of independent living, residential care facilities (RCFs) (called "établissements medico-sociaux" in France) still represent the main system used by disabled people. Through a study of their daily mobility, this article proposes a geographical approach to the examination of factors influencing the social participation of disabled persons with motor impairments who live in residential care facilities. The data were collected in three stages from several sources. We first carried out 24 semi-directive interviews among supervisory staff in all the institutions in two regions of France (Greater Paris and Upper Normandy) to better understand the nature of services offered by medico-social facilities. We next did field work in greater detail in 10 of these institutions. We selected residents by random sampling. These first stages then allowed us to study the mobility of residents and record their perceptions. We conducted participant observation and interviews with 81 disabled residents within the 10 RCF. Data analysis enabled consideration not only of the role of the residential environment in people's daily mobility, but the role of the institutions as well. We identified three typical profiles of mobility practices depending on the facilities: "the islanders", living in isolated facilities far from public transportation, or in so-called "difficult" neighborhoods; people who alternate individual and group mobility in a more or less large area; and "the navigators" who have high mobility over a very large area, often living in facilities located in urban areas. The study also enabled an analysis of the obstacles and facilitators inside and outside the residential facilities. These place restrictions on social participation by disabled adults. However, possibilities for individual negotiation may enable bypassing some obstacles. The three ideal-type profiles of mobility analyzed constitute

  4. Sludge processing and storage facilities in the Bages region (Catalonia Spain); Instalaciones de transformacion y almacenaje de fangos del Bages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carruza Perz, T.; Tomas i Puig, R.; Sana i Vilaseca, J.; More Ramos, J.C.

    1996-03-01

    The increasing number of waste water treatment plants means that there is a growing need to find solutions for the by-products they generate, particularly sludge. This article describes the sludge processing facilities of the Manresa-Sant Joan de Vilatorrada waste water treatment system. They are designed to convert the dehydrated sludge into easily handled products for use on the land in farming, gardening or other applications. The sludge is transformed by a composting process which is regulated to suit the particular end-use required. The values of the key characteristics of the treated products and their evolution during the process are presented an discussed. (Author)

  5. Micro-IL and micro-PIXE studies of rich diamond meteorites at Legnaro nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Giudice, A. E-mail: logiudice@ph.unito.it; Pratesi, G.; Olivero, P.; Paolini, C.; Vittone, E.; Manfredotti, C.; Sammiceli, F.; Rigato, V

    2003-09-01

    A combination of micro-ionoluminescence (micro-IL) and micro-PIXE was used to characterize diamond grains inside a type of meteorites known as ureilites. Ureilites are a group of achondrites unique in containing relatively large amounts of carbon occurring as diamond, graphite or lonsdaleite. A shock origin for ureilitic diamonds has been widely accepted though an exact knowledge of the conditions during high-pressure graphite conversion is not yet achieved. Micro-IL is a very powerful technique for material investigation and particularly for diamond analysis. Using this technique we were able to identify the occurrence of the diamond phase inside carbon meteoritic inclusions and to perform micro-PIXE analysis on single diamond grains. In fact, IL in low nitrogen content diamonds is dominated by A-band emission (centered at about 2.9 eV) and so, considering only IL monochromatic map at such a spectral band, it was possible to identify them. By making measurements directly on the meteorites, contamination during chemical extraction processes was avoided and it was possible to study not only the diamond phase, but also its distribution inside carbon inclusions.

  6. External PIXE analysis of an Iranian 15th century poetry book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakuee, Omidreza, E-mail: okakuee@aeoi.org.ir [Nuclear Science Research School, NSTRI, P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathollahi, Vahid; Oliaiy, Parvin; Lamehi-Rachti, Mohammad [Nuclear Science Research School, NSTRI, P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taheri, Raziyeh; Jafarian, Hosseinali A. [The Library, Museum and Documentation Center of the Islamic Republic of Iran Parliament, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    The paints of illumination, ink and paper of an Iranian poetry manuscript originally belonging to 15th century but partly restored about 300 years ago are characterized by external PIXE. The technique was employed to determine the elemental composition of different inks and paints applied in the text and illumination as well as the paper of both the original masterpiece and the restored parts in order to evaluate the quality of restoration processes. The X-ray spectra were collected by a Si(Li) X-ray detector placed at a scattering angle of 135 Degree-Sign while the beam charge was indirectly measured through the Ar K{sub {alpha}} X-ray yield originated from the irradiation of in-air Argon. By analysis of the collected PIXE spectra, concentration of different elements present in closely matched colored areas in the original and restored illuminations were compared. In the same way, the origin of colored pigments and black ink in the original and restored illuminations and texts are inferred.

  7. External PIXE analysis of an Iranian 15th century poetry book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuee, Omidreza; Fathollahi, Vahid; Oliaiy, Parvin; Lamehi-Rachti, Mohammad; Taheri, Raziyeh; Jafarian, Hosseinali A.

    2012-02-01

    The paints of illumination, ink and paper of an Iranian poetry manuscript originally belonging to 15th century but partly restored about 300 years ago are characterized by external PIXE. The technique was employed to determine the elemental composition of different inks and paints applied in the text and illumination as well as the paper of both the original masterpiece and the restored parts in order to evaluate the quality of restoration processes. The X-ray spectra were collected by a Si(Li) X-ray detector placed at a scattering angle of 135° while the beam charge was indirectly measured through the Ar K α X-ray yield originated from the irradiation of in-air Argon. By analysis of the collected PIXE spectra, concentration of different elements present in closely matched colored areas in the original and restored illuminations were compared. In the same way, the origin of colored pigments and black ink in the original and restored illuminations and texts are inferred.

  8. Assessment of metal sorption mechanisms by aquatic macrophytes using PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Módenes, A.N., E-mail: anmodenes@yahoo.com.br [Department of Chemical Engineering-Postgraduate Program, West Parana State University, Campus of Toledo, rua da Faculdade 645, Jd. La Salle, 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Espinoza-Quiñones, F.R.; Santos, G.H.F.; Borba, C.E. [Department of Chemical Engineering-Postgraduate Program, West Parana State University, Campus of Toledo, rua da Faculdade 645, Jd. La Salle, 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Rizzutto, M.A. [Physics Institute, University of São Paulo, Rua do Matão s/n, Travessa R 187, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Divalent metal ion removals by Egeria densa biosorbent. • Multielements concentrations in biosorbent samples by PIXE analysis. • Elements mass balance in liquid and solid phase before and after metal removals. • Assessment of the mechanisms involved in Cd{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} removal by biosorbent. • Confirmation of the signature of ion exchange process in metal removal. -- Abstract: In this work, a study of the metal sorption mechanism by dead biomass has been performed. All batch metal biosorption experiments were performed using the aquatic macrophyte Egeria densa as biosorbent. Divalent cadmium and zinc solutions were used to assess the sorption mechanisms involved. Using a suitable equilibrium time of 2 h and a mixture of 300 mg biosorbent and 50 mL metal solution at pH 5, monocomponent sorption experiments were performed. In order to determine the residual amounts of metals in the aqueous solutions and the concentrations of removed metals in the dry biomass, Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) measurements in thin and thick target samples were carried out. Based on the strong experimental evidence from the mass balance among the major elements participating in the sorption processes, an ion exchange process was identified as the mechanism responsible for metal removal by the dry biomass.

  9. Micro-PIXE analyses of frozen-hydrated semi-thick biological sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.D., E-mail: yaodongw@tlabs.ac.za [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J., E-mail: mesjasz@tlabs.ac.za [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Tylko, G., E-mail: grzegorz.tylko@uj.edu.pl [Department of Cell Biology and Imaging, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Barnabas, A.D., E-mail: alban@tlabs.ac.za [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Przybylowicz, W.J., E-mail: Przybylowicz@tlabs.ac.za [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa)

    2013-07-01

    Cryo-micro-PIXE system and methodology of microanalysis of frozen-hydrated semi-thick biological sections is described. A commercially available cryotransfer system used in electron microscopy has been adapted for this purpose. The analyzed material was frozen by metal–mirror method and sections of 20–50 micron thickness were prepared. Micro-PIXE and simultaneous proton backscattering was performed using 3 MeV proton beam. Monitoring of water vapour composition during the proton bombardment showed good stability of the analyzed material. The results of repetitive analyses of standards prepared from gelatin–glycerol solution with added known concentrations of K, Ni, Cu, Zn were in good agreement with expected, calculated values. Mass losses and changes of elemental composition were monitored. Elemental maps obtained for frozen-hydrated semi-thick section of Ni hyperaccumulator Senecio coronatus showed excellent preservation of leaf morphology and the distribution of elements. Quantitative elemental mapping of frozen-hydrated specimens compared with subsequent analysis of the same areas after freeze-drying revealed similar distribution pattern in both cases. It is clear, however, that freeze-drying induces some distortion of cell morphology and specimen shrinkage.

  10. Trace element analysis of the Otani Collection's Dunhuang and Turfan manuscripts by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohno, M.; Yoshida, K.; Moritani, K.; Norizawa, K. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto Univ., Sakyo, Kyoto (Japan); Enami, K.; Kasajima, H. [Ryukoku Univ., Department of Mechanical and System Engineering, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Ueyama, D. [Ryukoku Univ., Faculty of Intercultural Communication, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Takada, J.; Matsushita, R. [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst

    1999-07-01

    In order to classify the Otani Collection's Dunhuang and Turfan manuscripts, their trace elements were analyzed by PIXE. The paper samples of these manuscripts were fallen off when they were photographed for a CD-ROM catalog. These samples were very small and their size was less than several millimeters. In addition, some paper fragments dating from the late Edo-era of Japan and the late Qing Dynasty of China, and modern Japanese handmade paper were analyzed using PIXE and NAA. Quite interesting results were obtained when analyzing the trace elements - Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Sr, Ba, Pb, La, Sm. It was found that Dunhuang and Turfan papers of the Otani Collection were characterized by its highest iron and bromine content. The reason of the highest iron content probably originates in their making process and/or depends on their preservative environment. On the other hand, it became clear as for the highest bromine content that the origin is from fumigation of methyl bromide. (author)

  11. GPU-based online track reconstruction for the MuPix-telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzesik, Carsten [JGU, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: Mu3e-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The MuPix telescope is a beam telescope consisting of High Voltage Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (HV-MAPS). This type of sensor is going to be used for the Mu3e experiment, which is aiming to measure the lepton flavor violating decay μ→ eee with an ultimate sensitivity of 10{sup -16}. This sensitivity requires a high muon decay rate in the order of 1 GHz leading to a data rate of about 1 TBit/s for the whole detector. This needs to be reduced by a factor 1000 using online event selection algorithms on Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) before passing the data to the storage. A test setup for the MuPix sensors and parts of the Mu3e tracking detector readout is realized in a four plane telescope. The telescope can also be used to show the usability of an online track reconstruction using GPUs. As a result the telescope can provide online information about efficiencies of a device under test or the alignment of the telescope itself. This talk discusses the implementation of the GPU based track reconstruction and shows some results from recent testbeam campaigns.

  12. Simultaneous quantification of amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate in different commercial drugs using PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejjani, A., E-mail: abejjani@cnrs.edu.lb [IBA Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission-CNRS, P.O. Box: 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Roumié, M. [IBA Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission-CNRS, P.O. Box: 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Akkad, S. [Facutly of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Beirut Arab University, Beirut (Lebanon); El-Yazbi, F. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, P.O. Box: 21521, Elmesalla, Alexandria (Egypt); Nsouli, B. [IBA Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission-CNRS, P.O. Box: 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2016-03-15

    We have demonstrated, in previous studies that Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) is one of the most rapid and accurate choices for quantification of an active ingredient, in a solid drug, from the reactions induced on its specific heteroatom using pellets made from original tablets. In this work, PIXE is used, for the first time, for simultaneous quantification of two active ingredients, amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate, in six different commercial antibiotic type of drugs. Since the quality control process of a drug covers a large number of samples, the scope of this study was also to found the most rapid and low cost sample preparation needed to analyze these drugs with a good precision. The chosen drugs were analyzed in their tablets’ “as received” form, in pellets made from the powder of the tablets and also in pellets made from the powder of the tablets after being heated up to 70 °C to avoid any molecular destruction until constant weight and removal of humidity. The quantification validity related to the aspects of each sample preparation (homogeneity of the drug components and humidity) are presented and discussed.

  13. Microprobe PIXE analysis and EDX analysis on the brain of patients with Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumoto, S. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Horino, Y.; Mokuno, Y.; Fujii, K.; Kakimi, S.; Mizutani, T.; Matsushima, H.; Ishikawa, A.

    1996-12-31

    To investigate the cause of Alzheimer`s disease (senile dementia of Alzheimer`s disease type), we examined aluminium (Al) in the brain (hippocampus) of patients with Alzheimer`s disease using heavy ion (5 MeV Si{sup 3+}) microprobe particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Heavy ion microprobes (3 MeV Si{sup 2+}) have several times higher sensitivity for Al detection than 2 MeV proton microprobes. We also examined Al in the brain of these patients by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). (1) Al was detected in the cell nuclei isolated from the brain of patients with Alzheimer`s disease using 5 MeV Si{sup 3+} microprobe PIXE analysis, and EDX analysis. (2) EDX analysis demonstrated high levels of Al in the nucleolus of nerve cells in frozen sections prepared from the brain of these patients. Our results support the theory that Alzheimer`s disease is caused by accumulation of Al in the nuclei of brain cells. (author)

  14. Prototype Web-based continuing medical education using FlashPix images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, A; Yagi, Y; Gilbertson, J; Dawson, R; Marchevsky, A; Becich, M J

    2000-01-01

    Continuing Medical Education (CME) is a requirement among practicing physicians to promote continuous enhancement of clinical knowledge to reflect new developments in medical care. Previous research has harnessed the Web to disseminate complete pathology CME case studies including history, images, diagnoses, and discussions to the medical community. Users submit real-time diagnoses and receive instantaneous feedback, eliminating the need for hard copies of case material and case evaluation forms. This project extends the Web-based CME paradigm with the incorporation of multi-resolution FlashPix images and an intuitive, interactive user interface. The FlashPix file format combines a high-resolution version of an image with a hierarchy of several lower resolution copies, providing real-time magnification via a single image file. The Web interface was designed specifically to simulate microscopic analysis, using the latest Javascript, Java and Common Gateway Interface tools. As the project progresses to the evaluation stage, it is hoped that this active learning format will provide a practical and efficacious environment for continuing medical education with additional application potential in classroom demonstrations, proficiency testing, and telepathology. Using Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.0 and above, the working prototype Web-based CME environment is accessible at http://telepathology.upmc.edu/WebInterface/NewInterface/welcome.html.

  15. Micro-PIXE study of Ag in digestive glands of a nano-Ag fed arthropod ( Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkalec, Živa Pipan; Drobne, Damjana; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pongrac, Paula; Regvar, Marjana; Štrus, Jasna; Pelicon, Primož; Vavpetič, Primož; Grlj, Nataša; Remškar, Maja

    2011-10-01

    Micro-proton induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) method was applied to study the micro-localization of silver (Ag) in digestive glands of a terrestrial arthropod (Porcellio scaber) after feeding on silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) dosed food. The aim of our work was to assess whether feeding on nano-Ag results in the assimilation of silver (Ag) in digestive gland cells. To study micro-localization and elemental distribution of Ag, the animals were fed on food dosed with nanoparticles for 14 days under controlled laboratory conditions. At the end of the feeding exposure, the animals were dissected and digestive glands prepared for micro-PIXE analyses and TEM investigation. The results obtained by micro-PIXE documented high amounts of Ag inside S-cells of the digestive gland epithelium; however, TEM investigation did not show particle aggregates inside digestive gland cells. Also no adverse effect on feeding behavior was recorded what is a measure of toxic effects. We explain the presence of Ag inside the cells as a result of the assimilation of dissoluted Ag ions from ingested nano-Ag particles. Assimilation of excessive amounts of ingested metal ions in S-cells is a well known metal detoxification mechanism in isopods. We discuss the advantages of using micro-PIXE for the micro-localization of elements in biological tissue in studies of interactions between nanoparticles and biological systems.

  16. The new Cyclone 18/9 beam transport line at the CNA (Sevilla) for high energy PIXE applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Lopez, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avda. Thomas A. Edison No. 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: fjgl@us.es; Ortega-Feliu, I.; Morilla, Y.; Ferrero, A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avda. Thomas A. Edison No. 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    The Cyclone 18/9 cyclotron system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Sevilla, Spain) is commonly used to create short life radioisotopes for PET applications. Besides, an external beam transport line has been recently installed in one of the target ports with two major purposes: to study the effects of 18 MeV protons irradiation on the behaviour of electronic devices for space applications and to complement the analysis of materials using our 3 MV tandem accelerator with the PIXE measurements at high energy. In this work, the main elements of our beamline will be briefly described and the first PIXE application will be presented. The usual PIXE, in the analysis of archaeological metallic objects, using around 3 MeV protons requires having a shiny area. Our purpose is to obtain a deeper determination of the bulk composition bombarding with 18 MeV protons through the corroded samples surfaces, without polishing the ancient object. To check this methodology high energy PIXE has been performed on two fibulae of the Later Bronze Age and First Iron Age, coming from the area around Sevilla.

  17. Micro-PIXE study of Ag in digestive glands of a nano-Ag fed arthropod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkalec, Ziva Pipan [Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI- 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drobne, Damjana [Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI- 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence, Advanced Materials and Technologies for the Future (CO NAMASTE), Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vogel-Mikus, Katarina [Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI- 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pongrac, Paula [Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI- 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Regvar, Marjana; Strus, Jasna [Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI- 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, Primoz, E-mail: primoz.pelicon@ijs.si [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vavpetic, Primoz; Grlj, Natasa [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Remskar, Maja [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence, Advanced Materials and Technologies for the Future (CO NAMASTE), Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-10-15

    Micro-proton induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) method was applied to study the micro-localization of silver (Ag) in digestive glands of a terrestrial arthropod (Porcellio scaber) after feeding on silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) dosed food. The aim of our work was to assess whether feeding on nano-Ag results in the assimilation of silver (Ag) in digestive gland cells. To study micro-localization and elemental distribution of Ag, the animals were fed on food dosed with nanoparticles for 14 days under controlled laboratory conditions. At the end of the feeding exposure, the animals were dissected and digestive glands prepared for micro-PIXE analyses and TEM investigation. The results obtained by micro-PIXE documented high amounts of Ag inside S-cells of the digestive gland epithelium; however, TEM investigation did not show particle aggregates inside digestive gland cells. Also no adverse effect on feeding behavior was recorded what is a measure of toxic effects. We explain the presence of Ag inside the cells as a result of the assimilation of dissoluted Ag ions from ingested nano-Ag particles. Assimilation of excessive amounts of ingested metal ions in S-cells is a well known metal detoxification mechanism in isopods. We discuss the advantages of using micro-PIXE for the micro-localization of elements in biological tissue in studies of interactions between nanoparticles and biological systems.

  18. Genotoxic effects and serum abnormalities in residents of regions proximal to e-waste disposal facilities in Jinghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, KeQiu; Liu, ShaSha; Yang, QiaoYun; Zhao, YuXia; Zuo, JunFang; Li, Ran; Jing, YaQing; He, XiaoBo; Qiu, XingHua; Li, Guang; Zhu, Tong

    2014-07-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) disposal is a growing problem in China, and its effects on human health are a concern. To determine the concentrations of pollutants in peripheral blood and genetic aberrations near an e-waste disposal area in Jinghai, China, blood samples were collected from 30 (age: 41±11.01 years) and 28 (age: 33±2.14 years) individuals residing within 5 and 40km of e-waste disposal facilities in Jinghai (China), respectively, during the week of October 21-28, 2011. Levels of inorganic pollutants (calcium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, selenium, and zinc) and malondialdehyde (MDA), identities of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), micronucleus rates, and lymphocyte subsets were analyzed in individuals. Total RNA expression profiles were analyzed by group and gender. The population group living in proximity to the e-waste site displayed significantly higher mean levels of copper, zinc, lead, MDAs, POPs (B4-6DE, B7-9DE, total polychlorinated biphenyls, and BB-153). In addition, micronucleus rates of close-proximity group were higher compared with the remote group (18.27% vs. 7.32%). RNA expression of genes involved in metal ion binding and transport, oxidation/reduction, immune defense, and tumorigenesis varied between groups, with men most detrimentally affected (pe-waste group (pe-waste disposal facilities (≤5km) may be associated with the accumulation of potentially harmful inorganic/organic compounds and gender-preferential genetic aberrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of BWR regional stability experimental facility SIRIUS-F, which simulates thermal-hydraulics-neutronics coupling in reactor core, and stability evaluation of ABWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masahiro Furuya; Fumio Inada [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) 2-11-1 Iwado-kita, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Takanori Fukahori [Global Nuclear Fuel Japan (GNF-J) 2-3-1 Uchikawa, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-0836 (Japan); Shinya Mizokami [Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) 1-1-3 Uchisaiwai-cho, Chiyoda, Tokyo 100-0011 (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The SIRIUS-F facility was designed and constructed for highly accurate simulation of channel, core-wide and regional instabilities of an ABWR. A real-time simulation is performed for the modal-point kinetics of reactor neutronics and fuel-rod conduction on the basis of a measured void fraction in a reactor core section of the facility. A noise analysis method was performed to calculate decay ratios from dominant poles of transfer function on the basis of the AR method by applying time series of a core inlet flow rate. By utilizing this method, one can estimate stability at any specific operating point online without assuming excess conservative conditions. Channel and regional stability experiments were conducted for a wide range of operating conditions including maximum power points along the minimum pump speed line and the natural circulation line of the ABWR. The decay ratios and the resonance frequencies are in good agreement with those from the design analysis code, ODYSY. The SIRIUS-F experimental results demonstrated stability characteristics such as a stabilizing effect of the power, and reviled a sufficiently large stability margin even under hypothetical conditions of power enlargement. (authors)

  20. Advanced materials analysis facility at CSIRO HIAF laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, M.J.; Wielunski, L.S.; Baxter, G.R. [CSIRO, Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Applied Physics Div.; Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Exploration and Mining Div.

    1993-12-31

    The HIAF facility at North Ryde, based on a 3 MV Tandetron accelerator has been operating for several years. Initially three ion sources were in operation:- conventional duoplasmatrons for proton and helium beams and a sputter ion source for heavy ions. An electrostatic focusing system was designed and built in-house for providing microbeams. The research emphasis has been largely on microbeam PIXE with particular reference to the mining industry. An AMS system was added in 1990 which prevented the inclusion of the charge exchange canal required for helium beams. The facility has been operated by CSIRO Division of Exploration and Mining. At the beginning of 1992, the lon Beam Technology Group of CSIRO Division of Applied Physics was relocated at Lindfield and became a major user of the HIAF facility. Because the research activities of this group involved Rutherford Backscattering and Channeling, it was necessary to add a helium ion source and a new high vacuum beam line incorporating a precision goniometer. These facilities became operational in the second quarter of 1992. Currently a PIXE system is being added to the chamber containing the goniometer, making the accelerator an extremely versatile one for a wide range of IBA techniques. 3 refs.

  1. [Medication administration practices in elderly residential facilities in Ile de France Region in 2014: findings and room for improvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saunière, Anne; Bonneau, Laetitia; Donio, Valérie; Godinot, Valérie; Flouzat, Jean-Philippe; Bensasson, Géraldine; Code, Christelle; Galay, Guillaume; Pige, Dominique

    2016-11-25

    The institutions expressed great interest in medication administration systems and tools designed to monitor all stages of medication administration. A dozen simple and pragmatic improvement actions were identified and listed in the Ile-de-France Regional Health Agency action plan to improve medication administration management of in EHPAD..

  2. Determining treatment outcome of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases in Afar Regional State, Ethiopia: A retrospective facility based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketema Tafess

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The implementation for the DOTS strategy in the area improved the CDR of smear-positive TB, although it is unacceptably lower than the recommended WHO target of 70%. Additionally, the WHO target of 85% for TSR had already been achieved in the region. However, continued efforts should be in place to increase the CDR and maintain the high TSR registered.

  3. [Environment and energy in hospitals: assessment of usage and impact of Health Facilities in the Lombardy Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioschi, A; Capolongo, S; Buffoli, M

    2010-01-01

    The research moves from the current global and local context and from shared development strategies. From the observation and the analysis of contemporary environmental and energy issues and redefined directions of growth of human activity, it is addressing the question of environmental sustainability and energy conservation of building hospital systems. The work has developed a field survey relating the specific topic of energy saving and efficiency of the Park Hospital in the Italian Lombardy Region. This has been articulated in a diagnosis of technology and efficiency of regional hospitals, implemented through a census, and in a subsequent identification of interventional cases, in order to show its economic, environmental and health performance of the energy efficiency consumption and the environmentally sound.

  4. Using Multicriteria Decision Making Techniques in Free Zone for Facility Location Selection: An Example for Eastern Anatolia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Ağaç

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Free Zones contribute to the prosperity of the region by increasing employment, attracting foreign capital, allowing technology transfer and increasing exports. In this study, an application of location selection was performed for a possible Free Zone established in provinces of Eastern Anatolia Region. For application of the study, AHP, TOPSIS, VIKOR and ELECTRE, which are multi criteria decision making techniques, were used. AHP was used for determine weights of the criteria that influence the Free Zone location selection while TOPSIS, VIKOR and ELECTRE methods were used to rank alternatives. Accordingly; the three most important criteria for the Free Zone location selection were proximity countries, quantity of exports and government incentives while first three provinces were respectively, Iğdır, Hakkâri and Van for Free Zone will be established.

  5. Characterization of the lapis lazuli from the Egyptian treasure of Tôd and its alteration using external μ-PIXE and μ-IBIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calligaro, T., E-mail: thomas.calligaro@culture.gouv.fr [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France, Palais du Louvre, Paris (France); Coquinot, Y. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France, Palais du Louvre, Paris (France); Pichon, L. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France, Palais du Louvre, Paris (France); Fédération de Recherche NewAGLAE, FR3506 CNRS, Ministère de la Culture, UPMC, Palais du Louvre, Paris (France); Pierrat-Bonnefois, G. [Musée du Louvre, Département des Antiquités Egyptiennes, Paris (France); Campos, P. de [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Re, A. [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Angelici, D. [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Torino (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    Lapis lazuli is among the earliest and most priced ornamental stone worked to produce carvings, beads and inlays as early as the 4th millennium BC. It is an heterogeneous rock composed of blue lazurite Na{sub 3}Ca(Si{sub 3}Al{sub 3}O{sub 12})S mixed with other minerals like calcite, diopside and pyrite. The historical source of lapis lazuli in antiquity is supposedly located in Afghanistan, in the Sar-e-Sang district, while other sources are known in Tajikistan and Russia (Baïkal area). This work focuses on the lapis-lazuli of the Egyptian treasure of Tôd dated from Middle Kingdom (20th c. BC). Deposited in four copper boxes, it consists of thousands of blocks of raw lapis lazuli, minute fragments, beads and carvings stylistically dated to various periods. This discovery raises the question of the use of lapis lazuli in ancient Egypt because there is no source of lapis in this country. In addition, most of the lapis lazuli artefacts are strongly weathered. The aim of this work is to understand the alteration process and to verify if its provenance can still be determined. A few artefacts were analysed using the new external microbeam line of the AGLAE facility of the C2RMF. The mineral phases were identified and corresponding trace elements (e.g. Ti, As, Ni, Ba) were ascribed using the quantitative PIXE elemental maps collected on the entire artefacts or on cross-sections. In parallel, the IBIL spectrum recorded for each point in the image provided an additional fingerprint of the luminescent phases, notably mineral species belonging to the cancrinite group. Most alteration products appeared to derive from the oxidation of the pyrite FeS{sub 2}. It was observed that the alteration process extends to the core of most investigated artefacts. Despite such a strong alteration state, the chemical fingerprints recorded on the studied artefacts proved to be consistent with that of lapis lazuli from historical deposit of Badakshan, Afghanistan, previously investigated

  6. Trace element mapping of two Pyrenean chert deposits (SW Europe) by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez de la Torre, Marta, E-mail: marta.sanchez-de-la-torre@u-bordeaux-montaigne.fr [IRAMAT-CRP2A (UMR 5060), CNRS/Université Bordeaux Montaigne, Maison de l’Archéologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac Cedex (France); SERP-Universitat de Barcelona, Montalegre St 6-8, 08001 Barcelona (Spain); Angyal, Anikó; Kertész, Zsófia [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Dubernet, Stéphan; Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier [IRAMAT-CRP2A (UMR 5060), CNRS/Université Bordeaux Montaigne, Maison de l’Archéologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac Cedex (France); Csedreki, László; Furu, Enikő; Papp, Enikő; Szoboszlai, Zoltán; Szikszai, Zita [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2017-06-01

    The geochemical character of two chert formations from the Pyrenean mountain range (SW Europe) was established by PIXE analyses. While it was not possible to distinguish the formations through reference to major and minor elements, some variations were revealed at the trace elemental level. In order to determine if these elements are associated with the Si matrix or to the contents of a specific inclusion, elemental maps were acquired and the elemental composition of the identified inclusions were also determined. As a result, Sr, Ni and Zn are better represented in Montgaillard samples while Y, Hf, W and Zr are typical of Montsaunès cherts. Thanks to elemental maps it has been possible to determine that most of these characteristic elements are usually related to a specific inclusion content.

  7. Spatially resolved element analysis of historical violin varnishes by use of muPIXE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bohlen, Alex; Röhrs, Stefan; Salomon, Joseph

    2007-02-01

    External muPIXE has been used for characterisation of small samples of varnish from historical violins, and pieces of varnished wood from historical and modern stringed instruments. To obtain spatially resolved information about the distribution of elements across the varnish layers single-spot analysis, line-scans, and area-mapping were performed. Local resolution of approximately 20 mum was obtained from the 3 MeV, 1 nA proton micro-probe. Results from simultaneous multi-element determination of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sn, Ba, and Pb in historical varnishes are presented. Semi-quantitative evaluation of line-scans recorded on diverse historical varnishes is reported. The applied method is discussed in detail and the results obtained are critically reviewed and compared with those in the literature.

  8. Estimation of trace elements in some anti-diabetic medicinal plants using PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naga Raju, G.J. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Sarita, P. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Ramana Murty, G.A.V. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Ravi Kumar, M. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Seetharami Reddy, B. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); John Charles, M. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Lakshminarayana, S. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Seshi Reddy, T. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Reddy, S. Bhuloka [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India)]. E-mail: sbr-r@yahoo.com; Vijayan, V. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar-751 005, Orissa (India)

    2006-08-15

    Trace elemental analysis was carried out in various parts of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants using PIXE technique. A 3 MeV proton beam was used to excite the samples. The elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The results of the present study provide justification for the usage of these medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM) since they are found to contain appreciable amounts of the elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn, which are responsible for potentiating insulin action. Our results show that the analyzed medicinal plants can be considered as potential sources for providing a reasonable amount of the required elements other than diet to the patients of DM. Moreover, these results can be used to set new standards for prescribing the dosage of the herbal drugs prepared from these plant materials.

  9. A comparison between Geant4 PIXE simulations and experimental data for standard reference samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Z., E-mail: ziad.francis@gmail.com [Université Saint Joseph, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Beirut (Lebanon); The Open University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Sciences, Walton Hall, MK7 6AA Milton Keynes (United Kingdom); El Bast, M. [Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, Beirut (Lebanon); El Haddad, R. [Université Saint Joseph, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics, Beirut (Lebanon); Mantero, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, sez. di Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Incerti, S. [Université Bordeaux 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, CENBG, Chemin du Solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); Ivanchenko, V. [Ecoanalytica, Moscow State University, 119899 Moscow (Russian Federation); Geant4 Associates International Ltd., Hebden Bridge (United Kingdom); El Bitar, Z. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, CNRS/IN2P3, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Champion, C. [Université Bordeaux 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, CENBG, Chemin du Solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); Bernal, M.A. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas-UNICAMP, SP 13083-859 (Brazil); Roumie, M. [Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2013-12-01

    The Geant4 PIXE de-excitation processes are used to simulate proton beam interactions with sample materials of known composition. Simulations involve four mono-elemental materials; Cu, Fe, Si and Al and three relatively complex materials: stainless steel, phosphor bronze and basal BE-N reference material composed of 25 different elements. The simulation results are compared to experimental spectra acquired for real samples analyzed using 3 MeV incident protons delivered by an ion tandem accelerator. Data acquisition was performed using a Si(Li) detector and an aluminum funny filter was added for the three last mentioned samples depending on the configuration to reduce the noise and obtain clear resulting spectrum. The results show a good agreement between simulations and measurements for the different samples.

  10. Compositional and structural studies of the bone-cartilage interface using PIXE and SAXS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaabar, W., E-mail: W.kaabar@surrey.ac.u [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Laklouk, A. [Al-Fateh University, Tripoli-Libya (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya); Bunk, O. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Baily, M. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Farquharson, M.J. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Bradley, David [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-21

    Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission ({mu}-PIXE) analysis has been employed in investigating the presence of number of essential anions and cations in thin sections of diseased human articular cartilage affected by osteoarthritis (OA). Distribution maps for Ca, P, K and S in diseased sections show marked alterations in the concentrations of these at the bone-cartilage interface compared to normal tissue. For a decalcified section of human articular cartilage, organisational changes of the collagen network were investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The established gradual reorientation of collagen fibres from vertical to the surface of the joint to normal to the bone-cartilage interface is observed to be heavily disrupted in OA.

  11. Study of medieval enamelling on gilded objects combining SEM-EDAX and PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamon, J.; Barrio, J.; Arroyo, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), SECYR Laboratory, Departamento de Arqueologia y Prehistoria, Madrid (Spain); Gutierrez, P.C.; Climent-Font, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Madrid (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    A set of fragments of metallic artefacts from the medieval period excavated from Ciudad Real in Spain has been studied. The objects are gilded copper buckles with a champleve enamelling decoration. The composition of predominantly blue-coloured enamels has been analysed using three non-destructive techniques, SEM-EDAX (scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Analyses show that Co is responsible for the blue colour. The results of the two techniques are compared, as well as the main components which constitute the enamel. Analyses suggest that Cu is responsible for red colour. (orig.)

  12. Study of ancient Islamic gilded pieces combining PIXE-RBS on external microprobe with sem images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ynsa, M.D.; Gutierrez, P.C.; Enguita, O. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Madrid (Spain); Chamon, J.; Pardo, A.I.; Arroyo, M.; Barrio, J. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Dpto. Prehistoria y Arqueologia, Madrid (Spain); Gomez-Morilla, I. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institute fuer Stroemungsmechanik, Dresden (Germany); Ferretti, M. [CNR - Istituto per le Tecnologie Aplicate ai Beni Culturali, Monterotondo St., Roma (Italy); Climent-Font, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Madrid (Spain); Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Dpto. Fisica Aplicada C-12, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    Numerous metallic objects with very aesthetic and technological qualities have been recovered by archaeological excavations. Adequate processes of restoration and conservation treatments require the accurate determination of the elemental composition and distribution within the objects, as well as the identification of the nature and distribution of the corrosion products. Ideally the identification method should cause no alteration in the sample. In this work, different archaeological pieces with a gilded look have been characterized using simultaneously PIXE and RBS at the CMAM external microprobe in order to study the gilding metalworking done in the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages. The gold layer thickness and its elemental concentrations of Ag, Au and Hg were determined by both techniques and compared with the scanning electron microscopy images obtained for some fragments of pieces. (orig.)

  13. External-PIXE identification of material for popular music pipes during the late Meiji era, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokimitsu; Yoshie; Maeda, Kuniko; Murao, Satoshi; Henseler, Ewald

    1998-07-01

    Two types of music pipes, Ginteki and Suifukin, that were popular during the late Meiji period in Japan were semi-quantitatively analyzed by the external-PIXE at RIKEN. The aim of this study is to identify the material used for these pipes and to assist the description to make an instrumental catalogue. Our results show that most of the collected Ginteki, literally silver flute, is composed of two parts. One is the whistle head of Pb-Sb alloy with the Pb to Sb ratio between 5.9 and 6.4; and the other is the main body with six holes which is made of tinplate. All of the Ginteki in this study are nickel coated. The Suifukin, on the contrary, is made of only tinplate and is not coated with nickel. (author)

  14. Quantitative PIXE and PIGME analysis of milligram samples of biomineralized tissue in the limpet Patella vulgata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.-S.; Webb, J.; Macey, D. J.; Cohen, D. D.

    1987-03-01

    Procedures have been developed to determine, by thick target PIXE and PIGME, the quantitative elemental composition of biological samples with a mass of approximately 1 mg. Systems of particular interest are the biomineralized tissues of chitons and limpets, marine invertebrates of global distribution whose radula teeth and associated tissue contain, variously, inorganic components at different stages of mineralization, e.g. Fe, Ca, P, F, Si, Cu. For the biomineralized teeth and tissue in the limpet Patella vulgata the content of Fe, Ca and P increases rapidly at an early stage of mineralization, while the Si content increases somewhat later. In fully mineralized teeth, the Fe and Si contents are comparable. These data are compared with previous results (Trends Biochem. Sci. 10 (1985) 6) obtained using the Oxford scanning proton microprobe.

  15. Red layered medieval stained glass window characterization by means of micro-PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Feliu, I., E-mail: iofeliu@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Gomez-Tubio, B. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Respaldiza, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Capel, F. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Red layered medieval stained glass windows on a transparent greenish substrate are characteristic of European medieval cathedrals, but few compositional analyses have been performed on the coloured layers. The PIXE technique has been performed on a red layered stained glass window obtained during the restoration works carried out in Las Huelgas Monastery in Burgos (Spain). Protons of 3 MeV with a beam of 4 x 5 {mu}m{sup 2} were used to acquire elemental maps of a cross section of the sample, in order to observe the homogeneity of the layered structure and its substrate. In our work, copper was detected as in other layered glasses but a correspondence with lower amounts of zinc has also been determined. Both elements appear enriched in the red coloured layers, while the other quantified elements have the same relative composition along the sample. Corrosion layers, due to the lead supporting structure of the window, were also found.

  16. Investigation of strontium accumulation on ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rat tibia by micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.; Li, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Jin, W. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zheng, Y.; Rong, C.; Lyu, H. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shen, H., E-mail: haoshen@fudan.edu.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2014-08-01

    Strontium ranelate is a newly developed drug effective in osteoporosis treatment by depressing bone resorption and maintaining bone formation. Strontium accumulation and distribution are determined in bones of rat after strontium ranelate administration by using micro-PIXE. The investigated rats are divided into four groups: (A) control, (B) ovariectomized, (C) ovariectomized followed with strontium chloride, (D) ovariectomized followed with strontium ranelate. It was found that strontium ranelate would result in increasing trabecular volume and decreasing bone resorption to treat osteoporosis. There are similar contours of calcium and strontium in two-dimensional images, while the strontium is not evenly distributed in the bone. It supports the conclusion that strontium has an affinity for bone and it is capable of replacing calcium atoms as a part of the strontium mechanism in the osteoporosis treatment. The results related to biochemistry are also discussed.

  17. Use of PIXE analysis technique for the study of Beirut amphora production in the Roman period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumié, M.; Waksman, S. Y.; Nsouli, B.; Reynolds, P.; Lemaı̂tre, S.

    2004-01-01

    Ion Beam Analysis techniques were developed and utilized for applications in the domain of archeology at the accelerator laboratory of the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission. The characterization of Beirut kiln materials, mainly amphorae ceramics from the Roman period, was done using PIXE technique. In two runs with 1 and 3 MeV protons, we measured 20 major and trace elements. Consequently, a classification based on the elemental composition and on multivariate statistical techniques of some 70 ceramic objects was obtained providing the first step of a Lebanese database for future studies. Furthermore, the analysis of carrot amphorae found in Gaul (south of France) showed that some of them were of Beirut products and hence emphasized the role of Beirut city in the Mediterranean trade in the Roman period.

  18. Optimisation of Pt sensitivity in PIXE analysis of thin biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiourina, T. B.; Mutsaers, P. H. A.; de Voigt, M. J. A.

    1998-04-01

    To obtain Pt concentration distributions in tumor biopsies, micro-PIXE is used. The Limit of Detection (LOD) for Pt is determined by the background production cross section together with the production cross section for the Pt-L lines. Both are functions of the type and energy of the projectile. In order to optimise the experimental conditions, the proton energy is varied from 2.5 to 5 MeV and the corresponding X-ray spectra are analysed. The optimum LOD is about 1 μg/g for a sample thickness of 1 mg/cm 2 and a total charge of 100 μC. A study is performed to investigate the possibility of elemental analysis by means of α excitation. The corresponding LOD is 6 μg/g with 200 μC charge (He ++ was used). For α excitation, sample damage limits the beam current and, thus, causes a tremendous increase in the measurement time.

  19. PIXE analysis of chromium phytoaccumulation by the aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza-Quinones, F.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering - Postgraduate Program - NBQ, West Parana State University, Rua da Faculdade, 645, Jardim Santa Maria, 85903-000 Toledo, Parana (Brazil)], E-mail: f.espinoza@terra.com.br; Rizzutto, M.A.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M.H. [Physics Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao s/n, Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Modenes, A.N.; Palacio, S.M.; Silva, E.A.; Rossi, F.L.; Martin, N.; Szymanski, N. [Department of Chemical Engineering - Postgraduate Program - NBQ, West Parana State University, Rua da Faculdade, 645, Jardim Santa Maria, 85903-000 Toledo, Parana (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    The uptake of hexavalent chromium in free living floating aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes cultivated in non-toxic chromium-doped hydroponic solutions is presented. A Cr-uptake bioaccumulation experiment was carried out using healthy macrophytes grown in a temperature controlled greenhouse. Six samples of nutrient media and plants were collected during the 23 day experiment. Roots and leaves were acid digested with the addition of an internal Gallium standard, for thin film sample preparation and quantitative Cr analysis by PIXE method. The Cr{sup 6+} mass uptake by the macrophytes reached up to 70% of the initial concentration, comparable to former results and literature data. The Cr-uptake data were described using a non-structural first order kinetic model. Due to low cost and high removal efficiency, living aquatic macrophytes E. crassipes are a viable biosorbent in an artificial wetland of a water effluent treatment plant.

  20. A new method for true quantitative elemental imaging using PIXE and the proton microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, C.G. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Churms, C.L.; Pilcher, J.V. [National Accelerator Centre, Faure (South Africa)

    1993-12-31

    Traditional methods for X-ray imaging using PIXE and the Proton Microprobe have used a simple gate set on an X-ray peak in a spectrum from a Si(Li) detector to provide an image of the distribution of an element. This method can produce artefacts in images, due to overlapping X-ray lines from interfering elements, charge collection tails on peaks, background variation, Si escape peaks and pileup, all of which can render images misleading or qualitative at best. To address this problem, a matrix transform method has been developed at the CSIRO which not only eliminates most artefacts, but can be implemented on-line. The method has been applied to study trace gold distribution in a complex gold bearing ore from Fiji , and more recently has been installed for direct on-line elemental imaging at the NAC in South Africa. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Obsidian sourcing studies in Papua New Guinea using PIXE-PIGME analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summerhayes, G.R.; Gosden, C. [La Trobe Univ., Bundoora, VIC (Australia); Bird, R.; Hotchkis, M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Specht, J.; Torrence, R.; Fullaga, R. [Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Div. of Anthropology

    1993-12-31

    Over 100 obsidian samples were analysed using PIXE-PIGME in 1990. These samples were collected during intensive surveys of the source areas around Talasea, Garua Island, and the Mopir area in 1988, 1989 and 1990. A ratio combination of 9 elements were used to separate out groups as per previous studies: F/Na, Al/Na, K/Fe, Ca/Fe, Mn/Fe, Rb/Fe, Y/Zr, Sr/Fe and Zr/Fe. In spite of variations in major elements, the close agreement between results for minor and trace elements concentrations in artefacts and known source material indicates that the provenance of each artefact can be reliably determined. This conclusion provides important validation of the use of ion beam analysis in artefact characterisation. ills.

  2. Micro-PIXE study of whole otolith of Anguilla japonica at elver stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Guo, H.; Wei, K.; Tang, W. [Institute of Life Science, Shanghai Fisheries University, Shanghai 200090 (China); Satoh, T.; Ohkubo, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Takano, K.; Kamiya, T. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, JAEA, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Shen, H., E-mail: haoshen@fudan.edu.c [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yang, M.; Mi, Y. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Strontium and calcium contents, within the otolith of Anguilla japonica, were measured by external micro-PIXE. According to the measured metamorphic checks, each otolith was divided into three stages. Comparing with the Sr:Ca ratios in stage 2, the ratios in stage 1 had two different trends. Among these fish, it may reflect their maternal condition was not the same. The ratios in stage 3 which was corresponding to the estuarine habitat were smaller than that in any other stage which was corresponding to the ocean habitat in each otolith. Suggested by our results, the eels from the spawning site may separate into two groups when they are near to the south of Taiwan, and then move to the different estuaries in China. It could be proposed that, in general, the migration direction is from south to north along the east coast in China.

  3. PIXE analysis of chromium phytoaccumulation by the aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-Quiñones, F. R.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M. H.; Módenes, A. N.; Palácio, S. M.; Silva, E. A.; Rossi, F. L.; Martin, N.; Szymanski, N.

    2009-04-01

    The uptake of hexavalent chromium in free living floating aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes cultivated in non-toxic chromium-doped hydroponic solutions is presented. A Cr-uptake bioaccumulation experiment was carried out using healthy macrophytes grown in a temperature controlled greenhouse. Six samples of nutrient media and plants were collected during the 23 day experiment. Roots and leaves were acid digested with the addition of an internal Gallium standard, for thin film sample preparation and quantitative Cr analysis by PIXE method. The Cr 6+ mass uptake by the macrophytes reached up to 70% of the initial concentration, comparable to former results and literature data. The Cr-uptake data were described using a non-structural first order kinetic model. Due to low cost and high removal efficiency, living aquatic macrophytes E. crassipes are a viable biosorbent in an artificial wetland of a water effluent treatment plant.

  4. High-Quality Real-Time Video Inpaintingwith PixMix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herling, Jan; Broll, Wolfgang

    2014-06-01

    While image inpainting has recently become widely available in image manipulation tools, existing approaches to video inpainting typically do not even achieve interactive frame rates yet as they are highly computationally expensive. Further, they either apply severe restrictions on the movement of the camera or do not provide a high-quality coherent video stream. In this paper we will present our approach to high-quality real-time capable image and video inpainting. Our PixMix approach even allows for the manipulation of live video streams, providing the basis for real Diminished Reality (DR) applications. We will show how our approach generates coherent video streams dealing with quite heterogeneous background environments and non-trivial camera movements, even applying constraints in real-time.

  5. Development of a tele-anesthesia preoperative clinic to support distant military treatment facilities for the European regional medical command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turabi, Ali; Nessen, Shawn C; Boedeker, David; Boedeker, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (LRMC) provides primary care services for more than 65,000 beneficiaries and specialty care and hospitalization for 245,000 U.S. Service Members and their Families serving in Europe. These personnel are located in Germany, Italy and Belgium (See Fig 1). Anesthesia preoperative diagnosis/work was done by telemedicine at the distant, end user site, and significant cost savings and enhanced patient service was accomplished. A novel use of existing technologies was implemented to enhance provider and patient satisfaction and create a sustainable, user friendly system.

  6. Metallic objects belonging to the first emperor of Brazil studied with PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambiel, V.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia; Rizzutto, M.A.; Curado, J.F.; Campos, P.H.O.V.; Kajiya, E.A.M.; Silva, T.F., E-mail: rizzutto@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). lnstituto de Fisica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: First Emperor of Brazil, D. Pedro I is one of the main personalities in the history of Brazil and was responsible for the formation of the 'Brazilian nation', in September 7. With the death of King D. Joao VI in 1826, was acclaimed King Pedro IV in Portugal, however, held the office for a week and abdicated in favor of her daughter, Maria da Gloria. Due to political problems he also abdicated the Brazilian throne, in 1831, in favor of his son Pedro II. D. Pedro died on September 24 of 1834 at the Palace of Queluz, in Cintra and was buried in the Pantheon of the Royal House of Braganca, in Lisbon, Portugal. However in 1972, during celebrations of the 150{sup th} anniversary of the Independence of Brazil, his remains were moved to the Imperial Chapel in Monument Ipiranga installed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. In the year 2012, was initiated a study in the Emperor including the exhumation, the inventory associated with it and several physical-chemical studies. The analyses have been performed with non-destructive techniques such as X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) in various classes of objects, including bones, tissues and metals and also Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) in the metal objects. This article presents the PIXE results obtained for the set of metallic artifacts such as cufflinks and medals that show a wide variation in chemical composition with alloys formed mainly of copper and zinc and also made of alloys containing silver and gold. It was also verified the presence of lead and calcium, probably due to contamination suffered in the environment in which materials were found, particularly the remains were originally kept in a coffin of lead. The analyses also indicate some degree of deterioration of these objects. (author)

  7. Analysis of elemental composition of porcelains unearthed from Waguantan kiln site by PIXE-RBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z.; Zhang, K.; Xia, C. D.; Liu, M. T.; Zhu, J. J.; An, Z.; Bai, B.

    2015-03-01

    A method combining proton-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to determine the composition of 61 porcelain shards from the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 A.D.) unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site at Tianzhu County in Guizhou Province, China. Based on our previous experimental setup, an electron gun device with a LaB6 crystal cathode was installed to solve the problem created when the incident proton beams generated electric charge accumulations on the surfaces of the insulating porcelain samples, which induced a large bremsstrahlung background. The use of the electron gun has largely eliminated the large bremsstrahlung background and has therefore improved the detection limits for elements, especially for trace elements, and made it possible to determine the origin of the porcelains based on the trace elements. Major and trace elemental compositions of the porcelain bodies and glazes measured by PIXE and RBS were analyzed by the factor analysis method. The factor analysis showed that a few pieces of porcelain with a style similar to the porcelain of the Longquan kiln among the unearthed porcelains from the Waguantan kiln site did not have obvious differences in elemental compositions from other remaining porcelains unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site, indicating that the pieces of unearthed porcelain with the Longquan kiln style did in fact belong to the product fired locally by imitating the model of the Longquan celadon with local raw materials. This result therefore indicated that the Longquan kiln technology that originated from the Five Dynasties (907-960 A.D.) had been propagated to the Waguantan kiln site of Guizhou Province in the Yuan Dynasty.

  8. Technical feasibility of a seabed gallery system for SWRO facilities at Shoaiba, Saudi Arabia, and regions with similar geology

    KAUST Repository

    Rodri­guez, Luis R. Lujan

    2013-09-02

    Subsurface intakes can be used as part of the pretreatment system for seawater reverse osmosis facilities. Wells of various designs and galleries are being used for intakes at many sites globally to reduce pretreatment costs, chemical usage, biofouling potential, and environmental impacts (entrainment and impingement). The goal of using a subsurface intake is to reduce or replace conventional pretreatment processes. A field and laboratory investigation was undertaken to assess the feasibility of developing a seabed gallery intake offshore near the Shoaiba seawater RO (SWRO) plant site (150,000 m3/d treatment capacity) that could be used to replace the current intake used for only the RO capacity. A survey of the beach and offshore area was made and 51 sediment samples were collected from the seabed for laboratory analysis of grain size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity. Field observations showed that the marine bottom has a low slope from the shoreline seaward a distance of about 100 m to a depth of about 1.0 m before it steepens to a depth of over 2 m at 150 m from shore. The site has a relativity thin cover of unlithified carbonate sands, 2-5 cm thick, sitting on a soft coralline limestone of Pleistocene age. The sediments investigated were found to be clean carbonate or slightly muddy carbonate sands with mean grain diameters ranging mostly between 0.25 and 0.5 mm. Most of the area investigated contained a mud percentage between 0 and 5%. The measured porosity values range between 0.33 and 0.45 and measured hydraulic conductivity values from about 1.6 to 79.5 m/d with 64.6 m/d being the maximum offshore value. A preliminary design was developed to meet the full operational capacity of the Shoaiba SWRO treatment plant which would require 375,000 m3/d of raw water to produce 150,000 m3/d of permeate (40% conversion assumed for Red Sea water with a TDS of 41,000 mg/L). The design of the RO plant uses 10 trains to produce the 150,000 m3/d of product

  9. Videoconferencing could reduce the number of mental health patients transferred from outlying facilities to a regional mental health unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, David; Weisser, Susan

    2012-10-01

    To determine if the addition of a video link to the existing phone connection, enabling patients admitted for mental and behavioural disorders to be seen by a centrally located psychiatrist or mental health clinician, would change the probability of these patients being transferred to the central mental health unit. Data analysed were patients admitted (n=1,943) to a health services regional hospital with a primary diagnosis of mental and behavioural disorders (ICD10-AM code F00-F99) between January 2002 and December 2010. The probability of being transferred was modelled using multilevel random intercept logistic regression. The introduction of videoconferencing in January 2008 was examined by testing if the inclusion of a binary intervention variable was significant when added to the best fitting risk adjustment model. After the introduction of videoconferencing the percentage of patients transferred fell from 66.8% (95%CI 64.0 to 69.5) to 59.6% (95%CI 56.1 to 63.1) (χ(2) =10.42, p=0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, clustering in hospitals and repeat visits the odds of transfer were 0.69 (95%CI 0.49 to 0.97) of previous. Aboriginality, being non-Australian, long-term linear trend, admitted on the weekends or after hours were not significant predictors of the probability of transfer. The ability for the psychiatrist or senior mental health clinician to see mental health patients via videoconferencing was associated with a reduced probability of the patient being transferred. This satisfies the preference of patients to remain in their community and access mental health services. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  10. Thin and thick target PIXE analysis of the study of Cu{sup 2+} biosorption mechanism by the Egeria densa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza-Quinones, F.R.; Módenes, A.N.; Santos, G.H.F.; Borba, C.E. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil). Departameto de Engenharia Quimica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao; Rizzutto, M.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: In this work the PIXE technique was used to study of metal sorption mechanism by dead biomass. As biosorbent particulates of Egeria densa biomass was chosen in order to remove divalent copper from an aqueous solution. Several batch copper-sorption experiments were performed by using 0.3 9 of Egeria densa dry biomass into 50 mL of aqueous solution containing 127 mgL{sup -1}Cu{sup 2+} at pH 5. PIXE measurements were performed in thick and thin target samples, which were prepared from treated Egeria densa biosorbents and aqueous solutions, respectively. Element concentration in thick target samples was determined by the Clara software. Based on the mass balance among the major elements in the biosorbent and aqueous solution before and after Cu-removal experiments, ion exchange process is suggested as the main mechanism. (author)

  11. On the direct quantification of celecoxib in commercial solid drugs using the TT-PIXE and TT-PIGE techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsouli, B. [IBA Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission - CNRS, P.O. Box 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon)]. E-mail: bnsouli@cnrs.edu.lb; Zahraman, K. [IBA Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission - CNRS, P.O. Box 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Bejjani, A. [IBA Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission - CNRS, P.O. Box 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Assi, S. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Beirut Arab University, Beirut (Lebanon); El-Yazbi, F. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Beirut Arab University, Beirut (Lebanon); Roumie, M. [IBA Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission - CNRS, P.O. Box 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2006-08-15

    The quantification of the active ingredient (AI) in drugs is a crucial and important step in the drug quality control process. This is usually performed by using wet chemical techniques like LC-MS, UV spectrophotometry and other appropriate organic analytical methods. In the case of an active ingredient contains specific heteroatoms (F, S, Cl, etc.,), elemental IBA technique can be explored for molecular quantification. IBA techniques permit the analysis of the sample under solid form, without any laborious sample preparation. This is an advantage when the number of sample is relatively large. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of the thick target PIXE (TT-PIXE) and the TT-PIGE techniques for rapid and accurate quantification of celecoxib in commercial drugs. The experimental aspects related to the quantification validity are presented and discussed.

  12. External-PIXE analysis for the study of pigments from a painting from the Museum of Contemporary Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzutto, M.A., E-mail: rizzutto@if.usp.br [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); Moro, M.V.; Silva, T.F.; Trindade, G.F.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M.H.; Kajiya, E.M.; Campos, P.H.V. [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); Magalhães, A.G.; Barbosa, M. [Museum of Contemporary Art, University of São Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil)

    2014-08-01

    External Ion Beam Analysis is a useful tool for the characterization of cultural heritage objects. During the last decade, several significant collaborations have been established between Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) scientists and art or archeology professionals, demanding in-air IBA for a variety of different cultural heritage objects. In-air Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analyses of an oil painting by the Italian painter, Mario Sironi, from the Museum of Contemporary Art of the University of São Paulo (MAC-USP), were examined. This painting is particularly interesting due to paintings on both sides (oil on canvas on the front and oil on wood on the back side). PIXE analysis helped the identification of the pigment similarities on both sides of the painting, suggesting the same authorship.

  13. PIXE and GC-MS investigation for the determination of the chemical composition of Syrian Cuminum cyminum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihawy, M S; Bakraji, E H; Odeh, A

    2014-04-01

    The chemical composition and concentration of Syrian cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) were investigated. The particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analytical technique was used to analyze a wide range of elements from Mg to Sr. The advantages and disadvantages of the PIXE technique in plant material elemental analysis are discussed. A high level of iron was detected in the cumin samples, clarifying the possible contribution of cumin to maintaining the immune system. The contribution of the elements in cumin seeds to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) of elements was evaluated. Additionally, GC-MS measurements were performed to determine the chemical composition of cumin essential oil. Twenty-one components were identified, and cuminaldehyde, γ-terpinene, o-cymene, limonene and β-pinene were determined to be the major constituents. A correlation between the chemical composition of cumin seeds and their use as a traditional remedy is proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of urushi coated films taken from ancient Buddha images by using PIXE, FT-IR, and organic elemental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagemori, N.; Umemura, K.; Yoshimura, T.; Inoue, M.; Kawai, S. [Wood Research Institute, Kyoto Univ., Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Yano, K. [Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, Uenokouen, Tokyo (Japan); Sera, K. [Cyclotron Research Center, Iwate Medical Univ., Takizawa, Iwate (Japan); Futatsugawa, S. [Nishina Memorial Cyclotron Center, Japan Radioisotope Association, Takizawa, Iwate (Japan); Nakamura, Y. [Kyoto National Museum, Higashiyama, Kyoto (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Six types of samples including urushi, urushi tree and black coating films taken from ancient Buddha images were examined by analyses of PIXE, organic element and FT-IR to identify with urushi or another material. Based on the results of three analytical experiments above mentioned, the coating materials aging over hundreds of years were identified with weathered urushi films mixed with other material. Further investigation may reveal the urushi coating techniques used in the past. (author)

  15. Characterisation by PIXE-RBS of metallic contamination of tissues surrounding a metallic prosthesis on a knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guibert, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de Clermont-Ferrand, IN2P3/CNRS UMR 6533, Universite Blaise Pascal, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)]. E-mail: geoffroy.guibert@he-arc.ch; Irigaray, J.L. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de Clermont-Ferrand, IN2P3/CNRS UMR 6533, Universite Blaise Pascal, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Moretto, Ph. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, IN2P3/CNRS UMR 5797, Le Haut Vigneau, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Sauvage, T. [Centre d' Etudes et de Recherches par Irradiation, CNRS Orleans France, 3A rue de la ferollerie, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Kemeny, J.L. [CHU, Service d' Anatomie et de Cytologie Pathologiques, Universite d' Auvergne, 63100 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Cazenave, A. [Institut Calot, 62608 Berck sur Mer Cedex (France); Jallot, E. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de Clermont-Ferrand, IN2P3/CNRS UMR 6533, Universite Blaise Pascal, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2006-09-15

    Implants used as biomaterials have to fulfill conditions of functionality, compatibility and sometimes bioactivity. There are four main families of biomaterials: metals and metal alloys, polymers, bioceramics and natural materials. Because of corrosion and friction in the human body, implants generate debris. This debris may develop toxicity, inflammation and prosthetic unsealing by osseous dissolution. Nature, size, morphology and amount of debris are the parameters influencing the tissue responses. In this paper, we characterised metallic contamination produced by knee prosthesis, composed with TiAl{sub 6}V{sub 4} or Co-Cr-Mo alloys, into surrounding capsular tissue by depth migration, in vivo behaviour, content, size and nature of debris by PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) method associated with RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy). Debris distribution in the whole articulation is very heterogeneous. Debris migrates several thousand micrometers in tissues, with a characteristic decrease. Solid metallic particles of about micrometer size are found in the most polluted samples, in both alloys TiAl{sub 6}V{sub 4} and Cr-Co-Mo. In the mean volume analysed by PIXE, the concentration mass ratios [Ti]/[V] and [Co]/[Cr] confirm the chemical stability of TiAl{sub 6}V{sub 4} debris and show the chemical evolution of Cr-Co-Mo debris. Development of a protocol to prepare thin targets permits us to correlate PIXE and histological analysis in the same zone. The fibrous tissue (collagen fibres, fibroblasts) and macrophage cells are observed with optical microscope in polluted areas. This protocol could locate other pathologies in ppm contamination range, thanks to the great sensitivity of the PIXE method.

  16. Park Facilities, This Layer was developed by ARC's Land Use Planning Division for use as an inventory of parks and protected greenspace in the 20-county Atlanta Region., Published in 2006, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, Atlanta Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Regional | GIS Inventory — Park Facilities dataset current as of 2006. This Layer was developed by ARC's Land Use Planning Division for use as an inventory of parks and protected greenspace in...

  17. Quality of Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine Given as Antimalarial Prophylaxis in Pregnant Women in Selected Health Facilities in Central Region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny F. Yeboah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP as an intermittent preventive treatment (IPT against malaria during pregnancy has become a policy in most sub-Sahara African countries and crucially depends on the efficacy of SP. This study sets out to evaluate the effectiveness of the SP given to the pregnant women in some selected health facilities in the Central Region of Ghana to prevent maternal malaria in pregnant women. A total of 543 pregnant women recruited from 7 selected health centres in Central Region of Ghana participated in the study. Parasite density of Plasmodium falciparum was determined from peripheral blood of the pregnant women using microscopy. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and dissolution tester were used to determine the quality of the SP. Malaria infection was recorded in 11.2% of pregnant women who had a history of SP consumption. SP failed the dissolution test. Pregnant women who did not receive IPT-SP were 44%. Low haemoglobin level was recorded in 73.5% of the pregnant women. The results indicated that SP was substandard. IPT-SP is ineffective in preventing malaria infection.

  18. arXiv The MuPix System-on-Chip for the Mu3e Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Augustin, Heiko

    2017-02-11

    Mu3e is a novel experiment searching for charged lepton flavor violation in the rare decay $\\mu^+ \\rightarrow e^+e^-e^+$. Decay vertex position, decay time and particle momenta have to be precisely measured in order to reject both accidental and physics background. A silicon pixel tracker based on $50\\,\\mu$m thin high voltage monolithic active pixel sensors (HV-MAPS) in a 1 T solenoidal magnetic field provides precise vertex and momentum information. The MuPix chip combines pixel sensor cells with integrated analog electronics and a periphery with a complete digital readout. The MuPix7 is the first HV-MAPS prototype implementing all functionalities of the final sensor including a readout state machine and high speed serialization with 1.25 Gbit/s data output, allowing for a streaming readout in parallel to the data taking. The observed efficiency of the MuPix7 chip including the full readout system is $\\geq99\\%$ in a high rate test beam.

  19. Comparative trace elemental analysis of cancerous and non-cancerous tissues of rectal cancer patients using PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga Raju, G. J.; Sarita, P.; Murthy, K. S. R.

    2017-08-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), an accelerator based analytical technique has been employed in this work for the analysis of trace elements in the cancerous and non-cancerous tissues of rectal cancer patients. A beam of 3 MeV protons generated from 3 MV Pelletron accelerator at the Ion Beam Laboratory of Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India was used as projectile to excite the atoms present in the tissues samples. PIXE technique, with its capability to detect simultaneously several elements present at very low concentrations, offers an excellent tool for trace element analysis. The characteristic X-rays emitted by the samples were recorded by a high resolution Si (Li) detector. On the basis of the PIXE spectrum obtained for each sample, the elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Br were identified and their relative concentrations were estimated in the cancerous and non-cancerous tissues of rectum. The levels of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and As were higher (p cancer tissues relative to the normal tissues. The alterations in the levels of the trace elements observed in the present work are discussed in this paper with respect to their potential role in the initiation, promotion and inhibition of cancer of the rectum.

  20. Design and characterization of the ePix10k: a high dynamic range integrating pixel ASIC for LCLS detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragiulo, P.; Dragone, A.; Markovic, B.; Herbst, R.; Nishimura, K.; Reese, B.; Herrmann, S.; Hart, P.; Blaj, G.; Segal, J.; Tomada, A.; Hasi, J.; Carini, G.; Kenney, C.; Haller, G.

    2015-05-01

    ePix10k is a variant of a novel class of integrating pixel ASICs architectures optimized for the processing of signals in second generation LINAC Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-Ray cameras. The ASIC is optimized for high dynamic range application requiring high spatial resolution and fast frame rates. ePix ASICs are based on a common platform composed of a random access analog matrix of pixel with global shutter, fast parallel column readout, and dedicated sigma-delta analog to digital converters per column. The ePix10k variant has 100um×100um pixels arranged in a 176×192 matrix, a resolution of 140e- r.m.s. and a signal range of 3.5pC (10k photons at 8keV). In its final version it will be able to sustain a frame rate of 2kHz. A first prototype has been fabricated and characterized. Performance in terms of noise, linearity, uniformity, cross-talk, together with preliminary measurements with bump bonded sensors are reported here.

  1. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5 were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign for elemental and multivariate analyses. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE, Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM measurements were done to determine concentrations of 19 elements from Na to Pb, hydrogen, and total mass, respectively. The most abundant elements from PIXE analysis were S, Si, K, Fe, Ca, and Al, while the major emissions sources associated with these elements were industry, wind-blown soil, and biomass burning. Wind trajectories suggest that metals associated with industrial emissions came from northern areas of the city whereas soil aerosols came from the southwest and increased in concentration during dry conditions. Elemental markers for fuel oil combustion, V and Ni, correlated with a large SO2 plume to suggest an anthropogenic, rather than volcanic, emissions source. By subtracting major components of soil and sulfates determined by PIXE analysis from STIM total mass measurements, we estimate that approximately 50% of non-volatile PM2.5 consisted of carbonaceous material.

  2. Chemoselective, Enzymatic C-H Bond Amination Catalyzed by a Cytochrome P450 Containing an Ir(Me)-PIX Cofactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dydio, Paweł; Key, Hanna M; Hayashi, Hiroki; Clark, Douglas S; Hartwig, John F

    2017-02-08

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes have been engineered to catalyze abiological C-H bond amination reactions, but the yields of these reactions have been limited by low chemoselectivity for the amination of C-H bonds over competing reduction of the azide substrate to a sulfonamide. Here we report that P450s derived from a thermophilic organism and containing an iridium porphyrin cofactor (Ir(Me)-PIX) in place of the heme catalyze enantioselective intramolecular C-H bond amination reactions of sulfonyl azides. These reactions occur with chemoselectivity for insertion of the nitrene units into C-H bonds over reduction of the azides to the sulfonamides that is higher and with substrate scope that is broader than those of enzymes containing iron porphyrins. The products from C-H amination are formed in up to 98% yield and ∼300 TON. In one case, the enantiomeric excess reaches 95:5 er, and the reactions can occur with divergent site selectivity. The chemoselectivity for C-H bond amination is greater than 20:1 in all cases. Variants of the Ir(Me)-PIX CYP119 displaying these properties were identified rapidly by evaluating CYP119 mutants containing Ir(Me)-PIX in cell lysates, rather than as purified enzymes. This study sets the stage to discover suitable enzymes to catalyze challenging C-H amination reactions.

  3. Elemental imaging of organic matter and associated metals in ore deposits using micro PIXE and micro-EBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, S., E-mail: fuchs@geomin.eu [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, McGill University, 3450 University Street, Montreal H3A 0E8 (Canada); Przybylowicz, W.J., E-mail: przybylowicz@tlabs.ac.za [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Williams-Jones, A.E., E-mail: anthony.williams-jones@mcgill.ca [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, McGill University, 3450 University Street, Montreal H3A 0E8 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    Micro-PIXE and micro-EBS analyses were carried out on samples from the Au–U-bearing Carbon Leader Reef of the Witwatersrand in South Africa to investigate the role of organic matter in the formation of this deposit. Micro-PIXE and Micro-EBS shows a very complex metal distribution within the bitumen nodules and their interstitial spaces. The style of the gold distribution and its association with epigenetic minerals (REE phosphates, phyllosilicates) indicates that all observed gold migrated in aqueous solution and precipitated by reduction on the surfaces of the bitumen nodules. Uraninite occurrences are confined to the bitumen nodules, which supports the argument of a uraninite paleo-placer; however the pervasive distribution of uranium also supports the argument that uraninite is derived from organo-metallic complexes. This study shows that micro-PIXE is a powerful tool to characterize metals associated with hydrocarbons. However, the organic matrix, the complexity of the obtained spectra and the small size of the minerals have significant influence on the reliability of the quantitative data. Due to highly variable amounts of heavy metals (U, Au, Pb) the obtained micro-EBS results are of questionable quality.

  4. Localization and quantification of Pb and nutrients in Typha latifolia by micro-PIXE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubenova, Lyudmila; Pongrac, Paula; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Mezek, Gašper Kukec; Vavpetič, Primož; Grlj, Nataša; Kump, Peter; Nečemer, Marijan; Regvar, Marjana; Pelicon, Primož; Schröder, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Typha latifolia is a plant species widely used for phytoremediation. Accumulation, localization and distribution of Pb and mineral nutrients were investigated in roots, rhizomes and leaves of Typha latifolia grown at 0, 50, 100 and 250 μM Pb concentrations in a pot experiment under controlled conditions. Bulk elemental concentrations were determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy whereas micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) was used for element localization in root and rhizome tissues. Gradual increase in bulk Pb concentrations was observed in Typha latifolia roots and rhizomes treated with increasing Pb concentrations, however in rhizomes Pb concentrations were an order of magnitude lower than in roots. In leaves Pb concentrations were around the limit of detection for XRF (~20 μg g(-1)). An increase in concentration of K and Ca in roots, rhizomes and leaves, of iron and zinc in roots and leaves, and of Mn in rhizomes was observed either at 50 and/or 100 μM Pb treatments, whereas for K and Ca in roots, rhizomes and leaves, Fe and Zn in roots and leaves and Mn in rhizomes, or at 250 μM Pb treatment the increase was seen for concentrations of Fe and Zn in rhizomes and Cu in roots. Mn concentrations decreased with Pb treatments in roots and leaves. Element localization using micro-PIXE analysis demonstrated Pb accumulation in epidermal and cortical tissues of treated roots and rhizomes, while in endodermis and vascular tissues Pb was not detected. A displacement of Ca from epidermal to cortical tissues was observed in Pb treated roots and rhizomes, pointing to cell wall immobilization of Pb as one of the tolerance mechanisms in Typha latifolia. High level of colocalization of Pb with P (r = 0.60), S (r = 0.37) and Zn (r = 0.70) was observed in Pb treated roots, while in rhizomes colocalization with the mentioned elements was still positive, but not that prominent. These results indicate that Pb may form complexes with phosphorus and sulfur

  5. Major and Trace Element Concentrations in Garnet Performed by Electron Microprobe and MicroPIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, A.; Cossio, R.; Mazzoli, C.; Olmi, F.; Vaggelli, G.

    2003-12-01

    The chemical composition of rock-forming minerals reflects their crystallisation history and provides information on the temperature and pressure conditions during their formation. Among metamorphic minerals, garnet is one of the most commonly studied in metamorphic petrology because a chemical zoning is often observed in porphyroblasts that potentially records the changes in the reaction history of the rock. In the past, only major element composition could be determined by non-destructive analytical procedure. However, at high temperature major element growth zoning may be significantly modified by intra-crystalline diffusion. Consequently, the study of trace elements distribution, which may be less susceptible to diffusional modification, becomes of fundamental importance. In this regard, an inverse correlation between yttrium concentration in garnet and metamorphic grade has been recently proposed for pelitic rocks (Pyle & Spear, 2000). This coupling is of great advantage as it may be used to calibrate new geothermometers based on exchange equilibria involving trace elements in garnet In the present paper, a micro-beam Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (micro-PIXE) analytical technique and a WDS electron microprobe (EPMA), were been applied to a specific geological problem particularly affected by the limitations of other techniques. The collected samples come from meta-pelitic samples belonging to the tectonic unit of Monte Rosa Nappe (Western Alps). Selected garnet crystals were analysed for major (Si, Al, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe) and trace elements. The former were analysed by EPMA and the latter by micro-PIXE. The considered garnet crystals show well-defined compositional zoning, characterised by a smooth and concentric variation of the selected elements from core to rim. As regards the trace elements distribution, the two-dimensional X-ray maps display a strong Y enrichment in the core, followed by a flat pattern at the inner and outer rim. Y concentration spreads over

  6. Development of the Jyvaeskylae microbeam facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norarat, Rattanaporn, E-mail: rattanaporn.norarat@phys.jyu.fi [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Sajavaara, Timo; Laitinen, Mikko; Heikkinen, Pauli; Ranttila, Kimmo; Ylikorkala, Kari; Haenninen, Vaeinoe; Rossi, Mikko; Jones, Pete [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Marjomaeki, Varpu; Gilbert, Leona [Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Whitlow, Harry J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2012-02-01

    Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A MeV ion microbeam for biomedical materials research is being developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High accuracy scanning using electrostatic post-focus deflection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imaging and direct lithographic image writing using time-stamping methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New scanning modes and fluorescence detectors permit low ion-fluence cell imaging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal compensated beam-line support design for high positional accuracy. - Abstract: A new microbeam facility is being constructed at the 1.7 MV Pelletron Accelerator in Jyvaeskylae. The facility is designed for easy upgrading and incorporates a number of innovative features. Initially, it is based on a Heidelberg doublet with a design capability of a 3 Multiplication-Sign 5 {mu}m beamspot at PIXE intensities and later upgraded to nanobeam performance. A thermal-expansion compensated rigid frame mounted on a mechanically isolated floor section is used to support the ion optical components. A compact-post focusing electrostatic deflector is used for high linearity beam scanning. This together with a novel time-stamped data collection (TDC) allows dynamic effects in IBIC, fluorescence bleaching to be studied as well as facilitating multi-resolution image support for low-fluence imaging of cells. The target chamber is fitted with a novel low-cost large working distance optical microscope, extremely compact large solid angle photon detectors as well as conventional secondary electron, PIXE and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) detectors.

  7. Facilities & Leadership

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The facilities web service provides VA facility information. The VA facilities locator is a feature that is available across the enterprise, on any webpage, for the...

  8. PIXE and ICP-AES comparison in evaluating the efficiency of metal extraction and analysis in aerosol samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugi, F.; Becagli, S.; Ghedini, C.; Marconi, M.; Severi, M.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R. [Dep. of Chemistry, University of Florence, Sesto F.no (Fl) (Italy); Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S. [Dep. of Physics and Astronomy , University of Florence and INFN, Sesto F. no (Fl) (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: A recent EU regulation (EN 149022005) requests the quantification of selected metals in the atmospheric particulate by mineralization with H{sub 2}0{sub 2} and HN0{sub 3} in microwave oven.This method might possibly conflict with the determination of the total metal content. In fact, the more the aerosol is enriched in crustal elements the more the difference in the two methods are expected, since the H{sub 2}0{sub 2}+ HN0{sub 3}, extraction is not reliable for metals in silicate form. In order to evaluate the extracted fraction, PIXE and ICP-AES measurements were carried out on the two halves of a series of PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected on Teflon filters in an urban site in the surrounding of Florence (Italy). An ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma -Atomic Emission Spectroscopy) method was optimized by an ultrasound nebuliser (CETAC 5000 AT+), in order to improve reproducibility and detection limit. In these conditions, it was possible quantifying AI, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Vatsub-ppb levels. PIXE analysis using the external beam set-up at LABEC and a 3 MeV proton beam was carried out in order to measure the total elemental content of the metals. By comparing the ICP-AES and the PIXE results, a preliminary evaluation of the efficiency of the H{sub 2}0{sub 2} and HN0{sub 3} extraction method was performed. The obtained results (the mean values for the ICP-AES/PIXE ratio are reported in Table 1) show that the extraction procedure following the EN 14902 directive allows quantitative recoveries (80-120%, including the analytical uncertainties)for the majority of the analysed metals, especially for those mainly emitted by anthropic sources. This result points out that anthropic metals are present in the atmosphere as relatively available species (free metals, labile complexes, carbonates, oxides). On the contrary, lower recoveries were obtained for AI (mean value around 75%), a metal that has a relevant crustal fraction. Percentage of recovery of

  9. Biochemistry Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Biochemistry Facility provides expert services and consultation in biochemical enzyme assays and protein purification. The facility currently features 1) Liquid...

  10. Development of the Jyväskylä microbeam facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norarat, Rattanaporn; Sajavaara, Timo; Laitinen, Mikko; Heikkinen, Pauli; Ranttila, Kimmo; Ylikorkala, Kari; Hänninen, Väinö; Rossi, Mikko; Jones, Pete; Marjomäki, Varpu; Gilbert, Leona; Whitlow, Harry J.

    2012-02-01

    A new microbeam facility is being constructed at the 1.7 MV Pelletron Accelerator in Jyväskylä. The facility is designed for easy upgrading and incorporates a number of innovative features. Initially, it is based on a Heidelberg doublet with a design capability of a 3 × 5 μm beamspot at PIXE intensities and later upgraded to nanobeam performance. A thermal-expansion compensated rigid frame mounted on a mechanically isolated floor section is used to support the ion optical components. A compact-post focusing electrostatic deflector is used for high linearity beam scanning. This together with a novel time-stamped data collection (TDC) allows dynamic effects in IBIC, fluorescence bleaching to be studied as well as facilitating multi-resolution image support for low-fluence imaging of cells. The target chamber is fitted with a novel low-cost large working distance optical microscope, extremely compact large solid angle photon detectors as well as conventional secondary electron, PIXE and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) detectors.

  11. PIXE and ICP-AES analysis of early glass unearthed from Xinjiang (China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B. [Department of Technical Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cheng, H.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Ma, B. [School of Information Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Q.H. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhang, P. [Xinjiang Institute of Archaeology, Urumchi 830011 (China); Gan, F.X. [School of Information Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yang, F.J. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2005-10-15

    Early glasses (about 1066 BC-220 AD) unearthed from Xinjiang of China were chemically characterized by using PIXE and ICP-AES. It was found that these glasses were basically attributed to PbO-BaO-SiO{sub 2} system, K{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} system, Na{sub 2}O-CaO-SiO{sub 2} system and Na{sub 2}O-CaO-PbO-SiO{sub 2} system. The results from the cluster analysis showed that some glasses had basically similar recipe and technology. The PbO-BaO-SiO{sub 2} glass and the K{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} glass were thought to come from the central area and the south of ancient China, respectively. The part of the Na{sub 2}O-CaO-SiO{sub 2} glass (including the Na{sub 2}O-CaO-PbO-SiO{sub 2} glass) might be imported from Mesopotamia, while the other part might be locally produced.

  12. PIXE detection limit for aluminium thin film deposited on Si-based matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soueidan, M.; Roumié, M.; Nsouli, B.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work is to show the capability of the PIXE technique as a rapid, non-destructive and accurate quantification method on silicon (Si) and in Si-based matrix. For this purpose, an aluminium (Al) thin film (2.5 nm) deposition on silicon and silicon carbide substrates was carried out using effect joule evaporation. In order to improve the sensitivity for Al determination, a systematic study was undertaken using proton ion beam at different energies (from 0.2 to 3 MeV) with a different incident angles (0°, 60°, and 80°). Proton beam energy of 0.3 MeV and 80° tilting angle permits a more accurate determination of Al/Si with high sensitivity within few minutes of acquisition time and with a LOD less than 1.2 × 1015 at/cm2. However, the LOD of Al decreases by one order of magnitude when SiC substrate is used instead of Si. Hence, these optimal parameters were used to determine the concentration of Al doping in thin homoepitaxial SiC layer. It was found that the Al/Si ratio was varied from 0.066 to 0.36 when the incident angle varied from 0 to 80°.

  13. Application of PIXE in medical study. Environmental minerals and neurodegenerative disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, S. [Department of Neurology, Wakayama Medical College, Wakayama (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Comparative study on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and parkinsonism-dementia (PDC) in the Kii Peninsula of Japan and Guam was conducted to evaluate the participatory role of environmental minerals in the pathogenesis of the above neurodegenerative diseases, using particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) spectrometry and morphometric-statistical analysis. A significantly high content of Al in the hippocampus and spinal cord or Kii and Guamanian ALS/PD cases was found with a positive correlation for Fe and Cu, and a negative correlation for Zn. The numbers of hippocampal neurons in Guamanian PDC, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease were significantly decreased with a high Al content. Al content significantly and positively correlated with the number of Alzheimer's neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the hippocampus of ALS cases and controls in both foci, especially in Guamanian cases. The slope of best linear regression of Guamanian cases was markedly steeper than that of Japanese cases (p < 0,001), Morin staining for Al showed green fluorescence on the nucleolus, cytoplasm, and NFT in the hippocampus of Kii ALS cases. These findings suggest that Guamanian and Kii people have a predisposition to develop ALS/PDC precipitated by their geological/geochemical environmental status, i.e., a prolonged low intake or Ca and Mg together with excess exposure to Al and other environmental minerals. (author)

  14. Elemental composition of `normal` and Alzheimer brain tissue by INA and PIXE analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stedman, J.D.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1997-03-01

    Instrumental methods based on the nuclear and atomic properties of the elements have been used for many years to determine elemental concentrations in a variety of materials for biomedical, industrial and environmental applications. These methods offer high sensitivity for accurate trace element measurements, suffer few interfering or competing effects. Present no blank problems and are convenient for both research and routine analyses. The present article describes the use of two trace element techniques. Firstly the use of activation of stable nuclei irradiated by neutrons in the core of a low power research reactor as a means of detection of elements through the resulting gamma-rays emitted. Secondly, the observations of the interactions of energetic ion beams with the material in order to identify elemental species. Over recent years there has been some interest in determining the elemental composition of `normal` and Alzheimer affected brain tissue, however literature findings are inconsistent. Possible reasons for discrepancies need to be identified for further progress to be made. Here, post-mortem tissue samples, provided by the Alzheimer`s Disease Brain Bank, Institute of Psychiatry, London, were taken from the frontal, occipital, parietal and temporal lobes of both hemispheres of brains from 13 `normal` and 19 Alzheimer subjects. The elemental composition of the samples was determined using the analytical techniques of INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis), RBS (Rutherford back-scattering) and PIXE (particle induced x-ray emission). The principal findings are summarised here. (author).

  15. PIXE analysis of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [ICTP Fellow on sabbatical leave from Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, lIe-lfe (Nigeria); Omobuwajo, O.R.; Adebajo, A.C. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, lIe-lfe (Nigeria); Ceccato, D. [Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Buoso, M.C.; Moschini, G., E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk [lstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both. It is a dangerous disease leading to death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported{sup 1}. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the presence of twenty two elements at various concentrations in the medicinal plants. The leaves of Murraya, P amarus, O. gratissimum, O.subscopodica, P pellucida and the whole plant of B. diffusa, B. pinnalum and C. occidenlalis could be taken as vegetables, food additives, neutraceuticals and supplements in the management of diabetes. [1] S.O. Olabanji, OR Omobuwajo, D. Ceccato, A.C. Adebajo, M.C. Buoso, G. Moschini. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 266 (2008) 2387 - 2390. (author)

  16. Micro-PIXE investigation of bean seeds to assist micronutrient biofortification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvitanich, Cristina, E-mail: crc@mb.au.dk [Centre for Carbohydrate Recognition and Signalling, Department of Molecular Biology Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Przybylowicz, Wojciech J.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Blair, Matthew W.; Astudillo, Carolina [CIAT - Centro International de Agricultura Tropical, Cali (Colombia); Orlowska, Elzbieta; Jurkiewicz, Anna M.; Jensen, Erik O.; Stougaard, Jens [Centre for Carbohydrate Recognition and Signalling, Department of Molecular Biology Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2011-10-15

    This study compares the distribution and concentrations of micro- and macronutrients in different bean cultivars with the aim of optimizing the biofortification, a sustainable approach towards improving dietary quality. Micro-PIXE was used to reveal the distribution of Fe, Zn, Mn, Ca, P, S in seeds of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus). Average concentrations of elements in different tissues were obtained using ICP-AES. The highest concentrations of Zn in the studied beans were found in the embryonic axis, but an increased concentration of this element was also detected in the provascular bundles of the cotyledons. The first layer of cells surrounding provascular bundles accumulated high concentrations of Fe, while the next cell layer had an increased concentration of Mn. The analysis showed that the provascular bundles and the first cell layers surrounding them could have a significant role in the storage of important seed micronutrients - Zn, Fe, and Mn. This information has important implications for molecular biology studies aimed at seed biofortification.

  17. Micro-PIXE investigation of bean seeds to assist micronutrient biofortification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvitanich, Cristina; Przybyłowicz, Wojciech J.; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, Jolanta; Blair, Matthew W.; Astudillo, Carolina; Orłowska, Elżbieta; Jurkiewicz, Anna M.; Jensen, Erik Ø.; Stougaard, Jens

    2011-10-01

    This study compares the distribution and concentrations of micro- and macronutrients in different bean cultivars with the aim of optimizing the biofortification, a sustainable approach towards improving dietary quality. Micro-PIXE was used to reveal the distribution of Fe, Zn, Mn, Ca, P, S in seeds of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus). Average concentrations of elements in different tissues were obtained using ICP-AES. The highest concentrations of Zn in the studied beans were found in the embryonic axis, but an increased concentration of this element was also detected in the provascular bundles of the cotyledons. The first layer of cells surrounding provascular bundles accumulated high concentrations of Fe, while the next cell layer had an increased concentration of Mn. The analysis showed that the provascular bundles and the first cell layers surrounding them could have a significant role in the storage of important seed micronutrients - Zn, Fe, and Mn. This information has important implications for molecular biology studies aimed at seed biofortification.

  18. Trace elemental analysis in cancer-afflicted tissues of penis and testis by PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naga Raju, G.J. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); John Charles, M. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Bhuloka Reddy, S. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India)]. E-mail: sbr_r@yahoo.com; Sarita, P. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Seetharami Reddy, B. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Rama Lakshmi, P.V.B. [Pathology Department, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam 530 002 (India); Vijayan, V. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 001 (India)

    2005-04-01

    PIXE technique was employed to estimate the trace elemental concentrations in the biological samples of cancerous penis and testis. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results it can be seen that the concentrations of Cl, Fe and Co are lower in the cancerous tissue of the penis when compared with those in normal tissue while the concentrations of Cu, Zn and As are relatively higher. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Br, Sr and Pb are in agreement within standard deviations in both cancerous and normal tissues. In the cancerous tissue of testis, the concentrations of K, Cr and Cu are higher while the concentrations of Fe, Co and Zn are lower when compared to those in normal tissue of testis. The concentrations of Cl, Ca, Ti and Mn are in agreement in both cancerous and normal tissues of testis. The higher levels of Cu lead to the development of tumor. Our results also support the underlying hypothesis of an anticopper, antiangiogenic approach to cancer therapy. The Cu/Zn ratios of both penis and testis were higher in cancer tissues compared to that of normal.

  19. PIXE characterization of tissues surrounding metallic prostheses coated with biological glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbotteau, Y. E-mail: yves.barbotteau@qse.tohoku.ac.jp; Irigaray, J.L.; Moretto, Ph

    2004-01-01

    Biological glasses can be used as coatings for metallic prostheses in order to prevent corrosion. According to their composition, these glasses have different properties. We studied, in vivo, two glasses referred to as BVA and BVH. They are used as coatings of Ti6Al4V metallic implant. BVA glass disappears after 3 months of implantation and is replaced by bone. Prostheses initially coated by this glass have a larger osseous contact perimeter compared to the uncoated prostheses. This ensures a better anchoring of the implant and limits the micro-motions which cause wear debris. BVH glass keeps a constant composition during implantation and it is used like a layer which isolates metal implant from biological environment. In order to characterize the bony environment surrounding implants, we have used PIXE and RBS methods. This paper shows results of the behavior of bony tissue under micro-beam, the quality tests of new bone which replaces the BVA glass coating and the evaluation of corrosion effects. Titanium release in bony tissues begins when the metal surface of the prosthesis is exposed to biological fluids. After a few months of implantation, the titanium contamination is stabilized and remains localized within the first tens of micrometers of surrounding bone.

  20. Investigation of elemental distribution in human femoral head by PIXE and SRXRF microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.X. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)]. E-mail: yxzhang@sinap.ac.cn; Wang, Y.S. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)]. E-mail: wangyinsong@sinap.ac.cn; Zhang, Y.P. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)]. E-mail: zhangyongping@sinap.ac.cn; Zhang, G.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)]. E-mail: zhangguilin@sinap.ac.cn; Huang, Y.Y. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)]. E-mail: huangyy@mail.ihep.ac.cn; He, W. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)]. E-mail: hew@mail.ihep.ac.cn

    2007-07-15

    In order to study the distribution and possible degenerative processes inducing the loss of inorganic substances in bone and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and therapy of osteoporosis, proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method is used for the determination of elemental concentrations in femoral heads from five autopsies and seven patients with femoral neck fractures. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) microprobe analysis technique is used to scan a slice of the femoral head from its periphery to its center, via cartilage, compact and spongy zones. The specimen preparation and experiment procedure are described in detail. The results show that the concentrations of P, Ca, Fe, Cu, Sr in the control group are higher than those in the patient group, but the concentrations of S, K, Zn, Mn are not significantly different. The quantitative results of elemental distribution, such as Ca, P, K, Fe, Zn, Sr and Pb in bone slice tissue including cartilage, substantial compact and substantial spongy, are investigated. The data obtained show that the concentrations of Ca, P, K, (the major elements of bone composition), are obviously low in both spongy and cartilage zones in the patient group, but there are no remarkable differences in the compact zone. Combined with the correlations between P, K, Zn, Sr and Ca, the loss mechanism of minerals and the physiological functions of some metal elements in bone are also discussed.

  1. {mu}-PIXE and SAXS studies at the bone-cartilage interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaabar, W. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: w.kaabar@surrey.ac.uk; Gundogdu, O. [Umuttepe Campus, University of Kocaeli, 41380, Kocaeli (Turkey); Laklouk, A. [Food Science Department, Al-Fateh Unversity, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya); Bunk, O. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Pfeiffer, F. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Farquharson, M.J. [Department of Radiography, City University, London EC1V OHB (United Kingdom); Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Micro Proton Induced X-ray Emission ({mu}-PIXE) analysis has been employed herein in investigating and quantifying the distribution of a number of essential elements in thin human diseased articular cartilage sections affected by osteoarthritis (OA). Various cations Ca, P and Zn have been reported to play an important role both in the normal growth and remodelling of articular cartilage and subchondral bone as well as in the degenerative and inflammatory processes associated with the disease; they act as co-factors of a class of enzymes known as metalloproteinases which are believed to be active during the initiation, progress and remodelling processes associated with osteoarthritis. Other important enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase are associated with cartilage mineralization. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) for mapping of elemental distributions in bone and cartilage has also been employed by the present group and others. In the current investigations using the cSAXS beamline at the Swiss light source, Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) was carried out on decalcified human articular cartilage to explore the structural and organizational changes of collagen networks in diseased articular cartilage.

  2. PIXE analysis of U and Pu from hot particles: K-lines vs L-lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Ramos, M.C., E-mail: mcyjr@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Thomas Alva Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Applied Nuclear Physics Research Group, University of Seville, Av. Reina Mercedes, Sevilla (Spain); Garcia Lopez, J., E-mail: fjgl@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Thomas Alva Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Applied Nuclear Physics Research Group, University of Seville, Av. Reina Mercedes, Sevilla (Spain); Eriksson, M., E-mail: M.Eriksson@iaea.org [IAEA-MEL, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, MC 98000 (Monaco); Jernstrom, J., E-mail: Jussi.Jernstroem@itg-garching.de [Radiation Research Division, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Garcia-Tenorio, R., E-mail: gtenorio@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Thomas Alva Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Applied Nuclear Physics Research Group, University of Seville, Av. Reina Mercedes, Sevilla (Spain)

    2012-02-15

    Transuranic nuclides have been released into the environment since the beginning of the nuclear age. In many of the areas so contaminated, a significant fraction of the plutonium appears under the form of radioactive particles (also called 'hot' particles). In previous works, Garcia Lopez et al. (2007) and Jimenez-Ramos et al. (2010) , radioactive particles from aircraft accidents in Palomares and Thule have been characterized. Using micro-Proton Induced X-ray Emission ({mu}-PIXE) and confocal X-ray fluorescence microprobe ({mu}-XRF), the L-lines of the main components in these particles, U and Pu, were analyzed. In this work, the key goal is the possibility to determine elemental ratios and concentration of transuranic elements in hot particles from the same areas but using their K-lines, because of their advantages in comparison with the study of L-lines. Indeed, the U and Pu K-lines present not overlapping between the main peaks in the spectra and the X-ray absorption in the sample is much lower than for L-lines.

  3. Comparative Trace Elemental Analysis in Cancerous and Noncancerous Human Tissues Using PIXE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Juma Mulware

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high or low levels of trace metals in human tissues has been studied widely. There have been detectable significant variations in the concentrations of trace metals in normal and cancerous tissues suggesting that these variations could be a causative factor to various cancers. Even though essential trace metals play an important role such as stabilizers, enzyme cofactors, elements of structure, and essential elements for normal hormonal functions, their imbalanced toxic effects contribute to the rate of the reactive oxygen species (ROS and formation of complexities in the body cells which may lead to DNA damage. The induction of oxidative-induced DNA damage by ROS may lead to isolated base lesions or single-strand breaks, complex lesions like double-strand breaks, and some oxidative generated clustered DNA lesions (OCDLs which are linked to cell apoptosis and mutagenesis. The difference in published works on the level of variations of trace metals in different cancer tissues can be attributed to the accuracy of the analytical techniques, sample preparation methods, and inability of taking uniform samples from the affected tissues. This paper reviews comparative trace elemental concentrations of cancerous and noncancerous tissues using PIXE that has been reported in the published literature.

  4. In vivo 3D PIXE-micron-CT imaging of Drosophila melanogaster using a contrast agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Shigeo; Hamada, Naoki; Ishii, Keizo; Nozawa, Yuichiro; Ohkura, Satoru; Terakawa, Atsuki; Hatori, Yoshinobu; Fujiki, Kota; Fujiwara, Mitsuhiro; Toyama, Sho

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) in vivo imaging system for imaging small insects with micrometer resolution. The 3D CT imaging system, referred to as 3D PIXE-micron-CT (PIXEμCT), uses characteristic X-rays produced by ion microbeam bombardment of a metal target. PIXEμCT was used to observe the body organs and internal structure of a living Drosophila melanogaster. Although the organs of the thorax were clearly imaged, the digestive organs in the abdominal cavity could not be clearly discerned initially, with the exception of the rectum and the Malpighian tubule. To enhance the abdominal images, a barium sulfate powder radiocontrast agent was added. For the first time, 3D images of the ventriculus of a living D. melanogaster were obtained. Our results showed that PIXEμCT can provide in vivo 3D-CT images that reflect correctly the structure of individual living organs, which is expected to be very useful in biological research.

  5. Study of the matrix effect on the PIXE quantification of active pharmaceutical ingredients in different formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejjani, Alice; Noun, Manale; Soueidan, Maher; Della-Negra, Serge; Abi-Fadel, Edmond; Roumie, Mohammad; Nsouli, Bilal

    2017-09-01

    While Particle Induced X-ray Emission technique (PIXE) is an accurate technique to quantify Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API's) via the analysis of their heteroatoms, each drug (formulation) may require a specific quantification procedure due to its distinct matrix composition. The commercial Fludinium® drug, which has two active ingredients Clidinium Bromide (C22H26NO3Br) and Dihydrochloride Trifluoperazine (C21H24N3F3S. 2HCl) has been taken as a case study in this work. Different amounts of its API's and its placebo were mixed to provide various formulations. The matrix effect on the quantification of the three heteroatoms (chlorine, sulfur and bromine) related to the above API's in different formulations has been studied. In fact, chlorine which is in its hydrochloride form in the API was not eventually considered for calculation due to its instability under beam. The calculation of bromine amount via its Kα or its Lα rays was found to be independent of the matrix composition and it was rapidly done by simple comparison to an external standard. However, the calculation of sulfur, via its Kα, was highly dependent on the matrix composition. Therefore, to achieve an accurate quantification a more sophisticated calculation method was used by means of the GUPIX code.

  6. In-vacuum micro-PIXE analysis of biological specimens in frozen-hydrated state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tylko, G. [Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa)]. E-mail: tylko@zuk.iz.uj.edu.pl; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J. [Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Przybylowicz, W.J. [Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa)

    2007-07-15

    The first in-vacuum measurements of biological specimens in frozen-hydrated state using proton microbeam have been performed at Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, South Africa. A commercially available cryotransfer system used in electron microscopy has been adapted for this purpose. The analyzed material was frozen in propane cooled by liquid nitrogen, fractured, carbon coated and transferred onto the cold stage (100 K) in the nuclear microprobe chamber. Micro-PIXE and simultaneous proton backscattering was performed using 3 MeV proton beam. Monitoring of water vapour composition during the proton bombardment showed good stability of the analyzed material. Quantitative results were obtained by standardless method, tested using 20% gelatine standards with added PbCl{sub 2}. The differences between the concentrations obtained for frozen-hydrated and next freeze-dried specimens and the value calculated on the basis of weighted mass of PbCl{sub 2} added to gelatine were statistically insignificant. Leaf tissue of Senecio anomalochrous and larvae of Chysolina pardalina were used as examples of plant and animal tissue. Quantitative elemental mapping of frozen-hydrated specimens compared with subsequent analysis of the same areas after freeze-drying revealed the same distribution pattern in both cases.

  7. Using TV white space spectrum to practise telemedicine: A promising technology to enhance broadband internet connectivity within healthcare facilities in rural regions of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Afton; Littman-Quinn, Ryan; Ndlovu, Kagiso; Kovarik, Carrie L

    2016-06-01

    The following correspondence provides an overview of TV White Space (TVWS) technology, regulations, and potential applications to the health care sector. This report also introduces "Project Kgolagano," a Botswana-based initiative representing the first endeavour to utilize TVWS internet connection for practising telemedicine. TV "white space" refers to the previously unused, wasted spectrum within TV radiofrequency channels that can now be leveraged to obtain broadband internet access. TVWS represents a less costly, faster, and farther-reaching internet connection that is a promising option for connecting the previously unconnected populations of remote and underserved areas. The Botswana-University of Pennsylvania Partnership, Microsoft, Botswana Innovation Hub, Vista Life Sciences, and Global Broadband Solutions have partnered together to bring TVWS wireless broadband access to healthcare facilities in poorly connected regions of Botswana (Lobatse, Francistown, Maun, Gaborone) in order to improve healthcare delivery and facilitate telemedicine in dermatology, cervical cancer screening, and family medicine (HIV/AIDS, TB, general adult and pediatric medicine). © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Nuclear techniques (PIXE and RBS) applied to analysis of pre hispanic metals of the Templo Mayor at Tenochtitlan; Tecnicas nucleares (PIXE y RBS) aplicadas al analisis de metales prehispanicos del Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez U, I.; Tenorio, D.; Galvan, J.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This work has the objective of determining by means of the utilization of nuclear techniques (PIXE and RBS) the composition and the alloy type of diverse aztec ornaments corresponding to Post classic period, they were manufactured principally with copper and gold such as bells, beads and disks; all they belonging at 9 oblations of Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan. It is presented here briefly the historical and archaeological antecedents of the devices as well as the analytical methods for conclude with the results obtained. (Author)

  9. Ion microtomography (IMT) and particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analysis direct drive of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antolak, A.J.; Pontau, A.E.; Morse, D.H. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)); Weirup, D.L.; Heikkinen, D.W.; Hornady, R.S. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Cholewa, M.; Bench, G.S.; Legge, G.J.F. (Melbourne Univ. (Australia). Micro Analytical Research Centre)

    1991-11-20

    The complementary techniques of ion microtomography (IMT) and particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) are used to provide micro-characterization of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets for density uniformity, sphericity, and trace element spatial distributions. ICF target quality control in the laser fusion program is important to ensure that the energy deposition from the lasers results in uniform compression and minimization of Taylor-Rayleigh instabilities. We obtain 1% density determinations using IMT with spatial resolution approaching two microns. Utilizing PIXE, we can map out dopant and impurity distributions with elemental detection sensitivities on the order of a few ppm. We present examples of IMT and PIXE analyses performed on several ICF targets.

  10. A comparison between PIXE and ICP-AES measurements of metals in aerosol particulate collected in urban and marine sites in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traversi, R.; Becagli, S. [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, I-50019 Sesto F.no, Florence (Italy); Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Giannoni, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and I.N.F.N., Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto F.no, Florence (Italy); Lucarelli, F., E-mail: lucarelli@fi.infn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and I.N.F.N., Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto F.no, Florence (Italy); Nava, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and I.N.F.N., Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto F.no, Florence (Italy); Rugi, F.; Severi, M.; Udisti, R. [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, I-50019 Sesto F.no, Florence (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    PIXE and ICP-AES techniques are largely used in atmospheric aerosol studies. Since PIXE is able to provide the total elemental concentrations, while ICP-AES results depend on the extraction conditions, parallel PIXE and ICP-AES measurements of Fe, Al, Cu, Pb, Mn, Cr, Ni, V, As on PM10 and PM2.5 samples were compared. Two extraction procedures were applied to samples from 5 sites at different anthropization level in Italy: a “weak” extraction (HNO{sub 3} at pH = 1.5) and a “strong” extraction (micro-wave oven in HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} – following EU rules). The amount of the metal extracted in the different conditions resulted to be strongly dependent on the sampling site, on the main sources of the particle (crustal or anthropic) containing the metal and on the sampled size class.

  11. Executive Order 12898 and Social, Economic, and Sociopolitical Factors Influencing Toxic Release Inventory Facility Location in EPA Region 6: A Multi-Scale Spatial Assessment of Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andrea Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Toxic Release Inventory facilities are among the many environmental hazards shown to create environmental inequities in the United States. This project examined four factors associated with Toxic Release Inventory, specifically, manufacturing facility location at multiple spatial scales using spatial analysis techniques (i.e., O-ring statistic and…

  12. The NeckPix(©): development of an evaluation tool for assessing kinesiophobia in subjects with chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticone, Marco; Vernon, Howard; Brunati, Roberto; Rocca, Barbara; Ferrante, Simona

    2015-01-01

    To develop and validate NeckPix(©), a multi-image instrument for assessing daily activities in the context of pain-related fear, in order to allow its use in patients with chronic neck pain (NP). The measure was developed by means of item generation followed by reduction/selection. The psychometric testing included exploratory factor analysis; content validity by investigating clarity, specificity, appropriateness for the target population, relevance and completeness; reliability by internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and test-retest stability (intra-class coefficient correlation, ICC); and construct validity by comparing NeckPix with the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS), the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and a Numerical Rating Scale of pain intensity (NRS) (Pearson's correlation). The measure, which includes ten images used to assess everyday activities in the context of pain-related fear, was administered to 118 subjects with chronic non-specific NP, and proved to be acceptable and feasible. Factor analysis revealed a one-factor solution (which explained 71.12 % of variance). The content of the images was considered adequate, appropriate for the target population, comprehensive, and relevant for evaluating activity-related kinesiophobia. The instrument's internal consistency was good (α = 0.954), as was its test-retest stability (ICC 0.979). Construct validity demonstrated a close correlation with the TSK (r = 0.759), and moderate correlations with the PCS (r = 0.583), the NDI (r = 0.520), and a NRS (r = 0.455). NeckPix(©), which was successfully developed following international recommendations, proved to have a good factorial structure and satisfactory psychometric properties. Its use is recommended for research purposes.

  13. Photoactivation of the BLUF protein PixD Probed by the Site-Specific Incorporation of Fluorotyrosine Residues

    KAUST Repository

    Gil, Agnieszka A.

    2017-09-06

    The flavin chromophore in blue light using FAD (BLUF) photoreceptors is surrounded by a hydrogen bond network that senses and responds to changes in the electronic structure of the flavin on the ultrafast time scale. The hydrogen bond network includes a strictly conserved Tyr residue, and previously we explored the role of this residue, Y21, in the photoactivation mechanism of the BLUF protein AppA by the introduction of fluorotyrosine (F-Tyr) analogs that modulated the pKa and reduction potential of Y21 by 3.5 pH units and 200 mV, respectively. Although little impact on the forward (dark to light adapted form) photoreaction was observed, the change in Y21 pKa led to a 4,000-fold increase in the rate of dark state recovery. In the present work we have extended these studies to the BLUF protein PixD, where, in contrast to AppA, modulation in the Tyr (Y8) pKa has a profound impact on the forward photoreaction. In particular, a decrease in Y8 pKa by 2 or more pH units prevents formation of a stable light state, consistent with a photoactivation mechanism that involves proton transfer or proton coupled electron transfer from Y8 to the electronically excited FAD. Conversely, the effect of pKa on the rate of dark recovery is markedly reduced in PixD. These observations highlight very significant differences between the photocycles of PixD and AppA, despite their sharing highly conserved FAD binding architectures.

  14. Capture of air particulate matter and gaseous Hg{sup 0} by ionic liquids analyzed by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Mondragon, M. A. [UNAM, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Boulevard Juriquilla No. 3001, 76230 Juriquilla, Queretaro (Mexico); Murillo, G.; Mendez, B. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been extensively employed to study the elements associated to air particulate matter (Pm). However, the atmosphere is a very complex system and inorganic pollutants may be also in gaseous phases. Aerosol monitoring does not allow the determination of all the volatile inorganic compounds, since they are not retained in the filters, or if they are trapped, the analysis under vacuum results in a partial or total loss of them. In order to extend the applications of PIXE there is a need to develop new methods to simultaneously capture particulate matter and volatile substances. Ionic liquids (Il) result from combinations of organic cations and anions that may be liquid at room temperature. The physicochemical characteristics of Il s allow them to absorb atmospheric trace metals present in solid and gaseous phases, a task normally performed with independent sampling methods. In this work we explored this capability of Il s as monitors of chemical species which can be found in the gas phase and as particulate matter. The tested Il s included 1-Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium-Hexafluorophosphate (BMIM) (PF{sub 6}) for Pm and Hg capture; and 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate (BMIM) (Scn) only for Hg capture. Elemental analysis of both experiments was performed by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Changes in the molecular structure on BMIM PF{sub 6} due to the Hg binding were followed by infrared spectroscopy. (BMIM((PF{sub 6}) proved to be successful as passive collector of Pm. However when both were used for Hg capture, (BMIM) (Scn) showed better selectivity. These preliminary results showed the potential of Il s for simultaneous uptake of Pm and volatile inorganic compounds. (Author)

  15. Cool-1/βPIX functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor in the cycling of Cdc42 to regulate insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepner, Erica M; Yoder, Stephanie M; Oh, Eunjin; Kalwat, Michael A; Wang, Zhanxiang; Quilliam, Lawrence A; Thurmond, Debbie C

    2011-12-01

    Second-phase insulin release requires the sustained mobilization of insulin granules from internal storage pools to the cell surface for fusion with the plasma membrane. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying this process remain largely unknown. GTP-loading of the small GTPase Cdc42 is the first glucose-specific activation step in the process, although how glucose triggers Cdc42 activation is entirely unknown. In a directed candidate screen for guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), which directly activate small GTPases, Cool-1/βPix was identified in pancreatic islet beta cells. In support of its role as the beta cell Cdc42 GEF, βPix coimmunoprecipitated with Cdc42 in human islets and MIN6 beta cells in a glucose-dependent manner, peaking just prior to Cdc42 activation. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated βPix reduction by 50% corresponded to full ablation of glucose-induced Cdc42 activation and significant attenuation of basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Of the two Cdc42 guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) proteins identified in beta cells, βPix competed selectively with caveolin-1 (Cav-1) but not RhoGDI in coimmunoprecipitation and GST-Cdc42-GDP interaction assays. However, a phospho-deficient Cav-1-Y14F mutant failed to compete with βPix; Cav-1(Tyr14) is an established phosphorylation site for Src kinase. Taken together, these data support a new model, wherein glucose stimulates Cav-1 and induces its dissociation from Cdc42, possibly via Src kinase activation to phosphorylate Cav-1(Tyr14), to promote Cdc42-βPix binding and Cdc42 activation, and to trigger downstream signaling and ultimately sustain insulin release.

  16. Quantitative elemental determination of the particulate matter in the atmosphere of Pachuca city and the Real del Monte village, Hidalgo by means of PIXE technique; Determinacion elemental cuantitativa de la materia particulada en la atmosfera de la ciudad de Pachuca y el poblado de Real del Monte, Hidalgo, mediante la tecnica PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasso G, C.L. [ITT, 50000 Toluca (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    All the pollutants that are generated so much of anthropogenic activities as natural cause effects to the health, and of course its increase the atmospheric pollution. Today in day for the great advance of the technology other pollutants are even generated but noxious to the human being's health, such it is the case of the particles, which are also called particulate matter airborne (MPA). This has motivated, to establish control measures leaning in collection strategies and certified analysis techniques, accurate and reliable. In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) they have been carried out studies on particulate matter airborne. In 1991 it was installed, calibrated and validated the nuclear technique of atomic origin based on proton beams known as PIXE. The characterization of the (MPA) it is carried out applying this technique and the collection by means of Dichotomous collectors (SFU). The thesis work that is presented next, includes the topic of the atmospheric pollution by particulate matter airborne (MPA) in a mining region, inside the Hidalgo State. The study was carried out during the 1998 winter season, only embracing the whole month of March in alternate days giving a total of 112 samples. Two sites that are highly active in the mining were studied, these are: the Real del Monte town and the Hidalgo state capital: Pachuca. Four samples per day were collected beginning to the 7:00 am--7:00 pm (daytime period) and concluding to the 7:00 pm -7:00 am (nocturne period). The characterization of its elementary content is carried out using the X-ray emission induced by particles technique (PIXE) that is a nuclear technique able to analyze 23 chemical elements beginning from the Al to the Pb, it requires of a very small sample quantity, it is very sensitive and it is not destructive. This characterization one carries out so much for fraction PM{sub 2.5} (fine) like as PM{sub 10} (thick) in both sites, also it was analyzed the temporary

  17. Combined external-beam PIXE and /μ-Raman characterisation of garnets used in Merovingian jewellery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaro, T.; Colinart, S.; Poirot, J.-P.; Sudres, C.

    2002-04-01

    Red garnets were the dominant gemstones used for jewels in Europe during the Early Middle Ages. We have studied over 350 garnets set on 12 jewels unearthed in the royal necropolis of the Saint-Denis Basilica, close to Paris. This famous collection of "cloisonné" style artefacts dates from the Merovingian period (late fifth century AD to early seventh century AD). The archaeological issue addressed is the identification of the geographical origin of these garnets, in view to establish the gem trading routes during the Dark Ages. External beam PIXE was used to determine the major constituents (Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Mn, Fe), specifying the garnet type (composition in various mineralogical end-members, e.g. almandine, pyrope, spessartite, …), and the trace element content (Cr, Y). Three sorts of garnets were identified. Ten jewels are adorned with almandine garnets (Fe-rich). One jewel has intermediate almandine-pyrope garnets ("rhodolite"). The last and most recent jewel is inlaid with pyrope (Mg-rich) garnets. Trace element content and slight differences in major composition allowed to distinguish five different sources: two sources for pyrope garnets (with and without chromium), and two sources for almandine garnets (distinctive calcium, magnesium and yttrium contents). A preliminary comparison with literature data suggested that almandine garnets may have been mined from India while the "rhodolite" garnets may have been imported from Sri Lanka. The sources of pyrope garnets could be the Bohemian deposits (Czech republic). In addition, μ-Raman spectrometry was used to identify most of the mineral inclusions (apatite, zircon, ilmenite, monazite, calcite, quartz) present in almandine garnets. Even if two specific types of inclusions were not identified, due to the lack of corresponding reference spectra in our database, the Raman spectra collected provided an interesting inclusion fingerprint.

  18. Combined external-beam PIXE and {mu}-Raman characterisation of garnets used in Merovingian jewellery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calligaro, T. E-mail: thomas.calligaro@culture.gouv.fr; Colinart, S.; Poirot, J.-P.; Sudres, C

    2002-04-01

    Red garnets were the dominant gemstones used for jewels in Europe during the Early Middle Ages. We have studied over 350 garnets set on 12 jewels unearthed in the royal necropolis of the Saint-Denis Basilica, close to Paris. This famous collection of 'cloisonne' style artefacts dates from the Merovingian period (late fifth century AD to early seventh century AD). The archaeological issue addressed is the identification of the geographical origin of these garnets, in view to establish the gem trading routes during the Dark Ages. External beam PIXE was used to determine the major constituents (Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Mn, Fe), specifying the garnet type (composition in various mineralogical end-members, e.g. almandine, pyrope, spessartite, ...), and the trace element content (Cr, Y). Three sorts of garnets were identified. Ten jewels are adorned with almandine garnets (Fe-rich). One jewel has intermediate almandine-pyrope garnets ('rhodolite'). The last and most recent jewel is inlaid with pyrope (Mg-rich) garnets. Trace element content and slight differences in major composition allowed to distinguish five different sources: two sources for pyrope garnets (with and without chromium), and two sources for almandine garnets (distinctive calcium, magnesium and yttrium contents). A preliminary comparison with literature data suggested that almandine garnets may have been mined from India while the 'rhodolite' garnets may have been imported from Sri Lanka. The sources of pyrope garnets could be the Bohemian deposits (Czech republic). In addition, {mu}-Raman spectrometry was used to identify most of the mineral inclusions (apatite, zircon, ilmenite, monazite, calcite, quartz) present in almandine garnets. Even if two specific types of inclusions were not identified, due to the lack of corresponding reference spectra in our database, the Raman spectra collected provided an interesting inclusion fingerprint.

  19. PIXE analysis of some Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O., E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Padova (Italy); ICTP Fellow on Sabbatical Leave from Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Adebajo, A.C. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Omobuwajo, O.R. [Department of Pharmacognosy and Herbal Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island (Nigeria); Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Padova (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Buoso, M.C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Padova (Italy); Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Padova (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both, is a debilitating disease leading to other complications and death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, nutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the detection of twenty-one elements which include Mg, P, Ca, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, S, Cr, Co, Ni and V that are implicated in the regulation of insulin and the control of the blood-sugar levels in the human body. The entire plant of Boerhavia diffusa, Securidaca longipedunculata stem, leaves of Peperomia pellucida, Macrosphyra longistyla, Olax subscorpioidea, Phyllanthus muerillanus, Jatropha gossypifolia, Cassia occidentalis, Phyllanthus amarus, and leaf and stem of Murraya koenigii, which have high concentrations of these elements could be recommended as vegetables, nutraceuticals, food additives, supplements and drugs in the control and management of diabetes, if toxicity profiles indicate that they are safe. However, significantly high contents of Al and Si in the entire plant of Bryophyllum pinnatum, and As, Cr, and Cu in Ocimum gratissimum leaf suggest that these plants should be avoided by diabetic patients to prevent complications.

  20. Characterization of a millefiori glass find from Aquincum by SEM-EDX and micro-PIXE methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzonyi, I., E-mail: uzonyi@atomki.hu [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/C (Hungary); Csontos, K.; Verebes, A. [Budapest History Museum, Aquincum Museum H-8211 Budapest, Zahony u. 4. (Hungary); Cserhati, C. [Department of Solid State Physics, University of Debrecen H-4032 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/B (Hungary); Csedreki, L.; Kis-Varga, M.; Kiss, A.Z. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/C (Hungary)

    2011-10-15

    Research has been focused on the analysis of archaeological glasses from the Roman age and medieval times. Study of ancient millefiori type glasses from the collection of Hungarian Museums has been started. A test measurement, carried out on a glass fragment supposedly part of a dish, was performed by SEM-EDX and micro-PIXE methods. Complementary analytical data were obtained for texture and composition. Results suggest that Roman and Mesopotamian techniques were used together. Our data contribute to data bases of millefiori glasses.

  1. The application of XRF and PIXE in the analysis of rice shoot and compositional screening of genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bado, S.; Padilla-Alvarez, R.; Migliori, A.; Forster, B. P.; Jaksic, M.; Diawara, Y.; Kaiser, R.; Laimer, M.

    2016-03-01

    The analytical performance of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques was assessed in the determination of fourteen elements (Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr) in plant samples. The quality of the results - in terms of accuracy, associated uncertainty and correlation between the two methods - was evaluated with regard to their usability for compositional classification of different rice genotypes with known tolerance levels to salinity stress. Plant uptake of essential elements was explored by Principal Component Analysis, which illuminated patterns between treatments (salt and control treatments) and across the rice genotypes tested.

  2. The application of XRF and PIXE in the analysis of rice shoot and compositional screening of genotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bado, S., E-mail: s.bado@iaea.org [Plant Breeding and Genetics Laboratory (PGBL), International Atomic Energy (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Padilla-Alvarez, R., E-mail: rpa2000up@hotmail.com [Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Migliori, A. [Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Forster, B.P., E-mail: brianforster@biohybrids.com [Plant Breeding and Genetics Laboratory (PGBL), International Atomic Energy (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Jaksic, M., E-mail: jaksic@irb.hr [Institut Ruđer Bošković, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Diawara, Y.; Kaiser, R. [Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Laimer, M., E-mail: margit.laimer@boku.ac.at [Plant Biotechnology Unit, Department of Biotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, A 1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-03-15

    The analytical performance of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques was assessed in the determination of fourteen elements (Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr) in plant samples. The quality of the results – in terms of accuracy, associated uncertainty and correlation between the two methods – was evaluated with regard to their usability for compositional classification of different rice genotypes with known tolerance levels to salinity stress. Plant uptake of essential elements was explored by Principal Component Analysis, which illuminated patterns between treatments (salt and control treatments) and across the rice genotypes tested.

  3. Waste Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset was developed from the Vermont DEC's list of certified solid waste facilities. It includes facility name, contact information, and the materials...

  4. Fabrication Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  5. The Byzantine ceramics from Pergamon excavations. Characterization of local and imported productions by elementary analysis using PIXE and INAA methods and by petrography; Les ceramiques byzantines des fouilles de Pergame. Caracterisation des productions locales et importees par analyse elementaire par les methodes PIXE et INAA et par petrographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waksman, S.Y.

    1995-01-12

    An important ceramics material dated back to the 12th-14th centuries has been excavated in Pergamon (Turkey). Among these findings, wasters, tripod stilts and unfinished ware attest to local production in the Byzantine period. Elemental analysis by the methods PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) has been performed on a representative sampling of 160 sherds, including attested local material. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to classify the sherds into groups of similar composition and thus to distinguish ceramics made in Pergamon from imported wares. Several groups of local production have been constituted, which correspond to wares differing in date and fabric. The geochemical characterization of the pastes, complemented with petrographical and mineralogical data, shows that specific raw materials have been used to manufacture each ware. The analytical data related to ceramics made in Pergamon will serve as reference data for future provenance studies. Such reference groups of Byzantine ceramics are very rare, and therefore the ceramics imported into Pergamon cannot be attributed as to their origin. Among the ceramics widely diffused in the Byzantine world, some importations belonging to the ``fine sgraffito`` and ``Zeuxippus ware`` types have been identified. The latter type has been a source of stylistic influence for the workshops of Pergamon, since the analyses show that imitated ``Zeuxippus ware`` has been produced there. These imitations were probably themselves diffused on a regional scale. (author). 238 refs., 48 figs., 53 tabs., 22 photos., 8 appends.

  6. The scrapers of obsidian from Metztitlan, Hidalgo. Typology and tools function with the application of the Sem, PIXE and NAA techniques; Los raspadores de obsidiana del senorio de Metztitlan, Hidalgo. Tipologia y funcion de herramientas con la aplicacion de tecnicas de SEM, PIXE y NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizalde R, S.V.; Mandujano A, C

    2000-07-01

    In the last 50 years have been enormous changes and the archaeology has been benefited with the technology development, as computation, the advancements in nuclear physics, the electron microscopy, the particle accelerator and the DNA analysis. As first approach to studied material it was realized in cabinet the morphological and technological analysis to establish a typology and to know the manufacturer process of the scrapers (tool used for to scrape a cavity after cutting its lance-shaping leaves at the maguey core obtaining so the sap commonly named hydromel at the Hidalgo state region in Mexico). On the other hand the studies which carried out in the ININ consist in the functional analysis of use traces in scanning electron microscopy (Sem) and stereoscopic to know about the type of work which were addressed the scrapers. Also were carried out the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and the Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) with the purpose to know the obsidian site which was supplied the Dominion population. (Author)

  7. Current activities at the Seoul National University AMS facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.C. [School of Physics, College of Natural Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jckim@phya.snu.ac.kr; Youn, M. [National Center for Inter-University Research Facilities, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.C. [National Center for Inter-University Research Facilities, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, C.C. [National Center for Inter-University Research Facilities, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Y.M. [National Center for Inter-University Research Facilities, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, J. [National Center for Inter-University Research Facilities, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, H.R. [National Center for Inter-University Research Facilities, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ashok, M. [School of Physics, College of Natural Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, J.W. [DMRC and School of Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.K. [DMRC and School of Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Our {sup 14}C AMS activities have attained an annual throughput of ca. 1000 unknowns, however our {sup 10}Be AMS system development has not been completed yet. Meanwhile, we have diversified our research activities to other areas related to {sup 14}C AMS in order to broaden the application of our accelerator and to provide additional support to the local archeological community. An external beam PIXE system has been constructed on our MPS beam-line and obsidians from Paleolithic sites were investigated for provenance studies. The results showed that PIXE measurements of obsidians, when combined with neutron activation analysis, is a very powerful tool for provenance studies. Measurements of the natural radioactivity of the U-series have been carried out, not only for U/Th bone dating, but also as an investigation of a possibility of characterizing paleosols from various Paleolithic sites. The criteria for the validity of {sup 14}C ages derived from soil organics have been obtained. As an example of the successful application of our {sup 14}C AMS facility, the dating of burials at the Tavan Tolgoi site in Mongolia, containing the burials of artifacts from the era of Chinggis Khan, is described.

  8. Study of the spatial distribution of mercury in roots of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) by micro-pixe spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, Cristina; Wang, Yaodong; Doronila, Augustine; Gregory, David; Baker, Alan J M; Siegele, Rainer; Kolev, Spas D

    2014-01-01

    Localization of Hg in root tissues of vetivergrass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) was investigated by micro-Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) spectrometry to gain a better understanding of Hg uptake and its translocation to the aerial plant parts. Tillers of C. zizanioides were grown in a hydroponic culture for 3 weeks under controlled conditions and then exposed to Hg for 10 days with or without the addition of the chelators (NH(4))(2)S(2)O(3) or KI. These treatments were used to study the effects of these chelators on localization of Hg in the root tissues to allow better understanding of Hg uptake during its assisted-phytoextraction. Qualitative elemental micro-PIXE analysis revealed that Hg was mainly localized in the root epidermis and exodermis, tissues containing suberin in all Hg treatments. Hg at trace levels was localized in the vascular bundle when plants were treated with a mercury solution only. However, higher Hg concentrations were found when the solution also contained (NH(4))(2)S(2)O(3) or KI. This finding is consistent with the observed increase in Hg translocation to the aerial parts of the plants in the case of chemically induced Hg phytoextraction.

  9. Estimation of trace metal elements in oral mucosa specimens by using SR-XRF, PIXE, and XAFS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Tomoko; Uo, Motohiro; Wada, Takahiro; Omagari, Daisuke; Komiyama, Kazuo; Noguchi, Tadahide; Jinbu, Yoshinori; Kusama, Mikio

    2015-02-01

    The effects of dissolved elements from metal dental restorations are a major concern in lesions of the oral mucosa, and the evaluation of accumulated metal elements, especially their distribution and chemical state, is essential for determining the precise effects of trace metals. In this study, X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation (SR-XRF) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) were applied for distribution analysis of the trace metal elements contained in the oral mucosa, and the chemical states of the elements were estimated using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis. Appropriate combination of these analysis techniques, particularly SR-XRF and PIXE, to visualize the distributions of the elements in the oral mucosa allowed for the observation and evaluation of accumulated metal ions and debris. Importantly, the analyses in this study could be carried out using conventional histopathological specimens without damaging the specimens. Therefore, this method would be applicable for the detection of accumulated trace metal elements in biopsy specimens from the oral mucosa.

  10. Contributing to the debate on categorising shared sanitation facilities as 'unimproved': An account based on field researchers' observations and householders' opinions in three regions, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Khalid; Kilamile, Fadhili; Safari, Emmanuela; Seleman, Amour; Mwakitalima, Anyitike; Balengayabo, Jonas G; Kassile, Telemu; Mangesho, Peter E; Mubyazi, Godfrey M

    2017-01-01

    Health risks associated with poor sanitation behaviours continue to be reported mostly from low-income countries (LICs). Reports show that various factors limit many people from accessing and using improved latrines, forcing some to opt for sharing latrines with neighbours, others practicing open defecation. Meanwhile, debate prevails on whether shared latrines should be categorised as unimproved according to WHO/UNICEF-JMP criteria. We contribute to this debate based on results from a study undertaken in three regions, Tanzania. Data were collected through observations in 1,751 households with latrines, coupled with collection of opinions from heads of such households regarding the latrine-sharing practices. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess associations between the outcome and possible predictor variables. Of all 1,751 latrines, 14.6% were shared. Among the shared latrines, 74.2% were found being generally clean as compared to 69.2% of the non-shared ones. Comparing the shared and non-shared latrines, the non-shared latrines were significantly less likely to be found with floors built with permanent materials (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55, 0.98); washable floors (OR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.93); and lockable doors (OR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.95). Shared latrines were less likely to have floors with faecal matter, functional handwashing facilities (HWFs), HWFs with running water, and roofs; albeit the differences in all these scenarios were not statistically significant. Respondents expressed desire for improved latrines, but also did not find it wrong to share latrines if cleanliness was maintained. Having an 'improved' latrine remains important as JMP recommends, but based on our study findings, we argue that possessing a non-shared latrine neither guarantees safety to its users nor its categorisation as 'improved'. Instead, the state of the latrine, the construction technology used and the behaviours of the users may be

  11. Supply-side dimensions and dynamics of integrating HIV testing and counselling into routine antenatal care: a facility assessment from Morogoro Region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Selena J; George, Asha S; LeFevre, Amnesty E; Mpembeni, Rose; Mosha, Idda; Mohan, Diwakar; Yang, Ann; Chebet, Joy; Lipingu, Chrisostom; Baqui, Abdullah H; Killewo, Japhet; Winch, Peter J; Kilewo, Charles

    2015-10-04

    Integration of HIV into RMNCH (reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health) services is an important process addressing the disproportionate burden of HIV among mothers and children in sub-Saharan Africa. We assess the structural inputs and processes of care that support HIV testing and counselling in routine antenatal care to understand supply-side dynamics critical to scaling up further integration of HIV into RMNCH services prior to recent changes in HIV policy in Tanzania. This study, as a part of a maternal and newborn health program evaluation in Morogoro Region, Tanzania, drew from an assessment of health centers with 18 facility checklists, 65 quantitative and 57 qualitative provider interviews, and 203 antenatal care observations. Descriptive analyses were performed with quantitative data using Stata 12.0, and qualitative data were analyzed thematically with data managed by Atlas.ti. Limitations in structural inputs, such as infrastructure, supplies, and staffing, constrain the potential for integration of HIV testing and counselling into routine antenatal care services. While assessment of infrastructure, including waiting areas, appeared adequate, long queues and small rooms made private and confidential HIV testing and counselling difficult for individual women. Unreliable stocks of HIV test kits, essential medicines, and infection prevention equipment also had implications for provider-patient relationships, with reported decreases in women's care seeking at health centers. In addition, low staffing levels were reported to increase workloads and lower motivation for health workers. Despite adequate knowledge of counselling messages, antenatal counselling sessions were brief with incomplete messages conveyed to pregnant women. In addition, coping mechanisms, such as scheduling of clinical activities on different days, limited service availability. Antenatal care is a strategic entry point for the delivery of critical tests and counselling messages

  12. The upgraded external-beam PIXE/PIGE set-up at LABEC for very fast measurements on aerosol samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucarelli, F.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Mochi, D.; Nava, S. [Department of Physics, University of Florence and INFN, Florence (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE)technique has been widely used since its birth for the study of the aerosol composition, and for a long time it has been the dominating technique for its elemental analysis. However now it has to compete with other techniques, like Induced Coupled Plasma and detection by Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) or Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) or Synchrotron Radiation XRF (SR-XRF). To remain competitive, a proper experimental set-up is important to fully exploit PIXE capabilities. At LABEC, an external beam line is fully dedicated to PIXE-PIGE measurements of atmospheric aerosols [1]. Recently SDD (Silicon Drift Detectors) have been introduced for X-ray detection thanks to their better resolution with respect to Si(Li) detectors and the possibility of managing high counting rates (up to 50 kHz at 0.5 μsec shaping time). This implies, in turn, the possibility of using very high beam currents thus drastically reducing the measurement time. However their use for a complete characterization of X-rays was limited by the small thickness and surface areas available. Now SDD with a thickness of 500 μm and 80 mm{sup 2} area have been introduced in the market. We have therefore replaced the Si(Li) detector used so far for the detection of medium-high Z elements with such a SDD. A comparison of the two detectors has been carried out; PIXE minimum detection limits (MDLs) at different proton beam energies have been studied to find out the best energy for PIXE measurements on aerosol samples collected on different substrata, namely Teflon, Kapton, Nuclepore and Kimfol, used for daily or hourly sampling or for cascade impactors. In particular in the case of Teflon filters, the production of γ-rays by F in the Teflon filter limits the current which may be used and the Compton γ-ray background worsens the MDLs. Due to the lower thickness of the SDD detector with respect to a typical Si(Li) detector, these problems are reduced

  13. Analysis of trace rare earth elements in misch metal by means of ITP-PIXE (isotachophoresis - Particle Induced X-ray Emission) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian-Ying; Hirokawa, Takeshi; Nishiyama, Fumitaka; Kimura, Goji; Kiso, Yoshiyuki; Ito, Kazuaki; Shoto, Eiji [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1993-12-31

    A misch metal, an alloy of light rare earth elements, was analyzed by a new coupled analytical method, ITP-PIXE (isotachophoresis - Particle Induced X-ray Emission): The sample solution containing ca.1 mg misch metal was separated and fractionated by the use of a preparative isotachophoretic analyzer. The dropwise fractions containing nanomole rare earth elements were analyzed off-line by PIXE. The matrix effect in X-ray measurement was reduced by the isotachophoretic removing of the dominant lanthanoids and preconcentration of the trace elements of interest. Consequently the minor elements, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb and Y could be determined accurately. The most trace element found was Yb (4ppm, 4ng in 1mg sample). The good accuracy of ITP-PIXE method was also demonstrated for several model samples of lanthanoids, where La was the dominant element and the thirteen lanthanoids were the minor elements. The ratio was varied from 500:1 to 50000:1. Even in the case of 50000:1, ca.10% accuracy was achieved for each minor element except for Sm(23%), Gd(17%) and Yb(18%). The analytical results by ITP-PIXE were compared with those by means of ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometry). (author).

  14. Characterization of the ePix100 prototype: a front-end ASIC for second-generation LCLS integrating hybrid pixel detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragiulo, P.; Dragone, A.; Markovic, B.; Herbst, R.; Nishimura, K.; Reese, B.; Herrmann, S.; Hart, P.; Blaj, G.; Segal, J.; Tomada, A.; Hasi, J.; Carini, G.; Kenney, C.; Haller, G.

    2014-09-01

    ePix100 is the first variant of a novel class of integrating pixel ASICs architectures optimized for the processing of signals in second generation LINAC Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-Ray cameras. ePix100 is optimized for ultra-low noise application requiring high spatial resolution. ePix ASICs are based on a common platform composed of a random access analog matrix of pixel with global shutter, fast parallel column readout, and dedicated sigma-delta analog to digital converters per column. The ePix100 variant has 50μmx50μm pixels arranged in a 352x384 matrix, a resolution of 50e- r.m.s. and a signal range of 35fC (100 photons at 8keV). In its final version it will be able to sustain a frame rate of 1kHz. A first prototype has been fabricated and characterized and the measurement results are reported here.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of the chromophore-binding domain of cyanobacteriochrome AnPixJ from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narikawa, Rei; Muraki, Norifumi; Shiba, Tomoo; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Kurisu, Genji

    2009-02-01

    Cyanobacteriochromes form a recently defined superfamily of tetrapyrrole-based photoreceptors that are distantly related to conventional red/far-red photoreceptor phytochromes. Among these molecules, AnPixJ from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 is a novel photoreceptor that shows reversible photoconversion between green-absorbing and red-absorbing forms, which is in contrast to the properties of conventional phytochromes. In order to better understand the structural basis of this unique photoconversion mechanism, the chromophore-binding domain of AnPixJ (AnPixJ-GAF2) was heterologously overproduced and purified, and crystallization of both forms was attempted. Blue crystals of the red-absorbing form of AnPixJ-GAF2 were successfully obtained; they belonged to space group P4(3)2(1)2 and contained one monomer per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.8 A using synchrotron-radiation beamline BL-5A at the Photon Factory.

  16. Evaluation of caries progression in dentin treated by fluoride-containing materials using an in-air micro-PIGE and micro-PIXE measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H., E-mail: yhiroko@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Iwami, Y.; Yagi, K.; Hayashi, M. [Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Komatsu, H.; Okuyama, K.; Matsuda, Y. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Yasuda, K. [The Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center, 64-52-1 Nagatani, Tsuruga 914-0192 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    It is well-known that fluorine (F) is involved in the progression of caries. The evaluation of caries progression has conventionally been based on the change in mineral content using transverse microradiography (TMR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the progression of dentinal caries by the change in calcium (Ca) content using Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission/Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIGE/PIXE) techniques at the Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center. We also assessed the relationship between caries progression rate and the concentration of F penetration into dentin from dental fluoride-containing materials (FCMs). Dentin sections of six extracted human teeth were prepared to obtain various amounts of F uptake using three types of FCMs. F and Ca distribution of specimens were obtained using PIGE/PIXE techniques. After evaluation, the specimens were immersed in 10 ml of demineralizing solution (pH 4.5) to simulate caries attack. To estimate caries progression rates, the same portions of the specimens were evaluated after caries attack treatment using PIGE/PIXE. A negative correlation between the F uptake in dentin and the rate of caries progression was observed. Therefore, caries progression in dentin was reduced by increasing the amount of F uptake from FCMs. This demonstrates that PIGE/PIXE techniques are valuable for estimating caries progression rates.

  17. The role of PIXE in the AIRUSE project “testing and development of air quality mitigation measures in Southern Europe”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucarelli, F., E-mail: lucarelli@fi.infn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy – University of Florence (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) – Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Chiari, M. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) – Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Calzolai, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy – University of Florence (Italy); Giannoni, M.; Nava, S. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) – Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Udisti, R.; Severi, M. [Department of Chemistry – University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Querol, X.; Amato, F. [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Alves, C. [Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Department of Environment, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Eleftheriadis, K. [Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, N.C.S.R. Demokritos Univ., 15341 Ag. Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece)

    2015-11-15

    The European AIRUSE LIFE+ project aims at testing existing and future mitigation measures and developing new strategies for the improvement of air quality in Southern European countries. The project involves public and private institutions of Spain, UK, Portugal, Italy and Greece. PM10 and PM2.5 daily samplings have been scheduled for one year (from January 2013) in four urban sites, Barcelona (Spain), Porto (Portugal), Athens (Greece), and Florence (Italy). The daily data set gives an overall representative picture of the PM composition in these urban sites. The project includes also samplings with hourly resolution for limited periods. Hourly samples give an easier identification of the different aerosol sources due to the capability of tracking rapid changes as the ones occurring in many particulate emissions as well as in atmospheric transport and dilution processes. The role of PIXE technique within the project has been described in this paper. The comparison of data obtained by different techniques (e.g. PIXE, IC and ICP) assured a quality assurance control on the huge quantity of data obtained in the project. PIXE data together with those obtained by other analytical techniques have been used to reconstruct the average aerosol chemical composition and in Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis to determine the aerosol sources and their impact on PM10 and PM2.5 mass. In particular the high sensitivity of PIXE for all the crustal elements (including Si which is not easily detected by ICP) allows the direct determination of the Saharan dust contribution. Finally, the 1-h resolution data, which can be obtained only by PIXE, confirmed and reinforced the identification of the aerosol sources obtained by the daily concentrations.

  18. Nutritional assessment of residents in long-term care facilities (LTCFS): recommendations of the task force on nutrition and ageing of the IAGG Europe region and the IANA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salva, A.; Coll-Planas, L.; Bruce, S.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Andrieu, S.; Abellan, G.; Vellas, B.

    2009-01-01

    Unintentional weight loss and Undernutrition are major problems among older people living in Long-Term Care Facilities (LTCF). Undernutrition manifests in LTCF particularly as weight loss and low Body Mass Index (BMI) and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality as well as with

  19. Recent applications of PIXE spectrometry in archaeology. Pt. 2; Observations on early glassmaking in the Near East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swann, C.P. (Bartol Research Inst., Univ. Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)); McGovern, P.E.; Fleming, S.J. (MASCA, Univ. Museum, Univ. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1993-04-01

    The study of glass offers some special challenges for PIXE spectrometry, because of the complex trace element patterns which will result from the mixing of several ingredients to produce certain colors. This paper addresses such issues, to the extent that they influence characterization of ancient glass and related frits. Emphasis is placed upon the role of selective filtering in the sensitive measurement of Co, Mn, Ag, Sn, Sb, and Pb, all of which seem to be important in the processes of glass coloration in antiquity. Application of these ideas focuses upon innovations of glassmaking that emerged in the Near East early in the 2nd millennium B.C., at settlements such as Dinkha Tepe and Geoy Tepe (Azerbaijan), and Nuzi (northeast Iraq). (orig.).

  20. Recent applications of PIXE spectrometry in archaeology part II Observations on early glassmaking in the Near East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C. P.; McGovern, P. E.; Fleming, S. J.

    1993-04-01

    The study of glass offers some special challenges for PIXE spectrometry, because of the complex trace element patterns which will result from the mixing of several ingredients to produce certain colors. This paper addresses such issues, to the extent that they influence characterization of ancient glass and related frits. Emphasis is placed upon the role of selective filtering in the sensitive measurement of Co, Mn, Ag, Sn, Sb and Pb, all of which seem to be important in the processes of glass coloration in antiquity. Application of these ideas focuses upon innovations of glassmaking that emerged in the Near East early in the 2nd millennium B.C., at settlements such as Dinkha Tepe and Geoy Tepe (Azerbaijan) and Nuzi (northeast Iraq).

  1. Using On-line Analytical Processing (OLAP) and data mining to estimate emergency room activity in DoD Medical Treatment Facilities in the Tricare Central Region

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Cary V.

    2001-01-01

    On-line Analytical Processing (OLAP) and data mining can greatly enhance the ability of the Military Medical Treatment Facility (MTF) emergency room (ER) manager to improve ER staffing and utilization. MTF ER managers use statistical data analysis to help manage the efficient operation and use of ERs. As the size and complexity of databases increase, traditional statistical analysis becomes limited in the amount and type of information it can extract. OLAP tools enable the analysis of multi-d...

  2. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of minor and trace elements in gallstones of Nigerian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatise, Olusegun I; Obiajunwa, Eusebius I; Lawal, Oladejo O; Adesunkanmi, Abdulrasheed R K

    2010-04-01

    Gallstone disease is a major health problem in many parts of the world. In Nigeria, however, only a few cases of gallstone disease are reported. Minor/trace elements are reported to play a significant role in the formation of gallstones. This study was conducted to assess the minor elements in gallstone of Nigerian patients who had cholecystectomy in our institution using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. We also compare the findings with previous reports from outside Nigeria. Fourteen patients who had cholecystectomy for calculous cholecystitis at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, between March 2006 and July 2008, had the stone retrieved. The stones were analyzed for trace elements at the Center for Energy Research and Developments of the University using PIXE experiments. Certified standard reference material, NIST 1577a (bovine liver), was equally analyzed to confirm the accuracy of the experimental procedure. Computer code GUPIXWIN was used to analyze the data. Fourteen elements, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, potassium, calcium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, bromide, lead, titanium, rubidium, and strontium, were detected in most of the samples. The concentrations of the elements varied in the different samples, ranging from a few parts per million to a few percent. Ca was the major constituent of all samples. The black sand-like samples had very high levels of P, S, K, and Pb, which were different from a previous report. The distribution of trace elements in stones in Nigeria patients is different from previous report outside Nigeria, and this may have some role in the occurrence of gallstones in the black African.

  3. Freeze-substitution methods for Ni localization and quantitative analysis in Berkheya coddii leaves by means of PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budka, D. [Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Mesjasz-PrzybyIowicz, J. [Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa)]. E-mail: mesjasz@tlabs.ac.za; Tylko, G. [Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); PrzybyIowicz, W.J. [Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa)

    2005-04-01

    Leaves of Ni hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddii were chosen as a model to investigate the influence of eight freeze-substitution protocols on the Ni content and distribution. Freeze-substitution of leaf samples cryofixed by high-pressure freezing was carried out in dry acetone, methanol, diethyl ether and tetrahydrofuran. The same substitution media were also used with dimethylglyoxime added as a precipitation reagent. The samples were infiltrated and embedded in Spurr's resin. Micro-PIXE analysis of Ni concentration and localization, complemented by proton backscattering for matrix assessment, was performed using the nuclear microprobe at Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, South Africa. True elemental maps and concentrations were obtained using GeoPIXE-II software. The results were compared with the control results obtained for the parallel air-dried samples, corrected for the water content. The highest Ni content was found in the leaf samples substituted in diethyl ether. This concentration was statistically different from the results obtained for other media. In case of diethyl ether medium Ni was mainly localized in the mesophyll tissue, and the distribution map of this element was in accordance with previous results obtained for freeze-dried and frozen-hydrated leaves of this species. The same distribution pattern was observed for specimens embedded in dry acetone, but Ni concentration was significantly lower. Tetrahydrofuran medium preserved Ni preferentially in the epidermis and vascular tissue, and the elemental map for samples embedded in this medium was distorted. Ni was almost completely washed out from samples substituted in methanol and it was thus impossible to obtain a picture of its distribution. Dimethylglyoxime did not improve the preservation of this element. These results show that diethyl ether is a suitable substitution medium for assessment of Ni concentration and distribution in leaves of B. coddii.

  4. Element analysis of the eutardigrades Richtersius coronifer and Milnesium cf. asiaticum using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotta Nilsson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Semi-terrestrial tardigrades are well-known for their tolerance to a variety of environmental extremes, including desiccation, freezing and radiation. Despite several attempts to reveal the genetic and molecular mechanisms behind the resilience of tardigrades, it is still unknown how these animals are able to maintain the integrity of their cellular components under severe stress. Quantitative or qualitative changes in molecular compounds (e.g., carbohydrates, proteins are expected, and have been the main line of research towards understanding the tolerance of tardigrades. In radiation tolerant bacteria, a tolerance mechanism based on manganese has been proposed. We evaluate this hypothesis in tardigrades and provide the first data on element composition in desiccated and non-desiccated specimens of two eutardigrade species, Richtersius coronifer and Milnesium cf. asiaticum. A focused 2 MeV proton microbeam was utilised to determine the elemental content, distributions and concentrations, using the ion beam analytical technique particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE. The presence of six elements – phosphorus, sulphur, chlorine, potassium, calcium and iron – were confirmed in all tardigrade specimens, at levels up to a few mg g–1. However, manganese was found in less than 10% of the analysed specimens, and in low amounts, thus our study provides no evidence for the manganese hypothesis. We also show that the distributions and/or concentrations of some elements differ between the two species as well as between the dehydrated and hydrated state. In particular, very low levels of iron were found in dehydrated M. cf. asiaticum. Our analysis shows that the PIXE technique is a useful tool for investigating questions on the distribution of elements both in dehydrated and hydrated tardigrades.

  5. Sorting Nexin 27 Protein Regulates Trafficking of a p21-activated Kinase (PAK) Interacting Exchange Factor (β-Pix)-G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase Interacting Protein (GIT) Complex via a PDZ Domain Interaction*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Julie L.; Tang, Jingrong; McDermott, Mark I.; Kuo, Jean-Cheng; Zimmerman, Seth P.; Wincovitch, Stephen M.; Waterman, Clare M.; Milgram, Sharon L.; Playford, Martin P.

    2011-01-01

    Sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) is a 62-kDa protein localized to early endosomes and known to regulate the intracellular trafficking of ion channels and receptors. In addition to a PX domain, SNX27 is the only sorting family member that contains a PDZ domain. To identify novel SNX27-PDZ binding partners, we performed a proteomic screen in mouse principal kidney cortical collecting duct cells using a GST-SNX27 fusion construct as bait. We found that β-Pix (p21-activated kinase-interactive exchange factor), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Rho family of small GTPases known to regulate cell motility directly interacted with SNX27. The association of β-Pix and SNX27 is specific for β-Pix isoforms terminating in the type-1 PDZ binding motif (ETNL). In the same screen we also identified Git1/2 as a potential SNX27 interacting protein. The interaction between SNX27 and Git1/2 is indirect and mediated by β-Pix. Furthermore, we show recruitment of the β-Pix·Git complex to endosomal sites in a SNX27-dependent manner. Finally, migration assays revealed that depletion of SNX27 from HeLa and mouse principal kidney cortical collecting duct cells significantly decreases cell motility. We propose a model by which SNX27 regulates trafficking of β-Pix to focal adhesions and thereby influences cell motility. PMID:21926430

  6. Mammography Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mammography Facility Database is updated periodically based on information received from the four FDA-approved accreditation bodies: the American College of...

  7. Canyon Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — B Plant, T Plant, U Plant, PUREX, and REDOX (see their links) are the five facilities at Hanford where the original objective was plutonium removal from the uranium...

  8. Health Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health facilities are places that provide health care. They include hospitals, clinics, outpatient care centers, and specialized care centers, such as birthing centers and psychiatric care centers. When you ...

  9. Neutron capture cross section measurement of 238U at the CERN n_TOF facility in the energy region from 1 eV to 700 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingrone, F.; Massimi, C.; Vannini, G.; Colonna, N.; Gunsing, F.; Žugec, P.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Duran, I.; Dressler, R.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Koehler, P.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Leong, L. S.; Lo Meo, S.; Losito, R.; Mallick, A.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mastromarco, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mirea, M.; Mondalaers, W.; Paradela, C.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Robles, M. S.; Rubbia, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wright, T.; n TOF Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work is to provide a precise and accurate measurement of the 238U(n ,γ ) reaction cross section in the energy region from 1 eV to 700 keV. This reaction is of fundamental importance for the design calculations of nuclear reactors, governing the behavior of the reactor core. In particular, fast reactors, which are experiencing a growing interest for their ability to burn radioactive waste, operate in the high energy region of the neutron spectrum. In this energy region most recent evaluations disagree due to inconsistencies in the existing measurements of up to 15%. In addition, the assessment of nuclear data uncertainty performed for innovative reactor systems shows that the uncertainty in the radiative capture cross section of 238U should be further reduced to 1-3% in the energy region from 20 eV to 25 keV. To this purpose, addressed by the Nuclear Energy Agency as a priority nuclear data need, complementary experiments, one at the GELINA and two at the n_TOF facility, were proposed and carried out within the 7th Framework Project ANDES of the European Commission. The results of one of these 238U(n ,γ ) measurements performed at the n_TOF CERN facility are presented in this work. The γ -ray cascade following the radiative neutron capture has been detected exploiting a setup of two C6D6 liquid scintillators. Resonance parameters obtained from this work are on average in excellent agreement with the ones reported in evaluated libraries. In the unresolved resonance region, this work yields a cross section in agreement with evaluated libraries up to 80 keV, while for higher energies our results are significantly higher.

  10. Hospitals, Part of Community Facilities data set for all eleven counties and twenty-two cities within Middle Georgia. Updated by MGRC and maintained by the GA Dept of Community Affairs., Published in 2000, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Middle Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Regional | GIS Inventory — Hospitals dataset current as of 2000. Part of Community Facilities data set for all eleven counties and twenty-two cities within Middle Georgia. Updated by MGRC and...

  11. Using ICP and micro-PIXE to investigate possible differences in the mineral composition of genetically modified versus wild-type sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndimba, R.; Cloete, K.; Mehlo, L.; Kossmann, J.; Mtshali, C.; Pineda-Vargas, C.

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, possible differences in the mineral composition of transgenic versus non-transgenic sorghum grains were investigated using inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES); and, in-tissue elemental mapping by micro Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (micro-PIXE) analysis. ICP AES was used to analyse the bulk mineral content of the wholegrain flour derived from each genotype; whilst micro-PIXE was used to interrogate localised differences in mineral composition specific to certain areas of the grain, such as the bran layer and the central endosperm tissue. According to the results obtained, no significant difference in the average Fe, Zn or Ca content was found to differentiate the transgenic from the wild-type grain using ICP-AES. However, using micro-PIXE, a significant reduction in zinc could be detected in the bran layer of the transgenic grains relative to wild-type. Although it is difficult to draw firm conclusions, as a result of the small sample size used in this study, micro-PIXE has nonetheless proven itself as a useful technique for highlighting the possibility that there may be reduced levels of zinc accumulation in the bran layer of the transgenic grains. Given that the genetic modification targets proteins that are highly concentrated in certain parts of the bran tissue, it seems plausible that the reduced levels of zinc may be an unintended consequence of the silencing of kafirin proteins. Although no immediate health or nutritional concerns emerge from this preliminary finding, it is noted that zinc plays an important biological role within this part of the grain as a structural stabiliser and antioxidant factor. Further study is therefore needed to assess more definitively the extent of the apparent localised reduction in zinc in the transgenic grains and how this may affect other important grain quality characteristics.

  12. Simultaneous use and self-consistent analyses of μ-PIXE and μ-EBS for the characterization of corrosion layers grown on ancient coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, J.; Corregidor, V.; Alves, L. C.

    2017-09-01

    The study of corrosion products in two XVI century coins through the simultaneous and self-consistent μ-PIXE and μ-EBS spectra analyses is presented in this work. The fitted spectra give consistent results, showing the feasibility of this approach to determine in a fast and non-destructive way the elemental composition and concentration depth profiles of the corrosion layers.


  13. Robust facility location

    OpenAIRE

    Carrizosa Priego, Emilio José; Nickel, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Let A be a nonempty finite subset of the plane representing the geographical coordinates of a set of demand points (towns, …), to be served by a facility, whose location within a given region S is sought. Assuming that the unit cost for a∈A if the facility is located at x∈S is proportional to dist(x,a) — the distance from x to a — and that demand of point a is given by ωa, minimizing the total transportation cost TC(ω,x) amounts to solving the Weber problem. In practice, it may be the case, h...

  14. VIBA-Lab 3.0: Computer program for simulation and semi-quantitative analysis of PIXE and RBS spectra and 2D elemental maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlić, Ivica; Mekterović, Darko; Mekterović, Igor; Ivošević, Tatjana

    2015-11-01

    VIBA-Lab is a computer program originally developed by the author and co-workers at the National University of Singapore (NUS) as an interactive software package for simulation of Particle Induced X-ray Emission and Rutherford Backscattering Spectra. The original program is redeveloped to a VIBA-Lab 3.0 in which the user can perform semi-quantitative analysis by comparing simulated and measured spectra as well as simulate 2D elemental maps for a given 3D sample composition. The latest version has a new and more versatile user interface. It also has the latest data set of fundamental parameters such as Coster-Kronig transition rates, fluorescence yields, mass absorption coefficients and ionization cross sections for K and L lines in a wider energy range than the original program. Our short-term plan is to introduce routine for quantitative analysis for multiple PIXE and XRF excitations. VIBA-Lab is an excellent teaching tool for students and researchers in using PIXE and RBS techniques. At the same time the program helps when planning an experiment and when optimizing experimental parameters such as incident ions, their energy, detector specifications, filters, geometry, etc. By "running" a virtual experiment the user can test various scenarios until the optimal PIXE and BS spectra are obtained and in this way save a lot of expensive machine time.

  15. PIXE multivariate statistics and OSL investigation for the classification and dating of archaeological pottery excavated at Tell Al-Rawda site, Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakraji, E.H., E-mail: cscientificl@aec.org.sy [Archaeometry Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P. O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Rihawy, M.S. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P. O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Castel, C. [CNRS – Maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée, Laboratoire “Archéorient”, CNRS/Université Lumière-Lyon 2 (France); Abboud, R. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P. O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •PIXE and OSL methods were used to classify and date pottery from Tell Al-Rawda site. •Three groups were classified using PIXE, which suggest different sources of the clay. •OSL was used for dating the site and the date found was consistent with typology. -- Abstract: Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique has been utilised to study 48 Syrian ancient pottery fragments taken from excavations at Tell Al-Rawda site. Eighteen elements (Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, and Pb) were determined. The elements concentrations have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods, to classify the pottery where one main group and other two small groups were defined. In addition, four samples from different places on the site were subjected to optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. The average age obtained using a single aliquot regeneration (SAR) protocol was found to be 4350 ± 240 year.

  16. Caracterização do TimePix3 e de sensores resistentes à radiação para upgrade do VELO

    CERN Document Server

    Vicente Barreto Pinto, Mateus; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Ribeiro Polycarpo Macedo, Erica

    The LHCb experiment located at CERN, Switzerland, studied the difference between matter and antimatter, successfully acquiring data since 2009. The experiment will undergo an upgrade on its detectors to allow operation with higher luminosity, increasing the data acquired by about 10 times. In this thesis, prototypes for the new detectors were studied for the vertex detector (VELO) detector upgrade. Different types of sensors were tested and characterized to determine whether they satisfy the requirements of the upgrade. The, relatively new, TimePix3 readout chip, which is a prototype for future VELO read-out chip, called VELOPix, was used for the tests of the sensors. The analysis of the most important characteristics of TimePix3, relative to VELOPix, and the tests of the sensors are presented. Also, a comparison between different methods of calibration is performed for the proposed TimePix3. The results obtained in this thesis shows that some of the prototypes meet successfully the critical requirements (rad...

  17. Use of micro-PIXE to determine spatial distributions of copper in Brassica carinata plants exposed to CuSO{sub 4} or CuEDDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cestone, Benedetta, E-mail: benedettacestone@yahoo.it [Department of Biology of Crop Plants, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56121 Pisa (Italy); Vogel-Mikus, Katarina [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, S1-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Quartacci, Mike Frank [Department of Biology of Crop Plants, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56121 Pisa (Italy); Rascio, Nicoletta [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Via Ugo Bassi 58/B, 35121 Padova (Italy); Pongrac, Paula [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, S1-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, Primoz; Vavpetic, Primoz; Grlj, Natasa; Jeromel, Luka; Kump, Peter; Necemer, Marijan [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Regvar, Marjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, S1-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Navari-Izzo, Flavia [Department of Biology of Crop Plants, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56121 Pisa (Italy)

    2012-06-15

    A better understanding of the mechanisms that govern copper (Cu) uptake, distribution and tolerance in Brassica carinata plants in the presence of chelators is needed before significant progress in chelate-assisted Cu phytoextraction can be made. The aims of this study were therefore to characterise (S,S)-N,N Prime -ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS)-assisted Cu uptake, and to compare the spatial distribution patterns of Cu in the roots and leaves of B. carinata plants. The plants were treated with 30 {mu}M or 150 {mu}M CuSO{sub 4} or CuEDDS in hydroponic solution. Quantitative Cu distribution maps and concentration profiles across root and leaf cross-sections of the desorbed plants were obtained by micro-proton induced X-ray emission. In roots, the 30 {mu}M treatments with both CuSO{sub 4} and CuEDDS resulted in higher Cu concentrations in epidermal/cortical regions. At 150 {mu}M CuSO{sub 4}, Cu was mainly accumulated in root vascular bundles, whereas with 150 {mu}M CuEDDS, Cu was detected in endodermis and the adjacent inner cortical cell layer. Under all treatments, except with a H{sup +}-ATP-ase inhibitor, the Cu in leaves was localised mainly in vascular tissues. The incubation of plants with 150 {mu}M CuEDDS enhanced metal translocation to shoots, in comparison to the corresponding CuSO{sub 4} treatment. Inhibition of H{sup +}-ATPase activity resulted in reduced Cu accumulation in 30 {mu}M CuEDDS-treated roots and 150 {mu}M CuEDDS-treated leaves, and induced changes in Cu distribution in the leaves. This indicates that active mechanisms are involved in retaining Cu in the leaf vascular tissues, which prevent its transport to photosynthetically active tissues. The physiological significance of EDDS-assisted Cu uptake is discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We localised Cu in Brassica carinata treated with CuSO{sub 4} or CuEDDS by micro-PIXE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EDDS-assisted Cu uptake and transport resulted in preserved root

  18. Fluorine analysis of human dentin surrounding resin composite after fluoride application by μ-PIGE/PIXE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Katsushi; Komatsu, Hisanori; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Pereira, Patricia N. R.; Bedran-Russo, Ana K.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Sato, Takahiro; Sano, Hidehiko

    2011-10-01

    The use of fluoride for the prevention of caries is based on the transformation of hydroxylapatite to fluoroapatite in the presence of fluoride ions, thereby strengthening tooth structure. Adhesion of dentin and resin composite (tooth-colored restoration material) requires a dentin bonding system, since resin composite is not able to adhere to dentin directly. Demineralization of dentin by acid etching is an important step in the dentin bonding system, however, demineralization also introduces weaknesses in tooth structure. If the demineralized dentin could be strengthened by the application of fluoride, then the dentin-resin composite bond strength might also improve. To test this hypothesis, the present study evaluated the influence of fluoride applications on the strength of the dentin-resin composite bond by (1) tensile strength testing analyses, (2) SEM analyses of tooth structure, and (3) detection of calcium (Ca) and fluorine (F) distribution patterns by micro proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) and micro proton-induced gamma-ray emission (μ-PIGE) analyses conducted at the Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA) at the Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute (TARRI). In this study, the dentin in extracted human molars was exposed by grinding and the dentin was etched with 35% phosphoric acid. Fluoride was applied at two concentrations, 0.022% (100 ppm F) and 2.21% (10,000 ppm F) NaF solution, for two time periods, 30 and 60 s, prior to bonding the resin composite with the treated dentin. Controls were prepared in the same manner, but without the fluoride application. Bond strength was measured with a micro-tensile testing unit, and the fluorine and calcium distributions at the interface between dentin and resin composite were detected by μ-PIGE and μ-PIXE analysis, respectively. Results indicate that the 10,000 ppm F applications resulted in higher bond strengths than observed in either the 100 ppm F applications or

  19. Fluorine analysis of human dentin surrounding resin composite after fluoride application by {mu}-PIGE/PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, Katsushi, E-mail: katsu@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Hokkaido, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan) and School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Department of Operative Dentistry, 302 Brauer, CB 7450, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7450 (United States); Komatsu, Hisanori [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Hokkaido, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Yamamoto, Hiroko [Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Osaka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Pereira, Patricia N.R. [School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Department of Operative Dentistry, 302 Brauer, CB 7450, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7450 (United States); Bedran-Russo, Ana K. [University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Dentistry, Department of Restorative Dentistry, 801 S. Paulina St., Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Nomachi, Masaharu [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Osaka, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan); Sato, Takahiro [TARRI, JAEA, Advanced Radiation Technology, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Gunma, Takasaki 370-1292 (Japan); Sano, Hidehiko [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Hokkaido, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    The use of fluoride for the prevention of caries is based on the transformation of hydroxylapatite to fluoroapatite in the presence of fluoride ions, thereby strengthening tooth structure. Adhesion of dentin and resin composite (tooth-colored restoration material) requires a dentin bonding system, since resin composite is not able to adhere to dentin directly. Demineralization of dentin by acid etching is an important step in the dentin bonding system, however, demineralization also introduces weaknesses in tooth structure. If the demineralized dentin could be strengthened by the application of fluoride, then the dentin-resin composite bond strength might also improve. To test this hypothesis, the present study evaluated the influence of fluoride applications on the strength of the dentin-resin composite bond by (1) tensile strength testing analyses, (2) SEM analyses of tooth structure, and (3) detection of calcium (Ca) and fluorine (F) distribution patterns by micro proton-induced X-ray emission ({mu}-PIXE) and micro proton-induced gamma-ray emission ({mu}-PIGE) analyses conducted at the Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA) at the Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute (TARRI). In this study, the dentin in extracted human molars was exposed by grinding and the dentin was etched with 35% phosphoric acid. Fluoride was applied at two concentrations, 0.022% (100 ppm F) and 2.21% (10,000 ppm F) NaF solution, for two time periods, 30 and 60 s, prior to bonding the resin composite with the treated dentin. Controls were prepared in the same manner, but without the fluoride application. Bond strength was measured with a micro-tensile testing unit, and the fluorine and calcium distributions at the interface between dentin and resin composite were detected by {mu}-PIGE and {mu}-PIXE analysis, respectively. Results indicate that the 10,000 ppm F applications resulted in higher bond strengths than observed in either the 100 ppm F

  20. Planning Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Richard B., Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Nine articles give information to help make professionals in health, physical education, recreation, dance, and athletics more knowledgeable about planning facilities. Design of natatoriums, physical fitness laboratories, fitness trails, gymnasium lighting, homemade play equipment, indoor soccer arenas, and dance floors is considered. A…

  1. Determinants of Acute Malnutrition among Children Aged 6–59 Months in Public Health Facilities of Pastoralist Community, Afar Region, Northeast Ethiopia: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Seid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In low income countries, acute malnutrition continues to be the most important risk factor for illnesses and deaths. The aim of this study was to assess the determinants of acute malnutrition among children aged 6–59 months. Methods. A facility based unmatched case control study was employed on 420 (140 cases and 280 controls children aged 6–59 months with their caregivers between January 20 and February 20, 2014. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Children aged 12–23 months [AOR = 10.51, 95% CI = 4.93, 22.34], rural residence [AOR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.22, 4.79], illiterate father [AOR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.32, 4.61], Monthly income of less than 1000 birr [AOR = 3.98, 95% CI 2.05, 7.69], and food served together with family [AOR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.10, 4.30] were associated with acute malnutrition. Conclusion. Rural residence, illiterate father, monthly income of less than 1000 birr, and food served together with family are statistically associated with acute malnutrition. Improving practices of parents on appropriate child feeding and creating awareness related to key risk factors of acute malnutrition should be further strengthened.

  2. End region and current consolidation effects upon the performance of an MHD channel for the ETF conceptual design. [Engineering Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. Y.; Smith, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    It is noted that operating conditions which yielded a peak thermodynamic efficiency (41%) for an EFT-size MHD/steam power plant were previously (Wang et al., 1981; Staiger, 1981) identified by considering only the active region (the primary portion for power production) of an MHD channel. These previous efforts are extended here to include an investigation of the effects of the channel end regions on overall power generation. Considering these effects, the peak plant thermodynamic efficiency is found to be slightly lowered (40.7%); the channel operating point for peak efficiency is shifted to the supersonic mode (Mach number of approximately 1.1) rather than the previous subsonic operation (Mach number of approximately 0.9). Also discussed is the sensitivity of the channel performance to the B-field, diffuser recovery coefficient, channel load parameter, Mach number, and combustor pressure.

  3. Neutron capture cross section measurement of $^{238}$U at the n_TOF CERN facility in the energy region from 1 eV to 700 keV

    CERN Document Server

    Mingrone, F; Vannini, G; Colonna, N; Gunsing, F; Zugec, P; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Barbagallo, M; Becares, V; Becvavr, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calvino, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapico, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Cortes, G; Cortes-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; Garcia, A R; Giubrone, G; Goncalves, I F; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Hernandez-Prieto, A; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Kappeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Krticka, M; Kroll, J; Lampoudis, C; Langer, C; Leal-Cidoncha, E; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Lo Meo, S; Losito, R; Mallick, A; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martinez, T; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mirea Horia, M; Mondalaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Robles, M S; Rubbia, C; Sabate-Gilarte, M; Sarmento, R; Saxena, A; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Tagliente, G; LTain, J; Tarrio, D; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiss, C; Wright, T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide a precise and accurate measurement of the $^{238}$U(n,$\\gamma$) reaction cross section in the energy region from 1 eV to 700 keV. This reaction is of fundamental importance for the design calculations of nuclear reactors, governing the behaviour of the reactor core. In particular, fast reactors, which are experiencing a growing interest for their ability to burn radioactive waste, operate in the high energy region of the neutron spectrum. In this energy region most recent evaluations disagree due to inconsistencies in the existing measurements of up to 15%. In addition, the assessment of nuclear data uncertainty performed for innovative reactor systems shows that the uncertainty in the radiative capture cross-section of $^{238}$U should be further reduced to 1-3% in the energy region from 20 eV to 25 keV. To this purpose, addressed by the Nuclear Energy Agency as a priority nuclear data need, complementary experiments, one at the GELINA and two at the n_TOF facility, were pr...

  4. Neutron capture cross section measurement of 238U at the n TOF CERN facility with C6D6 scintillation detectors in the energy region from 1 eV to 700 keV

    CERN Document Server

    Mingrone, F.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide a precise and accurate measurement of the 238U(n,g) reaction cross section in the energy region from 1 eV to 700 keV. This reaction is of fundamental importance for the design calculations of nuclear reactors, governing the behaviour of the reactor core. In particular, fast reactors, which are experiencing a growing interest for their ability to burn radioactive waste, operate in the high energy region of the neutron spectrum. In this energy region most recent evaluations disagree due to inconsistencies in the existing measurements of up to 15%. In addition, the assessment of nuclear data uncertainty performed for innovative reactor systems shows that the uncertainty in the radiative capture cross-section of 238U should be further reduced to 1-3% in the energy region from 20 eV to 25 keV. To this purpose, addressed by the Nuclear Energy Agency as a priority nuclear data need, complementary experiments, one at the GELINA and two at the n_TOF facility, were proposed and carrie...

  5. Timepix and FitPix detection system for RBS/C materials analysis

    OpenAIRE

    David-Bosne, Eric; Amaral, Vítor; Wahl, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    This thesis reports the implementation of a Timepix position sensitive detector in a ion beam facility with a 0.5 mm collimated beam of 2MeV 1H$^{+}$ and 4He$^{+}$ for use in Rutherford Back-scattering Spectrometry channeling (RBS/C). A complete description is given of the methodology used for energy calibration, RBS data analysis and simulation with the FLUX Monte Carlo simulation program. Energy calibration was performed with internal test pulses and resulting resolution and accuracy were v...

  6. A case-control study regarding relative factors for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia at a Canadian regional long-term extended care facility: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Minoru; Chan, Peter; Donnelly, Martha; McKenna, Mario; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kishimoto, Takuji; Ganesan, Soma

    2014-03-01

    Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are prevalent and have an impact on the care of persons with dementia. Previous studies regarding predisposing factors have included pharmacotherapy, but other factors may not have been sufficiently studied. We hypothesized that psychotropic medications, past history, comorbid psychiatric disorders and other factors may be relevant factors related to BPSD. Data were collected from patients' medical charts at an extended care facility over a 2-year period from 1 May 2008 to 30 April 2010. Information obtained included the presence of BPSD, gender, age, marital status, past history, comorbid psychiatric disorder and medication use. Patients were divided into two groups: a group with BPSD (n = 29) and a group without BPSD (n = 10). A binomial logistic regression analysis was performed for the above factors. Comorbid major depression was linked to BPSD (odds ratio = 12.57, 95% confidence interval: 1.31-120.74) as well as to the use of antidepressants (odds ratio = 6.49, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-41.25). There was a trend towards statistical significance in the relationship between greater use of antidepressants for the patients with comorbid major depression and the presence of BPSD. Past history of depression (Fisher's exact test; P = 0.03) and cerebral vascular accident (degrees of freedom = 1, χ(2) = 4.44, P = 0.04) were linked to the presence of BPSD and comorbid major depression. Accurate evaluation and treatment of comorbid major depression may affect BPSD. In order to reduce the burden of BPSD on patients and caregivers, there should be a careful and thoughtful diagnosis of comorbid major depression in patients with dementia. © 2014 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2014 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  7. Computer simulation of the CSPAD, ePix10k, and RayonixMX170HS X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tina, Adrienne

    2015-08-21

    The invention of free-electron lasers (FELs) has opened a door to an entirely new level of scientific research. The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is an X-ray FEL that houses several instruments, each with its own unique X-ray applications. This light source is revolutionary in that while its properties allow for a whole new range of scientific opportunities, it also poses numerous challenges. For example, the intensity of a focused X-ray beam is enough to damage a sample in one mere pulse; however, the pulse speed and extreme brightness of the source together are enough to obtain enough information about that sample, so that no further measurements are necessary. An important device in the radiation detection process, particularly for X-ray imaging, is the detector. The power of the LCLS X-rays has instigated a need for better performing detectors. The research conducted for this project consisted of the study of X-ray detectors to imitate their behaviors in a computer program. The analysis of the Rayonix MX170-HS, CSPAD, and ePix10k in particular helped to understand their properties. This program simulated the interaction of X-ray photons with these detectors to discern the patterns of their responses. A scientist’s selection process of a detector for a specific experiment is simplified from the characterization of the detectors in the program.

  8. The kinetics of Fe and Ca for the development of radiation-induced apoptosis by micro-PIXE imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, S.; Tamakawa, Y.; Ishii, K.; Tanaka, A.; Satoh, T.; Matsuyama, S.; Yamazaki, H.; Kamiya, T.; Sakai, T.; Arakawa, K.; Saitoh, M.; Oikawa, S.; Sera, K.

    2002-04-01

    To study the interactions between the induction of radiation-induced apoptosis and trace elements kinetics, human leukemia cells were irradiated in vitro by 60Co γ rays, after which the cells were evaluated for the detection of apoptosis and trace element (Fe, Ca, Zn) imaging was carried out. The frequency of apoptosis, i.e. the number of apoptotic bodies per 100 nuclei, was obtained by microscopic assay using TUNEL staining at 400× magnification. The trace element distribution in the cell was determined by micro-PIXE using 2 MeV proton beams. In the early phase of apoptosis, the maximum level of Fe accumulation was observed in the cell stroma. In the mid to end phase, Fe accumulation was diminished, and instead, Ca accumulation increased and Zn decreased in the nucleus. There appear to be two steps for the development of apoptosis: (1) the signaling from cell stroma to nucleus by Fe or an Fe-containing enzyme; and (2) the degeneration of the nucleus by Ca-dependent enzyme, and release of Zn from digested nucleus. Those strong accumulations may be new markers for apoptosis.

  9. Characterisation of an enamelled metallic object found in Guerrero Negro (Baja California) by PIXE and RBS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo del Castillo, H. [Departamento de Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie - I.P.N.A.S., Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 10 Bat-15, Sart Tilman, 4000-Liege 1 (Belgium)], E-mail: hcalvo@ulg.ac.be; Ruvalcaba, J.L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Calderon, T. [Departamento de Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Salinas Nolasco, M.F. [Coordinacion de Conservacion del Patrimonio Cultural, Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia (Mexico); Mejia, L.M. [Direccion de Arqueologia Subacuatica, Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia (Mexico); Perdigon, K. [Coordinacion de Conservacion del Patrimonio Cultural, Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia (Mexico)

    2008-05-15

    The coast of Guerrero Negro (Baja California) has been known for a long time by archaeologists for its shipwrecks. Archaeologists are recovering objects that come from sunken Spanish galleons in the colonial period, and reach the American coast in the frontier of the USA with Mexico. An enamelled metallic object was found next to the beach in Guerrero Negro. We have analysed the piece with proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) in an attempt to establish whether the object could come from one of the colonial shipwrecks and to valuate its cleaning process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) have been also performed in three samples taken from the object in order to observe the heterogeneity of the material. The materials found revealed the presence of typical lead-glass enamels from with pigments such as cuprite (red), or lead-tin yellow used in colonial times. The metallic part consisted of brass. As for the cleaning process, the average efficiency considered as the weight% of chlorine removed, was of 83.4% for brass and 100% for ename0008.

  10. Detection of trace metallic elements in oral lichenoid contact lesions using SR-XRF, PIXE, and XAFS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Tomoko; Uo, Motohiro; Wada, Takahiro; Omagari, Daisuke; Komiyama, Kazuo; Miyazaki, Serika; Numako, Chiya; Noguchi, Tadahide; Jinbu, Yoshinori; Kusama, Mikio; Mori, Yoshiyuki

    2015-06-18

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid contact lesions (OLCL) are chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous reactions with a risk of malignant transformation that alter the epithelium. OLP and OLCL have similar clinical and histopathological features and it is difficult to distinguish one from the other. Metallic restorations are suspected to generate OLCLs. Trace metal analysis of OLCL specimens may facilitate the discrimination of symptoms and identification of causative metallic restorations. The purpose of this study was to assess OLCL tissue samples for the prevalence of metallic elements derived from dental restorations, and to discriminate OLCL from OLP by using synchrotron radiation-excited X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-XRF), particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). Typical elements of dental materials were detected in the OLCL, whereas no obvious element accumulation was detected in OLP and negative control specimens. The origin of the detected metallic elements was presumed to be dental alloys through erosion. Therefore, our findings support the feasibility of providing supporting information to distinguish OLCL from OLP by using elemental analysis.

  11. [Guidelines for health surveillance of health care workers exposed to biological risks set up by the Italian Society for Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene: application in health facilities of the Regional Health Administration--District No. 7, Ancona].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copertaro, A; Barbaresi, Mariella; Bevilacqua, G; Novelli, A M; Aprile, A

    2005-01-01

    Evidence Based Medicine and the need to achieve better management of health budgets call for verification and, if necessary, revision of the criteria used in Occupational Health, in order to ensure appropriate measures as regards protection of health at the workplace. In December 2003, the Marche Region initiated a process of reform of the regional health service, which will be completed in two years, and will provide a new regional health organization that will improve the quality and appropriateness of health services available to the population. The reform also involves the Occupational Health Services responsible for prevention activities for 20,000 health care workers employed in regional public health facilities. The need was strongly felt to set up a network that would meet the health needs of health care workers, by adopting a common language among occupational health physicians, by eliminating reported criticism, which is due not only to lack of communication between different structures and profiles, but also to the different methods of approach, evaluation and management of occupational risks. From a historical point of view, the health sector has the biggest as regards prevention of biological risk. Therefore, with a view to harmonizing actions and approach among occupational health physicians in the evaluation of this risk, the publication by the Italian Society for Occupational of Health and Industrial Hygiene of Guidelines for health surveillance of health care workers exposed to biological risks, produced by the working group under the leadership of Prof. Lorenzo Alessio, was considered to offer an interesting opportunity to verify the reproducibility of methods and the quality of results, as applied to health facilities under the Regional Health Administration in Ancona (District No. 7). The Guidelines fully confirmed the need to plan activities, starting from analysis of epidemiological and occupational data, thus assuring good results both in

  12. Presence of the tunicateAsterocarpa humilison ship hulls and aquaculture facilities in the coast of the Biobío Region, south central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, Javier; Leclerc, Jean-Charles; Brante, Antonio; Daguin-Thiébaut, Claire; Díaz, Christian; Tellier, Florence; Viard, Frédérique

    2017-01-01

    we reveal the potential implication of the international maritime transport as a vector of spread of this species along the Eastern Pacific coast, and the putative role of aquaculture facilities in promoting local establishments of non-native tunicates.

  13. Presence of the tunicate Asterocarpa humilis on ship hulls and aquaculture facilities in the coast of the Biobío Region, south central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pinochet

    2017-08-01

    . In addition we reveal the potential implication of the international maritime transport as a vector of spread of this species along the Eastern Pacific coast, and the putative role of aquaculture facilities in promoting local establishments of non-native tunicates.

  14. Features of the Electromagnetic and Plasma Disturbances Induced at the Altitudes of the Earth's Outer Ionosphere by Modification of the Ionospheric F 2 Region Using High-Power Radio Waves Radiated by the SURA Heating Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, V. L.; Rapoport, V. O.; Schorokhova, E. A.; Belov, A. S.; Parrot, M.; Rauch, J.-L.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we systematize the results of studying the characteristics of the plasma-density ducts, which was conducted in 2005-2010 during the DEMETER-satellite operation. The ducts are formed at altitudes of about 700 km as a result of the ionospheric F 2 region modification by high-power high-frequency radio waves radiated by the midlatitude SURA heating facility. All the performed measurements are used as the basis for determining the formation conditions for such ducts, the duct characteristics are studied, and the opportunities for the duct influence on the ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling and propagation of radio waves of various frequency ranges are demonstrated. The results of numerical simulation of the formation of such ducts are presented.

  15. The external beam facility used to characterize corrosion products in metallic statuettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzutto, M. A.; Tabacniks, M. H.; Added, N.; Barbosa, M. D. L.; Curado, J. F.; Santos, W. A.; Lima, S. C.; Melo, H. G.; Neiva, A. C.

    2005-10-01

    To open new possibilities in nuclear applied physics research, mainly for the analysis of art objects in air, an external beam facility was installed at LAMFI (Laboratório de Análise de Materiais por Feixes Iônicos) of University of São Paulo. PIXE measurements were made using an XR-100CR (Si-PIN) X-ray detector pointed to the sample mounted after an approximate 11 mm air path, hence with effective beam energy of 0.9 MeV. This setup was used to characterize the corrosion products of two ethnological metallic statuettes from the African collection of the Museum of Archaeology and Etnology. PIXE analysis of the corrosion free base of one statuette showed that Cu and Zn are the main components of the alloy, while Pb is present in smaller amount. The analysis of some corrosion products showed a Zn:Cu relationship higher than that of the base, evidencing selective corrosion. The main components of the other statuette were Cu and Pb, while S and Zn were found in smaller amounts.

  16. The external beam facility used to characterize corrosion products in metallic statuettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzutto, M.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Rua do Matao Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: marcia.rizzutto@dfn.if.usp.br; Tabacniks, M.H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Rua do Matao Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Added, N. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Rua do Matao Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barbosa, M.D.L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Rua do Matao Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Curado, J.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Rua do Matao Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, W.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Rua do Matao Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lima, S.C. [Laboratorio de Conservacao e Restauracao, Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av Prof. Almeida Prado, 1466, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Melo, H.G. [Laboratorio de Eletroquimica e CorroSao, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Luciano Gualberto, trav.3, n.380, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Neiva, A.C. [Laboratorio de Eletroquimica e CorroSao, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Luciano Gualberto, trav.3, n.380, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2005-10-15

    To open new possibilities in nuclear applied physics research, mainly for the analysis of art objects in air, an external beam facility was installed at LAMFI (Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais por Feixes Ionicos) of University of Sao Paulo. PIXE measurements were made using an XR-100CR (Si-PIN) X-ray detector pointed to the sample mounted after an approximate 11 mm air path, hence with effective beam energy of 0.9 MeV. This setup was used to characterize the corrosion products of two ethnological metallic statuettes from the African collection of the Museum of Archaeology and Etnology. PIXE analysis of the corrosion free base of one statuette showed that Cu and Zn are the main components of the alloy, while Pb is present in smaller amount. The analysis of some corrosion products showed a Zn:Cu relationship higher than that of the base, evidencing selective corrosion. The main components of the other statuette were Cu and Pb, while S and Zn were found in smaller amounts.

  17. Emission Facilities - Erosion & Sediment Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Erosion and Sediment Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control program. The following sub-facility types related to...

  18. Portable XRF and PIXE as complementary techniques for the analysis of old books: study of decorated flyleaves and edges; FRX portatil y PIXE como tecnicas complementarias para el analisis de libros antiguos: estudio de guardas y cantos decorados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torner M, L.; Gonzalez T, C. [Laboratorio de Conservacion, Biblioteca Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, INAH, Paseo dela Reforma y Gandhi s/n Chapultepec Polanco, Mexico DF 11560 (Mexico); Ruvalcaba S, J.L. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM. A.P. 20-364, Mexico DF 01000 (Mexico)]. e-mail: luciatorner@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    Traditionally in the study of ancient books, the binding (leather, parchment, cloth) and their decorations have not the same importance than other parts of the book. Most of the times, paper, inks and internal decorations attract entirely the attention for analytical studies. Nevertheless, it must be considered that the binding keep the book safe and it may be exposed D higher deterioration. Moreover, often it is changed and the historical value of this part of the book is lost. his is also the case of binding's decorations. For these reasons, it is clear that the binding of ancient books must be studied as a part of their material essence. In this work, methodology based on t]he combined use of microscopic and elemental analyses was applied in order to study four types of decorations of guards of books (marbled, colored, splashed, dotted). In particular, this study was focused on Colonial and Mexican books from XVIII and XIX centuries from the collection of the Biblioteca Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, lNAH. Twelve books and 62 decoration's colors were analyzed in situ, in the library, using a portable X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy system (XRF) for a quick nondestructive pigment identification and to select a reduced number of books for complementary analyses at the laboratory by Particle Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (PIXE). By combining these nondestructive techniques, it was possible to identify most of the pigments used in the decorations and to establish a general pattern of use of colorants and pigments in XVIII and XIX centuries for the guard's decorations. This work represents the first study on this topic. (Author)

  19. Multi-elemental analysis of atmospheric pollutants and determination of particle size using the PIXE method, a cascade impactor and a filter unit constructed in Mexico; Analisis multielemental de contaminantes atmosfericos y determinacion de tamano de particula utilizando el metodo PIXE, un impactor de cascada y una unidad de filtro construidos en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldape U, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1989-01-15

    This work presents: 1) The methodology and the experimental conditions of the PIXE technique so that it is used as a better option inside the analytical methods in aerosols studies, 2) The development, tests and applications of a cascade impactor of the Batelle type built to determine particle size to use it jointly with the mentioned technique in the determination of the elements concentration according to its size.By this way is fulfilled with the first goal of this extensive project. (Author)

  20. Ecological risks of home and personal care products in the riverine environment of a rural region in South China without domestic wastewater treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nai-Sheng; Liu, You-sheng; Van den Brink, Paul J; Price, Oliver R; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-12-01

    Home and personal care products (HPCPs) including biocides, benzotriazoles (BTs) and ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in our daily life. After use, they are discharged with domestic wastewater into the receiving environment. This study investigated the occurrence of 29 representative HPCPs, including biocides, BTs and UV filters, in the riverine environment of a rural region of South China where no wastewater treatment plants were present, and assessed their potential ecological risks to aquatic organisms. The results showed the detection of 11 biocides and 4 BTs in surface water, and 9 biocides, 3 BTs and 4 UV filters in sediment. In surface water, methylparaben (MeP), triclocarban (TCC), and triclosan (TCS) were detected at all sites with median concentrations of 9.23 ng/L, 2.64 ng/L and 5.39 ng/L, respectively. However, the highest median concentrations were found for clotrimazole (CLOT), 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (MBT) and carbendazim (CARB) at 55.6 ng/L, 33.7 ng/L and 13.8 ng/L, respectively. In sediment, TCC, TCS, and UV-326 were detected with their maximum concentrations up to 353 ng/g, 155 ng/g, and 133 ng/g, respectively. The concentrations for those detected HPCPs in surface water and sediment were generally lower in the upper reach (rural area) of Sha River than in the lower reach of Sha River with close proximity to Dongjiang River (Pt-test<0.05), indicating other input sources of HPCPs in the lower reach. Biocides showed significantly higher levels in surface water in the wet season than in the dry and intermediate seasons. Preliminary risk assessment demonstrated that the majority of HPCPs monitored represented low risk in surface waters. There are potentially greater risks to aquatic organisms from the use of TCS and TCC in the wet season than in dry and intermediate seasons in surface waters. This preliminary assessment also indicates potential concerns associated with TCC, TCS, DEET, CARB, and CLOT in sediments, although additional data

  1. Timepix and FitPix detection system for RBS/C materials analysis

    CERN Document Server

    David-Bosne, Eric; Wahl, Ulrich

    This thesis reports the implementation of a Timepix position sensitive detector in a ion beam facility with a 0.5 mm collimated beam of 2MeV 1H$^{+}$ and 4He$^{+}$ for use in Rutherford Back-scattering Spectrometry channeling (RBS/C). A complete description is given of the methodology used for energy calibration, RBS data analysis and simulation with the FLUX Monte Carlo simulation program. Energy calibration was performed with internal test pulses and resulting resolution and accuracy were verified in two ways. The first time using a triple alpha source with the isotopes $^{239}$Pu, $^{241}$Am and $^{244}$Cm and secondly using a RBS spectrum of a thin film sample of Au/SiO$_{2}$/C. Setup characterization for channeling measurements was performed using single crystals of Si, 6H$^{-}$SiC and SrTiO$_{3}$. An energy resolution of 47.2 keV at 1862 keV for He$^{+}$ and an angular resolution of 0.11 (standard deviation) was achieved. Count rates as high as 2kHz were achieved with a frame rate of 15 frames/s. Higher...

  2. Characterization of the occupational exposure and air transported particles using the techniques of PIXE {sup 252}Cf PMDS and alpha spectrometry; Caracterizacao da exposicao ocupacional e particulas transportadas pelo ar utilizando as tecnicas de PIXE {sup 252}Cf PDMS e espectrometria alfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Luana Gomes

    2008-07-01

    The risk for human health due to exposure to aerosols depends on the intake pattern, the mass concentration and the speciation of the elements present in airborne particles. In this work PDMS (Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry) was used as complementary technique to the PIXE (Particle Induced X ray Emission) technique to characterize aerosols samples collected in the environment. The PIXE technique allows the identification of the elements present in the sample and to determine their mass concentrations. The mass spectrometry (PDMS) was used to identify the speciation of these elements present in the samples. The aerosol samples were collected using a six stage cascade impactor in three sites. The Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (MMAD) measured indicated that the airborne particulate were in the fine fraction of the aerosols. The theoretical uranium concentration in urine samples using ICRP lung model parameters suggest that the elemental mass concentration in respirable fraction of aerosol and the chemical speciation are important factors to determine the uranium concentration in urine and that the determination of specific solubility parameters for each compound is the most important factor to calculate the uranium concentration in urine. PIXE allows to identify and quantify the elements heavier than Na (Z=11) while PDMS allows to identify the organic and inorganic compounds present in the samples. As these techniques are used as complementary techniques they provide important information about the aerosols characterization. (author)

  3. PIXE micro-mapping of minor elements in Hypatia, a diamond bearing carbonaceous stone from the Libyan Desert Glass area, Egypt: Inheritance from a cold molecular cloud?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, M. A. G.; Przybylowicz, W. J.; Kramers, J.; Belyanin, G.; Westraadt, J.; Bamford, M.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Venter, A.

    2015-11-01

    Matter originating from space, particularly if it represents rare meteorite samples, is ideally suited to be studied by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) as this analytical technique covers a broad range of trace elements and is per se non-destructive. We describe and interpret a set of micro-PIXE elemental maps obtained on two minute (weighing about 25 and 150 mg), highly polished fragments taken from Hypatia, a controversial, diamond-bearing carbonaceous pebble from the SW Egyptian desert. PIXE data show that Hypatia is chemically heterogeneous, with significant amounts of primordial S, Cl, P and at least 10 elements with Z > 21 (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Os, Ir) locally attaining concentrations above 500 ppm. Si, Al, Ca, K, O also occur, but are predominantly confined to cracks and likely represent contamination from the desert environment. Unusual in the stone is poor correlation between elements within the chalcophile (S vs. Cu, Zn) and siderophile (i.e.: Fe vs. Ni, Ir, Os) groups, whereas other siderophiles (Mn, Mo and the Platinum group elements (PGEs)) mimic the distribution of lithophile elements such as Cr and V. Worthy of mention is also the presence of a globular domain (Ø ∼ 120 μm) that is C and metals-depleted, yet Cl (P)-enriched (>3 wt.% and 0.15 wt.% respectively). While the host of the Cl remains undetermined, this chemical unit is enclosed within a broader domain that is similarly C-poor, yet Cr-Ir rich (up to 1.2 and 0.3 wt.% respectively). Our data suggest that the pebble consists of shock-compacted, primitive carbonaceous material enriched in cold, pre-solar dust.

  4. PIXE micro-mapping of minor elements in Hypatia, a diamond bearing carbonaceous stone from the Libyan Desert Glass area, Egypt: Inheritance from a cold molecular cloud?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreoli, M.A.G., E-mail: marco.andreoli@wits.ac.za [School of Geosciences, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. Box 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Przybylowicz, W.J. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics & Applied Computer Science, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Kramers, J.; Belyanin, G. [Department of Geology, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Westraadt, J. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Bamford, M. [Evolutionary Studies Institute, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. Box 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Venter, A. [South African Nuclear Energy Corporation, P.O. Box 582, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    Matter originating from space, particularly if it represents rare meteorite samples, is ideally suited to be studied by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) as this analytical technique covers a broad range of trace elements and is per se non-destructive. We describe and interpret a set of micro-PIXE elemental maps obtained on two minute (weighing about 25 and 150 mg), highly polished fragments taken from Hypatia, a controversial, diamond-bearing carbonaceous pebble from the SW Egyptian desert. PIXE data show that Hypatia is chemically heterogeneous, with significant amounts of primordial S, Cl, P and at least 10 elements with Z > 21 (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Os, Ir) locally attaining concentrations above 500 ppm. Si, Al, Ca, K, O also occur, but are predominantly confined to cracks and likely represent contamination from the desert environment. Unusual in the stone is poor correlation between elements within the chalcophile (S vs. Cu, Zn) and siderophile (i.e.: Fe vs. Ni, Ir, Os) groups, whereas other siderophiles (Mn, Mo and the Platinum group elements (PGEs)) mimic the distribution of lithophile elements such as Cr and V. Worthy of mention is also the presence of a globular domain (Ø ∼ 120 μm) that is C and metals-depleted, yet Cl (P)-enriched (>3 wt.% and 0.15 wt.% respectively). While the host of the Cl remains undetermined, this chemical unit is enclosed within a broader domain that is similarly C-poor, yet Cr–Ir rich (up to 1.2 and 0.3 wt.% respectively). Our data suggest that the pebble consists of shock-compacted, primitive carbonaceous material enriched in cold, pre-solar dust.

  5. A PIXE and ICP-MS analysis of metallic atmospheric contaminants in tree bark tissues, a basis for biomonitoring uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, Sophie; El Alaoui-Faris, Fatima Ezzahra; Asta, Juliette; Tissut, Michel; Daudin, Laurent; Mariet, Clarisse; Ravanel, Patrick; Gaudry, André; Cherkaoui, Rajaa

    2007-05-01

    The qualitative and quantitative metallic content of tree barks of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels were studied. Argania spinosa is an endemic species in Morocco. This tree is adapted to semi-arid climates and exposed to specific conditions of relative humidity, temperature, wind, and particle transport. Three sites were sampled in Morocco: the large town of Rabat, the harbor of Agadir, and Aït Baha, a countryside location exposed to continuous desert wind. The methodologies included (1) in situ microanalysis with proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and (2) trace element determinations by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) associated with extraction procedures. Both methods allowed detection of elements coming from different bark compartments. The profile of airborne contaminants in the barks was typical of the sampling sites. The level of lead in barks sampled in Rabat reached 100 ng cm(-2), or higher, while it varied between 3 and 35 ng cm(-2) in Aït Baha. The in situ study of the microscopic structure of the bark provided the location of major and minor elements at various depths inside the bark. A differential between free deposit on the bark surface and penetrated content was found for the major and trace elements. The free deposit on the bark surface was suspected to be mostly the result of recent contamination. Part of the contaminants spread out on the surface penetrated the superficial suber. This long-term accumulation affected mostly Pb. In deeper levels, airborne elements at low concentrations and elements resulting from root uptake were concurrently present and resulted in a complex situation, as noted for zinc.

  6. Antigen capsid-display on human adenovirus 35 via pIX fusion is a potent vaccine platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Helm, Esmeralda; Spek, Dirk; Vorthoren, Lars; Serroyen, Jan; Kuipers, Harmjan; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Zahn, Roland; Custers, Jerome; Vellinga, Jort

    2017-01-01

    Durable protection against complex pathogens is likely to require immunity that comprises both humoral and cellular responses. While heterologous prime-boost regimens based on recombinant, replication-incompetent Adenoviral vectors (AdV) and adjuvanted protein have been able to induce high levels of concomitant humoral and cellular responses, complex manufacturing and handling in the field may limit their success. To combine the benefits of genetic and protein-based vaccination within one vaccine construct and to facilitate their use, we generated Human Adenovirus 35 (HAdV35) vectors genetically encoding a model antigen based on the Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) circumsporozoite (CS) protein and displaying a truncated version of the same antigen (CSshort) via protein IX on the capsid, with or without a flexible glycine-linker and/or a 45Å-spacer. The four tested pIX-antigen display variants were efficiently incorporated and presented on the HAdV35 capsid irrespective of whether a transgene was encoded or not. Transgene-expression and producibility of the display-/expression vectors were not impeded by the pIX-display. In mice, the pIX-modified vectors induced strong humoral antigen-specific immunity that increased with the inclusion of the linker-/spacer molecules, exceeded the responses induced by the genetic, transgene-expressing HAdV35 vector, and surpassed recombinant protein in potency. In addition, the pIX- display/expression vectors elicited high antigen-specific cellular immune responses that matched those of the genetic HAdV35 vector expressing CS. pIX-modified display-/expression HAdV vectors may therefore be a valuable technology for the development of vaccines against complex pathogens, especially in resource-limited settings. PMID:28362809

  7. External-beam PIXE spectrometry for the study of Punic jewellery (SW Spain): The geographical provenance of the palladium-bearing gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ontalba Salamanca, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de la Universidad s/n., 10071 Caceres (Spain)]. E-mail: ontalba@unex.es; Gomez-Tubio, B. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Sevilla (Spain); Ortega-Feliu, I. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Sevilla (Spain); Respaldiza, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Sevilla (Spain); Luisa de la Bandera, M. [Departamento de Arqueologia, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Ovejero Zappino, G. [Cobre Las Cruces SA, Gerena, Sevilla (Spain); Bouzas, A. [Instituto Andaluz de Patrimonio Historico, Sevilla (Spain); Gomez-Moron, A. [Instituto Andaluz de Patrimonio Historico, Sevilla (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    This paper presents the study of a set of Punic gold items (400 B.C.), from the Museum of Cadiz (Spain). An external beam set-up has been employed for the absolutely non-destructive analysis of the objects. PIXE spectrometry has been performed in order to characterize the metallic alloys and the manufacturing techniques. Compositional differences have been found and soldering procedures have been identified. By comparison with the rings and other coetaneous jewellery, the presence of palladium in the bulk alloy of the earrings can be pointed out. The geographical provenance of the palladium-bearing gold is discussed based on geological and archaeological considerations.

  8. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research FacilityFacilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  9. Micro-PIXE studies of Lupinus angustifolius L. after treatment of seeds with molybdenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylowicz, W. J.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Wouters, K.; Vlassak, K.; Combrink, N. J. J.

    1997-02-01

    An example of nuclear microprobe application in agriculture is presented. The NAC nuclear microprobe was used to determine quantitative elemental distribution of major, minor and trace elements in Lupinus angustifolius L. (Leguminosae) after treatment of seeds with molybdenum. Experiments were performed in order to establish safe concentration levels and sources of Mo in seed treatments. Elemental distributions in Mo-treated plants and in the non-treated control plants were studied in order to explain how Mo causes toxicity. Some specific regions of Mo and other main and trace elements enrichment were identified.

  10. Breadboard Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    In the sixties, Chrysler was NASA's prime contractor for the Saturn I and IB test launch vehicles. The company installed and operated at Huntsville what was known as the Saturn I/IB Development Breadboard Facility. "Breadboard," means an array of electrical and electronic equipment for performing a variety of development and test functions. This work gave Chrysler a broad capability in computerized testing to assure quality control in development of solid-state electronic systems. Today that division is manufacturing many products not destined for NASA, most of them being associated with the company's automotive line. A major project is production and quality-control testing of the "lean-burn" engine, one that has a built-in Computer to control emission timing, and allow the engine to run on a leaner mixture of fuel and air. Other environment-related products include vehicle emission analyzers. The newest of the line is an accurate, portable solid state instrument for testing auto exhaust gases. The exhaust analyzers, now being produced for company dealers and for service

  11. Développement expérimental d'une ligne PIXE-XRF pour les matériaux du patrimoine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, L.; Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.; Dubus, M.; Guerra, M. F.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Salomon, J.; Walter, P.

    2002-07-01

    L'analyse élémentaire d'objets d'art ou d'archéologie exige l'emploi de méthodes non destructives possédant une sensibilité suffisante- pour les éléments traces. La méthode PIXE (acronyme pour Particle Induced X-ray Emission) satisfait à cette condition tout en se heurtant à deux contraintes majeures : le risque de détérioration de matériaux sensibles tels que les matériaux organiques et la faible sensibilité pour l'analyse d'impuretés légères dans les matrices lourdes. Nous avons développé une nouvelle ligne expérimentale sur l'accélérateur de particules du Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, permettant de s'affranchir de ces deux limitations en recourant à une variante de la fluorescence des rayons X, dénommée PIXE-XRF (XRF pour X-Ray Fluorescence). L'extraction à l'air du faisceau permet une souplesse du dispositif nettement améliorée.

  12. Analysis of diatomite sediments from a paleolake in central Mexico using PIXE, X-ray tomography and X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J.; Oliver, A.; Vilaclara, G.; Rico-Montiel, R.; Macías, V. M.; Ruvalcaba, J. L.; Zenteno, M. A.

    1994-03-01

    Diatomite samples from paleolake Tlaxcala, in Central Mexico, have been analyzed using proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), X-ray tomography and X-ray diffraction. Chiseled blocks were scanned with a 0.7 MeV proton beam, 0.1 mm in diameter, in 0.25 mm steps across the sediments. X-ray tomography with the same step sizes was then applied, in order to compare the concentrations obtained with PIXE and the material density in the sediment layers. Three different kinds of layers were found, related to their colors: dark, white and gray. The composition of the layers is fairly uniform. The dark zone is enriched in Al, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe. This dark layer may be associated with eruptions of the Malitzin volcano. The white zone is found to contain diatomite of a high purity, with traces of K, Ca, and Fe, while the gray zones are also Al enriched, suggesting a clay contamination of the diatomite. X-ray diffraction of materials obtained from each main layer showed that the white and gray phases are highly amorphous, with a small component of cristobalite, as expected from the diatom sediment diagenesis, while the dark layer contains also important amounts of anorthite and orthoclase, supporting the volcanic origin of this layer.

  13. Ion Beam Facilities at the National Centre for Accelerator based Research using a 3 MV Pelletron Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, T.; Patel, Shiv P.; Chandra, P.; Bajpai, P. K.

    A 3.0 MV (Pelletron 9 SDH 4, NEC, USA) low energy ion accelerator has been recently installed as the National Centre for Accelerator based Research (NCAR) at the Department of Pure & Applied Physics, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur, India. The facility is aimed to carried out interdisciplinary researches using ion beams with high current TORVIS (for H, He ions) and SNICS (for heavy ions) ion sources. The facility includes two dedicated beam lines, one for ion beam analysis (IBA) and other for ion implantation/ irradiation corresponding to switching magnet at +20 and -10 degree, respectively. Ions with 60 kV energy are injected into the accelerator tank where after stripping positively charged ions are accelerated up to 29 MeV for Au. The installed ion beam analysis techniques include RBS, PIXE, ERDA and channelling.

  14. Elemental imaging of organic matter and metal associations in ore deposits using micro-PIXE and micro-EBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, S., E-mail: sebastian.fuchs@mail.mcgill.ca [Earth and Planetary Science, McGill University, Montreal, (Canada); Przybylowicz, W.J., E-mail: przybylowicz@tlabs.ac.za [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Organic matter is a common constituent in many ore deposits, such as the Witwatersrand and Carlin-type gold deposits, the Zn-Pb-Cu-bearing Mississippi Valley-type deposits and the polymetallic Kupferschiefer. Genesis of most of these deposits is linked to hydrothermal processes; however, the role of organic matter in the ore-forming process is not well understood. The Witwatersrand deposits in South Africa are the biggest gold and uranium resources on earth, where up to 50% of the total gold and almost 100% of the total uranium is hosted in bituminous seams and nodules. Understanding the transport mechanisms and depositions processes helps in evaluating the economic potential of these ore deposits. The nuclear microprobe of iThemba LABS, South Africa, was used for quantitative mapping on bituminous seams and nodules in Au-U-bearing conglomerates from the Black, Carbon Leader and Vaal Reefs. Simultaneous use of micro-PIXE and micro-EBS (elastic backscattering spectrometry) gave a more comprehensive picture of elemental distribution, including C/O ratios. Native gold with varying concentrations of Ag, Hg and Cd occurs either isolated in the organic matrix or at the grain boundaries between organic matter and small quartz veinlets. Uraninite is intergrown with gold in the carbon nodules of Black Reef. In the organic seams of the Carbon Leader Reef uraninite was grown around gold nuclei in the centre, which is replacing organic matter. Pb and Th occur together in association with uraninite, but also as native lead. C/O ratios obtained by micro-EBS allow reconstruction of the maturation path of organic matter in the deposit. The elevated homogeneous distribution of S gives the evidence for organosulphur species in the organic matter and can be used with CIO ratios to characterize heavy, polar bitumen fractions. REEs (e.g. Ce and Y), Ca, Ti, AI and Fe associated with hydrothermal alteration zones suggesting an interaction of a liquid aqueous and hydrocarbon

  15. Temporal changes in elemental composition in decomposing filamentous algae (Cladophora glomerata and Pilayella littoralis) determined with PIXE and PIGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lill, J.-O., E-mail: jlill@abo.fi [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Abo Akademi University, Porthansg. 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Department of Natural Sciences, Abo Akademi University, Porthansg. 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Salovius-Lauren, S. [Department of Biosciences, Abo Akademi University, Artillerig. 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland); Harju, L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Abo Akademi University, Biskopsg. 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Rajander, J. [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Abo Akademi University, Porthansg. 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Department of Chemical Engineering, Abo Akademi University, Biskopsg. 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Saarela, K.-E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Abo Akademi University, Biskopsg. 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Lindroos, A. [Department of Natural Sciences, Abo Akademi University, Porthansg. 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Heselius, S.-J. [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Abo Akademi University, Porthansg. 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland)

    2012-01-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission and particle-induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry were successfully applied in a study of the elemental composition of decomposing filamentous algae. Fresh brown (Pilayella littoralis) and green (Cladophora glomerata) algal materials were placed in cages at 4 m depth in a water column of 8 m in the Archipelago Sea, northern Baltic Sea. Every second week decaying algae were sampled from the cages to allow measurements of changes in the elemental compositions. In the study of the elemental losses the concentrations were compensated for the mass reduction. The results show that sulphur, chlorine and partly potassium were lost during decomposition of P. littoralis and C. glomerata. Most of the other elements studied were recovered in the remaining algal mass. Special attention was paid to sorption and desorption of elements, including metal binding capacity, in the decaying algal materials. The affinity order of different cations to the two algal species was established by calculation of conditional distribution coefficients, D Prime {sub M}. For instance for P. littoralis the following series of binding strength (affinity) of cations were obtained: Al > Ti > Fe Much-Greater-Than Mn > Ni, Cu > Ba, Cr, Zn Much-Greater-Than Rb > K, Sr > Pb Much-Greater-Than Ca Much-Greater-Than Na > Mg. Notably is that the binding strength of strontium was more than 10 times higher for P. littoralis than for C. glomerata. Due to their high binding capacity and good affinity and selectivity for heavy metal ions these algae have great potential as biological sorbents. Large variations in elemental content during decomposition complicate the use of algae for environmental monitoring. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elemental concentrations in P. littoralis and C. glomerata from the Archipelago Sea in Finland were measured during decomposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PIXE and PIGE were successfully used for chemical analysis of 24 elements

  16. Regional inequity in complete antenatal services and public emergency obstetric care is associated with greater burden of maternal deaths: analysis from consecutive district level facility survey of Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himanshu, M; Källestål, Carina

    2017-05-11

    This equity focused evaluation analyses change in inter-district inequity of maternal health services (MHS) in Karnataka state between 2006-07 & 2012-13, alongside association of MHS inequity with distribution of maternal deaths. Repeated cross-sectional analysis of inequity and decomposition was done on nine district level MHS indicators using Theil's T index. Data was obtained from population linked district level facility surveys and health information systems. Inequity in births attended by skill birth attendants decreased the most (83.16%) among six other MHS indicators. Community provision of comprehensive emergency obstetric care strategy remained stagnant. Districts with higher complete antenatal care share and C-sections in public settings had lesser share of state's maternal deaths (R 2  = 0.29, p = 0.004). 5 districts suffered perpetual inequity of MHS with relatively greater burden of maternal deaths. First 6 years of national rural health mission increased coverage of MHS and decreased regional inequity albeit non-uniformly. Distribution of system driven interventions of complete ANC and C-sections appear to determine decrease of maternal mortality in Karnataka.

  17. Irradiation Facilities at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gkotse, Blerina; Carbonez, Pierre; Danzeca, Salvatore; Fabich, Adrian; Garcia, Alia, Ruben; Glaser, Maurice; Gorine, Georgi; Jaekel, Martin, Richard; Mateu,Suau, Isidre; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Fabio; Ravotti, Federico; Silari, Marco; Tali, Maris

    2017-01-01

    CERN provides unique irradiation facilities for applications in many scientific fields. This paper summarizes the facilities currently operating for proton, gamma, mixed-field and electron irradiations, including their main usage, characteristics and information about their operation. The new CERN irradiation facilities database is also presented. This includes not only CERN facilities but also irradiation facilities available worldwide.

  18. ASN inspection of waste processing facilities operated by the CEA in the Ile-de-France region; Le controle par l'ASN des installations de traitement des dechets exploitees par le CEA en Ile-de-France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraer, B. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, inspecteur de la surete nucleaire a la Division d' Orleans, 75 - Paris (France)

    2011-02-15

    ASN (French Nuclear Safety Authority) ensures that safety at nuclear radioactive waste processing and storage facilities is maintained at an acceptable level and, where this is not the case, requires that facilities be brought up to standard. The specific characteristic of such facilities, which are often old, have to satisfy demand for reprocessing the waste currently produced by nuclear facilities and also meet the need to manage old waste storage facilities that were designed to comply with standards that are now out-of-date. This has led the operator first to set up new, higher performance facilities or workshops and, second, to carry out works on these old waste storage sites or transfer this waste to more suitable facilities. All these various projects result in major changes being made to these facilities. Based on the information supplied by the operator, ASN ensures that the safety analysis is satisfactory and, by means of spot checks, verifies that operations are conducted in compliance with procedures resulting from this analysis. In addition, INB (nuclear facilities) operating activities are often out-sourced. ASN checks that the implementation of such activities and monitoring of the subcontractor by the operator meet the applicable regulatory requirements. The examples of the waste processing INBs at the CEA sites at Fontenay-aux-Roses and Saclay perfectly illustrate the above. (author)

  19. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FACILITY (Facility Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for oil field facilities for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent oil field facility locations. This data...

  20. Jupiter Laser Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Jupiter Laser Facility is an institutional user facility in the Physical and Life Sciences Directorate at LLNL. The facility is designed to provide a high degree...

  1. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  2. Team processes in airway facilities operations control centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    In October 2000, the Airway Facilities organization plans to transition the National Airspace System (NAS) monitoring responsibilities to three regional Operations Control Centers (OCCs). Teams in these facilities will be different from those that cu...

  3. Managing highly flexible facilities: an essential complementary asset at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tierney, Robert; Tierney, R.; Groen, Arend J.; Harms, Rainer; Luizink, M.; Hetherington, D.; Steward, H.; Walsh, Steven Thomas; Linton, Jonathan; Linton, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Twenty first century problems are increasingly being addressed by multi technology solutions developed by regional entrepreneurial and intreprepreneurial innovators. However, they require an expensive new type of fabrication facility. Multiple technology production facilities (MTPF) have

  4. Aperture area measurement facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST has established an absolute aperture area measurement facility for circular and near-circular apertures use in radiometric instruments. The facility consists of...

  5. Facility Registry Service (FRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Facility Registry Service (FRS) provides an integrated source of comprehensive (air, water, and waste) environmental information about facilities across EPA,...

  6. Licensed Healthcare Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Licensed Healthcare Facilities point layer represents the locations of all healthcare facilities licensed by the State of California, Department of Health...

  7. High Throughput Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Argonne?s high throughput facility provides highly automated and parallel approaches to material and materials chemistry development. The facility allows scientists...

  8. Status of the SXFEL Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhentang Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Shanghai soft X-ray Free-Electron Laser facility (SXFEL is being developed in two steps; the SXFEL test facility (SXFEL-TF, and the SXFEL user facility (SXFEL-UF. The SXFEL-TF is a critical development step towards the construction a soft X-ray FEL user facility in China, and is under commissioning at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF campus. The test facility is going to generate 8.8 nm FEL radiation using an 840 MeV electron linac passing through the two-stage cascaded HGHG-HGHG or EEHG-HGHG (high-gain harmonic generation, echo-enabled harmonic generation scheme. The construction of the SXFEL-TF started at the end of 2014. Its accelerator tunnel and klystron gallery were ready for equipment installation in April 2016, and the installation of the SXFEL-TF linac and radiator undulators were completed by the end of 2016. In the meantime, the SXFEL-UF, with a designated wavelength in the water window region, began construction in November 2016. This was based on upgrading the linac energy to 1.5 GeV, and the building of a second undulator line and five experimental end-stations. Construction status and the future plans of the SXFEL are reported in this paper.

  9. Guide to research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This Guide provides information on facilities at US Department of Energy (DOE) and other government laboratories that focus on research and development of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. These laboratories have opened these facilities to outside users within the scientific community to encourage cooperation between the laboratories and the private sector. The Guide features two types of facilities: designated user facilities and other research facilities. Designated user facilities are one-of-a-kind DOE facilities that are staffed by personnel with unparalleled expertise and that contain sophisticated equipment. Other research facilities are facilities at DOE and other government laboratories that provide sophisticated equipment, testing areas, or processes that may not be available at private facilities. Each facility listing includes the name and phone number of someone you can call for more information.

  10. PIXE analyses over a long period: The case of Neolithic variscite jewels from Western Europe (5th–3th millennium BC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querré, G., E-mail: guirec.querre@univ-rennes1.fr [Laboratoire Archéosciences, UMR 6566 CReAAH, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Calligaro, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France, Palais du Louvre, Paris (France); Domínguez-Bella, S. [UGEA-PHAM, Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad de Cádiz (Spain); Cassen, S. [Laboratoire de Recherches Archéologiques, UMR 6566 CReAAH, Nantes (France)

    2014-01-01

    PIXE analysis of archeological variscite beads and pendants from the Neolithic period that were excavated in Spain, Portugal and France and of variscite geological references samples from European occurrences were carried out from 1999 to 2013 in order to trace back the circulation of this precious gemstone over three millennia. Transformations of the AGLAE external beam system and progress in spectrum processing have induced some apparent compositional variation, affecting in particular the phosphorus/aluminum ratio. This long term evolution has been taken into account with the help of geostandards to build a large and coherent geochemical database of minor and trace elements in variscite. This database allowed us to determine the provenance of the raw material and thus of the circulation of the jewels.

  11. Investigations of trace and toxic elements of kidney stones from two different Sudanese areas by µ-PIXE using Nuclear Microprobe (NMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisa, M E M; Pineda-Vargas, C A; Salah, Sami E E; Rodgers, A L

    2018-01-01

    In this study 14 kidney stones (oxalate and phosphate stones) collected from two Sudanese hospitals Particle Induced X ray Emission (µ-PIXE). This technique was used to investigate the matrix as well as the trace element compositions of kidney stones on a microscopic scale using 1.5MeV proton energy. Significant differences in elements content across the groups were found by applying statistical methods. Trace elements such as P,Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, Br, and Pb showed a possible linear relationship of the mean profile for trace elements for each group of stones. This study shows that micro analysis of urinary stones can provide complementary information on patients' exposure to epidemiological risk factors such as geography, diet and drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of tannery effluent wastewater by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis to investigate their role in water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Lubna; Ejaz, Sohail; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ahmad, Nisar; Javeed, Aqeel

    2012-02-01

    Over the last few decades, the chromium-based tanning industry has shown rapid growth in Pakistan. However, the rules and regulations promulgated by the government are not strictly followed for processing the effluent discharge from the tanneries. Consequently, tannery effluents have become a great source of water pollution in surrounding areas. In this case study, characterization of tannery effluent wastewater (TW), shallow groundwater (SW), and deep groundwater (DW) samples was carried out to determine the source of water pollution in the district of Kasur, Pakistan. The concentrations of calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), potassium (K), Mg, sulfur (S), silicon (Si), and Sr in TW were significantly higher than SW and DW, which also exceeded the international limits. In addition, increased concentrations of major toxic elements (Cl, Cr, Fe, K, Ni, and Si) were also observed in SW, which were higher in comparison to DW. Strikingly, the concentrations of Cr and Si in various DW samples were also beyond World Health Organization (WHO) safe limit, which reinforced the trend that water pollution in the area is directly linked to the distance from the source (TW). The particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) indices also suggested that TW is a main contributory source of water-based pollution in the area, which is imposing great threat to local inhabitants due to known hazardous and carcinogenic potential of these elements. Protecting the water resources will be a formidable challenge in the study area, which requires modernization of tannery industry, thereby improving the recovery and recycling of TW. Moreover, PIXE analysis presented here as a successful tool, could serve as landmark for the contemporary research in environmental toxicology.

  13. Elemental distribution patterns in the skins of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) from a mass stranding in South Africa, analysed using micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouton, M., E-mail: marnel@sun.ac.za [Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7600 (South Africa); Botha, A., E-mail: abo@sun.ac.za [Department of Microbiology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7600 (South Africa); Thornton, M., E-mail: meredith@sharkwatchsa.com [Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, c/o Iziko South African Museum, P.O. Box 61, Cape Town 8000 (South Africa); Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, J., E-mail: mesjasz@tlabs.ac.za [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Przybyłowicz, W.J., E-mail: przybylowicz@tlabs.ac.za [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2015-11-15

    Several studies revealed that anthropogenic activities often cause toxic concentrations of some elements, such as mercury, which bio-accumulate through the marine food chain, impacting negatively on the health of animals in the top trophic levels, such as a variety of marine mammals. Moreover, analysis of cetacean skin has been reported to be a reliable, long-term and mostly non-invasive method to monitor bio-accumulation of chemicals in cetacean populations. Several elements, including trace elements, occur naturally in cetacean skin, although nothing is known about their distribution patterns and little about safe base line concentrations. In May 2009, 42 false killer whales (FKWs) beached and died at Kommetjie in the Western Cape of South Africa. Skin samples of these FKWs were collected and analysed to determine elemental distribution patterns. The concentrations and distribution patterns of the major, as well as detectable trace elements were determined in skin samples from ten randomly selected FKW individuals, using micro-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) analysis. Results revealed differences between the distribution patterns of elements in the skin sections. Fe, for example, was found to be concentrated in the dermal papillae, whereas the highest Zn concentrations occurred in the epidermis and particularly in the epidermal papillae. Since these essential elements mediate factors such as host immunity, from skin integrity to humoral immunity, knowledge of their typical distribution patterns can be of great value in studies of bio-accumulation. This is the first report of micro-PIXE being employed to study elemental distribution in cetacean skin and the resulting elemental distribution maps can serve as reference in future environmental pollution studies.

  14. Elemental distribution patterns in the skins of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) from a mass stranding in South Africa, analysed using micro-PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, M.; Botha, A.; Thornton, M.; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, J.; Przybyłowicz, W. J.

    2015-11-01

    Several studies revealed that anthropogenic activities often cause toxic concentrations of some elements, such as mercury, which bio-accumulate through the marine food chain, impacting negatively on the health of animals in the top trophic levels, such as a variety of marine mammals. Moreover, analysis of cetacean skin has been reported to be a reliable, long-term and mostly non-invasive method to monitor bio-accumulation of chemicals in cetacean populations. Several elements, including trace elements, occur naturally in cetacean skin, although nothing is known about their distribution patterns and little about safe base line concentrations. In May 2009, 42 false killer whales (FKWs) beached and died at Kommetjie in the Western Cape of South Africa. Skin samples of these FKWs were collected and analysed to determine elemental distribution patterns. The concentrations and distribution patterns of the major, as well as detectable trace elements were determined in skin samples from ten randomly selected FKW individuals, using micro-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) analysis. Results revealed differences between the distribution patterns of elements in the skin sections. Fe, for example, was found to be concentrated in the dermal papillae, whereas the highest Zn concentrations occurred in the epidermis and particularly in the epidermal papillae. Since these essential elements mediate factors such as host immunity, from skin integrity to humoral immunity, knowledge of their typical distribution patterns can be of great value in studies of bio-accumulation. This is the first report of micro-PIXE being employed to study elemental distribution in cetacean skin and the resulting elemental distribution maps can serve as reference in future environmental pollution studies.

  15. Fluorine analysis of human enamel around fluoride-containing materials under different pH-cycling by {mu}-PIGE/PIXE system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, H., E-mail: kom@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Yamamoto, H. [Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Matsuda, Y.; Kijimura, T.; Kinugawa, M.; Okuyama, K. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Nomachi, M. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yasuda, K. [Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center, 64-52-1 Hase, Tsuruga 914-0192 (Japan); Satoh, T. [Advanced Radiation Technology, TARRI, JAEA, 1233 Watanuki-Machi, Takasaki 370-1292 (Japan); Oikawa, S. [National Institute of Radiological Science, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    The caries preventive effect of fluoride-containing materials (FCMs) might depend on the caries risk of the individuals. Two pairs of demineralizing and remineralizing solutions of pH-cycling were prepared for simulating low and high caries risk. The purpose of this study was to determine fluorine (F) uptake into human enamel around FCMs under different pH-cycling using the in-air {mu}-PIGE/PIXE system. Fluoride-containing glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX{sub GP} FAST CAPSULE (FN)), and composite resin (BEAUTIFIL II with FLUORO BOND SHAKE ONE (BS)) were used in this study. The pH-cycling (pH 6.8-4.5) was carried out for 5 weeks. After pH-cycling, the caries progression was analyzed using transverse micro-radiography (TMR). The fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesion in each specimen were evaluated using the PIGE/PIXE system. From TMR analysis, there was a difference in caries risk between the two kinds of pH-cycling. Although the caries preventive effect of BS and FN was confirmed at low risk, the effect at high risk was confirmed for FN only. From the analysis of the fluorine uptake in the outer 200 {mu}m of the lesion we concluded that there was no significant difference between the pH-cycling solutions. However, we found different fluorine concentrations in the enamel for the two FCMs. The decreased caries progression under high risk for FN indicated that an adequate amount of fluorine supplied from the material is required at higher caries risk. It was confirmed that the caries preventive effect of FCM depends on the caries risk. The fluorine analysis of teeth under various pH-cycling conditions gives information to evaluate the caries preventive effect of fluoride-containing materials according to the caries risk.

  16. Sports Facility Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marcia L., Ed.; Stotlar, David K., Ed.

    The numbers of both sports facility management college courses and sport and exercise facilities are increasing, along with the need for an understanding of the trends and management concepts of these facilities. This book focuses exclusively on managing facilities where sporting events occur and includes examples in physical education, athletics,…

  17. Reliable Facility Location Problem with Facility Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Luohao; Zhu, Cheng; Lin, Zaili; Shi, Jianmai; Zhang, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies a reliable facility location problem with facility protection that aims to hedge against random facility disruptions by both strategically protecting some facilities and using backup facilities for the demands. An Integer Programming model is proposed for this problem, in which the failure probabilities of facilities are site-specific. A solution approach combining Lagrangian Relaxation and local search is proposed and is demonstrated to be both effective and efficient based on computational experiments on random numerical examples with 49, 88, 150 and 263 nodes in the network. A real case study for a 100-city network in Hunan province, China, is presented, based on which the properties of the model are discussed and some managerial insights are analyzed.

  18. Reliable Facility Location Problem with Facility Protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luohao Tang

    Full Text Available This paper studies a reliable facility location problem with facility protection that aims to hedge against random facility disruptions by both strategically protecting some facilities and using backup facilities for the demands. An Integer Programming model is proposed for this problem, in which the failure probabilities of facilities are site-specific. A solution approach combining Lagrangian Relaxation and local search is proposed and is demonstrated to be both effective and efficient based on computational experiments on random numerical examples with 49, 88, 150 and 263 nodes in the network. A real case study for a 100-city network in Hunan province, China, is presented, based on which the properties of the model are discussed and some managerial insights are analyzed.

  19. Shapley Facility Location Games

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Porat, Omer; Tennenholtz, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    Facility location games have been a topic of major interest in economics, operations research and computer science, starting from the seminal work by Hotelling. Spatial facility location models have successfully predicted the outcome of competition in a variety of scenarios. In a typical facility location game, users/customers/voters are mapped to a metric space representing their preferences, and each player picks a point (facility) in that space. In most facility location games considered i...

  20. Assessing the Security Vulnerabilities of Correctional Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, G.S.; Spencer, D.S.

    1998-10-27

    The National Institute of Justice has tasked their Satellite Facility at Sandia National Laboratories and their Southeast Regional Technology Center in Charleston, South Carolina to devise new procedures and tools for helping correctional facilities to assess their security vulnerabilities. Thus, a team is visiting selected correctional facilities and performing vulnerability assessments. A vulnerability assessment helps to identi~ the easiest paths for inmate escape, for introduction of contraband such as drugs or weapons, for unexpected intrusion fi-om outside of the facility, and for the perpetration of violent acts on other inmates and correctional employees, In addition, the vulnerability assessment helps to quantify the security risks for the facility. From these initial assessments will come better procedures for performing vulnerability assessments in general at other correctional facilities, as well as the development of tools to assist with the performance of such vulnerability assessments.

  1. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): CAMDBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link to the Clean Air Markets Division Business System (CAMDBS). Administered by the EPA Clean Air Markets Division, within the Office of Air and Radiation, CAMDBS supports the implementation of market-based air pollution control programs, including the Acid Rain Program and regional programs designed to reduce the transport of ozone. FRS identifies and geospatially locates facilities, sites or places subject to environmental regulations or of environmental interest. Using vigorous verification and data management procedures, FRS integrates facility data from EPA's national program systems, other federal agencies, and State and tribal master facility records and provides EPA with a centrally managed, single source of comprehensive and authoritative information on facilities. This data set contains the subset of FRS integrated facilities that link to CAMDBS facilities once the CAMDBS data has been integrated into the FRS database. Additional information on FRS is available at the EPA website https://www.epa.gov/enviro/facility-registry-service-frs.

  2. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE Analysis and DNA-chain Break study in rat hepatocarcinogenesis: A possible chemopreventive role by combined supplementation of vanadium and beta-carotene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjilal NB

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Combined effect of vanadium and beta-carotene on rat liver DNA-chain break and Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE analysis was studied during a necrogenic dose (200 mg/kg of body weight of Diethyl Nitrosamine (DENA induced rat liver carcinogenesis. Morphological and histopathological changes were observed as an end point biomarker. Supplementation of vanadium (0.5 ppm ad libitum in drinking water and beta-carotene in the basal diet (120 mg/Kg of body weight were performed four weeks before DENA treatment and continued till the end of the experiment (16 weeks. PIXE analysis revealed the restoration of near normal value of zinc, copper, and iron, which were substantially altered when compared to carcinogen treated groups. Supplementation of both vanadium and beta-carotene four weeks before DENA injection was found to offer significant (64.73%, P

  3. Fumigation success for California facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Robert

    2010-02-01

    As Robert Hacker, at the time director of facilities management at the St John's Regional Medical Center in Oxnard, California, explains, the hospital, one of the area's largest, recently successfully utilised a new technology to eliminate mould, selecting a cost and time-saving fumigation process in place of the traditional "rip and tear" method. Although hospital managers knew the technology had been used extremely effectively in other US buildings, this was reportedly among the first ever healthcare applications.

  4. Influence of the zinc and manganese doping on the kinetics of resorption of a hydroxyapatite implant and study on matrix effects in the used P.I.X.E. nuclear method; Influence du dopage en zinc et en manganese sur la cinetique de resorption d`un implant d`hydroxyapatite et etude des effets de matrice dans la methode nucleaire P.I.X.E. utilisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jallot, E.

    1997-01-16

    In this work we study hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite doped with zinc or manganese and the compound of 75% hydroxyapatite, 25% tricalcic phosphate. The ceramics were implanted in the cortical femur of sheep. The global evolution of mineral concentrations in the implants with the time after implantation was studied by neutronic radioactivation. We studied matrix effects in P.I.X.E. (Particles Induced X-rays Emission) with Alpha parameter method. By measurements at two different energies, we determine a correction factor of the slowing down of incident protons and of the X rays absorption in matrix. So, the P.I.X.E. analysis allow us a scanning of mineral concentrations at the bone-implant interface at different time after implantation. The transformation of the hydroxyapatite matrix has been studied by X-rays by X-rays diffraction. (author).

  5. Materiel Evaluation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CRREL's Materiel Evaluation Facility (MEF) is a large cold-room facility that can be set up at temperatures ranging from −20°F to 120°F with a temperature change...

  6. Integrated Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the center of the 586-square-mile Hanford Site is the Integrated Disposal Facility, also known as the IDF.This facility is a landfill similar in concept...

  7. Environmental Toxicology Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Fully-equipped facilities for environmental toxicology researchThe Environmental Toxicology Research Facility (ETRF) located in Vicksburg, MS provides over 8,200 ft...

  8. Explosive Components Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  9. Dialysis Facility Compare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Dialysis Facility Compare helps you find detailed information about Medicare-certified dialysis facilities. You can compare the services and the quality of care that...

  10. Armament Technology Facility (ATF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Armament Technology Facility is a 52,000 square foot, secure and environmentally-safe, integrated small arms and cannon caliber design and evaluation facility....

  11. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  12. Lesotho - Health Facility Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The main objective of the 2011 Health Facility Survey (HFS) was to establish a baseline for informing the Health Project performance indicators on health facilities,...

  13. Ouellette Thermal Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Test Facility is a joint Army/Navy state-of-the-art facility (8,100 ft2) that was designed to:Evaluate and characterize the effect of flame and thermal...

  14. Projectile Demilitarization Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Projectile Wash Out Facility is US Army Ammunition Peculiar Equipment (APE 1300). It is a pilot scale wash out facility that uses high pressure water and steam...

  15. Energetics Conditioning Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Conditioning Facility is used for long term and short term aging studies of energetic materials. The facility has 10 conditioning chambers of which 2...

  16. Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Individual permits for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)...

  17. Robustness in facility location

    OpenAIRE

    Van Lokven, Sander W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Facility location concerns the placement of facilities, for various objectives, by use of mathematical models and solution procedures. Almost all facility location models that can be found in literature are based on minimizing costs or maximizing cover, to cover as much demand as possible. These models are quite efficient for finding an optimal location for a new facility for a particular data set, which is considered to be constant and known in advance. In a real world situation, input da...

  18. CLEAR test facility

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2017-01-01

    A new user facility for accelerator R&D, the CERN Linear Electron Accelerator for Research (CLEAR), started operation in August 2017. CLEAR evolved from the former CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) used by the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). The new facility is able to host and test a broad range of ideas in the accelerator field.

  19. Allegheny County Kane Regional Center Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Total number of residents in each Kane Regional Center facility by race and gender. The Kane Regional Centers are skilled nursing and rehabilitation centers run by...

  20. Capsule review of the DOE research and development and field facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    A description is given of the roles of DOE's headquarters, field offices, major multiprogram laboratories, Energy Technology and Mining Technology Centers, and other government-owned, contractor-operated facilities, which are located in all regions of the US. Descriptions of DOE facilities are given for multiprogram laboratories (12); program-dedicated facilities (biomedical and environmental facilities-12, fossil energy facilities-7, fusion energy facility-1, nuclear development facilities-3, physical research facilities-4, safeguards facility-1, and solar facilities-2); and Production, Testing, and Fabrication Facilities (nuclear materials production facilities-5, weapon testing and fabrication complex-8). Three appendices list DOE field and project offices; DOE field facilities by state or territory, names, addresses, and telephone numbers; DOE R and D field facilities by type, contractor names, and names of directors. (MCW)

  1. Spectroscopy and perturbation analysis of the CO A$^1\\Pi-$X$^1\\Sigma^+$ (2,0), (3,0) and (4,0) bands

    CERN Document Server

    Niu, M L; Heays, A N; de Oliveira, N; Field, R W; Ubachs, W

    2015-01-01

    The (2,0) (3,0) and (4,0) bands of the A$^1\\Pi-$X$^1\\Sigma^+$ system of $^{12}$C$^{16}$O have been re-investigated by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy. A VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer, illuminated by synchrotron radiation, was applied to record a jet-cooled spectrum, a room temperature static gas spectrum and a high temperature (900 K) quasi-static gas spectrum, resulting in absolute accuracies of 0.01$-$0.02 cm$^{-1}$ for the rotational line frequencies. Precise laser-based data were included in the analysis allowing for a highly accurate determination of band origins. Rotational levels up to $J=52$ were observed. The data were used to perform an improved analysis of the perturbations in the A$^1\\Pi$, $v=2$, $v=3$, and $v=4$ levels by vibrational levels of the D$^1\\Delta$, I$^1\\Sigma^-$, e$^3\\Sigma^-$, d$^3\\Delta$, and a$'^3\\Sigma^+$ states.

  2. Elemental Composition and Concentration of Upstate New York Rainwater Samples Using the Union College Pelletron Particle Accelerator and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuff, Katie; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael; Harrington, Charles; Gleason, Colin

    2009-10-01

    A 1-megavolt tandem electrostatic Pelletron particle accelerator housed at Union College was used to measure the elemental composition and concentration of rain water collected in Schenectady, NY in June 2009. A beam of 2.0-MeV protons was directed at an approximately 12-micrometer thin Mylar film substrate onto which 1.0-mL of concentrated rainwater was dried. The interaction of the incident protons with the target material causes inner shell electrons to be ejected and these vacancies are filled through electronic transitions of higher orbital electrons with the production of x-ray photons characteristic of the elemental composition of the target. This is the PIXE Method. Data on the intensity and energy of x-rays were collected using an Amptek silicon drift detector. Spectra of the number of x-rays collected as a function of energy were analyzed and the elemental composition was found to contain Ca, K, S, Cl, Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, & Se(added as an internal standard) with concentrations determined using the analysis package GUPIX.

  3. Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosols Collected in an Urban Area in Upstate NY Using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Safiq, Alexandrea; Yoskowitz, Joshua; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2013-10-01

    We examined atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Schenectady NY for evidence of pollution. We collected aerosol samples using a nine stage cascade impactor which distributes the particulate matter by aerodynamic size onto 7.5 μm Kapton foils. We then used a 1MV electrostatic Pelletron accelerator to produce a 2.2 MeV proton beam to hit the impacted foils. X-ray intensity versus energy spectra were collected using an Amptek x-ray detector where the x-rays are produced from the proton beam interacting with the sample. This is called PIXE. The elemental composition and concentrations of the elements present in the aerosol samples were determined using a software package called GUPIX. We have found elements ranging from Al to Pb and in particular have found significant amounts of Pb and Br on some of our impacted foils, with a Br/Pb ratio of 0.6 +/- 0.2 which agrees with previous studies. This result suggests the presence of leaded aviation fuel perhaps due to the proximity of the collection site to a small airport with a significant amount of general aviation traffic. Union College.

  4. Quantitative measurement of essential and not essential metals in muscular, hepatic and renal tissue of horses by means of PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzan, S.; Buoso, M.C.; Ceccato, D.; De Poli, M. E-mail: mdepoli@lnl.infn.it; Giaccone, V.; Moschini, G.; Novelli, E.; Olabanji, S.O.; Passi, P.; Tepedino, V

    2004-06-01

    Nowadays, the food safety and the related health risks for humans are a major issue. It has become a priority to ensure the health and well-being of the population through the better scientific understanding of the food intake influence. A frequently found harmful feature of human diet is the simultaneous presence in food stuff of both essential and toxic elements. A significant example of this situation is represented by horse meat. The aim of this survey is to evaluate the elemental content of muscular, hepatic and renal tissues of horses bred in different countries of the East of Europe and slaughtered in Italy. The studied population consisted of about 100 individuals; the sampling period, coinciding with the highest market request, was extended from November to March. Freeze dried tissues were pelletized and carbon coated prior to analysis. The samples were analyzed using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique at the AN2000 van de Graaff accelerator of the INFN-National Laboratories of Legnaro. The accuracy of the results was verified using certified standard reference materials prepared and measured in the same experimental conditions. Results have highlighted the noble nutritional values of horse muscular tissue in terms of iron, zinc and calcium content. Cadmium was staidly identified in horse kidneys, with an average concentration of 257 {mu}g/g on dried matter, while in liver it was sporadically present.

  5. A comparative study of PIXE and XRF corrected by Gamma-Ray Transmission for the non-destructive characterization of a gilded roman railing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Feliu, I., E-mail: iofeliu@us.e [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Moreno-Suarez, A.I. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Gomez-Tubio, B. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Ager, F.J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Respaldiza, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Dils, S. [Departamento de Historia Antigua, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Rodriguez-Gutierrez, O. [Departamento de Prehistoria y Arqueologia, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    Several fragments of a gilded railing were found in the archaeological excavations carried out in Ecija (Spain), among the remains of a collapsed temple. The alloy composition and the gilding procedure used for its manufacture are of interest for a complete archaeological knowledge of the artefact. The common use of IBA techniques directly on the objects for their analysis is not possible due to the thick corroded patinas that they exhibit due to the burial environment. However, non-destructive analyses of a few selected fragments have been done using PIXE and XRF techniques in combination with Gamma-Ray Transmission. Indeed, as was previously shown , bronze objects can be characterized in a completely non-destructive way using the combination of these techniques. This work, shows the applicability of that method to artefacts made of leaded copper alloy, which is the case of samples studied, for which some problems could arise from the lead segregations present in these kind of alloys. We have found that this railing contains low amounts of Sn and Sb, and that the gilding was most probably obtained using a gold leaf.

  6. Zinc-induced DNA damage and the distribution of metals in the brain of grasshoppers by the comet assay and micro-PIXE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Maria; Juchimiuk, Jolanta; Przybyłowicz, Wojciech J; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, Jolanta; Babczyńska, Agnieszka; Migula, Paweł

    2006-11-01

    The distribution and concentration of selected elements by PIXE method and DNA damage using comet assay in brains of 1st instars of grasshoppers Chorthippus brunneus from unpolluted (Pilica) and polluted (Olkusz) site, additionally exposed to various doses of zinc during diapause or after hatching, were measured. We tried to assess the degree of possible pre-adaptation of the insects to heavy metals and evaluate the utility of these parameters in estimation of insect exposure to industrial pollutants. Additionally, the mechanism of zinc toxicity for grasshopper brains was discussed. We observed the correlation between experimental zinc dose, zinc contents in the brain and DNA damage in neuroblasts, but only in groups exposed to lower zinc concentration. For higher zinc concentration the amount of the metal in brain and DNA damage remained at the control level. Some site-related differences in DNA damage between grasshoppers from Pilica and Olkusz were observed during short-term exposure (after hatching). Significant increase in the calcium contents in the brain, proportional to zinc concentration in sand, was also observed, especially in the offsprings from Olkusz. The results may be the basis for further searching for molecular mechanisms of defense against heavy metals in insects living in polluted habitats.

  7. Facility Measures Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honess, Shawn B.; Narvaez, Pablo; Mcauley, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Partly automated facility measures and computes steady near magnetic field produced by object. Designed to determine magnetic fields of equipment to be installed on spacecraft including sensitive magnetometers, with view toward application of compensating fields to reduce interfernece with spacecraft-magnetometer readings. Because of its convenient operating features and sensitivity of its measurements, facility serves as prototype for similar facilities devoted to magnetic characterization of medical equipment, magnets for high-energy particle accelerators, and magnetic materials.

  8. Synchrotron radiation facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Particularly in the past few years, interest in using the synchrotron radiation emanating from high energy, circular electron machines has grown considerably. In our February issue we included an article on the synchrotron radiation facility at Frascati. This month we are spreading the net wider — saying something about the properties of the radiation, listing the centres where synchrotron radiation facilities exist, adding a brief description of three of them and mentioning areas of physics in which the facilities are used.

  9. Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility specializes in the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of advanced composite structures and materials for both...

  10. GPS Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Global Positioning System (GPS) Test Facility Instrumentation Suite (GPSIS) provides great flexibility in testing receivers by providing operational control of...

  11. Flexible Electronics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Flexible Electronics Research Facility designs, synthesizes, tests, and fabricates materials and devices compatible with flexible substrates for Army information...

  12. Nonlinear Materials Characterization Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nonlinear Materials Characterization Facility conducts photophysical research and development of nonlinear materials operating in the visible spectrum to protect...

  13. Mobile Solar Tracker Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST's mobile solar tracking facility is used to characterize the electrical performance of photovoltaic panels. It incorporates meteorological instruments, a solar...

  14. Heated Tube Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Heated Tube Facility at NASA GRC investigates cooling issues by simulating conditions characteristic of rocket engine thrust chambers and high speed airbreathing...

  15. Imagery Data Base Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Imagery Data Base Facility supports AFRL and other government organizations by providing imagery interpretation and analysis to users for data selection, imagery...

  16. Universal Drive Train Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This vehicle drive train research facility is capable of evaluating helicopter and ground vehicle power transmission technologies in a system level environment. The...

  17. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  18. Catalytic Fuel Conversion Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility enables unique catalysis research related to power and energy applications using military jet fuels and alternative fuels. It is equipped with research...

  19. Textiles Performance Testing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Textiles Performance Testing Facilities has the capabilities to perform all physical wet and dry performance testing, and visual and instrumental color analysis...

  20. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...