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Sample records for regional pain syndromes

  1. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. It may happen ... move the affected body part The cause of CRPS is unknown. There is no specific diagnostic test. ...

  2. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leg, such as a crush injury, fracture or amputation. Other major and minor traumas — such as surgery, ... diagnose complex regional pain syndrome, but the following procedures may provide important clues: Bone scan. This procedure ...

  3. Complex regional pain syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Koryachkin

    2011-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent mo...

  4. Complex regional pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep J Sebastin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature.

  5. [COMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blažeković, Ivan; Bilić, Ervina; Žagar, Marija; Anić, Branimir

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) represents a state of constant and often disabling pain, affecting one region (usually hand) and often occurs after a trauma whose severity does not correlate with the level of pain. The older term for this condition of chronic pain associated with motor and autonomic symptoms is reflex sympathetic dystrophy or causalgia. The aim of this review, based on contemporary literature, is to show the epidemiology and etiology, proposed pathophysiological mechanisms, method of diagnosis and treatment options, prevention and mitigation of this under-recognized disease. CRPS I occurs without known neurological damage, unlike CRPS II, where the history of trauma is present and in some cases damage to the peripheral nervous system can be objectively assessed using electromyoneurography. New diagnostic methods, such as quantitative sensory testing (CST), challenge this division because the CST findings in patients with CRPS I can suggest damage to Adelta peripheral nerve fibers. Except for distinguishing type I and type II disease, it is important to bear in mind the diversity of clinical presentation of CRPS in acute and chronic phase of the disease. This regional pain syndrome typically includes the autonomic and motor signs and thus differs from other peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes. The complexity of the clinical presentation indicates the likely presence of different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disease. Previous studies have demonstrated the autonomic dysfunction, neurogenic inflammation and neuroplastic changes. The diagnosis of CRPS is based on anamnesis and clinical examination on the basis of which the disease can be graded according to the Budapest Criteria. A valuable aid in differentiating subtypes of the disease is electromyoneurography. The treatment of CRPS is as complex as the clinical picture and the pathophysiology of the disease and requires interdisciplinary cooperation and individual approach

  6. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)

    OpenAIRE

    Dijana Avdic; Amila Jaganjac; Bakir Katana; Samir Bojicic; Amra Macak Hadziomerovic; Emira Svraka

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), once known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy, Sudeck's dystrophy and causalgia, is a pain syndrome with indistinctive pathophysiology and unpredictable clinical course. CRPS can develop after a limb fracture, injury or damage to the peripheral or central nervous system. The diagnosis of CRPS is based on the signs and symptoms obtained from the medical history and physical examination. The disease is often resistant to treatment, and its course is not alway...

  7. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijana Avdic

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS, once known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy, Sudeck's dystrophy and causalgia, is a pain syndrome with indistinctive pathophysiology and unpredictable clinical course. CRPS can develop after a limb fracture, injury or damage to the peripheral or central nervous system. The diagnosis of CRPS is based on the signs and symptoms obtained from the medical history and physical examination. The disease is often resistant to treatment, and its course is not always favorable. A brief overview of this clinical entity is presented, and most relevant and up-to-date information is discussed.

  8. Complex regional pain syndrome underdiagnosed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quisel, Anna; Gill, James M; Witherell, Peter

    2005-06-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type 1 may be diagnosed by history and physical exam with no further testing. Several different diagnostic criteria have undergone validity testing: the 1993 IASP criteria, Bruehl's criteria, and Veldman's criteria; there is no compelling reason to recommend 1 set of criteria over the others. Some cases of CRPS type 1 may be preventable. Some cases of CRPS type 1 in post-stroke upper extremity hemiplegia (also known as shoulder-hand syndrome) may be prevented by early inpatient rehabilitation and avoidance of shoulder trauma to the affected arm. Some cases of post-fracture CRPS type 1 may be prevented with 500 mg vitamin C daily started upon diagnosis of fracture and continued through healing.

  9. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome and Treatment Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Gokcen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Complex Regional Pain Syndrome is a symptom complex including severe pain which is disproportioned by the initiating event. Formerly, it was known as reflex sympathetic dystropy, Sudeck’s atrophy and algoneurodystrophy. There are two types of complex regional pain syndrome (CPRS. CRPS type 1 (Reflex sympathetic dystropy occurs after a minor trauma of the extremities, CRPS type 2 (Causalgia occurs following peripheral nevre injury. Diagnosis is made according to the history, symptoms and physical findings of the patients. Patient education, physical therapy and medical treatment are the most common treatment approaches of complex regional pain syndrome. The aim of this review is to revise the treatment options ofcomplex regional pain syndrome, as well as to overview the new treatment approaches and options for the refractory complex regional pain syndrome cases. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(4.000: 514-531

  10. COMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Špegel

    2002-01-01

    Background. In children with unexplained pain in distal part of extremity associated with edema, abnormal skin color, temperature change, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) must be considered. This pain syndrome requires the presence of regional pain and sensory changes associated with abnormal skin color, temperature change, abnormal sudomotor activity or edema. Signs and symptoms are disproportionate to the inciting event. There are two types of CRPS: type I occurs without a definable ne...

  11. Brain in complex regional pain syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hotta, Jaakko

    2017-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) causes disabling and severe limb pain that is difficult to treat. The pain typically increases during motor actions, but is present also at rest. The pathophysiology of CRPS is incompletely understood. Some of the symptoms suggest involvement of the central nervous system, and accordingly, patients have been shown to display alterations in, for instance, the primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1) and indications of neuroinflammation. More thorough pathophysiol...

  12. COMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Špegel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In children with unexplained pain in distal part of extremity associated with edema, abnormal skin color, temperature change, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS must be considered. This pain syndrome requires the presence of regional pain and sensory changes associated with abnormal skin color, temperature change, abnormal sudomotor activity or edema. Signs and symptoms are disproportionate to the inciting event. There are two types of CRPS: type I occurs without a definable nerve lesion and type II, where a definable nerve lesion is present. Diagnosis is clinical.Conclusions. CRPS is not yet suspected in children, those affected often have many unnecessary investigations and may be unsuitable treated and also overtreated.

  13. COMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME: AN UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex Regional Pain Syndrome or CRPS is a chronic disabling heterogenous pain disorder due to trauma, resulting in sensory changes, motor function impairment, psychological changes. Diagnosis is based on clinical features and investigations. The patho - physiology is not clearly known. There is no single drug therapy, only combinations work. Treatment is multidisplinary involving medical, psychological and rehabi li tation. Newer modes of spinal cord stimulations, neuraxial mode of analgesics and newe r drugs are promising

  14. Complex regional pain syndrome in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocabas, Hilal; Levendoglu, Funda; Ozerbil, Onder Murat; Yuruten, Betigul

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence, and the factors influencing the development, of complex regional pain syndrome-I in the upper extremity in hemiplegic patients within the first 28 weeks following a stroke. We followed up 82 stroke patients. All patients were evaluated at weeks 2, 6, 14 and 28 after suffering a stroke. Outcomes were assessed using passive range of motion of shoulder, presence of subluxation, Ashworth score, Motricity index arm score, Brunnstrom stages and depression score. The incidence of complex regional pain syndrome-I was 48.8% in the first 28 weeks. Significant correlation was found between complex regional pain syndrome-I and the presence of subluxation, Ashworth score, Motricity index arm score, Brunnstrom stage and depression score (r=0.259, P=0.019; r=0.271, P=0.014; r=-0.393, Pspasticity of shoulder muscles and muscle strength. In order to prevent the development of complex regional pain syndrome-I, exercises directed at increasing the range of motion for the glenohumeral joint, strengthening shoulder muscles and reduction of spasticity will establish the integrity of the shoulder joint.

  15. Complex regional pain syndrome: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghai Babita

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a challenging neuropathic pain state, quite difficult to comprehend and treat. Its pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear and its treatment is difficult. Multiple factors play a role in the generation and maintenance of CRPS. A close interdisciplinary collaboration amongst the psychologist, physical and occupational therapists, neurologist and pain medicine consultants is necessary to achieve optimal treatment effects. The primary goals of managing patients with this syndrome are to: 1 perform a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation, 2 be prompt and aggressive in treatment interventions, 3 assess and reassess the patient's clinical and psychological status, 4 be consistently supportive, and 5 strive for the maximal amount of pain relief and functional improvement. This article reviews the different aspects of CRPS including definition, classification, epidemiology and natural history, clinical presentation, pathophysiology and management.

  16. New Concepts in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajerian, Maral; Clark, J David

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Despite the severe pain and disability associated with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), our lack of understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms supporting this enigmatic condition prevents the rational design of new therapies, a situation that is frustrating both to the physician and the patient. The following review will highlight some of the mechanisms thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of CRPS in preclinical models and CRPS patients, with the ultimate goal that understanding these mechanisms will lead to the design of efficacious, mechanism-based treatments available to the clinic. PMID:26611388

  17. Complex regional pain syndrome: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albazaz, Raneem; Wong, Yew Toh; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi

    2008-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), formerly known as "reflex sympathetic dystrophy," is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. The disorder usually develops after minor trauma or surgery. No specific diagnostic test is available and, hence, diagnosis is based mainly on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the principles of management based on the limited available literature in the area. A literature search was conducted using electronic bibliographic databases (Medline, Embase, Pubmed, CENTRAL) from 1970 to 2006. Keywords complex regional pain syndrome, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, neuropathic pain, and causalgia were used for the search. Relevant articles from the reference lists in retrieved articles were also studied. There were 3,771 articles published in the area. Seventy-six randomized controlled trials were identified. Most studies were on the role of sympathetic blockade in the treatment of CRPS (n = 13). The role of sympathectomy is unclear, with some studies showing transient benefit and others showing no beneficial effects, with most studies containing only a small number of patients. Nine studies were on bisphosphonates or calcitonin. Studies involving bisphosphonates showed benefit, but studies involving calcitonin showed no definite benefit. Four studies were on cognitive behavioral therapy, physiotherapy, or occupational therapy, all of which demonstrated a potential beneficial effect. Three studies on spinal cord stimulation and two studies each on acupuncture, vitamin C, and steroid all showed a potential beneficial effect in pain reduction. The remaining studies were on miscellanous therapy or combination therapy, making it difficult to draw any conclusions on the effect of treatment. There is very little good evidence in the literature to guide

  18. Complex regional pain syndrome secondary to leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghia, Deepti; Gadkari, Reshma; Nayak, Chitra

    2012-08-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae affecting the skin and the nerves. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS/Sudeck's dystrophy) is a painful and disabling condition--a triad of autonomic, sensory, and motor symptoms disproportionate to the inciting event (inflammatory, infective, or traumatic nerve damage). A 20-year-old male presented with continuous pain, aggravated by cold and emotions, loss of fine touch and temperature sensation, redness, swelling, along lateral aspect of left hand and forearm with weakness in the grip of 6 months' duration. There was a 5-year history of sensory loss only over left index finger that he ignored. Examination revealed abnormal sensory and autonomic functions along left radial and median nerve distribution that were confirmed by nerve conduction studies suggestive of mononeuritis multiplex. Radial cutaneous nerve biopsy was suggestive of leprosy. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography showed no compressive etiology; however, MRI showed involvement of brachial plexus. Antileprosy, anti-inflammatory drugs, and steroids were given in view of neuritis because of lepra reaction with supportive measures of physiotherapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, to no avail. A surgical median nerve decompression also failed to relieve the pain. Temporary stellate ganglion block improved the pain scale. Thus, excluding all other causes, the final diagnosis was CRPS secondary to leprosy. There is only one reported case of CRPS with leprosy. Leprous neuropathy caused the nerve damage that lead to CRPS type 2. Very rarely leprosy can lead to CRPS. CRPS is a diagnosis of exclusion. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Rethinking the Psychogenic Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Somatoform Disorders and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Renee J.; Chopra, Pradeep; Richardi, Toni

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Explaining the etiology of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) from the psychogenic model is exceedingly unsophisticated, because neurocognitive deficits, neuroanatomical abnormalities, and distortions in cognitive mapping are features of CRPS pathology. More importantly, many people who have developed CRPS have no history of mental illness. The psychogenic model offers comfort to physicians and mental health practitioners (MHPs) who have difficulty understanding pain maintained by...

  20. Familial occurrence of complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Peyman; Jawaid, Ali; Moretti, Paolo; Lahijani, Elham; Salamone, Alicia R; Schulz, Paul E; Edmondson, Everton A

    2010-05-01

    The etiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is unknown. Different environmental and genetic factors have been postulated to contribute to CRPS. We reviewed the clinical data from a cohort of 69 patients with CRPS. Four families were identified with two or more members affected with CRPS yielding a total of nine patients. Six more patients reported the presence of pain symptoms in their family members, however; this could not be clinically confirmed. The case histories of the nine individuals with 'familial' CRPS suggested a younger age at onset and more frequent history of migraine versus the non-familial patients. A pattern of inheritance could not be ascertained. This data supports the hypothesis that CRPS can be familial and hence may have a genetic basis in some families. Larger studies will be needed to ascertain clearer patterns of inheritance and to determine whether the clinical features of 'familial' CRPS are the same as the sporadic form.

  1. [Diagnostic guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltz, E; Seifert, F; Maihöfner, C

    2012-06-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome, a special form of neuropathic pain, develops after a minor trauma of the distal limbs. Besides the presentation of pain disproportional to the inciting event, further plus and minus symptoms in the form of sensory, vasomotor, sudomotor-oedematous and motor-trophic changes can be found. Interindividually and intraindividually, occurrence of these symptoms differs widely and single symptoms can be lacking completely. A gold standard in diagnosing CRPS has not been found yet, diagnostics are based on the patients medical history and correlating clinical signs. The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) compiled and later on revised operational diagnostic criteria resulting in a satisfactory sensitivity and specificity for both research and clinical needs. Additionally, diagnostic tools can support the clinical suspicion - reasonable tests are conventional X-ray examination comparing sides, magnetic resonance imaging and a 3-phase bone scintigraphy. Moreover, electrophysiological examinations can prove a nerve lesion and differentiate between CRPS type I and II. A temperature difference can be detected via infrared thermography. Furthermore, quantitative sensory testing can verify the magnitude of the sensory disturbance and can be beneficial to objectify therapeutic effects. Use of these diagnostic tools, even after achievement of normal findings, cannot exclude a CRPS and the decision for therapeutic initiation should not be influenced thereby. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Practical management of complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Eric S

    2009-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) describes a diversity of painful conditions following trauma, coupled with abnormal regulation of blood flow and sweating, trophic changes, and edema of skin. The excruciating pain and diverse autonomic dysfunctions in CRPS are disproportionate to any inciting and recovering event. CRPS type I is formerly identified as "reflex sympathetic dystrophy." CRPS type II is the new term for "causalgia" that always coexists with documented nerve injury. The present diagnostic criteria of CRPS I and II depend solely on meticulous history and physical examination without any confirmation by specific test procedure (or gold standard). There are only few clinical studies with large-scale randomized trials of pharmacologic agents on the treatment of CRPS. Bisphosphonates have been studied in multiple controlled trials, based on theoretical benefit of bone resorption, to offer pain relief and functional improvement in patients with CRPS. Many current rationales in treatment of CRPS (such as topical agents, antiepileptic drugs, tricyclic antidepressants, and opioids) are mainly dependent on efficacy originate in other common conditions of neuropathic pain. There are additional innovative therapies on CRPS that are still in infancy. No wonder all the treatment of individual CRPS case nowadays is pragmatic at best. Although the interventional therapies in CRPS (such as nerve blockade, sympathetic block, spinal cord and peripheral nerve stimulation, implantable spinal medication pumps, and chemical and surgical sympathectomy) may offer more rapid response, yet it is still controversial with unpredictable outcome. Nevertheless, we need to start pain management immediately with the ambition to restore function in every probable case of CRPS. An interdisciplinary setting with comprehensive approach (pharmacologic, interventional, and psychological in conjunction with rehabilitation pathway) has been proposed as protocol in the practical management

  3. Rethinking the Psychogenic Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Somatoform Disorders and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Renee J.; Chopra, Pradeep; Richardi, Toni

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Explaining the etiology of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) from the psychogenic model is exceedingly unsophisticated, because neurocognitive deficits, neuroanatomical abnormalities, and distortions in cognitive mapping are features of CRPS pathology. More importantly, many people who have developed CRPS have no history of mental illness. The psychogenic model offers comfort to physicians and mental health practitioners (MHPs) who have difficulty understanding pain maintained by newly uncovered neuro inflammatory processes. With increased education about CRPS through a biopsychosocial perspective, both physicians and MHPs can better diagnose, treat, and manage CRPS symptomatology. PMID:24223338

  4. Rethinking the psychogenic model of complex regional pain syndrome: somatoform disorders and complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Renee J; Chopra, Pradeep; Richardi, Toni

    2012-01-01

    Explaining the etiology of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) from the psychogenic model is exceedingly unsophisticated, because neurocognitive deficits, neuroanatomical abnormalities, and distortions in cognitive mapping are features of CRPS pathology. More importantly, many people who have developed CRPS have no history of mental illness. The psychogenic model offers comfort to physicians and mental health practitioners (MHPs) who have difficulty understanding pain maintained by newly uncovered neuro inflammatory processes. With increased education about CRPS through a biopsychosocial perspective, both physicians and MHPs can better diagnose, treat, and manage CRPS symptomatology.

  5. Complex regional pain syndrome type I in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Zijlstra, B.; Essink, M.L.; Goris, R.J.A.; Severijnen, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS I) is a potentially incapacitating syndrome which can occur after a minor injury or operation to a limb. It is a disorder characterized by pain, sensory and motor disturbances. CRPS I is well known in adults, but a relatively new diagnostic

  6. [Psychological abnormalities in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, O; Willweber-Strumpf, A; Wagner, P; Surall, D; Malin, J-P; Zenz, M

    2005-08-01

    Do comorbid psychological disorders, dysfunctional pain processing, and psychosocial pain coping occur with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and is a connection between clinical and psychological manifestations apparent? In addition to securing information on case histories and performing clinical neurological examinations of chronic CRPS patients, the structured clinical interview (SCID), pain perception scale, and the Kiel Pain Inventory were employed. The structured clinical interview revealed evidence of a depressive episode in 65% of CRPS patients. Pain perception is similar to neuropathic pain syndromes and patient history revealed a slightly increased frequency of anxiety and affective disorders. Depressive syndrome occurred significantly more often in right-sided CRPS; otherwise, there were no significant correlations between medical history, clinical examination, and frequency of psychological disorders. However, CRPS patients with allodynia manifest clinical signs of special psychological distress. In chronic CRPS depressive syndrome frequently develops and psychological treatment can be recommended.

  7. Inflammation in complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkitny, Luke; McAuley, James H.; Di Pietro, Flavia; Stanton, Tasha R.; O’Connell, Neil E.; Marinus, Johan; van Hilten, Jacobus J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: We conducted a systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis to determine whether complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is associated with a specific inflammatory profile and whether this is dependent on the duration of the condition. Methods: Comprehensive searches of the literature using MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and reference lists from published reviews identified articles that measured inflammatory factors in CRPS. Two independent investigators screened titles and abstracts, and performed data extraction and risk of bias assessments. Studies were subgrouped by medium (blood, blister fluid, and CSF) and duration (acute and chronic CRPS). Where possible, meta-analyses of inflammatory factor concentrations were performed and pooled effect sizes were calculated using random-effects models. Results: Twenty-two studies were included in the systematic review and 15 in the meta-analysis. In acute CRPS, the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-8 and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors I (sTNF-RI) and II (sTNF-RII) were significantly increased in blood. In chronic CRPS, significant increases were found in 1) TNFα, bradykinin, sIL-1RI, IL-1Ra, IL-2, sIL-2Ra, IL-4, IL-7, interferon-γ, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and sRAGE (soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products) in blood; 2) IL-1Ra, MCP-1, MIP-1β, and IL-6 in blister fluid; and 3) IL-1β and IL-6 in CSF. Chronic CRPS was also associated with significantly decreased 1) substance P, sE-selectin, sL-selectin, sP-selectin, and sGP130 in blood; and 2) soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in CSF. Most studies failed to meet 3 or more of our quality criteria. Conclusion: CRPS is associated with the presence of a proinflammatory state in the blood, blister fluid, and CSF. Different inflammatory profiles were found for acute and chronic cases. PMID:23267031

  8. Complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS) type 1 validating case histories

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P. Berger

    2003-01-01

    The treatment of patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type 1 is challenging and unpredictable as the condition presents with vascular and neuropathic symptoms after nil or even minor injury to a peripheral nerve...

  9. Post-lumbar surgery complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, David E

    2005-07-01

    This case report identifies a patient with complex regional pain syndrome Type 2 (causalgia) with sympathetically maintained pain in a distal extremity associated with an anterior sacroiliac fusion with local bone graft. A sacroiliac fusion was undertaken due to chronic back pain that was temporarily relieved with percutaneous injections to the joint space and lower lumber facets. A 65 year-old man underwent a left sacroliac arthrodesis for continued lumbosacral pain. The successful surgery with allograft had no intraoperative complications. The patient remained in the hospital post-operatively for four days with no complications. Four to six weeks post-operative, the patient began to have swelling and pain at the ipsilateral foot. The pain progressed with evidence of allodynia, hyperesthesia, and dystrophic changes in the foot. EMG and a nerve conduction study showed severe denervation that involved not only the muscles below the knee but the quadriceps as well, and also had ongoing irritability of a number of muscles, including those innervated by the femoral, sciatic, and gluteal nerves in the left leg. A diagnosis of complex regional pain syndrome Type 2 (causalgia) was made with the aid of a bone scan. A series of two diagnostic percutaneous chemical sympathectomies were undertaken, and the pain was significantly relieved. This suggested complex regional pain syndrome Type 2 with sympathetically maintained pain. The patient underwent aggressive physical therapy during his rehabilitation and subsequent resolution of the pain syndrome occurred. Complex regional pain syndrome Type 2 with sympathetically maintained pain is a condition that can result in serious disability and can be associated with spinal procedures and sacroiliac arthrodesis. Early intervention is recommended to provide long-term resolution of the condition.

  10. Genetic and epidemiological aspect of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, Annetje Monique de

    2010-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a painful disorder affecting one or more extremities. CRPS is characterized by various combinations of sensory, autonomic and motor disturbances. Genetic factors are suggested to play a role in CRPS, but this has not been extensively studied. Therefore the

  11. Neuroimmune Alterations in the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.P.M. Huygen (Frank)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractComplex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a disease which occurs as a complication after surgery or trauma, although spontaneous development is described. CRPS is characterized by continuing pain, sensory and vasomotor, sudomotor, motor and trophic disturbances. Many of these symptoms are

  12. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in Children: Asking the Right Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R Goldschneider

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a painful disorder without a known unifying mechanism. There are little data on which to base evaluation and treatment decisions, and what data are available come from studies involving adults; however, even that literature is relatively sparse. Developing robust research for CRPS in children is essential for the progress toward optimal treatment.

  13. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS/RSD) and neuropathic pain: role of intravenous bisphosphonates as analgesics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yanow, Jennifer; Pappagallo, Marco; Pillai, Letha

    2008-01-01

    .... Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types 1 and 2 are neuropathic pain conditions that have a long history in the medical literature but whose pathophysiology remains elusive and whose available treatment options remain few...

  14. Algodystrophy: complex regional pain syndrome and incomplete forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Dell'Osso, Giacomo; Bugelli, Giulia; Celli, Fabio; Cazzella, Niki; Guido, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    The algodystrophy, also known as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), is a painful disease characterized by erythema, edema, functional impairment, sensory and vasomotor disturbance. The diagnosis of CRPS is based solely on clinical signs and symptoms, and for exclusion compared to other forms of chronic pain. There is not a specific diagnostic procedure; careful clinical evaluation and additional test should lead to an accurate diagnosis. There are similar forms of chronic pain known as bone marrow edema syndrome, in which is absent the history of trauma or triggering events and the skin dystrophic changes and vasomotor alterations. These incomplete forms are self-limited, and surgical treatment is generally not needed. It is still controversial, if these forms represent a distinct self-limiting entity or an incomplete variant of CRPS. In painful unexplained conditions such as frozen shoulder, post-operative stiff shoulder or painful knee prosthesis, the algodystrophy, especially in its incomplete forms, could represent the cause.

  15. Complex regional pain syndrome 1 : a study on pain and motor impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M. Ribbers (Gerard)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis, is compiled of publications on reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) or Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 (CRPS 1), as it was renamed by the committee on taxonomy of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP). It is a puzzling syndrome both from a clinical

  16. Genetic and epidemiological aspect of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rooij, Annetje Monique de

    2010-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a painful disorder affecting one or more extremities. CRPS is characterized by various combinations of sensory, autonomic and motor disturbances. Genetic factors are suggested to play a role in CRPS, but this has not been extensively studied. Therefore the aims of this thesis were to study the contribution and the size of the contribution of genetic factors in CRPS and to identify possible susceptibility and causative genes for CRPS. In our studies we ...

  17. Pathophysiology of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I: Update

    OpenAIRE

    Martino Bussa; M. De Lucia; A. Mascaro; L. Cuffaro; T. Bontà; Rinaldi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I), also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), develops as disabling painful disorder following a trauma or surgery to a limb. We provide a review based on the current literature concerning the epidemiology and pathophysiology of CRPS I. Possible pathophysiological mechanisms of CRPS I are inflammation, sy mpathetic-afferent coupling and cortical changes. Methods: A literature search was conducted using, as elect...

  18. Safety of "pain exposure" physical therapy in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meent, H. van de; Oerlemans, M.; Bruggeman, A.W.A.; Klomp, F.; Dongen, R.T.M. van; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Frolke, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    "Pain exposure" physical therapy (PEPT) is a new treatment for patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1) that consists of a progressive-loading exercise program and management of pain-avoidance behavior without the use of specific CRPS-1 medication or analgesics. The aim of this

  19. Evidence based guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, R.S.G.M.; Zollinger, P.E.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Thomassen-Hilgersom, I.L.; Zuurmond, W.W.A.; Rosenbrand, C.J.G.M.; Geerzen, J.H.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is subject to discussion. The purpose of this study was to develop multidisciplinary guidelines for treatment of CRPS-I.Method: A multidisciplinary task force graded literature evaluating treatment effects for CRPS-I according

  20. Evidence based guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, Roberto S.; Zollinger, Paul E.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Thomassen-Hilgersom, Ilona L.; Zuurmond, Wouter W.; Rosenbrand, Kitty C. J.; Geertzen, Jan H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is subject to discussion. The purpose of this study was to develop multidisciplinary guidelines for treatment of CRPS-I. Method: A multidisciplinary task force graded literature evaluating treatment effects for CRPS-I according

  1. [Complex regional pain syndrome type 1: negating the myth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frolke, J.P.M.; Dongen, R.T.M. van; Meent, H. van de

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1) was identified in the Netherlands more than 30 years ago, but since then the arguments supporting this diagnosis have become weaker. Incidence has decreased, it is often not possible to make a definite diagnosis, the pathophysiology remains unclear and

  2. Motor control in complex regional pain syndrome: A kinematic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilder, J.C.M.; Schouten, A.C.; Perez, R.S.G.M.; Huygen, F.J.P.M.; Dahan, A.; Noldus, L.P.J.J.; van Hilten, J.J.; Marinus, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated movement velocity, frequency, and amplitude, as well as the number of arrests in three different subject groups, by kinematic analysis of repetitive movements during a finger tapping (FT) task. The most affected hands of 80 patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)

  3. Video thermography: complex regional pain syndrome in the picture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Niehof (Sjoerd)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis videothermography is developed and evaluated as a diagnostic and monitoring tool in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 (CRPS1). This work is conducted within four pre- set developmental phases: namely, the initial, potential, monitoring and diagnostic phases.

  4. Children and Adolescents with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: More Psychologically Distressed than Other Children in Pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre E Logan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Historically, in both adult and pediatric populations, a lack of knowledge regarding complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS and absence of clear diagnostic criteria have contributed to the view that this is a primarily psychiatric condition.

  5. Orofacial complex regional pain syndrome: pathophysiologic mechanisms and functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Kyung Mi; Kim, Hyug-Gi; Kang, Soo-Kyung; Auh, Q-Schick; Hong, Jyung-Pyo; Chun, Yang-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is one of the most challenging chronic pain conditions and is characterized by burning pain, allodynia, hyperalgesia, autonomic changes, trophic changes, edema, and functional loss involving mainly the extremities. Until recently, very few reports have been published concerning CRPS involving the orofacial area. We report on a 50-year-old female patient who presented with unbearable pain in all of her teeth and hypersensitivity of the facial skin. She also reported intractable pain in both extremities accompanied by temperature changes and orofacial pain that increased when the other pains were aggravated. In the case of CRPS with trigeminal neuropathic pain, protocols for proper diagnosis and prompt treatment have yet to be established in academia or in the clinical field. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging for a thorough analysis of the cortical representation of the affected orofacial area immediately before and immediately after isolated light stimulus of the affected hand and foot and concluded that CRPS can be correlated with trigeminal neuropathy in the orofacial area. Furthermore, the patient was treated with carbamazepine administration and stellate ganglion block, which can result in a rapid improvement of pain in the trigeminal region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS/RSD) and Neuropathic Pain: Role of Intravenous Bisphosphonates as Analgesics

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Yanow; Marco Pappagallo; Letha Pillai

    2008-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a sequela of dysfunction, injuries, or diseases of the peripheral and/or central nervous system pain pathways, which has historically been extremely difficult to treat. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types 1 and 2 are neuropathic pain conditions that have a long history in the medical literature but whose pathophysiology remains elusive and whose available treatment options remain few. While an exact animal model for CRPS doesn't yet exist, there are several animal ...

  7. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS/RSD and Neuropathic Pain: Role of Intravenous Bisphosphonates as Analgesics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yanow

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is a sequela of dysfunction, injuries, or diseases of the peripheral and/or central nervous system pain pathways, which has historically been extremely difficult to treat. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS types 1 and 2 are neuropathic pain conditions that have a long history in the medical literature but whose pathophysiology remains elusive and whose available treatment options remain few. While an exact animal model for CRPS doesn't yet exist, there are several animal models of neuropathic pain that develop behaviors of hypersensitivity, one of the hallmark signs of neuropathic pain in humans.

  8. Video thermography: complex regional pain syndrome in the picture

    OpenAIRE

    Niehof, Sjoerd

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis videothermography is developed and evaluated as a diagnostic and monitoring tool in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 (CRPS1). This work is conducted within four pre- set developmental phases: namely, the initial, potential, monitoring and diagnostic phases. Two main methods of measurement were developed and evaluated, namely: i) static videothermography: recording of a thermographic image of an extremity without application of any disturbing factors on temperat...

  9. Complex regional pain syndrome type I following pacemaker implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Sangita; Rao, Ballamudi Srinivas

    2015-12-01

    A 70-year-old woman presented with burning pain and swelling over dorsum of right hand and small joints of the fingers, associated with redness, feeling of warmth, and stiffness of the fingers, with inability to bend the fingers since 2 months. The symptoms were progressively increasing in intensity for the past 1 month. There was no history of fever or trauma to the hand. Two months before her symptoms started, she had permanent pacemaker implanted for complete heart block with syncope. She was hypertensive and was on regular medication. Her X-ray of right hand showed decreased bone density (demineralisation), suggestive of osteopenia. A diagnosis of reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome or complex regional pain syndrome type I induced by pacemaker insertion was made. She was treated with amitriptyline and steroids, after which her symptoms improved dramatically. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensitization of the Nociceptive System in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Reimer

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I is characterized by sensory, motor and autonomic abnormalities without electrophysiological evidence of a nerve lesion.Aims were to investigate how sensory, autonomic and motor function change in the course of the disease.19 CRPS-I patients (17 with acute, 2 with chronic CRPS, mean duration of disease 5.7±8.3, range 1-33 months were examined with questionnaires (LANSS, NPS, MPI, Quick DASH, multiple choice list of descriptors for sensory, motor, autonomic symptoms, motor and autonomic tests as well as quantitative sensory testing according to the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain at two visits (baseline and 36±10.6, range 16-53 months later.CRPS-I patients had an improvement of sudomotor and vasomotor function, but still a great impairment of sensory and motor function upon follow-up. Although pain and mechanical detection improved upon follow-up, thermal and mechanical pain sensitivity increased, including the contralateral side. Increase in mechanical pain sensitivity and loss of mechanical detection were associated with presence of ongoing pain.The results demonstrate that patients with CRPS-I show a sensitization of the nociceptive system in the course of the disease, for which ongoing pain seems to be the most important trigger. They further suggest that measured loss of function in CRPS-I is due to pain-induced hypoesthesia rather than a minimal nerve lesion. In conclusion, this article gives evidence for a pronociceptive pain modulation profile developing in the course of CRPS and thus helps to assess underlying mechanisms of CRPS that contribute to the maintenance of patients' pain and disability.

  11. Sensitization of the Nociceptive System in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichs, Carolina; Baron, Ralf; Gierthmühlen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    Background Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is characterized by sensory, motor and autonomic abnormalities without electrophysiological evidence of a nerve lesion. Objective Aims were to investigate how sensory, autonomic and motor function change in the course of the disease. Methods 19 CRPS-I patients (17 with acute, 2 with chronic CRPS, mean duration of disease 5.7±8.3, range 1–33 months) were examined with questionnaires (LANSS, NPS, MPI, Quick DASH, multiple choice list of descriptors for sensory, motor, autonomic symptoms), motor and autonomic tests as well as quantitative sensory testing according to the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain at two visits (baseline and 36±10.6, range 16–53 months later). Results CRPS-I patients had an improvement of sudomotor and vasomotor function, but still a great impairment of sensory and motor function upon follow-up. Although pain and mechanical detection improved upon follow-up, thermal and mechanical pain sensitivity increased, including the contralateral side. Increase in mechanical pain sensitivity and loss of mechanical detection were associated with presence of ongoing pain. Conclusions The results demonstrate that patients with CRPS-I show a sensitization of the nociceptive system in the course of the disease, for which ongoing pain seems to be the most important trigger. They further suggest that measured loss of function in CRPS-I is due to pain-induced hypoesthesia rather than a minimal nerve lesion. In conclusion, this article gives evidence for a pronociceptive pain modulation profile developing in the course of CRPS and thus helps to assess underlying mechanisms of CRPS that contribute to the maintenance of patients’ pain and disability. PMID:27149519

  12. Genome-wide expression profiling of complex regional pain syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Heui Jin

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a chronic, progressive, and devastating pain syndrome characterized by spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia, allodynia, altered skin temperature, and motor dysfunction. Although previous gene expression profiling studies have been conducted in animal pain models, there genome-wide expression profiling in the whole blood of CRPS patients has not been reported yet. Here, we successfully identified certain pain-related genes through genome-wide expression profiling in the blood from CRPS patients. We found that 80 genes were differentially expressed between 4 CRPS patients (2 CRPS I and 2 CRPS II and 5 controls (cut-off value: 1.5-fold change and p<0.05. Most of those genes were associated with signal transduction, developmental processes, cell structure and motility, and immunity and defense. The expression levels of major histocompatibility complex class I A subtype (HLA-A29.1, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9, alanine aminopeptidase N (ANPEP, l-histidine decarboxylase (HDC, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (G-CSF3R, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 genes selected from the microarray were confirmed in 24 CRPS patients and 18 controls by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. We focused on the MMP9 gene that, by qRT-PCR, showed a statistically significant difference in expression in CRPS patients compared to controls with the highest relative fold change (4.0±1.23 times and p = 1.4×10(-4. The up-regulation of MMP9 gene in the blood may be related to the pain progression in CRPS patients. Our findings, which offer a valuable contribution to the understanding of the differential gene expression in CRPS may help in the understanding of the pathophysiology of CRPS pain progression.

  13. Genome-Wide Expression Profiling of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Eun-Heui; Zhang, Enji; Ko, Youngkwon; Sim, Woo Seog; Moon, Dong Eon; Yoon, Keon Jung; Hong, Jang Hee; Lee, Won Hyung

    2013-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic, progressive, and devastating pain syndrome characterized by spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia, allodynia, altered skin temperature, and motor dysfunction. Although previous gene expression profiling studies have been conducted in animal pain models, there genome-wide expression profiling in the whole blood of CRPS patients has not been reported yet. Here, we successfully identified certain pain-related genes through genome-wide expression profiling in the blood from CRPS patients. We found that 80 genes were differentially expressed between 4 CRPS patients (2 CRPS I and 2 CRPS II) and 5 controls (cut-off value: 1.5-fold change and p<0.05). Most of those genes were associated with signal transduction, developmental processes, cell structure and motility, and immunity and defense. The expression levels of major histocompatibility complex class I A subtype (HLA-A29.1), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), alanine aminopeptidase N (ANPEP), l-histidine decarboxylase (HDC), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (G-CSF3R), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) genes selected from the microarray were confirmed in 24 CRPS patients and 18 controls by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We focused on the MMP9 gene that, by qRT-PCR, showed a statistically significant difference in expression in CRPS patients compared to controls with the highest relative fold change (4.0±1.23 times and p = 1.4×10−4). The up-regulation of MMP9 gene in the blood may be related to the pain progression in CRPS patients. Our findings, which offer a valuable contribution to the understanding of the differential gene expression in CRPS may help in the understanding of the pathophysiology of CRPS pain progression. PMID:24244504

  14. Leprosy: a precipitating factor for complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R; Dehran, M

    2010-09-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) usually develops after trauma. We are reporting the first case of CRPS with leprosy as a precipitating cause. A fifty-five-year male presented in the pain clinic with complaint of pain and swelling in the right arm. There was no history of trauma to the limb. On reviewing the history, patient was found to be on treatment for leprosy. X-ray of the right hand showed severe osteoporosis. A diagnosis of CRPS associated with leprosy was made. A diagnostic stellate ganglion block relived his pain completely. Thereafter patient is on treatment with tablet etoricoxib 90 mg once a day, gabapentin 100 mg twice a day and continuing to have 100% pain relief. The diagnosis of the type of CRPS was difficult in our case as no history of trauma or neurological injury was present. The presence of leprosy along with ulnar nerve thickening may be the precipitating factor for CRPS, this has not been reported so far in the literature. We managed the patient with sympathetic block along with medical therapy for chronic pain and leprosy chemotherapy.

  15. Changes resembling complex regional pain syndrome following surgery and immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Alison; Li, Wenwu; Kingery, Wade S; Angst, Martin S; Curtin, Catherine M; Clark, J David

    2013-05-01

    The study of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in humans is complicated by inhomogeneities in available study cohorts. We hoped to characterize early CRPS-like features in patients undergoing hand surgery. Forty-three patients were recruited from a hand surgery clinic that had elective surgeries followed by cast immobilization. On the day of cast removal, patients were assessed for vasomotor, sudomotor, and trophic changes, and edema and pain sensitization using quantitative sensory testing. Pain intensity was assessed at the time of cast removal and after 1 additional month, as was the nature of the pain using the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS). Skin biopsies were harvested for the analysis of expression of inflammatory mediators. We identified vascular and trophic changes in the surgical hands of most patients. Increased sensitivity to punctate, pressure, and cold stimuli were observed commonly as well. Moreover, levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and the mast cell marker tryptase were elevated in the skin of hands ipsilateral to surgery. Moderate-to-severe pain persisted in the surgical hands for up to 1 month after cast removal. Exploratory analyses suggested interrelationships between the physical, quantitative sensory testing, and gene expression changes and pain-related outcomes. This study has identified CPRS-like features in the limbs of patients undergoing surgery followed by immobilization. Further studies using this population may be useful in refining our understanding of CRPS mechanisms and treatments for this condition. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. [Carpal tunnel in complex regional pain syndrome: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspopović, Emilija Dubljanin; Matanović, Dragana; Lesić, Aleksandar; Sudjić, Vojo; Zivković, Kristina; Bumbasirević, Marko

    2011-01-01

    When treating complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) a positive outcome can be expected when the condition is identified and therapy is begun in the first six months. Nevertheless, symptoms may not improve by standard treatment as expected. One of the possible reasons for this is the coexistence of associated compressive neuropathies in the affected hand. A 50-year old female patient with history of CRPS on the left hand which developed as a complication of lateral epicondilytis treated with immobilization is presented. She continued to suffer from intensive pain in her hand despite pharmacological pain relief and initiation of a complex rehabilitation program. Electrophysiologic testing revealed the coexistence of conjoined severe carpal tunnel syndrome. After she underwent surgical decompression pain relief occurred and overall functional results improved. Failure of therapy response in CRPS should alert the clinican to check for associated compressive neuropathy. Detection of this complication can prevent further damage of the nerve, hasten recovery of CRPS, and prevent eventual permanent disability of the hand.

  17. Randomised controlled trial of gabapentin in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 [ISRCTN84121379

    OpenAIRE

    Weber Wim EJ; Kessels Alfons HF; Stomp-van den Berg Suzanne GM; van de Vusse Anton C

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type one (CRPS I) or formerly Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD) is a disabling syndrome, in which a painful limb is accompanied by varying symptoms. Neuropathic pain is a prominent feature of CRPS I, and is often refractory to treatment. Since gabapentin is an anticonvulsant with a proven analgesic effect in various neuropathic pain syndromes, we sought to study the efficacy of the anticonvulsant gabapentin as treatment for pain in patients ...

  18. The natural history of complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Robert J; Erwin, Kirsten L; Alexander, Guillermo M

    2009-05-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a severe chronic pain condition characterized by sensory, autonomic, motor, and dystrophic signs and symptoms. This study was undertaken to expand our current knowledge of the evolution of CRPS signs and symptoms with duration of disease. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis using data extracted from a patient questionnaire to evaluate the clinical characteristics of CRPS at different time points of disease progression. Data from the questionnaire included pain characteristics and associated symptoms. It also included autonomic, motor, and dystrophic symptoms and also initiating events, ameliorating and aggravating factors, quality of life, work status, comorbid conditions, pattern of pain spread, family history, and demographics. Comparisons were made of different parameters as they varied with disease duration. A total of 656 patients with CRPS of at least 1-year duration were evaluated. The average age of all participants was 37.5 years, with disease duration varying from 1 to 46 years. The majority of participants were white (96%). A total of 80.3% were females. None of the patients in this study demonstrated spontaneous remission of their symptoms. The pain in these patients was refractory showing only modest improvement with most current therapies. This study shows that although CRPS is a progressive disease, after 1 year, the majority of the signs and symptoms were well developed and although many variables worsen over the course of the illness, the majority demonstrated only moderate increases with disease duration.

  19. Increased plasma serotonin in complex regional pain syndrome type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Wesseldijk, Feikje; Fekkes, Durk; Huygen, Frank; Bogaerts-Taal, Elly; Zijlstra, Freek

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: In patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1), some improvement can be achieved by the administration of ketanserin, a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. We measured plasma levels of serotonin (5-HT) during CRPS1 and correlated these levels with disease characteristics. METHODS: Plasma 5-HT was measured in 35 patients who had CRPS1 for 3 yr and compared with 35 age-matched healthy controls. RESULTS: The plasma 5-HT levels were 411 ± 263 nmol/L and 29 ± 18 nmo...

  20. Immunological aspects of the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Heidrun H

    2012-01-01

    Limb trauma can lead to the development of a complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). CRPS is a descriptive term of a variety of different symptoms. According to the current IASP-approved criteria, human CRPS can be diagnosed if a combination of signs is present: continuing pain and hyperalgesia, disproportionate to the initial trauma, skin temperature and colour asymmetry, sweating asymmetry, edema, decreased range of motion, and trophic changes. The diagnosis and treatment of human CRPS can be demanding and the pathophysiology underlying the disease is still under investigation. Immunological aspects are considered to play an important role in the development of CRPS. The impact of elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines systemically as well as locally, increased neurogenic inflammation and auto-antibodies in the pathophysiological development of CRPS are discussed in this review.

  1. Complex regional pain syndrome as a stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Lucinda A; Loeser, John D; Ozuna, Judy; Ashleigh, Alexandra; Samii, Ali

    2004-07-01

    A man in his 50's with a prior traumatic brain injury and multiple psychiatric disorders developed acute pain and swelling in his left leg distal to the mid shin. These symptoms arose during an exacerbation of his post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Among his traumatic memories, he reported having witnessed the combat injury and death of a friend who had lost his left leg distal to the mid shin. A diagnosis of conversion disorder was technically excluded because the findings met criteria for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type I. Based on recent research into the neurobiology of CRPS, PTSD and conversion disorder, we propose a supraspinal mechanism which could explain how emotional stress can produce both symptoms and signs.

  2. [Complex regional pain syndrome type 1: negating the myth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölke, Jan Paul M; van Dongen, Robert T; van de Meent, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1) was identified in the Netherlands more than 30 years ago, but since then the arguments supporting this diagnosis have become weaker. Incidence has decreased, it is often not possible to make a definite diagnosis, the pathophysiology remains unclear and treatments are extremely diverse. Since the patient group is so heterogeneous, it is often unclear exactly which patients should be included. Disuse due to immobilization can give an identical clinical picture, including the inflammatory parameters that are seen in CRPS-1. CRPS-1 following injury can be prevented with exercise, and incidence is declining dramatically. Taking these factors into consideration, we support the view that CRPS-1 is not an illness but rather a 'disuse syndrome' as a result of immobilization, or there may be a missed underlying diagnosis.

  3. Pregabalin Treatment of a Patient With Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltık, Sema; Sözen, Hatice Gulhan; Basgul, Senem; Karatoprak, Elif Yuksel; Içağasıoğlu, Afitap

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful and disabling neurovascular condition. There is no consensus on the etiopathogenesis or the treatment. We present a patient with CRPS type 1 accompanied by a psychiatric disorder to discuss the relationship between CRPS and psychiatric disease and to emphasize the response of this case to treatment with pregabalin. A 15-year-old girl presented with swelling, severe pain, edema, hyperesthesia, allodynia, and sweating changes in the left arm and was diagnosed as CRPS type 1. The presence of disturbed family relations was revealed on psychiatric examination, and a diagnosis of major depression was made. Her symptoms did not respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressives, gabapentin, or stellate ganglion blockage, but the patient's pain resolved with pregabalin. Symptom-oriented measures and psychiatric support enabled ongoing treatment. A social services evaluation led to her being placed in the care of social services to protect her from the chaotic and traumatic family life. Detailed psycological and psychiatric evaluation is recommended in individuals with CRPS because psychiatric support and improvement of associated psychosocial concerns in addition to pregabalin seems to facilitate treatments in some patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Optokinetic stimulation increases limb pain and forehead hyperalgesia in complex regional pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lone F.; Drummond, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambiguous visual stimuli increase limb pain in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), possibly due to afferent sensory feedback conflicts. Conflicting sensory stimuli can also generate unpleasant sensations in healthy people such as during motion sickness. We wanted...... to investigate the mechanisms underlying the link between sensory conflicts and pain in CRPS using optokinetic stimulation (OKS) - a method known to induce motion sickness. METHODS: Twenty-one CRPS patients underwent OKS and rated symptoms of motion sickness. Patients also rated limb pain and pain....... In a subgroup of nauseated patients who withdrew early from OKS, hyperalgesia to pressure in the ipsilateral forehead persisted longer than in the remaining participants. Sharpness sensations remained constant at all sites. CONCLUSIONS: Sensory conflicts may facilitate pain in CRPS by activating the mechanisms...

  5. Intrathecal ziconotide for complex regional pain syndrome: seven case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapural, Leonardo; Lokey, Kristi; Leong, Michael S; Fiekowsky, Sharon; Stanton-Hicks, Michael; Sapienza-Crawford, Anne J; Webster, Lynn R

    2009-01-01

    Ziconotide is a nonopioid analgesic currently indicated as monotherapy, but frequently used in combination with opioids, for the management of severe chronic pain in patients for whom intrathecal (IT) therapy is warranted and who are intolerant of, or whose pain is, refractory to other treatments. There is a paucity of information regarding ziconotide use in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Seven cases in which IT ziconotide was used in patients with CRPS were analyzed. All patients (4 male, 3 female; age range, 14 to 52 years) had experienced inadequate pain relief with multiple conventional and interventional treatments. Three patients received ziconotide monotherapy exclusively; 4 patients received ziconotide monotherapy initially, then combination IT therapy. The mean ziconotide dose was 5.2 mcg/d (range, 0.5 to 13 mcg/d) at initiation and 24.7 mcg/d (range, 0.06 to 146 mcg/d) at the last available assessment. The mean duration of ziconotide therapy was 3.1 years (range, 26 days to 8 years). At ziconotide initiation, the mean visual analog scale (VAS) score was 89.3 mm (range, 75 to 100 mm); VAS scores decreased by a mean of 47.5% (range, 5% to 100%) at last assessment. Of the 5 patients who experienced substantial improvement in pain, edema, skin abnormalities, and/or mobility with ziconotide therapy, 2 have discontinued ziconotide and are pain free. Another patient experienced marked reversal of both edema and advanced skin trophic changes. Adverse events included urinary retention, depression, anxiety, and hallucinations. Adverse events generally resolved spontaneously, with treatment, or with ziconotide discontinuation/dose reduction. Although further studies are required, ziconotide holds promise as an effective treatment for CRPS.

  6. Complex regional pain syndrome-up-to-date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birklein, Frank; Dimova, Violeta

    2017-11-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) was described for the first time in the 19th century by Silas Weir Mitchell. After the exclusion of other causes, CRPS is characterised by a typical clinical constellation of pain, sensory, autonomic, motor, or trophic symptoms which can no longer be explained by the initial trauma. These symptoms spread distally and are not limited to innervation territories. If CRPS is not improved in the acute phase and becomes chronic, the visible symptoms change throughout because of the changing pathophysiology; the pain, however, remains. The diagnosis is primarily clinical, although in complex cases further technical examination mainly for exclusion of alternative diagnoses is warranted. In the initial phase, the pathophysiology is dominated by a posttraumatic inflammatory reaction by the activation of the innate and adaptive immune system. In particular, without adequate treatment, central nociceptive sensitization, reorganisation, and implicit learning processes develop, whereas the inflammation moderates. The main symptoms then include movement disorders, alternating skin temperature, sensory loss, hyperalgesia, and body perception disturbances. Psychological factors such as posttraumatic stress or pain-related fear may impact the course and the treatability of CRPS. The treatment should be ideally adjusted to the pathophysiology. Pharmacological treatment maybe particularly effective in acute stages and includes steroids, bisphosphonates, and dimethylsulfoxide cream. Common anti-neuropathic pain drugs can be recommended empirically. Intravenous long-term ketamine administration has shown efficacy in randomised controlled trials, but its repeated application is demanding and has side effects. Important components of the treatment include physio- and occupational therapy including behavioural therapy (eg, graded exposure in vivo and graded motor imaging). If psychosocial comorbidities exist, patients should be appropriately treated

  7. Evidence based guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is subject to discussion. The purpose of this study was to develop multidisciplinary guidelines for treatment of CRPS-I. Method A multidisciplinary task force graded literature evaluating treatment effects for CRPS-I according to their strength of evidence, published between 1980 to June 2005. Treatment recommendations based on the literature findings were formulated and formally approved by all Dutch professional associations involved in CRPS-I treatment. Results For pain treatment, the WHO analgesic ladder is advised with the exception of strong opioids. For neuropathic pain, anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants may be considered. For inflammatory symptoms, free-radical scavengers (dimethylsulphoxide or acetylcysteine) are advised. To promote peripheral blood flow, vasodilatory medication may be considered. Percutaneous sympathetic blockades may be used to increase blood flow in case vasodilatory medication has insufficient effect. To decrease functional limitations, standardised physiotherapy and occupational therapy are advised. To prevent the occurrence of CRPS-I after wrist fractures, vitamin C is recommended. Adequate perioperative analgesia, limitation of operating time, limited use of tourniquet, and use of regional anaesthetic techniques are recommended for secondary prevention of CRPS-I. Conclusions Based on the literature identified and the extent of evidence found for therapeutic interventions for CRPS-I, we conclude that further research is needed into each of the therapeutic modalities discussed in the guidelines. PMID:20356382

  8. Evidence based guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomassen-Hilgersom Ilona L

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I is subject to discussion. The purpose of this study was to develop multidisciplinary guidelines for treatment of CRPS-I. Method A multidisciplinary task force graded literature evaluating treatment effects for CRPS-I according to their strength of evidence, published between 1980 to June 2005. Treatment recommendations based on the literature findings were formulated and formally approved by all Dutch professional associations involved in CRPS-I treatment. Results For pain treatment, the WHO analgesic ladder is advised with the exception of strong opioids. For neuropathic pain, anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants may be considered. For inflammatory symptoms, free-radical scavengers (dimethylsulphoxide or acetylcysteine are advised. To promote peripheral blood flow, vasodilatory medication may be considered. Percutaneous sympathetic blockades may be used to increase blood flow in case vasodilatory medication has insufficient effect. To decrease functional limitations, standardised physiotherapy and occupational therapy are advised. To prevent the occurrence of CRPS-I after wrist fractures, vitamin C is recommended. Adequate perioperative analgesia, limitation of operating time, limited use of tourniquet, and use of regional anaesthetic techniques are recommended for secondary prevention of CRPS-I. Conclusions Based on the literature identified and the extent of evidence found for therapeutic interventions for CRPS-I, we conclude that further research is needed into each of the therapeutic modalities discussed in the guidelines.

  9. Children and adolescents with complex regional pain syndrome: More psychologically distressed than other children in pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Deirdre E; Williams, Sara E; Carullo, Veronica P; Claar, Robyn Lewis; Bruehl, Stephen; Berde, Charles B

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Historically, in both adult and pediatric populations, a lack of knowledge regarding complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and absence of clear diagnostic criteria have contributed to the view that this is a primarily psychiatric condition. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that children with CRPS are more functionally disabled, have more pain and are more psychologically distressed than children with other pain conditions. METHODS: A total of 101 children evaluated in a tertiary care pediatric pain clinic who met the International Association for the Study of Pain consensus diagnostic criteria for CRPS participated in the present retrospective study. Comparison groups included 103 children with abdominal pain, 291 with headache and 119 with back pain. Children and parents completed self-report questionnaires assessing disability, somatization, pain coping, depression, anxiety and school attendance. RESULTS: Children with CRPS reported higher pain intensity and more recent onset of pain at the initial tertiary pain clinic evaluation compared with children with other chronic pain conditions. They reported greater functional disability and more somatic symptoms than children with headaches or back pain. Scores on measures of depression and anxiety were within normal limits and similar to those of children in other pain diagnostic groups. CONCLUSIONS: As a group, clinic-referred children with CRPS may be more functionally impaired and experience more somatic symptoms compared with children with other pain conditions. However, overall psychological functioning as assessed by self-report appears to be similar to that of children with other chronic pain diagnoses. Comprehensive assessment using a biopsychosocial framework is essential to understanding and appropriately treating children with symptoms of CRPS. PMID:23662291

  10. Complex regional pain syndrome following viper-bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleggetveit, Inge Petter; Skulberg, Per Kristian; Jørum, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) may occur following fractures, surgery or different trauma. Development of CRPS following snake-bite has only been published in three reports (from Turkey, Nepal and Korea), although snake bites occur frequently world-wide. There has been no report from Western Europe. Vipera Berus is a common snake in European countries and the only venomous snake in Norway. We here describe the development of CRPS in a young woman as a consequence of a viper bite (Vipera Berus) in the right arm. We performed a clinical investigation (inspection, measurement of skin temperatures, sensory and motor evaluation) of the patient six months following the viper-bite, measurement of thermal thresholds (quantitative sensory testing, QST), measurement of resting sweat output (RSO) and quantitative sudomotor axon reflex (QSART) from both arms. The patient fulfilled the Budapest criteria for a CRPS-condition, with continuous pain and symptoms and findings of autonomic dysfunction. In addition, we found elevated thresholds of warmth and cold, evidence of an affection of afferent A-delta and C-fibres as well as an affection of the efferent sympathetic sudomotor C-fibres by QSART. An increased RSO-volume was in inverse relationship to the decreased QSART result. It is important to be aware of viper-bite as a possible eliciting event for CRPS for early diagnosis and treatment of a patient. As long-lasting pain and oedema are known complications, it is probable that CRPS after viper-bites previously may have been underdiagnosed. As many patients are unaware of being bit, viper bite should be considered in cases of unexplained sudden pain and swelling of a limb. Copyright © 2015 Scandinavian Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS type 1 validating case histories

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    P. Berger

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS type 1 is challenging and unpredictable as the condition presents with vascular and neuropathic symptoms after nil or even minor injury to a peripheral nerve. The condition is one of a pain and motor dysfunction. The pathophysiology is not well understood and the relief of symptoms may change from being sympathetically mediated to sympathetically independent during  the course of the disease. At any stage physiotherapy has been advocated as the corner stone and most important aspect of treatment in the rehabilitation of these individuals but unfortunately it has been difficult to execute when pain is exacerbated due to allodynia (unbearable to touch or move and hyperalgesia. Best results have been obtained if the patients are recognised and treated in the early or acute phase and it has been found that through careful assessment and analysis these patients can be recognised by previous events that have occurred in their initial case history. The treatment in the acute stage with physiotherapy modalities such as electrical stimulation and acupuncture will produce an early cessation of the symptoms and prevention of the disease developing into the fully blown CRPS type 1 with irreversible and possibly atrophic consequences. Case histories have been presented that illustrate these important aspects and demonstrate  the value of early and the appropriate physiotherapy that may be more successful than other pharmacological and physical interventions in this disease.

  12. Movement disorders associated with complex regional pain syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Shakti K; Rittey, Christopher D; Harrower, Neil A; Goddard, John M; Mordekar, Santosh R

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to review the history, clinical course, treatment, and outcome of movement disorders in children and young people with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Case notes were reviewed retrospectively of children and young people who presented with movement disorders in CRPS to our tertiary paediatric pain service over a period of 13 years. Ten children with CRPS presented with movement disorders (eight females, two males). The age at first presentation with symptoms of CRPS ranged from 8 to 15 years (mean 11 y 2 mo, median 13 y). The most common movement disorder was dystonia (n=8), followed by tremors (n=3) and myoclonus (n=3); two patients had all three movement disorders. The movement disorder affected mainly the lower limb (n=9) with a predilection for the foot (n=7) and was frequently initiated by minor trauma (n=7). Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 14 years. The outcome was variable, with good prognosis in nearly half of the cases: four children experienced complete resolution of symptoms. Two children showed a slight improvement. Four children showed no improvement. Movement disorders in CRPS are under-recognized in children. The management has to be multidisciplinary with an expertise in paediatric pain.

  13. Complex regional pain syndrome in children: Asking the right questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschneider, Kenneth R

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful disorder without a known unifying mechanism. There are little data on which to base evaluation and treatment decisions, and what data are available come from studies involving adults; however, even that literature is relatively sparse. Developing robust research for CRPS in children is essential for the progress toward optimal treatment. OBJECTIVES: To determine potential avenues of research in pediatric CRPS based on a review of the literature. Areas of concern include diagnostic criteria, peripheral mechanisms, central nervous system mechanisms, the role of the autonomic nervous system, possible risk factors, options for prevention and potential avenues of treatment. METHODS: A literature review was performed and the results applied to form the hypotheses posited in the form of research questions. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: CRPS is a complicated entity that is more than a painful sensory condition. There is evidence for peripheral inflammatory and neurological changes, and reorganization in both sensory and motor cortexes. In addition, a significant motor component is frequently observed and there appear to be tangible risk factors. Many of these pieces of evidence suggest options for prevention, treatment and monitoring progress and outcome. Most of the data are derived from adult studies and need to be replicated in children. Furthermore, there may be factors unique to pediatrics due to developmental changes in neuroplasticity as well as somatic, endocrinological and emotional growth. Some of these developmental factors may shed light on the adult condition. PMID:23248811

  14. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome after Transradial Cardiac Catheterization

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    Chih-Jou Lai

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a disease with unclear pathophysiology. The condition is characterized by pain, soft tissue change, vasomotor change, and even psychosocial disturbance. It may affect the upper more than the lower extremities, and the distal more than the proximal. The trigger factors include carpal tunnel release, Dupuytren's repair, tendon release procedures, knee surgery, crush injury, ankle arthrodesis, amputation, and hip arthroplasty. Rarely, it has been associated with stroke, mastectomy, pregnancy, and osteogenesis imperfecta. Herein, we present a rare case of a patient who was diagnosed with CRPS after transradial cardiac catheterization. CRPS was first diagnosed due to hand swelling, allodynia, paresthesia, and the limited range of motion of interphalangeal, metacarpophalangeal, and wrist joints, with the preceding factor of transradial cardiac catheterization, and was then confirmed by a three-phase bone scan. After intensive physical therapy with hydrotherapy, manual soft tissue release, and occupational therapy for the hand function, there was much improvement in range of motion and hand function. There was no allodynia or painful sensation in the follow-up. After training, the functional status of this patient was adequate for daily activity.

  15. Complex regional pain syndrome 1 – the Swiss cohort study

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    Perez Roberto SGM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the course of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and potential factors influencing the course of this disorder over time. The goal of this study is a to set up a database with patients suffering from suspected CRPS 1 in an initial stadium, b to perform investigations on epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and socioeconomics within the database and c to develop a prognostic risk assessment tool for patients with CRPS 1 taking into account symptomatology and specific therapies. Methods/design Prospective cohort study. Patients suffering from a painful swelling of the hand or foot which appeared within 8 weeks after a trauma or a surgery and which cannot be explained by conditions that would otherwise account for the degree of pain and dysfunction will be included. In accordance with the recommendations of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model, standardised and validated questionnaires will be used. Patients will be monitored over a period of 2 years at 6 scheduled visits (0 and 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Each visit involves a physical examination, registration of therapeutic interventions, and completion of the various study questionnaires. Outcomes involve changes in health status, quality of life and costs/utility. Discussion This paper describes the rationale and design of patients with CRPS 1. Ideally, potential risk factors may be identified at an early stage in order to initiate an early and adequate treatment in patients with increased risk for delayed recovery. Trial registration Not applicable

  16. Complex regional pain syndrome 1--the Swiss cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Florian; Bachmann, Lucas M; Weber, Ulrich; Kessels, Alfons G H; Perez, Roberto S G M; Marinus, Johan; Kissling, Rudolf

    2008-06-23

    Little is known about the course of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and potential factors influencing the course of this disorder over time. The goal of this study is a) to set up a database with patients suffering from suspected CRPS 1 in an initial stadium, b) to perform investigations on epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and socioeconomics within the database and c) to develop a prognostic risk assessment tool for patients with CRPS 1 taking into account symptomatology and specific therapies. Prospective cohort study. Patients suffering from a painful swelling of the hand or foot which appeared within 8 weeks after a trauma or a surgery and which cannot be explained by conditions that would otherwise account for the degree of pain and dysfunction will be included. In accordance with the recommendations of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model), standardised and validated questionnaires will be used. Patients will be monitored over a period of 2 years at 6 scheduled visits (0 and 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months). Each visit involves a physical examination, registration of therapeutic interventions, and completion of the various study questionnaires. Outcomes involve changes in health status, quality of life and costs/utility. This paper describes the rationale and design of patients with CRPS 1. Ideally, potential risk factors may be identified at an early stage in order to initiate an early and adequate treatment in patients with increased risk for delayed recovery.

  17. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome, type 1

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    S.H. Botha

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CPRS, type 1 is a pain disorder that develops unpredictably and can follow a minor injury. A 12-year-old boy presented with severe pain in the feet and could not walk or stand weight bearing. Normal X-rays showed osteopenic changes and radiolucent lines, which appeared to be stress fractures. Three-phase bone scintigraphy showed no uptake in the left lower leg on the blood pool phase or on the immediate or delayed images. This indicated typical CPRS type 1 in children. The uptake in the right foot was increased and the stress fracture and other illness could not be differentiated. Computed tomography was done to exclude stress fractures. Only osteopenic changes in both calcaneus bones were found and there was no evidence of cortical stress fractures. Magnetic resonance images revealed oedema in the calcaneus and talus bones of both feet. The patient received epidural narcotic infusion with sympathetic blockage for 1 week combined with extensive physiotherapy. The blood pool phase of the bone scan became normal within 2 weeks, and increased uptake in both feet was noticed. The patient was followed up with MRI every 3 months and the bone marrow oedema disappeared after 6 months.

  18. Psychological Distress and Stressful Life Events in Pediatric Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

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    Julia Wager

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is little knowledge regarding the association between psychological factors and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS in children. Specifically, it is not known which factors precipitate CRPS and which result from the ongoing painful disease.

  19. Migraine may be a risk factor for the development of complex regional pain syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Peterlin, BL; Rosso, AL; Nair, S.; Young, WB; Schwartzman, RJ

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to assess the relative frequency of migraine and the headache characteristics of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) sufferers. CRPS and migraine are chronic, often disabling pain syndromes. Recent studies suggest that headache is associated with the development of CRPS. Consecutive adults fulfilling International Association for the Study of Pain criteria for CRPS at a pain clinic were included. Demographics, medical history, and pain characteristics were obtained. Headache dia...

  20. Are Pain-Related Fears Mediators for Reducing Disability and Pain in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1? An Explorative Analysis on Pain Exposure Physical Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhoorn, Karlijn J.; Staal, J. Bart; van Dongen, Robert T. M.; Frölke, Jan Paul M.; Klomp, Frank P.; van de Meent, Henk; Samwel, Han; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether pain-related fears are mediators for reducing disability and pain in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 when treating with Pain Exposure Physical Therapy. Design An explorative secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Participants Fifty-six patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1. Interventions The experimental group received Pain Exposure Physical Therapy in a maximum of five treatment sessions; the control group received conventional treatment following the Dutch multidisciplinary guideline. Outcome measures Levels of disability, pain, and pain-related fears (fear-avoidance beliefs, pain catastrophizing, and kinesiophobia) were measured at baseline and after 3, 6, and 9 months follow-up. Results The experimental group had a significantly larger decrease in disability of 7.77 points (95% CI 1.09 to 14.45) and in pain of 1.83 points (95% CI 0.44 to 3.23) over nine months than the control group. The potential mediators pain-related fears decreased significantly in both groups, but there were no significant differences between groups, which indicated that there was no mediation. Conclusion The reduction of pain-related fears was comparable in both groups. We found no indication that pain-related fears mediate the larger reduction of disability and pain in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 treated with Pain Exposure Physical Therapy compared to conventional treatment. Trial registration International Clinical Trials Registry NCT00817128 PMID:25919011

  1. Are pain-related fears mediators for reducing disability and pain in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1? An explorative analysis on pain exposure physical therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlijn J Barnhoorn

    Full Text Available To investigate whether pain-related fears are mediators for reducing disability and pain in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 when treating with Pain Exposure Physical Therapy.An explorative secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial.Fifty-six patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1.The experimental group received Pain Exposure Physical Therapy in a maximum of five treatment sessions; the control group received conventional treatment following the Dutch multidisciplinary guideline.Levels of disability, pain, and pain-related fears (fear-avoidance beliefs, pain catastrophizing, and kinesiophobia were measured at baseline and after 3, 6, and 9 months follow-up.The experimental group had a significantly larger decrease in disability of 7.77 points (95% CI 1.09 to 14.45 and in pain of 1.83 points (95% CI 0.44 to 3.23 over nine months than the control group. The potential mediators pain-related fears decreased significantly in both groups, but there were no significant differences between groups, which indicated that there was no mediation.The reduction of pain-related fears was comparable in both groups. We found no indication that pain-related fears mediate the larger reduction of disability and pain in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 treated with Pain Exposure Physical Therapy compared to conventional treatment.International Clinical Trials Registry NCT00817128.

  2. Impaired insula functional connectivity associated with persistent pain perception in patients with complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Joon Hwan; Lee, Do-Hyeong; Lee, Kyung-Jun; Lee, Won Joon; Moon, Jee Youn; Kim, Yong Chul

    2017-01-01

    Given that the insula plays a contributory role in the perception of chronic pain, we examined the resting-state functional connectivity between the insular cortex and other brain regions to investigate neural underpinnings of persisting perception of background pain in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). A total of 25 patients with CRPS and 25 matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest. With the anterior and posterior insular cortices as seed regions, we compared the strength of the resting-state functional connectivity between the two groups. Functional connectivity between the anterior and posterior insular cortices and the postcentral and inferior frontal gyri, cingulate cortices was reduced in patients with CRPS compared with controls. Additionally, greater reductions in functional connectivity between the anterior insula and right postcentral gyrus were associated with more severe sensory pain in patients with CRPS (short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire sensory subscores, r = -.517, P = .023). The present results imply a possible role of the insula in aberrant processing of pain information in patients with CRPS. The findings suggest that a functional derangement of the connection between one of the somatosensory cortical functions of perception and one of the insular functions of awareness can play a significant role in the persistent experience of regional pain that is not confined to a specific nerve territory. PMID:28692702

  3. Impaired insula functional connectivity associated with persistent pain perception in patients with complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Soo-Hee; Jang, Joon Hwan; Lee, Do-Hyeong; Lee, Kyung-Jun; Lee, Won Joon; Moon, Jee Youn; Kim, Yong Chul; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2017-01-01

    Given that the insula plays a contributory role in the perception of chronic pain, we examined the resting-state functional connectivity between the insular cortex and other brain regions to investigate neural underpinnings of persisting perception of background pain in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). A total of 25 patients with CRPS and 25 matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest. With the anterior and posterior insular cortices as seed regions, we compared the strength of the resting-state functional connectivity between the two groups. Functional connectivity between the anterior and posterior insular cortices and the postcentral and inferior frontal gyri, cingulate cortices was reduced in patients with CRPS compared with controls. Additionally, greater reductions in functional connectivity between the anterior insula and right postcentral gyrus were associated with more severe sensory pain in patients with CRPS (short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire sensory subscores, r = -.517, P = .023). The present results imply a possible role of the insula in aberrant processing of pain information in patients with CRPS. The findings suggest that a functional derangement of the connection between one of the somatosensory cortical functions of perception and one of the insular functions of awareness can play a significant role in the persistent experience of regional pain that is not confined to a specific nerve territory.

  4. Impaired insula functional connectivity associated with persistent pain perception in patients with complex regional pain syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hun Kim

    Full Text Available Given that the insula plays a contributory role in the perception of chronic pain, we examined the resting-state functional connectivity between the insular cortex and other brain regions to investigate neural underpinnings of persisting perception of background pain in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. A total of 25 patients with CRPS and 25 matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest. With the anterior and posterior insular cortices as seed regions, we compared the strength of the resting-state functional connectivity between the two groups. Functional connectivity between the anterior and posterior insular cortices and the postcentral and inferior frontal gyri, cingulate cortices was reduced in patients with CRPS compared with controls. Additionally, greater reductions in functional connectivity between the anterior insula and right postcentral gyrus were associated with more severe sensory pain in patients with CRPS (short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire sensory subscores, r = -.517, P = .023. The present results imply a possible role of the insula in aberrant processing of pain information in patients with CRPS. The findings suggest that a functional derangement of the connection between one of the somatosensory cortical functions of perception and one of the insular functions of awareness can play a significant role in the persistent experience of regional pain that is not confined to a specific nerve territory.

  5. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS/RSD) and neuropathic pain: role of intravenous bisphosphonates as analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanow, Jennifer; Pappagallo, Marco; Pillai, Letha

    2008-02-25

    Neuropathic pain is a sequela of dysfunction, injuries, or diseases of the peripheral and/or central nervous system pain pathways, which has historically been extremely difficult to treat. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types 1 and 2 are neuropathic pain conditions that have a long history in the medical literature but whose pathophysiology remains elusive and whose available treatment options remain few. While an exact animal model for CRPS doesn't yet exist, there are several animal models of neuropathic pain that develop behaviors of hypersensitivity, one of the hallmark signs of neuropathic pain in humans. Bisphosphonates have been used for pathologic conditions associated with abnormal bone metabolism, such as osteoporosis, Paget's disease and cancer-related bone pain for many years. More recently, results of clinical trials have indicated the potential role of bisphosphonates in the treatment of CRPS/RSD. In this paper we will review the preclinical studies regarding the use of bisphosphonates as analgesics in animal models of neuropathic pain, and also summarize the clinical trials that have been done to date. We will give an overview of bisphosphonate pharmacology and discuss several potential mechanisms by which bisphosphonates may be analgesic in CRPS/RSD and bone pain of noncancer origin.

  6. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1: Analysis of 108 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendón, Gisela; Salas, Adrian; García, Mercedes; Pereira, Dora

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type 1 is characterized by the presence of pain, edema, functional impotence, impaired mobility, trophic changes, vasomotor instability and bone demineralization. We carried out a retrospective and prospective, descriptive, observational study of 108 patients over 18 years of age with suspected CRPS who met Doury's criteria. We recorded demographic data, clinical characteristics, comorbidities, previous predisposing conditions and triggering factors, such as injury or fracture. We evaluated laboratory data, serial plain X-rays, 3-phase bone scintigraphy with technetium 99 and bone density scan, as well as drug treatment, rehabilitation and disease course. In all, 89% of the 108 patients were women with an average age of 54.8±12.4 years. The time between the onset of the symptoms and the first visit to a physician was 3.1 months. The most common triggering factor was injury (91.7%). The most frequent psychological factor was anxiety (42.6%). All the patients reported pain and 99.07% had impaired mobility. The most frequently affected part of the body was the hand (75%; 81/108 patients) followed by the shoulder, in the shoulder-hand syndrome. All the patients had serial X-rays and changes were observed in 93.5%. Three-phase bone scintigraphy revealed evidence of disease in all 32 of the patients who underwent this study. Bone density scanning was performed in 54 patients (50%). All the patients were treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, mainly diclofenac (60%). Calcium therapy was initiated in 106 patients (98.2%) and vitamin D3 therapy in 97.2%. All the patients received bisphosphonates, primarily alendronate and ibandronate (67.6% and 27.8%, respectively). Thirty-six patients (33.3%) received corticosteroids. All of the evaluated patients underwent rehabilitation involving occupational therapy. The average time to recovery was 6.31 months (range, 4-24). The outcome was favorable in 88.9% of the patients. This

  7. Activation of cutaneous immune responses in complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birklein, Frank; Drummond, Peter D.; Li, Wenwu; Schlereth, Tanja; Albrecht, Nahid; Finch, Philip M.; Dawson, Linda F.; Clark, J. David; Kingery, Wade S.

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is unresolved, but TNF-α and IL-6 are elevated in experimental skin blister fluid from CRPS affected limbs, as is tryptase, a marker for mast cells. In the rat fracture model of CRPS exaggerated sensory and sympathetic neural signaling stimulate keratinocyte and mast cell proliferation, causing the local production of high levels of inflammatory cytokines leading to pain behavior. The current investigation used CRPS patient skin biopsies to determine whether keratinocyte and mast cell proliferation occur in CRPS skin and to identify the cellular source of the up-regulated TNF-α, IL-6, and tryptase observed in CRPS experimental skin blister fluid. Skin biopsies were collected from the affected skin and the contralateral mirror site in 55 CRPS patients and the biopsy sections were immunostained for keratinocyte, cell proliferation, mast cell markers, TNF-α, and IL-6. In early CRPS keratinocytes were activated in the affected skin, resulting in proliferation, epidermal thickening, and up-regulated TNF-α and IL-6 expression. In chronic CRPS there was reduced keratinocyte proliferation with epidermal thinning in the affected skin. Acute CRPS patients also had increased mast cell accumulation in the affected skin, but there was no increase in mast cell numbers in chronic CRPS. PMID:24462502

  8. Leukocytes in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Edward C T H; Oyen, Wim J G; Goris, R Jan A

    2005-12-01

    The pathophysiology of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS I) is unclear. An inflammatory reaction may cause the syndrome in which leukocytes may play an important role. In this pilot study of six patients with acute warm CRPS I, we performed radiolabeled autologous leukocyte scans of both hands, in order to assess leukocyte accumulation. Comparison was made with the unaffected limb, and with three control patients with a Colles fracture without CRPS I. Images of the CRPS I patients obtained 4 h after leukocyte injection provided the clearest results. At 4 h post-injection, there was clear, asymmetrical leukocyte accumulation in the affected extremity with a mean ratio of 1.49+/-0.19. In control patients, no asymmetry was observed between hands (mean ratio 1.09+/-0.06), indicating the absence of specific leukocyte accumulation. There was a statistically significant difference between CRPS I and control subjects 4 h post injection (p=0.012). We found a significantly increased accumulation of leukocytes in patients with CRPS I. This is the first study to show a possible role for leukocytes in the pathophysiology of acute CRPS I.

  9. Evidence-based interventional pain medicine according to clinical diagnoses. 16. Complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijs, Frank; Stanton-Hicks, Michael; Van Zundert, Jan; Faber, Catharina G; Lubenow, Timothy R; Mekhail, Nagy; van Kleef, Maarten; Huygen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), formerly known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a pain syndrome with an unclear pathophysiology and unpredictable clinical course. The disease is often therapy resistant, the natural course not always favorable. The diagnosis of CRPS is based on signs and symptoms derived from medical history and physical examination. Pharmacological pain management and physical rehabilitation of limb function are the main pillars of therapy and should be started as early as possible. If, however, there is no improvement of limb function and persistent severe pain, interventional pain management techniques may be considered. Intravenous regional blocks with guanethidine did not prove superior to placebo but frequent side effects occurred.Therefore this technique receives a negative recommendation (2 A-). Sympathetic block is the interventional treatment of first choice and has a 2 B+ rating. Ganglion stellatum (stellate ganglion) block with repeated local anesthetic injections or by radiofrequency denervation after positive diagnostic block is documented in prospective and retrospective trials in patients suffering from upper limb CRPS. Lumbar sympathetic blocks can be performed with repeated local anesthetic injections. For a more prolonged lumbar sympathetic block radiofrequency treatment is preferred over phenol neurolysis because effects are comparable whereas the risk for side effects is lower (2 B+). For patients suffering from CRPS refractory to conventional treatment and sympathetic blocks, plexus brachialis block or continuous epidural infusion analgesia coupled with exercise therapy may be tried (2 C+). Spinal cord stimulation is recommended if other treatments fail to improve pain and dysfunction (2 B+). Alternatively peripheral nerve stimulation can be considered, preferentially in study conditions (2 C+). © 2010 The Authors. Pain Practice © 2010 World Institute of Pain.

  10. Chronic pain and evoked responses in the brain: A magnetoencephalographic study in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I and II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theuvenet, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type I and II are chronic pain syndromes with comparable symptoms, only in CRPS II a peripheral nerve injury is present. No objective tests are currently available to differentiate the two types which hampers diagnosis and treatment. Non-invasive brain imaging

  11. Complex regional pain syndrome: are there distinct subtypes and sequential stages of the syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruehl, Stephen; Harden, R Norman; Galer, Bradley S; Saltz, Samuel; Backonja, Miroslav; Stanton-Hicks, Michael

    2002-01-01

    This study tested for evidence supporting the clinical lore of three sequential stages of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and examined the characteristics of possible CRPS subtypes. A series of 113 patients meeting IASP criteria for CRPS underwent standardized history and physical examinations to assess CRPS signs and symptoms in four domains identified in previous research: pain/sensory abnormalities, vasomotor dysfunction, edema/sudomotor dysfunction, and motor/trophic changes. K-Means cluster analysis was used to derive three relatively homogeneous CRPS patient subgroups based on similarity of sign/symptom patterns in these domains. The resulting CRPS subgroups did not differ significantly regarding pain duration as might be expected in a sequential staging model. However, the derived subgroups were statistically-distinct, and suggested three possible CRPS subtypes: (1) a relatively limited syndrome with vasomotor signs predominating, (2) a relatively limited syndrome with neuropathic pain/sensory abnormalities predominating, and (3) a florid CRPS syndrome similar to "classic RSD" descriptions. Subtype 3 showed the highest levels of motor/trophic signs and possible disuse-related changes (osteopenia) on bone scan, despite having directionally the briefest pain duration of the three groups. EMG/NCV testing suggests that Subtype 2 may reflect CRPS-Type 2 (causalgia). Overall, these results are consistent with limited previous work that argues against three sequential stages of CRPS. However, several distinct CRPS subtypes are suggested, and these could ultimately have utility in targeting treatment more effectively.

  12. German translation and external validation of the Radboud Skills Questionnaire in patients suffering from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunner, F.; Heitz, C.; Kissling, R.; Kessels, A.G.H.; Perez, R.S.G.M.; Marinus, J.; ter Riet, G.; Bachmann, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome commonly complain of substantial limitations in their activities of daily living. The Radboud Skills Questionnaire measures alterations in the level of disability of patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, but this

  13. MicroRNA modulation in complex regional pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlova Irina A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant expression of small noncoding RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs is a common feature of several human diseases. The objective of the study was to identify miRNA modulation in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS a chronic pain condition resulting from dysfunction in the central and/or peripheral nervous systems. Due to a multitude of inciting pathologies, symptoms and treatment conditions, the CRPS patient population is very heterogeneous. Our goal was to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in blood and explore their utility in patient stratification. Methods We profiled miRNAs in whole blood from 41 patients with CRPS and 20 controls using TaqMan low density array cards. Since neurogenic inflammation is known to play a significant role in CRPS we measured inflammatory markers including chemokines, cytokines, and their soluble receptors in blood from the same individuals. Correlation analyses were performed for miRNAs, inflammatory markers and other parameters including disease symptoms, medication, and comorbid conditions. Results Three different groups emerged from miRNA profiling. One group was comprised of 60% of CRPS patients and contained no control subjects. miRNA profiles from the remaining patients were interspersed among control samples in the other two groups. We identified differential expression of 18 miRNAs in CRPS patients. Analysis of inflammatory markers showed that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, interleukin1 receptor antagonist (IL1Ra and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1 were significantly elevated in CRPS patients. VEGF and IL1Ra showed significant correlation with the patients reported pain levels. Analysis of the patients who were clustered according to their miRNA profile revealed correlations that were not significant in the total patient population. Correlation analysis of miRNAs detected in blood with additional parameters identified miRNAs associated with

  14. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome, type 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    changes in skin blood flow, abnormal sudomotor activity in the region of the pain, and allodynia or hyperalge- sia. In CRPS type 2 or causalgia there is history of a peripheral nerve injury, thus the pain and autonomic distur- bance can be ... Lateral X-ray of right foot showing radiolu- cent lines and osteopenia. Fig.1b. Lateral ...

  15. Amputation for Long-Standing, Therapy-Resistant Type-I Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krans-Schreuder, H.K.; Bodde, M.I.; Schrier, E.; Dijkstra, P.U.; van den Dungen, J.A.; den Dunnen, W.F.; Geertzen, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some patients with long-standing, therapy-resistant typed complex regional pain syndrome consider an amputation. There is a lack of evidence regarding the risk of recurrence of the pain syndrome and patient outcomes after amputation. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the

  16. Estrogens and the risk of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mos, M; Huygen, F J P M; Stricker, B H Ch; Dieleman, J P; Sturkenboom, M C J M

    2009-01-01

    Since complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) shows a clear female predominance, we investigated the association between the cumulative as well as current exposure to estrogens, and CRPS. A population-based case-control study was conducted in the Integrated Primary Care Information (IPCI) project in the Netherlands. Cases were identified from electronic records (1996-2005) and included if they were confirmed during a visit (using International Association for the Study of Pain Criteria), or had been diagnosed by a specialist. Controls were matched to cases on gender, age, calendar time, and injury. Measures of cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure were obtained by questionnaire and included age of menarche and menopause, menstrual life, and cumulative months of pregnancy and breast-feeding. Current estrogen exposure at CRPS onset was retrieved from the electronic medical records and determined by current pregnancy or by the use of oral contraceptive (OC) drugs or hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). Hundred and forty-three female cases (1493 controls) were included in analyses on drug use and pregnancies, while cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure was studied in 53 cases (58 controls) for whom questionnaire data were available. There was no association between CRPS and either cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure, OC, or HRT use. CRPS onset was increased during the first 6 months after pregnancy (OR: 5.6, 95%CI: 1.0-32.4), although based on small numbers. We did not find an association between CRPS onset and cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure or current OC or HRT use, but more powered studies are needed to exclude potential minor associations.

  17. Complex regional pain syndrome: a comprehensive and critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, A T; Gershwin, M E

    2014-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a term used to describe a variety of disorders characterized by spontaneous or stimulus-induced pain that is disproportional to the inciting event and accompanied by a myriad of autonomic and motor disturbances in highly variable combinations. There are no standards which can be applied to the diagnosis and would fulfill definitions of evidence-based medicine. Indeed, there are almost as many diagnostic criteria as there are names to this disorder. The umbrella term CRPS has been subdivided into type I and type II. CRPS I is intended to encompass reflex sympathetic dystrophy and similar disorders without a nerve injury; while CRPS II occurs after damage to a peripheral nerve. There are numerous etiological pathophysiological events that have been incriminated in development of CRPS, including inflammation, autoimmune responses, abnormal cytokine production, sympathetic-sensory disorders, altered blood flow and central cortical reorganization. However, the number of studies that have included appropriate controls and have sufficient numbers of patients to allow statistical analysis with appropriate power calculations is vanishingly small. This has led to over-diagnosis and often excessive pharmacotherapy and even unnecessary surgical interventions. In this review we provide a detailed critical overview of not only the history of CRPS, but also the epidemiology, the clinical features, the pathophysiological studies, the proposed criteria, the therapy and, in particular, an emphasis that future research should apply more rigorous standards to allow a better understanding of CRPS, i.e. what it is, if it is, and when it is. © 2013.

  18. Transient and Persistent Pain Induced Connectivity Alterations in Pediatric Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnman, Clas; Becerra, Lino; Lebel, Alyssa; Berde, Charles; Grant, P. Ellen; Borsook, David

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of pain-induced changes in functional connectivity was performed in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients. High field functional magnetic resonance imaging was done in the symptomatic painful state and at follow up in the asymptomatic pain free/recovered state. Two types of connectivity alterations were defined: (1) Transient increases in functional connectivity that identified regions with increased cold-induced functional connectivity in the affected limb vs. unaffected limb in the CRPS state, but with normalized connectivity patterns in the recovered state; and (2) Persistent increases in functional connectivity that identified regions with increased cold-induced functional connectivity in the affected limb as compared to the unaffected limb that persisted also in the recovered state (recovered affected limb versus recovered unaffected limb). The data support the notion that even after symptomatic recovery, alterations in brain systems persist, particularly in amygdala and basal ganglia systems. Connectivity analysis may provide a measure of temporal normalization of different circuits/regions when evaluating therapeutic interventions for this condition. The results add emphasis to the importance of early recognition and management in improving outcome of pediatric CRPS. PMID:23526938

  19. Atypical chest pain: evidence of intercostobrachial nerve sensitization in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jennifer W; Grothusen, John R; Rosso, Andrea L; Schwartzman, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Atypical chest pain is a common complaint among Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) patients with brachial plexus involvement. Anatomically, the intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN) is connected to the brachial plexus and innervates the axilla, medial arm and anterior chest wall. By connecting to the brachial plexus, the ICBN could become sensitized by CRPS spread and become a source of atypical chest pain. To evaluate the sensitivity of chest areas in CRPS patients and normal controls. Prospective investigation of pressure algometry in chest areas to determine chest wall sensitivity. CRPS patients and normal controls volunteered to participate in our study. Each individual was examined to meet inclusion criteria. Patients' report of chest pain history was collected from every participant. Pressure algometry was used to measure pressure sensitivity in the axilla, anterior axillary line second intercostal space, mid-clavicular third rib, mid-clavicular tenth rib, and midsternal. Each of these measurements were compared to an intra-participant abdominal measure to control for an individuals generalized sensitivity. The ratios of chest wall sensitivities were compared between CRPS patients and normal controls. A history of chest pain was reported by a majority (94%) of CRPS patients and a minority (19%) of normal controls. CRPS patients reported lifting their arm as a major initiating factor for chest pain. To pressure algometry, the ratios of CRPS patients were significantly greater than control subjects (pCRPS patients than normal controls. The ICBN could be the source of this sensitization by CRPS spread from the brachial plexus.

  20. Complex regional pain syndrome-like symptoms during herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, James D; Rowbotham, Michael C; Petersen, Karin Lottrup

    2004-07-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) associated with herpes zoster (HZ) was first reported by Sudeck in 1901 (Sudeck, 1901) and is recognized clinically. However, only 13 cases have been published in the literature, and nothing is known about the incidence, prevalence, or natural history (Chester, 1992; Foster et al., 1989; Grosslight et al., 1986; Ketz and Schliack,1968; Kishimoto et al., 1995; Querol and Cisneros, 2001; Sudeck, 1901; Visitsunthorn and Prete, 1981). The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of CRPS-like symptoms in a prospectively gathered cohort of subjects with HZ and to follow the natural history of their pain and sensory disturbance during the first 6 months after onset of HZ. Subjects were evaluated at four time points after HZ: 2-6 weeks, 6-8 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Only subjects aged 50 or older with pain VAS ratings of >/=20/100 at 2-6 weeks were eligible. The first (screening) visit included a neurological and physical examination that was updated at each subsequent visit. Assessments included ratings of pain intensity, allodynia severity, and rash severity. The neurological exam included determination of presence or absence of the following CRPS-like symptoms: (1) increased sweating, (2) color changes, (3) skin temperature changes, (4) weakness of the affected area based on physical exam, (5) edema, and (6) extension of CRPS-like symptoms outside the affected dermatome. For subjects with HZ in dermatomes that can include the limbs (C4-T2 and L1-S2), extremity involvement was considered present if allodynia or rash extended beyond the neck of the humerus (upper extremity), the inguinal ligament (anterior lower extremity), or gluteal sulcus (posterior lower extremity). Involvement of the extremity was considered proximal if neither HZ rash nor allodynia extended past the elbow (upper extremity) or knee (lower extremity). Of the first 75 subjects recruited, 25 had HZ outbreaks in dermatomes that extended into the

  1. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS Type II After Carpal Tunnel Release Surgery: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Tunç

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary Complex regional pain syndrome is a chronic syndrome characterised with dystrophic changes and neurovascular disordes of bone and skin of extremities. The most common etiological factors are trauma, ischemic heart disease, cerebral lesions, servical region disorders, infections, and surgical treatments. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common compressive neuropaty of the upper extremity. There are various surgical and conservative alternatives in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Complex regional pain syndrome has been reported as a complication of surgical carpal tunnel release in 2-5% of patients. In this case report clinical characteristics and rehabilitation outcomes of a patient with complex regional pain syndrome after carpal tunnel release surgery is presented. (Osteoporoz Dünyasından 2010;16:41-3

  2. Breaking the stigma : the association between psychological factors and the complex regional pain syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Beerthuizen, Annemerle

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn 1900, Sudeck first described a post-traumatic pain syndrome with edema and trophic changes. This syndrome, known as Sudeck atrophy, was later called sympathetic reflex dystrophy and in 1994 renamed Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). CRPS usually develops after a minor trauma such as an injury or fracture or after surgery, but spontaneous development of CRPS type 1 (CRPS1) has also been described. There are two types of CRPS described; CRPS1 arises without an obvious, detect...

  3. Demographic Features in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Meryem Alkan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary Özet Orijinal Araştırma / Original Investigation 77 Aim: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is characterized by pain, vasomotor and sudomotor changes and trophic disturbances. It may develop as a result of trauma, especially extremity fractures and surgery. Although the pathogenesis of CRPS is not exactly clear explained, it has been suggested that central and periferal mechanisms play role and neurogenic inflamatuar and microvasculer functional impairmensts are accompanying to the process. Not all but some of the patients with past trauma or with other possible etiological factors develop CRPS. This suggests the presence of an individual predisposition. In this article, we searched post fractüred CRPS-I patients demographic characteristics, current systemic diseases and symptoms that accompany a CRPS in our records. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study conducted in Ankara Atatürk Education and Research Hospital, medical records of 356 patients admitted to physical medicine and rehabilitation outpatient clinics with fractures between January 2011 and June 2011 were evaluated and 34 patients diagnosed as CRPS-1 were included in the study. Results: 34 of 356 patients (9.56% with fractures were diagnosed as CRPS-1 in our outpatient clinics. Mean age of the patients was 46.05 years and 10 patients were females (29.4% and 24 patients (70.6% were males. Fractures were in upper extremities in 18 patients (52.9% and in lower extremities in 16 (47.1% patients. Neuropsychiatric disorders and other systemic diseases that may have a role in etiology of CRPS were found in lower rates in medical records of our patients. Conclusion: CRPS does not develop in every patients after travma who has etiologic risk factors, so it reminds that there exists a tendency to CRPS. We have observed that CRPS-1 risk was increased in male patients and in upper extremity fractures. We did not observe any other impertant factor which increases

  4. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Practical Diagnostic and Treatment Guidelines, 4th Edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harden, R.; Oaklander, A.L.; Burton, A.W.; Perez, R.S.G.M.; Richardson, K.; Swan, M.; Barthel, J.; Costa, B.; Graciosa, J.R.; Bruehl, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This is the fourth edition of diagnostic and treatment guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS; aka reflex sympathetic dystrophy). Methods: Expert practitioners in each discipline traditionally utilized in the treatment of CRPS systematically reviewed the available and

  5. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome is associated with structural abnormalities in pain-related regions of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barad, Meredith J; Ueno, Takefumi; Younger, Jarred; Chatterjee, Neil; Mackey, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic condition that involves significant hyperalgesia of the affected limb, typically accompanied by localized autonomic abnormalities, and frequently motor dysfunction. Although central brain systems are thought to play a role in the development and maintenance of CRPS, these systems have not been well characterized. In this study, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) to characterize differences in gray matter volume between patients with right upper extremity CRPS and matched controls . Analyses were carried out using a whole brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach. The CRPS group showed decreased gray matter volume in several pain-affect regions, including the dorsal insula, left orbitofrontal cortex, and several aspects of the cingulate cortex. Greater gray matter volume in CRPS patients was seen in the bilateral dorsal putamen and right hypothalamus. Correlation analyses with self-reported pain were then performed on the CRPS group. Pain duration was associated with decreased gray matter in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Pain intensity was positively correlated with volume in the left posterior hippocampus and left amygdala, and negatively correlated with the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Our findings demonstrate that CRPS is associated with abnormal brain system morphology, particularly pain-related sensory, affect, motor, and autonomic systems. PMID:24212070

  6. Correlation between changes in regional cerebral blood flow and pain relief in complex regional pain syndrome type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Tang; Fan, Yu-Ming; Sun, Chen-Ming; Borel, Cecil O; Yeh, Chun-Chang; Yang, Chih-Ping; Wong, Chih-Shung

    2006-06-01

    Analyzing changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with SPECT in complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS 1), formerly known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy, is an optimal method for evaluating effective pain relief. We attempted to investigate the correlation of changes in rCBF with pain relief during treatments of sympathetic blockade and multimodal epidural pain control. We describe a patient with severe CRPS 1 in whom conventional treatment failed to relieve the pain. Combined repeated lumbar sympathetic blocks and long-term epidural morphine, bupivacaine, and ketamine administration provided satisfactory pain relief and functional activity recovery. Six normal control subjects having one Tc-99m HMPAO scan each and the patient with CRPS having 3 Tc-99m HMPAO scans (once before treatment and twice at 4 months and 6 months after treatment, respectively). The patient with CRPS showed lower rCBF than normal controls in the left thalamus and higher rCBF than normal controls in the right parietal lobe and left frontal lobe. After subsequent treatment, the subtraction images showed increased rCBF in the left thalamus and decreased rCBF in the right parietal and left frontal lobes. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT showed a relationship of rCBF in the thalamus, parietal lobe, and frontal lobe with pain relief. rCBF alterations may provide an indicator for the quality of pain management for neuropathic pains. Subtraction analysis between pre- and posttreatment, by using statistical parametric mapping (version 2), can be used as an objective indicator for the effectiveness of therapy.

  7. Rational pain management in complex regional pain syndrome 1 (CRPS 1)--a network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertli, Maria M; Kessels, Alphons G H; Perez, Roberto S G M; Bachmann, Lucas M; Brunner, Florian

    2014-09-01

    Guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) 1 advocate several substance classes to reduce pain and support physical rehabilitation, but guidance about which agent should be prioritized when designing a therapeutic regimen is not provided. Using a network meta-analytic approach, we examined the efficacy of all agent classes investigated in randomized clinical trials of CRPS 1 and provide a rank order of various substances stratified by length of illness duration. In this study a network meta-analysis was conducted. The participants of this study were patients with CRPS 1. Searches in electronic, previous systematic reviews, conference abstracts, book chapters, and the reference lists of relevant articles were performed. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials comparing at least one analgesic agent with placebo or with another analgesic and reporting efficacy in reducing pain. Summary efficacy stratified by symptom duration and length of follow-up was computed across all substance classes. Two authors independently extracted data. In total, 16 studies were included in the analysis. Bisphosphonates appear to be the treatment of choice in early stages of CRPS 1. The effects of calcitonin surpass that of bisphosphonates and other substances as a short-term medication in more chronic stages of the illness. While most medications showed some efficacy on short-term follow-up, only bisphosphonates, NMDA analogs, and vasodilators showed better long-term pain reduction than placebo. For some drug classes, only a few studies were available and many studies included a small group of patients. Insufficient data were available to analyze efficacy on disability. This network meta-analysis indicates that a rational pharmacological treatment strategy of pain management should consider bisphosphonates in early CRPS 1 and a short-term course of calcitonin in later stages. While most medications showed some efficacy on short-term follow-up, only bisphosphonates

  8. The role of pain coping and kinesiophobia in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 of the legs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinus, J.; Perez, R.S.G.M.; van Eijs, F.; Van Gestel, M.A.; Geurts, J.W.; Huygen, F.J.; Bauer, M.C.; van Hilten, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate to what extent pain coping and kinesiophobia contribute to limitations in activity and participation in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1) of the lower limbs. METHODS: A total of 238 patients with CRPS-1 of

  9. Pulsed Radiofrequency Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Djuric

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various forms of sympathetic chain neurolysis (sympathectomy have, at one time or another, held promise as effective treatment options for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. Complications, such as worsening pain and the development of new pain syndromes, have prevented sympathectomy from emerging as a standard intervention. In an effort to avoid poor outcomes associated with neurolysis, pulsed radiofrequency (PRF has been proposed as a potential treatment alternative for a number of chronic neuropathic pain states, including some forms of CRPS.

  10. Dystonia in complex regional pain syndrome : clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, Monica Adriana van

    2010-01-01

    The clinical characteristics of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) are defined by pain and various combinations of sensory disturbances, autonomic features, and sudomotor and trophic changes. Furthermore, patients with CRPS may suffer from movement disorders, of which dystonia is the most

  11. Evidence for local inflammation in complex regional pain syndrome type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. P. M. Huygen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS 1 is still a matter of debate. Peripheral afferent, efferent and central mechanisms are supposed. Based on clinical signs and symptoms (e.g. oedema, local temperature changes and chronic pain local inflammation is suspected.

  12. Resilience in patients with amputation because of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodde, Marlies I.; Schrier, Ernst; Krans, Hilde K.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although controversial, an amputation for longstanding and therapy-resistant Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I (CRPS-I) may improve quality of life and pain intensity. Resilience, the way people deal with adversity in a positive way may be related to these positive outcomes. This study

  13. Fixed Dystonia in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome : A Descriptive and Computational Modeling Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munts, A.G.; Mugge, W.; Meurs, T.S.; Schouten, A.C.; Marinus, J.; Lorimer Moseley, G.; Van der Helm, F.C.T.; Van Hilten, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) may occur after trauma, usually to one limb, and is characterized by pain and disturbed blood flow, temperature regulation and motor control. Approximately 25% of cases develop fixed dystonia. Involvement of dysfunctional GABAergic interneurons has

  14. Complex regional pain syndrome related movement disorders : studies on pathophysiology and therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munts, Alexander Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) may occur after trauma, usually to one limb, and is characterised by pain and disturbed blood flow, temperature regulation and motor control. Knowledge on CRPS and its movement disorders is scarce. Dysfunction in small nerve fiber processing was found in CRPS

  15. Child Abuse and Dissociation in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Williams

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available >OBJECTIVE: In the absence of a proven medical explanation for the chronic pain syndrome Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS I, this study explored a hypothetical link between childhood physical and sexual abuse, and the subsequent development of CRPS I. The hypothesis predicts the existence of a subpopulation of CRPS I patients with a high frequency of dissociative experiences corresponding to a history of childhood trauma.

  16. Child Abuse and Dissociation in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Williams; John Read; Robert Large

    1999-01-01

    >OBJECTIVE: In the absence of a proven medical explanation for the chronic pain syndrome Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS I), this study explored a hypothetical link between childhood physical and sexual abuse, and the subsequent development of CRPS I. The hypothesis predicts the existence of a subpopulation of CRPS I patients with a high frequency of dissociative experiences corresponding to a history of childhood trauma.DESIGN: To test this theory, CRPS I patients attending the A...

  17. Capillary blood gas analysis in complex regional pain syndrome: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Keijzer, M.H. de; Goris, R.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS 1) is still a matter of debate. An inflammatory reaction may cause the syndrome. Increasing evidence points to a role for impairment of oxygen metabolism in the affected limb. METHODS: In this pilot study (16 patients) we

  18. Psychological distress and stressful life events in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Wager; Hannah Brehmer; Gerrit Hirschfeld; Boris Zernikow

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is little knowledge regarding the association between psychological factors and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in children. Specifically, it is not known which factors precipitate CRPS and which result from the ongoing painful disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as the experience of stressful life events in children with CRPS compared with children with chronic primary headaches and functional abdominal pain. METHODS: A retrospec...

  19. Quantitative sensory studies in complex regional pain syndrome type 1/RSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmoush, A J; Schwartzman, R J; Hopp, J L; Grothusen, J R

    2000-12-01

    Patients with complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPSD1) may have thermal allodynia after application of a non-noxious thermal stimulus to the affected limb. We measured the warm, cold, heat-evoked pain threshold and the cold-evoked pain threshold in the affected area of 16 control patients and patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1/RSD to test the hypothesis that allodynia results from an abnormality in sensory physiology. A contact thermode was used to apply a constant 1 degrees C/second increasing (warm and heat-evoked pain) or decreasing (cold and cold-evoked pain) thermal stimulus until the patient pressed the response button to show that a temperature change was felt by the patient. Student t test was used to compare thresholds in patients and control patients. The cold-evoked pain threshold in patients with CRPSD1/RSD (p RSD than in control patients). The heat-evoked pain threshold in patients with CRPS1/RSD was (p RSD were similar to the thresholds in control patients. This study suggests that thermal allodynia in patients with CRPS1/RSD results from decreased cold-evoked and heat-evoked pain thresholds. The thermal pain thresholds are reset (decreased) so that non-noxious thermal stimuli are perceived to be pain (allodynia).

  20. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 mimicking Raynaud’s phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Tuna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1 is a chronic pain syndrome characterized by severe pain, swelling, autonomic dysfunction and dystrophic changes in affected extremity. RSDS is a rare disease in children and usually occurs after trauma, however, without trauma may also occur. We were detected CRPS-1 activated by cold and stress and characterized by recurrent attacks in the bilateral upper extremities in 14 year-old girl, which is similar to Raynaud’s phenomenon. We present this case with the literature because of its rarity and atypical course.

  1. Diagnosis and management of complex regional pain syndrome complicating upper extremity recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongyu; Smith, Beth Paterson; Smith, Thomas L; Koman, L Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a clinical syndrome of pain, autonomic dysfunction, trophic changes, and functional impairment. CRPS is common after hand trauma or surgery. Early diagnosis and intervention is critical for adequate recovery. The diagnosis of CRPS requires a careful history, physical examination, and supporting diagnostic testing. Optimal treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach. A large spectrum of pharmacologic interventions is efficacious in treating CRPS. Surgery may be used to relieve nociceptive foci. Patient-specific hand therapy is very important in reducing swelling, decreasing pain, and improving range of motion.

  2. The role of pain coping and kinesiophobia in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 of the legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinus, Johan; Perez, Roberto S; van Eijs, Frank; van Gestel, Miriam A; Geurts, José W; Huygen, Frank J; Bauer, Martin C; van Hilten, Jacobus J

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate to what extent pain coping and kinesiophobia contribute to limitations in activity and participation in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1) of the lower limbs. A total of 238 patients with CRPS-1 of the legs from 4 pain clinics and 1 Department of Neurology of University Hospitals participated in this study. Pain and CRPS severity were assessed with the pain rating index of the McGill Pain Questionnaire and the CRPS Severity Score, respectively. Activity was measured with the Rising & Walking scale, and participation with the Social Functioning scale of the SF-36. In addition, the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia and Pain Coping Inventory were administered. Hierarchical linear regression was used to evaluate to what extent kinesiophobia and pain coping contributed to difficulties with Rising & Walking and Social Functioning. The analyses showed that the "resting" subscale of the Pain Coping Inventory-that is, 1 of the 3 scales evaluating passive pain coping strategies-contributed significantly to difficulties in rising and walking (explaining 12.5% of the variance) and to difficulties in social functioning (explaining 6.5%), whereas kinesiophobia was not associated with either of these measures. These findings indicate that making use of "resting" as a pain coping strategy contributes significantly to limitations in activity and participation in patients with CRPS-1 of the legs. Indications for a negative influence of kinesiophobia or a positive influence of an active pain coping style were not found.

  3. Successful Treatment of Lower Limb Complex Regional Pain Syndrome following Three Weeks of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Katznelson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is a treatment that delivers 100% oxygen at increased atmospheric pressures. The efficacy of HBOT for treating pain has been described in various animal pain models and may have clinical efficacy in the treatment of human chronic pain syndromes. We present our experience with posttraumatic Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS type 2 in a patient who underwent 15 sessions of HBOT. A 41-year-old male with one-year history of CRPS of left foot followed by left ankle fracture demonstrated less pain, decreased swelling, less allodynia, and improvement in skin color and range of motion of the lower limb after 3 weeks of HBOT. Patient was back to work for the first time in over a year. HBOT may be considered as a valuable therapeutic tool in the treatment of long-standing CRPS.

  4. Successful Treatment of Lower Limb Complex Regional Pain Syndrome following Three Weeks of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katznelson, Rita; Segal, Shira C; Clarke, Hance

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a treatment that delivers 100% oxygen at increased atmospheric pressures. The efficacy of HBOT for treating pain has been described in various animal pain models and may have clinical efficacy in the treatment of human chronic pain syndromes. We present our experience with posttraumatic Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type 2 in a patient who underwent 15 sessions of HBOT. A 41-year-old male with one-year history of CRPS of left foot followed by left ankle fracture demonstrated less pain, decreased swelling, less allodynia, and improvement in skin color and range of motion of the lower limb after 3 weeks of HBOT. Patient was back to work for the first time in over a year. HBOT may be considered as a valuable therapeutic tool in the treatment of long-standing CRPS.

  5. Multicenter study on the asymmetry of skin temperature in complex regional pain syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Chan Woo; Nahm, Francis Sahngun; Choi, Eunjoo; Lee, Pyung-Bok; Jang, In-ki; Lee, Chul Joong; Kim, Yong Chul; Lee, Sang Chul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract According to the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) and American Medical Association (AMA), the diagnostic criteria for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) require the presence of skin temperature asymmetry. In CRPS, it is generally accepted that the temperature of skin of affected limbs changes from warm to cold; however, in our clinical practice, we have experienced many cases with different thermographic characteristics. Therefore, we conducted a retrospectiv...

  6. Ipsilateral sensory disturbances in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lone

    a disturbance in central nociceptive pathways processing input from hemilateral body sites. However, it may also be consistent with referred pain and cortical reorganization. Thus, it is important to assess whether sensory disturbances spread to ipsilateral body sites other than the forehead. The aim...... hyperalgesia to sharpness were not related to age, pain intensity, or pain duration. 2 Conclusions: The findings suggest the presence of heightened excitability in nociceptive pathways in CRPS, particularly those that provide hemilateral input, perhaps due to disturbances in pain control from thalamus...

  7. Venipuncture-Induced Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foad Elahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Venipuncture, the most frequently performed invasive medical procedure, is usually benign. Generally it produces only transitory mild discomfort. Venipuncture-induced neuropathic pain is hard to recognize at an early stage. Medical literature reviews show that there is not adequate medical knowledge about this important subject. The inciting incident in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS can often seem far too trivial to result in a condition with such severe pathophysiologic effects. The practicing physician has little information available to enable early recognition of the condition, initiation of multidisciplinary treatment modalities, and proper referral to pain specialists. We encountered a unique case of venipuncture-induced complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. The patient is a 52-year-old school teacher with no significant past medical history, who presented initially to the Center of Pain Medicine with left upper extremity pain. The pain started while phlebotomy was performed in the patient’s left antecubital area for routine blood check. The patient’s pain did not improve with multiple medications, physical therapy, or several nerve blocks. The patient demonstrated all the signs and symptoms of chronic neuropathic pain of CRPS in the upper extremity with minimal response to the continuous pain management. We decided to proceed with cervical spinal cord nerve stimulation along with continuing other modalities. The patient responded to this combination. During the follow-up, we noticed that the patient’s pain course was complicated by extension of the CRPS to her lower extremity. We will describe the course of treatment for the patient in this paper. In this paper we will discuss the electrical neuromodulation as an important modality in addition to the multidisciplinary pain management for a patient with venipuncture-induced chronic neuropathic pain.

  8. Venipuncture-induced complex regional pain syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Foad; Reddy, Chandan G

    2014-01-01

    Venipuncture, the most frequently performed invasive medical procedure, is usually benign. Generally it produces only transitory mild discomfort. Venipuncture-induced neuropathic pain is hard to recognize at an early stage. Medical literature reviews show that there is not adequate medical knowledge about this important subject. The inciting incident in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) can often seem far too trivial to result in a condition with such severe pathophysiologic effects. The practicing physician has little information available to enable early recognition of the condition, initiation of multidisciplinary treatment modalities, and proper referral to pain specialists. We encountered a unique case of venipuncture-induced complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). The patient is a 52-year-old school teacher with no significant past medical history, who presented initially to the Center of Pain Medicine with left upper extremity pain. The pain started while phlebotomy was performed in the patient's left antecubital area for routine blood check. The patient's pain did not improve with multiple medications, physical therapy, or several nerve blocks. The patient demonstrated all the signs and symptoms of chronic neuropathic pain of CRPS in the upper extremity with minimal response to the continuous pain management. We decided to proceed with cervical spinal cord nerve stimulation along with continuing other modalities. The patient responded to this combination. During the follow-up, we noticed that the patient's pain course was complicated by extension of the CRPS to her lower extremity. We will describe the course of treatment for the patient in this paper. In this paper we will discuss the electrical neuromodulation as an important modality in addition to the multidisciplinary pain management for a patient with venipuncture-induced chronic neuropathic pain.

  9. Mannitol as salvage treatment for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Tacken, M.C.; Groenewoud, J.M.M.; Goor, H. van; Frolke, J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I (CRPS I) is a continuation of symptoms and signs due to a pathological exaggerated reaction in an extremity of the human body after an injury or operation. Although the clinical picture of CRPS I in the majority of patients is well known, the

  10. Muscle Hyperalgesia Correlates With Motor Function in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, Diana E.; Marinus, Johan; Schouten, Alfred Christiaan; Noldus, Lucas P.J.J.; van Hilten, Jacobus J.

    2013-01-01

    At present it is unclear if disturbed sensory processing plays a role in the development of the commonly observed motor impairments in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). This study aims to investigate the relation between sensory and motor functioning in CRPS patients with and

  11. Mitochondrial dysfunction in muscle tissue of complex regional pain syndrome type I patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Janssen, A.J.W.M.; Roestenberg, P.M.H.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Goris, R.J.A.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be involved in the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I). Since the mitochondrial respiratory chain is a major source of ROS, we hypothesized that mitochondria play a role in the pathophysiology of CRPS I. The hypothesis was

  12. Genetic HLA Associations in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome With and Without Dystonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, D.E.; Roelen, D.L.; Verduijn, W.; Haasnoot, G.W.; Huygen, F.J.P.M.; Perez, R.S.G.M.; Claas, F.H.J.; Marinus, J.; van Hilten, J.J.; van den Maagdenberg, A.M.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed evidence for a genetic association of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) with dystonia. Involvement of the HLA system suggests that CRPS has a genetic component with perturbed regulation of inflammation and neuroplasticity as

  13. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, JHB; de Bruijn-Kofman, AT; de Bruijn, HP; van de Wiel, HBM; Dijkstra, PU

    Objective: To determine to what extent stressful life events and psychological dysfunction play a role in the pathogenesis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS). Design: A comparative study between a CRPS group and a control group. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction

  14. Stretch reflex responses in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome-related dystonia are not characterized by hyperreflexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugge, W.; Schouten, Alfred Christiaan; Bast, G.J.; Schuurmans, J.; van Hilten, J.J.; van der Helm, F.C.T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate if hyperreflexia (exaggerated reflexes) due to disinhibition is associated with dystonia in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). Methods Stretch reflexes at the wrist were assessed in healthy controls (n = 10) and CRPS-patients with dystonia (n = 10). Subjects exerted a wrist

  15. Informed Decision-Making Regarding Amputation for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodde, Marlies I.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Schrier, Michiel; van den Dungen, Johannes; den Dunnen, Wilfred E.; Geertzen, Joannes

    2014-01-01

    Background: Literature on complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) discussing the decision to amputate or not, the level of amputation, or the timing of the amputation is scarce: We evaluated informed decision-making regarding amputation for CRPS-I. Methods: We describe our findings in a

  16. Rehabilitation medicine approach of patients with complex regional pain syndrome, type 1 (upper extremity)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, JHB; Dijkstra, PU; Peek, WJ; Lankhorst, GJ

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective and long term follow-up study was to identify impairments resulting from complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I), of the upper extremity, and to describe the psychosocial. aspects such as life events (SLE) and the psychological history in CRPS-I patients.

  17. Therapy-Resistant Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I : To Amputate or Not?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodde, M.I.; Dijkstra, P.U.; den Dunnen, W.F.A.; Geertzen, J.H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Amputation for the treatment of long-standing, therapy-resistant complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is controversial. An evidence-based decision regarding whether or not to amputate is not possible on the basis of current guidelines. The aim of the current study was to

  18. In search for the etiology of the complex regional pain syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Mos (Marissa)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe complex regional pain syndrome is poorly elucidated. In line with this its diagnosis and clinical management have remained suboptimal. The multifaceted nature makes it a fascinating study topic for scientists with varying interests, but unraveling the etiology has been proven a

  19. Post-traumatic complex regional pain syndrome: clinical features and epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratti, Chiara; Nordio, Andrea; Resmini, Giuseppina; Murena, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Summary Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition that occurs after a tissue injury (fractures, sprain, surgery) of the upper or lower extremities. A clear pathophysiological mechanism has not been established yet and different patterns are considered to play a role in the genesis of the disease. The diagnosis is made by different diagnosis criteria and a gold standard has not been established yet. Incidence of CRPS is unclear and large prospective studies on the incidence and prevalence of CRPS are scarce. The aim of this review is to give an overview on the prevalent data regarding this chronic syndrome. PMID:27134626

  20. Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) using low dose naltrexone (LDN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Pradeep; Cooper, Mark S

    2013-06-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain syndrome, which involves glial activation and central sensitization in the central nervous system. Here, we describe positive outcomes of two CRPS patients, after they were treated with low-dose naltrexone (a glial attenuator), in combination with other CRPS therapies. Prominent CRPS symptoms remitted in these two patients, including dystonic spasms and fixed dystonia (respectively), following treatment with low-dose naltrexone (LDN). LDN, which is known to antagonize the Toll-like Receptor 4 pathway and attenuate activated microglia, was utilized in these patients after conventional CRPS pharmacotherapy failed to suppress their recalcitrant CRPS symptoms.

  1. The Responsive Amygdala: Treatment-induced Alterations in Functional Connectivity in Pediatric Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, LE; Pielech, M; Erpelding, N; Linnman, C; Moulton, E; Sava, S; Lebel, A; Serrano, P; Sethna, N; Berde, C; Becerra, L; Borsook, D

    2014-01-01

    The amygdala is a key brain region with efferent and afferent neural connections that involve complex behaviors such as pain, reward, fear and anxiety. This study evaluated resting state functional connectivity of the amygdala with cortical and subcortical regions in a group of chronic pain patients (pediatric complex regional pain syndrome) with age-gender matched controls before and after intensive physical-biobehavioral pain treatment. Our main findings include (1) enhanced functional connectivity from the amygdala to multiple cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions in patients compared to controls, with differences predominantly in the left amygdala in the pre-treated condition (disease state); (2) dampened hyperconnectivity from the left amygdala to the motor cortex, parietal lobe, and cingulate cortex after intensive pain rehabilitation treatment within patients with nominal differences observed among healthy controls from Time 1 to Time 2 (treatment effects); (3) functional connectivity to several regions key to fear circuitry (prefrontal cortex, bilateral middle temporal lobe, bilateral cingulate, hippocampus) correlated with higher pain-related fear scores and (4) decreases in pain-related fear associated with decreased connectivity between the amygdala and the motor and somatosensory cortex, cingulate, and frontal areas. Our data suggest that there are rapid changes in amygdala connectivity following an aggressive treatment program in children with chronic pain and intrinsic amygdala functional connectivity activity serving as a potential indicator of treatment response. PMID:24861582

  2. Management of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 with total spinal block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Se Jin; Yang, Jong Yeun; Son, Ju Hyung; Jeong, Won Ju; Lee, Yoon Sook; Kim, Woon Young; Park, Young Cheol

    2010-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful and disabling disorder that can affect one or more extremities. Unfortunately, the knowledge concerning its natural history and mechanism is very limited and many current rationales in treatment of CRPS are mainly dependent on efficacy originated in other common conditions of neuropathic pain. Therefore, in this study, we present a case using a total spinal block (TSB) for the refractory pain management of a 16-year-old male CRPS patient, who suffered from constant stabbing and squeezing pain, with severe touch allodynia in the left upper extremity following an operation of chondroblastoma. After the TSB, the patient's continuous and spontaneous pain became mild and the allodynia disappeared and maintained decreased for 1 month.

  3. Intrathecal management of complex regional pain syndrome: A case report and literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Jonathan M; Atallah, George

    2017-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful condition typically resulting from a traumatic event. Pain control in these patients is often difficult and requires a multimodal approach. Our objectives are to present a single intrathecal pain management regimen for CRPS and provide a literature review of intrathecal pain management options in CRPS. Case report from an academic pain management clinic. We present the case of a 29-year-old female with a past medical history of multiple lumbar spine surgeries and lumbar post-laminectomy syndrome who presented to clinic with CRPS type II of the bilateral lower extremities. After failing conservative measures, she underwent placement of a successful intrathecal drug delivery system. The use of intrathecal medications is useful for pain control in CRPS patients. We provide a framework for treatment of CRPS, which could be useful for practitioners dealing with this difficult and painful condition. Copyright © 2016 Scandinavian Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Randomised controlled trial of gabapentin in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 [ISRCTN84121379

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Wim EJ

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type one (CRPS I or formerly Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD is a disabling syndrome, in which a painful limb is accompanied by varying symptoms. Neuropathic pain is a prominent feature of CRPS I, and is often refractory to treatment. Since gabapentin is an anticonvulsant with a proven analgesic effect in various neuropathic pain syndromes, we sought to study the efficacy of the anticonvulsant gabapentin as treatment for pain in patients with CRPS I. Methods We did a randomized double blind placebo controlled crossover study with two three-weeks treatment periods with gabapentin and placebo separated by a two-weeks washout period. Patients started at random with gabapentin or placebo, which was administered in identical capsules three times daily. We included 58 patients with CRPS type 1. Results Patients reported significant pain relief in favor of gabapentin in the first period. Therapy effect in the second period was less; finally resulting in no significant effect combining results of both periods. The CRPS patients had sensory deficits at baseline. We found that this sensory deficit was significantly reversed in gabapentin users in comparison to placebo users. Conclusions Gabapentin had a mild effect on pain in CRPS I. It significantly reduced the sensory deficit in the affected limb. A subpopulation of CRPS patients may benefit from gabapentin.

  5. Randomised controlled trial of gabapentin in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 [ISRCTN84121379

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vusse, Anton C; Stomp-van den Berg, Suzanne GM; Kessels, Alfons HF; Weber, Wim EJ

    2004-01-01

    Background Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type one (CRPS I) or formerly Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD) is a disabling syndrome, in which a painful limb is accompanied by varying symptoms. Neuropathic pain is a prominent feature of CRPS I, and is often refractory to treatment. Since gabapentin is an anticonvulsant with a proven analgesic effect in various neuropathic pain syndromes, we sought to study the efficacy of the anticonvulsant gabapentin as treatment for pain in patients with CRPS I. Methods We did a randomized double blind placebo controlled crossover study with two three-weeks treatment periods with gabapentin and placebo separated by a two-weeks washout period. Patients started at random with gabapentin or placebo, which was administered in identical capsules three times daily. We included 58 patients with CRPS type 1. Results Patients reported significant pain relief in favor of gabapentin in the first period. Therapy effect in the second period was less; finally resulting in no significant effect combining results of both periods. The CRPS patients had sensory deficits at baseline. We found that this sensory deficit was significantly reversed in gabapentin users in comparison to placebo users. Conclusions Gabapentin had a mild effect on pain in CRPS I. It significantly reduced the sensory deficit in the affected limb. A subpopulation of CRPS patients may benefit from gabapentin. PMID:15453912

  6. Complex Regional Pain Syndrom Due to Cat Bite: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Cakir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CPRS, is a painful and disabling disorder that can effect one or more extremities, characterized by a combination of vasomotor, sudomoto rand dystrophic alterations and may cause restriction in movements. The pain of this condition out of proportion to the severity of the initial injury. There are many aetiologic factors such as soft tissue injury, surgery, immobilization or myocardial ischemia. The pathophysiology of CPRS is not clear but peripheral and central sensitization resulting in neurogenic inflammation has been held responsible. This case report discribes the clinical condition of CPRS due to cat bite, and is presented to emphasize rare etiologic factors that may cause CPRS.

  7. Phenoxybenzamine in complex regional pain syndrome: potential role and novel mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchiosa, Mario A

    2013-01-01

    There is a relatively long history of the use of the α -adrenergic antagonist, phenoxybenzamine, for the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). One form of this syndrome, CRPS I, was originally termed reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) because of an apparent dysregulation of the sympathetic nervous system in the region of an extremity that had been subjected to an injury or surgical procedure. The syndrome develops in the absence of any apparent continuation of the inciting trauma. Hallmarks of the condition are allodynia (pain perceived from a nonpainful stimulus) and hyperalgesia (exaggerated pain response to a painful stimulus). In addition to severe, unremitting burning pain, the affected limb is typically warm and edematous in the early weeks after trauma but then progresses to a primarily cold, dry limb in later weeks and months. The later stages are frequently characterized by changes to skin texture and nail deformities, hypertrichosis, muscle atrophy, and bone demineralization. Earlier treatments of CRPS syndromes were primarily focused on blocking sympathetic outflow to an affected extremity. The use of an α -adrenergic antagonist such as phenoxybenzamine followed from this perspective. However, the current consensus on the etiology of CRPS favors an interpretation of the symptomatology as an evidence of decreased sympathetic activity to the injured limb and a resulting upregulation of adrenergic sensitivity. The clinical use of phenoxybenzamine for the treatment of CRPS is reviewed, and mechanisms of action that include potential immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory effects are presented. Also, a recent study identified phenoxybenzamine as a potential intervention for pain mediation from its effects on gene expression in human cell lines; on this basis, it was tested and found to be capable of reducing pain behavior in a classical animal model of chronic pain.

  8. Phenoxybenzamine in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Potential Role and Novel Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Inchiosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a relatively long history of the use of the α-adrenergic antagonist, phenoxybenzamine, for the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. One form of this syndrome, CRPS I, was originally termed reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD because of an apparent dysregulation of the sympathetic nervous system in the region of an extremity that had been subjected to an injury or surgical procedure. The syndrome develops in the absence of any apparent continuation of the inciting trauma. Hallmarks of the condition are allodynia (pain perceived from a nonpainful stimulus and hyperalgesia (exaggerated pain response to a painful stimulus. In addition to severe, unremitting burning pain, the affected limb is typically warm and edematous in the early weeks after trauma but then progresses to a primarily cold, dry limb in later weeks and months. The later stages are frequently characterized by changes to skin texture and nail deformities, hypertrichosis, muscle atrophy, and bone demineralization. Earlier treatments of CRPS syndromes were primarily focused on blocking sympathetic outflow to an affected extremity. The use of an α-adrenergic antagonist such as phenoxybenzamine followed from this perspective. However, the current consensus on the etiology of CRPS favors an interpretation of the symptomatology as an evidence of decreased sympathetic activity to the injured limb and a resulting upregulation of adrenergic sensitivity. The clinical use of phenoxybenzamine for the treatment of CRPS is reviewed, and mechanisms of action that include potential immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory effects are presented. Also, a recent study identified phenoxybenzamine as a potential intervention for pain mediation from its effects on gene expression in human cell lines; on this basis, it was tested and found to be capable of reducing pain behavior in a classical animal model of chronic pain.

  9. Electroencephalographic evoked pain response is suppressed by spinal cord stimulation in complex regional pain syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylands-White, Nicholas; Duarte, Rui V; Beeson, Paul; Mayhew, Stephen D; Raphael, Jon H

    2016-12-01

    Pain is a subjective response that limits assessment. The purpose of this case report was to explore how the objectivity of the electroencephalographic response to thermal stimuli would be affected by concurrent spinal cord stimulation. A patient had been implanted with a spinal cord stimulator for the management of complex regional pain syndrome of both hands for 8 years. Following ethical approval and written informed consent we induced thermal stimuli using the Medoc PATHWAY Pain & Sensory Evaluation System on the right hand of the patient with the spinal cord stimulator switched off and with the spinal cord stimulator switched on. The patient reported a clinically significant reduction in thermal induced pain using the numerical rating scale (71.4 % reduction) with spinal cord stimulator switched on. Analysis of electroencephalogram recordings indicated the occurrence of contact heat evoked potentials (N2-P2) with spinal cord stimulator off, but not with spinal cord stimulator on. This case report suggests that thermal pain can be reduced in complex regional pain syndrome patients with the use of spinal cord stimulation and offers objective validation of the reported outcomes with this treatment.

  10. Medical and psychological problems in diagnosing and treating a patient with chronic complex regional pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota E. Ortenburger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present the medical and psychological problems which occurred while diagnosing and treating a 42-year-old woman with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. It presents a description of somatic and emotional symptoms, social problems, and problems in diagnosis and treatment (left lower limb. Based on the described symptoms, it must be stated that there are specific premises to claim that the studied case fulfils the criteria of complex regional pain syndrome. Data concerning the patient’s psycho-emotional state were taken from a semi-structured interview, the degree of intensity of automatic negative thoughts, and psychological manifestations of hyperactivity by deep limbic system, developed by D. Amen. The patient had symptoms from a few categories, including sensation, reduced mobility, and trophic symptoms (skin lesions. Due to the complex nature of the formation of CRPS pain and associated disorders that are difficult to treat, multidisciplinary therapy was recommended.

  11. Risk Factors for Post-treatment Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pelle B; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby; Lauritzen, Jes B

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Complex regional pain syndrome is a challenging condition that includes a broad spectrum of sensory, autonomic, and motor features predominantly in extremities recovering from a trauma. Few large-scale studies have addressed occurrence of and factors associated with complex regional...... pain syndrome (CRPS) following orthopedic treatment. The present study aimed to identify factors associated with post-treatment development of CRPS. METHODS: Using the Danish Patient Compensation Association's database, we identified 647 patients claiming post-treatment CRPS between 1992 and 2015. Age......, gender, initial diagnosis, treatment, and amount of compensation were extracted. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify variables associated with approval of the claim. For carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients, we registered whether symptoms were bilateral or unilateral...

  12. A disturbance in sensory processing on the affected side of the body increases limb pain in complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Peter D; Finch, Philip M

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a central disturbance in somatosensory processing contributes to limb pain in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). In 37 patients with CRPS, the effect of cooling the ipsilateral forehead on pain in the affected limb was compared with the effect of cooling the contralateral forehead. In addition, symptoms associated with cold-evoked limb pain were explored. Limb pain generally increased when the ipsilateral side of the forehead was cooled but did not change when the contralateral side of the forehead was cooled. Increases were greatest in patients with heightened sensitivity to cold, brushing, and pressure-pain in the ipsilateral forehead, in patients with heightened sensitivity to pressure-pain in the limbs, and in patients with chronic symptoms. In contrast, sensitivity to light touch was diminished in the CRPS-affected limb of patients whose limb pain remained unchanged or decreased during ipsilateral forehead cooling. These preliminary findings suggest that a central disturbance in sensory processing and pain modulation, which extends beyond the affected limb to the ipsilateral forehead, contributes to symptoms in a subgroup of patients with CRPS.

  13. Regulation of peripheral blood flow in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: clinical implication for symptomatic relief and pain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coderre Terence J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the chronic stage of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS, impaired microcirculation is related to increased vasoconstriction, tissue hypoxia, and metabolic tissue acidosis in the affected limb. Several mechanisms may be responsible for the ischemia and pain in chronic cold CPRS. Discussion The diminished blood flow may be caused by either sympathetic dysfunction, hypersensitivity to circulating catecholamines, or endothelial dysfunction. The pain may be of neuropathic, inflammatory, nociceptive, or functional nature, or of mixed origin. Summary The origin of the pain should be the basis of the symptomatic therapy. Since the difference in temperature between both hands fluctuates over time in cold CRPS, when in doubt, the clinician should prioritize the patient's report of a persistent cold extremity over clinical tests that show no difference. Future research should focus on developing easily applied methods for clinical use to differentiate between central and peripheral blood flow regulation disorders in individual patients.

  14. Topographical pressure pain sensitivity maps of the shoulder region in individuals with subacromial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, I L; Camargo, P R; Alburquerque-Sendín, F; Madeleine, P; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, C; Salvini, T F

    2016-02-01

    Topographical pain maps (TPM) are useful tools to assess deep tissue sensitivity in musculoskeletal pain conditions. There is evidence suggesting bilateral sensitivity in subacromial pain syndrome (SAPS), although it is not widely accepted. No previous study has investigated TPM of the shoulder in SAPS. To investigate whether differences for TPM of the shoulder are evident among patients with unilateral SAPS and controls. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed 3 times at each point and there was a 20 s rest period between each one. The TPM were calculated using 29 pre-determined points on both shoulders in all groups by inverse distance weighted interpolation of PPT data. Multivariate Analysis of Covariance was applied to detect differences in PPTs between groups, sides, points (gender as covariate). The results revealed significant differences between points and genders (both, P shoulder. Women exhibited bilateral lower PPTs in all points than men in both groups (all, P shoulder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Three cases of type-1 complex regional pain syndrome after elective total hip replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanotti Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS constitutes an atypical cause of pain after orthopaedic procedures. To our knowledge, there is a paucity of literature reporting this syndrome after total hip arthroplasty (THR, since only two case reports have been published. We thenceforth describe the clinical outcome of three cases of type-1 CRPS developed after elective THR, two of them initially diagnosed with secondary osteoarthritis whereas the remaining one presented a sequel of a failed osteosynthesis that required conversion to THR. Remission of disease was found at an average seven months (range: 4–9. Medical treatment involved a combined therapy of pain management, bisphosphonates and intense physical therapy. One patient was additionally treated with a corticosteroid blockade of his right sympathetic lumbar ganglia. None of the patients required surgical treatment. At final follow-up, physical examinations and imaging were negative for disease.

  16. Psychological distress and stressful life events in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Julia; Brehmer, Hannah; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Zernikow, Boris

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is little knowledge regarding the association between psychological factors and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in children. Specifically, it is not known which factors precipitate CRPS and which result from the ongoing painful disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as the experience of stressful life events in children with CRPS compared with children with chronic primary headaches and functional abdominal pain. METHODS: A retrospective chart study examined children with CRPS (n=37) who received intensive inpatient pain treatment between 2004 and 2010. They were compared with two control groups (chronic primary headaches and functional abdominal pain; each n=37), who also received intensive inpatient pain treatment. Control groups were matched with the CRPS group with regard to admission date, age and sex. Groups were compared on symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as stressful life events. RESULTS: Children with CRPS reported lower anxiety and depression scores compared with children with abdominal pain. A higher number of stressful life events before and after the onset of the pain condition was observed for children with CRPS. CONCLUSIONS: Children with CRPS are not particularly prone to symptoms of anxiety or depression. Importantly, children with CRPS experienced more stressful life events than children with chronic headaches or abdominal pain. Prospective long-term studies are needed to further explore the potential role of stressful life events in the etiology of CRPS. PMID:26035287

  17. Pain exposure physical therapy may be a safe and effective treatment for longstanding complex regional pain syndrome type 1: a case series.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ek, J.W.; Gijn, J.C. van; Samwel, J.J.A.; Egmond, J. van; Klomp, F.P.; Dongen, R.T.M. van

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if treatment of longstanding complex regional pain syndrome type 1, focusing on functional improvement only while neglecting pain, results in clinical improvement of this syndrome. DESIGN: Prospective description of a case series of 106 patients. SETTING: Outpatient clinic

  18. Enhanced pain and autonomic responses to ambiguous visual stimuli in chronic Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H E; Hall, J; Harris, N; McCabe, C S; Blake, D R; Jänig, W

    2012-02-01

    Cortical reorganisation of sensory, motor and autonomic systems can lead to dysfunctional central integrative control. This may contribute to signs and symptoms of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), including pain. It has been hypothesised that central neuroplastic changes may cause afferent sensory feedback conflicts and produce pain. We investigated autonomic responses produced by ambiguous visual stimuli (AVS) in CRPS, and their relationship to pain. Thirty CRPS patients with upper limb involvement and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls had sympathetic autonomic function assessed using laser Doppler flowmetry of the finger pulp at baseline and while viewing a control figure or AVS. Compared to controls, there were diminished vasoconstrictor responses and a significant difference in the ratio of response between affected and unaffected limbs (symmetry ratio) to a deep breath and viewing AVS. While viewing visual stimuli, 33.5% of patients had asymmetric vasomotor responses and all healthy controls had a homologous symmetric pattern of response. Nineteen (61%) CRPS patients had enhanced pain within seconds of viewing the AVS. All the asymmetric vasomotor responses were in this group, and were not predictable from baseline autonomic function. Ten patients had accompanying dystonic reactions in their affected limb: 50% were in the asymmetric sub-group. In conclusion, there is a group of CRPS patients that demonstrate abnormal pain networks interacting with central somatomotor and autonomic integrational pathways. © 2011 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  19. Bilateral complex regional pain syndrome following spinal cord injury and bilateral calcaneus fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Boyacı

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a disease affectingone or more extremities, characterized by spontaneouspain, allodynia, hyperpathia and hyperalgesia.CRPS is separated into Type 1 and Type 2. CRPS whichdevelops after a nociceptive event is labeled as Type 1and when it develops following peripheral nerve damage,Type 2. Although the pathogenesis is not fully understood,peripheral and central sensitivity are held responsible.Bilateral lower extremity involvement is extremely rare.However, it should be borne in mind that it can develop intraumatic injuries which occur in more than one area anddiagnosis and commencement of a rehabilitation programshould be made in the early period. The case is presentedhere of bilateral Type 1 CRPS developing after incompletespinal cord injury and bilateral calcaneus fracture. JClin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (3: 360-363Key words: complex regional pain syndrome, calcaneusfracture, spinal cord injury

  20. Motor imagery and its effect on complex regional pain syndrome: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Silva de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The motor imagery (MI has been proposed as a treatment in the complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1, since it seems to promote a brain reorganization effect on sensory- motor areas of pain perception. The aim of this paper is to investigate, through an integrative critical review, the influence of MI on the CRPS-1, correlating their evidence to clinical practice. Research in PEDro, Medline, Bireme and Google Scholar databases was conducted. Nine randomized controlled trials (level 2, 1 non-controlled clinical study (level 3, 1 case study (level 4, 1 systematic review (level 1, 2 review articles and 1 comment (level 5 were found. We can conclude that MI has shown effect in reducing pain and functionality that remains after 6 months of treatment. However, the difference between the MI strategies for CRPS-1 is unknown as well as the intensity of mental stress influences the painful response or effect of MI or other peripheral neuropathies.

  1. [Complex regional pain syndrome I and II. What effects the outcome?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehling, M; Tryba, M; Niebergall, H; Hufschmidt, A; Schild, M; Geiger, K

    2003-10-01

    The results of clinical studies have raised doubts on the effectiveness of regional sympathetic blocks with guanethidine (IVRSB) in patients suffering from complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). We conducted a retrospective analysis of long-term results in our patients and searched for possible factors predicting long-term outcome after IVRSB: After approval by our ethics commission and written informed consent, 42/44 patients were included. We documented diagnosis, history, therapy and long-term result from charts. Long-term results were also obtained from a questionnaire administered to the patients. These were defined as very good (reduction of pain > or =75%), good (pain reduction or =50%), moderate (pain reduction or =25%) or poor (pain reduction 2 weeks (OR=3.27, CI 0.86-12.36). The factors duration of time until therapy, initial pain intensity and total dose of guanethidine were not associated with increased rates of moderate or poor outcome. We only seldom observed a complete functional restoration after CRPS. Male patients CRPS failed to prove the effectiveness of this intervention. If other investigations confirm our impression, future studies of CRPS-treatments should be planned and analysed with regard to the possible influence of the natural course and different risks of chronic pain among patients with CRPS.

  2. Clinical features and pathophysiology of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome – current state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinus, Johan; Moseley, G. Lorimer; Birklein, Frank; Baron, Ralf; Maihöfner, Christian; Kingery, Wade S.; van Hilten, Jacobus J.

    2017-01-01

    That a minor injury can trigger a complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) - multiple system dysfunction, severe and often chronic pain and disability - has fascinated scientists and perplexed clinicians for decades. However, substantial advances across several medical disciplines have recently increased our understanding of CRPS. Compelling evidence implicates biological pathways that underlie aberrant inflammation, vasomotor dysfunction, and maladaptive neuroplasticity in the clinical features of CRPS. Collectively, the evidence points to CRPS being a multifactorial disorder that is associated with an aberrant host response to tissue injury. Varying susceptibility to perturbed regulation of any of the underlying biological pathways probably accounts for the clinical heterogeneity of CRPS. PMID:21683929

  3. Inflammatory arthritis mimicking Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) in a child: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egilmez, Zeliha; Turgut, Selin Turan; Icagasioglu, Afitap; Bicakci, Irem

    2016-01-01

    Joint complaints in childhood are seen frequently and differential diagnosis can be difficult. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatological disease of childhood. It involves peripheral joint arthritis, chronic synovitis, and extra-articular manifestations. Accurate diagnosis can take a long time and sometimes multiple diagnoses are used while following the patient until a final diagnosis can be reached. Arthritis may be triggered by trauma and confused with other diseases like complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), in which trauma plays a role in the etiology. In the present case, ankle pain in an 8-year-old girl was misdiagnosed as CRPS.

  4. Imaging of Posttraumatic Arthritis, Avascular Necrosis, Septic Arthritis, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, and Cancer Mimicking Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupasov, Andrey; Cain, Usa; Montoya, Simone; Blickman, Johan G

    2017-09-01

    This article focuses on the imaging of 5 discrete entities with a common end result of disability: posttraumatic arthritis, a common form of secondary osteoarthritis that results from a prior insult to the joint; avascular necrosis, a disease of impaired osseous blood flow, leading to cellular death and subsequent osseous collapse; septic arthritis, an infectious process leading to destructive changes within the joint; complex regional pain syndrome, a chronic limb-confined painful condition arising after injury; and cases of cancer mimicking arthritis, in which the initial findings seem to represent arthritis, despite a more insidious cause. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bilaretal Complex Regional Pain Syndrome After Bilateral Calcaneal Fractures: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan Hız

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a painful complication of a fracture, surgery, or other type of injury. Currently KBAS is categorized as CRPS-1 when no clear nerve injury is defined, and CRPS -2 when associated with clear nevre injury. Central and peripheral theory have been reported in etiopathogenesis of CRPS -1. Generally, it occurs in the injured limb but, it may ocur in the opposite extremities. İn this article, we have presented a case developing bilateral CRPS -1 after bilateral calcaneal fracture. (Osteoporoz Dünyasından 2010;16:38-40

  6. Bilateral Complex Regional Pain Syndrome after Fracture of Bilateral Tibia and Fibula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Şaş

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1 is a painful clinical condition. It occurs after a painful event and characterized by allodynia, hyperalgesia, edema, abnormalities in skin blood flow and abnormal sudomotor activity. When CRPS-1 is associated with nerve injury, it is defined as CRPS-2. Central and peripheral theory are responsible in etiopathogenesis of CRPS-1. Generally it occurs in the injured limb. But, it may ocur in the opposite extremities. In this article, we present a case developing bilateral CRPS-1 after bilateral tibia and fibula fracture by reviewing current literatüre.

  7. Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture: An Effective Treatment for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Min Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Treating complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is difficult because it still does not have a recommended therapy. A 29-year-old man was diagnosed with CRPS after surgery on his 4th and 5th left toes 7 years ago. Though he had undergone diverse pain treatment, the symptoms persisted, so he visited Dunsan Korean Medicine Hospital of Daejeon University. This case report presents results on the effect of bee venom pharmacopuncture in treating patient with CRPS. Methods: Bee venom pharmacopuncture (BVP, 0.15 to 0.4 mL dosage, was administered at GB43. The treatment was applied each week for a total 14 times. The symptoms were evaluated using a numeric rating scale (NRS and the dosage of pain medicine. Results: On the first visit, he was taking an anticonvulsant, a trycyclic antidepressant, and an analgesic. On the NRS the worst pain in the toes received a score of 8. He also complained of severe pain and hypersensitivity when the 4th and the 5th toes were touched just slightly. Other complaint included dyspepsia, rash, and depression. After treatment, on the NRS, the score for toe pain was 0, and he no longer needed to take pain medication. During the 4-months follow-up period, he has remained without pain; neither have additional symptoms appeared nor adverse events occurred. Conclusion: BVP may have potential benefits for treating patients with CRPS.

  8. A case of recurrent complex regional pain syndrome accompanying Raynaud's disease: a prospective coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesikburun, Serdar; Günendi, Zafer; Aydemir, Koray; Özgül, Ahmet; Tan, Arif Kenan

    2013-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CPRS) and Raynaud's disease are disorders characterized by vasomotor disturbances associating with abnormal autonomic nervous system. We present a case of CRPS involving a history of recurrence and no initiating event. Raynaud's disease accompanying CRPS was diagnosed clinically in the patient. We propose that a sympathetic dysfunction underlies the pathophysiologies of both disorders and may be responsible for the coexistence of these two distinct entities. Recurrence and unknown etiology of CRPS might account for temporary alterations in sympathetic function.

  9. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH COMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME IN SURGICALLY TREATED DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURE

    OpenAIRE

    ORTIZ-ROMERO, JOEL; BERMUDEZ-SOTO, IGNACIO; TORRES-GONZÁLEZ, RUBÉN; ESPINOZA-CHOQUE, FERNANDO; ZAZUETA-HERNANDEZ, JESÚS ABRAHAM; PEREZ-ATANASIO, JOSÉ MANUEL

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with developing complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) after surgical treatment for distal radius fracture (DRF). Methods: This case-control study analyzed patients seen from January 2014 to January 2016. Results: In our sample of 249 patients, 4% developed CRPS. Associated factors were economic compensation via work disability (odds ratio [OR] 14.3), age (OR 9.38), associated fracture (OR 12.94), and level of impac...

  10. Sympathetic skin responses in hemiplegic patients with and without complex regional pain syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Selçuk Barin; Ersoz Murat; Inanir Murat; Kurtaran Aydan; Akyuz Müfit

    2006-01-01

    Background and Aims: To investigate whether there were changes in the sympathetic skin responses (SSR) in the limbs with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type I in hemiplegic patients. Setting: A physical medicine and rehabilitation center in Turkey . Materials and Methods: Sympathetic skin responses were evaluated in 69 stroke patients (41 with CRPS and 28 without CRPS) and 20 healthy volunteers. SSR were recorded on the paretic and healthy hands after stimulation of the ipsilateral...

  11. Disease-related knowledge of patients with chronic regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Florian; Gymesi, Adrian; Kissling, Rudolf; Bachmann, Lucas M

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate patients' knowledge of the most salient features of complex regional pain syndrome and to identify patient characteristics associated with the patients' level of knowledge. Questionnaire interview of 101 patients with complex regional pain syndrome in Switzerland (mean age 54 years, 77% female). A questionnaire about patients' disease-related knowledge was developed and piloted. The level of knowledge was defined by a consensus process among clinical experts and a patient. The questions were based on expert consensus about the minimum knowledge a person affected with complex regional pain syndrome should have. Only 6 patients (6%) reached the minimum medical knowledge. The mean score for all participants was 7.6 points out of a total score of 11 points (range 3-11, SD 2.1). The scores were slightly higher among patients with higher education (apprenticeship, vocational school +0.38 (95% confidence interval (CI); -0.59 to 1.34: p=0.44), university entrance diploma +1.12 (95% CI-0.16 to 2.49: p=0.08), university diploma, advanced technical college +2.36 (95% CI 1.11-3.61: p<0.001)) compared with mandatory school, and among those with professional medical backgrounds +1.13 (95% CI 0.06-2.20: p=0.04). Most patients received information from their caregivers and wanted to know more about therapy or general aspects of the condition. Many patients with complex regional pain syndrome do not have the minimum knowledge of their disease as defined by clinical experts. Physicians should be aware that patients expect to receive disease-related information primarily from their caregivers. In particular, patients wanted more information about therapy and general aspects of the illness.

  12. Evaluation of a prototype tool for communicating body perception disturbances in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ailie eTurton; Mark ePalmer; Sharon eGrieve; Tim eMoss; Jenny eLewis; Candy eMcCabe

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) experience distressing changes in body perception. However representing body perception is a challenge. A digital media tool for communicating body perception disturbances was developed. A proof of concept study evaluating the acceptability of the application for patients to communicate their body perception is reported in this methods paper.Thirteen CRPS participants admitted to a two week inpatient rehabilitation program used the applicat...

  13. Evaluation of a Prototype Tool for Communicating Body Perception Disturbances in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Turton, A.; Palmer, M.; Grieve, S.; Moss, T; Lewis, J.; McCabe, C

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) experience distressing changes in body perception. However representing body perception is a challenge. A digital media tool for communicating body perception disturbances was developed. A proof of concept study evaluating the acceptability of the application for patients to communicate their body perception is reported in this methods paper. Thirteen CRPS participants admitted to a 2-week inpatient rehabilitation program used the applicatio...

  14. Impaired spatial body representation in complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinersmann, Annika; Landwehrt, Julia; Krumova, Elena K; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Güntürkün, Onur; Maier, Christoph

    2012-11-01

    Recently, a shift of the visual subjective body midline (vSM), a correlate of the egocentric reference frame, towards the affected side was reported in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). However, the specificity of this finding is as yet unclear. This study compares 24 CRPS patients to 21 patients with upper limb pain of other origin (pain control) and to 24 healthy subjects using a comprehensive test battery, including assessment of the vSM in light and dark, line bisection, hand laterality recognition, neglect-like severity symptoms, and motor impairment (disability of the arm, shoulder, and hand). 1-way analysis of variance, t-tests, significance level: 0.05. In the dark, CRPS patients displayed a significantly larger leftward spatial bias when estimating their vSM, compared to pain controls and healthy subjects, and also reported lower motor function than pain controls. For right-affected CRPS patients only, the deviation of the vSM correlated significantly with the severity of distorted body perception. Results confirm previous findings of impaired visuospatial perception in CRPS patients, which might be the result of the involvement of supraspinal mechanisms in this pain syndrome. These mechanisms might accentuate the leftward bias that results from a right-hemispheric dominance in visuospatial processing and is known as pseudoneglect. Pseudoneglect reveals itself in the tendency to perceive the midpoint of horizontal lines or the subjective body midline left of the centre. It was observable in all 3 groups, but most pronounced in CRPS patients, which might be due to the cortical reorganisation processes associated with this syndrome. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuropeptides, neurogenic inflammation and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birklein, Frank; Schmelz, Martin

    2008-06-06

    This review explains symptoms and nature of neuropeptide signaling and its importance for clinical symptoms of CRPS. Neurogenic inflammation regularly accompanies excitation of primary afferent nociceptors. It has two major components-plasma extravasation and vasodilatation. The most important mediators are the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). After peripheral trauma immune reaction (e.g. cytokines) and the attempts of the tissue to regenerate (e.g. growth factors) sensitize nociceptors and amplify neurogenic inflammation. This cascade of events has been demonstrated in rat models of CRPS. Clinical findings in these animals strongly resemble clinical findings in CRPS, and can be prevented by anti-cytokine and anti-neuropeptide treatment. In CRPS patients, there is meanwhile also plenty of evidence that neurogenic inflammation contributes to clinical presentation. Increased cytokine production was demonstrated, as well as facilitated neurogenic inflammation. Very recently even "non-inflammatory" signs of CRPS (hyperhidrosis, cold skin) have been linked to neuropeptide signaling. Surprisingly, there was even moderately increased neurogenic inflammation in unaffected body regions. This favors the possibility that CRPS patients share genetic similarities. The future search for genetic commonalities will help us to further unravel the "mystery" CRPS.

  16. Intended and unintended (sensory-)motor coupling between the affected and unaffected upper limb in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bank, P.J.M.; Peper, C.E.; Marinus, J.; Van Hilten, J.J.; Beek, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Motor dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) has been associated with bilateral malfunction of sensory and motor circuits, which hints at abnormal coupling between the affected and the contralateral unaffected limb. In addition, clinical observations suggest that motor

  17. Force modulation deficits in complex regional pain syndrome: A potential role for impaired sense of force production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bank, P.J.M.; van Rooijen, D.E.; Marinus, J.J.; Reilmann, R.; Van Hilten, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Compelling evidence points at both impaired proprioception and disturbed force control in patients with chronic complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Because force modulation at least partly relies on proprioception, we evaluated if impaired sense of force production contributes to

  18. Altered central sensorimotor processing in patients with complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juottonen, Kirsi; Gockel, Maarit; Silén, Teija; Hurri, Heikki; Hari, Riitta; Forss, Nina

    2002-08-01

    Alterations in tactile sensitivity are common in patients with chronic pain. Recent brain imaging studies have indicated that brain areas activated by acute experimental pain partly overlap with areas processing innocuous tactile stimuli. However, the possible effect of chronic pain on central tactile processing has remained unclear. We have examined, both clinically and with whole-head magnetoencephalography, six patients suffering from complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) of the upper limb. The cortical somatosensory responses were elicited by tactile stimuli applied to the fingertips and the reactivity of spontaneous brain oscillations was monitored as well. Tactile stimulation of the index finger elicited an initial activation at 65 ms in the contralateral SI cortex, followed by activation of the ipsi- and contralateral SII cortices at about 130 ms. The SI responses were 25-55% stronger to stimulation of the painful than the healthy side. The distance between SI representations of thumb and little finger was significantly shorter in the hemisphere contralateral than ipsilateral to the painful upper limb. In addition, reactivity of the 20-Hz motor cortex rhythm to tactile stimuli was altered in the CRPS patients, suggesting modified inhibition of the motor cortex. These results imply that chronic pain may alter central tactile and motor processing.

  19. [Complex regional pain syndrome following distal fractures of the radius : Epidemiology, pathophysiological models, diagnostics and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harhaus, L; Neubrech, F; Hirche, C; Schilling, T; Kohler, H; Mayr, A; Riesmeier, A; Bickert, B; Kneser, U

    2016-09-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) still represents an incompletely etiologically understood complication following fractures of the distal radius. The incidence of CRPS following fractures of the distal radius varies between 1 % and 37 %. Pathophysiologically, a complex interaction of inflammatory, somatosensory, motor and autonomic changes is suspected, leading to a persistent maladaptive response and sensitization of the central and peripheral nervous systems with development of the corresponding symptoms. Decisive for the diagnostics are a detailed patient medical history and a clinical hand surgical, neurological and pain-related examination with confirmation of the Budapest criteria. Among the types of apparatus used for diagnostics, 3‑phase bone scintigraphy and temperature measurement have a certain importance. A multimodal therapy started as early as possible is the most promising approach for successful treatment. As part of a multimodal rehabilitation the main focus of therapy lies on pain relief and functional aspects.

  20. Complex regional pain syndrome in a competitive athlete and regional osteoporosis assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Karen; Johnson, Mark I

    2014-05-27

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is rarely utilized in the clinical care of patients with complex regional pain syndrome, but may be useful for the non-invasive determination of regional bone fragility and fracture risk, as well as muscular atrophy and regional body composition. This is the first report in the literature of complex regional pain syndrome and musculoskeletal co-morbidities in an athlete, and is the first to focus on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for the clinical assessment of complex regional pain syndrome. In this report, we describe the case of a 29-year-old Caucasian man with type 1 complex regional pain syndrome. His body mass index was 29.4kg/m2 at the time of presentation. Despite severe complex regional pain syndrome in the left limb and long term use of a wheelchair, the patient participated in high-performance powerlifting. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry revealed marked unilateral differences in bone strength and lean mass between the affected regions and the contralateral regions. Low bone mineral density for age was found in the left hip, with Z-scores ranging from -2.2 to -3.0, and the patient had previously suffered two fractures. Bone density Z-scores in the right hip and legs were normal. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is a valuable tool for the clinical investigation of musculoskeletal health in patients with complex regional pain syndrome. Regional osteoporosis in complex regional pain syndrome patients is complicated and should be investigated and monitored. Physical activity is possible for some complex regional pain syndrome patients, depending on the type of exercise and the region affected, and it may protect bone density and strength at non affected skeletal sites.

  1. IASP diagnostic criteria for complex regional pain syndrome: a preliminary empirical validation study. International Association for the Study of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galer, B S; Bruehl, S; Harden, R N

    1998-03-01

    To assess the ability of the International Association for the Study of Pain Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) diagnostic criteria and associated features to discriminate between CRPS patients and patients with painful diabetic neuropathy. Prospective assessment of signs and symptoms in a series of CRPS and diabetic neuropathy patients. University of Washington Multidisciplinary Pain Center. A consecutive series of 18 CRPS patients and 30 diabetic neuropathy patients. Patients completed a 10-item patient history questionnaire assessing symptoms of CRPS prior to medical evaluation. The evaluating physician completed a 10-item patient examination questionnaire assessing objective signs of CRPS. The analyses conducted were designed to test the ability of CRPS signs and symptoms and associated features to discriminate between CRPS patients and diabetic neuropathy patients. Data analysis suggested that CRPS decision rules may lead to overdiagnosis of the disorder. Diagnosis based on self-reported symptoms can be diagnostically useful in some circumstances. The addition of trophic tissue changes, range of motion changes, and "burning" quality of pain did not improve diagnostic accuracy, but the addition of motor neglect signs did. Test of a CRPS scoring system resulted in improved accuracy relative to current criteria and decision rules. Poorly understood disorders lacking prototypical signs/symptoms and diagnostic laboratory testing must rely on the development of reliable diagnostic guidelines. The results of this study should assist in the further refinement of the CRPS diagnostic criteria.

  2. Complex regional pain syndrome of the lower extremity: a retrospective study of 33 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D J; Fallat, L M

    1999-01-01

    Even when diagnosed early and treated appropriately, patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), a condition that can lead to severe painful dysfunction of the limb, may continue to have long-term pain. A retrospective study was conducted of 33 patients with a positive history of CRPS I, CRPS II, or sympathetically maintained pain (SMP) of the lower limb who were treated in either a clinical setting or a pain management center. The average age of individuals diagnosed with CRPS was 43.5 +/- 12.6 (mean +/-SD) years with 60% being female. The most common diagnosis was CRPS I (75.8%) followed by SMP (21.2%), and finally CRPS II (3.0%). The dominant etiology was confirmed as trauma (73%), with the remaining nine cases resulting from elective foot surgery. Fractures were the most common type of injury (45%) and excision of neuroma was the most frequent elective surgical procedure (30%). Time from injury to diagnosis in patients with foot and ankle trauma was 3.9 +/- 3.0 months and from elective surgery to diagnosis was 9.1 +/- 4.0 months (t test, p CRPS who seem to be successfully treated, and are discharged from care, still have severe pain years later.

  3. An update on complex regional pain syndromes in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki, Amber N; Greco, Christine D

    2015-08-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition typically involving a limb, which is characterized by neuropathic pain, sensory abnormalities and neurovascular findings. The exact cause of CRPS is unknown; however, proposed theories include alterations in the sympathetic and central nervous system (CNS), small fibre changes in the peripheral nervous system and psychological factors. Although this condition was previously considered rare among children and adolescents, it has been increasingly recognized in paediatric patients and can result in significant disability. The diagnosis of paediatric CRPS is based upon clinical criteria obtained from a thorough history and physical examination. Other possible causes, such as orthopaedic, infectious, vascular and rheumatologic disorders, should be ruled out prior to making the diagnosis. Treatment focuses on a rehabilitative strategy consisting of physical therapy, occupational therapy and cognitive-behavioural therapy with an overall focus on return to functioning. CRPS in children and adolescents is characterized by a painful, mottled appearing, swollen limb with allodynia and hyperalgesia. For most patients, pain is severe, resulting in significant functional disability. More recent evidence suggests that a rehabilitative programme results in improvement in both pain and functional measures.

  4. Association of Neglect-Like Symptoms with Anxiety, Somatization, and Depersonalization in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Matthias; Adler, Julia; Reiner, Iris; Wermke, Andreas; Ackermann, Tatiana; Schlereth, Tanja; Birklein, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Many patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) report some foreignness of the affected limb, which is referred to as "neglect-like symptoms" (NLS). Despite similarities of the NLS reports to symptoms of body image disturbances in mental disorders, no study has been conducted to examine such associations. We investigated 50 patients with CRPS and 45 pain control patients (N = 27, chronic limb pain; N = 18, migraine headache). NLS, anxiety, depression, depersonalization, and somatization were assessed using validated questionnaires. Seventy-two percent of the CRPS patients reported at least one NLS vs 29.6% and 33.3% in the two patient control groups. In limb pain controls, NLS correlated with pain intensity. In CRPS patients, NLS correlated with anxiety (rho = 0.658, P  somatization (rho = 0.616, P  somatization, depression, anxiety, and depersonalization, but probably not of pain. Whether these associations are causative must be clarified in longitudinal psychological studies.

  5. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome-Like Changes Following Surgery and Immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Alison; Li, Wenwu; Kingery, Wade S.; Angst, Martin S.; Curtin, Catherine M.; Clark, J. David

    2013-01-01

    The study of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) in humans is complicated by inhomogeneities in available study cohorts. We hoped to characterize early CRPS-like features in patients undergoing hand surgery. Forty-three patients were recruited from a hand surgery clinic that had elective surgeries followed by cast immobilization. On the day of cast removal, patients were assessed for vasomotor, sudomotor, and trophic changes, edema and pain sensitization using quantitative sensory testing. Pain intensity was assessed at the time of cast removal and after one additional month as was the nature of the pain using the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS). Skin biopsies were harvested for the analysis of expression of inflammatory mediators. We identified vascular and trophic changes in the surgical hands of most patients. Increased sensitivity to punctate, pressure and cold stimuli were observed commonly as well. Moreover, levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha and the mast cell marker tryptase were elevated in the skin of hands ipsilateral to surgery. Moderate to severe pain persisted in the surgical hands for up to one month after cast removal. Exploratory analyses suggested interrelationships between the physical, QST and gene expression changes and pain related outcomes. PMID:23453564

  6. Biochemical and Pharmacological Characterization of a Mice Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Vaskar; Kroin, Jeffrey S; Moric, Mario; Buvanendran, Asokumar

    Complex regional pain syndrome is a challenging disease to treat. Recently, a mouse fracture model of complex regional pain syndrome has been developed that has many signs of the clinical syndrome. However, many aspects of the sensory neuron biochemistry and behavioral and pharmacological characterization of this model remain to be clarified. Mice were randomly assigned to fracture/cast or control (naive) groups. Fracture/cast mice underwent a closed distal tibia facture, with hindlimb wrapped in casting tape for 3 weeks. After cast removal, mice were tested for mechanical allodynia, burrowing behavior, and motor ability over a 12-week period. Protein immunohistochemistry was performed for substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, tropomyosin receptor kinase A, nerve growth factor, Nav1.7, and transient receptor potential cation-channel V1, colocalized in neurons, in the ipsilateral lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). Analgesic drugs were tested for pain-relieving efficacy. Mechanical allodynia was greater in the ipsilateral hindpaw (P = 0.0002) in the fracture/cast group versus the control group, over the 3- to 12-week period. The amount of burrowing material removed was decreased (P = 0.0026), and there were deficits in spontaneous motor-rearing behavior (P = 0.018). Immunostaining of substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, Trk A receptor, nerve growth factor, Nav1.7, and transient receptor potential cation-channel V1 all demonstrated up-regulation in the DRGs of fracture mice versus controls (all P mouse fracture/cast model with wide-scale DRG up-regulation of pain mediators. Antihyperalgesic drugs reduced mechanical allodynia and improved burrowing.

  7. The risk of pain syndrome affecting a previously non-painful limb following trauma or surgery in patients with a history of complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satteson, Ellen S; Harbour, Patrick W; Koman, L Andrew; Smith, Beth P; Li, Zhongyu

    2017-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a challenging complication after surgery or trauma. This study sought to determine the incidence of CRPS after a second inciting event in a previously unaffected extremity in patients with a history of an ongoing CRPS diagnosis in another extremity. A retrospective review identified patients with CRPS seen in clinic over a 20-month period. The incidence of CRPS after subsequent surgery or injury in a previous unaffected extremity was determined and compared to an average incidence reported in the literature. Ninety-three patients had a diagnosis of primary CRPS. Nineteen (20.4%) developed CRPS in one or more additional extremity compared to the incidence of 23.4 per 100,000 (0.0234%) in the literature (odds ratio 1069.6, pCRPS compared to a CRPS incidence rate of 6.4% following distal radius fracture, as determined by literature review (odds ratio 11.7, phistory of CRPS are more likely to develop secondary CRPS compared to the rates reported in the literature among the general population. Patients with a history of CRPS should be counselled that they may be at risk for developing secondary CRPS if they undergo surgery or sustain trauma to another extremity. Copyright © 2016 Scandinavian Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Concurrent Peripheral Pathologies and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 as Contributors to Acute Post-Stroke Shoulder Pain: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Majid Akhavan Hejazi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-stroke shoulder pain is associated with either a peripheral or central pathology. However, most of the time, it is challenging to establish a cause-and-effect relationship between the suggested pathology and shoulder pain reported. We report a 66 year-old man who developed a right hemiplegic shoulder pain two months post stroke with initial investigations suggestive of peripheral pathologies. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment did not improve his shoulder pain. Later he developed complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS of the right hand and the initial shoulder pain subsequently relieved following resolution of the CRPS.

  9. Concurrent peripheral pathologies and complex regional pain syndrome type 1 as contributors to acute post-stroke shoulder pain: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan Hejazi, Seyed Majid; Mazlan, Mazlina

    2012-01-01

    Post-stroke shoulder pain is associated with either a peripheral or central pathology. However, most of the time, it is challenging to establish a cause-and-effect relationship between the suggested pathology and shoulder pain reported. We report a 66 year-old man who developed a right hemiplegic shoulder pain two months post stroke with initial investigations suggestive of peripheral pathologies. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment did not improve his shoulder pain. Later he developed complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) of the right hand and the initial shoulder pain subsequently relieved following resolution of the CRPS. © 2012 Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.

  10. Brain neuroplastic changes accompany anxiety and memory deficits in a model of complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajerian, Maral; Leu, David; Zou, Yani; Sahbaie, Peyman; Li, Wenwu; Khan, Hamda; Hsu, Vivian; Kingery, Wade; Huang, Ting Ting; Becerra, Lino; Clark, J David

    2014-10-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful condition with approximately 50,000 annual new cases in the United States. It is a major cause of work-related disability, chronic pain after limb fractures, and persistent pain after extremity surgery. Additionally, CRPS patients often experience cognitive changes, anxiety, and depression. The supraspinal mechanisms linked to these CRPS-related comorbidities remain poorly understood. The authors used a previously characterized mouse model of tibia fracture/cast immobilization showing the principal stigmata of CRPS (n = 8 to 20 per group) observed in humans. The central hypothesis was that fracture/cast mice manifest changes in measures of thigmotaxis (indicative of anxiety) and working memory reflected in neuroplastic changes in amygdala, perirhinal cortex, and hippocampus. The authors demonstrate that nociceptive sensitization in these mice is accompanied by altered thigmotactic behaviors in the zero maze but not open field assay, and working memory dysfunction in novel object recognition and social memory but not in novel location recognition. Furthermore, the authors found evidence of structural changes and synaptic plasticity including changes in dendritic architecture and decreased levels of synaptophysin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in specific brain regions. The study findings provide novel observations regarding behavioral changes and brain plasticity in a mouse model of CRPS. In addition to elucidating some of the supraspinal correlates of the syndrome, this work supports the potential use of therapeutic interventions that not only directly target sensory input and other peripheral mechanisms, but also attempt to ameliorate the broader pain experience by modifying its associated cognitive and emotional comorbidities.

  11. Investigating Reports of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Analysis of HPV-16/18-Adjuvanted Vaccine Post-Licensure Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.P.M. Huygen (Frank); K. Verschueren (Kristin); C. McCabe (Candida); J.-U. Stegmann (Jens-Ulrich); J. Zima (Julia); O. Mahaux (Olivia); L. Van Holle (Lionel); M.-G. Angelo (Maria-Genalin)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractComplex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain disorder that typically follows trauma or surgery. Suspected CRPS reported after vaccination with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines led to temporary suspension of proactive recommendation of HPV vaccination in Japan. We

  12. A rare complication of total knee arthroplasty: Type l complex regional pain syndrome of the foot and ankle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Özcan Söylev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a painful and disabling disorder that usually affects the extremities. This complication may affect the knee joint after total knee arthroplasty (TKA. We report a unique case of CRPS of the foot and ankle, which was an unusual involvement site for CRPS after TKA.

  13. Muscle hyperalgesia is widespread in patients with complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooijen, Diana E; Marinus, Johan; van Hilten, Jacobus J

    2013-12-01

    Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) frequently show prominent sensory abnormalities in their affected limb, which may extend proximally and even to unaffected body regions. This study examines whether sensory dysfunction is observed in unaffected body parts of CRPS patients, and investigates whether the extent of dysfunction is similar for the various sensory modalities. Quantitative sensory testing was performed in the unaffected extremities and cheeks of 48 patients with CRPS of the arm (31 with dystonia), and the results were compared with values obtained among healthy controls. The most prominent abnormality was the pressure pain threshold, which showed a consistent pattern of higher sensitivity in unaffected contralateral arms and unaffected legs, as well as the cheek, and demonstrated the largest effect sizes. The cheeks of CRPS patients showed thermal hypoesthesia and hyperalgesia as well as a loss of vibration detection. Except for a lower vibration threshold in the contralateral leg of CRPS patients with dystonia, no differences in sensory modalities were found between CRPS patients with and without dystonia. These results point to a general disturbance in central pain processing in patients with CRPS, which may be attributed to impaired endogenous pain control. Since pressure pain is the most deviant sensory abnormality in both unaffected and affected body regions of CRPS patients, this test may serve as an important outcome parameter in future studies and may be used as a tool to monitor the course of the disease. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I). Pathophysiology, diagnostics, and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köck, F X; Borisch, N; Koester, B; Grifka, J

    2003-05-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS type I)--formerly termed Sudeck's atrophy or reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD)--causes chronic, poorly controllable pain, autonomic, sensorimotor disorders,and serious trophic alterations in the later stages. It develops in the distal extremities mostly after minimal trauma or surgical intervention and rarely spontaneously. The severity of symptoms is disproportionate to the causative event. The latest scientific findings show that the previously called reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), which was supposed to be a result of a hyperreactive autonomic nervous system,is a very complex syndrome that occurs on different integration levels of the nervous system. Sympathetically maintained pain (SMP) may be facultatively characteristic, but is not to be misunderstood as an underlying mechanism. A neurogenic inflammation reaction has recently been discussed, just as had been postulated by Paul Sudeck long before. That was the reason why the International Association for the Study of Pain (ISAP) introduced the more descriptive term "complex regional pain syndrome" (CRPS) type I in 1994. Due to the complexity of the process necessitating qualified knowledge, it is important to immediately refer patients to a specialized pain OPD or clinic. The diagnosis of CRPS type I is based upon a carefully taken case history and a clinical examination by an experienced practitioner. Imaging diagnostic tools and laboratory findings are of no or only low predicative value. The question of whether SMP exists after diagnosing CRPS type I is eminent for therapy planning. Therefore, diagnostic regional anesthetics are still important in spite of their uncertain prognostic relevance. Physical therapy, occupational therapy, medical treatment, and psychotherapy play an important role in the primary treatment of CRPS type I as noninvasive procedures. Despite heavy criticism, invasive sympathetic block, subsequent to adequate diagnostics, is an

  15. Sex differences in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chaoliang; Li, Juan; Tai, Wai Lydia; Yao, Weifeng; Zhao, Bo; Hong, Junmou; Shi, Si; Wang, Song; Xia, Zhongyuan

    2017-01-01

    Sex differences have been increasingly highlighted in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in clinical practice. In CRPS type I (CRPS-I), although inflammation and oxidative stress have been implicated in its pathogenesis, whether pain behavior and the underlying mechanism are sex-specific is unclear. In the present study, we sought to explore whether sex differences have an impact on inflammation, oxidative stress, and pain sensitivity in CRPS-I. Chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP) was established in both male and female mice as an animal model of CRPS-I. Edema and mechanical allodynia of bilateral hind paws were assessed after reperfusion. Blood samples were analyzed for serum levels of oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines. Both male and female mice developed edema. Male mice developed CPIP at day 3 after reperfusion; female mice developed CPIP at day 2 after reperfusion. Female mice displayed significantly earlier and higher mechanical allodynia in the ischemic hind paw, which was associated with higher serum levels of IL-2, TNF-α, isoprostanes, 8 OhdG, and malondialdehyde at day 2 after reperfusion. Moreover, female mice showed significantly lower SOD and IL-4 compared to male mice at day 2 after reperfusion. Our results indicate that sex differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress states may play a central role in the sex-specific nociceptive hypersensitivity in CRPS-I, and offer a new insight into pharmacology treatments to improve pain management with CRPS.

  16. Neurological findings in complex regional pain syndromes--analysis of 145 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birklein, F; Riedl, B; Sieweke, N; Weber, M; Neundörfer, B

    2000-04-01

    Early diagnosis is a prerequisite for a successful treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). In order to describe neurological symptoms which characterize CRPS, we evaluated 145 patients prospectively. Two-thirds of these were women, the mean age at time of investigation was 50.4 years. CRPS followed limb trauma, surgery and nerve lesion. Employing the current IASP criteria 122 patients were classified as CRPS I and 23 as CRPS II. All patients were assessed clinically pain was quantified using the McGill pain questionnaire, skin temperature was measured by an infrared thermometer and a subgroup of 57 patients was retested in order to determine thermal thresholds (QST). Of our patients 42% reported stressful life events in a close relationship to the onset of CRPS and 41% had a history of chronic pain before CRPS. The latter group of patients gave a higher rating of CRPS pain (PCRPS. Skin temperature was warmer in acute and colder in chronic stages (PCRPS could help physicians early to recognize the disease and thus to improve therapy outcome.

  17. Abnormal Brain Responses to Action Observation in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Jaakko; Saari, Jukka; Koskinen, Miika; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Forss, Nina; Hari, Riitta

    2017-03-01

    Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) display various abnormalities in central motor function, and their pain is intensified when they perform or just observe motor actions. In this study, we examined the abnormalities of brain responses to action observation in CRPS. We analyzed 3-T functional magnetic resonance images from 13 upper limb CRPS patients (all female, ages 31-58 years) and 13 healthy, age- and sex-matched control subjects. The functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired while the subjects viewed brief videos of hand actions shown in the first-person perspective. A pattern-classification analysis was applied to characterize brain areas where the activation pattern differed between CRPS patients and healthy subjects. Brain areas with statistically significant group differences (q CRPS impairs action observation by affecting brain areas related to pain processing and motor control. This article shows that in CRPS, the observation of others' motor actions induces abnormal neural activity in brain areas essential for sensorimotor functions and pain. These results build the cerebral basis for action-observation impairments in CRPS. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Median Nerve Stimulation in a Patient with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ik-Chan; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Seong-Ho

    2009-09-01

    A 54-year-old man experienced injury to the second finger of his left hand due to damage from a paintball gun shot 8 years prior, and the metacarpo-phalangeal joint was amputated. He gradually developed mechanical allodynia and burning pain, and there were trophic changes of the thenar muscle and he reported coldness on his left hand and forearm. A neuroma was found on the left second common digital nerve and was removed, but his symptoms continued despite various conservative treatments including a morphine infusion pump on his left arm. We therefore attempted median nerve stimulation to treat the chronic pain. The procedure was performed in two stages. The first procedure involved exposure of the median nerve on the mid-humerus level and placing of the electrode. The trial stimulation lasted for 7 days and the patient's symptoms improved. The second procedure involved implantation of a pulse generator on the left subclavian area. The mechanical allodynia and pain relief score, based on the visual analogue scale, decreased from 9 before surgery to 4 after surgery. The patient's activity improved markedly, but trophic changes and vasomotor symptom recovered only moderately. In conclusion, median nerve stimulation can improve chronic pain from complex regional pain syndrome type II.

  19. Radiofrequency ablation of stellate ganglion in a patient with complex regional pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmoy Roy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is characterized by a combination of sensory, motor, vasomotor, pseudomotor dysfunctions and trophic signs. We describe the use of radiofrequency (RF ablation of Stellate ganglion (SG under fluoroscopy, for long-term suppression of sympathetic nervous system, in a patient having CRPS-not otherwise specified. Although the effects of thermal RF neurolysis may be partial or temporary, they may promote better conditions toward rehabilitation. The beneficial effect obtained by the RF neurolysis of SG in this particular patient strongly advocates the use of this mode of therapy in patients with CRPS.

  20. Periungual pyogenic granuloma formation in a patient with complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resenstein, Rachel; Lewellis, Stephen; Leger, Marie

    2015-12-16

    Peripheral nerve injury has been associated with the development of periungual pyogenic granuolomas (PGs). We present the case of a 39-year-old woman with an eight-month history of periungual PGs in the setting of a four-to-five year history of a traumatic inciting event that produced symptoms consistent with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Although recurrent, these periungual PGs have remitted after treatment with topical timolol maleate. This case exhibits an underappreciated association between peripheral neurologic abnormalities, which include CRPS, and cutaneous abnormalities. It also presents evidence that supports the concept that PGs that are not appropriate for surgical treatments may be treated with topical timolol maleate.

  1. Therapy-Resistant Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I: To Amputate or Not?

    OpenAIRE

    Bodde, M.I.; Dijkstra, P.U.; den Dunnen, W.F.A.; Geertzen, J.H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Amputation for the treatment of long-standing, therapy-resistant complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is controversial. An evidence-based decision regarding whether or not to amputate is not possible on the basis of current guidelines. The aim of the current study was to systematically review the literature and summarize the beneficial and adverse effects of an amputation for the treatment of long-standing, therapy-resistant CRPS-I. Methods: A literature search, using Me...

  2. Complex regional pain syndrome type I : Use of the International Association for the Study of Pain diagnostic criteria defined in 1994

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, M.F.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Dijkstra, P.U.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The objective was to assess the reported use in recent publications of the diagnostic criteria for complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS 1) proposed by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) in 1994. Methods: A literature search of MEDLINE (January 1996 to July

  3. Myofascial Pain Syndrome: A Treatment Review

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Mehul J; Saini, Vikramjeet; Saini, Shawnjeet

    2013-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is defined as pain that originates from myofascial trigger points in skeletal muscle. It is prevalent in regional musculoskeletal pain syndromes, either alone or in combination with other pain generators. The appropriate evaluation and management of myofascial pain is an important part of musculoskeletal rehabilitation, and regional axial and limb pain syndromes. This article reviews the current hypotheses regarding the treatment modalities for myofascial trigge...

  4. Course of symptoms and quality of life measurement in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: a pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galer, B S; Henderson, J; Perander, J; Jensen, M P

    2000-10-01

    Few data have been published regarding the natural history, course of symptoms, and quality of life in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). To obtain preliminary data regarding these important issues in CRPS, a set of patient self-report questionnaires were mailed to patients with the diagnosis of CRPS who had been assessed and/or treated at a tertiary university-based pain center in the United States. Self-reports of demographic information, symptoms, the Neuropathic Pain Scale, and a modified Brief Pain Inventory (mBPI) were received from 31 CRPS patients. Approximately 75% of patients reported initial symptoms of pain, swelling, coldness, and color changes. An additional 71% had weakness and inability to move the extremity as initial symptoms. Weakness at some time during their course of CRPS was described by 97%. A majority reported no overall improvement or worsening of symptoms over time (mean 3.3 years). The pain descriptors with the highest mean values were "deep" (6.4/10), "unpleasant" (6.4), "sensitive" (5.7), "surface" (5.4), and "dull" (5.3) pains. Significant sleep disturbance was reported by 80%. CRPS had a severe impact on quality of life, with substantial interference reported in 9 of 10 mBPI activity items by a majority of these patients. These findings should be viewed with caution and should not be generalized to the entire CRPS population because the cohort was small and select. A large multicenter prospective study needs to be performed to validate these preliminary findings.

  5. Epidemiology of complex regional pain syndrome: a retrospective chart review of 134 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G; Galer, B S; Schwartz, L

    1999-04-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) remains a poorly understood chronic pain disorder. Little data has been published assessing the epidemiology of CRPS (and reflex sympathetic dystrophy, RSD). This study assessed epidemiological variables in 134 CRPS patients evaluated at a tertiary chronic pain clinic in the US, including demographic, health care utilization and legal/workman's compensation measures. In addition, the frequency of physician-imposed immobilization of the CRPS limb was assessed, as was physical examination evidence of myofascial dysfunction. This study found that these patients had seen on average 4.8 different physicians before referral to the pain center and had received an average of five different kinds of treatments both prior to and during pain clinic treatment. The mean duration of CRPS symptoms prior to pain center evaluation was 30 months. Seventeen percent had a lawsuit and 54% had a worker compensation claim related to the CRPS. Fifty-one patients received a bone scan, but only 53% of which were interpreted as consistent with the diagnosis of RSD/CRPS. Forty-seven percent had a history of physician-imposed immobilization, and 56% had a myofascial component present at evaluation. The duration of CRPS symptoms and the involvement of the upper extremity was significantly associated with the presence of myofascial dysfunction. Thus, this study found that most CRPS patients are referred to a pain specialty clinic after several years of symptoms and many failed therapies. The data also suggest the lack of utility of a diagnostic bone scan and highlight the prominence of myofascial dysfunction in a majority of CRPS patients.

  6. Complex regional pain syndrome type I (RSD): pathology of skeletal muscle and peripheral nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, L; ter Laak, H J; Gabreëls-Festen, A; Gabreëls, F; Goris, R J

    1998-07-01

    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) (recently reclassified as complex regional pain syndrome type I) is a syndrome occurring in extremities and, when chronic, results in severe disability and untractable pain. RSD may be accompanied by neurologic symptoms even when there is no previous neurologic lesion. There is no consensus as to the pathogenic mechanism involved in RSD. To gain insight into the pathophysiology of RSD, we studied histopathology of skeletal muscle and peripheral nerve from patients with chronic RSD in a lower extremity. In eight patients with chronic RSD, an above-the-knee amputation was performed because of a nonfunctional limb. Specimens of sural nerves, tibial nerves, common peroneal nerves, gastrocnemius muscles, and soleus muscles were obtained from the amputated legs and analyzed by light and electron microscopy. In all patients, the affected leg showed similar neurologic symptoms such as spontaneous pain, hyperpathy, allodynia, paresis, and anesthesia dolorosa. The nerves showed no consistent abnormalities of myelinated fibers. In four patients, the C-fibers showed electron microscopic pathology. In all patients, the gastrocnemius and soleus muscle specimens showed a decrease of type I fibers, an increase of lipofuscin pigment, atrophic fibers, and severely thickened basal membrane layers of the capillaries. In chronic RSD, efferent nerve fibers were histologically unaffected; from afferent fibers, only C-fibers showed histopathologic abnormalities. Skeletal muscle showed a variety of histopathologic findings, which are similar to the histologic abnormalities found in muscles of patients with diabetes.

  7. Continuous Thoracic Sympathetic Ganglion Block in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Patients with Spinal Cord Stimulation Implantation

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    EungDon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sympathetic block is widely used for treating neuropathic pain such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. However, single sympathetic block often provides only short-term effect. Moreover, frequent procedures for sympathetic block may increase the risk of complications. The use of epidural route may be limited by concern of infection in case of previous implantation of the spinal cord stimulation (SCS. In contrast, a continuous sympathetic block can be administered without such concerns. The continuous thoracic sympathetic block (TSGB has been used to treat the ischemic disease and other neuropathic conditions such as postherpetic neuralgia. We administered continuous thoracic sympathetic block using catheter in CRPS patients who underwent SCS implantations and achieved desirable outcomes. We believe a continuous sympathetic block is a considerable option before performing neurolysis or radiofrequency rhizotomy and even after SCS implantation.

  8. Complex regional pain syndrome with associated chest wall dystonia: a case report

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    Schwartzman Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS often suffer from an array of associated movement disorders, including dystonia of an affected limb. We present a case of a patient with long standing CRPS after a brachial plexus injury, who after displaying several features of the movement disorder previously, developed painful dystonia of chest wall musculature. Detailed neurologic examination found palpable sustained contractions of the pectoral and intercostal muscles in addition to surface allodynia. Needle electromyography of the intercostal and paraspinal muscles supported the diagnosis of dystonia. In addition, pulmonary function testing showed both restrictive and obstructive features in the absence of a clear cardiopulmonary etiology. Treatment was initiated with intrathecal baclofen and the patient had symptomatic relief and improvement of dystonia. This case illustrates a novel form of the movement disorder associated with CRPS with response to intrathecal baclofen treatment.

  9. Molecular signature of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and its analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Simone; Schlereth, Tanja; Birklein, Frank

    2017-10-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a rare, but often disabling pain disease. Biomarkers are lacking, but several inflammatory substances have been associated with the pathophysiology. This review outlines the current knowledge with respect to target biomolecules and the analytical tools available to measure them. Areas covered: Targets include cytokines, neuropeptides and resolvins; analysis strategies are thus needed for different classes of substances such as proteins, peptides, lipids and small molecules. Traditional methods like immunoassays are of importance next to state-of-the art high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques and 'omics' approaches. Expert commentary: Future biomarker studies need larger cohorts, which improve subgrouping of patients due to their presumed pathophysiology, and highly standardized workflows from sampling to analysis.

  10. Warm and cold complex regional pain syndromes: differences beyond skin temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, T; Doganci, B; Krämer, H H; Geber, C; Fechir, M; Magerl, W; Birklein, F

    2009-02-10

    To investigate clinical differences in warm and cold complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) phenotypes. CRPS represents inhomogeneous chronic pain conditions; approximately 70% patients with CRPS have "warm" affected limbs and 30% have "cold" affected limbs. We examined 50 patients with "cold" and "warm" CRPS (n = 25 in each group). Both groups were matched regarding age, sex, affected limb, duration of CRPS, and CRPS I and II to assure comparability. Detailed medical history and neurologic status were assessed. Moreover, quantitative sensory testing (QST) was performed on the affected ipsilateral and clinically unaffected contralateral limbs. Compared with patients who had warm CRPS, patients who had cold CRPS more often reported a history of serious life events (p CRPS, the incidence of CRPS-related dystonia was increased (p CRPS (p CRPS were characterized by mechanical hyperalgesia (p CRPS) are associated with different clinical findings, beyond skin temperature changes. This might have implications for the understanding of CRPS pathophysiology.

  11. Mirror box therapy added to cognitive behavioural therapy in three chronic complex regional pain syndrome type I patients : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tichelaar, Y. I. G. Vladimir; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Keizer, Doeke; van Wilgen, C. Paul

    Complex regional pain syndrome type I is a disorder of the extremities with disability and pain as the most prominent features. This paper describes the results of cognitive behavioural therapy combined with mirror box therapy in three patients with chronic complex regional pain syndrome type I.

  12. Structural and Functional Brain Changes at Early and Late Stages of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhi, Mahsa; Clarke, Collin; Morley-Forster, Patricia; Moulin, Dwight E; Davis, Karen D; St Lawrence, Keith

    2017-10-14

    Brain plasticity is demonstrated in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), although it is unclear how it modulates at different stages of CRPS. The observation that symptoms can progress over time suggests that the pattern of brain changes might also evolve. We measured structural and functional changes as well as sensorimotor integration at the early stage (ES) and late stage (LS) of CRPS. Twelve ES patients, 16 LS patients, and 16 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Gray matter (GM) volume was estimated using voxel-based morphometry. Cerebral perfusion was measured using arterial spin labeling, because it provides a measure of resting neural activity. Connectivity to sensorimotor regions was evaluated using blood-oxygen level-dependent images. The ES group showed reduced GM volume and perfusion in areas associated with spatial body perception, somatosensory cortex, and the limbic system, whereas the LS group exhibited increased perfusion in the motor cortex but no changes in GM volume. However, in the LS group, GM volume in areas associated with pain processing was negatively correlated with average pain levels, likely reflecting a response to ongoing pain. Furthermore, connectivity to sensorimotor cortex showed disruptions in regions associated with motor control and planning, implying impairment of higher-order motor control. This article presents brain changes at ES and LS of CRPS. We found different patterns of brain changes between these 2 stages. Understanding modulation of brain plasticity at different stages of CRPS could help understand the diversity in outcomes and treatment response and hopefully improve treatment planning. Copyright © 2017 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intravenous regional block is similar to sympathetic ganglion block for pain management in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.A. Nascimento

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sympathetic ganglion block (SGB or intravenous regional block (IVRB has been recommended for pain management in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I. Forty-five patients were initially selected but only 43 were accepted for the study. The present study evaluated the efficacy of IVRB produced by combining 70 mg lidocaine with 30 µg clonidine (14 patients, 1 male/13 females, age range: 27-50 years versus SGB produced by the injection of 70 mg lidocaine alone (14 patients, 1 male/13 females, age range: 27-54 years or combined with 30 µg clonidine (15 patients, 1 male/14 females, age range: 25-50 years into the stellate ganglion for pain management in patients with upper extremity CRPS-I. Each procedure was repeated five times at 7-day intervals, and pain intensity and duration were measured using a visual analog scale immediately before each procedure. A progressive and significant reduction in pain scores and a significant increase in the duration of analgesia were observed in all groups following the first three blocks, but no further improvement was obtained following the last two blocks. Drowsiness, the most frequent side effect, and dry mouth occurred only in patients submitted to SGB with lidocaine combined with clonidine. The three methods were similar regarding changes in pain intensity and duration of analgesia. However, IVRB seems to be preferable to SGB due to its easier execution and lower risk of undesirable effects.

  14. Sex differences in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I in mice

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    Tang C

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Chaoliang Tang,1 Juan Li,2 Wai Lydia Tai,3 Weifeng Yao,4 Bo Zhao,1 Junmou Hong,5 Si Shi,1 Song Wang,2 Zhongyuan Xia1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Anhui Provincial Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui Provence, 3Department of Anaesthesiology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, 4Department of Anesthesiology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 5Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China Background: Sex differences have been increasingly highlighted in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS in clinical practice. In CRPS type I (CRPS-I, although inflammation and oxidative stress have been implicated in its pathogenesis, whether pain behavior and the underlying mechanism are sex-specific is unclear. In the present study, we sought to explore whether sex differences have an impact on inflammation, oxidative stress, and pain sensitivity in CRPS-I. Methods: Chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP was established in both male and female mice as an animal model of CRPS-I. Edema and mechanical allodynia of bilateral hind paws were assessed after reperfusion. Blood samples were analyzed for serum levels of oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines. Results: Both male and female mice developed edema. Male mice developed CPIP at day 3 after reperfusion; female mice developed CPIP at day 2 after reperfusion. Female mice displayed significantly earlier and higher mechanical allodynia in the ischemic hind paw, which was associated with higher serum levels of IL-2, TNF-α, isoprostanes, 8 OhdG, and malondialdehyde at day 2 after reperfusion. Moreover, female mice showed significantly lower SOD and IL-4 compared to male mice at day 2 after reperfusion. Conclusion: Our results indicate that sex differences in inflammatory and oxidative

  15. Complex regional pain syndrome type i. An analysis of 7 cases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedemonte Stalla, V; Medici Olaso, C; Kanopa Almada, V; Gonzalez Rabelino, G

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterised by the presence of pain accompanied by sensory, autonomic and motor symptoms, usually preceded by a lesion or immobilisation. The clinical course is disproportionate to the initial injury in intensity and in duration. Its distribution is regional, predominantly in limbs. It is classified as type I and type II according to the absence or presence of nerve injury. We present the cases of seven children, 6 girls and 1 boy, aged 7 to 15 years. Three had a history of previous trauma. In 5 cases, the symptoms were located in the lower limbs. Time to diagnosis was between 4 and 90 days. Three patients had clinical features of anxiety and depression. Imaging and immunological studies were performed to rule out differential diagnoses in all the children. Interdisciplinary treatment was performed with physiotherapy, psychotherapy, and gabapentin or pregabalin. All patients had a good clinical outcome, with no relapses in the follow-up period (between 4 and 30 months). CRPS is frequently unrecognised in children, leading to family anxiety and unnecessary para-clinical costs. Paediatricians and paediatric neurologists should be aware of this syndrome in order to avoid delay in diagnosis, unnecessary studies, and multiple visits to specialists, with a view to providing effective treatment. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Intrinsic brain networks normalize with treatment in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Becerra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric complex regional pain syndrome (P-CRPS offers a unique model of chronic neuropathic pain as it either resolves spontaneously or through therapeutic interventions in most patients. Here we evaluated brain changes in well-characterized children and adolescents with P-CRPS by measuring resting state networks before and following a brief (median = 3 weeks but intensive physical and psychological treatment program, and compared them to matched healthy controls. Differences in intrinsic brain networks were observed in P-CRPS compared to controls before treatment (disease state with the most prominent differences in the fronto-parietal, salience, default mode, central executive, and sensorimotor networks. Following treatment, behavioral measures demonstrated a reduction of symptoms and improvement of physical state (pain levels and motor functioning. Correlation of network connectivities with spontaneous pain measures pre- and post-treatment indicated concomitant reductions in connectivity in salience, central executive, default mode and sensorimotor networks (treatment effects. These results suggest a rapid alteration in global brain networks with treatment and provide a venue to assess brain changes in CRPS pre- and post-treatment, and to evaluate therapeutic effects.

  17. Intrinsic brain networks normalize with treatment in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Lino; Sava, Simona; Simons, Laura E.; Drosos, Athena M.; Sethna, Navil; Berde, Charles; Lebel, Alyssa A.; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric complex regional pain syndrome (P-CRPS) offers a unique model of chronic neuropathic pain as it either resolves spontaneously or through therapeutic interventions in most patients. Here we evaluated brain changes in well-characterized children and adolescents with P-CRPS by measuring resting state networks before and following a brief (median = 3 weeks) but intensive physical and psychological treatment program, and compared them to matched healthy controls. Differences in intrinsic brain networks were observed in P-CRPS compared to controls before treatment (disease state) with the most prominent differences in the fronto-parietal, salience, default mode, central executive, and sensorimotor networks. Following treatment, behavioral measures demonstrated a reduction of symptoms and improvement of physical state (pain levels and motor functioning). Correlation of network connectivities with spontaneous pain measures pre- and post-treatment indicated concomitant reductions in connectivity in salience, central executive, default mode and sensorimotor networks (treatment effects). These results suggest a rapid alteration in global brain networks with treatment and provide a venue to assess brain changes in CRPS pre- and post-treatment, and to evaluate therapeutic effects. PMID:25379449

  18. Abnormal thalamocortical activity in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, K D; Dubois, M; Llinás, R R

    2010-07-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic disease that presents a continuing challenge in terms of pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Recent studies of neuropathic pain, in both animals and patients, have established a direct relationship between abnormal thalamic rhythmicity related to Thalamo-cortical Dysrhythmia (TCD) and the occurrence of central pain. Here, this relationship has been examined using magneto-encephalographic (MEG) imaging in CRPS Type I, characterized by the absence of nerve lesions. The study addresses spontaneous MEG activity from 13 awake, adult patients (2 men, 11 women; age 15-62), with CRPS Type I of one extremity (duration range: 3months to 10years) and from 13 control subjects. All CRPS I patients demonstrated peaks in power spectrum in the delta (CRPS Type I patients presented abnormal brain activity typical of TCD, which has both diagnostic value indicating a central origin for this ailment and a potential treatment interest involving pharmacological and electrical stimulation therapies. Copyright 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiofrequency therapy in back pain and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norina Bergamin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous radiofrequency procedures are frequently used in the management of chronic pain. Continuous radiofrequency (CRF has been established as a safe and effective treatment for pain originating from facet and sacroiliac joints by way of co-agulation of their nerve supply. Different methods have been proposed to account for the complex nerve supply of the sacroiliac joint. Due to its neurodestructive property, CRF was limited to the treatment of neuropathic pain. When applied to the dorsal root ganglion (DRG for spinal pain or to the sympathetic ganglia in treatment of CRPS, heat related side effects have been reported. With the development of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF, a less destructive alternative to CRF became available, that is more suitable to treat neuropathic pain. PRF was adopted in the treatment of several pain conditions with different success. The results with PRF adjacent to the DRG are promising, whereas for facet and sacroiliac joint pain PRF could not yet be proven equally effective as CRF. As for PRF in CRPS there is almost no evidence available. The potential of PRF seems to lie in those areas where CRF is of limited value. Con-versely, it is questionable if PRF will ever be equally effective in indications, where CRF is already well established. Despite its active use in clinical practice, PRF is not validated yet nor is its mode of action. The literature in both cases is accumulating but further studies are urgently needed.

  20. Effect of tadalafil on blood flow, pain, and function in chronic cold Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schasfoort Fabienne C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This double-blind, randomized, controlled trial investigated the effect of the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor tadalafil on the microcirculation in patients with cold Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS in one lower extremity. Methods Twenty-four patients received 20 mg tadalafil or placebo daily for 12 weeks. The patients also participated in a physical therapy program. The primary outcome measure was temperature difference between the CRPS side and the contralateral side, determined by measuring the skin temperature with videothermography. Secondary outcomes were: pain measured on a Visual Analogue Scale, muscle force measured with a MicroFet 2 dynamometer, and level of activity measured with an Activity Monitor (AM and walking tests. Results At the end of the study period, the temperature asymmetry was not significantly reduced in the tadalafil group compared with the placebo group, but there was a significant and clinically relevant reduction of pain in the tadalafil group. Muscle force improved in both treatment groups and the AM revealed small, non-significant improvements in time spent standing, walking, and the number of short walking periods. Conclusion Tadalafil may be a promising new treatment for patients that have chronic cold CRPS due to endothelial dysfunction, and deserves further investigation. Trial Registration The registration number in the Dutch Trial Register is ISRCTN60226869.

  1. Metallothionein deficiency in the injured peripheral nerves of complex regional pain syndrome as revealed by proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Gosuke; Wada, Takuro; Iba, Kosuke; Aiki, Hikono; Sasaki, Kouichi; Imai, Shin-ichi; Sohma, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Kayo; Yamaguchi, Mami; Fujimiya, Mineko; Yamashita, Toshihiko; Kokai, Yasuo

    2012-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by persistent and severe pain after trauma or surgery; however, its molecular mechanisms in the peripheral nervous system are poorly understood. Using proteomics, we investigated whether injured peripheral nerves of CRPS patients have altered protein profiles compared with control nerves. We obtained nerve samples from 3 patients with CRPS-2 who underwent resection of part of an injured peripheral nerve. Sural nerves from fresh cadavers with no history of trauma or neuropathic pain served as controls. Proteomic analysis showed that the number and functional distribution of proteins expressed in CRPS and control nerves was similar. Interestingly, metallothionein was absent in the injured nerves of CRPS-2, although it was readily detected in control nerves. Western blotting further confirmed the absence of metallothionein in CRPS-2 nerves, and immunohistochemistry corroborated the deficiency of metallothionein expression in injured nerves from 5 of 5 CRPS patients and 2 of 2 patients with painful neuromas. In contrast, all control nerves, including 5 sural nerves from fresh cadavers and 41 nerves obtained from surgically resected tumors, expressed MT. Furthermore, expression of S100 as a marker for Schwann cells, and neurofilament M as a marker of axons was comparable in both CRPS-2 and controls. Metallothioneins are zinc-binding proteins that are probably involved in protection against injury and subsequent regeneration after CNS damage. Their absence from the injured peripheral nerves of patients with CRPS-2 suggests a potential pathogenic role in generating pain in the damaged peripheral nerves. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spinal cord stimulation in adolescents with complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Gunnar L; Meyerson, Björn A; Linderoth, Bengt

    2008-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is not uncommon in children, particularly in adolescent girls. Most often, the condition involves a foot and is characterized by spontaneous pain, tactile allodynia and dysautonomic signs. There is usually a history of a minor, local trauma but sometimes no reasonable cause can be identified, and there are no signs of persistent tissue injury giving rise to ongoing nociception. Common analgesics are generally of no benefit, and the standard treatment includes sociopsychological support, physiotherapy, tricyclic antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs, sympathetic blocks (SB), and cognitive-behavioural therapy. For a minority of patients who prove to be resistant to such therapies, spinal cord stimulation (SCS) may be tried. The present study comprises seven girls, 11-14 years of age, presenting with severe, incapacitating and therapy-resistant CRPS-I, who were subjected to SCS. In two of them, percutaneous electrode implantation had to be performed in general anaesthesia. Trial stimulation was performed in all, but one. In two cases, it was not possible to produce paraesthesias that entirely covered the pain area. A pain relieving effect of SCS was usually not reported until after 1-2 weeks of trial stimulation. After another 2-6 weeks, pain alleviation was complete in five of the seven patients, one to eight years after the intervention. In one case, a local infection necessitated the removal of the electrode; nevertheless a few days of trial stimulation produced substantial pain relief that still persists. In four patients, the SCS use was gradually diminished and eventually the device could be removed. The favourable outcome in all seven cases with no or minor remaining symptoms and without severe recurrences illustrates that SCS may also be an efficient treatment in paediatric cases with exceptionally therapy resistant forms of CRPS I.

  3. Multimodal physical therapy management of a 48-year-old female with post-stroke complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandkumar, Sudarshan; Manivasagam, Murugavel

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 48-year-old female who presented with complaints of right shoulder pain, hyperesthesias and swelling of the hand along with added symptoms of pain centralization following a cerebrovascular accident. On clinical evaluation, the patient satisfied the Budapest diagnostic criteria for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type-1. Physical therapy management (1st three sessions) was initially focused on pain neurophysiology education with an aim to reduce kinesiophobia and reconceptualise her pain perception. The patient had an immediate significant improvement in her pain and functional status. Following this, pain modulation in the form of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, kinesio tape application, "pain exposure" physical therapy and exercise therapy was carried out for a period of 7 weeks. The patient had complete resolution of her symptoms which was maintained at a six-month follow-up.

  4. Complex regional pain syndrome treated with intravenous immunoglobulin in a patient with common variable immune deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachdjian, Raffi

    2013-12-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) represents a large heterogeneous group of antibody-deficiency syndromes associated with a wide range of clinical features and a lack of defined causes in the realm of primary immunodeficiencies. Here, we present a case of CVID in a 62-year-old white male patient with a history of longstanding complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). His medical history included multiple sinus infections per year and several pneumonias requiring antibiotics. He has had various back surgeries, including a laminectomy at the L4 level 1 year prior to his diagnosis. Thereafter, he underwent four sympathetic nerve blocks with minimal pain relief. Blood chemistries showed a normal white blood cell count with a normal differential, but increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels. Total Ig (Immunoglobulin)G was 611 mg/dL (normal 700-1,600), IgG1 was 425 mg/dL (341-894), IgG2 was 114 mg/dL (171-632), IgG3 was 14.4 mg/dL (18.4-106), and IgG4 was 7.4 mg/dL (2.4-121). IgA was 47 mg/dL (normal 70-400), IgM was 131 mg/dL (40-230), and IgE was 4.5 kU/L (CRPS, including pain. Additional studies investigating the mechanism by which immunoglobulin therapy may reduce the inflammation and pain of CRPS are needed.

  5. Pain exposure physical therapy (PEPT) compared to conventional treatment in complex regional pain syndrome type 1: a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhoorn, Karlijn J; van de Meent, Henk; van Dongen, Robert T M; Klomp, Frank P; Groenewoud, Hans; Samwel, Han; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Frölke, Jan Paul M; Staal, J Bart

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of pain exposure physical therapy (PEPT) with conventional treatment in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1) in a randomised controlled trial with a blinded assessor. Setting The study was conducted at a level 1 trauma centre in the Netherlands. Participants 56 adult patients with CRPS-1 participated. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Interventions Patients received either PEPT in a maximum of five treatment sessions, or conventional treatment following the Dutch multidisciplinary guideline. Measurements Outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 3, 6 and 9 months after randomisation. The primary outcome measure was the Impairment level Sum Score—Restricted Version (ISS-RV), consisting of visual analogue scale for pain (VAS-pain), McGill Pain Questionnaire, active range of motion (AROM) and skin temperature. Secondary outcome measures included Pain Disability Index (PDI); muscle strength; Short Form 36 (SF-36); disability of arm, shoulder and hand; Lower Limb Tasks Questionnaire (LLTQ); 10 m walk test; timed up-and-go test (TUG) and EuroQol-5D. Results The intention-to-treat analysis showed a clinically relevant decrease in ISS-RV (6.7 points for PEPT and 6.2 points for conventional treatment), but the between-group difference was not significant (0.96, 95% CI −1.56 to 3.48). Participants allocated to PEPT experienced a greater improvement in AROM (between-group difference 0.51, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.94; p=0.02). The per protocol analysis showed larger and significant between-group effects on ISS-RV, VAS-pain, AROM, PDI, SF-36, LLTQ and TUG. Conclusions We cannot conclude that PEPT is superior to conventional treatment for patients with CRPS-1. Further high-quality research on the effects of PEPT is warranted given the potential effects as indicated by the per protocol analysis. Trial registration numbers NCT00817128 and NTR 2090. PMID:26628523

  6. The effect of virtual body swapping with mental rehearsal on pain intensity and body perception disturbance in complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Haesol; Cho, Sungkun; Lee, Jang-Han

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigated the effects of virtual body swapping with mental rehearsal on pain intensity and body perception disturbance (BPD) in patients with complex regional pain syndrome. Patients with complex regional pain syndrome were assigned randomly to three experimental groups: the 'virtual body swapping with mental rehearsal' (VBS) group (n=13), the 'watching movement only' group (n=13), and the 'mental rehearsal only' (n=13) group. Then, pretreatment pain intensity and BPD were compared with post-treatment perceptions. The results showed that pain intensity did not decrease significantly after treatment in all of the groups. However, BPD improved significantly after treatment in the VBS group, but not in the other groups. Therefore, this study is the first to show the effects of a single session of VBS on BPD. Further studies should apply an elevated degree of immersion and create a more realistic virtual body.

  7. Interactions between Pain and the Motor Cortex: Insights from Research on Phantom Limb Pain and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mercier, Catherine; Léonard, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Pain is a significantly disabling problem that often interacts with other deficits during the rehabilitation process. The aim of this paper is to review evidence of interactions between pain and the motor cortex in order to attempt to answer the following questions: (1) Does acute pain interfere with motor-cortex activity? (2) Does chronic pain interfere with motor-cortex activity, and, conversely, does motor-cortex plasticity contribute to chronic pain? (3) Can the induction of moto...

  8. Applied information retrieval and multidisciplinary research: new mechanistic hypotheses in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettne, Kristina M; de Mos, Marissa; de Bruijn, Anke GJ; Weeber, Marc; Boyer, Scott; van Mulligen, Erik M; Cases, Montserrat; Mestres, Jordi; van der Lei, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Background Collaborative efforts of physicians and basic scientists are often necessary in the investigation of complex disorders. Difficulties can arise, however, when large amounts of information need to reviewed. Advanced information retrieval can be beneficial in combining and reviewing data obtained from the various scientific fields. In this paper, a team of investigators with varying backgrounds has applied advanced information retrieval methods, in the form of text mining and entity relationship tools, to review the current literature, with the intention to generate new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying a complex disorder. As an example of such a disorder the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) was chosen. CRPS is a painful and debilitating syndrome with a complex etiology that is still unraveled for a considerable part, resulting in suboptimal diagnosis and treatment. Results A text mining based approach combined with a simple network analysis identified Nuclear Factor kappa B (NFκB) as a possible central mediator in both the initiation and progression of CRPS. Conclusion The result shows the added value of a multidisciplinary approach combined with information retrieval in hypothesis discovery in biomedical research. The new hypothesis, which was derived in silico, provides a framework for further mechanistic studies into the underlying molecular mechanisms of CRPS and requires evaluation in clinical and epidemiological studies. PMID:17480215

  9. Human papillomavirus vaccines, complex regional pain syndrome, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, and autonomic dysfunction - a review of the regulatory evidence from the European Medicines Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jefferson, Tom; Jørgensen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Recent concerns about a possible association between exposure of young women to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and two "dysautonomic syndromes" (a collection of signs and symptoms thought to be caused by autoimmunity) - complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and postural orthostatic tachycardia...

  10. Simultaneous upper and lower extremity complex regional pain syndrome type I in tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutbeyaz, S T; Koseoglu, B F; Yeşiltepe, E

    2005-09-01

    Clinical case report. To present the first case of incomplete tetraplegic spinal cord injury (SCI) in which complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type I was present in all four of the patient's extremities. Ankara Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. A 49-year-old man with incomplete tetraplegia (American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) C) was admitted to our clinic for rehabilitation. According to the patient's history, pain and edema began in his right foot 1(1/2) months after his injury. After 10 days later the same symptoms appeared in his left foot as well. In the third week after pain and edema appeared in the right foot, these were also observed in both hands, markedly in the left. Three-phase bone scan images supported a diagnosis of stage 3 CRPS type I in all four extremities. After the diagnosis was made, passive range of motion (PROM) exercises were started. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and whirlpool sessions were used for pain and edema control. Drug therapy included Calcitonin, Naproxen sodium and Amitriptyline. After 6 weeks of treatment, the patient's visual analog scale pain score had decreased to 38 mm from an initial score of 85 mm at the onset of the treatment, and PROM of wrists/hands, fingers and ankles had become full and painless. We conclude that CRPS type I might be more common in SCI than is usually suspected, and that tetraplegic patients should be carefully evaluated for the presence of CRPS type I in upper and lower extremities.

  11. Delayed diagnosis and worsening of pain following orthopedic surgery in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunden, Lars K; Kleggetveit, Inge P; Jørum, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a serious and disabling chronic pain condition, usually occurring in a limb. There are two main types, CRPS 1 with no definite nerve lesion and CRPS 2 with an identified nerve lesion. CRPS 1 and 2 may occur following an injury (frequently following fractures), surgery or without known cause. An early diagnosis and start of adequate treatment is considered desirable for patients with CRPS. From the clinical experience of the principal investigator, it became apparent that CRPS often remained undiagnosed and that the clinical conditions of many patients seemed to be worsened following orthopedic surgery subsequent to the initial eliciting event. The aim of the present retrospective study of 55 patients, all diagnosed with either CRPS 1 or 2, was to evaluate the time from injury until diagnosis of CRPS and the effect on pain of orthopedic surgical intervention subsequent to the original injury/surgery. Clinical symptoms with an emphasis on pain were assessed by going through the patients' records and by information given during the investigation at Oslo University Hospital, where the patients also were examined clinically and with EMG/neurography. Alteration in pain was evaluated in 27 patients who underwent orthopedic surgery subsequent to the eliciting injury. Of a total of 55 patients, 28 women and 27 men (mean age 38.7 (SD 12.3), 38 patients were diagnosed with CRPS type 1, and 17 with CRPS type 2. Mean time before diagnosis was confirmed was 3.9 years (SD1.42, range 6 months-10 years). The eliciting injuries for both CRPS type 1 and type 2 were fractures, squeeze injuries, blunt injuries, stretch accidents and surgery. A total of 27 patients (14 men and 13 women) were operated from one to 12 times at a later stage (from 6 months to several years) following the initial injury or any primary operation because of fracture. A total of 22 patients reported a worsening of pain following secondary surgical events, while four

  12. Lack of genetic association of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huehne, Kathrin; Schaal, Ute; Leis, Stefan; Uebe, Steffen; Gosso, M Florencia; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Maihöfner, Christian; Birklein, Frank; Rautenstrauss, Bernd; Winterpacht, Andreas

    2010-03-12

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a condition that is characterized by severe pain and exaggerated neurogenic inflammation, which may develop after injury or surgery. Neurogenic inflammation is mediated by neuropeptides, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) that are released from nociceptors. Genetic factors may play a role in CRPS as was suggested by the occurrence of familial cases and several genetic association studies investigating mainly the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system. Here we investigated the role of neutral endopeptidase (NEP), a key enzyme in neuropeptide catabolism. NEP dysfunction resulting in reduced inactivation of neuropeptides may be a possible pathomechanism in CRPS. To this end, we tested a GT-repeat polymorphism in the NEP promoter region as well as 18 tag-SNPs in six linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks in the NEP gene region in 320 CRPS patients and 376 controls. No significant genetic association was observed. Thus, we conclude that the NEP gene does not seem to be a major risk factor for CRPS. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Myofascial pain syndrome treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg-Stein, Joanne; Iaccarino, Mary Alexis

    2014-05-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a regional pain disorder caused by taut bands of muscle fibers in skeletal muscles called myofascial trigger points. MPS is a common disorder, often diagnosed and treated by physiatrists. Treatment strategies for MPS include exercises, patient education, and trigger point injection. Pharmacologic interventions are also common, and a variety of analgesics, antiinflammatories, antidepressants, and other medications are used in clinical practice. This review explores the various treatment options for MPS, including those therapies that target myofascial trigger points and common secondary symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Local cytokine changes in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) resolve after 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Melanie; Uçeyler, Nurcan; Frettlöh, Jule; Höffken, Oliver; Krumova, Elena K; Lissek, Silke; Reinersmann, Annika; Sommer, Claudia; Stude, Philipp; Waaga-Gasser, Ana M; Tegenthoff, Martin; Maier, Christoph

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that inflammatory processes are involved in at least the early phase of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). We compared a panel of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines in skin blister fluids and serum from patients with CRPS and patients with upper-limb pain of other origin (non-CRPS) in the early stage (CRPS patients compared to non-CRPS patients. Neither group showed side differences. After 6 months under analgesic treatment, protein levels of all measured cytokines in CRPS patients, except for IL-6, significantly changed bilaterally to the level of non-CRPS patients. These changes were not related to treatment outcome. In serum, only IL-8, TNF-α, eotaxin, MCP-1, and MIP-1β were detectable without intergroup differences. Blister fluid of CRPS patients showed a bilateral proinflammatory cytokine profile. This profile seems to be relevant only at the early stage of CRPS. Almost all measured cytokine levels were comparable to those of non-CRPS patients after 6 months of analgesic treatment and were not related to treatment outcome. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Proteomic Identification of Altered Cerebral Proteins in the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Sahngun Nahm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a rare but debilitating pain disorder. Although the exact pathophysiology of CRPS is not fully understood, central and peripheral mechanisms might be involved in the development of this disorder. To reveal the central mechanism of CRPS, we conducted a proteomic analysis of rat cerebrum using the chronic postischemia pain (CPIP model, a novel experimental model of CRPS. Materials and Methods. After generating the CPIP animal model, we performed a proteomic analysis of the rat cerebrum using a multidimensional protein identification technology, and screened the proteins differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups. Results. A total of 155 proteins were differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups: 125 increased and 30 decreased; expressions of proteins related to cell signaling, synaptic plasticity, regulation of cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal formation were increased in the CPIP group. However, proenkephalin A, cereblon, and neuroserpin were decreased in CPIP group. Conclusion. Altered expression of cerebral proteins in the CPIP model indicates cerebral involvement in the pathogenesis of CRPS. Further study is required to elucidate the roles of these proteins in the development and maintenance of CRPS.

  16. Chronic regional pain syndrome after subtalar arthrodesis is not prevented by early hyperbaric oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon T B; Davies, Anthony; Bryson, Phil

    2009-01-01

    Subtalar arthrodesis was performed on a 48-year-old, non-insulin-dependent diabetic with a history of chronic ankle instability and lateral ankle pain. In the early post-operative period he presented as an emergency with an infection at the operative site. This was treated with 2 returns to the operating theatre for washout and debridement. His wounds were left open and at 3 weeks after emergency admission he was referred for adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy to aid healing by secondary intention. He received a total of 19 hyperbaric sessions, at a pressure of 2.2 ATA, one treatment per day for 5 days a week. Shortly after commencing HBO therapy his ankle became increasingly painful, despite the introduction of analgesia. By 7 weeks after emergency admission his wounds had virtually healed but hyperesthesia persisted over the dorsum of the foot. A computerized tomography scan at 5 1/2 months post-operatively showed satisfactory joint fusion and revealed no evidence of infection. Symptoms and signs at this time were compatible with a diagnosis of chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS). There is published evidence to suggest that HBO therapy may be a useful modality in the treatment of established CRPS. Here, we seek to publicize a case in which early treatment with HBO for another indication did not prevent the simultaneous development of CRPS Type 1.

  17. Complex regional pain syndrome type I after diphtheria-tetanus (Di-Te) vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilić, Ervina; Bilić, Ernest; Zagar, Marija; Cerimagić, Denis; Vranjes, Davorka

    2013-09-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) is a disorder of one or more extremities characterized by pain, abnormal sensitivity (allodynia), swelling, limited range of motion, vasomotor instability, fatigue and emotional distress. The symptoms may be aggravated by even minor activity or weather change. It is usually provoked by injury, surgery or injection but in a small proportion of patients CRPS I develops without a clear causative event. There are several literature reports on CRPS after rubella and hepatitis B vaccination. We present a case of CRPS I affecting the left arm after diphtheria and tetanus (Di-Te) vaccination in the left deltoid muscle in a young girl having experienced profound emotional stress before the vaccination procedure. History data on previous minor trauma at the site of vaccination or emotional stress may necessitate temporary vaccination delay due to their proneness to impaired local or systemic immune response and CRPS as a complication of vaccination. If a child or an adult has prominent swelling and severe pain after vaccination, the diagnosis of CRPS I should be considered and if confirmed, the multidisciplinary treatment should start as soon as possible.

  18. The Physical Therapy in the Rehabilitation of a Patient with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Ardila de Cháves

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its multiple causes and non-specificsymptoms, the complex regional pain syndromeRecibido: 24 de julio de 2006.Aceptado: 22 de agosto de 2006.* Fisioterapeuta. Especialista en Docencia Universitaria.Universidad del Rosario, aardila@urosario.edu.co** Fisioterapeuta Especialista en Docencia Universitaria.Universidad del Rosario,itolosa@urosario.edu.cois one of the clinical situations that generatesgreater difficulty in the physical therapy treatment.It is defined as a vasomotor dysfunction,mediated by the sympathetic nervous systemwith a pain that grows and lingers over timeand which does not tolerate the different modalitiesand techniques used by physical therapists.For a long time, physical therapists have hada prominent role in the management of apatient’s pain, without the cause or consequenceof the same one, reason for which this revisionwanted to integrate therapeutic actions such asthe stress loading program, the desensitizationand relaxation techniques, that have givenexcellent results, to the traditional (physicalagents, ultrasound, sedative massage and differenttypes of current, to Traumatic or visceral,that compromises the sympathetic nervoussystem reflexes.

  19. Neglect-like symptoms in complex regional pain syndrome: results of a self-administered survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galer, B S; Jensen, M

    1999-09-01

    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), recently reclassified as a complex regional pain syndrome, type I (CRPS-I), is best known for its disabling sensory symptoms, including pain, allodynia, and abnormal skin temperature. Yet, motor dysfunction is common in CRPS and can result in major disability. In addition to weakness of the involved limb, CRPS patients may develop symptoms akin to a neurological neglect-like syndrome, whereby the limb may feel foreign ("cognitive neglect") and directed mental and visual attention is needed to move the limb ("motor neglect"). Members of the patient support group, the Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome Association (RSDSA), were mailed a questionnaire inserted in their newsletter which inquired about the presence of these neglect-like symptoms; in addition, a separate medical history questionnaire was included to assess adequate documentation for the diagnosis of CRPS. A total of 242 patients returned the questionnaire but only 224 of the questionnaires were analyzed; 15 were excluded due to inadequate documentation of CRPS and 3 were excluded due to non-limb involvement. Eighty-four percent (84%) of these respondents endorsed the presence of at least one neglect symptom and 47% indicated they had both "cognitive" and "motor" neglect symptoms. Of interest, approximately 33% of respondents spontaneously wrote comments regarding the significant disability due to these neglect symptoms and the difficulty explaining these unusual symptoms to their health care providers and family. This patient survey confirms the presence of neglect-like symptoms in a subset of CRPS patients. Neglect-like symptoms need to be addressed and validated by health care providers.

  20. [Comparable disorder of the body schema in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and phantom pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinersmann, A; Haarmeyer, G S; Blankenburg, M; Frettlöh, J; Krumova, E K; Ocklenburg, S; Maier, C

    2011-09-01

    In patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) a disruption of the body schema has been shown in an altered cortical representation of the hand and in delayed reaction times (RT) in the hand laterality recognition task. However, the role of attentional processes or the effect of isolated limb laterality training has not yet been clarified. The performance of healthy subjects (n = 38), CRPS patients (n = 12) and phantom limb pain (PLP) patients (n = 12) in a test battery of attentional performance (TAP) and in a limb laterality recognition task was compared and the effect of limb laterality training in CRPS patients and healthy subjects evaluated. The RTs of both CRPS and PLP patients were significantly slower than those of healthy subjects despite normal TAP values. The CRPS and PLP patients showed bilaterally delayed RTs. Through training RTs improved significantly but the RTs of CRPS patients remained slower than those of healthy subjects. In this study an equal disruption of the body schema was found in both CRPS and PLP patients which cannot be accounted for by attentional processes. For CRPS patients this disorder cannot be fully reversed by isolated limb laterality recognition training.

  1. Interactions between Pain and the Motor Cortex: Insights from Research on Phantom Limb Pain and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Catherine; Léonard, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    Pain is a significantly disabling problem that often interacts with other deficits during the rehabilitation process. The aim of this paper is to review evidence of interactions between pain and the motor cortex in order to attempt to answer the following questions: (1) Does acute pain interfere with motor-cortex activity? (2) Does chronic pain interfere with motor-cortex activity, and, conversely, does motor-cortex plasticity contribute to chronic pain? (3) Can the induction of motor plasticity by means of motor-cortex stimulation decrease pain? (4) Can motor training result in both motor-cortex reorganization and pain relief? Acute experimental pain has been clearly shown to exert an inhibitory influence over the motor cortex, which can interfere with motor learning capacities. Current evidence also suggests a relationship between chronic pain and motor-cortex reorganization, but it is still unclear whether one causes the other. However, there is growing evidence that interventions aimed at normalizing motor-cortex organization can lead to pain relief. Interactions between pain and the motor cortex are complex, and more studies are needed to understand these interactions in our patients, as well as to develop optimal rehabilitative strategies.

  2. Interactions between Pain and the Motor Cortex: Insights from Research on Phantom Limb Pain and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Pain is a significantly disabling problem that often interacts with other deficits during the rehabilitation process. The aim of this paper is to review evidence of interactions between pain and the motor cortex in order to attempt to answer the following questions: (1) Does acute pain interfere with motor-cortex activity? (2) Does chronic pain interfere with motor-cortex activity, and, conversely, does motor-cortex plasticity contribute to chronic pain? (3) Can the induction of motor plasticity by means of motor-cortex stimulation decrease pain? (4) Can motor training result in both motor-cortex reorganization and pain relief? Summary of Key Points: Acute experimental pain has been clearly shown to exert an inhibitory influence over the motor cortex, which can interfere with motor learning capacities. Current evidence also suggests a relationship between chronic pain and motor-cortex reorganization, but it is still unclear whether one causes the other. However, there is growing evidence that interventions aimed at normalizing motor-cortex organization can lead to pain relief. Conclusions: Interactions between pain and the motor cortex are complex, and more studies are needed to understand these interactions in our patients, as well as to develop optimal rehabilitative strategies. PMID:22654236

  3. Complex regional pain syndrome in children: a systematic review of clinical features and movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Arafeh, Hashem; Abu-Arafeh, Ishaq

    2017-03-01

    To ascertain clinical features of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in children with a focus on movement disorders. all publications with original data on children with CRPS were assessed. Data were tabulated and descriptive statistics were applied. One population-based study and nine clinic-based studies provided data on demographic and clinical characteristics of childhood CRPS. Mean age of onset was 12.5 years and 85% of patients were females (risk ratio: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.54-1.88). History of trauma in 71% and the lower limbs were affected in 75% of patients. A secondary site involvement was present in 15%. Movement disorders and dystonia were reported in 30% of children. Majority of cases of CRPS in children are females with mean age of 12.5 years. Movement disorders (mainly dystonia) affect at least one in three children with CRPS.

  4. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH COMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME IN SURGICALLY TREATED DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Romero, Joel; Bermudez-Soto, Ignacio; Torres-González, Rubén; Espinoza-Choque, Fernando; Zazueta-Hernandez, Jesús Abraham; Perez-Atanasio, José Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with developing complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) after surgical treatment for distal radius fracture (DRF). This case-control study analyzed patients seen from January 2014 to January 2016. Results: In our sample of 249 patients, 4% developed CRPS. Associated factors were economic compensation via work disability (odds ratio [OR] 14.3), age (OR 9.38), associated fracture (OR 12.94), and level of impact (OR 6.46), as well as psychiatric history (OR 7.21). Economically-productive aged patients with a history of high-impact trauma and patients with a history of psychiatric disorders have greater risk of developing CRPS after DRF. Level of Evidence III, Case-Control Study.

  5. Evaluation of a prototype tool for communicating body perception disturbances in complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Ailie J; Palmer, Mark; Grieve, Sharon; Moss, Timothy P; Lewis, Jenny; McCabe, Candida S

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) experience distressing changes in body perception. However representing body perception is a challenge. A digital media tool for communicating body perception disturbances was developed. A proof of concept study evaluating the acceptability of the application for patients to communicate their body perception is reported in this methods paper. Thirteen CRPS participants admitted to a 2-week inpatient rehabilitation program used the application in a consultation with a research nurse. Audio recordings were made of the process and a structured questionnaire was administered to capture experiences of using the tool. Participants produced powerful images of disturbances in their body perception. All reported the tool acceptable for communicating their body perception. Participants described the positive impact of now seeing an image they had previously only imagined and could now convey to others. The application has provided a novel way for communicating perceptions that are otherwise difficult to convey.

  6. Evaluation of a prototype tool for communicating body perception disturbances in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailie eTurton

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS experience distressing changes in body perception. However representing body perception is a challenge. A digital media tool for communicating body perception disturbances was developed. A proof of concept study evaluating the acceptability of the application for patients to communicate their body perception is reported in this methods paper.Thirteen CRPS participants admitted to a two week inpatient rehabilitation program used the application in a consultation with a research nurse. Audio recordings were made of the process and a structured questionnaire was administered to capture experiences of using the tool. Participants produced powerful images of disturbances in their body perception. All reported the tool acceptable for communicating their body perception. Participants described the positive impact of now seeing an image they had previously only imagined and could now convey to others. The application has provided a novel way for communicating perceptions that are otherwise difficult to convey.

  7. Reliability of observer assessment of thermographic images in complex regional pain syndrome type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehof, Sjoerd P; Huygen, Frank J P M; Stronks, Dirk L; Klein, Jan; Zijlstra, Freek J

    2007-02-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the sensitivity, specificity, reliability and repeatability of observer assessment of thermographic images taken from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type 1. A computer program was developed to let observers rate the difference between randomly presented thermographic images of pairs of hands of individuals. The sensitivity and specificity, and potential learning effects were measured. Effects of the colours and rank number of the images were analysed. The sensitivity was 71% and the specificity 85%. The repeatability was 0.5267 and the reliability was 0.4967. No significant relation was found between the rank number and the rating. There was a significant correlation between the colour pallet and the rating (r = 0.76). Although the colour pallet used partly explained the variance in the rating scores, this study shows that observer assessment of thermographic images may distinguish between CRPS1 patients and healthy controls. However, the reliability and repeatability of this assessment was rather low.

  8. Resolution of Crohn's disease and complex regional pain syndrome following treatment of paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenstner, J Todd; Chamberlin, William; Naser, Saleh A; Collins, Michael T; Dow, Coad Thomas; Aitken, John M; Weg, Stuart; Telega, Grzegorz; John, Kuruvilla; Haas, David; Eckstein, Torsten M; Kali, Maher; Welch, Christine; Petrie, Thomas

    2015-04-07

    A cohort of family members with various chronic diseases including Crohn's disease, asthma, complex regional pain syndrome, hypothyroidism, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and lymphangiomatosis and/or evidence of infection by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) are described in this series of case reports. MAP was cultured from the blood of three members affected by the first five diseases and there was accompanying elevated anti-MAP IgG in two members. The patient affected by the sixth disease has a markedly elevated anti-MAP titer. The two patients affected by the first four diseases have been treated with a combination of anti-MAP antibiotics and ultraviolet blood irradiation therapy with resolution of the disease symptomatology and inability to culture MAP in post treatment blood samples. These case reports of patients with MAP infections provide supportive evidence of a pathogenic role of MAP in humans.

  9. Lower extremity complex regional pain syndrome: long-term outcome after surgical treatment of peripheral pain generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellon, Lee; Andonian, Eugenia; Rosson, Gedge D

    2010-01-01

    We undertook a retrospective study to evaluate the hypothesis that complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) I, known as the "new" reflex sympathetic dystrophy, persists because of undiagnosed injured joint afferents, cutaneous neuromas, or nerve compressions, and is, therefore, a misdiagnosed form of CRPS II, which is known as the "new" causalgia. We used a research protocol, with institutional review board approval, to review medical records for the purpose of identifying 30 patients with lower extremity reflex sympathetic dystrophy, based on their history, physical examination, neurosensory testing, and response to peripheral nerve blocks, who were treated surgically at the level of the peripheral nerve. In this report, we describe long-term outcomes in 13 of these patients who were followed up for a minimum of 24 months (mean, 47.8 months; range, 25-90 months). Based primarily on the results of physical examination and the response to peripheral nerve blocks, surgery included a combination of joint denervation, neuroma resection plus muscle implantation, and neurolysis. Outcomes were measured in terms of decreased pain medication usage and recovery of function, and the results were excellent in 7 (55%), good in 4 (30%), and poor (failure) in 2 (15%) of the patients. Based on these results, we concluded that most patients referred with a diagnosis of CRPS I have continuing pain input from injured joint or cutaneous afferents, and chronic nerve compression, which is indistinguishable from CRPS II, and amenable to successful treatment by means of an appropriate peripheral nerve surgical strategy. Copyright 2010 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigating Reports of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Analysis of HPV-16/18-Adjuvanted Vaccine Post-Licensure Data

    OpenAIRE

    Huygen, Frank; Verschueren, Kristin; McCabe, Candida; Stegmann, Jens-Ulrich; Zima, Julia; Mahaux, Olivia; Van Holle, Lionel; Angelo, Maria-Genalin

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain disorder that typically follows trauma or surgery. Suspected CRPS reported after vaccination with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines led to temporary suspension of proactive recommendation of HPV vaccination in Japan. We investigated the potential CRPS signal in relation to HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine (Cervarix®) by database review of CRPS cases with independent expert confirmation; a disproportionality analysis and analyses of tempora...

  11. Myofascial pain syndrome: a treatment review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mehul J; Saini, Vikramjeet; Saini, Shawnjeet

    2013-06-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is defined as pain that originates from myofascial trigger points in skeletal muscle. It is prevalent in regional musculoskeletal pain syndromes, either alone or in combination with other pain generators. The appropriate evaluation and management of myofascial pain is an important part of musculoskeletal rehabilitation, and regional axial and limb pain syndromes. This article reviews the current hypotheses regarding the treatment modalities for myofascial trigger points and muscle pain. Through a critical evidence-based review of the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments, the authors aim to provide clinicians with a more comprehensive knowledge of the interventions for myofascial pain.

  12. Effects of Mirror Therapy in Stroke Patients With Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervane Vural, Secil; Nakipoglu Yuzer, Guldal Funda; Sezgin Ozcan, Didem; Demir Ozbudak, Sibel; Ozgirgin, Nese

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effects of mirror therapy on upper limb motor functions, spasticity, and pain intensity in patients with hemiplegia accompanied by complex regional pain syndrome type 1. Randomized controlled trial. Training and research hospital. Adult patients with first-time stroke and simultaneous complex regional pain syndrome type 1 of the upper extremity at the dystrophic stage (N=30). Both groups received a patient-specific conventional stroke rehabilitation program for 4 weeks, 5 d/wk, for 2 to 4 h/d. The mirror therapy group received an additional mirror therapy program for 30 min/d. We evaluated the scores of the Brunnstrom recovery stages of the arm and hand for motor recovery, wrist and hand subsections of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and motor items of the FIM-motor for functional status, Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) for spasticity, and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain severity. After 4 weeks of rehabilitation, both groups had significant improvements in the FIM-motor and VAS scores compared with baseline scores. However, the scores improved more in the mirror therapy group than the control group (Pmirror therapy arm showed significant improvement in the Brunnstrom recovery stages and FMA scores (Pstroke and simultaneous complex regional pain syndrome type 1, addition of mirror therapy to a conventional stroke rehabilitation program provides more improvement in motor functions of the upper limb and pain perception than conventional therapy without mirror therapy. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I Affects Brain Structure in Prefrontal and Motor Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleger, Burkhard; Draganski, Bogdan; Schwenkreis, Peter; Lenz, Melanie; Nicolas, Volkmar; Maier, Christoph; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls) were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the “non-flipped” data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the “flipped” data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control. PMID:24416397

  14. Complex regional pain syndrome type I affects brain structure in prefrontal and motor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Pleger

    Full Text Available The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1 and motor cortex (M1 contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the "non-flipped" data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the "flipped" data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control.

  15. Complex regional pain syndrome type I affects brain structure in prefrontal and motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleger, Burkhard; Draganski, Bogdan; Schwenkreis, Peter; Lenz, Melanie; Nicolas, Volkmar; Maier, Christoph; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls) were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the "non-flipped" data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the "flipped" data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control.

  16. Prevalence and Cost Analysis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS): A Role for Neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsamadicy, Aladine A; Yang, Siyun; Sergesketter, Amanda R; Ashraf, Bilal; Charalambous, Lefko; Kemeny, Hanna; Ejikeme, Tiffany; Ren, Xinru; Pagadala, Promila; Parente, Beth; Xie, Jichun; Lad, Shivanand P

    2017-09-29

    The diagnosis and treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is challenging and there is a paucity of data describing its overall cost burden and quantifying its impact on the US healthcare system. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and healthcare utilization costs associated with CRPS. A retrospective longitudinal study was performed using the Truven MarketScan® database to identify patients with a new indexed diagnosis of CRPS (Type I, II, or both) from 2001 to 2012. We collected total, outpatient, and pain prescription costs three years prior to CRPS diagnosis (baseline), at year of CRPS diagnosis, and eight-year post-CRPS diagnosis. A longitudinal multivariate analysis was used to model the estimated total and pain prescription cost ratios comparing patients diagnosed before and after CRPS. We included 35,316 patients with a newly indexed diagnosis of CRPS (Type I: n = 18,703, Type II: n = 14,599, Unspecified: n = 2014). Baseline characteristics were similar between the CRPS cohorts. Compared to two- and three-year baseline costs, one-year prior to diagnosis for all CRPS patients yielded the highest interquartile median [IQR] costs: total costs $7904[$3469, $16,084]; outpatient costs $6706[$3119, $12,715]; and pain prescription costs $1862[$147, $7649]. At the year of CRPS diagnosis, the median [IQR] costs were significantly higher than baseline costs: total costs $8508[$3943, $16,666]; outpatient costs $7251[$3527, $13,568]; and pain prescription costs $2077[$140, $8856]. Over the eight-year period after CRPS diagnosis, costs between all the years were similar, ranging from the highest (one-year) to lowest (seven-years), $4845 to $3888. The median total cumulative cost 8-years after CRPS diagnosis was $43,026 and $12,037 for pain prescription costs. [Correction added on 06 November 2017 after first online publication: the preceding sentence has been updated to demonstrate the median cumulative cost in replacement of the

  17. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Caused by Lumbar Herniated Intervertebral Disc Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Hee; Choi, Sang Sik; Lee, Mi Kyung; Kin, Jung Eun

    2016-07-01

    Most cases of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) occur after some inciting injury. There are a few cases of CRPS after an operation for disc disease. CRPS from a mild herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) without surgical intervention is even rarer than CRPS after an operation for disc disease.A 22-year-old man was transferred to a pain clinic. He had continuously complained about back and right leg pain. He presented with a skin color change in the right lower leg, intermittent resting tremor, stiffness, and swelling in the right leg. He complained of a pulling sensation and numbness in his right buttock, posterior thigh, lateral calf, and ankle. This symptom was in accordance with L4/5 radiculopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also showed L4/5 HIVD that was central to the bilateral subarticular protrusion.He was diagnosed as having CRPS, which fits the revised International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) criteria. He fulfilled 4 symptom categories (allodynia, temperature asymmetry and skin color change, sweating changes, decreased range of motion and motor dysfunction) and 3 of 4 sign categories (allodynia, temperature asymmetry and skin color changes, decreased range of motion and motor dysfunction). The bone scan and thermography also revealed CRPS.For the past 2 months, we have performed intensive treatments. But, he never became pain-free and walking for 5 minutes led to persistent leg pain. We decided to perform percutaneous nucleoplasty, which can directly decompress a HIVD. On the next day, he achieved dramatic symptom relief. The visual analog scale (VAS) score improved to 3, compared to the VAS score of 9 at the first visit. The skin color change, allodynia, and tremor in the right leg disappeared, and the temperature asymmetry normalized. Motor weakness of the right leg also recovered.We report an unusual case of CRPS that was caused by L4/5 HIVD without a history of trauma or surgery. It has a clear causal relationship between HIVD

  18. [11C]-(R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography in patients with complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, So Yeon; Seo, Seongho; Lee, Jae Sung; Choi, Soo-Hee; Lee, Do-Hyeong; Jung, Ye-Ha; Song, Man-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Jun; Kim, Yong Chul; Kwon, Hyun Woo; Im, Hyung-Jun; Lee, Dong Soo; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by severe and chronic pain, but the pathophysiology of this disease are not clearly understood. The primary aim of our case–control study was to explore neuroinflammation in patients with CRPS using positron emission tomography (PET), with an 18-kDa translocator protein specific radioligand [11C]-(R)-PK11195. [11C]-(R)-PK11195 PET scans were acquired for 11 patients with CRPS (30–55 years) and 12 control subjects (30–52 years). Parametric image of distribution volume ratio (DVR) for each participant was generated by applying a relative equilibrium-based graphical analysis. The DVR of [11C]-(R)-PK11195 in the caudate nucleus (t(21) = −3.209, P = 0.004), putamen (t(21) = −2.492, P = 0.022), nucleus accumbens (t(21) = −2.218, P = 0.040), and thalamus (t(21) = −2.395, P = 0.026) were significantly higher in CRPS patients than in healthy controls. Those of globus pallidus (t(21) = −2.045, P = 0.054) tended to be higher in CRPS patients than in healthy controls. In patients with CRPS, there was a positive correlation between the DVR of [11C]-(R)-PK11195 in the caudate nucleus and the pain score, the visual analog scale (r = 0.661, P = 0.026, R2 = 0.408) and affective subscales of McGill Pain Questionnaire (r = 0.604, P = 0.049, R2 = 0.364). We demonstrated that neuroinflammation of CRPS patients in basal ganglia. Our results suggest that microglial pathology can be an important pathophysiology of CRPS. Association between the level of caudate nucleus and pain severity indicated that neuroinflammation in this region might play a key role. These results may be essential for developing effective medical treatments. PMID:28072713

  19. Motor dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome : the role of sensory processing and sensory-motor integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bank, Paulina Johanna Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the chronic stage of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), motor disturbances are common and cause significant disability. The motor dysfunction of CRPS is a poorly understood phenomenon that is characterized predominantly by a decrease or loss of voluntary muscle control. This thesis aims to

  20. fMRI Reveals Distinct CNS Processing during Symptomatic and Recovered Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, A.; Becerra, L.; Wallin, D.; Moulton, E. A.; Morris, S.; Pendse, G.; Jasciewicz, J.; Stein, M.; Aiello-Lammens, M.; Grant, E.; Berde, C.; Borsook, D.

    2008-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in paediatric patients is clinically distinct from the adult condition in which there is often complete resolution of its signs and symptoms within several months to a few years. The ability to compare the symptomatic and asymptomatic condition in the same individuals makes this population interesting for the…

  1. [Prevalence and Co-prevalence of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) in Hand Rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubrech, F; Gentzsch, T; Kotsougiani, D; Bickert, B; Kneser, U; Harhaus, L

    2016-06-01

    In the current literature, there are reports of associations between complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS) and carpal tunnel syndromes (CTS). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of both disease patterns in hand rehabilitation patients and to investigate whether there is a correlation between CTS and CRPS. Furthermore, differences in the healing process of patients with and without additional CTS, and the effectiveness of the rehabilitative therapy for both diseases, were investigated. The computerised medical records of 791 patients in the years 2009-2015 who had been in hand rehabilitation were retrospectively analysed. At the beginning and end of rehabilitation, measurements were made of pain by visual analogue scales (VAS, 0-10), grip strength and finger mobility (mean distance from finger pulp to palmar D2-D5). The clinical course was statistically analysed. CRPS diagnosis was confirmed clinically by a pain therapist, CTS diagnosis was confirmed by neurological and neurophysiological examination. Surgical therapy was performed despite CRPS diagnosis. The prevalence of CRPS was 161/1000 and of CTS 62/1000; the co-prevalence of the 2 diagnoses was 24/1000 (pCRPS group, after a mean of 8 (1-21) weeks of rehabilitative therapy, mean pain was reduced from 5 (1-10) to 3 (0-9), grip strength improved from 10 (0-39)kg to 18.5 (2.5-45.5)kg and finger mobility increased from 2.9 (0-7.6)cm to 1.8 (0-7.8)cm. In the CRPS+CTS group, after a mean of 6.8 (3-23) weeks of rehabilitative therapy, mean pain was reduced from 5 (0-8) to 2.6 (0-5), grip strength improved from 9.7 (2.4-25.5)kg to 17.4 (0.9-47.4)kg and finger mobility increased from 2.7 (0-5.3)cm to 1.7 (0-5.3)cm. Improvement over the period of rehabilitation was significant in both groups, though the period of therapy was significantly shorter in the CRPS+CTS group. CRPS and CTS are often associated. Rehabilitative therapy was effective for CRPS- and CRPS+CTS patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG

  2. Interaction of hyperalgesia and sensory loss in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huge, Volker; Lauchart, Meike; Förderreuther, Stefanie; Kaufhold, Wibke; Valet, Michael; Azad, Shahnaz Christina; Beyer, Antje; Magerl, Walter

    2008-07-23

    Sensory abnormalities are a key feature of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). In order to characterise these changes in patients suffering from acute or chronic CRPS I, we used Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) in comparison to an age and gender matched control group. 61 patients presenting with CRPS I of the upper extremity and 56 healthy subjects were prospectively assessed using QST. The patients' warm and cold detection thresholds (WDT; CDT), the heat and cold pain thresholds (HPT; CPT) and the occurrence of paradoxical heat sensation (PHS) were observed. In acute CRPS I, patients showed warm and cold hyperalgesia, indicated by significant changes in HPT and CPT. WDT and CDT were significantly increased as well, indicating warm and cold hypoaesthesia. In chronic CRPS, thermal hyperalgesia declined, but CDT as well as WDT further deteriorated. Solely patients with acute CRPS displayed PHS. To a minor degree, all QST changes were also present on the contralateral limb. We propose three pathomechanisms of CRPS I, which follow a distinct time course: Thermal hyperalgesia, observed in acute CRPS, indicates an ongoing aseptic peripheral inflammation. Thermal hypoaesthesia, as detected in acute and chronic CRPS, signals a degeneration of A-delta and C-fibres, which further deteriorates in chronic CRPS. PHS in acute CRPS I indicates that both inflammation and degeneration are present, whilst in chronic CRPS I, the pathomechanism of degeneration dominates, signalled by the absence of PHS. The contralateral changes observed strongly suggest the involvement of the central nervous system.

  3. Interaction of hyperalgesia and sensory loss in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I.

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    Volker Huge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sensory abnormalities are a key feature of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS. In order to characterise these changes in patients suffering from acute or chronic CRPS I, we used Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST in comparison to an age and gender matched control group. METHODS: 61 patients presenting with CRPS I of the upper extremity and 56 healthy subjects were prospectively assessed using QST. The patients' warm and cold detection thresholds (WDT; CDT, the heat and cold pain thresholds (HPT; CPT and the occurrence of paradoxical heat sensation (PHS were observed. RESULTS: In acute CRPS I, patients showed warm and cold hyperalgesia, indicated by significant changes in HPT and CPT. WDT and CDT were significantly increased as well, indicating warm and cold hypoaesthesia. In chronic CRPS, thermal hyperalgesia declined, but CDT as well as WDT further deteriorated. Solely patients with acute CRPS displayed PHS. To a minor degree, all QST changes were also present on the contralateral limb. CONCLUSIONS: We propose three pathomechanisms of CRPS I, which follow a distinct time course: Thermal hyperalgesia, observed in acute CRPS, indicates an ongoing aseptic peripheral inflammation. Thermal hypoaesthesia, as detected in acute and chronic CRPS, signals a degeneration of A-delta and C-fibres, which further deteriorates in chronic CRPS. PHS in acute CRPS I indicates that both inflammation and degeneration are present, whilst in chronic CRPS I, the pathomechanism of degeneration dominates, signalled by the absence of PHS. The contralateral changes observed strongly suggest the involvement of the central nervous system.

  4. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome-Type 1 Presenting as deQuervain's Stenosing Tenosynovitis.

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    Vas, Lakshmi; Pai, Renuka

    2016-01-01

    To report the presentation of complex regional pain syndrome-1 (CRPS-1) as deQuervain's stenosing tenosynovitis (DQST). A 24-year-old woman presented with 3-year history of clinical diagnostic criteria (CDC) of CRPS-1. Conservative and surgical treatment for this as DQST had failed to relieve her. We diagnosed the problem as CRPS-1with CDC as inflammatory manifestations of a mechanical tendinoses of all her 5 digital tendons caused by movement of the fingers and hand tethered by agonist (flexor)/ antagonist (extensor) muscles in co-contraction. Ultrasound guided dry needling (USGDN) relaxed the muscles, replacing the abnormal agonist/antagonist co-contraction with normal agonist/antagonist coordination. Resolution of tendinoses reversed the inflammation causing the CDC. Six months later she leads normal personal and professional life, with reduction of scores of painDetect (from 21 to 5), Patient Health Questionnaire (from 13 to 4), Disability of arm, shoulder and hand from 70.8 to 25 and reversal of muscle abnormality characteristic of CRPS-1 on Musculoskeletal Ultrasonography (MSKUSG). We believe the primary pathology of CRPS-1 to be co-contraction of agonist (flexor)/antagonist(extensor) muscles of digits resulting in tendinoses akin to DQST. CDC of CRPS are actually inflammatory manifestations of tendinoses amenable to reversal by USGDN which also addresses the disability, a hallmark of CRPS.

  5. Bisphosphonates Inhibit Pain, Bone Loss, and Inflammation in a Rat Tibia Fracture Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

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    Wang, Liping; Guo, Tian-Zhi; Wei, Tzuping; Li, Wen-Wu; Shi, Xiaoyou; Clark, J David; Kingery, Wade S

    2016-10-01

    Bisphosphonates are used to prevent the bone loss and fractures associated with osteoporosis, bone metastases, multiple myeloma, and osteogenesis deformans. Distal limb fractures cause regional bone loss with cutaneous inflammation and pain in the injured limb that can develop into complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Clinical trials have reported that antiresorptive bisphosphonates can prevent fracture-induced bone loss, inhibit serum inflammatory cytokine levels, and alleviate CRPS pain. Previously, we observed that the inhibition of inflammatory cytokines or adaptive immune responses attenuated the development of pain behavior in a rat fracture model of CRPS, and we hypothesized that bisphosphonates could prevent pain behavior, trabecular bone loss, postfracture cutaneous cytokine upregulation, and adaptive immune responses in this CRPS model. Rats underwent tibia fracture and cast immobilization for 4 weeks and were chronically administered either subcutaneously perfused alendronate or oral zoledronate. Behavioral measurements included hindpaw von Frey allodynia, unweighting, warmth, and edema. Bone microarchitecture was measured by microcomputed tomography, and bone cellular activity was evaluated by static and dynamic histomorphometry. Spinal cord Fos immunostaining was performed, and skin cytokine (tumor necrosis factor, interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6) and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Skin and sciatic nerve immunoglobulin levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Rats with tibia fractures developed hindpaw allodynia, unweighting, warmth, and edema, increased spinal Fos expression and trabecular bone loss in the lumbar vertebra and bilateral distal femurs as measured by microcomputed tomography, increased trabecular bone resorption and osteoclast surface with decreased bone formation rates, increased cutaneous inflammatory cytokine and NGF expression, and elevated immunocomplex deposition in skin and nerve

  6. German translation and external validation of the Radboud Skills Questionnaire in patients suffering from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1

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    Perez Roberto SGM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients suffering from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome commonly complain of substantial limitations in their activities of daily living. The Radboud Skills Questionnaire measures alterations in the level of disability of patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, but this instrument is currently not available in German. The goals of our study were to translate the Dutch Radboud Skills Questionnaire into German and to assess its external criterion validity with the German version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire. Methods We translated the Radboud Skills Questionnaire according to published guidelines. Demographic data and validity were assessed in 57 consecutive patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 of the upper extremity. Information on age, duration of symptoms, type of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and type of initiating event was obtained. We assessed the external criterion validity by comparing the German Radboud Skills Questionnaire and the German Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire and calculated the prediction intervals. Results Score values ranged from 55.4 ± 22.0 for the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire score and 140.1 ± 39.2 for the Radboud Skills Questionnaire. We found a high correlation between the Radboud Skills Questionnaire and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (R2 = 0.83. Conclusion This validation of the Radboud Skills Questionnaire demonstrates that this German version is a simple and accurate instrument to assess and quantify disabilities of patients suffering from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 of the upper extremity for clinical and research purposes

  7. Motor cortical activity during motor tasks is normal in patients with complex regional pain syndrome.

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    van Velzen, Gijsbrecht A J; Marinus, Johan; van Dijk, J Gert; van Zwet, Erik W; Schipper, Inger B; van Hilten, Jacobus J

    2015-01-01

    Motor dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is often considered a functional movement disorder. Earlier studies in patients with functional movement disorders found evidence of cortical inhibition during explicit but not implicit motor tasks, suggesting active inhibition from other brain areas. In this study, we explored whether active inhibition occurs in CRPS patients. We compared patients with CRPS with 2 control groups: healthy controls matched for age and sex, and patients whose hand was immobilized to treat a scaphoid fracture. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation to measure corticospinal excitability at rest and during motor imagery (explicit motor task) and motor observation (implicit motor task). Motor corticospinal excitation measured at rest and during implicit and explicit motor tasks was similar for CRPS patients and healthy controls. Patients with an immobilized hand showed an absence of motor cortical excitation of the corresponding hemisphere during motor imagery of tasks involving the immobilized hand, but not during motor observation. The normal motor cortical processing during motor imagery and motor observation found in the corresponding hemisphere of CPRS patients suggests that the nature of motor dysfunction in this condition differs from that described in literature for patients with functional paresis or under circumstances of limb immobilization. This study shows that the nature of motor dysfunction in CRPS patients differs from that encountered in patients with functional paresis or under circumstances of limb immobilization. This information is important for patients and pain clinicians and could help prevent implementation of therapeutic strategies based on incorrect assumptions. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Physiotherapy for pain and disability in adults with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types I and II.

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    Smart, Keith M; Wand, Benedict M; O'Connell, Neil E

    2016-02-24

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful and disabling condition that usually manifests in response to trauma or surgery. When it occurs, it is associated with significant pain and disability. It is thought to arise and persist as a consequence of a maladaptive pro-inflammatory response and disturbances in sympathetically-mediated vasomotor control, together with maladaptive peripheral and central neuronal plasticity. CRPS can be classified into two types: type I (CRPS I) in which a specific nerve lesion has not been identified, and type II (CRPS II) where there is an identifiable nerve lesion. Guidelines recommend the inclusion of a variety of physiotherapy interventions as part of the multimodal treatment of people with CRPS, although their effectiveness is not known. To determine the effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions for treating the pain and disability associated with CRPS types I and II. We searched the following databases from inception up to 12 February 2015: CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, LILACS, PEDro, Web of Science, DARE and Health Technology Assessments, without language restrictions, for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of physiotherapy interventions for treating pain and disability in people CRPS. We also searched additional online sources for unpublished trials and trials in progress. We included RCTs of physiotherapy interventions (including manual therapy, therapeutic exercise, electrotherapy, physiotherapist-administered education and cortically directed sensory-motor rehabilitation strategies) employed in either a stand-alone fashion or in combination, compared with placebo, no treatment, another intervention or usual care, or of varying physiotherapy interventions compared with each other in adults with CRPS I and II. Our primary outcomes of interest were patient-centred outcomes of pain intensity and functional disability. Two review authors independently evaluated those studies

  9. Migraine may be a risk factor for the development of complex regional pain syndrome.

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    Peterlin, B L; Rosso, A L; Nair, S; Young, W B; Schwartzman, R J

    2010-02-01

    The aim was to assess the relative frequency of migraine and the headache characteristics of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) sufferers. CRPS and migraine are chronic, often disabling pain syndromes. Recent studies suggest that headache is associated with the development of CRPS. Consecutive adults fulfilling International Association for the Study of Pain criteria for CRPS at a pain clinic were included. Demographics, medical history, and pain characteristics were obtained. Headache diagnoses were made using International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edn criteria. Migraine and pain characteristics were compared in those with migraine with those without. anova with Tukey post hoc tests was used to determine the significance of continuous variables and Fisher's exact or χ(2) tests for categorical variables. The expected prevalence of migraine and chronic daily headache (CDH) was calculated based on age- and gender-stratified general population estimates. Standardized morbidity ratios (SMR) were calculated by dividing the observed prevalence of migraine by the expected prevalence from the general population. The sample consisted of 124 CRPS participants. The mean age was 45.5 ± 12.0 years. Age- and gender-adjusted SMRs showed that those with CRPS were 3.6 times more likely to have migraine and nearly twice as likely to have CDH as the general population. Aura was reported in 59.7% (74/124) of participants. Of those CRPS sufferers with migraine, 61.2% (41/67) reported the onset of severe headaches before the onset of CRPS symptoms Mean age of onset of CRPS was earlier in those with migraine (34.9 ± 11.1 years) and CDH (32.5 ± 13.4 years) compared with those with no headaches (46.8 ± 14.9 years) and those with tension-type headache (TTH) (39.9 ± 9.9 years), P CRPS in participants with migraine (median of four extremities) compared with the combined group of those CRPS sufferers with no headaches or TTH (median 2.0 extremities), P CRPS

  10. Interexaminer reliability of infrared thermography for the diagnosis of complex regional pain syndrome.

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    Choi, Eunjoo; Lee, Pyung-Bok; Nahm, Francis Sahngun

    2013-05-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) is a useful tool for assessing skin temperature abnormalities in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Although determining regions of interest (ROIs) is an essential process for interpreting thermographic images, there are no validated and standardized guidelines to determine ROIs. Therefore, ROIs may be determined differently by each observer even for the same IRT images, which can result in an important issue for IRT reliability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interexaminer reliability of IRT in patients with CRPS. Infrared thermographic images of 28 patients diagnosed with CRPS were reviewed by three independent examiners. The shapes, sizes, and the detailed locations of the ROIs were determined by the investigator's own opinion based on patient history and symptoms. After maximal skin temperature of the ROI was obtained for each patient, the degree of agreement among the three examiners limbs was assessed. The intraclass correlation coefficient among the three independent raters was 0.865 (95% confidence interval, 0.748-0.933), indicating a high degree of reliability (P CRPS was high when the ROIs were determined based on patient history and symptoms. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Is poststroke complex regional pain syndrome the combination of shoulder pain and soft tissue injury of the wrist?: A prospective observational study: STROBE of ultrasonographic findings in complex regional pain syndrome.

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    Kim, Yong Wook; Kim, Yoon; Kim, Jong Moon; Hong, Ji Seong; Lim, Hyun Sun; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2016-08-01

    Patients with poststroke complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) show different symptoms compared to other types of CRPS, as they usually complain of shoulder and wrist pain with the elbow relatively spared. It is thus also known by the term "shoulder-hand syndrome."The aim of this study is to present a possible pathophysiology of poststroke CRPS through ultrasonographic observation of the affected wrist before and after steroid injection at the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) tendon in patients suspected with poststroke CRPS.Prospective evaluation and observation, the STROBE guideline checklist was used.Twenty-three patients diagnosed as poststroke CRPS in accordance to clinical criteria were enrolled. They had a Three Phase Bone Scan (TPBS) done and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of EDC tendon was measured by using ultrasonography. They were then injected with steroid at the EDC tendon. The CSA of EDC tendon, visual analogue scale (VAS), and degree of swelling of the wrist were followed up 1 week after the injection.TPBS was interpreted as normal for 4 patients, suspected CRPS for 10 patients, and CRPS for 9 patients. Ultrasonographic findings of the affected wrist included swelling of the EDC tendon. After the injection of steroid to the wrist, CSA and swelling of the affected wrist compared to that before the treatment was significantly decreased (P shoulder or rotator cuff tear of shoulder and soft tissue injury of the wrist caused by the hemiplegic nature of patients with stroke.

  12. Treatment of chronic regional pain syndrome type 1 with palmitoylethanolamide and topical ketamine cream: modulation of nonneuronal cells

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    Keppel Hesselink JM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Jan M Keppel Hesselink,1 David J Kopsky21Institute for Neuropathic Pain, Bosch en Duin, The Netherlands; 2Institute for Neuropathic Pain, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsAbstract: Chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS can be intractable to treat and patients sometimes suffer for many years. Therefore, new treatment strategies are needed to alleviate symptoms in CRPS patients. This case report describes a patient suffering from intractable CRPS type 1 for 13 years. Due to her swollen painful feet and left knee she is wheelchair-bound. The combination of palmitoylethanolamide and ketamine 10% cream reduced her pain by more than 50% after 1 month of treatment, and a marked reduction in swelling and skin discoloration was noticed. Furthermore, she could walk independently again and she experienced no side effects. Thus, palmitoylethanolamide and topical ketamine could be a combination therapy option for treating CRPS patients.Keywords: palmitoylethanolamide, ketamine, cream, CRPS, endocannabinoid, sudeck, mast cells

  13. Potential Risk Factors for the Onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1: A Systematic Literature Review

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    Tracey Pons

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaesthetists in the acute and chronic pain teams are often involved in treating Complex Regional Pain Syndromes. Current literature about the risk factors for the onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 (CRPS 1 remains sparse. This syndrome has a low prevalence, a highly variable presentation, and no gold standard for diagnosis. In the research setting, the pathogenesis of the syndrome continues to be elusive. There is a growing body of literature that addresses efficacy of a wide range of interventions as well as the likely mechanisms that contribute to the onset of CRPS 1. The objective for this systematic search of the literature focuses on determining the potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1. Eligible articles were analysed, dated 1996 to April 2014, and potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1 were identified from 10 prospective and 6 retrospective studies. Potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1 were found to include being female, particularly postmenopausal female, ankle dislocation or intra-articular fracture, immobilisation, and a report of higher than usual levels of pain in the early phases of trauma. It is not possible to draw definite conclusions as this evidence is heterogeneous and of mixed quality, relevance, and weighting strength against bias and has not been confirmed across multiple trials or in homogenous studies.

  14. Diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome.

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    Gerwin, Robert D

    2014-05-01

    Myofascial pain is one of the most common causes of pain. The diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is made by muscle palpation. The source of the pain in MPS is the myofascial trigger point, a very localized region of tender, contracted muscle that is readily identified by palpation. The trigger point has well-described electrophysiologic properties and is associated with a derangement of the local biochemical milieu of the muscle. A proper diagnosis of MPS includes evaluation of muscle as a cause of pain, and assessment of associated conditions that have an impact on MPS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Incidence of complex regional pain syndrome after foot and ankle surgery.

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    Rewhorn, Matthew J; Leung, Andraay H; Gillespie, Alan; Moir, J Stuart; Miller, Roslyn

    2014-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is an uncommon complication of orthopedic surgery, and few investigators have considered the incidence in foot and ankle surgery. In the present retrospective cohort study of 390 patients who had undergone elective foot and/or ankle surgery in our department from January to December 2009, the incidence of postoperative CRPS was calculated and explanatory variables were analyzed. A total of 17 patients (4.36%) were identified as meeting the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria for the diagnosis of CRPS. Of the 17 patients with CRPS, the mean age was 47.2 ± 9.7 years, and 14 (82.35%) were female. All the operations were elective, and 9 (52.94%) involved the forefoot, 3 (17.65%) the hindfoot, 3 (17.65%) the ankle, and 2 (11.76%) the midfoot. Twelve patients (70.59%) had new-onset CRPS after a primary procedure, and 5 (29.41%) had developed CRPS after multiple surgeries. Three patients (17.65%) had documented nerve damage intraoperatively and thus developed new-onset CRPS type 2. Blood test results were available for 14 patients (82.35%) at a minimum of 3 months postoperatively, and none had elevated inflammatory markers. Five of the patients (29.41%) were smokers, and 8 (47.06%) had had a pre-existing diagnosis of anxiety and/or depression. From our findings, we recommend that middle-age females and those with a history of anxiety or depression, who will undergo elective foot surgery, should be counseled regarding the risk of developing CRPS during the consent process. We recommend similar studies be undertaken in other orthopedic units, and we currently are collecting data from other orthopedic departments within Scotland. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel Signs and Their Clinical Utility in Diagnosing Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS): A Prospective Observational Cohort Study.

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    Kuttikat, Anoop; Shaikh, Maliha; Oomatia, Amin; Parker, Richard; Shenker, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    Delays in diagnosis occur with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). We define and prospectively demonstrate that novel bedside tests measuring body perception disruption can identify patients with CRPS postfracture. The objectives of our study were to define and validate 4 bedside tests, to identify the prevalence of positive tests in patients with CRPS and other chronic pain conditions, and to assess the clinical utility (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value) for identifying CRPS within a Fracture cohort. This was a single UK teaching hospital prospective cohort study with 313 recruits from pain-free volunteers and patients with chronic pain conditions.Four novel tests were Finger Perception (FP), Hand Laterality identification (HL), Astereognosis (AS), and Body Scheme (BS) report. Five questionnaires (Brief Pain Inventory, Upper Extremity Functional Index, Lower Extremity Functional Index, Neglect-like Symptom Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score) assessed the multidimensional pain experience. FP and BS were the best performing tests. Prospective monitoring of fracture patients showed that out of 7 fracture patients (total n=47) who had both finger misperception and abnormal BS report at initial testing, 3 developed persistent pain with 1 having a formal diagnosis of CRPS. Novel signs are reliable, easy to perform, and present in chronic pain patients. FP and BS have significant clinical utility in predicting persistent pain in a fracture group thereby allowing targeted early intervention.

  17. A case of complex regional pain syndrome with agnosia for object orientation.

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    Robinson, Gail; Cohen, Helen; Goebel, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    This systematic investigation of the neurocognitive correlates of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in a single case also reports agnosia for object orientation in the context of persistent CRPS. We report a patient (JW) with severe long-standing CRPS who had no difficulty identifying and naming line drawings of objects presented in 1 of 4 cardinal orientations. In contrast, he was extremely poor at reorienting these objects into the correct upright orientation and in judging whether an object was upright or not. Moreover, JW made orientation errors when copying drawings of objects, and he also showed features of mirror reversal in writing single words and reading single letters. The findings are discussed in relation to accounts of visual processing. Agnosia for object orientation is the term for impaired knowledge of an object's orientation despite good recognition and naming of the same misoriented object. This defect has previously only been reported in patients with major structural brain lesions. The neuroanatomical correlates are discussed. The patient had no structural brain lesion, raising the possibility that nonstructural reorganisation of cortical networks may be responsible for his deficits. Other patients with CRPS may have related neurocognitive defects. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fibromyalgia as a Predictor of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome After Distal Radius Fracture.

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    Lipman, Marc D; Hess, Daniel E; Werner, Brian C; Deal, D Nicole

    2017-10-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) can be a devastating complication following extremity injury, but risk factors are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between fibromyalgia and the development of CRPS after distal radius fracture. The PearlDiver Medicare database was queried using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for diagnoses and treatments of distal radius fractures. Patients were separated into fibromyalgia and control cohorts, and the prevalence of CRPS was measured at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months from the date of injury or procedure. Demographic factors, treatment modality, and comorbid conditions were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression to reduce confounding and identify additional risk factors. Database queries yielded 853 186 patients diagnosed or treated for distal radius fracture, with 6% having previous diagnosis of fibromyalgia. The prevalence of CRPS following distal radius fracture was increased at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months in the fibromyalgia cohort compared with the control c, with a 1-year incidence of 0.51% compared with 0.20% (odds ratio [OR], 2.54, P 65, diabetes, and heart failure were negatively associated. While the basis of the association between fibromyalgia and CRPS is unknown, our data suggest that it could serve as a useful predictor of CRPS risk, promoting increased vigilance for CRPS symptoms and earlier recognition and treatment, thereby improving patient outcomes.

  19. Lumbar sympathetic blockade in children with complex regional pain syndromes: a double blind placebo-controlled crossover trial.

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    Meier, Petra M; Zurakowski, David; Berde, Charles B; Sethna, Navil F

    2009-08-01

    Sympathetic blockade is used in the management of complex regional pain syndromes in children, but there are no data on the efficacy or mechanism(s) by which it produces pain relief. The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of lidocaine administered by lumbar sympathetic to IV route. Under general anesthesia, children with unilateral lower limb complex regional pain syndromes received catheters along the lumbar sympathetic chain. In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, patients received IV lidocaine and lumbar sympathetic saline or lumbar sympathetic lidocaine and IV saline. Spontaneous and evoked pain ratings and sensory thresholds were assessed before and after these two lidocaine/saline doses and between routes of lumbar sympathetic blockade and IV. Twenty-three patients, ages 10-18 yr, were enrolled. There was evidence for reduction of mean pain intensity of allodynia to brush (mean -1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.5 to -0.3) and to pinprick temporal summation (mean -1.3, 95% CI -2.5 to -0.2) with lidocaine treatment via the lumbar sympathetic blockade compared to IV route. Lumbar sympathetic blockade also produced significant reduction in pain intensity compared to pretreatment values of allodynia to brush, pinprick and pinprick temporal summation and verbal pain scores. IV lidocaine did not produce significant changes in spontaneous and evoked pain intensity measurements compared to pretreatment values. There were no carryover effects as assessed by route-by-period interaction. Under the conditions of this study, the results provide some direct evidence that a component of pain may be mediated by abnormal sympathetic efferent activity.

  20. [Pediatric complex regional pain syndrome affecting an upper limb: 7 cases and a brief review of the literature].

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    Cebrián, J; Sánchez, P

    2009-03-01

    To review the clinical, psychiatric, and social characteristics of complex regional pain syndrome in children and adolescents treated in the last 4 years at our pediatric pain clinic. We analyzed the specialty of the initial treating physician, age, sex, initial diagnosis, pain intensity, degree of disability, fear of movement, clinical stage, history of trauma, time between onset and diagnosis, psychiatric illness, family support and behavior, chronic pain in near relatives, school grades and attendance, treatment given at the pediatric pain clinic, recurrences, and course of disease. The cases of 7 patients (4 female, 3 male) between the ages of 8 and 15 years were analyzed. Four had been referred by the child psychiatry department. The initial diagnosis was erroneous in all but 1 case. Pain intensity and associated disability were severe in 5 patients and 4 expressed intense fear of moving the limb. Five patients had initial stage I disease, 5 had a history of trauma, and 5 had been previously treated by immobilization of the limb and prescription of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The time between onset and diagnosis ranged from 2 to 18 months (mean [SD], 6.4 [3.5] months). In most cases psychiatric disease and concomitant social disability were present. Treatment prescribed at the pediatric pain clinic consisted of a combination of oral medication, psychologic and psychiatric counseling, and intensive physiotherapy for all but 2 children, who required regional nerve blocks. The clinical course was satisfactory for all but 1 patient, who developed severe disability. Complex regional pain syndrome affecting an upper limb is uncommon in children but not rare.

  1. Intravenous magnesium for chronic complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1).

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    Fischer, Sigrid G L; Collins, Susan; Boogaard, Sabine; Loer, Stephan A; Zuurmond, Wouter W A; Perez, Roberto S G M

    2013-09-01

    To assess the effects of intravenous administration of magnesium on complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1), a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was performed. Fifty-six patients with CRPS-1 (International Association for the Study of Pain Orlando criteria) received MgSO(4) 70 mg/kg or placebo (NaCl 0.9%) in 4 hours over 5 consecutive days. Pain (BOX-11 and McGill), the level of impairment (Impairment level Sum Score [ISS]), functional limitations (Radboud Skills Questionnaire, Walking Skills Questionnaire/questionnaire rising and sitting down), participation (Impact on Participation and Autonomy [IPA]), and quality of life (Short Form-36, EuroQol, IPA) were evaluated at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 weeks. No significant differences were found between MgSO(4) and placebo on the BOX-11 and ISS at different time points during the trial on intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis. A significant improvement on the BOX-11 was found after the first week of the trial in both groups (mean 0.7; standard deviation 1.1). For the MgSO(4) group, a clinically relevant and statistically significant improvement on the ISS at 1 week (median 5, interquartile range [IQR] -1 to 8) and a significant improvement on the McGill up to 6 weeks (median 2 words, IQR 0-4.5) were found compared with baseline, which were not found in the placebo group. Significant improvement in perceived job participation was found for the MgSO(4) group at 12 weeks (median improvement 1.44-1.17; P = 0.01). ISS improved significantly more in patients with a low Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) score (≤10) in the MgSO(4) group (mean 4.4 vs mean -3.1; P = 0.02). Administration of the physiological competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist magnesium in chronic CRPS provides insufficient benefit over placebo. Future research should focus on patients with acute CRPS and early signs and symptoms of central sensitization. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Nonimmersive virtual reality mirror visual feedback therapy and its application for the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome: an open-label pilot study.

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    Sato, Kenji; Fukumori, Satoshi; Matsusaki, Takashi; Maruo, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Shinichi; Nishie, Hiroyuki; Takata, Ken; Mizuhara, Hiroaki; Mizobuchi, Satoshi; Nakatsuka, Hideki; Matsumi, Masaki; Gofuku, Akio; Yokoyama, Masataka; Morita, Kiyoshi

    2010-04-01

    Chronic pain conditions such as phantom limb pain and complex regional pain syndrome are difficult to treat, and traditional pharmacological treatment and invasive neural block are not always effective. Plasticity in the central nervous system occurs in these conditions and may be associated with pain. Mirror visual feedback therapy aims to restore normal cortical organization and is applied in the treatment of chronic pain conditions. However, not all patients benefit from this treatment. Virtual reality technology is increasingly attracting attention for medical application, including as an analgesic modality. An advanced mirror visual feedback system with virtual reality technology may have increased analgesic efficacy and benefit a wider patient population. In this preliminary work, we developed a virtual reality mirror visual feedback system and applied it to the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome. A small open-label case series. Five patients with complex regional pain syndrome received virtual reality mirror visual feedback therapy once a week for five to eight sessions on an outpatient basis. Patients were monitored for continued medication use and pain intensity. Four of the five patients showed >50% reduction in pain intensity. Two of these patients ended their visits to our pain clinic after five sessions. Our results indicate that virtual reality mirror visual feedback therapy is a promising alternative treatment for complex regional pain syndrome. Further studies are necessary before concluding that analgesia provided from virtual reality mirror visual feedback therapy is the result of reversing maladaptive changes in pain perception.

  3. Severity and specificity of neglect-like symptoms in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) compared to chronic limb pain of other origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frettlöh, Jule; Hüppe, Michael; Maier, Christoph

    2006-09-01

    In the literature, the neglect-like syndrome is described as an additional phenomenon of CRPS. The perception of the affected limb as strange, disordered and not belonging to the body is typical of and characterises this syndrome. Since this phenomenon has never been studied in other pain conditions, we assessed occurrence and extent of neglect-like symptoms in patients with CRPS of the upper and lower limb (n = 123) and in a control group with chronic limb pain of other origins (n = 117). Our questionnaire for describing the neglect-like syndrome encompassed five items following Galer and Jensen [Galer BS, Jensen M. Neglect-like symptoms in complex regional pain syndrome: results of a self-administered survey. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 1999;18:213-6], with a six-point response scale inquiring the extent of respective symptoms. Results show that CRPS-patients as well as patients with non-CRPS limb pain exhibit the so-called neglect-like syndrome. However, the number of patients confirming such symptoms was significantly higher (OR = 2.87) in the CRPS group, moreover, these patients reported more severe symptoms (F = 17.74; p = 0.001). If the neglect-like total score is > or = 5, the diagnostic sensitivity is low (21.1%), but the specificity for the diagnosis of CRPS reaches 90.6%. In this study, patients with CRPS of the upper and lower limb were included. The only difference between these two localisations concerning the neglect-like syndrome was the symptom of 'involuntary movements', which occurs significantly more often in affected legs. In conclusion, we recommend to evaluate neglect-like symptoms and to use them as an additional criterion in the diagnosis of CRPS. High scores of > or = 5 confirm the diagnosis of CRPS, whereas lower scores must not be used for disease classification.

  4. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) or continuous unilateral distal experimental pain stimulation in healthy subjects does not bias visual attention towards one hemifield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippopulos, Filipp M; Grafenstein, Jessica; Straube, Andreas; Eggert, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    In natural life pain automatically draws attention towards the painful body part suggesting that it interacts with different attentional mechanisms such as visual attention. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients who typically report on chronic distally located pain of one extremity may suffer from so-called neglect-like symptoms, which have also been linked to attentional mechanisms. The purpose of the study was to further evaluate how continuous pain conditions influence visual attention. Saccade latencies were recorded in two experiments using a common visual attention paradigm whereby orientating saccades to cued or uncued lateral visual targets had to be performed. In the first experiment saccade latencies of healthy subjects were measured under two conditions: one in which continuous experimental pain stimulation was applied to the index finger to imitate a continuous pain situation, and one without pain stimulation. In the second experiment saccade latencies of patients suffering from CRPS were compared to controls. The results showed that neither the continuous experimental pain stimulation during the experiment nor the chronic pain in CRPS led to an unilateral increase of saccade latencies or to a unilateral increase of the cue effect on latency. The results show that unilateral, continuously applied pain stimuli or chronic pain have no or only very limited influence on visual attention. Differently from patients with visual neglect, patients with CRPS did not show strong side asymmetries of saccade latencies or of cue effects on saccade latencies. Thus, neglect-like clinical symptoms of CRPS patients do not involve the allocation of visual attention.

  5. Appearance of burning abdominal pain during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia in a patient with complex regional pain syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Jitsu; Gokan, Dai; Hirose, Noriya; Iida, Ryoji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Ogawa, Setsuro

    2013-02-01

    The mechanism of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) was reported as being related to both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Recurrence of CRPS was, reportedly, induced by hand surgery in a patient with upper limb CRPS. However, there is no documentation of mechanical allodynia and burning abdominal pain induced by Cesarean section under spinal anesthesia in patients with upper limb CRPS. We report the case of a patient who suffered from burning abdominal pain during Cesarean section under spinal anesthesia 13 years after the occurrence of venipuncture-induced CRPS of the upper arm. The patient's pain characteristics were similar to the pain characteristics of her right arm during her previous CRPS episode 13 years earlier. In addition, mechanical allodynia around the incision area was confirmed after surgery. We provided ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block using 20 mL of 0.4% ropivacaine under ultrasound guidance twice, which resulted in the disappearance of the spontaneous pain and allodynia. The pain relief was probably related to blockade of the peripheral input by this block, which in turn would have improved her central sensitization. Our report shows that attention should be paid to the appearance of neuropathic pain of the abdomen during Cesarean section under spinal anesthesia in patients with a history of CRPS. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Biopsychosocial complexity is correlated with psychiatric comorbidity but not with perceived pain in complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (algodystrophy) of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouilloz, Aurélie; Deriaz, Olivier; Rivier, Gilles; Gobelet, Charles; Luthi, François

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of patients suffering from complex regional pain syndrome type 1 ([CRPS], also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy or algodystrophy) of the knee with those of a matched group of patients experiencing post-traumatic knee pain. The comparisons looked at biopsychosocial complexity (simple versus complex), psychiatric comorbidity and pain intensity. Cross-sectional, single-centre, case-control study using the INTERMED scale, psychiatric diagnostic tools (ICD-10) and visual analogue pain scale. Contingency table and Chi2 tests. One-way analysis of variance for continuous dependent variables. Difference between groups: Tukey's variance test, after the event. For nominal dependent variables, multivariate logistic analysis. Biopsychosocial complexity did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.7). The "complex" patients displayed significantly more psychiatric comorbidity (odds ratio 2.94, 95% confidence interval 1.1-7.8, p pain perceived varied with biopsychosocial complexity only in the control group. The "complex" control patients reported more pain than the "simple" control patients (p perceived intensity of pain was not different between the "simple" and "complex" patients with CRPS. Biopsychosocial complexity was comparable between the two groups, and was strongly associated with the presence of psychiatric comorbidity. However, unlike with other pain syndromes, with CRPS the intensity of the perceived pain did not vary with biopsychosocial complexity. Early identification of "complex" patients could make it possible to quickly institute targeted management for both groups of patients. Copyright © 2010 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Fixed Dystonia in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: a Descriptive and Computational Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) may occur after trauma, usually to one limb, and is characterized by pain and disturbed blood flow, temperature regulation and motor control. Approximately 25% of cases develop fixed dystonia. Involvement of dysfunctional GABAergic interneurons has been suggested, however the mechanisms that underpin fixed dystonia are still unknown. We hypothesized that dystonia could be the result of aberrant proprioceptive reflex strengths of position, velocity or force feedback. Methods We systematically characterized the pattern of dystonia in 85 CRPS-patients with dystonia according to the posture held at each joint of the affected limb. We compared the patterns with a neuromuscular computer model simulating aberrations of proprioceptive reflexes. The computer model consists of an antagonistic muscle pair with explicit contributions of the musculotendinous system and reflex pathways originating from muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs, with time delays reflective of neural latencies. Three scenarios were simulated with the model: (i) increased reflex sensitivity (increased sensitivity of the agonistic and antagonistic reflex loops); (ii) imbalanced reflex sensitivity (increased sensitivity of the agonistic reflex loop); (iii) imbalanced reflex offset (an offset to the reflex output of the agonistic proprioceptors). Results For the arm, fixed postures were present in 123 arms of 77 patients. The dominant pattern involved flexion of the fingers (116/123), the wrists (41/123) and elbows (38/123). For the leg, fixed postures were present in 114 legs of 77 patients. The dominant pattern was plantar flexion of the toes (55/114 legs), plantar flexion and inversion of the ankle (73/114) and flexion of the knee (55/114). Only the computer simulations of imbalanced reflex sensitivity to muscle force from Golgi tendon organs caused patterns that closely resembled the observed patient characteristics. In parallel experiments using

  8. Fixed Dystonia in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: a Descriptive and Computational Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moseley G Lorimer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS may occur after trauma, usually to one limb, and is characterized by pain and disturbed blood flow, temperature regulation and motor control. Approximately 25% of cases develop fixed dystonia. Involvement of dysfunctional GABAergic interneurons has been suggested, however the mechanisms that underpin fixed dystonia are still unknown. We hypothesized that dystonia could be the result of aberrant proprioceptive reflex strengths of position, velocity or force feedback. Methods We systematically characterized the pattern of dystonia in 85 CRPS-patients with dystonia according to the posture held at each joint of the affected limb. We compared the patterns with a neuromuscular computer model simulating aberrations of proprioceptive reflexes. The computer model consists of an antagonistic muscle pair with explicit contributions of the musculotendinous system and reflex pathways originating from muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs, with time delays reflective of neural latencies. Three scenarios were simulated with the model: (i increased reflex sensitivity (increased sensitivity of the agonistic and antagonistic reflex loops; (ii imbalanced reflex sensitivity (increased sensitivity of the agonistic reflex loop; (iii imbalanced reflex offset (an offset to the reflex output of the agonistic proprioceptors. Results For the arm, fixed postures were present in 123 arms of 77 patients. The dominant pattern involved flexion of the fingers (116/123, the wrists (41/123 and elbows (38/123. For the leg, fixed postures were present in 114 legs of 77 patients. The dominant pattern was plantar flexion of the toes (55/114 legs, plantar flexion and inversion of the ankle (73/114 and flexion of the knee (55/114. Only the computer simulations of imbalanced reflex sensitivity to muscle force from Golgi tendon organs caused patterns that closely resembled the observed patient characteristics. In parallel

  9. Multicenter study on the asymmetry of skin temperature in complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chan Woo; Nahm, Francis Sahngun; Choi, Eunjoo; Lee, Pyung-Bok; Jang, In-Ki; Lee, Chul Joong; Kim, Yong Chul; Lee, Sang Chul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract According to the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) and American Medical Association (AMA), the diagnostic criteria for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) require the presence of skin temperature asymmetry. In CRPS, it is generally accepted that the temperature of skin of affected limbs changes from warm to cold; however, in our clinical practice, we have experienced many cases with different thermographic characteristics. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective multicenter study that examined the distribution of skin temperature in patients with CRPS and skin temperature asymmetry versus symptom duration. Patients diagnosed with type 1 or 2 CRPS were recruited. After confirming CRPS according to the IASP diagnostic criteria, infrared thermographic images were evaluated for skin temperature differences (ΔT) between the affected and unaffected limbs. A total of 296 patients with CRPS were included in this study. The median duration of symptoms was 6 months and the mean ± standard deviation of ΔT was –0.72 ± 1.65°C. A skin temperature difference between bilateral limbs (|ΔT|) of 1°C or less was seen in 131 patients (44.3%); thus, these 131 patients did not meet the IASP criteria for CRPS. Further, cool skin temperature was not observed in 88 patients (29.7%), meaning that these patients did not meet the AMA criteria for CRPS. There was no correlation between the symptom duration and ΔT (Spearman's rho = –0.075, P = 0.196) and there was no significant difference in the average ΔT among the 4 symptom duration groups (0–3 months, 4–6 months, 7–12 months, >12 months, P = 0.08). In conclusion, a considerable proportion of the patients that participated in this study did not meet the thermal criteria set forth by the IASP and AMA. Further, there was no correlation between symptom duration and skin temperature difference. PMID:28033251

  10. Medical history and the onset of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mos, M; Huygen, F J P M; Dieleman, J P; Koopman, J S H A; Stricker, B H Ch; Sturkenboom, M C J M

    2008-10-15

    Knowledge concerning the medical history prior to the onset of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) might provide insight into its risk factors and potential underlying disease mechanisms. To evaluate prior to CRPS medical conditions, a case-control study was conducted in the Integrated Primary Care Information (IPCI) project, a general practice (GP) database in the Netherlands. CRPS patients were identified from the records and validated through examination by the investigator (IASP criteria) or through specialist confirmation. Cases were matched to controls on age, gender and injury type. All diagnoses prior to the index date were assessed by manual review of the medical records. Some pre-specified medical conditions were studied for their association with CRPS, whereas all other diagnoses, grouped by pathogenesis, were tested in a hypothesis-generating approach. Of the identified 259 CRPS patients, 186 cases (697 controls) were included, based on validation by the investigator during a visit (102 of 134 visited patients) or on specialist confirmation (84 of 125 unvisited patients). A medical history of migraine (OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.18-5.02) and osteoporosis (OR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.17-5.14) was associated with CRPS. In a recent history (1-year before CRPS), cases had more menstrual cycle-related problems (OR: 2.60, 95% CI: 1.16-5.83) and neuropathies (OR: 5.7; 95% CI: 1.8-18.7). In a sensitivity analysis, including only visited cases, asthma (OR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.3-6.9) and CRPS were related. Psychological factors were not associated with CRPS onset. Because of the hypothesis-generating character of this study, the findings should be confirmed by other studies.

  11. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertzen, J H; de Bruijn-Kofman, A T; de Bruijn, H P; van de Wiel, H B; Dijkstra, P U

    1998-06-01

    To determine to what extent stressful life events and psychological dysfunction play a role in the pathogenesis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS). A comparative study between a CRPS group and a control group. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction evaluation was performed with a life event rating list and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90). A university hospital. The CRPS group consisted of 24 patients with a history of upper extremity CRPS of less than 3 months. The control group consisted of 42 hand pathology patients waiting for elective hand surgery within the next 24 hours. Stressful life event rating was measured using the Social Readjustment Rating Scale. Psychological dysfunction was measured using the SCL-90. Stressful life events were experienced by 19 patients (79.2%) in the CRPS group and by 9 patients (21.4%) in the control group. This difference was significant. Testing of psychological dysfunction (SCL-90) in CRPS patients and the control group demonstrated some significant differences: male patients were more anxious than male controls; female patients were statistically more depressed, had feelings of inadequacy, and were emotionally less stable than female controls. In multivariate analysis, no significant differences were found across gender, age, or gender x group interactions. Of the SCL-90 dimensions, only insomnia correlated with the experienced stressful life events. Stressful life events are more common in the CRPS group, which indicates that there may be a multiconditional model of CRPS. The experience of stressful life events besides trauma or surgery are risk factors, not causes, in such a model.

  12. Headache may be a risk factor for complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, K; Muneshige, H; Maruishi, M; Kimura, H; Asou, T

    2006-09-01

    We investigated whether headache and family history of headache are risk factors for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) or not. Twenty-three CRPS patients and 69 healthy persons were interviewed whether or not they suffered from headache and had first-degree family history of headache. A headache sufferer was defined as a person who regularly suffered from headache for more than 2 days per month. Headache after an occurrence of CRPS (headache after an injury or operation in case of CRPS after an injury or operation) was excluded and just headache before an occurrence of CRPS was included. If a first-degree family had a regular headache, she or he was regarded as a headache sufferer regardless of the frequency of headache. Of the 23 patients with CRPS, 12 (52.2%) had suffered from headache before an occurrence of CRPS. Of the 69 healthy persons, 18 (26.1%) suffered from headache. Significant differences between patients and healthy persons were found. Of the 23 patients with CRPS, eight (34.8%) had a first-degree family history of headache. Of the 69 healthy persons, ten (14.5%) had a first-degree family history of headache. Significant differences between patients and healthy persons were found in a family history. The results suggest that headache and a first-degree family history of headache are risk factors for CRPS. To determine whether or not headache and first-degree family history of headache are risk factors for CRPS, further prospective studies with larger patient numbers should be carried out.

  13. Amputation in patients with complex regional pain syndrome: a comparative study between amputees and non-amputees with intractable disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midbari, A; Suzan, E; Adler, T; Melamed, E; Norman, D; Vulfsons, S; Eisenberg, E

    2016-04-01

    Amputation in intractable cases of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) remains controversial. The likelihood of recurrent Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), residual and phantom limb pain and persistent disability after amputation is poorly described in the literature. The aims of this study were to compare pain, function, depression and quality of life between patients with intractable CRPS who underwent amputation and those in whom amputation was considered but not performed. There were 19 patients in each group, with comparable demographic details. The amputated group included 14 men and five women with a mean age of 31 years (sd 12) at the time of CRPS diagnosis. The non-amputated group consisted of 12 men and seven women and their mean age of 36.8 years (sd 8) at CRPS diagnosis. The mean time from CRPS diagnosis to (first) amputation was 5.2 years (sd 4.3) and the mean time from amputation to data collection was 6.6 years (sd 5.8). All participants completed the following questionnaires: Short-Form (SF) 36, Short Form McGill Pain questionnaire (SF-MPQ), Pain Disability Index (PDI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and a clinical demographic questionnaire. The amputation group showed consistently better results compared to the non-amputation group in the following parameters: median pain intensity (VAS): 80 (inter-quartile range (IQR) 13 to 92) vs 91 (IQR 85 to 100); p = 0.007; median SF-MPQ score 28 (IQR 9 to 35) vs 35 (IQR 31 to 38), p = 0.025; median PDI: 42 (IQR 11 to 64) vs 58 (IQR 50 to 62), p = 0.031; median BDI: 19 (IQR 5 to 28) vs 27 (IQR 21 to 32), p = 0.061 (borderline significant) and in six of the eight SF-36 domains. Amputation should be considered as a form of treatment for patients with intractable CRPS. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  14. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Cervical and Upper Thoracic Sympathetic Chain Neuromodulation for Upper Extremity Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narouze, Samer; Souzdalnitski, Dmitri

    2017-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) comprises a group of conditions characterized by severe, debilitating pain that is disproportionate to any inciting event and is not distributed in a specific nerve distribution or dermatome. A 42-year-old female with a 2-year history of right upper extremity CRPS type I refractory to conventional management underwent an ultrasound-guided and fluoroscopy confirmed percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation trial with a lead extending from the C6 to the T3 level to cover the cervical and upper thoracic sympathetic chain. The patient subsequently received a permanent ultrasound-guided lead and implantable pulse generator. At 1-month follow-up, the patient's pain intensity had declined from a weekly average of 8/10 to 1/10 on the verbal pain scale with marked improvement in function. The patient continues to be pain-free or experiences only minimal discomfort 7 years after the implant. She experienced no complications and has discontinued all her pain medications since the implant. The placement of a peripheral nerve-stimulating electrode resulted in sustained suppression of intractable pain secondary to CRPS. Ultrasonography guidance enabled the nonsurgical minimally invasive percutaneous approach. Use of ultrasonography may improve the safety of the procedure by permitting direct visualization of the related anatomic structures, thereby reducing the risk of injury to the inferior thyroid artery, vertebral artery, esophagus, intervertebral disc, and pleura.

  15. Bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, Philip; Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome is a deceptively intricate symptom complex that is diagnosed on the basis of chronic pelvic pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be related to the urinary bladder, accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom. It is a diagnosis of exclusion in a patient who has...

  16. Pain in Down's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Mafrica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a homeostatic mechanism that intervenes to protect the organism from harmful stimuli that could damage its integrity. It is made up of two components: the sensory-discriminative component, which identifies the provenance and characteristics of the type of pain; and the affective-motivational component, on which emotional reflexes, following the painful sensation, depend.There is a system for pain control at an encephalic and spinal level, principally made up of the periaqueductal grey matter, the periventricular area, the nucleus raphe magnus, and the pain-inhibition complex situated in the posterior horns of the spinal cord. Through the activation of these pain-control systems, the nervous system suppresses the afference of pain signals. Endogenous opioids represent another analgesic system.In the course of various studies on pain transmission in Down patients, the reduced tolerance of pain and the incapacity to give a qualitative and quantitative description emerged in a powerful way. All of these aspects cause difficulty in evaluating pain. This is linked to several learning difficulties. However, it cannot be excluded that in these anomalies of pain perception, both the anatomical and the neurotransmitter alteration, typical of this syndrome, may hold a certain importance.This fact may have important clinical repercussions that could affect the choice of therapeutic and rehabilitative schemes for treatment of pathologies in which pain is the dominant symptom, such as postoperative pain. It could influence research on analgesics that are more suitable for these patients, the evaluation of the depth of analgesia during surgical operation, and ultimately, absence of obvious pain manifestations. In conclusion, alterations of the central nervous system, neurotransmitters, pain transmission, and all related problems should be considered in the management of pain in patients with Down's syndrome, especially by algologists and

  17. Are you better? A multi-centre study of patient-defined recovery from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llewellyn, A; McCabe, CS; Hibberd, Y

    2017-01-01

    Background: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) symptoms can significantly differ between patients, fluctuate over time, disappear or persist. This leads to problems in defining recovery and in evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. Objectives: To define recovery from the patients...... participants completed the statement: ‘I would/ do consider myself recovered from CRPS if/because. . .’ alongside demographic and health questionnaires. Data were thematically organised and represented as 62 statements, from which participants identified and ranked their recovery priorities in Round 2. Results......: Round 1 (N = 347, 80% female, 91% non-recovered) dominant ICF themes were: activities of daily living; bodily functions; external factors; participation and personal factors. The top five priority statements in Round 2 (N = 252) were: no longer having (1) CRPSrelated pain, (2) generalised pain...

  18. A Comprehensive Outcome-Specific Review of the Use of Spinal Cord Stimulation for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visnjevac, Ognjen; Costandi, Shrif; Patel, Bimal A; Azer, Girgis; Agarwal, Priya; Bolash, Robert; Mekhail, Nagy A

    2017-04-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful, debilitating affliction that is often difficult to treat. It has become common international practice to use spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for the treatment of CRPS as other therapies fail to provide adequate relief, quality of life, or improvement in function. This comprehensive outcome-specific systematic review of the use of SCS for CRPS was performed to elucidate the available evidence with focus on clinically relevant patient-specific outcomes. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to evaluate the effects of SCS on patients with CRPS for the following outcomes and provide summary levels of evidence in regard to each outcome: perceived pain relief, pain score, resolution of CRPS signs, functional status, quality of life, psychological impact, sleep hygiene, analgesic medication utilization, and patient satisfaction with SCS therapy. Search terms included "complex regional pain syndrome," "spinal cord stimulation," and "reflex sympathetic dystrophy," without restriction of language, date, or type of publication, albeit only original data were included in analyses. Of 30 studies selected, seven systematic reviews were excluded, as were four studies reporting combination therapy that included SCS and other therapies (ie, concurrent peripheral nerve stimulation, intrathecal therapy) without clear delineation to the effect of SCS alone on outcomes. A total of 19 manuscripts were evaluated. Perceived pain relief, pain score improvement, quality of life, and satisfaction with SCS were all rated 1B+, reflecting positive high-level (randomized controlled trial) evidence favoring SCS use for the treatment of CRPS. Evidence for functional status improvements and psychological effects of SCS was inconclusive, albeit emanating from a randomized controlled trial (evidence level 2B±), and outcomes evidence for both sleep hygiene and resolution of CRPS signs was either nonexistent or of too low quality from

  19. Pain and musculoskeletal pain syndromes in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Aura Ligia; Moraes, Ana Julia Pantoja; Leone, Claudio; Doria-Filho, Ulysses; Silva, Clovis Artur Almeida

    2006-06-01

    The presence of musculoskeletal pain was evaluated in adolescents. Pain was reported by 40% of respondents, benign joint hypermobility syndrome by 10%, myofascial syndrome by 5%, tendonitis by 2%, and fibromialgia by 1%. Logistical regression analysis indicated that sex and age were predictive of pain.

  20. Complex regional pain syndrome type I (shoulder-hand syndrome) in an elderly patient after open cardiac surgical intervention; a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ediz, Levent; Ceylan, Mehmet Fethi; Hız, Özcan; Tekeoğlu, İbrahim

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. We described the first case report in the literature who developed Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS type I) symptoms in his right shoulder and right hand within 15 days after open cardiac surgery and discussed shoulder-hand syndrome (CRPS type I) and frozen shoulder diagnosis along with  the reasons of no report of CRPS type I in these patients. We also speculated whether  frozen shoulder seen in postthoracotomy and postcardiac surgery patients might be CRPS type I in fact.Key w...

  1. Intrathecal Bupivacaine Monotherapy with a Retrograde Catheter for the Management of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome of the Lower Extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRoberts, W Porter; Apostol, Catalina; Haleem, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) presents a therapeutic challenge due to its many presentations and multifaceted pathophysiology. There is no approved treatment algorithm and clinical interventions are often applied empirically. In cases of CRPS where symptoms are localized to an extremity, a targeted treatment is indicated. We describe the use of intrathecal bupivacaine monotherapy, delivered through a retrograde catheter, in the treatment of CRPS affecting the lower extremity. The patient, a 57-year-old woman with a history of failed foot surgery, was seen in our office after 2 years of ineffective treatments with local blocks and neurolytic procedures. We advanced therapy to moderately invasive procedures with an emphasis on neuromodulation. A combined central and peripheral stimulation technique that initially provided 75% pain relief, failed to provide lasting analgesia. We proceeded with an intrathecal pump implant. Based on the results of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) mapping, L5-S1 was identified as the optimal target for therapy and a retrograde catheter was placed at this level. Various intrathecal medications were tested individually. An intrathecal morphine trial was ineffective (visual analog scale [VAS] 7), while intrathecal clonidine provided excellent pain relief (VAS 0) that was limited by severe side effects. Bupivacaine provided 100% analgesia with tolerable side effects (lower extremity weakness and minor bladder incontinence) and was selected for intrathecal infusion. After 14 months, bupivacaine treatment continued to control pain exacerbations. We conclude that CRPS patients benefit from early identification of the predominant underlying symptoms and a targeted treatment with moderately invasive techniques when less invasive techniques fail. Intrathecal bupivacaine, bupivacaine monotherapy, retrograde catheter, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), dual stimulation, dosal root ganglion (DRG) testing.

  2. Patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1: fractal dynamics of heart rate variability and baroreflex evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneyama, Chikuni; Yokota, Shigeru; Goto, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    Patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 might have disturbed autonomic function and increased heart rate fractal dynamics with a resultant impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). We hypothesized that these parameters of impaired cardiovascular regulation might improve with a reduction of pain intensity. Ten patients and 10 healthy volunteers entered the study. Power spectral analysis of heart rate (HR) variability was performed by the maximum entropy method. Ratios of low-frequency domain to high-frequency domain (LF/HF) and a fractal slope, the slope of a regression line of power spectral density (1/f), were calculated. BRS was assessed with a head-up tilt test. When the visual analogue scale scores decreased to ≤ 20 mm during treatments, those measurements were repeated. LF/HF and steepness of fractal slope before treatments decreased significantly during treatments when visual analogue scale was ≤ 20 mm (2.23 ± 0.68 to 1.30 ± 0.45, P=0.005 and -1.90 ± 0.35 to -1.16 ± 0.14, P=0.00032, respectively). BRS before treatments was low (-0.28 ± 0.27 bpm/mm Hg) as compared with BRS of volunteers but significantly improved to -0.62 ± 0.48 bpm/mm Hg during treatments (P=0.032). Increased LF/HF ratios likely indicate that patients had an imbalance of the autonomic nervous system. The increased fractal slope suggests that patients developed strong self-similarity of HR variability. The highly predictable HR variability leads to impaired hemodynamic homeostasis, resulting in decreased BRS. The impaired cardiovascular regulation improved with a reduction of pain. Thus, spectral analysis of HR variability may be useful objectively to follow complex regional pain syndrome type 1 patients, not only for pain management but also for the status of cardiovascular stability.

  3. Modified Graded Motor Imagery for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 of the Upper Extremity in the Acute Phase: A Patient Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagueux, Emilie; Charest, Joelle; Lefrancois-Caron, Eve; Mauger, Marie-Eve; Mercier, Emilie; Savard, Kim; Tousignant-Laflamme, Yannick

    2012-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a pathologic condition in which the painful experience is disproportionate in time and intensity in comparison with the inciting event. At present, the pathophysiology of CRPS is not well understood. Several studies have indicated that cortical reorganization plays a role in the persistence of the symptoms.…

  4. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Revived by Epileptic Seizure Then Disappeared Soon during Treatment with Regional Intravenous Nerve Blockade: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Sumitani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS, in which symptoms, including burning pain and severe allodynia, were alleviated by using a regional intravenous nerve blockade (Bier block combined with physiotherapy, but reappeared following an epileptic seizure. Symptoms disappeared again following control of epileptic discharges, as revealed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and electroencephalography (EEG results. Although systemic toxicity of a local anesthetic applied by Bier block was suspected as a cause of the first seizure, the patient did not present any other toxic symptoms, and seizures repeatedly occurred after Bier block cessation; the patient was then diagnosed as having temporal symptomatic epilepsy. This case suggests that symptoms of CRPS may be sustained by abnormal brain conditions, and our findings contribute to the understanding of how the central nervous system participates in maintaining pain and allodynia associated with CRPS.

  5. Antiallodynic Effects of Bee Venom in an Animal Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 (CRPS-I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hyun; Lee, Jae Min; Kim, Yun Hong; Choi, Jung Hyun; Jeon, Seung Hwan; Kim, Dong Kyu; Jeong, Hyeon Do; Lee, You Jung; Park, Hue Jung

    2017-09-15

    Neuropathic pain in a chronic post-ischaemic pain (CPIP) model mimics the symptoms of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I). The administration of bee venom (BV) has been utilized in Eastern medicine to treat chronic inflammatory diseases accompanying pain. However, the analgesic effect of BV in a CPIP model remains unknown. The application of a tight-fitting O-ring around the left ankle for a period of 3 h generated CPIP in C57/Bl6 male adult mice. BV (1 mg/kg ; 1, 2, and 3 times) was administered into the SC layer of the hind paw, and the antiallodynic effects were investigated using the von Frey test and by measuring the expression of neurokinin type 1 (NK-1) receptors in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). The administration of BV dose-dependently reduced the pain withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli compared with the pre-administration value and with that of the control group. After the development of the CPIP model, the expression of NK-1 receptors in DRG increased and then decreased following the administration of BV. SC administration of BV results in the attenuation of allodynia in a mouse model of CPIP. The antiallodynic effect was objectively proven through a reduction in the increased expression of NK-1 receptors in DRG.

  6. Spinal cord stimulation for complex regional pain syndrome type 1 with dystonia: a case report and discussion of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voet, Caroline; le Polain de Waroux, Bernard; Forget, Patrice; Deumens, Ronald; Masquelier, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    Background: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1) is a debilitating chronic pain disorder, the physiopathology of which can lead to dystonia associated with changes in the autonomic, central and peripheral nervous system. An interdisciplinary approach (pharmacological, interventional and psychological therapies in conjunction with a rehabilitation pathway) is central to progress towards pain reduction and restoration of function. Aim: This case report aims to stimulate reflection and development of mechanism-based therapeutic strategies concerning CRPS associated with dystonia. Case description: A 31 year old female CRPS-1 patient presented with dystonia of the right foot following ligamentoplasty for chronic ankle instability. She did not have a satisfactory response to the usual therapies. Multiple anesthetic blocks (popliteal, epidural and intrathecal) were not associated with significant anesthesia and analgesia. Mobilization of the foot by a physiotherapist was not possible. A multidisciplinary approach with psychological support, physiotherapy and spinal cord stimulation (SCS) brought pain relief, rehabilitation and improvement in the quality of life. Conclusion: The present case report demonstrates the occurrence of multilevel (peripheral and central) pathological modifications in the nervous system of a CRPS-1 patient with dystonia. This conclusion is based on the patient’s pain being resistant to anesthetic blocks at different levels and the favourable, at least initially, response to SCS. The importance of the bio-psycho-social model is also suggested, permitting behavioural change. PMID:25254100

  7. Antiallodynic Effects of Bee Venom in an Animal Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 (CRPS-I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hyun; Lee, Jae Min; Kim, Yun Hong; Choi, Jung Hyun; Jeon, Seung Hwan; Kim, Dong Kyu; Jeong, Hyeon Do; Lee, You Jung; Park, Hue Jung

    2017-01-01

    Neuropathic pain in a chronic post-ischaemic pain (CPIP) model mimics the symptoms of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I). The administration of bee venom (BV) has been utilized in Eastern medicine to treat chronic inflammatory diseases accompanying pain. However, the analgesic effect of BV in a CPIP model remains unknown. The application of a tight-fitting O-ring around the left ankle for a period of 3 h generated CPIP in C57/Bl6 male adult mice. BV (1 mg/kg; 1, 2, and 3 times) was administered into the SC layer of the hind paw, and the antiallodynic effects were investigated using the von Frey test and by measuring the expression of neurokinin type 1 (NK-1) receptors in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). The administration of BV dose-dependently reduced the pain withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli compared with the pre-administration value and with that of the control group. After the development of the CPIP model, the expression of NK-1 receptors in DRG increased and then decreased following the administration of BV. SC administration of BV results in the attenuation of allodynia in a mouse model of CPIP. The antiallodynic effect was objectively proven through a reduction in the increased expression of NK-1 receptors in DRG. PMID:28914784

  8. Antiallodynic effect through spinal endothelin-B receptor antagonism in rat models of complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeo Ok; Kim, In Ji; Yoon, Myung Ha

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a very complicated chronic pain disorder that has been classified into two types (I and II). Endothelin (ET) receptors are involved in pain conditions at the spinal level. We investigated the role of spinal ET receptors in CRPS. Chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP) was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats as a model for CRPS-I by placing a tourniquet (O-ring) at the ankle joint for 3h, and removing it to allow reperfusion. Ligation of L5 and L6 spinal nerves to induce neuropathic pain was performed as a model for CRPS-II. After O-ring application and spinal nerve ligation, the paw withdrawal threshold was significantly decreased at injured sites. Intrathecal administration of the selective ET-B receptor antagonist BQ 788 dose-dependently increased the withdrawal threshold in both CRPS-I and CRPS-II. In contrast, ET-A receptor antagonist BQ 123 did not affect the withdrawal threshold in either CRPS type. The ET-1 levels of plasma and spinal cord increased in both CRPS types. Intrathecal BQ 788 decreased the spinal ET-1 level. These results suggest that ET-1 is involved in the development of mechanical allodynia in CRPS. Furthermore, the ET-B receptor appears to be involved in spinal cord-related CRPS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, Philip; Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome is a deceptively intricate symptom complex that is diagnosed on the basis of chronic pelvic pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be related to the urinary bladder, accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom. It is a diagnosis of exclusion in a patient who has ex...... can be challenging, and misdiagnosis as a psychological problem, overactive bladder, or chronic urinary infection has plagued patients with the problem....

  10. Photoacoustic microscopy of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-1) after stellate ganglion blocks in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Yi, Xiaobin; Xing, Wenxin; Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    We used photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) to assist diagnoses and monitor the progress and treatment outcome of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1). Blood vasculature and oxygen saturation (sO2) were imaged by PAM in eight adult patients with CRPS-1. Patients' hands and cuticles were imaged both before and after stellate ganglion block (SGB) for comparison. For all patients, both the vascular structure and sO2 could be assessed by PAM. In addition, more vessels and stronger signals were observed after SGB.

  11. High frequency repetitive sensory stimulation as intervention to improve sensory loss in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne eDavid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Achieving perceptual gains in healthy individuals, or facilitating rehabilitation in patients is generally considered to require intense training to engage neuronal plasticity mechanisms. Recent work, however, suggested that beneficial outcome similar to training can be effectively acquired by a complementary approach in which the learning occurs in response to mere exposure to repetitive sensory stimulation (rSS. For example, high-frequency repetitive sensory stimulation (HF-rSS enhances tactile performance and induces cortical reorganization in healthy subjects and patients after stroke. Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS show impaired tactile performance associated with shrinkage of cortical maps. We here investigated the feasibility and efficacy of HF-rSS, and low-frequency rSS (LF-rSS to enhance tactile performance and reduce pain intensity in 20 patients with CRPS type I. Intermittent high or low frequency electrical stimuli were applied for 45min/day to all fingertips of the affected hand for 5 days. Main outcome measures were spatial 2-point-discrimination thresholds and mechanical detection thresholds measured on the tip of the index finger bilaterally. Secondary endpoint was current pain intensity. All measures were assessed before and on day 5 after the last stimulation session. HF-rSS applied in 16 patients improved tactile discrimination on the affected hand significantly without changes contralaterally. Current pain intensity remained unchanged on average, but decreased in 4 patients by 30%. This limited pain relief might be due to the short stimulation period of 5 days only. In contrast, after LF-rSS, tactile discrimination was impaired in all 4 patients, while detection thresholds and pain were not affected. Our data suggest that HF-rSS could be used as a novel approach in CRPS treatment to improve sensory loss. Longer treatment periods might be required to induce consistent pain relief.

  12. Allergy/hypersensitivity reactions as a predisposing factor to complex regional pain syndrome I in orthopedic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinning; Kenter, Keith; Newman, Ashley; O'Brien, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Several predisposing conditions have been associated with complex regional pain syndrome I (CRPS I). The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between a history of allergy/hypersensitivity reactions and CRPS I in orthopedic patients. Orthopedic patients with CRPS I (n=115) who experienced pain relief after a successful sympathetic nerve blockade were identified for study inclusion; a control group (n=115) matched to the CRPS I group by age, sex, and location of injury was also included. All patients in the study had an average age of 42 years. In the CRPS I group, all participants were Caucasian and the majority (80.8%) were women. The skin of patients with CRPS I was described as fair (57.7%), mottled (57.7%), or sensitive (80.8%). Of the patients with CRPS I, 78 (67.8%) reported a statistically significant history of allergies compared with the 39 (33.9%) patients in the control group (PCRPS I who experienced complete pain relief for at least 1 month following a single sympathetic nerve block were asked to answer a questionnaire (n=35), and some then underwent immediate hypersensitivity testing using a skin puncture technique (n=26). Skin hypersensitivity testing yielded an 83.3% positive predictive value with an accuracy of 76.9%. Based on these results, a positive history for allergy/hypersensitivity reactions is a predisposing condition for CRPS I in this subset of orthopedic patients. These hypersensitivity reactions may prove important in gaining a better understanding in the pathophysiology of CRPS I as a regional pain syndrome. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. [Myofascial pain syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, L B; Akopyan, A P

    2015-01-01

    To analyze clinical characteristics of pain syndrome in patients with dorsalgia. Authors studied 43 patients (mean age 41.9±1.2 years), 34 women and 9 men, with acute and subacute chronic back pain. The study included neurological examination, MRI and/or CT of the spine, measurement of anxiety and depression with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and the McGill Pain Inventory. Chronic myofascial pain syndrome (MFPS) was frequently associated with anxiety-depressive disorders found in patients with cervical and cervical/pectoral pain, fibromyalgia with minimal neurological symptoms and no signs of neural structure compression according to MRI and CT. The results of the study of chronic MFPS should be taken into account in the choice of tactics of treatment of MFPS patients. The use of amelotex in the combination with compligam B in patients with dorsopathy and MFPS is effective together with correction of emotional disorders and treatment with chondroprotectors.

  14. A Hypothesis for the Cause of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome - Type I (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy): Pain Due to Deep-Tissue Microvascular Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Terence J.; Bennett, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome - type I (CRPS-I; Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy) is a chronic pain condition that usually follows a deep-tissue injury such as fracture or sprain. The cause of the pain is unknown. We have developed an animal model (chronic post-ischemia pain; CPIP) that creates CRPS-I –like symptomology. The model is produced by occluding the blood flow to one hind paw for 3 hr under general anesthesia. Following reperfusion, the treated hind paw exhibits an initial phase of hyperemia and edema. This is followed by mechano-hyperalgesia, mechano-allodynia, and cold-allodynia that last for at least one month. Light- and electron microscopic analyses of the nerves at the site of the tourniquet show that the majority of these animals have no sign of injury to myelinated or unmyelinated axons. However, electron microscopy shows that the ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury produces a microvascular injury, slow-flow/no-reflow, in the capillaries of the hind paw muscle and digital nerves. We propose that the slow-flow/no-reflow phenomenon initiates and maintains deep tissue ischemia and inflammation, leading to the activation of muscle nociceptors, and the ectopic activation of sensory afferent axons due to endoneurial ischemia and inflammation. These data, and a large body of clinical evidence, suggest that in at least a subset of CRPS-I patients, the fundamental cause of the abnormal pain sensations is ischemia and inflammation due to microvascular pathology in deep tissues, leading to a combination of inflammatory and neuropathic pain processes. Moreover, we suggest a unifying idea that relates the pathogenesis of CRPS-I to that of CRPS-II. Lastly, our hypothesis suggests that the role of the sympathetic nervous system in CRPS-I is a factor that is not fundamentally causative, but may have an important contributory role in early stage disease. PMID:20704671

  15. Surgery on the affected upper extremity of patients with a history of complex regional pain syndrome: the use of intravenous regional anesthesia with clonidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Scott S; Rosenthal, Erik A; Steinberg, Robert B; Faruqi, Shameema; Kilaru, Prasad A

    2004-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) with clonidine in patients with a previous history of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) who are undergoing upper extremity hand surgery. Prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Operating suites and Pain Management Center of a large university-affiliated medical center. 84 patients with a previous history of upper extremity CRPS undergoing surgery on the affected extremity. All signs and symptoms of CRPS had resolved prior to the time of surgery. Patients were randomized to receive IVRA with 0.5 % lidocaine with either 1 mL normal saline (n=42) or clonidine 1 microg/kg (n=42) added to the lidocaine solution. Recurrence of CRPS symptoms at 1 year following surgery were recorded. The recurrence rate of CRPS was significantly lower (p history of CRPS can significantly reduce the recurrence rate of this disease process.

  16. Anti tumor necrosis factor - alpha adalimumab for complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-I): a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Elon; Sandler, Ifat; Treister, Roi; Suzan, Erica; Haddad, May

    2013-11-01

    Evidence suggests tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) mediates, at least in part, symptoms and signs in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Here, we present a case series of patients with CRPS type 1, in whom the response to the anti-TNF-α adalimumab was assessed. Ten patients with CRPS type 1 were recruited. Assessments were performed before treatment, at 1 week, and 1, 3, and 6 months following 3 biweekly subcutaneous injections (40 mg/0.8 mL) adalimumab (Humira(®) ) and included the followings: Pain intensity using a 0-10 cm visual analog scale; the Short Form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire; the Beck Depression Inventory; the SF-36 questionnaire and mechanical and thermal thresholds (Von frey hair and Thermal Sensory Analyzer, respectively). In addition to the description of individual patient responses, both intention to treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses were performed for the entire group. Three subgroups of patients were identified (3 patients in each): "nonresponders", "partial responders", and "robust responders" in whom improvement in almost all parameters was noted. Both the ITT and PP analyses demonstrated only a trend toward improvement in mechanical pain thresholds following treatment (ITT χ² = 13.83, P = 0.008; PP χ² = 10.29, P = 0.036). These results suggest adalimumab, and possibly other anti-TNF-α, can be potentially useful in some (although not in all) patients with CRPS type 1. These preliminary results along with the growing body of evidence which points to the involvement of TNF-α in the pathogenesis of CRPS justify further studies in this area. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  17. Bodily Sensory Inputs and Anomalous Bodily Experiences in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Evaluation of the Potential Effects of Sound Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajadura-Jiménez, Ana; Cohen, Helen; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Neuroscientific studies have shown that human's mental body representations are not fixed but are constantly updated through sensory feedback, including sound feedback. This suggests potential new therapeutic sensory approaches for patients experiencing body-perception disturbances (BPD). BPD can occur in association with chronic pain, for example in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). BPD often impacts on emotional, social, and motor functioning. Here we present the results from a proof-of-principle pilot study investigating the potential value of using sound feedback for altering BPD and its related emotional state and motor behavior in those with CRPS. We build on previous findings that real-time alteration of the sounds produced by walking can alter healthy people's perception of their own body size, while also resulting in more active gait patterns and a more positive emotional state. In the present study we quantified the emotional state, BPD, pain levels and gait of twelve people with CRPS Type 1, who were exposed to real-time alteration of their walking sounds. Results confirm previous reports of the complexity of the BPD linked to CRPS, as participants could be classified into four BPD subgroups according to how they mentally visualize their body. Further, results suggest that sound feedback may affect the perceived size of the CRPS affected limb and the pain experienced, but that the effects may differ according to the type of BPD. Sound feedback affected CRPS descriptors and other bodily feelings and emotions including feelings of emotional dominance, limb detachment, position awareness, attention and negative feelings toward the limb. Gait also varied with sound feedback, affecting the foot contact time with the ground in a way consistent with experienced changes in body weight. Although, findings from this small pilot study should be interpreted with caution, they suggest potential applications for regenerating BDP and its related bodily feelings in

  18. Neuropeptide deficient mice have attenuated nociceptive, vascular, and inflammatory changes in a tibia fracture model of complex regional pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Tian-Zhi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distal limb fracture in man can induce a complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS with pain, warmth, edema, and cutaneous inflammation. In the present study substance P (SP, Tac1−/− and CGRP receptor (RAMP1−/− deficient mice were used to investigate the contribution of neuropeptide signaling to CRPS-like changes in a tibia fracture mouse model. Wildtype, Tac1−/−, and RAMP1−/− mice underwent tibia fracture and casting for 3 weeks, then the cast was removed and hindpaw mechanical allodynia, unweighting, warmth, and edema were tested over time. Hindpaw skin was collected at 3 weeks post-fracture for immunoassay and femurs were collected for micro-CT analysis. Results Wildtype mice developed hindpaw allodynia, unweighting, warmth, and edema at 3 weeks post-fracture, but in the Tac1−/− fracture mice allodynia and unweighting were attenuated and there was no warmth and edema. RAMP1−/− fracture mice had a similar presentation, except there was no reduction in hindpaw edema. Hindpaw skin TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6 and NGF levels were up-regulated in wildtype fracture mice at 3 weeks post-fracture, but in the Tac1−/− and RAMP1−/− fracture mice only IL-6 was increased. The epidermal keratinocytes were the cellular source for these inflammatory mediators. An IL-6 receptor antagonist partially reversed post-fracture pain behaviors in wildtype mice. Conclusions In conclusion, both SP and CGRP are critical neuropeptide mediators for the pain behaviors, vascular abnormalities, and up-regulated innate immune responses observed in the fracture hindlimb. We postulate that the residual pain behaviors observed in the Tac1−/− and RAMP1−/− fracture mice are attributable to the increased IL-6 levels observed in the hindpaw skin after fracture.

  19. Bodily Sensory Inputs and Anomalous Bodily Experiences in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Evaluation of the Potential Effects of Sound Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tajadura-Jiménez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscientific studies have shown that human's mental body representations are not fixed but are constantly updated through sensory feedback, including sound feedback. This suggests potential new therapeutic sensory approaches for patients experiencing body-perception disturbances (BPD. BPD can occur in association with chronic pain, for example in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS. BPD often impacts on emotional, social, and motor functioning. Here we present the results from a proof-of-principle pilot study investigating the potential value of using sound feedback for altering BPD and its related emotional state and motor behavior in those with CRPS. We build on previous findings that real-time alteration of the sounds produced by walking can alter healthy people's perception of their own body size, while also resulting in more active gait patterns and a more positive emotional state. In the present study we quantified the emotional state, BPD, pain levels and gait of twelve people with CRPS Type 1, who were exposed to real-time alteration of their walking sounds. Results confirm previous reports of the complexity of the BPD linked to CRPS, as participants could be classified into four BPD subgroups according to how they mentally visualize their body. Further, results suggest that sound feedback may affect the perceived size of the CRPS affected limb and the pain experienced, but that the effects may differ according to the type of BPD. Sound feedback affected CRPS descriptors and other bodily feelings and emotions including feelings of emotional dominance, limb detachment, position awareness, attention and negative feelings toward the limb. Gait also varied with sound feedback, affecting the foot contact time with the ground in a way consistent with experienced changes in body weight. Although, findings from this small pilot study should be interpreted with caution, they suggest potential applications for regenerating BDP and its related

  20. [Evaluation of low level laser and interferential current in the therapy of complex regional pain syndrome by infrared thermographic camera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocić, Mirjana; Lazović, Milica; Dimitrijević, Irena; Mancić, Dragan; Stanković, Anita

    2010-09-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM; Complex regional pain syndrom type I (CRPS I) is characterised by continuous regional pain, disproportional according to duration and intensity and to the sort of trauma or other lesion it was caused by. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare, by using thermovison, the effects of low level laser therapy and therapy with interferential current in treatment of CRPS I. The prospective randomized controlled clinical study included 45 patients with unilateral CRPS 1, after a fracture of the distal end of the radius, of the tibia and/or the fibula, treated in the Clinical Centre in Nis from 2004 to 2007. The group A consisted of 20 patients treated by low level laser therapy and kinesy-therapy, while the patients in the group B (n = 25) were treated by interferential current and kinesy-therapy. The regions of interest were filmed by a thermovision camera on both sides, before and after the 20 therapeutic procedures had been applied. Afterwards, the quantitative analysis and the comparing of thermograms taken before and after the applied therapy were performed. There was statistically significant decrease of the mean maximum temperature difference between the injured and the contralateral extremity after the therapy in comparison to the status before the therapy, with the patients of the group A (p infrared thermovision we showed that in the treatment of CRPS I both physical medicine methods were effective, but the effectiveness of laser therapy was statistically significantly higher compared to that of the interferential current therapy.

  1. A CRPS-IgG-transfer-trauma model reproducing inflammatory and positive sensory signs associated with complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tékus, Valéria; Hajna, Zsófia; Borbély, Éva; Markovics, Adrienn; Bagoly, Teréz; Szolcsányi, János; Thompson, Victoria; Kemény, Ágnes; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Goebel, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    The aetiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), a highly painful, usually post-traumatic condition affecting the limbs, is unknown, but recent results have suggested an autoimmune contribution. To confirm a role for pathogenic autoantibodies, we established a passive-transfer trauma model. Prior to undergoing incision of hind limb plantar skin and muscle, mice were injected either with serum IgG obtained from chronic CRPS patients or matched healthy volunteers, or with saline. Unilateral hind limb plantar skin and muscle incision was performed to induce typical, mild tissue injury. Mechanical hyperalgesia, paw swelling, heat and cold sensitivity, weight-bearing ability, locomotor activity, motor coordination, paw temperature, and body weight were investigated for 8days. After sacrifice, proinflammatory sensory neuropeptides and cytokines were measured in paw tissues. CRPS patient IgG treatment significantly increased hind limb mechanical hyperalgesia and oedema in the incised paw compared with IgG from healthy subjects or saline. Plantar incision induced a remarkable elevation of substance P immunoreactivity on day 8, which was significantly increased by CRPS-IgG. In this IgG-transfer-trauma model for CRPS, serum IgG from chronic CRPS patients induced clinical and laboratory features resembling the human disease. These results support the hypothesis that autoantibodies may contribute to the pathophysiology of CRPS, and that autoantibody-removing therapies may be effective treatments for long-standing CRPS. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cutaneous noradrenaline measured by microdialysis in complex regional pain syndrome during whole-body cooling and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkelsen, Astrid J; Gierthmühlen, Janne; Petersen, Lars J; Knudsen, Lone; Christensen, Niels J; Kehr, Jan; Yoshitake, Takashi; Madsen, Caspar S; Wasner, Gunnar; Baron, Ralf; Jensen, Troels S

    2013-09-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterised by autonomic, sensory, and motor disturbances. The underlying mechanisms of the autonomic changes in CPRS are unknown. However, it has been postulated that sympathetic inhibition in the acute phase with locally reduced levels of noradrenaline is followed by an up-regulation of alpha-adrenoceptors in chronic CRPS leading to denervation supersensitivity to catecholamines. This exploratory study examined the effect of cutaneous sympathetic activation and inhibition on cutaneous noradrenaline release, vascular reactivity, and pain in CRPS patients and in healthy volunteers. Seven patients and nine controls completed whole-body cooling (sympathetic activation) and heating (sympathetic inhibition) induced by a whole-body thermal suit with simultaneous measurement of the skin temperature, skin blood flow, and release of dermal noradrenaline. CRPS pain and the perceived skin temperature were measured every 5 min during thermal exposure, while noradrenaline was determined from cutaneous microdialysate collected every 20 min throughout the study period. Cooling induced peripheral sympathetic activation in patients and controls with significant increases in dermal noradrenaline, vasoconstriction, and reduction in skin temperature. The main findings were that the noradrenaline response did not differ between patients and controls or between the CRPS hand and the contralateral unaffected hand, suggesting that the evoked noradrenaline release from the cutaneous sympathetic postganglionic fibres is preserved in chronic CRPS patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Predictive Value of Sympathetic Skin Response in Diagnosing Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Yang, Hea Eun; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the predictive value of the sympathetic skin response (SSR) in diagnosing complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) by comparing three diagnostic modalities-SSR, three-phasic bone scans (TPBS), and thermography. Methods Thirteen patients with severe limb pain were recruited. Among them, 6 were diagnosed with CRPS according to the proposed revised CRPS clinical diagnostic criteria described by the International Association for the Study of Pain. SSR was measured in either the hands or feet bilaterally and was considered abnormal when the latency was prolonged. A positive TPBS finding was defined as diffuse increased tracer uptake on the delayed image. Thermographic findings were considered positive if a temperature asymmetry greater than 1.00℃ was detected between the extremities. Results Five of 6 CRPS patients showed prolonged latency on SSR (83% sensitivity). TPBS was positive in the 5 CRPS patients who underwent TPBS (100% sensitivity). Thermography was positive in 4 of 5 CRPS patients who underwent the procedure (80% sensitivity). The remaining 7 non-CRPS patients differed on examination. SSR latencies within normal limit were noted in 4 of 7 non-CRPS patients (57% specificity). Results were negative in 4 of 5 non-CRPS patients who underwent TPBS (80% specificity), and negative in 3 of 5 non-CRPS patients who underwent thermography (60% specificity). Conclusion SSR may be helpful in detecting CRPS. PMID:25750880

  4. Differential Efficacy of Ketamine in the Acute versus Chronic Stages of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajerian, Maral; Leu, David; Yang, Phillip; Huang, Ting Ting; Kingery, Wade S; Clark, J David

    2015-01-01

    Background Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful, disabling and often chronic condition, where many patients transition from an acute phase with prominent peripheral neurogenic inflammation to a chronic phase with evident central nervous system (CNS) changes. Ketamine is a centrally-acting agent believed to work through blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and is being increasingly used for the treatment of refractory CRPS, although the basis for the drug’s effects and efficacy at different stages of the syndrome remain unclear. Methods We used a mouse model of CRPS (n=8–12/group) involving tibia fracture/cast immobilization to test the efficacy of ketamine (2 mg/kg/day; 7 days) or vehicle infusion during acute (3weeks [3w] post-fracture) and chronic (7w post-fracture) stages. Results Acute phase fracture mice displayed elevated limb temperature, edema and nociceptive sensitization that were not reduced by ketamine. Fracture mice treated with ketamine during the chronic phase showed reduced nociceptive sensitization that persisted beyond completion of the infusion. During this chronic phase, ketamine also reduced latent nociceptive sensitization and improved motor function at 18 weeks post-fracture. No side effects of the infusions were identified. These behavioral changes were associated with altered spinal astrocyte activation and expression of pain-related proteins including NMDA receptor 2b (NR2b), Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ii (CaMK2), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF). Conclusions Collectively, these results demonstrate that ketamine is efficacious in the chronic, but not acute stages of CRPS, suggesting that the centrally-acting drug is relatively ineffective in early CRPS when peripheral mechanisms are more critical for supporting nociceptive sensitization. PMID:26492479

  5. Use of a medication quantification scale for comparison of pain medication usage in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallizzi, Michael A; Khazai, Ravand S; Gagnon, Christine M; Bruehl, Stephen; Harden, R Norman

    2015-03-01

    To correlate the amount and types of pain medications prescribed to CRPS patients, using the Medication Quantification Scale, and patients' subjective pain levels. An international, multisite, retrospective review. University medical centers in the United States, Israel, Germany, and the Netherlands. A total of 89 subjects were enrolled from four different countries: 27 from the United States, 20 Germany, 18 Netherlands, and 24 Israel. The main outcome measures used were the Medication Quantification Scale III and numerical analog pain scale. There was no statistically significant correlation noted between the medication quantification scale and the visual analog scale for any site except for a moderate positive correlation at German sites. The medication quantification scale mean differences between the United States and Germany, the Netherlands, and Israel were 9.793 (P CRPS patients and would be useful in further prospective studies of pain medication prescription practices in the CRPS population worldwide. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cervical Epidural Anaesthesia for Radical Mastectomy and Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome of Upper Limb - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Jadon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47-yrs-female patient presented with carcinoma right breast, swelling and allodynia of right upper limb. radical mastectomy with axillary clearance and skin grafting was done under cervical epidural anaesthesia through 18G epidural catheter placed at C6/C7 level. Postoperative analgesia and rehabilitation of affected right upper limb was managed by continuous epidural infusion of 0.125% bupivacaine and 2.5 µg/ml -1 clonidine solution through epidu-ral catheter for 5 days and physiotherapy. This case report highlights the usefulness of cervical epidural analgesia in managing a complex situation of carcinoma breast with associated periarthitis of shoulder joint and chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS of right upper limb.

  7. Oxidative Stress in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS): No Systemically Elevated Levels of Malondialdehyde, F2-Isoprostanes and 8OHdG in a Selected Sample of Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, S.G.L.; Perez, R.S.G.M.; Nouta, J.; Zuurmond, W.W.A.; Scheffer, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Exaggerated inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). However, studies assessing markers for oxidative stress in CRPS patients are limited. In this study, markers for lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde and F2-isoprostanes) and DNA

  8. Thermography imaging during static and controlled thermoregulation in complex regional pain syndrome type 1: diagnostic value and involvement of the central sympathetic system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Niehof (Sjoerd); F.J.P.M. Huygen (Frank); R.W. van der Weerd (Rick); M. Westra (Mirjam); F.J. Zijlstra (Freek)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 (CRPS1) is a clinical diagnosis based on criteria describing symptoms of the disease.The main aim of the present study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of calculation methods used to assess thermographic images (infrared

  9. Development of a symptoms questionnaire for complex regional pain syndrome and potentially related illnesses: the Trauma Related Neuronal Dysfunction Symptoms Inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, S.; van Hilten, J.J.; Marinus, J.J.; Zuurmond, W.W.A.; de Lange, J.J.; Perez, R.S.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Collins S, van Hilten JJ, Marinus J, Zuurmond WW, de Lange JJ, Perez RS. Development of a symptoms questionnaire for complex regional pain syndrome and potentially related illnesses: the Trauma Related Neuronal Dysfunction Symptoms Inventory. Objective: To develop a questionnaire to evaluate

  10. Investigating Reports of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Analysis of HPV-16/18-Adjuvanted Vaccine Post-Licensure Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygen, Frank; Verschueren, Kristin; McCabe, Candida; Stegmann, Jens-Ulrich; Zima, Julia; Mahaux, Olivia; Van Holle, Lionel; Angelo, Maria-Genalin

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain disorder that typically follows trauma or surgery. Suspected CRPS reported after vaccination with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines led to temporary suspension of proactive recommendation of HPV vaccination in Japan. We investigated the potential CRPS signal in relation to HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine (Cervarix®) by database review of CRPS cases with independent expert confirmation; a disproportionality analysis and analyses of temporality; an observed versus expected analysis using published background incidence rates; systematic reviews of aggregate safety data, and a literature review. The analysis included 17 case reports of CRPS: 10 from Japan (0.14/100,000 doses distributed) and seven from the United Kingdom (0.08/100,000). Five cases were considered by independent experts to be confirmed CRPS. Quantitative analyses did not suggest an association between CRPS and HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine. Observed CRPS incidence after HPV-16/18 vaccination was statistically significantly below expected rates. Systematic database reviews using search terms varying in specificity and sensitivity did not identify new cases. No CRPS was reported during clinical development and no unexpected results found in the literature. There is not sufficient evidence to suggest an increased risk of developing CRPS following vaccination with HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine. Post-licensure safety surveillance confirms the acceptable benefit-risk of HPV-16/18 vaccination. PMID:26501109

  11. Investigating Reports of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Analysis of HPV-16/18-Adjuvanted Vaccine Post-Licensure Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygen, Frank; Verschueren, Kristin; McCabe, Candida; Stegmann, Jens-Ulrich; Zima, Julia; Mahaux, Olivia; Van Holle, Lionel; Angelo, Maria-Genalin

    2015-09-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain disorder that typically follows trauma or surgery. Suspected CRPS reported after vaccination with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines led to temporary suspension of proactive recommendation of HPV vaccination in Japan. We investigated the potential CRPS signal in relation to HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine (Cervarix®) by database review of CRPS cases with independent expert confirmation; a disproportionality analysis and analyses of temporality; an observed versus expected analysis using published background incidence rates; systematic reviews of aggregate safety data, and a literature review. The analysis included 17 case reports of CRPS: 10 from Japan (0.14/100,000 doses distributed) and seven from the United Kingdom (0.08/100,000). Five cases were considered by independent experts to be confirmed CRPS. Quantitative analyses did not suggest an association between CRPS and HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine. Observed CRPS incidence after HPV-16/18 vaccination was statistically significantly below expected rates. Systematic database reviews using search terms varying in specificity and sensitivity did not identify new cases. No CRPS was reported during clinical development and no unexpected results found in the literature. There is not sufficient evidence to suggest an increased risk of developing CRPS following vaccination with HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine. Post-licensure safety surveillance confirms the acceptable benefit-risk of HPV-16/18 vaccination.

  12. Morphological macrovascular alterations in complex regional pain syndrome type I demonstrated by increased intima-media thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derenthal Nicola

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although intima-media thickness (IMT was increased in several inflammatory diseases, studies investigating whether the inflammatory processes lead to macrovascular alteration with increased IMT in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS lack. Methods Using ultrasound (high-resolution B-mode, we compared bilaterally the IMT of the common carotid artery (CCA-IMT, the radial artery (RA-IMT, the brachial artery (BRA-IMT and the quotient QRA/CCA, in CRPS type I (n=17, peripheral nerve injury (PNI, n=17 and pain-free controls (PFC, n=22, matched to CRPS by gender, age and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Statistics: Spearman’s correlation, paired t-test, ANOVA (p Results Compared to PFC, RA-IMT were significantly increased in both patient groups bilaterally (mean±standard deviation, CRPS affected side vs. PFC dominant side: 0.32±0.08 mm vs. 0.19±0.08 mm, pRA/CCA (CRPS affected-side vs. PFC dominant side: 0.49±0.12 vs. 0.30±0.11, pRA/CCA was significantly higher on the affected side compared to PNI (pRA/CCA on the affected side (p Conclusions The increased IMT of peripheral arteries in CRPS suggests ongoing inflammatory process. Until now, only endothelial dysfunction has been reported. The presented morphological macrovascular alterations might explain the treatment resistance of some CRPS patients.

  13. Compartment syndrome without pain!

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, M J

    2012-02-03

    We report the case of a young male patient who underwent intra-medullary nailing for a closed, displaced mid-shaft fracture of tibia and fibula. He was commenced on patient controlled analgesia post-operatively. A diagnosis of compartment syndrome in the patient\\'s leg was delayed because he did not exhibit a pain response. This ultimately resulted in a below-knee amputation of the patient\\'s leg. We caution against the use of patient controlled analgesia in any traumatised limb distal to the hip or the shoulder.

  14. Evaluation of low level laser and interferential current in the therapy of complex regional pain syndrome by infrared thermographic camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I is characterized by continuous regional pain, disproportional according to duration and intensity and to the sort of trauma or other lesion it was caused by. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare, by using thermovison, the effects of low level laser therapy and therapy with interferential current in treatment of CRPS I. Methods. The prospective randomized controlled clinical study included 45 patients with unilateral CRPS I, after a fracture of the distal end of the radius, of the tibia and/or the fibula, treated in the Clinical Centre in Nis from 2004 to 2007. The group A consisted of 20 patients treated by low level laser therapy and kinesy-therapy, while the patients in the group B (n = 25 were treated by interferential current and kinesy-therapy. The regions of interest were filmed by a thermovision camera on both sides, before and after the 20 therapeutic procedures had been applied. Afterwards, the quantitative analysis and the comparing of thermograms taken before and after the applied therapy were performed. Results. There was statistically significant decrease of the mean maximum temperature difference between the injured and the contralateral extremity after the therapy in comparison to the status before the therapy, with the patients of the group A (p < 0.001 as well as those of the group B (p < 0.001. The decrease was statistically significantly higher in the group A than in the group B (p < 0.05. Conclusions. By the use of the infrared thermovision we showed that in the treatment of CRPS I both physical medicine methods were effective, but the effectiveness of laser therapy was statistically significantly higher compared to that of the interferential current therapy.

  15. Recommendations for a first Core Outcome Measurement set for complex regional PAin syndrome Clinical sTudies (COMPACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Sharon; Perez, Roberto S G M; Birklein, Frank; Brunner, Florian; Bruehl, Stephen; Harden, R Norman; Packham, Tara; Gobeil, Francois; Haigh, Richard; Holly, Janet; Terkelsen, Astrid; Davies, Lindsay; Lewis, Jennifer; Thomassen, Ilona; Connett, Robyn; Worth, Tina; Vatine, Jean-Jacques; McCabe, Candida S

    2017-06-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a persistent pain condition that remains incompletely understood and challenging to treat. Historically, a wide range of different outcome measures have been used to capture the multidimensional nature of CRPS. This has been a significant limiting factor in the advancement of our understanding of the mechanisms and management of CRPS. In 2013, an international consortium of patients, clinicians, researchers, and industry representatives was established, to develop and agree on a minimum core set of standardised outcome measures for use in future CRPS clinical research, including but not limited to clinical trials within adult populations. The development of a core measurement set was informed through workshops and supplementary work, using an iterative consensus process. "What is the clinical presentation and course of CRPS, and what factors influence it?" was agreed as the most pertinent research question that our standardised set of patient-reported outcome measures should be selected to answer. The domains encompassing the key concepts necessary to answer the research question were agreed as follows: pain, disease severity, participation and physical function, emotional and psychological function, self-efficacy, catastrophizing, and patient's global impression of change. The final core measurement set included the optimum generic or condition-specific patient-reported questionnaire outcome measures, which captured the essence of each domain, and 1 clinician-reported outcome measure to capture the degree of severity of CRPS. The next step is to test the feasibility and acceptability of collecting outcome measure data using the core measurement set in the CRPS population internationally.

  16. Complete recovery from intractable complex regional pain syndrome, CRPS-type I, following anesthetic ketamine and midazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Ralph-Thomas; Rohr, Peter; Ploppa, Annette; Altemeyer, Karl-Heinz; Schwartzman, Robert Jay

    2007-06-01

    To describe the treatment of an intractable complex regional pain syndrome I (CRPS-I) patient with anesthetic doses of ketamine supplemented with midazolam. A patient presented with a rapidly progressing contiguous spread of CRPS from a severe ligamentous wrist injury. Standard pharmacological and interventional therapy successively failed to halt the spread of CRPS from the wrist to the entire right arm. Her pain was unmanageable with all standard therapy. As a last treatment option, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit and treated on a compassionate care basis with anesthetic doses of ketamine in gradually increasing (3-5 mg/kg/h) doses in conjunction with midazolam over a period of 5 days. On the second day of the ketamine and midazolam infusion, edema, and discoloration began to resolve and increased spontaneous movement was noted. On day 6, symptoms completely resolved and infusions were tapered. The patient emerged from anesthesia completely free of pain and associated CRPS signs and symptoms. The patient has maintained this complete remission from CRPS for 8 years now. In a patient with severe spreading and refractory CRPS, a complete and long-term remission from CRPS has been obtained utilizing ketamine and midazolam in anesthetic doses. This intensive care procedure has very serious risks but no severe complications occurred. The psychiatric side effects of ketamine were successfully managed with the concomitant use of midazolam and resolved within 1 month of treatment. This case report illustrates the effectiveness and safety of high-dose ketamine in a patient with generalized, refractory CRPS.

  17. Recommendations for a first Core Outcome Measurement set for complex regional PAin syndrome Clinical sTudies (COMPACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Sharon; Perez, Roberto SGM; Birklein, Frank; Brunner, Florian; Bruehl, Stephen; Harden R, Norman; Packham, Tara; Gobeil, Francois; Haigh, Richard; Holly, Janet; Terkelsen, Astrid; Davies, Lindsay; Lewis, Jennifer; Thomassen, Ilona; Connett, Robyn; Worth, Tina; Vatine, Jean-Jacques; McCabe, Candida S

    2017-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a persistent pain condition that remains incompletely understood and challenging to treat. Historically, a wide range of different outcome measures have been used to capture the multidimensional nature of CRPS. This has been a significant limiting factor in the advancement of our understanding of the mechanisms and management of CRPS. In 2013, an international consortium of patients, clinicians, researchers and industry representatives was established, to develop and agree on a minimum core set of standardised outcome measures for use in future CRPS clinical research, including but not limited to clinical trials within adult populations The development of a core measurement set was informed through workshops and supplementary work, using an iterative consensus process. ‘What is the clinical presentation and course of CRPS, and what factors influence it?’ was agreed as the most pertinent research question that our standardised set of patient-reported outcome measures should be selected to answer. The domains encompassing the key concepts necessary to answer the research question were agreed as: pain, disease severity, participation and physical function, emotional and psychological function, self efficacy, catastrophizing and patient's global impression of change. The final core measurement set included the optimum generic or condition-specific patient-reported questionnaire outcome measures, which captured the essence of each domain, and one clinician reported outcome measure to capture the degree of severity of CRPS. The next step is to test the feasibility and acceptability of collecting outcome measure data using the core measurement set in the CRPS population internationally. PMID:28178071

  18. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy: complex regional pain syndrome type I in children with mitochondrial disease and maternal inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashimoto, T; Baldwin, E E; Gold, J I; Boles, R G

    2008-05-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I), previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), is an idiopathic condition characterised by localised, abnormally intense and prolonged pain, allodynia and autonomic nervous system changes (ie, swelling, skin colour and temperature changes and altered perspiration) that usually appear following a "noxious" trigger such as trauma or surgery. The objective of this report is to demonstrate that children with CRPS-I can have additional dysautonomic conditions secondary to an underlying maternally inherited mitochondrial disease, an association not previously published. Medical records of about 500 patients seen by one paediatric metabolic geneticist were reviewed to identify children meeting established CRPS diagnostic criteria. CRPS-I was present in eight children in seven families, each of which also had additional functional/dysautonomic conditions, the most common (> or = 4 cases per condition) being gastrointestinal dysmotility, migraine, cyclic vomiting and chronic fatigue. All seven probands studied met Nijmegen (2002) diagnostic criteria for definite mitochondrial disease on the basis of the clinical signs and symptoms and biochemical analyses. Six of the seven families met our pedigree-based criteria for probable maternal inheritance. In one tertiary-care paediatric genetics practice, children meeting the CRPS-I diagnostic criteria frequently had additional autonomic-related conditions secondary to maternally inherited mitochondrial disease, suggesting that mitochondrial DNA sequence variants can predispose children towards the development of CRPS-I and other dysautonomias. CRPS-I should be considered in patients with mitochondrial disease who complain of idiopathic pain. Maternally inherited mitochondrial disease may not be a rare cause of CRPS-I, especially in children who present with other manifestations of dysautonomia.

  19. Successful management of chronic pain syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Clifford, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    Managing patients with chronic pain syndrome can be frustrating and unrewarding. Much of the difficulty experienced when managing these patients stems from an incomplete understanding of pain, especially the difference between acute and chronic pain. Pain theory and treatment of chronic pain syndrome are reviewed. An alternative management strategy for chronic pain syndrome is presented and the literature is reviewed.

  20. Different activation of opercular and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I) compared with healthy controls during perception of electrically induced pain: a functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Wolfgang; Wunderlich, Arthur P; Stuber, Gregor; Mayer, Florian; Steffen, Peter; Mentzel, Martin; Weber, Frank; Schmitz, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    Although the etiology of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS 1) is still debated, many arguments favor central maladaptive changes in pain processing as an important causative factor. To look for the suspected alterations, 10 patients with CRPS affecting the left hand were explored with functional magnetic resonance imaging during graded electrical painful stimulation of both hands subsequently and compared with healthy participants. Activation of the anterior insula, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and caudate nucleus was seen in patients during painful stimulation. Compared with controls, CRPS patients had stronger activation of the PCC during painful stimulation of the symptomatic hand. The comparison of insular/opercular activation between controls and patients with CRPS I during painful stimulation showed stronger (posterior) opercular activation in controls than in patients. Stronger PCC activation during painful stimulation may be interpreted as a correlate of motor inhibition during painful stimuli different from controls. Also, the decreased opercular activation in CRPS patients shows less sensory-discriminative processing of painful stimuli.These results show that changed cerebral pain processing in CRPS patients is less sensory-discriminative but more motor inhibition during painful stimuli. These changes are not limited to the diseased side but show generalized alterations of cerebral pain processing in chronic pain patients.

  1. Predictive value of symptom level measurements for complex regional pain syndrome type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, R. S. G. M.; Keijzer, C.; Bezemer, P. D.; Zuurmond, W. W. A.; de Lange, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    The validity with respect to presence or absence of CRPS I according to Veldman's criteria was assessed for measured pain, temperature, volume differences and limitations in range of motion. Evaluated were 155 assessments of 66 outpatients, initially diagnosed with CRPS I, but many of them not so on

  2. Prevalence of rheumatic regional pain syndromes in Latin-American indigenous groups: a census study based on COPCORD methodology and syndrome-specific diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Goñi, Mario; Julián-Santiago, Flor; García-García, Conrado; Quintana, Rosana; Silvestre, Adriana M R; García-Olivera, Imelda; Mathern, Nora A; Loyola-Sanchez, Adalberto; Conti, Silvana; Sanabria, Alvaro J; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A

    2016-07-01

    This study assessed the overall and specific prevalence of the main rheumatic regional pain syndromes (RRPS) in four Latin-American indigenous groups. A Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) methodology-based census study was performed in 4240 adults (participation rate: 78.88 %) in four indigenous groups: Chontal (Oaxaca, Mexico, n = 124), Mixteco (Oaxaca, Mexico; n = 937), Maya-Yucateco (Yucatán, Mexico; n = 1523), and Qom (Rosario, Argentina; n = 1656). Subjects with musculoskeletal pain were identified using a cross-cultural, validated COPCORD questionnaire administered by bilingual personnel, and reviewed by general practitioners or rheumatologists using standardized case definitions for the 12 most frequent RRPS. The overall prevalence of RRPS was confirmed in 239 cases (5.64 %, 95 % CI: 4.98-6.37). The prevalence in each group was Chontal n = 19 (15.32 %, 95 % CI: 10.03-22.69); Maya-Yucateco n = 165 (10.83 %, 95 % CI: 9.37-12.49); Qom n = 48 (2.90 %, 95 % CI: 2.19-3.82); and Mixteco n = 7 (0.75 %, 95 % CI: 0.36-1.53). In the whole sample, the syndrome-specific prevalence was rotator cuff tendinopathy: 1.98 % (95 % CI: 1.60-2.45); lateral epicondylalgia: 0.83 % (95 % CI: 0.59-1.15); medial epicondylalgia: 0.73 % (95 % CI: 0.52-1.04); biceps tendinopathy: 0.71 % (95 % CI: 0.50-1.01); anserine syndrome: 0.64 % (95 % CI: 0.44-0.92); inferior heel pain: 0.61 % (95 % CI: 0.42-0.90); trochanteric syndrome: 0.49 % (95 % CI: 0.25-0.64); de Quervain's tendinopathy: 0.45 % (95 % CI: 0.29-0.70); trigger finger: 0.42 % (95 % CI: 0.27-0.67); carpal tunnel syndrome: 0.28 % (95 % CI: 0.16-0.49); Achilles tendinopathy (insertional): 0.12 % (95 % CI: 0.05-0.28); and Achilles tendinopathy (non-insertional): 0.07 % (95 % CI: 0.02-0.21). Leaving aside the comparison between Maya-Yucateco and Chontal groups (p = 0.18), we found significant differences (p < 0.001) in

  3. Role of NFkappaB in an animal model of complex regional pain syndrome-type I (CRPS-I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mos, Marissa; Laferrière, André; Millecamps, Magali; Pilkington, Mercedes; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M; Huygen, Frank J P M; Coderre, Terence J

    2009-11-01

    NFkappaB is involved in several pathogenic mechanisms that are believed to underlie the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), including ischemia, inflammation and sensitization. Chronic postischemia pain (CPIP) has been developed as an animal model that mimics the symptoms of CRPS-I. The possible involvement of NFkappaB in CRPS-I was studied using CPIP rats. Under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia, a tourniquet was placed around the rat left ankle joint, producing 3 hours of ischemia, followed by rapid reperfusion (IR injury). NFkappaB was measured in nuclear extracts of muscle and spinal cord tissue using ELISA. Moreover, the anti-allodynic (mechanical and cold) effect was tested for systemic, intrathecal, or intraplantar treatment with the NFkappaB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC). At 2 and 48 hours after IR injury, NFkappaB was elevated in muscle and spinal cord of CPIP rats compared to shams. At 7 days, NFkappaB levels were normalized in muscle, but still elevated in spinal cord tissue. Systemic PDTC treatment relieved mechanical and cold allodynia in a dose-dependent manner, lasting for at least 3 hours. Intrathecal-but not intraplantar-administration also relieved mechanical allodynia. The results suggest that muscle and spinal NFkappaB plays a role in the pathogenesis of CPIP and potentially of human CRPS. Using the CPIP model, we demonstrate that NFkappaB is involved in the development of allodynia after a physical injury (ischemia and reperfusion) without direct nerve trauma. Since CPIP animals exhibit many features of human CRPS-I, this observation indicates a potential role for NFkappaB in human CRPS.

  4. Remote ischaemic conditioning decreases blood flow and improves oxygen extraction in patients with early complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelmaier, T; Kumowski, N; Mainka, T; Vollert, J; Goertz, O; Lehnhardt, M; Zahn, P K; Maier, C; Kolbenschlag, J

    2017-09-01

    Remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) is the cyclic application of non-damaging ischaemia leading to an increased tissue perfusion, among others triggered by NO (monoxide). Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is known to have vascular alterations such as increased blood shunting and decreased NO blood-levels, which in turn lead to decreased tissue perfusion. We therefore hypothesized that RIC could improve tissue perfusion in CRPS. In this proof-of-concept study, RIC was applied in the following groups: in 21 patients with early CRPS with a clinical history less than a year, in 20 age/sex-matched controls and in 12 patients with unilateral nerve lesions via a tourniquet on the unaffected/non-dominant upper limb. Blood flow and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2 ) were assessed before, during and after RIC via laser Doppler and tissue spectroscopy on the affected extremity. The oxygen extraction fraction was calculated. After RIC, blood flow declined in CRPS (p CRPS and healthy controls (p CRPS, the oxygen extraction fraction correlated negatively with the decreasing blood flow (p CRPS, which led to a revised hypothesis: the decrease of blood flow might be due to an anti-inflammatory effect that attenuates vascular disturbances and reduces blood shunting, thus improving oxygen extraction. Further studies could determine whether a repeated application of RIC leads to a reduced hypoxia in chronic CRPS. Remote ischaemic conditioning leads to a decrease of blood flow. This decrease inversely correlates with the oxygen extraction in patients with CRPS. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  5. Incidence of complex regional pain syndrome type I after fractures of the distal radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Pieter U; Groothoff, Johan W; ten Duis, Henk Jan; Geertzen, Jan H B

    2003-01-01

    Aim of this study was to analyse the incidence CRPS-I after a fracture of the distal radius and to analyse risk factors. Patients who visited the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital, with a fracture of distal radius were asked to participate. As risk factors for CRPS-I, number of repositions (with or without local anaesthesia), additional cast changes and pain during the cast period, were assessed. In a structured interview social life events (SLEs) and psychological and/or psychiatric history were assessed. The patients filled out the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90). In total 88 patients participated in the study. One female (1%, 95% CI: 0.2 to 6%), age 69 years with the following characteristics developed CRPS-I: one set of local anaesthetics, one repositioning attempt, no additional cast changes, average pain scores, no life events and her total score on the SCL-90 of 117, was slightly above average. Based on the results of this study it is concluded that the incidence of CRPS-I may be low (1%, 95% CI: 0.2 to 6%) after fractures of the distal radius. Further the risk factors described in literature play a minor role in the development of CRPS-I.

  6. Establishing the characteristics for patients with chronic Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: the value of the CRPS-UK Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenker, Nicholas; Goebel, Andreas; Rockett, Mark; Batchelor, James; Jones, Gareth T; Parker, Richard; de C Williams, Amanda C; McCabe, Candida

    2015-05-01

    The long-term prognosis of patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is unknown with no reported prospective studies from the United Kingdom longer than 18 months. The CRPS-UK Network aims to study this by use of a Registry. The aims of this article are, to outline the CRPS-UK Registry, assess the validity of the data and to describe the characteristics of a sample of the UK CRPS population. A web-based CRPS-UK Registry was developed and made accessible to centres experienced in diagnosing and managing patients with CRPS. Pragmatic annual follow-up questions were agreed. Up until July 2013, the Registry has recruited 240 patients. A blinded, validation study of 20 consecutive patients from two centres (10 each) demonstrated 95.6% completion and 99.4% accuracy of a random sample of the recorded data. These patients had chronic disease (median duration: 29 months); 72.5% were female (2.6:1), with a mean age at symptoms onset of 43 years, and were left-handed more than expected (21.8% versus 10% in the general population). Patients reported a delayed diagnosis, with the median time between symptom onset and diagnosis of 6 months. In all, 30 patients (12.5%) had multiple limb involvement and (83.3%) had a contiguous spread of CRPS. CRPS-UK Registry is a validated method for actively recruiting well-characterised patients with CRPS to provide further information on the long-term outcome.

  7. Usefulness of asymmetry score on quantitative three-phase bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Santhosh; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Arun, Sasikumar; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Sharma, Aman

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is primarily a clinical diagnosis. Diagnostic imaging in CRPS can be used, especially to exclude other disorders. The sensitivity and specificity of three phase bone scintigraphy (TPBS) for the diagnosis of CRPS is variable throughout the literature. Aim: To establish a simple and effective quantitative approach to help in the diagnosis of CRPS by TPBS. Materials and Methods: TPBS done in patients (n = 68) with suspected CRPS was analyzed retrospectively. They were classified into bone scan positive group (BSP), bone scan negative group (BSN) and non-CRPS group based on diffusely increased periarticular uptake, symmetrical uptake, and focal uptake respectively. Asymmetry score (AS) was also measured between the affected and unaffected side. Results: 16 patients showed focal uptake, 37 were in BSP group with mean AS score of 1.57 ± 0.5 and 15 were in BSN group with mean AS score of 1.01 ± 0.05. The mean AS was significantly different (P CRPS to rule out patients who have focal involvement, not diagnostic of CRPS (~24% in this study). Quantitative AS of 1.06 can be included to support visual interpretation in the delayed phase. PMID:24019668

  8. [Prophylactic plexus catheter treatment in operations following complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubrech, Florian; Pronk, Roderick Franciscus; Bigdeli, Amir Khosrow; Tapking, Christian; Kneser, Ulrich; Harhaus, Leila

    2017-08-01

    Background This paper investigates and discusses the effect of perioperative plexus catheter treatment in former CRPS patients. Patients and Methods A retrospective matched-pair analysis was conducted on 10 CRPS patients with comparable injuries, who underwent surgery in the disease-free interval. In 10 cases, the procedure was performed with perioperative plexus catheter treatment (intervention group), whereas 10 patients did not receive perioperative plexus catheter treatment (control group). Results In the intervention group, after a follow-up time of 105 (20-184) days after the last surgical procedure, pain intensity on the visual analogue scale (VAS; 0 to 10) was 6.4 (4-8), fingertip-to-palm distance averaged 3.2 (0-7.6) cm, active range of wrist motion was 47.5 (0-95), and grip strength was 9.2 (2.1-16.6) kg. In the control group, after a follow-up time of 129 (19-410) days since the last surgical procedure, pain intensity on the visual analogue scale was 6 (3-10), fingertip-to-palm distance averaged 2.7 (0-4.5) cm, active range of wrist-motion was 64 (0-125), and grip strength was 12.4 (0.8-23.8) kg. There was no significant difference between the groups. There was no recurrence of CRPS disease in either group after surgery. Conclusion There is no evidence so far for perioperative plexus catheter treatment to prevent recurrence in former CRPS patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Complex regional pain syndrome: medical and legal ramifications of clinical variability and experience and perspective of a practicing clinician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro RP

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available RP Lazaro Department of Neurology, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY, USA Objective: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the ramifications of clinical variability of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS and how they can affect the various aspects of this condition, favorably or unfavorably, for both patients and participating medical and legal professionals.Methods: Twelve patients diagnosed with CRPS at different times in the past 25 years were followed up, and their signs and symptoms were reviewed for variability. None had preexisting or ongoing medical disorders and prior injury to the peripheral nerves or musculoskeletal tissues. None had been involved in litigation. Physical traumas that triggered CRPS were job-related, vehicular accidents, and personal injuries. The presence of vasomotor symptoms (eg, swelling, skin discoloration, and temperature changes and allodynia in the affected extremity was the basis for clinical diagnosis in all the patients. The need for imaging studies was precluded in some patients owing to the presence of vasomotor symptoms, which either fluctuated or were steady. Seven of the patients had type 1 CRPS, and five patients had type 2 CRPS. Results: Most patients encountered delay in diagnosis and treatment and legal obstacles owing to the lack of “typical” objective signs of CRPS. The patients’ symptoms fluctuated at different times of the day. Eight patients experienced spread of vasomotor symptoms and varying degree of allodynia in the opposite extremity. One patient, who developed signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, 2 months after the injury, continued to have CRPS symptoms in the injured hand. Treatment modalities administered in all the patients were essentially ineffective. All the patients, except one, were unable to return to their original line of work, and their symptoms persisted regardless of the outcome of their legal claims.Conclusion: It is likely that patients who continue to

  10. [Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) as a treatment for the spread phenomenon related to complex regional pain syndrome type- I (CRPS-I )].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Shinichi; Taira, Takaomi; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2009-09-01

    The authors describe an experience of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in a 30-year-old woman who developed complex regional pain syndrome type-I (CRPS-I) with spread phenomenon. She had received lumbar SCS under a diagnosis of CRPS-I in her left leg for 8 years. She had refractory pain in her right arm for the recent two years. There was no new lesion explaining her refractory pain on physical or radiological examination. Thus, the pain in her right upper arm was considered as spread phenomenon of CRPS-I. Test stimulation with cervical epidural spinal electrode showed good results and the pulse generator was implanted. It is suggested that the symptom of CRPS-I involving spread phenomenon was possibly due to a cortical reorganization. But a certain effect of SCS may be contributing to the favorable results of test stimulation for the treatment of CRPS-I with spread phenomenon in this case.

  11. Altered Neurocognitive Processing of Tactile Stimuli in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttikat, Anoop; Noreika, Valdas; Chennu, Srivas; Shenker, Nicholas; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Brown, Christopher A

    2017-12-08

    Chronic pain in CRPS has been linked to tactile misperceptions and deficits in somatotopic representation of the affected limb. Here, we identify altered cognitive processing of tactile stimuli in CRPS patients that we propose marks heterogeneity in tactile decision-making mechanisms. In a case-control design, we compared middle and late-latency somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) in response to pseudo-randomised mechanical stimulation of the digits of both hands (including CRPS-affected and non-affected sides) between 13 CRPS patients and 13 matched healthy controls. During a task to discriminate the digit simulated, patients (compared to controls) had significantly lower accuracy and slowed response times but with high between-subject variability. At middle latencies (124-132ms), tactile processing in patients relative to controls showed decrements in superior parietal lobe and precuneus (that were independent of task demands) but enhanced activity in superior frontal lobe (that were task-dependent). At late latencies, patients showed an augmented P300-like response under task demands that localised to supplementary motor area (SMA). Source activity in SMA correlated with slowed response times, while its scalp representation intriguingly correlated with better functioning of the affected limb, suggesting a compensatory mechanism. Future research should investigate the clinical utility of these putative markers of tactile decision-making mechanisms in CRPS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Validation of proposed diagnostic criteria (the “Budapest Criteria”) for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, R. Norman; Bruehl, Stephen; Perez, Roberto S.G.M.; Birklein, Frank; Marinus, Johan; Maihofner, Christian; Lubenow, Timothy; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Mackey, Sean; Graciosa, Joseph; Mogilevski, Mila; Ramsden, Christopher; Chont, Melissa; Vatine, Jean-Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Current IASP diagnostic criteria for CRPS have low specificity, potentially leading to overdiagnosis. This validation study compared current IASP diagnostic criteria for CRPS to proposed new diagnostic criteria (the “Budapest Criteria”) regarding diagnostic accuracy. Structured evaluations of CRPS-related signs and symptoms were conducted in 113 CRPS-I and 47 non-CRPS neuropathic pain patients. Discriminating between diagnostic groups based on presence of signs or symptoms meeting IASP criteria showed high diagnostic sensitivity (1.00), but poor specificity (0.41), replicating prior work. In comparison, the Budapest clinical criteria retained the exceptional sensitivity of the IASP criteria (0.99), but greatly improved upon the specificity (0.68). As designed, the Budapest research criteria resulted in the highest specificity (0.79), again replicating prior work. Analyses indicated that inclusion of four distinct CRPS components in the Budapest Criteria contributed to enhanced specificity. Overall, results corroborate the validity of the Budapest Criteria and suggest they improve upon existing IASP diagnostic criteria for CRPS. PMID:20493633

  13. Thermography imaging during static and controlled thermoregulation in complex regional pain syndrome type 1: diagnostic value and involvement of the central sympathetic system.

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    Westra Mirjam; van der Weerd Rick WP; Huygen Frank JPM; Niehof Sjoerd P; Zijlstra Freek J

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 (CRPS1) is a clinical diagnosis based on criteria describing symptoms of the disease. The main aim of the present study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of calculation methods used to assess thermographic images (infrared imaging) obtained during temperature provocation. The secondary objective was to obtain information about the involvement of the sympathetic system in CRPS1. Methods We studied 12 patients in whom CRPS1 ...

  14. Complex regional pain syndrome: epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests and therapeutic proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Cordon, Francisco Carlos Obata [UNESP; Lemonica, Lino [UNESP

    2002-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A Síndrome Dolorosa Complexa Regional (SDCR), assim denominada a partir de 1994 pelo Consenso da Associação Internacional para o Estudo da Dor (AIED) e anteriormente denominada de várias formas, tais como Distrofia Simpático Reflexa, Causalgia, Algodistrofia ou Atrofia de Sudeck, é uma doença cuja compreensão dos limites clínicos, fisiopatologia e implicações de patogenia ainda é pobre. Disto resulta a enorme insatisfação não só para os pacientes como para os profis...

  15. The association between ACE inhibitors and the complex regional pain syndrome: Suggestions for a neuro-inflammatory pathogenesis of CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mos, M; Huygen, F J P M; Stricker, B H Ch; Dieleman, J P; Sturkenboom, M C J M

    2009-04-01

    Antihypertensive drugs interact with mediators that are also involved in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), such a neuropeptides, adrenergic receptors, and vascular tone modulators. Therefore, we aimed to study the association between the use of antihypertensive drugs and CRPS onset. We conducted a population-based case-control study in the Integrated Primary Care Information (IPCI) database in the Netherlands. Cases were identified from electronic records (1996-2005) and included if they were confirmed during an expert visit (using IASP criteria), or if they had been diagnosed by a medical specialist. Up to four controls per cases were selected, matched on gender, age, calendar time, and injury. Exposure to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics was assessed from the automated prescription records. Data were analyzed using multivariate conditional logistic regression. A total of 186 cases were matched to 697 controls (102 confirmed during an expert visit plus 84 with a specialist diagnosis). Current use of ACE inhibitors was associated with an increased risk of CRPS (OR(adjusted): 2.7, 95% CI: 1.1-6.8). The association was stronger if ACE inhibitors were used for a longer time period (OR(adjusted): 3.0, 95% CI: 1.1-8.1) and in higher dosages (OR(adjusted): 4.3, 95% CI: 1.4-13.7). None of the other antihypertensive drug classes was significantly associated with CRPS. We conclude that ACE inhibitor use is associated with CRPS onset and hypothesize that ACE inhibitors influence the neuro-inflammatory mechanisms that underlie CRPS by their interaction with the catabolism of substance P and bradykinin.

  16. Effect of vitamin C on prevention of complex regional pain syndrome type I in foot and ankle surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Jean-Luc; Gadeyne, Sylvain; Galand-Desmé, Sophie; Lerat, Jean-Luc; Moyen, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The public health cost impact of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) is considerable in both emergency and scheduled orthopaedic surgery. We proposed to assess the effectiveness of vitamin C in prevention of CRPS I in foot and ankle surgery. We carried out a "before-after" quasi-experimental study comparing two chronologically successive groups without (Group I: July 2002-June 2003) and with (Group II: July 2003-June 2004) preventive 1g daily vitamin C treatment. All patients having surgery on the foot or ankle were enrolled, with the exception of diabetic foot cases. Several factors were analysed: sex, age, type of pathology, history of CRPS I, psychological context, tourniquet time, and cast immobilisation time. 420 feet (392 patients) were included in the study: 185 in Group I, 235 in Group II. CRPS I occurred in 18 cases in Group I (9.6%) and 4 cases in Group II (1.7%) (phistory of CRPS I as a significantly correlated factor (relative risk=10.4). The psychological context (anxio-depressive state) showed a (sub-significant) tendency to increase the risk of CRPS I (relative risk=2.6). Vitamin C has been shown to be effective in preventing CRPS I secondary to wrist fracture, but few data are available with respect to foot and ankle cases. The present study demonstrates the effectiveness of vitamin C in preventing CRPS I of the foot and ankle-a frequent complication in our control group (9.6%). The authors recommend preventive management by vitamin C.

  17. Complex regional pain syndrome type I: incidence and prevalence in Olmsted county, a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroni, Paola; Benrud-Larson, Lisa M; McClelland, Robyn L; Low, Phillip A

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this study is to undertake a population based study on the incidence, prevalence, natural history, and response to treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). All Mayo Clinic and Olmsted Medical Group medical records with codes for reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), CRPS, and compatible diagnoses in the period 1989-1999 were reviewed as part of the Rochester Epidemiology Project. We used IASP criteria for CRPS. The study population was in the Olmsted County, Minnesota (1990 population, 106,470). The main outcome measures were CRPS I incidence, prevalence, and outcome. Seventy-four cases of CRPS I were identified, resulting in an incidence rate of 5.46 per 100,000 person years at risk, and a period prevalence of 20.57 per 100,000. Female:male ratio was 4:1, with a median age of 46 years at onset. Upper limb was affected twice as commonly as lower limb. All cases reported an antecedent event and fracture was the most common trigger (46%). Excellent concordance was found between symptoms and signs and vasomotor symptoms were the most commonly present. Three phase bone scan and autonomic testing diagnosed the condition in >80% of cases. Seventy-four percent of patients underwent resolution, often spontaneously. CRPS I is of low prevalence, more commonly affects women than men, the upper more than the lower extremity, and three out of four cases undergo resolution. These results suggest that invasive treatment of CRPS may not be warranted in the majority of cases.

  18. Diagnosis of partial complex regional pain syndrome type 1 of the hand: retrospective study of 16 cases and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The partial form of the complex regional pain syndrome of the hand type 1 (CRPS 1), involving only 1 to 3 fingers, is a rare condition first described in 1972. The aim of the study is to define more precisely the diagnosis workup and the prognosis of this clinical entity. Methods Retrospective study of CRPS1 partial form observed during five years in a rehabilitation ward. Application of The Budapest criteria, evaluation of radiological exams, therapeutic results and vocational outcomes. Comparison with cases from literature review. Results 132 patients were hospitalized with the diagnosis of CRPS type 1 of the hand. 16 partial forms were isolated: 11 men, 5 women with a mean age of 43 years. Among these patients, 14 (88%) met The Budapest criteria and the two remaining cases were diagnosed by using the three phase bone scintigraphy. Only moderate improvement was obtained in the majority of the patients. At the maximal time of follow-up (4 to 9 years), 50% of the patients hadn’t returned to work. From the literature review, 19 cases were eligible for clinical comparisons. The main differences between our series and the literature were: more men involved, later diagnosis and worst prognosis in term of return to work. Conclusions This is the largest series of consecutive partial form of CRPS. The Budapest criteria are sufficient for the diagnosis in 88% of cases. As in complete form of CRPS1 of the hand, three phase bone scintigraphy should only be used in doubtful cases in the first six months of the illness. Partial form of CRPS1 of the hand is rare and its prevalence remains unknown. Long term prognosis (4 to 9 years) is poor in our series, 50% of patients didn’t returned to work. PMID:23506090

  19. Relationship Between HbA1c and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in Stroke Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between glycosylated hemoglobin A (HbA1c) and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in stroke patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods A retrospective chart review was performed of stroke patients from January 2012 to December 2013. We reviewed 331 patients and included 200 in the analysis. We divided them into CRPS and non-CRPS groups and compared them by age, gender, stroke lesion, cause of stroke, duration of T2DM, HbA1c (%), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, affected shoulder flexor muscle strength, Fugl-Meyer Assessment score, motricity index, Functional Independence Measure, Korean version of Modified Barthel Index, blood glucose level on admission day, duration from stroke onset to HbA1c check, and duration from stroke onset to three-phase bone scan for CRPS diagnosis. Thereafter, we classified the patients into five groups by HbA1c level (group 1, 5.0%–5.9%; group 2, 6.0%–6.9%; group 3, 7.0%–7.9%; group 4, 8.0%–8.9%; and group 5, 9.0%–9.9%) and we investigated the difference in CRPS prevalence between the two groups. Results Of the 200 patients, 108 were in the CRPS group and 92 were in the non-CRPS group. There were significant differences in HbA1c (pCRPS prevalence (pCRPS prevalence and thus that uncontrolled blood glucose can affect CRPS occurrence in stroke patients with diabetes. PMID:27847707

  20. Diagnostic Performance of Three Phase Bone Scan for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 with Optimally Modified Image Criteria

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    Kwon, Hyun Woo; Paeng, Jin Chul; Nahm, Francins Sahngun; Kim, Seog Gyun; Zehra, Tanzeel; Oh, So Won; Lee, Hyo Sang; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Although the three phase bone scan (TBPS) is one of the widely used imaging studies for diagnosing complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS 1), there is some controversy regarding the TPBS image criteria for CRPS 1. In this study, we modified the image criteria using image pattern and quantitative analysis in the patients diagnosed using the most recent consensus clinical diagnostic criteria. The study included 140 patients with suspected CRPS 1 (CRPS 1, n=79; non CRPS, n=61; mean age 39{+-}15 years) who underwent TPBS. The clinical diagnostic criteria for CRPS 1 revised by the Budapest consensus group were used for confirmative diagnosis. Patients were classified according to flow/pool and delayed uptake (DU) image patterns, and the time interval between the initiating event and TPBS (TI{sup eventscan)}. Quantitative analysis for lesion to contralateral ratio (LCR) was performed. Modified TPBS image criteria were created and evaluated for optimal diagnostic performance. Both increased and decreased periarticular DU were significant image findings for CRPS 1 (CRPS 1 positive rate=73% in the increased DU group, 75% in the decreased DU group). The TI{sup eventscand}id not differ significantly between the different image pattern groups. Quantitative analysis revealed an LCR of 1.43 was the optimal cutoff value for CRPS 1 and diagnostic performance was significantly improved in the increased DU group (area under the curve=0.732). Given the modified image criteria, the sensitivity and specificity of TPBS for diagnosing CRPS 1 were 80% and 72%, respectively. Optimally modified TPBS image criteria for CRPS 1 were suggested using image pattern and quantitative analysis. With the criteria, TPBS is an effective imaging study for CRPS 1 even with the most recent consensus clinical diagnostic criteria.

  1. Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) Recurrence after Amputation for CRPS, and Failure of Conventional Spinal Cord Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Andreas; Lewis, Sarah; Phillip, Rhodri; Sharma, Manohar

    2017-04-18

    Limb amputation is sometimes being performed in long-standing complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), although little evidence is available guiding management decisions, including how CRPS recurrence should be managed. This report details the management of a young soldier with CRPS recurrence 2 years after midtibial amputation for CRPS. Conventional spinal cord stimulation did not achieve paraesthetic coverage, or pain relief in the stump, whereas L4 dorsal root ganglion stimulation achieved both coverage and initially modest pain relief, and over time, substantial pain relief. Current evidence does not support the use of amputation to improve either pain or function in CRPS. Before a decision is made, in exceptional cases, about referral for amputation, dorsal root ganglion stimulation should be considered as a potentially effective treatment, even where conventional spinal cord stimulator treatment has failed to achieve reliable paraesthetic cover. Furthermore, this treatment may provide pain relief in those patients with CRPS recurrence in the stump after amputation. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.

  2. Obravnava bolnikov s kompleksnim regionalnim bolečinskim sindromom tip 1 po zlomu distalnega dela koželjnice: Treatment of patients with complex regional pain syndrome after distal radius fracture:

    OpenAIRE

    Hernja Rumpf, Tadeja; Turk, Zmago

    2011-01-01

    Background: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropatic pain condition characterized by severe pain and sensory, motoric and autonomic disorders, often associated with tropic changes. The aim of this study was to analyze the CRPS type I incidence in patients after a distal radius fracture, in order to analyze risk factors for its development, and to evaluate rehabilitation effectiveness in terms of reducing pain, improving muscle strength of a fist grip, improving the mobility of th...

  3. Scalene Myofascial Pain Syndrome Mimicking Cervical Disc Prolapse: A Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Jalil, Nizar; Awang, Mohammad Saufi; Omar, Mahamarowi

    2010-01-01

    Scalene myofascial pain syndrome is a regional pain syndrome wherein pain originates over the neck area and radiates down to the arm. This condition may present as primary or secondary to underlying cervical pathology. Although scalene myofascial pain syndrome is a well known medical entity, it is often misdiagnosed as being some other neck pain associated with radiculopathy, such as cervical disc prolapse, cervical spinal stenosis and thoracic outlet syndrome. Because scalene myofascial pain...

  4. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

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    ... Visit Our Schools Educators at Mayo Clinic train tomorrow’s leaders to deliver compassionate, high-value, safe patient ... Practices Reprint Permissions A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. " ...

  5. Complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diagnosing CRPS can be difficult, but early diagnosis is very important. The doctor will take a medical history and do a physical examination. Other tests may include: A test to show temperature changes and lack ...

  6. Ultrasound-guided stellate ganglion blocks combined with pharmacological and occupational therapy in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS): a pilot case series ad interim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Karin; Feldmann, Robert E; Brascher, Anne-Kathrin; Benrath, Justus

    2014-12-01

    This preliminary and retrospective pilot case series examines a treatment concept consisting of ultrasound-guided stellate ganglion blocks (SGBs) combined with pharmacological and occupational therapy in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) of the hand. Efficacy of combined treatment concepts and safety of ultrasound-guided SGB have not been sufficiently investigated yet. A total number of 156 blocks were evaluated in 16 patients with CRPS in a retrospective analysis. All patients received pharmacotherapy and a standard regimen of occupational therapy offered simultaneously to the SGBs. Changes in both spontaneous and evoked pain levels were assessed by numerical pain rating score before and after the last blockade of a series. Side effects were documented. The overall mean pain reduction was 63.2% regarding spontaneous and 45.3% regarding evoked pain. Mild complications, such as hoarseness or dysphagia, occurred in 13.5% of the blocks (21 SGBs). Serious complications, such as plexus paresis or accidental puncture of vessels or other structures, did not occur. Time between symptom onset and start of treatment did not affect the extent of pain reduction. The combination of ultrasound-guided SGB and simultaneous pharmacological and occupational therapy showed encouraging treatment results under conditions of this pilot case series. Assessment of efficacy of this combined treatment concept and safety of ultrasound-guided SGB require further prospective clinical studies with larger number of participants. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The effect of sequel symptoms and signs of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 on upper extremity disability and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaş, Serpil; Baloğlu, Hale Hekim; Ay, Gökçen; Cerçi, Sevim Süreyya

    2009-03-01

    Although properly treated, patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 (CRPS type 1) of upper limb may continue to have sequel signs and symptoms of the disease in long-term. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of the sequel findings of CRPS type 1 on upper limb disability and quality of life. Thirty patients with CRPS type 1 of the upper extremity were re-evaluated for the sequel sign and symptoms of CRPS type 1 after 18 months (8-60 months). Pain, range of motion, strength, manual dexterity and touch perception thresholds of the hands, upper extremity disability [Disability of arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaire] and health-related quality of life [Short Form-36 (SF-36)] were measured and compared to 38 healthy controls. Of the 30 patients, only 3 patients (10%) were symptom free. Pain after use was the most frequently found symptom. Strength and range of motion of the involved hand was reduced in CRPS type 1 patients. Manual dexterity was impaired and touch perception threshold was elevated in CRPS type 1 patients. The involved upper extremities were more disabled in CRPS type 1 patients than controls. The severity of the pain, and numbness of the hands were the factors causing disability. Pain caused reduced quality of life in physical functioning. In conclusion, prolonged follow-up period and efforts to improve sensory disturbances (especially pain) may reduce the upper extremity disability and reduced quality of life in CRPS type 1 patients.

  8. Immediate Return to Ambulation and Improved Functional Capacity for Rehabilitation in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome following Early Implantation of a Spinal Cord Stimulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Jesse Goff

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a neuropathic pain condition that is characterized by vasomotor, sensory, sudomotor, and motor symptoms. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS has been successfully utilized for the treatment of pain refractory to conventional therapies. We present a case of a previously highly functioning 54-year-old female who developed a rarely reported case of idiopathic CRPS of the right ankle which spontaneously occurred four months after an uncomplicated anterior cervical disc fusion. This condition resulted in severe pain and functional impairment that was unresponsive to pharmacological management. The patient’s rehabilitation was severely stymied by her excruciating pain. However, with the initiation of spinal cord stimulation, her pain was adequately controlled allowing for progression to full unassisted ambulation, advancing functional capacity, and improving quality of life. This case report supports the concept that rapid progression to neuromodulation, rather than delays that occur due to attempts at serial sympathetic blocks, may better control symptoms leading allowing for a more meaningful recovery.

  9. Early Treatment of Acute Complex Regional Pain Syndrome after Fracture or Injury with Prednisone: Why Is There a Failure to Treat? A Case Series

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    Paul Winston

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS after fracture is a cause of pain, dysfunction, and potentially permanent disability. The evidence for treatment with oral corticosteroids is growing and supported by several international guidelines; however, treatment is not widely offered. Objective. Rapid recognition and treatment of complex regional pain in the upper extremity after acute injury as a disease modifying and potentially curative treatment. Methods. The present study was a case series involving three patients who developed CRPS after a trauma to the neck and/or upper limb. Patients were screened by clinical examination and bone scan and met the Budapest criteria. Results. Resolution of pain, swelling, and disability in all three patients. Discussion. There is increasing support, based on the existing evidence and clinical outcomes, for the use of prednisone to treat the acute phase of CRPS and as a promising treatment to halt the progression of the phenomenon and potentially cure the condition; however, widespread use of prednisone likely remains low, potentially resulting in long-term pain, joint contracture, and disability. A large-scale randomized control trial has not been performed. Conclusion. Corticosteroids can be an effective treatment option for CRPS after fracture.

  10. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I of the upper limb - treatment based on Stress Loading Program: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sarturi Ponte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The daily life of an individual suffering from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CPRS I becomes limited, because this syndrome causes signs and symptoms located in the affected limb, and may occur in other parts. From this premise, this study aims to present the contributions of Occupational Therapy and the Rehabilitation Stress Loading Program for a subject with CRPS I in the upper limb, attended by the Group of Pain from the University Hospital of Santa Maria (HUSM, Rio Grande do Sul state. This research is characterized as a case study, experimental, which deals with pre and post occupational therapy intervention. The instruments used for data collection were the protocols of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH, the International Classification of Disability, Functioning and Health (ICF, the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM, the Visual Analogue Scale, and goniometry (EVA. After assessment, the subject was exposed to the treatment of compressive active resistive exercises; after this treatment was completed, the subject was reassessed. It was observed that the treatment applied has contributed to the reduction of the pain and to the improvement in the Range of Motion (ROM of the subject. The use of the stress protocol and active compression contributed significantly to the reduction of pain, ADM gain and occupational performance improvement.

  11. Systemic inflammatory mediators in post-traumatic Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS I - longitudinal investigations and differences to control groups

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    Schinkel Ch

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I (CRPS I is a disease that might affect an extremity after trauma or operation. The pathogenesis remains yet unclear. It has clinical signs of severe local inflammation as a result of an exaggerated inflammatory response but neurogenic dysregulation also contributes to it. Some studies investigated the role inflammatory mediators and cytokines; however, few longitudinal studies exist and control groups except healthy controls were not investigated yet. Methods To get further insights into the role of systemic inflammatory mediators in CRPS I, we investigated a variety of pro-, anti-, or neuro-inflammatory mediators such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP, White Blood Cell Count (WBC, Interleukins 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12 (p70, Interferon gamma, Tumor-Necrosis-Factor alpha (TNF-α and its soluble Receptors I/II, soluble Selectins (E, L, P, Substance-P (SP, and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP at different time points in venous blood from patients with acute (AC and chronic (CC CRPS I, patients with forearm fractures (FR, with neuralgia (NE, and from healthy volunteers (C. Results No significant changes for serum parameters investigated in CRPS compared to control groups were found except for CC/C (CGRP p = 0.007, FR/C (CGRP p = 0.048 and AC/CC (IL-12 p = 0.02; TNFRI/II p = 0.01; SP p = 0.049. High interindividual variations were observed. No intra-or interindividual correlation of parameters with clinical course (e.g. chronification or outcome was detectable. Conclusion Although clinically appearing as inflammation in acute stages, local rather than systemic inflammatory responses seem to be relevant in CRPS. Variable results from different studies might be explained by unpredictable intermittent release of mediators from local inflammatory processes into the blood combined with high interindividual variabilities. A clinically relevant difference to various control groups was not notable in this

  12. Systemic inflammatory mediators in post-traumatic complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I) - longitudinal investigations and differences to control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel, Christian; Scherens, A; Köller, M; Roellecke, G; Muhr, G; Maier, C

    2009-03-17

    The Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I (CRPS I) is a disease that might affect an extremity after trauma or operation. The pathogenesis remains yet unclear. It has clinical signs of severe local inflammation as a result of an exaggerated inflammatory response but neurogenic dysregulation also contributes to it. Some studies investigated the role inflammatory mediators and cytokines; however, few longitudinal studies exist and control groups except healthy controls were not investigated yet. To get further insights into the role of systemic inflammatory mediators in CRPS I, we investigated a variety of pro-, anti-, or neuro-inflammatory mediators such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), White Blood Cell Count (WBC), Interleukins 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12 (p70), Interferon gamma, Tumor-Necrosis-Factor alpha (TNF-a) and its soluble Receptors I/II, soluble Selectins (E,L,P), Substance-P (SP), and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) at different time points in venous blood from patients with acute (AC) and chronic (CC) CRPS I, patients with forearm fractures (FR), with neuralgia (NE), and from healthy volunteers (C). No significant changes for serum parameters investigated in CRPS compared to control groups were found except for CC/C (CGRP p = 0.007), FR/C (CGRP p = 0.048) and AC/CC (IL-12 p = 0.02; TNFRI/II p = 0.01; SP p = 0.049). High interindividual variations were observed. No intra- or interindividual correlation of parameters with clinical course (e.g. chronification) or outcome was detectable. Although clinically appearing as inflammation in acute stages, local rather than systemic inflammatory responses seem to be relevant in CRPS. Variable results from different studies might be explained by unpredictable intermittent release of mediators from local inflammatory processes into the blood combined with high interindividual variabilities. A clinically relevant difference to various control groups was not notable in this pilot study. Determination of systemic inflammatory

  13. Sweet syndrome: a painful reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Uqba; Rizvi, Humaira; Ali, Farman; Lebovic, Daniel

    2016-12-23

    Sweet syndrome is a rare disorder that is manifested by constellation of clinical features, including fever, neutrophilic leucocytosis, raised painful plaques on skin and dermal infiltration by neutrophils. Numerous aetiological associations have been reported in the literature, including various haematological malignancies and drugs. Our case was peculiar because of association of capecitabine and Sweet syndrome in rectal cancer. We describe a case of a woman aged 57 years, with recently diagnosed stage III rectal cancer, developed painful erythematous rash over her face along with fever and headache. Skin biopsy was performed which revealed typical findings of Sweet syndrome. She was successfully treated with systemic steroids. Our case was an unusual presentation of Sweet syndrome in a patient with rectal adenocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant capecitabine. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  14. Cutaneous and mucosal pain syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddappa K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The cutaneous and mucosal pain syndromes are characterized by pain, burning sensation, numbness or paraesthesia of a particular part of the skin or mucosal surface without any visible signs. They are usually sensory disorders, sometimes with a great deal of psychologic overlay. In this article various conditions have been listed and are described. The possible causative mechanisms are discussed when they are applicable and the outline of their management is described.

  15. Myofascial pain syndrome: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anudeep; Chansoria, Mayank; Tomar, Gaurav; Kumar, Abhyuday

    2015-03-01

    Over the last few decades, advances have been made in the understanding of myofascial pain syndromes (MPSs). In spite of its high prevalence in the society, it is not a commonly established diagnosis. MPS is said to be the great imitator. This article puts some light on the various clinical presentations of the syndrome, on the various tools to reach to a diagnosis for commencing the treatment and on the treatment modalities that have been used so far.

  16. Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of pounding on your legs, such as running, volleyball or basketball. If you want to keep exercising, ... after activity. This can ease the pain and speed up healing. To keep your hands free, use ...

  17. Low back pain and the post-laminectomy pain syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Back pain is one of the most common disorders seen in general practice. Patients with chronic low back pain form a large proportion of the work of any pain relief unit. The aetiology of low back pain and the post-laminectomy pain syndrome are briefly presented and treatment of the 'failed back surgery patient' and the ...

  18. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) impairs visuospatial perception,whereas post-herpetic neuralgia does not: possible implications for supraspinal mechanism of CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Hironobu; Sumitani, Masahiko; Yozu, Arito; Otake, Yuko; Shibata, Masahiko; Mashimo, Takashi; Miyauchi, Satoru

    2009-11-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients show impaired visuospatial perception in the dark, as compared to normal patients with acute nociceptive pain. The purpose of this study is 2-fold: (i) to ascertain whether this distorted visuospatial perception is related to the chronicity of pain, and (ii) to analyse visuospatial perception of CRPS in comparison with another neuropathic pain condition. We evaluated visual subjective body-midline (vSM) representation in 27 patients with post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) and 22 with CRPS under light and dark conditions. A red laser dot was projected onto a screen and moved horizontally towards the sagittal plane of the objective body-midline (OM). Each participant was asked to direct the dot to a position where it crossed their vSM. The distance between the vSM and OM was analysed to determine how and in which direction the vSM deviated. Under light condition, all vSM judgments approximately matched the OM. However, in the dark, CRPS patients, but not PHN patients, showed a shifted vSM towards the affected side. We demonstrated that chronic pain does not always impair visuospatial perception. The aetiology of PHN is limited to the peripheral nervous system, whereas the distorted visuospatial perception suggests a supraspinal aetiology of CRPS.

  19. [The Treatment of the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS 1 and CRPS 2) of the Upper Limb with Repeated Local Anaesthesia to the Stellate Ganglion.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, M; Fischer, L

    2009-03-04

    Two female patients were referred to us with a complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) of the upper limb. One patient developed a CRPS type 1 after a radius fracture, the other presented a CRPS type 2 after a wrist trauma with a nerve injury of N. ulnaris. Both patients had progressive pain in spite of medical treatment (NSAID, Gabapentine, Calcitonine), physiotherapy, occupational therapy and osteopathy. In addition to pain they also showed the typical autonomic symptoms like oedema, hyperhidrosis, disturbances of skin colour and temperature and a severely limited motility of wrist and fingers. The clinical symptoms of both types of CRPS are identical and not restricted to the peripheral nerve distribution. The sympathetic nerve system is not only involved in the pain mechanism with reflectory processes in the segment and with the sympathetic afferent coupling, it also takes part in the neuroplasticity and in the neurogenic inflammation. The logical therapeutic intervention is therefore to normalize the hyperactivity of the sympathetic nerve systems with local anaesthetics. This regulation is done with injections to the stellate ganglion if upper limbs are affected (affections of lower limbs are treated with injections to the lumbar sympathetic trunk). Repeated injections to the stellate ganglion caused immediate improvement of pain and other symptoms in both patients.

  20. WITHDRAWN : Exercise therapy for patellofemoral pain syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heintjes, Edith M; Berger, Marjolein; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita Ma; Bernsen, Roos Md; Verhaar, Jan An; Koes, Bart W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a common problem among adolescents and young adults, characterised by retropatellar pain (behind the kneecap) or peripatellar pain (around the kneecap) when ascending or descending stairs, squatting or sitting with flexed knees. Etiology, structures

  1. [Please don't hurt me!: a plea against invasive procedures in children and adolescents with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernikow, B; Dobe, M; Hirschfeld, G; Blankenburg, M; Reuther, M; Maier, C

    2012-08-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS; formerly known as Morbus Sudeck/reflex dystrophy) is diagnosed in children and adolescents, but the clinical presentation is often atypical. Unfortunately, potentially harmful, invasive treatments are used in pediatric patients. A retrospective chart study of pediatric chronic pain patients with CRPS was performed. Over the course of 6 years, 37 (35 girls) children and adolescents took part in a multidisciplinary chronic pain inpatient program. At admission, patients took on average 4.4 (range 1-10) different medications and 29 different pharmaceuticals were used overall. Prior to admission, invasive pain treatments were performed without success in 16 of the children (43%). At least 13 children received two or more invasive treatments. Although sympathetic blocks were most prevalent, operations and regional anesthesia were also used. Despite a lack of evidence for invasive procedures, these continue to be used in children and adolescents with CRPS, who later respond positively to conventional treatment. The English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink (under "Supplemental").

  2. Neck and arm pain syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de las Peñas, César Fernández; Cleland, Joshua; Huijbregts, Peter

    The first of its kind, Neck and Arm Pain Syndromes is a comprehensive evidence- and clinical-based book, covering research-based diagnosis, prognosis and management of neuromusculoskeletal pathologies and dysfunctions of the upper quadrant, including joint, muscle, myofascial and neural tissue ap...

  3. Interventions in chronic pain management. 5. Approaches to medication and lifestyle in chronic pain syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Mitchell K; Saulino, Michael F; Overton, E Anthony; Holding, Michele Y; Kornbluth, Ira D

    2008-03-01

    This self-directed learning module first reviews the importance of weight management and smoking cessation in the treatment of axial low back pain and then describes the use of medication in complex regional pain syndrome and trigeminal neuralgia. It is part of the chapter on chronic pain in the Self-Directed Physiatric Education Program for practitioners in physical medicine and rehabilitation. The first objective explores the correlation of tobacco usage and obesity with lower back pain. The second objective reviews the option for medication management in patients with complex regional pain syndromes. The third objective examines the management of trigeminal neuralgia in a patient with multiple sclerosis. To discuss the importance of addressing obesity and smoking cessation in patients with low back pain and medication usage in trigeminal neuralgia and complex regional pain syndromes.

  4. Shoulder pain syndrome among Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelowo, O O; Oguntona, S; Ojo, O

    2009-04-01

    To identify aetiological causes of shoulder pain syndrome among patients attending a rheumatology clinic, and to highlight the therapeutic options. Retrospective study. A private rheumatology clinic in Lagos, Nigeria fromJanuary 2002 to December 2006. Forty female adult patients and 26 male adult patients aged 24-79 years. Patient reported outcome in terms of pain relief and increased mobility. Sixty six subjects were seen during the study period. Females were more commonly affected and were mostly middle aged. Adhesive capsulitis was the most common condition while septic arthritis and avascular necrosis were least diagnosed 22.7% of the subjects could not, however, be categorised. Shoulder pain syndrome is common among Nigerians. Diagnosis and management are mostly based on the clinical presentations, especially considering the lack of sensitivity of plain radiographs and the high cost of more sensitive MRI. The treatment of these conditions are standard.

  5. Síndrome doloroso regional complejo tipo 1: Un diagnóstico elusivo Complex regional pain syndrome type 1: An elusive diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto M. Forden Jones

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome doloroso regional complejo tipo 1 es una afección que puede complicar traumatismos, en especial de los miembros. Es infradiagnosticado y potencialmente muy incapacitante. El diagnóstico se realiza reuniendo una serie de criterios clínicos. No existe un método de diagnóstico complementario que pueda considerarse patrón de oro. Su tratamiento debe ser multidisciplinario (fármacos, terapia física, terapia psicológica y en casos seleccionados, procedimientos invasivos. Se han comunicado resultados favorables con múltiples tratamientos farmacológicos, siendo la terapia con corticosteroides una de las que han alcanzado altos niveles de evidencia a favor de su utilidad. Presentamos el caso de un paciente masculino de 47 años de edad que fue internado en nuestro servicio por dolor intenso en su extremidad inferior derecha de características neuropáticas de larga evolución. Había realizado múltiples consultas previas y cumplido diversos tratamientos. Se le realizó centellograma óseo de tres fases con 99Tc que resultó compatible con el diagnóstico propuesto. Se trató con metilprednisona 60 mg/día con disminución progresiva hasta completar 15 días, obteniéndose una mejoría significativa de la sintomatología. Se le otorgó el alta hospitalaria para proseguir la rehabilitación ambulatoria.Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 is a painful disorder that may complicate a traumatic lesion especially in extremities. It is infradiagnosed and potentially very disabling. Its diagnosis consists of a few clinical criteria. It does not exist a complementary diagnostic study which can be considered as gold standard. Its treatment must be multidisciplinary (e.g. medicines, physical therapy, psychological therapy and, in selected cases, invasive procedures. There have been communicated some favorable results using multiple pharmacological treatments in which corticosteroid therapy was among the ones that have reached highest

  6. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is efficacious as an add-on to pharmacological therapy in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picarelli, Helder; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; de Andrade, Daniel Ciampi; Myczkowski, Martin Luiz; Luvisotto, Tatiana Barreira; Yeng, Lin Tchia; Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Pridmore, Saxby; Marcolin, Marco Antonio

    2010-11-01

    Single-session repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex (M1) is effective in the treatment of chronic pain patients, but the analgesic effect of repeated sessions is still unknown. We evaluated the effects of rTMS in patients with refractory pain due to complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type I. Twenty-three patients presenting CRPS type I of 1 upper limb were treated with the best medical treatment (analgesics and adjuvant medications, physical therapy) plus 10 daily sessions of either real (r-) or sham (s-) 10 Hz rTMS to the motor cortex (M1). Patients were assessed daily and after 1 week and 3 months after the last session using the Visual Analogical Scale (VAS), the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), the Health Survey-36 (SF-36), and the Hamilton Depression (HDRS). During treatment there was a significant reduction in the VAS scores favoring the r-rTMS group, mean reduction of 4.65 cm (50.9%) against 2.18 cm (24.7%) in the s-rTMS group. The highest reduction occurred at the tenth session and correlated to improvement in the affective and emotional subscores of the MPQ and SF-36. Real rTMS to the M1 produced analgesic effects and positive changes in affective aspects of pain in CRPS patients during the period of stimulation. This study shows an efficacy of repetitive sessions of high-frequency rTMS as an add-on therapy to refractory CRPS type I patients. It had a positive effect in different aspects of pain (sensory-discriminative and emotional-affective). It opens the perspective for the clinical use of this technique. Copyright © 2010 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Autonomic components of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) are favourably affected by Electrical Twitch-Obtaining Intramuscular Stimulation (ETOIMS): effects on blood pressure and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jennifer; Bruyninckx, Frans; Neuhauser, Duncan V

    2017-07-01

    Favourable pain relief results on evoking autonomous twitches at myofascial trigger points with Electrical Twitch Obtaining Intramuscular Stimulation (ETOIMS). To document autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) from blood pressure (BP) and pulse/heart rate changes with ETOIMS. A patient with persistent pain regularly received serial ETOIMS sessions of 60, 90, 120 or ≥150 min over 24 months. Outcome measures include BP: systolic, diastolic, pulse pressure and pulse/heart rate, pre-session/immediate-post-session summed differences (SDPPP index), and pain reduction. His results were compared with that of two other patients and one normal control. Each individual represented the following maximal elicitable twitch forces (TWF) graded 1-5: maximum TWF2: control subject; maximum TWF3: CRPS patient with suspected ANS dysfunction; and maximum TWF4 and TWF5: two patients with respective slow-fatigue and fast-fatigue twitches who during ETOIMS had autonomous twitching at local and remote myotomes simultaneously from denervation supersensitivity. ETOIMS results between TWFs were compared using one-way analysis of variance test. The patients showed immediate significant pain reduction, BP and pulse/heart rate changes/reduction(s) except for diastolic BP in the TWF5 patient. TWF2 control subject had diastolic BP reduction with ETOIMS but not with rest. Linear regression showed TWF grade to be the most significant variable in pain reduction, more so than the number of treatments, session duration and treatment interval. TWF grade was the most important variable in significantly reducing outcome measures, especially pulse/heart rate. Unlike others, the TWF3 patient had distinctive reductions in SDPPP index. Measuring BP and pulse/heart rate is clinically practical for alerting ANS dysfunction maintained CRPS. SDPPP index (≥26) and pulse/heart rate (≥8) reductions with almost every ETOIMS treatment, plus inability to evoke

  8. A curative treatment option for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) Type I: dorsal root entry zone operation (report of two cases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanpolat, Yucel; Al-Beyati, Eyyub; Ugur, Hasan Caglar; Akpinar, Gokhan; Kahilogullari, Gokmen; Bozkurt, Melih

    2014-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I (CRPS-I) is a debated health problem concerning its pathophysiology and treatment strategies. A 12-year-old boy and a 35-year-old woman were diagnosed with CRPS-I at different times. They had previously undergone various types of interventions with no success. After one year of follow-up and observation, DREZ lesioning operation was performed. Afterwards, both cases had transient lower extremity ataxia. The first case was followed for 60 months with no recurrence and total cure. The second case was pain-free until the 6th month, when she required psychological support; she was followed for 33 months with partial satisfactory outcome. Although not a first-line option, DREZ lesioning procedure can be chosen and may be a curative option in selected cases of CRPS-I who are unresponsive to conventional therapies.

  9. Risk Factors for Post-treatment Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS): An Analysis of 647 Cases of CRPS from the Danish Patient Compensation Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Pelle B; Mikkelsen, Kim L; Lauritzen, Jes B; Krogsgaard, Michael R

    2017-07-10

    Complex regional pain syndrome is a challenging condition that includes a broad spectrum of sensory, autonomic, and motor features predominantly in extremities recovering from a trauma. Few large-scale studies have addressed occurrence of and factors associated with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) following orthopedic treatment. The present study aimed to identify factors associated with post-treatment development of CRPS. Using the Danish Patient Compensation Association's database, we identified 647 patients claiming post-treatment CRPS between 1992 and 2015. Age, gender, initial diagnosis, treatment, and amount of compensation were extracted. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify variables associated with approval of the claim. For carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients, we registered whether symptoms were bilateral or unilateral and if neurophysiology prior to treatment was pathologic. The following ratios were found: women:men was 4:1, primary diagnosis to the upper limb:lower limb was 2.5:1, and surgical:nonsurgical treatment was 3:1. Mean age was 47.5 ± 13.7 years, and no intergender difference was detected. Antebrachial fracture (23%) and CTS (9%) were the most common primary conditions. Surgical treatment was associated with approval of the claim (odds ratio 3.5, 95% confidence interval 2.3 to 5.3; P CRPS patients. In CTS patients developing CRPS, normal neurophysiological examination findings were common, and it could be suspected that these patients were suffering from an pre-clinical stage of CRPS, not CTS. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.

  10. Pain and carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Andrew D; Jenkins, Paul J; Roddam, Philip; Watts, Adam C; Ring, David; McEachan, Jane E

    2013-08-01

    Pain is not a classical symptom of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), with the exception of numbness that is so intense that it is described by patients as painful. The primary aim of our study was to determine which factors correlated with pain for patients diagnosed with CTS. We prospectively assessed all patients diagnosed with CTS in our unit over a 1-year period. We recorded demographic details for all patients, including past medical history, body mass index, smoking, and occupation. The diagnosis and severity of carpal tunnel syndrome were established through a combination of history, clinical assessment, and nerve conduction studies. Of 275 patients diagnosed and treated for CTS, 183 were women (67%), the mean age was 55 years (range, 22-87 y), and 166 cases were bilateral (60%). The mean body mass index was 29.5 kg/m2 (range, 17-48 kg/m2), and 81 patients smoked (30%). Patients completed a Short Form-McGill pain questionnaire (SF-MPQ) as a measure of pain at initial presentation. We assessed outcome 1 year after intervention using the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) score. We found no association between pain according to the SF-MPQ and the positive clinical signs of CTS or positive nerve conduction studies. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that smoking and bilateral disease independently correlated with the overall SF-MPQ, with similar findings on subanalysis. Independent factors associated with an increased improvement in the QuickDASH at 1 year were the presentation QuickDASH score, positive nerve conduction studies, and smoking. The only independent factors that correlated with pain at presentation of CTS were smoking and bilateral disease. Pain according to the SF-MPQ was not associated with classical clinical findings of the disease or with positive findings on nerve conduction testing. Prognostic I. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lamotrigine in the treatment of pain syndromes and neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titlic, M; Jukic, I; Tonkic, A; Josipovic-Jelic, Z; Boschi, V; Mihalj, M; Punda, A

    2008-01-01

    Anti-epileptic drugs are increasingly used in the treatment of pain syndromes and neuropathic pain. Sodium channel blockers can be effective in the treatment of pain. The object of our interest is the efficiency of lamotrigine in treating the pain. A MEDLINE search was conducted to identify pertinent studies, case reports, letters, and reviews in English published from 1986 to May 2007. The search has indicated efficiency in treating a number of painful syndromes and neuropathic pain; central pain, trigeminal neuralgia and trigeminal neuralgia in multiple sclerosis, pain in multiple sclerosis, SUNCT syndrome, cluster headache, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, neuropathic pain, allodynia, neuralgia after nerve section, postherpetic neuralgia, HIV-associated neuropathy. Further researches are required on the role of lamotrigine in treating the spinal cord injury pain, neuralgia after nerve section, postoperative analgesic requirement, and in migraine (Tab. 1, Ref. 46). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  12. Effects of Simvastatin Beyond Dyslipidemia: Exploring Its Antinociceptive Action in an Animal Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome-Type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Vieira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Simvastatin is a lipid-lowering agent that blocks the production of cholesterol through inhibition of 3-hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase. In addition, recent evidence has suggested its anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive actions during inflammatory and pain disorders. Herein, we investigated the effects of simvastatin in an animal model of complex regional pain syndrome-type I, and its underlying mechanisms. Chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP was induced by ischemia and reperfusion (IR injury of the left hind paw. Our findings showed that simvastatin inhibited mechanical hyperalgesia induced by CPIP model in single and repeated treatment schedules, respectively; however simvastatin did not alter inflammatory signs during CPIP model. The mechanisms underlying those actions are related to modulation of transient receptor potential (TRP channels, especially TRMP8. Moreover, simvastatin oral treatment was able to reduce the nociception induced by acidified saline [an acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs activator] and bradykinin (BK stimulus, but not by TRPA1, TRPV1 or prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2. Relevantly, the antinociceptive effects of simvastatin did not seem to be associated with modulation of the descending pain circuits, especially noradrenergic, serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems. These results indicate that simvastatin consistently inhibits mechanical hyperalgesia during neuropathic and inflammatory disorders, possibly by modulating the ascending pain signaling (TRPM8/ASIC/BK pathways expressed in the primary sensory neuron. Thus, simvastatin open-up new standpoint in the development of innovative analgesic drugs for treatment of persistent pain, including CRPS-I.

  13. Therapy for back pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Yu Solovyeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may be used in combination with B group vitamins. A number of independent trials demonstrates that B group vitamins potentiate the analgesic effect of NSAIDs and contribute to a rapider regression of pain syndrome than their monotherapy. To reduce the risk of adverse reactions of NSAID therapy, to enhance its adherence, and to reduce its cost, it is reasonable to administer combination drugs that contain these components and allow the dose of active substances to be decreased due to their synergism. The new combination drug neurodiclovit contains slow-release enteric-coated granules and individual immediate-release granules of vitamins B 1, B 6, and B 12. Incorporation of neurodiclovit into treatment regimens for back pain syndromes will promote optimization of their therapy.

  14. Interstitial cystitis: painful bladder syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R F Sholan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis, or painful bladder syndrome, is a chronic inflammatory disease of a bladder of unknown etiology. It negatively affects the quality of life, causes depressive disorders, anxiety, and sexual dysfunction. Despite numerous studies, the etiology of interstitial cystitis is still unclear and it’s considered as painful bladder syndrome with multifactorial origin. According to the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 470/100 000 people (60/100 000 men, 850/100 000 women are diagnosed with interstitial cystitis. Diagnosis of the disease is difficult and is substantially based on clinical symptoms. Pelvic pain, urinary urgency, frequency and nocturia are the basic complaints in this pathology. The diagnosis requires exclusion of diseases with similar manifestations. So interstitial cystitis is frequently misdiagnosed as urinary tract infection, overactive bladder, urethral obstruction or diverticulosis, chronic prostatitis, bladder cancer, vulvodynia, endometriosis, and chronic pelvic pain. Etiopathogenesis of the disease is uncertain, which makes etiologic treatment impossible. Currently scientific discussions on the causes of disease continue as well as different treatment regimens are offered, but are often ineffective, palliative and temporary. The treatment for intersticial cystitis should focus on restoring normal bladder function, prevention of relapse of symptoms and improvement of patients’ quality of life. The literature review presents current view on the terminology, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis.

  15. Physical therapy under hypnosis for the treatment of patients with type 1 complex regional pain syndrome of the hand and wrist: Retrospective study of 20 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, J; Rongières, M; Apredoaei, C; Delclaux, S; Mansat, P

    2017-06-01

    Type 1 complex regional painful syndrome (CRPS-1) has a complex physiopathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of physical therapy under hypnotherapy to treat this condition. Twenty patients with CRPS-1 at the wrist and hand were evaluated retrospectively: 13 women and 7 men with an average age of 56 years (34-75). Thirteen patients were in the inflammatory phase and 7 in the dystrophic phase. The main endpoints were pain (VAS, analgesic use), stiffness (wrist and finger range of motion), and strength (pinch and grasp). Secondary endpoints were functional scores (QuickDASH, PWRE), patient satisfaction, return to work, and side effects. Results were satisfactory in all cases after 5.4 sessions on average. VAS decreased by 4 points, PWRE-pain by 4.1 points, and analgesic use was limited to paracetamol upon request. Finger and wrist range of motion increased and the QuickDASH decreased by 34 points, PRWE-function by 3.8 points, pinch strength increased 4 points, and grasp strength by 10 points. Return to work was possible in 80% of the cases. All patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the treatment. Physical therapy under hypnosis appears to be an effective treatment for CRPS-1 at the wrist and hand no matter the etiology. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. CT-guided stellate ganglion blockade vs. radiofrequency neurolysis in the management of refractory type I complex regional pain syndrome of the upper limb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastler, Adrian [University Hospital CHU Gabriel Montpied, Radiology Department, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Franche Comte University, I4S Laboratory-EA 4268-IFR 133, Besancon (France); CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Hopital Gabriel Montpied, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Aubry, Sebastien; Kastler, Bruno [University Hospital CHU Jean Minjoz, Radiology and Interventional Pain Unit, Besancon (France); Franche Comte University, I4S Laboratory-EA 4268-IFR 133, Besancon (France); Sailley, Nicolas; Michalakis, Demosthene [University Hospital CHU Jean Minjoz, Radiology and Interventional Pain Unit, Besancon (France); Siliman, Gaye [University Hospital CHU St Jacques, Clinical Investigation Center, Besancon (France); Gory, Guillaume [Franche Comte University, I4S Laboratory-EA 4268-IFR 133, Besancon (France); Lajoie, Jean-Louis [University Hospital CHU Jean Minjoz, Pain evaluation and Management Unit, Besancon (France)

    2013-05-15

    To describe and evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of CT-guided radiofrequency neurolysis (RFN) vs. local blockade of the stellate ganglion in the management of chronic refractory type I complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) of the upper limb. Sixty-seven patients were included in this retrospective study between 2000 and 2011. All suffered from chronic upper limb type I CRPS refractory to conventional pain therapies. Thirty-three patients underwent stellate ganglion blockade and 34 benefited from radiofrequency neurolysis of the stellate ganglion. CT guidance was used in both groups. The procedure was considered effective when pain relief was {>=}50 %, lasting for at least 2 years. Thirty-nine women (58.2 %) and 28 men (41.8 %) with a mean age of 49.5 years were included in the study. Univariate analysis performed on the blockade and RFN groups showed a significantly (P < 0.0001) higher success rate in the RFN group (67.6 %, 23/34) compared with the blockade group (21.2 %, 7/33) with an odds ratio of 7.76. CT-guided radiofrequency neurolysis of the stellate ganglion is a safe and successful treatment of chronic refractory type I CRPS of the upper limb. It appears to be more effective than stellate ganglion blockade. (orig.)

  17. Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome (MPDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mortazavi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome (MPDS is one of the most important causes of the orofacial pain. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate 40 related variables in this regard. Materials and Methods: Thirty nine patients with MPDS were evaluated in this study. Different factors including age, gender, occupation, marital status, sensitivity of masticatory muscles, maximum opening of the mouth, deviation, deflection, involvement of temporomandibular joint, habit, parafunction, malocclusion, neck pain, headache, earache and history of jaw involvement, etc were analyzed in this  evaluation. Results: In our study, 39 patients (32 females and 7 males, 20-40 years old, with the average age of 35 ± 13.32 years were studied. 51% were housewives and 74.4% were married. The most common involvements were Clicking (74.4%, pain in temporomandibular joint (54%, headache (46.2%, earache (41%, neck-pain (35.9%, trouble in the mouth opening (71.8%, malocclusion Class I (74.4%, cross bite and deep bite (25%, clenching (64.1% and involvement of masseter and lateral pterygoid muscle (84%. Conclusion: Since MPDS consists of variable symptoms, it might be very difficult to provide any definite diagnosis and treatment. Therefore the more the specialists extend their knowledge and information about this disorder, the more they will make the best decision in this regard.

  18. Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation as a Salvage Treatment for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Refractory to Dorsal Column Spinal Cord Stimulation: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ajax; Hunter, Corey W

    2017-10-01

    The efficacy of traditional spinal cord stimulation (t-SCS) tends to decay over time in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). While it has been shown that dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation is extremely effective in t-SCS-naïve patients with CRPS, its efficacy in patients who had previously failed t-SCS is unknown. Given that DRG-SCS and t-SCS target different spinal pathways, a failure with t-SCS should not automatically preclude a patient from attempting DRG-SCS. Two patients with lower extremity CRPS, previously implanted with t-SCS systems, experienced relapses in the pain despite exhaustive reprogramming. Both patients were offered DRG stimulation as a means to salvage treatment. Patient 1 reported 90% pain reduction with significant gait improvement during the DRG stimulation trial. The patient subsequently proceeded to implant and have the t-SCS implantable pulse generator explanted. Patient 2 was unable to undergo a trial with DRG-SCS because of health insurance constraints, so she elected to undergo a surgical revision of her existing system whereby a DRG-SCS system was added to the existing t-SCS to create a hybrid system with two implantable pulse generators. The patient reported an immediate improvement in pain because of the introduction of the DRG-SCS. Additionally, she was instructed to document her pain scores with each system on individually, as well as with both on-her pain scores were at the lowest with the DRG-SCS on by itself. At eight-month follow-up, both patients reported sustained pain improvement and retained their functional gains. Our case series demonstrates that a failure of t-SCS is not necessarily a failure of neurostimulation as a whole. The efficacy of DRG-SCS is independent of prior t-SCS therapy outcomes in these two patients and a history of t-SCS failure serves no predictive value in these two patients for future DRG stimulation success. Therefore, DRG-SCS can be considered as a reasonable next-step to

  19. Expression of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Endothelin-1 in Skin Tissue from Amputated Limbs of Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

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    J. George Groeneweg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Impaired microcirculation during the chronic stage of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is related to increased vasoconstriction, tissue hypoxia, and metabolic tissue acidosis in the affected limb. Endothelial dysfunction is suggested to be the main cause of diminished blood flow. The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and endothelin-1(ET-1 relative to vascular density represented by the endothelial marker CD31-immunoreactivity in the skin tissue of patients with chronic CRPS. Methods. We performed immunohistochemical staining on sections of skin specimens obtained from the amputated limbs (one arm and one leg of two patients with CRPS. Results. In comparison to proximal specimens we found an increased number of migrated endothelial cells as well as an increase of eNOS activity in distal dermis specimens. Conclusions. We found indications that endothelial dysfunction plays a role in chronic CRPS.

  20. Surgery on the affected upper extremity of patients with a history of complex regional pain syndrome: a retrospective study of 100 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, S S; Rosenthal, E A; Steinberg, R B

    2000-11-01

    Surgery on the extremity affected with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is generally avoided because of the risk that the symptoms will recur or worsen. Perioperative sympathectomy or stellate ganglion block has previously been recommended for CRPS patients requiring surgery of the affected upper extremity. We evaluated 100 patients with a history of upper extremity CRPS undergoing surgery on the affected extremity. All signs and symptoms of CRPS had resolved before surgery. After completion of the surgical procedure half of the patients (n = 50) underwent a stellate ganglion block; the other half received no intervention. The recurrence rate of CRPS was significantly lower in those patients receiving a postoperative stellate ganglion block (n = 5; 10%) compared with those receiving no intervention (n = 36; 72%). We conclude that performing a perioperative stellate ganglion block in patients with a history of CRPS can significantly reduce the recurrence rate of this disease process.

  1. Role of Underweight and Overweight in the Development of Vertebral Pain Syndrome in Systemic Osteoporosis

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    V.V. Povorozniuk

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion. Underweight in women of older age groups with systemic osteoporosis is associated with an increased risk and severity of pain syndrome in the thoracic region. Overweight promotes pain in the back, but did not affect the course of pain syndrome in this region of the spine in systemic osteoporosis.

  2. Incidence of myofascial pain syndrome in breast cancer surgery: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Lacomba, María; Mayoral del Moral, Orlando; Coperias Zazo, José Luís; Gerwin, Robert D; Goñí, Alvaro Zapico

    2010-05-01

    Pain after breast cancer therapy is a recognized complication found to have an adverse impact on patient's quality of life, increasing psychosocial distress. In recent years, case reports about myofascial pain syndrome are emerging in thoracic surgery as a cause of postsurgery pain. Myofascial pain syndrome is a regional pain syndrome characterized by myofascial trigger points in palpable taut bands of skeletal muscle that refers pain a distance, and that can cause distant motor and autonomic effects. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of myofascial pain syndrome prospectively 12 months after breast cancer surgery. Each participant was assessed preoperatively, postoperatively between day 3 and day 5, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. A physical therapist, expert in the diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome, performed follow-up assessments. Pain descriptions by the patients and pain pattern drawings in body forms guided the physical examination. The patients were not given any information concerning myofascial pain or other muscle pain syndromes. One year follow-up was completed by 116 women. Of these, 52 women developed myofascial pain syndrome (44.8%, 95% confidence interval: 35.6, 54.3). Myofascial pain syndrome is a common source of pain in women undergoing breast cancer surgery that includes axillary lymph node dissection at least during the first year after surgery. Myofascial pain syndrome is one potential cause of chronic pain in breast cancer survivors who have undergone this kind of surgery.

  3. A Comparative Pilot Study to Evaluate the Adjunctive Role of Levosulpride with Trigger Point Injection Therapy in the Management of Myofascial Pain Syndrome of Orofacial Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pranav; Singh, Virendra; Sethi, Sujata; Kumar, Arun

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of therapy with levosulpride combined with conventional trigger point injection therapy in terms of pain and depression in the chronic myofascial pain syndrome patients. This was a comparative prospective study in which subjects with at least one trigger point and symptom duration of at least 3 months were recruited and randomized into two groups. Group A subjects received trigger point injections with 0.5 % bupivacaine and tablet levosulpride and group B received trigger point injections and a placebo. Subjects were assessed for pain with visual analog scale (VAS) and depression with Beck's depression inventory (BDI) at the follow-up periods of 1, 4, 6 and 12 weeks. The treatment effect was measured in terms of mean difference of BDI and VAS scores at various studied intervals from the baseline values. The sample was composed of 15 subjects with 8 in group A (6 females and 2 males, with a mean age of 41.88 ± 15.13 years, disease duration of 12.37 ± 16.11 months) and 7 in group B (6 females and 1 male, with a mean age of 43.86 ± 12.34 years, disease duration of 9.64 ± 9.34 months). The mean baseline VAS score and BDI score was 6.75 ± 1.03 in group A and 6.86 ± 1.06 in group B and 24.25 ± 10.20 in group A and 24.43 ± 11.16 in group B respectively. The mean difference of VAS scores at 12th week interval from the baseline values was highly significant. Although the mean difference of VAS scores at all the other intervals and mean difference of BDI scores at all the intervals was statistically nonsignificant, there was improvement in the mean differences at all the follow-up intervals in terms of both pain as well as depression. The combined therapy with conventional trigger point injection and levosulpride as antidepressant significantly reduce pain and depression in the study subjects suffering from chronic myofascial pain with moderate to severe depression in the orofacial region.

  4. Effects of serum immunoglobulins from patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) on depolarisation-induced calcium transients in isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Joanne M; Dharmalingam, Backialakshmi; Marsh, Stephen J; Thompson, Victoria; Goebel, Andreas; Brown, David A

    2016-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is thought to have an auto-immune component. One such target recently proposed from the effects of auto-immune IgGs on Ca(2+) transients in cardiac myocytes and cell lines is the α1-adrenoceptor. We have tested whether such IgGs exerted comparable effects on nociceptive sensory neurons isolated from rat dorsal root ganglia. Depolarisation-induced [Ca(2+)]i transients were generated by applying 30 mM KCl for 2 min and monitored by Fura-2 fluorescence imaging. No IgGs tested (including 3 from CRPS patients) had any significant effect on these [Ca(2+)]i transients. However, IgG from one CRPS patient consistently and significantly reduced the K(+)-induced response of cells that had been pre-incubated for 24h with a mixture of inflammatory mediators (1 μM histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, bradykinin and PGE2). Since this pre-incubation also appeared to induce a comparable inhibitory response to the α1-agonist phenylephrine, this is compatible with the α1-adrenoceptor as a target for CRPS auto-immunity. A mechanism whereby this might enhance pain is suggested. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Co-creation of information leaflets to meet the support needs of people living with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) through innovative use of wiki technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodham, Karen; Gavin, Jeff; Coulson, Neil; Watts, Leon

    2016-01-01

    People living with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) experience frustration with the lack of knowledge and understanding of CRPS as a pain condition. We report on our attempt to address this issue. People living with CRPS taking part in a larger study were invited to co-construct a CRPS wiki page that addressed the areas in which they had experienced the most difficulty. A blank wiki page was set up for participants to populate with issues they felt needed to be raised and addressed. Participants failed to engage with the wiki technology. We modified our procedure and completed an inductive analysis of a sister-forum which participants were using as part of the larger study. Six issues of importance were identified. We used the discussion forum threads to populate the themes. Due to a continued lack of engagement with the wiki technology, the team decided to create a suite of leaflets which were piloted with delegates at a CRPS patient conference. Future work should be mindful of the extent to which patients are able and willing to share their experiences through such technology. Striking the balance between patient-endorsed and researcher-driven co-creation of such material is imperative.

  6. Neuroimmunological mechanisms of chronic pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Vyshlova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the mechanisms of chronic low back pain. Three pathophysiological mechanisms: nociceptive, neurogenic (neuropathic, and psychogenic are noted to be involved in the development of pain syndrome. The role of cellular and molecular changes in the posterior horn and in the somatosensory dysregulated mechanism of neuropathic pain is shown. Immunological processes, including neurohumoral (serotoninergic and hormonal (sex hormones and specific proteins ones, play an important role in the development of pain. The generalization and further study of these mechanisms are embodied in approaches to therapy for pain syndromes and hence these require analysis and further investigation. 

  7. Effect of a new formulation of micronized and ultramicronized N-palmitoylethanolamine in a tibia fracture mouse model of complex regional pain syndrome.

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    Roberta Fusco

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-I is a disabling and frequently chronic condition. It involves the extremities and is a frequent consequence of distal tibia and radius fractures. The inflamed appearance of the affected CRPS-I limb suggests that local production of inflammatory mediators may be implicated in the ensuing etiology. A rodent tibia fracture model, characterized by inflammation, chronic unilateral hindlimb warmth, edema, protein extravasation, allodynia and hyperalgesia resembles the clinical features of patients with acute CRPS-I. N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA, a member of the family of naturally-occurring N-acylethanolamines, is well-known for its ability to modulate inflammatory processes and regulate pain sensitivity. However, the large particle size and lipidic nature of PEA may limit its bioavailability and solubility when given orally. Micronized formulations are frequently used to enhance the dissolution rate of drug and reduce its variability of absorption when orally administered. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a formulation of micronized and ultramicronized PEA (PEA-MPS, given orally in a mouse model of CRPS-I. CD-1 male mice were subjected to distal tibia fracture and divided into two groups: control and treated with PEA-MPS (PEA micronized 300 mg/kg and ultramicronized 600 mg/kg. Sensibility to pain was monitored in all mice throughout the course of the experiment. Twenty-eight days after tibia fracture induction animals were sacrificed and biochemical parameters evaluated. The PEA-MPS-treated group showed an improved healing process, fracture recovery and fibrosis score. PEA-MPS administration decreased mast cell density, nerve growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and cytokine expression. This treatment also reduced (poly-ADPribose polymerase activation, peroxynitrite formation and apoptosis. Our results suggest that PEA-MPS may be a new therapeutic strategy in the treatment of CRPS-I.

  8. Bone scintigraphy in painful os peroneum syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Johanne B; Jensen, Frank K; Falborg, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    Lateral foot pain may be caused by various entities including the painful os peroneum syndrome. A case of a 68-year-old man is presented, who experienced a trauma with distortion of the right foot. Nine months later, he still had pain in the lateral part of the right foot. Bone scintigraphy showe...

  9. Shared genetic factors underlie chronic pain syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vehof, Jelle; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Lachance, Genevieve; Hammond, Christopher J.; Williams, Frances M. K.

    Chronic pain syndromes (CPS) are highly prevalent in the general population, and increasingly the evidence points to a common etiological pathway. Using a large cohort of twins (n = 8564) characterized for chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CWP), chronic pelvic pain (PP), migraine (MIG), dry

  10. Myofascial pain syndromes and their evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giamberardino, Maria Adele; Affaitati, Giannapia; Fabrizio, Alessandra; Costantini, Raffaele

    2011-04-01

    This article reviews the available published knowledge about the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of myofascial pain syndromes from trigger points. Furthermore, epidemiologic data and clinical characteristics of these syndromes are described, including a detailed account of sensory changes that occur at both painful and nonpainful sites and their utility for diagnosis and differential diagnosis; the identification/diagnostic criteria available so far are critically reviewed. The key role played by myofascial trigger points as activating factors of pain symptoms in other algogenic conditions--headache, fibromyalgia and visceral disease--is also addressed. Current hypotheses on the pathophysiology of myofascial pain syndromes are presented, including mechanisms of formation and persistence of primary and secondary trigger points as well as mechanisms beyond referred pain and hyperalgesia from trigger points. Conventional and most recent therapeutic options for these syndromes are described, and their validity is discussed on the basis of results from clinical controlled studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pharmacotherapy for patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintjes, E; Berger, M Y; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A; Bernsen, R M D; Verhaar, J A N; Koes, B W

    2004-01-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is common among adolescents and young adults. It is characterised by pain behind or around the patella and crepitations, provoked by ascending or descending stairs, squatting, prolonged sitting with flexed knees, running and cycling. The symptoms impede function in daily activities or sports. Pharmacological treatments focus on reducing pain symptoms (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), glucocorticosteroids), or restoring the assumed underlying pathology (compounds containing glucosamine to stimulate cartilage metabolism, anabolic steroids to increase bone density of the patella and build up supporting muscles). In studies, drugs are usually applied in addition to exercises aimed at building up supporting musculature. This review aims to summarise the evidence of effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in reducing anterior knee pain and improving knee function in people with PFPS. We searched the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group and Cochrane Rehabilitation and Related Therapies Field trials registers, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2003), PEDro (up to January 2004), MEDLINE (1966 to January 2004), EMBASE (1988 to January 2004), and CINAHL (1982 to January 2004). Controlled trials (randomised or not) comparing pharmacotherapy with placebo, different types of pharmacotherapy, or pharmacotherapy to other therapies for people with PFPS. The literature search yielded 780 publications. Eight trials were included, of which three were of high quality. Data were analysed qualitatively using best evidence synthesis, because meta-analysis was impeded by differences in route of administration of drugs, care programs and outcome measures. Four trials (163 participants) studied the effect of NSAIDs. Aspirin compared to placebo in a high quality trial produced no significant differences in clinical symptoms and signs. Naproxen produced significant short term pain reduction when

  12. CONTINUOUS SENSORY ANALGESIA HELPS THE DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS AND THE TREATMENT OF COMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME (CRPS/RSD

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    Krunoslav Margić

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. CRPS/RSD still offers more questionsthen answers. The initial events and pathophysiology are unknown,the treatment is unsuccessful and the results are poor.The authors have transmitted their experiences with continuoussensory analgesia of brachial plexus in the treatment ofheavy injured hands to the treatment of CRPS. Efficient analgesia,control of vegetative nerve system and painless exercisesare of outmost importance in the treatment of CRPS.Patients and methods. From 1996 to 1998 we have used continuoussensory analgesia in the treatment of 8 patients withCRPS of the upper extremity. All of them were treated fewmonths after injury.Results. Two to four years after treatment six of eight havebeen ranged as good result (only temporary pain judged onsubjective pain scale as 2; ROM of wrist higher than 50%of normal, lack of 30° of ROM of fingers; hand and key gripgreater than 50% of normal hand.

  13. Cutaneous noradrenaline measured by microdialysis in complex regional pain syndrome during whole-body cooling and heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Astrid Juhl; Gierthmühlen, Janne; Petersen, Lars J.

    2013-01-01

    and in healthy volunteers. Seven patients and nine controls completed whole-body cooling (sympathetic activation) and heating (sympathetic inhibition) induced by a whole-body thermal suit with simultaneous measurement of the skin temperature, skin blood flow, and release of dermal noradrenaline. CRPS pain...... is followed by an up-regulation of alpha-adrenoceptors in chronic CRPS leading to denervation supersensitivity to catecholamines. This exploratory study examined the effect of cutaneous sympathetic activation and inhibition on cutaneous noradrenaline release, vascular reactivity, and pain in CRPS patients...... and the perceived skin temperature were measured every 5min during thermal exposure, while noradrenaline was determined from cutaneous microdialysate collected every 20min throughout the study period. Cooling induced peripheral sympathetic activation in patients and controls with significant increases in dermal...

  14. Characterization of Whole Body Pain in Urological Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome at Baseline: A MAPP Research Network Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, H Henry; Jemielita, Thomas; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Bradley, Catherine S; Naliboff, Bruce; Williams, David A; Gereau, Robert W; Kreder, Karl; Clemens, J Quentin; Rodriguez, Larissa V; Krieger, John N; Farrar, John T; Robinson, Nancy; Landis, J Richard

    2017-09-01

    We characterized the location and spatial distribution of whole body pain in patients with urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome using a body map. We also compared the severity of urinary symptoms, pelvic pain, nonpelvic pain and psychosocial health among patients with different pain patterns. A total of 233 women and 191 men with urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome enrolled in a multicenter, 1-year observational study completed a battery of baseline measures, including a body map describing the location of pain during the last week. Participants were categorized with pelvic pain if they reported pain in the abdomen and pelvis only. Participants who reported pain beyond the pelvis were further divided into 2 subgroups based on the number of broader body regions affected by pain, including an intermediate group with 1 or 2 additional regions outside the pelvis and a widespread pain group with 3 to 7 additional regions. Of the 424 enrolled patients 25% reported pelvic pain only and 75% reported pain beyond the pelvis, of whom 38% reported widespread pain. Participants with a greater number of pain locations had greater nonpelvic pain severity (p pelvic pain and urinary symptom severity was observed according to increasing pain distribution. Three-quarters of the men and women with urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome reported pain outside the pelvis. Widespread pain was associated with greater severity of nonpelvic pain symptoms, poorer psychosocial health and worse quality of life but not with worse pelvic pain or urinary symptoms. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Study for Reliability of Interpretation of the Three Phase Bone Scintigraphy in Patients with Post-traumatic Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

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    Park, Jung Mi [Bucheon Hospital Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Jung [National Health Insurance Corporation Ilsan Hospital, Koyang (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Seung Hyun [National Cancer Center, Koyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Taek [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    We performed this study to evaluate reliability on interpretation of three phase bone scintigraphy (TPBS) in patients with post-traumatic complex regional pain syndrome (PT-CRPS). Based on International Association for the Study of Pain guideline in 1994, 34 patients with PT-CRPS were selected for this study. Two nuclear medicine physicians evaluated identical TPBS according to the uptake pattern, extent and intensity of the lesion, and their agreements (kappa values) were analysed. The final diagnosis based on arbitrary criteria of each physician were compared with those obtained by the criteria for PT-CRPS established in this study, which are hyperactivity on all phases (criteria 1), hyperactivity of whole joints on delayed phase (criteria 2), and hyperactivity of either whole or focal joints on delayed phase (criteria 3). Intra-observer agreements were good for uptake pattern, intensity, and extent on TPBS. Inter-observer agreements were also good, except extent on blood pool phase (0.55). The inter-observer agreements on final diagnosis improved when criteria 1-3 were applied (0.77-0.88), compared to when physician's own criteria were used (0.63). Those also improved from 0.29 to 0.47-0.82 for acute stage, and from 0.37 to 1.0 for chronic stage. The sensitivities of chronic stage were relatively lower to those of acute stage. Inter-observer's variations in diagnosis of the patients with PT-CRPS using TPBS were observed. These results were attributed to different criteria set by observers. In order to improve agreement on interpretation of TPBS, common positive criteria should be established, especially considering uptake pattern and clinical stages.

  16. Evaluation of the structural quality of bone in a case of progressive osteoporosis complicating a Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) of the upper limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmi, F; Mazzoleni, G

    2014-01-01

    Densitometry is considered to be the gold standard in bone quality assessment. However, since its introduction, the medical community has been aware that mineral density is only one of the factors that influence the bone risk of fracture, which also depends on the bone's trabecular arrangement and, in particular, on the trabecular architecture's load bearing capabilities. At the University of Trieste, in recent years, a test has been developed that simulates the application of compressive loads on trabecular architecture's reconstructions extracted from digital radiographs. In this work, the test is described, and the results obtained by applying the appraisal in a particular case of severe osteoporosis of the hand, complicating a Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type II, are presented. The test was able to quantify the pathological alterations of bone micro-architecture by means of a Structural Index (SI), which was absolutely significant and relevant to the clinical situation. Important research and clinical opportunities of application of the test include accurate evaluation of osteoporotic bone diseases, careful clinical follow-up and monitoring of responses to therapeutic approaches, and, prospectively, reliable quantification of biological damage (forensic field). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Elevated Plasma Levels of sIL-2R in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Pathogenic Role for T-Lymphocytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronks, Dirk L.; Dik, Willem A.; Schreurs, Marco W. J.

    2017-01-01

    The immune system has long been thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). However, not much is known about the role of the immune system and specifically T-cells in the onset and maintenance of this disease. In this study, we aimed to evaluate T-cell activity in CRPS by comparing blood soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels between CRPS patients and healthy controls. CRPS patients had statistically significant elevated levels of sIL-2R as compared to healthy controls (median sIL-2R levels: 4151 pg/ml (Q3 − Q1 = 5731 pg/ml − 3546 pg/ml) versus 1907 pg/ml (Q3 − Q1: 2206 pg/ml − 1374 pg/ml), p CRPS patients and healthy controls with a high sensitivity (90%) and specificity (89.5%). Our finding indicates increased T-cell activity in patients with CRPS. This finding is of considerable relevance as it could point towards a T-cell-mediated inflammatory process in this disease. This could pave the way for new anti-inflammatory therapies in the treatment of CRPS. Furthermore, sIL-2R could be a promising new marker for determining inflammatory disease activity in CRPS. PMID:28634419

  18. Diagnosis of post-traumatic complex regional pain syndrome of the hand: current role of sympathetic skin response and three-phase bone scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankaj, A; Kotwal, P P; Mittal, R; Deepak, K K; Bal, C S

    2006-12-01

    To evaluate the role of sympathetic skin response (SSR) and three-phase bone scintigraphy (TPBS) in the diagnosis of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). 60 patients with CRPS of the hand were recruited. TPBS was performed using a bolus injection of 20 mCi of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate in an antecubital vein and blood flow (first phase) image, blood pool (second phase) image, and delayed (third phase) image obtained. Patients were considered to have CRPS when the blood pool and blood flow images showed diffuse asymmetric uptake, or when the delayed image indicated increased asymmetric periarticular uptake. SSR was measured simultaneously in the affected and unaffected hands. Standard surface electromyogram disc electrodes were applied to the palm and dorsum of both hands. Electrical stimuli were applied to the skin at the base of little and ring fingers of the unaffected hand. Patients were considered abnormal when response was absent or the peak-to-peak amplitude was CRPS during the initial stages, but not in late cases. SSR can be used to document the sympathetic dysfunction in cases having an associated sweating abnormality and may have some diagnostic value in late cases of CRPS, when TPBS is less reliable.

  19. Thermography imaging during static and controlled thermoregulation in complex regional pain syndrome type 1: diagnostic value and involvement of the central sympathetic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehof, Sjoerd P; Huygen, Frank J P M; van der Weerd, Rick W P; Westra, Mirjam; Zijlstra, Freek J

    2006-05-12

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 (CRPS1) is a clinical diagnosis based on criteria describing symptoms of the disease. The main aim of the present study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of calculation methods used to assess thermographic images (infrared imaging) obtained during temperature provocation. The secondary objective was to obtain information about the involvement of the sympathetic system in CRPS1. We studied 12 patients in whom CRPS1 was diagnosed according to the criteria of Bruehl. High and low whole body cooling and warming induced and reduced sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity. The degree of vasoconstrictor activity in both hands was monitored using a videothermograph. The sensitivity and specificity of the calculation methods used to assess the thermographic images were calculated. The temperature difference between the hands in the CRPS patients increases significantly when the sympathetic system is provoked. At both the maximum and minimum vasoconstriction no significant differences were found in fingertip temperatures between both hands. The majority of CRPS1 patients do not show maximal obtainable temperature differences between the involved and contralateral extremity at room temperature (static measurement). During cold and warm temperature challenges this temperature difference increases significantly. As a result a higher sensitivity and specificity could be achieved in the diagnosis of CRPS1. These findings suggest that the sympathetic efferent system is involved in CRPS1.

  20. Increased endothelin-1 and diminished nitric oxide levels in blister fluids of patients with intermediate cold type complex regional pain syndrome type 1

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    Niehof Sjoerd

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1 pro-inflammatory mediators and vascular changes play an important role in the sustained development and outcome of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of vasoactive substances endothelin-1 (ET-1 and nitric oxide (NO during early chronic CRPS1. Methods Included were 29 patients with CRPS 1 who were diagnosed during the acute stage of their disease and observed during follow-up visits. Disease activity and impairment were determined and artificial suction blisters were made on the CRPS1 and the contralateral extremities for measurements of IL-6, TNF-α, ET-1 and nitrate/nitrite (NOx. Results The levels of IL-6, TNF-α and ET-1 in blister fluid in the CRPS1 extremity versus the contralateral extremity were significantly increased and correlated with each other, whereas NOx levels were decreased. Conclusion The NOx/ET-1 ratio appears to be disturbed in the intermediate stage of CRPS, resulting in vasoconstriction and consequently in a diminished tissue blood distribution.

  1. Thermography imaging during static and controlled thermoregulation in complex regional pain syndrome type 1: diagnostic value and involvement of the central sympathetic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westra Mirjam

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 (CRPS1 is a clinical diagnosis based on criteria describing symptoms of the disease. The main aim of the present study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of calculation methods used to assess thermographic images (infrared imaging obtained during temperature provocation. The secondary objective was to obtain information about the involvement of the sympathetic system in CRPS1. Methods We studied 12 patients in whom CRPS1 was diagnosed according to the criteria of Bruehl. High and low whole body cooling and warming induced and reduced sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity. The degree of vasoconstrictor activity in both hands was monitored using a videothermograph. The sensitivity and specificity of the calculation methods used to assess the thermographic images were calculated. Results The temperature difference between the hands in the CRPS patients increases significantly when the sympathetic system is provoked. At both the maximum and minimum vasoconstriction no significant differences were found in fingertip temperatures between both hands. Conclusion The majority of CRPS1 patients do not show maximal obtainable temperature differences between the involved and contralateral extremity at room temperature (static measurement. During cold and warm temperature challenges this temperature difference increases significantly. As a result a higher sensitivity and specificity could be achieved in the diagnosis of CRPS1. These findings suggest that the sympathetic efferent system is involved in CRPS1.

  2. Characterization of Whole Body Pain in Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome at Baseline – A MAPP Research Network Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, H. Henry; Jemielita, Thomas; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Bradley, Catherine S.; Naliboff, Bruce; Williams, David A.; Gereau, Robert W.; Kreder, Karl; Clemens, J. Quentin; Rodriguez, Larissa V.; Krieger, John N.; Farrar, John T.; Robinson, Nancy; Landis, J. Richard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We characterized the location and spatial distribution of whole body pain among patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) using a body map; and compared the severity of urinary symptoms, pelvic pain, non-pelvic pain, and psychosocial health among patients with different pain patterns. Methods 233 women and 191 men with UCPPS enrolled in a multi-center, one-year observational study completed a battery of baseline measures, including a body map describing the location of pain during the past week. Participants were categorized as having “pelvic pain only” if they reported pain in the abdomen and pelvis only. Participants who reported pain beyond the pelvis were further divided into two sub-groups based on the number of broader body regions affected by pain: an “intermediate” group (1–2 additional regions outside the pelvis) and a “widespread pain” group (3–7 additional regions). Results Of the 424 enrolled patients 25% reported pelvic pain only, and 75% reported pain beyond the pelvis of which 38% reported widespread pain. Participants with greater number of pain locations had greater non-pelvic pain severity (ppelvic pain and urinary symptom severity were observed by increasing pain distribution. Conclusions Three-quarters of men and women with UCPPS reported pain outside the pelvis. Widespread pain was associated with greater severity of non-pelvic pain symptoms, poorer psychosocial health and worse quality of life, but not worse pelvic pain or urinary symptoms. PMID:28373134

  3. Central poststroke pain: somatosensory abnormalities and the presence of associated myofascial pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Central post-stroke pain (CPSP) is a neuropathic pain syndrome associated with somatosensory abnormalities due to central nervous system lesion following a cerebrovascular insult. Post-stroke pain (PSP) refers to a broader range of clinical conditions leading to pain after stroke, but not restricted to CPSP, including other types of pain such as myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), painful shoulder, lumbar and dorsal pain, complex regional pain syndrome, and spasticity-related pain. Despite its recognition as part of the general PSP diagnostic possibilities, the prevalence of MPS has never been characterized in patients with CPSP patients. We performed a cross-sectional standardized clinical and radiological evaluation of patients with definite CPSP in order to assess the presence of other non-neuropathic pain syndromes, and in particular, the role of myofascial pain syndrome in these patients. Methods CPSP patients underwent a standardized sensory and motor neurological evaluation, and were classified according to stroke mechanism, neurological deficits, presence and profile of MPS. The Visual Analogic Scale (VAS), McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), and Beck Depression Scale (BDS) were filled out by all participants. Results Forty CPSP patients were included. Thirty-six (90.0%) had one single ischemic stroke. Pain presented during the first three months after stroke in 75.0%. Median pain intensity was 10 (5 to 10). There was no difference in pain intensity among the different lesion site groups. Neuropathic pain was continuous-ongoing in 34 (85.0%) patients and intermittent in the remainder. Burning was the most common descriptor (70%). Main aggravating factors were contact to cold (62.5%). Thermo-sensory abnormalities were universal. MPS was diagnosed in 27 (67.5%) patients and was more common in the supratentorial extra-thalamic group (P pain questionnaires and scales scores. Importantly, CPSP patients with and without MPS did not differ in pain intensity

  4. Impingement syndrome and pain of shoulder joint

    OpenAIRE

    Švingrová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Name: Eva Švingrová Supervisor: Mgr. Bc. Milena Valenová Opponent: Title of bachelor thesis: Impingement syndrom and pain of shoulder joint ABSTRACT The topic of this thesis was focused on the characteristics, course and the treatment of the impingement syndrome and the other kinds of shoulder joint pain. The aim was to objectify the data from the therapy using goniometric measurements and demonstrate the possitive effect of the physiotherapy on the increased range of movement and decreased p...

  5. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS type-1) in an Adolescent Following Extravasation of Dextrose Containing Fluid-an Underdiagnosed Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Asish; Bhattarai, Balkrishna; Biswas, Binay K; Khatiwada, Sindhu

    2011-06-01

    Due to its complex pathophysiology and wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, the diagnosis of CRPS is often missed in the early stage by primary care physicians. After being treated by a primary care physician for 5 months for chronic cellulitis, a 16-year-old girl was referred to our hospital with features of type-1 CRPS of the right upper extremity. Inability to diagnose early caused prolonged suffering to the girl with all the consequence of CRPS. The patient responded well with marked functional recovery from multimodal therapy. Ability to distinguish CRPS from other pain conditions, referral for specialty care at the appropriate time and full awareness of this condition and its clinical features among various healthcare professionals are essential in reducing patient suffering and stopping its progression towards difficult-to-treat situations.

  6. Painful bruising syndrome presenting as Persistent haematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonia Ajay

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year old hysterical woman had persistent gross haematuria. She started developing painful ecchymosis 4 years after the onset of haematuria. The diagnosis of painful bruising syndrome was confirmed by intracutaneous sensitivity test and the patient responded excellently to cyproheptadine.

  7. Painful bruising syndrome presenting as Persistent haematuria

    OpenAIRE

    Poonia Ajay; Kalla G; Agrawal R; Kochar D

    1992-01-01

    A 35-year old hysterical woman had persistent gross haematuria. She started developing painful ecchymosis 4 years after the onset of haematuria. The diagnosis of painful bruising syndrome was confirmed by intracutaneous sensitivity test and the patient responded excellently to cyproheptadine.

  8. Central poststroke pain: somatosensory abnormalities and the presence of associated myofascial pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Rogério Adas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central post-stroke pain (CPSP is a neuropathic pain syndrome associated with somatosensory abnormalities due to central nervous system lesion following a cerebrovascular insult. Post-stroke pain (PSP refers to a broader range of clinical conditions leading to pain after stroke, but not restricted to CPSP, including other types of pain such as myofascial pain syndrome (MPS, painful shoulder, lumbar and dorsal pain, complex regional pain syndrome, and spasticity-related pain. Despite its recognition as part of the general PSP diagnostic possibilities, the prevalence of MPS has never been characterized in patients with CPSP patients. We performed a cross-sectional standardized clinical and radiological evaluation of patients with definite CPSP in order to assess the presence of other non-neuropathic pain syndromes, and in particular, the role of myofascial pain syndrome in these patients. Methods CPSP patients underwent a standardized sensory and motor neurological evaluation, and were classified according to stroke mechanism, neurological deficits, presence and profile of MPS. The Visual Analogic Scale (VAS, McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ, and Beck Depression Scale (BDS were filled out by all participants. Results Forty CPSP patients were included. Thirty-six (90.0% had one single ischemic stroke. Pain presented during the first three months after stroke in 75.0%. Median pain intensity was 10 (5 to 10. There was no difference in pain intensity among the different lesion site groups. Neuropathic pain was continuous-ongoing in 34 (85.0% patients and intermittent in the remainder. Burning was the most common descriptor (70%. Main aggravating factors were contact to cold (62.5%. Thermo-sensory abnormalities were universal. MPS was diagnosed in 27 (67.5% patients and was more common in the supratentorial extra-thalamic group (P Conclusions The presence of MPS is not an exception after stroke and may present in association with CPSP

  9. BACK PAIN SYNDROME: MODERN APPROACHES TO THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Shostak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe management tactics in patients with back pain syndrome and to give recommendations for the choice of non-drug and drug treatments (with main drug groups and the duration of a treatment cycle. Materials and methods. The paper considers the basic mechanisms and causes of back pain syndromes (dorsalgias. It introduces the concept “dorsopathy” that characterizes the appearance of nonvisceral pain syndrome in the extremities and trunk, which is caused by degenerative processes in the vertebral motion segment. The authors provide a description of spondyloarthrosis, one of the main degenerative diseases of the spine, and give current principles of treatment for the major symptoms of the disease. Results. The main goal of treatment in patients with back pain is to relieve pain syndrome. Selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the medicaments of choice. Conclusion. This paper covers current approaches to managing patients with spondyloarthrosis and gives recommendations regarding the treatment of the major disease manifestation – pain syndrome

  10. Does vitamin C prevent the occurrence of complex regional pain syndrome in patients with extremity trauma requiring surgery?

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Cabrolier; Marcelo Molina

    2015-01-01

    El síndrome de dolor regional complejo es una patología neuroinflamatoria que afecta tanto al sistema nervioso central como al periférico, y se caracteriza por dolor desproporcionado en relación al trauma experimentado por el paciente. Se ha planteado que el uso de vitamina C podría prevenir la aparición de este síndrome en pacientes con trauma y cirugía de extremidades. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos dos ...

  11. Does vitamin C prevent the occurrence of complex regional pain syndrome in patients with extremity trauma requiring surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cabrolier

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de dolor regional complejo es una patología neuroinflamatoria que afecta tanto al sistema nervioso central como al periférico, y se caracteriza por dolor desproporcionado en relación al trauma experimentado por el paciente. Se ha planteado que el uso de vitamina C podría prevenir la aparición de este síndrome en pacientes con trauma y cirugía de extremidades. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos dos revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen sólo un estudio controlado aleatorizado. Realizamos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Concluimos que existe incertidumbre sobre si la vitamina C podría ser útil en la prevención del síndrome de dolor regional complejo en estos pacientes porque la certeza de la evidencia es muy baja.

  12. [Pain, from symptom to syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Virginie

    2017-05-01

    Acute pain is a symptom enabling us to implement a response when faced with an attack. Chronic pain is complex and multifactorial. The care of the patient by a multidisciplinary team comprises the diagnosis of the pain and the putting in place of a treatment for each of its components. This includes physical reconditioning, adaptation strategies and work on the psychological elements relating to the representation of the pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Nonspecificity of Chronic Soft Tissue Pain Syndromes

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    Eldon Tunks

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent (or chronic pain occurs with a prevalence of about 10% in the adult population, and chronic soft tissue pain is especially problematic. Criteria for diagnosis of these soft tissue pain disorders appear to suffer from specificity problems, even though they appear to be sensitive in distinguishing normal from soft tissue pain sufferers. A few decades ago the term 'neuraesthenia' was used as a diagnosis in individuals who now would probably be diagnosed as suffering from fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue and anxiety disorders with fatigue. Soft tissue pain provokes skepticism, especially among third-party payers, and controversy among clinicians. Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated sex differences in the prevalence of widespread pain and multiple tender points, which are distributed variably throughout the adult population and tend to be correlated with subjective symptoms. Although there is a tendency for these syndromes to persist, follow-up studies show that they tend to vary in extent and sometimes show remissions over longer follow-up, casting doubt about the distinctions between chronic diffuse pains and localized chronic soft tissue pains. Because both accidents and soft tissue pains are relatively prevalent problems, the possibility of chance coincidence of accident and chronic soft tissue pain in an individual creates the need to be cautious in attributing these syndromes to specific accidents in medicolegal situations. At the same time, the available evidence does not support a generally dismissive attitude towards these patients.

  14. Fibromyalgia and Myofascial Pain Syndrome - A Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H C Chandola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain and fatigue associated to the musculoskeletal system are among the leading causes of patients to visit their physicians and nearly one-third of such patients suffer from fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS is a chronic debilitating disorder characterized by widespread pain with tenderness in specific areas, leading to fatigue, headache and sleep disorder. Myofaseial Pain Syndrome (NIPS, is also a localized musculoskeletal pain producing condition whose diagnostic and management criteria differ from FMS but still considered by many only a subtype of FMS.Till date no exact cause has been held responsible for these painful conditions, therefore treatment of these disorders is always a challenge. The therapies are not precise but multimodal including pharmacological and alternative ap-proaches. This article describes the existing knowledge pertaining to these conditions in regard of causative factors diagnosis and management.

  15. Multicenter study on the asymmetry of skin temperature in complex regional pain syndrome: An examination of temperature distribution and symptom duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chan Woo; Nahm, Francis Sahngun; Choi, Eunjoo; Lee, Pyung-Bok; Jang, In-Ki; Lee, Chul Joong; Kim, Yong Chul; Lee, Sang Chul

    2016-12-01

    According to the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) and American Medical Association (AMA), the diagnostic criteria for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) require the presence of skin temperature asymmetry. In CRPS, it is generally accepted that the temperature of skin of affected limbs changes from warm to cold; however, in our clinical practice, we have experienced many cases with different thermographic characteristics. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective multicenter study that examined the distribution of skin temperature in patients with CRPS and skin temperature asymmetry versus symptom duration.Patients diagnosed with type 1 or 2 CRPS were recruited. After confirming CRPS according to the IASP diagnostic criteria, infrared thermographic images were evaluated for skin temperature differences (ΔT) between the affected and unaffected limbs.A total of 296 patients with CRPS were included in this study. The median duration of symptoms was 6 months and the mean ± standard deviation of ΔT was -0.72 ± 1.65°C. A skin temperature difference between bilateral limbs (|ΔT|) of 1°C or less was seen in 131 patients (44.3%); thus, these 131 patients did not meet the IASP criteria for CRPS. Further, cool skin temperature was not observed in 88 patients (29.7%), meaning that these patients did not meet the AMA criteria for CRPS. There was no correlation between the symptom duration and ΔT (Spearman's rho = -0.075, P = 0.196) and there was no significant difference in the average ΔT among the 4 symptom duration groups (0-3 months, 4-6 months, 7-12 months, >12 months, P = 0.08).In conclusion, a considerable proportion of the patients that participated in this study did not meet the thermal criteria set forth by the IASP and AMA. Further, there was no correlation between symptom duration and skin temperature difference.

  16. Elevated Plasma Levels of sIL-2R in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Pathogenic Role for T-Lymphocytes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna D. Bharwani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune system has long been thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. However, not much is known about the role of the immune system and specifically T-cells in the onset and maintenance of this disease. In this study, we aimed to evaluate T-cell activity in CRPS by comparing blood soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R levels between CRPS patients and healthy controls. CRPS patients had statistically significant elevated levels of sIL-2R as compared to healthy controls (median sIL-2R levels: 4151 pg/ml (Q3 − Q1 = 5731 pg/ml − 3546 pg/ml versus 1907 pg/ml (Q3 − Q1: 2206 pg/ml − 1374 pg/ml, p<0.001, resp.. Furthermore, sIL-2R level seems to be a good discriminator between CRPS patients and healthy controls with a high sensitivity (90% and specificity (89.5%. Our finding indicates increased T-cell activity in patients with CRPS. This finding is of considerable relevance as it could point towards a T-cell-mediated inflammatory process in this disease. This could pave the way for new anti-inflammatory therapies in the treatment of CRPS. Furthermore, sIL-2R could be a promising new marker for determining inflammatory disease activity in CRPS.

  17. Oxidative stress in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS): no systemically elevated levels of malondialdehyde, F2-isoprostanes and 8OHdG in a selected sample of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sigrid G L; Perez, Roberto S G M; Nouta, Jan; Zuurmond, Wouter W A; Scheffer, Peter G

    2013-04-10

    Exaggerated inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). However, studies assessing markers for oxidative stress in CRPS patients are limited. In this study, markers for lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde and F2-isoprostanes) and DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine) were measured in nine patients (mean age 50.1 ± 17.1 years) with short term CRPS-1 (median 3 months) and nine age and sex matched healthy volunteers (mean age 49.3 ± 16.8 years) to assess and compare the level of oxidative stress. No differences were found in plasma between CRPS patients and healthy volunteers for malondialdehyde (5.2 ± 0.9 µmol/L vs. 5.4 ± 0.5 µmol/L) F2-isoprostanes (83.9 ± 18.7 pg/mL vs. 80.5 ± 12.3 pg/mL) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (92.6 ± 25.5 pmol/L vs. 86.9 ± 19.0 pmol/L). Likewise, in urine, no differences were observed between CRPS patients and healthy volunteers for F2-isoprostanes (117 ng/mmol, IQR 54.5-124.3 vs. 85 ng/mmol, IQR 55.5-110) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (1.4 ± 0.7 nmol/mmol vs. 1.4 ± 0.5 nmol/mmol). Our data show no elevation of systemic markers of oxidative stress in CRPS patients compared to matched healthy volunteers. Future research should focus on local sampling methods of oxidative stress with adequate patient selection based on CRPS phenotype and lifestyle.

  18. Usefulness of bone scintigraphy for the diagnosis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1: A systematic review and Bayesian meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M Wertli

    Full Text Available Since 2007, the Budapest criteria are recommended for the diagnosis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS 1. The usefulness of bone scintigraphy (BS, index test for the diagnosis of CRPS 1 remains controversial. Imperfect reference tests (RT result in underestimation of the diagnostic accuracy of BS. Further, biased results can occur when a dependency between the RT and BS exists. The objective was to assess the impact of different RTs, specifically the Budapest criteria, and the assumed imperfect nature of the RT on the diagnostic accuracy of BS. Further, we analyzed the association between baseline characteristics and positive BS in patients with CRPS 1.Systematic literature review and Bayesian meta-analysis to assess the test accuracy of BS with and without accounting for the imperfect nature of the RT. We examined correlations (Spearman correlation coefficients / Wilcoxon tests between baseline characteristics and the proportion of positive BS in patients with CRPS 1.The pooled sensitivity was 0.804 (95% credible interval (CI 0.225-1.0, 21 studies and specificity 0.853 (95%CI 0.278-1.00. Sensitivity and specificity of BS increased when accounting for the imperfect nature of the RT. However, in studies using Budapest criteria as reference, the sensitivity decreased (0.551; 95% CI 0.046-1 and the specificity increased (0.935; 95% CI 0.306-1. Shorter disease duration and a higher proportion of males were associated with a higher proportion of positive BS (27 studies, disease duration <52 weeks Wilcoxon test p = 0.047, female proportion Spearman correlation -0.63, p = 0.009.Compared to the accepted Budapest diagnostic criteria BS cannot be used to rule-in the diagnosis of CRPS 1. In patients with negative BS CRPS 1 is less likely the underlying illness. Studies using older or no diagnostic criteria should not be used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of BS in CRPS 1.

  19. Generalised and regional soft tissue pain syndromes. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, A; Ilieva, E M; Küçükdeveci, A A; Varela, E; Valero, R; Berteanu, M; Christodoulou, N

    2013-08-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of PRM interventions. Generalised and regional soft tissue pain syndromes constitute a major problem leading to loss of function and disability, resulting in enormous societal burden. The aim of this paper is to describe the unique role of PRM physicians in the management of these disabling conditions that require not only pharmacological interventions but also a holistic approach including the consideration of body functions, activities and participation as well as contextual factors as described in the ICF. Evidence-based effective PRM interventions include exercise and multicomponent treatment including a psychotherapeutic intervention such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in addition to exercise, the latter based on strong evidence for reducing pain and improving quality of life in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Balneotherapy, meditative movement therapies, and acupuncture have also been shown as efficacious in improving symptoms in FMS. Emerging evidence suggests the use of transcranial magnetic or direct current stimulation (rTMS or tDCS) in FMS patients with intractable pain not alleviated by other interventions. Graded exercise therapy and CBT are evidence-based options for chronic fatigue syndrome. The use of some physical modalities and manipulation for myofascial pain syndrome is also supported by evidence. As for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), strong evidence exists for rTMS and graded motor imagery as well as moderate evidence for mirror therapy

  20. Prevention and Treatment of Neonatal Pain Syndrome

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    V. A. Mikhelson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study physicians’ approaches to preventing and treating the neonatal pain syndrome, including those to choosing behavioral measures and drugs, which could assess their experience, knowledge, and to direct ways of improving the quality of neonatal inpatient care.Subjects and methods. Anonymous questionnaire surveys were made among 85 physicians from five towns of Russia, which were followed by the statistical processing of the findings.Results. Analysis of used drugs has indicated that treatment for the neonatal pain syndrome is based on promedol (37.2%, analgin (33.7%, and novocaine (33.7%: every third physician prescribes them to relieve short-term and painful procedures. It is inadmissible that a number of physicians consider it impossible to administer analgesics during manipulations accompanied by severe pain or, possibly, to use them rarely and in not all cases (from 1.1% to 11.6% of the physicians. The respondents rather infrequently employ comfort measures, including nipple glucose use, for the prevention of mild pain. According to the survey data, maternal-neonatal bonding is highly evaluated during painful manipulations (74.4%.Conclusion. The investigation has shown that pediatricians treating the newborns are unaware of the current treatment and prevention policy for the neonatal pain syndrome

  1. Bladder Pain Syndrome International Consultation on Incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, P.; Lin, A.; Nordling, J.

    2010-01-01

    cytology and cystoscopy are recommended if clinically indicated. Treatment progresses from conservative management through various oral and intravesical therapies, with most surgical therapies reserved for unresponsive cases. Pain management is critical throughout the treatment process. The consultation......Aims of Study: The Bladder Pain Syndrome Committee of the International Consultation on Incontinence was assigned the task by the consultation of reviewing the syndrome, formerly known as interstitial cystitis, in a comprehensive fashion. This included the topics of definition, nomenclature...... possible, existing evidence was assessed and a level of recommendation was developed according to the Oxford system of classification. Results: The consultation decided to refer to the condition as "bladder pain syndrome" (BPS) because the designation is more descriptive of the clinical condition...

  2. Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome in Iranian Female Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Baradaran

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is the most common overuse syndrome in athletes. It is one of the causes of anterior knee pain in athletic population who come to the sports medicine clinic. Patellofemoral pain is more common among female athletes especially adolescents and young adults. Symptoms include: persistent pain behind the patella or peripatella. Pain increases on ascending and descending stairs and squatting and prolonged sitting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PFPS in Iranian female athletes. 418 female athletes aged 15-35 years were examined in five sports: Soccer (190, volleyball (103, running (42, fencing (45 and rock climbing (38. The athletes who had non- traumatic onset anterior knee pain of at least 3 months that increased in descending and ascending stairs and squatting, had no other causes of anterior knee pain such as ligament instability, bursitis, meniscal injury, tendonitis and arthritis and no history of knee surgery during the one past year were diagnosed as PFPS. 26/190 (13.68 % soccer players, 21/103(20.38 % volleyball players, 7/42 (16.66 % runners, 6/45(13.33 % fencers and 10/38 (26.31% rock climbers had patellofemoral pain. Among the 418 female athletes who were evaluated 70 had PFPS. Rock climbers were the most common athletes with PFPS followed by volleyball players and runners.

  3. Educational program for myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shun-Yuan; Neoh, Choo-Aun; Huang, Yuan-Ting; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Ng, Ho-Fu; Shi, Hon-Yi

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a program for managing myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). The study design was a randomized controlled trial. The setting was the pain clinic of an academic hospital in Taiwan. Sixty-two (62) patients with a 3-month or longer history of MPS who were treated at this institution from July to November 2007 were included in the study. The participants were randomized to an experimental group (n = 32) or a control group (n = 30). Both groups underwent trigger-point dry needling and muscle-stretch exercise regimen for passively stretching the affected muscles to their normal lengths; the experimental group then watched an 8-minute multimedia instructional video about MPS with supplemental handouts. The Brief Pain Inventory-Taiwan was administered at baseline and 1 month thereafter. The effect size model was used to measure the effects of Brief Pain Inventory-Taiwan. Bootstrap estimation was used to derive 95% confidence intervals for group differences. Compared to the control group, the experimental group had significantly less interference of pain, lower intensity of present pain, and least pain (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis of patients with shoulder pain revealed significantly improved pain intensity and interference of pain (p < 0.05). The findings emphasize the importance of including patient education programs in MPS intervention.

  4. A Review of Select Centralized Pain Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Spiegel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain can be broadly divided into 3 classes, including nociceptive or inflammatory pain (protective, neuropathic (pathological, occurring after damage to the nervous system, or centralized (pathological, due to abnormal function but with no damage or inflammation to the nervous system. The latter has been posited to occur when descending analgesic pathways are attenuated and/or glutamatergic transmission is facilitated. Additionally, this “pain prone phenotype” can be associated with early life trauma and a suboptimal response to opiates. This article will review the relationships between centralized pain syndromes (ie, fibromyalgia, chronic low back pain, childhood sexual abuse, and opiate misuse. Finally, treatment implications, potentially effecting primary care physicians, will be discussed.

  5. Scalene myofascial pain syndrome mimicking cervical disc prolapse: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Jalil, Nizar; Awang, Mohammad Saufi; Omar, Mahamarowi

    2010-01-01

    Scalene myofascial pain syndrome is a regional pain syndrome wherein pain originates over the neck area and radiates down to the arm. This condition may present as primary or secondary to underlying cervical pathology. Although scalene myofascial pain syndrome is a well known medical entity, it is often misdiagnosed as being some other neck pain associated with radiculopathy, such as cervical disc prolapse, cervical spinal stenosis and thoracic outlet syndrome. Because scalene myofascial pain syndrome mimics cervical radiculopathy, this condition often leads to mismanagement, which can, in turn, result in persistent pain and suffering. In the worst-case scenarios, patients may be subjected to unjustifiable surgical intervention. Because the clinical findings in scalene myofascial pain syndrome are "pathognomonic", clinicians should be aware of ways to recognize this disorder and be able to differentiate it from other conditions that present with neck pain and rediculopathy. We present two cases of unilateral scalene myofascial pain syndrome that significantly impaired the patients' functioning and quality of life. This case report serves to create awareness about the existence of the syndrome and to highlight the potential morbidity due to clinical misdiagnosis.

  6. Body posture and syndromes of back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Janusz; Nowotny-Czupryna, Olga; Brzęk, Anna; Kowalczyk, Anna; Czupryna, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The effects of faulty postures include disturbances of the symmetric distribution of compressive and tensile forces acting on both sides of the body axis and the emergence of harmful shear forces. The torques of antigravity muscles also change unfavourably. This may lead to the development of a repetitive strain syndrome, stenosis of intervertebral foramina, compression of nerve roots and back pain. The development of back pain syndromes is significantly affected by the performance of various work-related tasks in non-ergonomic positions. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between back pain syndromes and the quality of body posture, especially in the context of work ergonomics. The study enrolled 125 persons: 39 adults with a childhood history of scoliosis, 39 midwives, and 47 physiotherapists. Body posture was assessed in all participants. In midwives and physiotherapists, body position during the performance of work-related tasks was also evaluated. The frequency and severity of pain was assessed with the Jackson-Moskowitz measure. The study revealed that over 80% of the participants suffered from spinal pain. In most cases, the pain was intermittent and was felt in the lumbar spine. The occurrence of pain among midwives and physiotherapists was not directly dependent on the predominant type of abnormal spinal position assumed during the performance of occupational tasks or the quality of body posture. The complaint was also reported by ca. 85% of persons with a history of scoliosis. An incorrect body posture (especially scoliosis) and performance of work-related tasks in non-ergonomic positions increase the probability of back pain.

  7. Joint hypermobility syndrome and related pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay Sahin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypermobility is defined as an abnormally increased range of motion of a joint resulting from the excessive laxity of the soft tissues. This paper is focused on this commonly forgotten cause of several morbidities. The etiology of hypermobility is not very well known. One decade ago, joint hypermobility syndrome was considered as a benign condition, but now it is recognized as a significant contributor to chronic musculoskeletal pain, besides impacting on other organs. Patients with joint hypermobility syndrome often have diffuse, chronic complaints that are inconsistent with the musculoskeletal system. Chronic pain may cause loss of proprioception and so increased sensitivity to microtrauma, premature osteoarthritis de- velopment, soft tissue problems, psychosocial disorders, and neurophysiological deficiencies. Osteoarthritis, pes planus, mechanical low back pain, and soft tissue rheumatisms are frequent musculoskeletal findings as well as subluxations, thoracic outlet syndrome, rectal and uterine prolapses, hernias, and stress incontinence. Joint hypermobility syndrome's treatment is not easy, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are not usually effective or adequate. Proprioceptive and strengthening exercises have been reported to have supportive and therapeutic effects, but we have limited data on this issue. Joint hypermobility syndrome must be accepted as a multisystem connective tissue disorder rather than just joint laxities. As a result; clinicians must be aware of complexities of connective tissue disorders and comorbidities. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2016; 5(2.000: 105-112

  8. 78 FR 12832 - Request for Information: Public-Private Collaborations in Pain Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ...-traumatic Stress Disorder, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic fatigue syndrome, and how... associated pain, including phantom limb, neuropathic pain, headaches, complex regional pain syndrome, burns...

  9. Pain insensitivity syndrome misinterpreted as inflicted burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Gerbrich E; Baartmans, Martin G A; Vos, Paul; Dokter, Jan; White, Tonya; Tibboel, Dick

    2014-05-01

    We present a case study of a 10-year-old child with severe burns that were misinterpreted as inflicted burns. Because of multiple injuries since early life, the family was under suspicion of child abuse and therefore under supervision of the Child Care Board for 2 years before the boy was burned. Because the boy incurred the burns without feeling pain, we conducted a thorough medical examination and laboratory testing, evaluated detection and pain thresholds, and used MRI to study brain morphology and brain activation patterns during pain between this patient and 3 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. We found elevated detection and pain thresholds and lower brain activation during pain in the patient compared with the healthy controls and reference values. The patient received the diagnosis of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV on the basis of clinical findings and the laboratory testing, complemented with the altered pain and detection thresholds and MRI findings. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy IV is a very rare congenital pain insensitivity syndrome characterized by the absence of pain and temperature sensation combined with oral mutilation due to unawareness, fractures, and anhidrosis caused by abnormalities in the peripheral nerves. Health care workers should be aware of the potential presence of this disease to prevent false accusations of child abuse. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. A Multimodal Approach for Myofascial Pain Syndrome: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Pérez, María; Hernández-Criado, M Teresa; Calvo-Lobo, César; Vega-Piris, Lorena; Fernández-Martín, Raquel; Rodríguez-Sanz, David

    The purpose of this study was to analyze pain intensity in patients with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) following a multimodal rehabilitation protocol. A prospective study was carried out following the Template for Intervention Description and Replication criteria. Patients were recruited from the rehabilitation unit of a university hospital in Spain between 2009 and 2013. Patients were included if they had a medical diagnosis of MPS in any of the following regions: cervicobrachial (n = 102), lumbosacral (n = 30), elbow (n = 14), ankle and foot (n = 10), and temporomandibular jaw (n = 1). The multimodal rehabilitation protocol included myofascial trigger point dry needling, spray and stretching, Kinesio taping, eccentric exercise, and patient education. The protocol was applied for 4 weeks (5 sessions) for the active and/or latent myofascial trigger points in each body region. Pain intensity was measured by using the visual analog scale (VAS) immediately before beginning of the study and 1 week after completion of the protocol. The study sample comprised 150 patients (mean ± standard deviation age, 51.5 ± 1.19 years). Statistically significant differences were obtained for reduction in pain intensity (4 ± 2.03; P = .002). Clinically relevant reductions (VAS ≥30 mm; P pain intensity in the different body regions. A multimodal rehabilitation protocol showed clinically relevant differences in the reduction in pain intensity in different body regions in patients with MPS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Spinal cord stimulation for complex regional pain syndrome type 1 with dystonia: a case report and discussion of the literature [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/348

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Voet

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1 is a debilitating chronic pain disorder, the physiopathology of which can lead to dystonia associated with changes in the autonomic, central and peripheral nervous system. An interdisciplinary approach (pharmacological, interventional and psychological therapies in conjunction with a rehabilitation pathway is central to progress towards pain reduction and restoration of function. Aim: This case report aims to stimulate reflection and development of mechanism-based therapeutic strategies concerning CRPS associated with dystonia. Case description: A 31 year old female CRPS-1 patient presented with dystonia of the right foot following ligamentoplasty for chronic ankle instability. She did not have a satisfactory response to the usual therapies. Multiple anesthetic blocks (popliteal, epidural and intrathecal were not associated with significant anesthesia and analgesia. Mobilization of the foot by a physiotherapist was not possible. A multidisciplinary approach with psychological support, physiotherapy and spinal cord stimulation (SCS brought pain relief, rehabilitation and improvement in the quality of life. Conclusion: The present case report demonstrates the occurrence of multilevel (peripheral and central pathological modifications in the nervous system of a CRPS-1 patient with dystonia. This conclusion is based on the patient’s pain being resistant to anesthetic blocks at different levels and the favourable, at least initially, response to SCS. The importance of the bio-psycho-social model is also suggested, permitting behavioural change.

  12. Exercise therapy for patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintjes, E; Berger, M Y; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A; Bernsen, R M D; Verhaar, J A N; Koes, B W

    2003-01-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a common problem among adolescents and young adults, characterised by retropatellar pain (behind the kneecap) or peripatellar pain (around the kneecap) when ascending or descending stairs, squatting or sitting with flexed knees. Etiology, structures causing the pain and treatment methods are all debated in literature, but consensus has not been reached so far. Exercise therapy to strengthen the quadriceps is often prescribed, though its efficacy is still debated. This review aims to summarise the evidence of effectiveness of exercise therapy in reducing anterior knee pain and improving knee function in patients with PFPS. We searched the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group and Cochrane Rehabilitation and Related Therapies Field specialised registers, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, PEDro - The Physiotherapy Evidence Database, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, up till December 2001 for controlled trials (randomised or not) comparing exercise therapy with control groups, or comparing different types of exercise therapy. Only trials focusing on exercise therapy in patients with PFPS were considered. Trials in patients with other diagnoses such as tendinitis, Osgood Schlatter syndrome, bursitis, traumatic injuries, osteoarthritis, plica syndrome, Sinding-Larssen-Johansson syndrome and patellar luxations were excluded. From 750 publications 12 trials were selected. All included trials studied quadriceps strengthening exercises. Outcome assessments for knee pain and knee function in daily life were used in a best evidence synthesis to summarise evidence for effectiveness. One high and two low quality studies used a control group not receiving exercise therapy. Significantly greater pain reduction in the exercise groups was found in one high and one low quality study, though at different time points. Only one low quality study reported significantly greater functional improvement with exercise. Five studies compared exercise

  13. Knee orthoses for treating patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Toby O; Drew, Benjamin T; Meek, Toby H; Clark, Allan B

    2015-12-08

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a painful musculoskeletal condition, which is characterised by knee pain located in the anterior aspect (front) and retropatellar region (behind) of the knee joint. Various non-operative interventions are suggested for the treatment of this condition. Knee orthoses (knee braces, sleeves, straps or bandages) are worn over the knee and are thought to help reduce knee pain. They can be used in isolation or in addition to other treatments such as exercise or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of knee orthoses (knee braces, sleeves, straps or bandages) for treating PFPS. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (11 May 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015 Issue 5), MEDLINE (1946 to 8 May 2015), EMBASE (1980 to 2015 Week 18), SPORTDiscus (1985 to 11 May 2015), AMED (1985 to 8 May 2015), CINAHL (1937 to 11 May 2015), PEDro (1929 to June 2015), trial registries and conference proceedings. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled clinical trials evaluating knee orthoses for treating people with PFPS. Our primary outcomes were pain and function. Two review authors independently assessed studies for eligibility, assessed study risk of bias and extracted data. We calculated mean differences (MD) or, where pooling data from different scales, standardised mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for continuous outcomes and risk ratios (RR) with 95% CIs for binary outcomes. We pooled data using the fixed-effect model. We included five trials (one of which was quasi-randomised) that reported results for 368 people who had PFPS. Participants were recruited from health clinics in three trials and were military recruits undergoing training in the other two trials. Although no trials recruited participants who were categorised as elite or professional athletes, military training

  14. Idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia: two topographic facial pain syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Juan A; Cuadrado, María L; Porta-Etessam, Jesús; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Gili, Pablo; Caminero, Ana B; Cebrián, José L

    2010-09-01

    To describe 2 topographic facial pain conditions with the pain clearly localized in the eye (idiopathic ophthalmodynia) or in the nose (idiopathic rhinalgia), and to propose their distinction from persistent idiopathic facial pain. Persistent idiopathic facial pain, burning mouth syndrome, atypical odontalgia, and facial arthromyalgia are idiopathic facial pain syndromes that have been separated according to topographical criteria. Still, some other facial pain syndromes might have been veiled under the broad term of persistent idiopathic facial pain. Through a 10-year period we have studied all patients referred to our neurological clinic because of facial pain of unknown etiology that might deviate from all well-characterized facial pain syndromes. In a group of patients we have identified 2 consistent clinical pictures with pain precisely located either in the eye (n=11) or in the nose (n=7). Clinical features resembled those of other localized idiopathic facial syndromes, the key differences relying on the topographic distribution of the pain. Both idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia seem specific pain syndromes with a distinctive location, and may deserve a nosologic status just as other focal pain syndromes of the face. Whether all such focal syndromes are topographic variants of persistent idiopathic facial pain or independent disorders remains a controversial issue.

  15. [Restless legs syndrome and nocturnal leg pain : Differential diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornyak, M; Stiasny-Kolster, K; Evers, S; Happe, S

    2011-09-01

    Pain in the legs belongs to the five most frequent regional pain symptoms. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) presents a particular differential diagnosis for pain in the legs, which is characterized by a nocturnal urge to move the legs often associated with painful sensations in the legs. It is one of the most common neurological disorders and probably the leading cause of nocturnal pain in the legs. In this overview, the diagnosis and therapy of RLS as well as aspects of pain therapy of the disorder are presented. In addition, the differential diagnoses for exclusion of other specific causes of nocturnal pain in the legs are discussed.

  16. A case of unilateral atypical orofacial pain with Eagle's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Sowmya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eagle's syndrome is not an uncommon condition, but less known to physicians, where an elongated styloid process or calcified stylohyoid ligament compresses the adjacent anatomical structures leading to orofacial pain. Diagnosis is made with appropriate radiological examination. Nonsurgical treatment options include reassurance, analgesia, and anti.inflammatory medications; and the surgical option includes a transoral or external approach. Here, we present a case report of a male patient, of age38 years, with a chief complaint of unilateral atypical orofacial pain on the right side of his face radiating to the neck region, for the last two months.

  17. Cutaneous silent period in myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Ozden; Sencan, Savas; Ercalik, Tulay; Koytak, Pinar Kahraman; Alibas, Hande; Gunduz, Osman Hakan; Tanridag, Tulin; Uluc, Kayihan

    2018-01-01

    An increased response to painful stimuli without spontaneous pain suggests a role of central hyperexcitability of pain pathways in the pathogenesis of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). In this study we aimed to test the hypothesis that spinal pain pathways are affected in MPS. We used cutaneous silent period (CSP) parameters to demonstrate the hyperexcitability of spinal pain pathways in MPS. Twenty-nine patients diagnosed with MPS and 30 healthy volunteers were included in the study. The CSP recordings were performed in the right upper and left lower extremities. In both upper and lower extremities, patients had prolonged CSP latencies (P = 0.034 and P = 0.049 respectively) and shortened CSP durations (P = 0.009 and P = 0.008, respectively). Delayed and shortened CSP in MPS patients implies dysfunction in the inhibitory mechanism of the spinal/supraspinal pain pathways, suggesting central sensitization in the pathogenesis of MPS and supporting our research hypothesis. Muscle Nerve 57: E24-E28, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Painful legs and moving toes syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-ying Ma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Painful legs and moving toes syndrome (PLMT is a rare movement disorder with low diagnostic rate, which is characterized by lower limb pain with involuntary movements of feet or toes. Etiology and pathogenesis of this disease is still unclear. Patients have different clinical manifestations, so the diagnosis is difficult. Treatment methods for PLMT are numerous, but so far the treatment of this disease is still a major challenge for clinicians. Further research is still needed to guide clinical work. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.10.013

  19. Fascial components of the myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecco, Antonio; Gesi, Marco; Stecco, Carla; Stern, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is described as the muscle, sensory, motor, and autonomic nervous system symptoms caused by stimulation of myofascial trigger points (MTP). The participation of fascia in this syndrome has often been neglected. Several manual and physical approaches have been proposed to improve myofascial function after traumatic injuries, but the processes that induce pathological modifications of myofascial tissue after trauma remain unclear. Alterations in collagen fiber composition, in fibroblasts or in extracellular matrix composition have been postulated. We summarize here recent developments in the biology of fascia, and in particular, its associated hyaluronan (HA)-rich matrix that address the issue of MPS.

  20. Bladder Pain Syndrome International Consultation on Incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, P.; Lin, A.; Nordling, J.

    2010-01-01

    Aims of Study: The Bladder Pain Syndrome Committee of the International Consultation on Incontinence was assigned the task by the consultation of reviewing the syndrome, formerly known as interstitial cystitis, in a comprehensive fashion. This included the topics of definition, nomenclature...... to the bladder with at least one urinary symptom, such as frequency not obviously related to high fluid intake, or a persistent urge to void should be evaluated for possible BPS. The initial assessment consists of a frequency/volume chart, focused physical examination, urinalysis, and urine culture. Urine...

  1. A Comparative Study of Trigger Point Therapy with Local Anaesthetic (0.5 % Bupivacaine) Versus Combined Trigger Point Injection Therapy and Levosulpiride in the Management of Myofascial Pain Syndrome in the Orofacial Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pranav; Singh, Virendra; Sethi, Sujata; Kumar, Arun

    2016-09-01

    To compare the efficacy of combined local anesthetic injection with 0.5 % bupivacaine and levosulpiride versus local anesthetic injection alone on outcome measures including levels of pain intensity and depression in the management of myofascial pain syndrome in orofacial region. This was a prospective, randomized, controlled and open-label comparative clinical study. Seventy-four patients diagnosed to have myofascial pain syndrome and fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled for the study. Patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups. Group A received local anesthetic injection (0.5 % bupivacaine) on trigger points and Group B received combined trigger point injection therapy and 50 mg of tablet Levosulpiride orally B.I.D. They were assessed for pain intensity and depression at baseline and at follow-up of 1, 4, 6 and 12 week intervals. The mean age of patients was 44.54 + 15.977 years in group A and 39.97 + 14.107 years in group B (P value = 0.2). Group A comprised of 25 females (67.567 %) and 12 males (32.432 %) while group B had 27 females (75 %) and 9 males (25 %). 70.27 % were diagnosed with moderate depression in group A and 75 % in group B. 18.91 % in group A and 19.44 % in group B were diagnosed with severe depression. When the VAS score and BDI score was compared at the follow-up intervals with the baseline scores in both treatment groups, the mean difference was highly significant at all the follow-up intervals. However when the relative efficacies of two interventions were compared between the two groups, improvement in pain was significant at all the follow-up intervals except the 1st week follow-up whereas the improvement in depression was non-significant at 1st and 4th week interval while it was highly significant at 6th and 12th week intervals. The combined therapy with trigger point injection and levosulpiride as antidepressant significantly reduces pain and depression in the study subjects suffering from chronic

  2. Musculoskeletal pain and musculoskeletal syndromes in adolescents are related to electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Lígia Bruni; Lourenço, Benito; Silva, Luiz Eduardo Vargas; Lourenço, Daniela Mencaroni Rodrigues; Silva, Clovis Artur

    2017-11-21

    To evaluate television and simultaneous electronic devices use in adolescents with musculoskeletal pain and musculoskeletal pain syndromes. A cross-sectional study was performed in 299 healthy adolescents of a private school. All students completed a self-administered questionnaire, including: demographic data, physical activities, musculoskeletal pain symptoms, and use of simultaneous television/electronic devices (computer, internet, electronic games, and cell phones). Seven musculoskeletal pain syndromes were also evaluated: juvenile fibromyalgia, benign joint hypermobility syndrome, myofascial syndrome, tendinitis, bursitis, epicondylitis, and complex regional pain syndrome. Inter-rater agreement between pretest and retest was 0.83. Musculoskeletal pain and musculoskeletal pain syndrome were found in 183/299 (61%) and 60/183 (33%), respectively. The median age (15 [10-18] vs. 14 [10-18] years, p=0.032) and years of education (10 [5-12] vs. 9 [5-12] years, p=0.011) were significantly higher in adolescents with musculoskeletal pain when compared with those without this condition. The frequencies of female gender (59% vs. 47%, p=0.019), cell phone use (93% vs. 81%, p=0.003), and simultaneous use of at least two electronic devices (80% vs. 67%, p=0.011) were significantly higher in the former group. Further comparisons between adolescents with and without musculoskeletal pain syndromes revealed that the frequency of female gender was significantly higher in the former group (75% vs. 25%, p=0.002), and with a significantly reduced median of weekends/holidays electronic games use (1.5 [0-10] vs. 3 [0-17]h/day, p=0.006). A high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain/syndromes was observed in female adolescents. Musculoskeletal pain was mostly reported at a median age of 15 years, and students used at least two electronic devices. Reduced use of electronic games was associated with musculoskeletal pain syndromes. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria

  3. Low back pain and the post-laminectomy pain syndrome | Shipton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Back pain is one of the most common disorders seen in general practice. Patients with chronic low back pain form a large proportion of the work of any pain relief unit. The aetiology of low back pain and the post-laminectomy pain syndrome are briefly presented and treatment of the 'failed back surgery patient' and the ...

  4. Mapping of pain phenotypes in female patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripp, Dean A; Nickel, J Curtis; Wong, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Many bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) patients report multiple pain locations outside the pelvis. No research has examined pain using a whole-body diagram, pain-associated adjustment factors, or the impact of pain in multiple body areas on patients' quality of life (QoL)....

  5. Efficacy of dry needling for treatment of myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelman, Yacov; Kent, John

    2015-01-01

    Myofascial pain is a major cause of musculoskeletal regional pain. Myofascial pain, which is a high-prevalence but eminently treatable condition, is almost universally underdiagnosed by physicians and undertreated by physical therapy modalities. Large numbers of patients can be left suffering in chronic pain for years. Dry needling, also referred to as Intramuscular Stimulation, is a method in the arsenal of pain management which has been known for almost 200 years in Western medicine, yet has been almost completely ignored. With the increase in research in this field over the past two decades, there are many high-quality studies that demonstrate dry needling to be an effective and safe method for the treatment of myofascial pain when diagnosed and treated by adequately-trained physicians or physical therapists. This article provides an overview of recent literature regarding the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome, evidence for the efficacy of dry needling as a central component of its management, and a glimpse at developments in recent imaging methods to aid in the treatment of these problems.

  6. Acute and chronic pain syndromes in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    A representative sample of 117 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) was interviewed on pain syndromes. Chronic syndromes lasting more than one month included dysaestesthesia, low back pain, spasms, tonic seizures, tightening and painful sensations in the extremities. Acute syndromes...... with pain at the time of the examination increased with age and duration of disease. Patients with pain were significantly more often spastic and significantly more often sought alternative treatment forms. No difference was found for mean age, sex, physical impairment, duration of disease from onset of MS...... included neuralgia, L'Hermitte's sign and pain associated with optic neuritis. Thirty-five per cent were pain-free. Of the remaining patients had 45% pain at the time of the examination, 32% indicated pain among the most severe symptoms of MS and 23% had pain at the onset of MS. The number of patients...

  7. Effect of preoperative gabapentin on pain intensity and development of chronic pain after carpal tunnel syndrome surgical treatment in women: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Jun Sadatsune

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Effective postoperative analgesia is important for reducing the incidence of chronic pain. This study evaluated the effect of preoperative gabapentin on postoperative analgesia and the incidence of chronic pain among patients undergoing carpal tunnel syndrome surgical treatment. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: Randomized, double-blind controlled trial, Federal University of São Paulo Pain Clinic. METHODS: Forty patients aged 18 years or over were randomized into two groups: Gabapentin Group received 600 mg of gabapentin preoperatively, one hour prior to surgery, and Control Group received placebo. All the patients received intravenous regional anesthesia comprising 1% lidocaine. Midazolam was used for sedation if needed. Paracetamol was administered for postoperative analgesia as needed. Codeine was used additionally if the paracetamol was insufficient. The following were evaluated: postoperative pain intensity (over a six-month period, incidence of postoperative neuropathic pain (over a six-month period, need for intraoperative sedation, and use of postoperative paracetamol and codeine. The presence of neuropathic pain was established using the DN4 (Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire. Complex regional pain syndrome was diagnosed using the Budapest questionnaire. RESULTS: No differences in the need for sedation, control over postoperative pain or incidence of chronic pain syndromes (neuropathic or complex regional pain syndrome were observed. No differences in postoperative paracetamol and codeine consumption were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative gabapentin (600 mg did not improve postoperative pain control, and did not reduce the incidence of chronic pain among patients undergoing carpal tunnel syndrome surgery.

  8. Lower leg pain. Diagnosis and treatment of compartment syndromes and other pain syndromes of the leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touliopolous, S; Hershman, E B

    1999-03-01

    Leg pain in athletes has many aetiologies. The clinician must strive to specifically define the clinical problem in order to administer the appropriate treatment for the athlete's condition. Clinical conditions in the leg causing symptoms in athletes include chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECC), tendinitis, medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fractures, fascial defects, musculotendinous junction disruptions (tennis leg), popliteal artery entrapment syndrome, effort-induced venous thrombosis and nerve entrapment. Appropriate diagnostic studies are needed to allow accurate diagnosis. A work-up might include radiographs, bone scans and compartment pressure measurement. Many of these conditions relate to overuse and training errors. Conservative measures including rest, activity modification and rehabilitation will permit a gradual return to participation in sports. Some problems such as CECC, popliteal artery entrapment syndrome and nerve entrapment may require surgical intervention to allow the resolution of symptoms. Clinicians should be familiar with the range of problems causing leg pain in order to prescribe specific treatment for each athlete.

  9. Shared genetic factors underlie chronic pain syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehof, Jelle; Zavos, Helena M S; Lachance, Genevieve; Hammond, Christopher J; Williams, Frances M K

    2014-08-01

    Chronic pain syndromes (CPS) are highly prevalent in the general population, and increasingly the evidence points to a common etiological pathway. Using a large cohort of twins (n=8564) characterized for chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CWP), chronic pelvic pain (PP), migraine (MIG), dry eye disease, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), we explored the underlying genetic and environmental factors contributing to CPS and the correlation between them. The sample was predominantly female (87.3%), with a mean age of 54.7 (±14.7) years. Prevalence of the different CPS ranged from 7.4% (PP) to 15.7% (MIG). For all CPS the within-twin correlation in monozygotic twin pairs was higher than in dizygotic pairs, suggesting a heritable component. Estimated heritability ranged from 19% (IBS) to 46% (PP). Except for MIG, we found significant pairwise phenotypic correlations between the CPS. The phenotypic correlation was highest between CWP and IBS (0.40; 95% confidence interval: 0.27 to 0.46). Excluding MIG from further analyses, cross-twin cross-trait correlations were higher in monozygotic compared with dizygotic twin pairs, suggestive of shared genetic factors between CWP, PP, IBS, and dry eye disease. Twin modeling analysis revealed the common pathway model as the model best explaining the observed pattern of correlation between the traits, with an estimated heritability of 66% of the underlying latent variable. These results are evidence of shared genetic factors in conditions manifesting chronic pain and justify the search for underlying genetic variants. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunological Mechanisms Underlying Chronic Pelvic Pain and Prostate Inflammation in Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breser, María L; Salazar, Florencia C; Rivero, Viginia E; Motrich, Rubén D

    2017-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is the most common urologic morbidity in men younger than 50 years and is characterized by a diverse range of pain and inflammatory symptoms, both in type and severity, that involve the region of the pelvis, perineum, scrotum, rectum, testes, penis, and lower back. In most patients, pain is accompanied by inflammation in the absence of an invading infectious agent. Since CP/CPPS etiology is still not well established, available therapeutic options for patients are far from satisfactory for either physicians or patients. During the past two decades, chronic inflammation has been deeply explored as the cause of CP/CPPS. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge regarding immunological mechanisms underlying chronic pelvic pain and prostate inflammation in CP/CPPS. Cumulative evidence obtained from both human disease and animal models indicate that several factors may trigger chronic inflammation in the form of autoimmunity against prostate, fostering chronic prostate recruitment of Th1 cells, and different other leukocytes, including mast cells, which might be the main actors in the consequent development of chronic pelvic pain. Thus, the local inflammatory milieu and the secretion of inflammatory mediators may induce neural sensitization leading to chronic pelvic pain development. Although scientific advances are encouraging, additional studies are urgently needed to establish the relationship between prostatitis development, mast cell recruitment to the prostate, and the precise mechanisms by which they would induce pelvic pain.

  11. Fibromyalgia and Myofascial Pain Syndrome-A Dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Chandola, H. C.; Arunangshu Chakraborty

    2009-01-01

    Summary Pain and fatigue associated to the musculoskeletal system are among the leading causes of patients to visit their physicians and nearly one-third of such patients suffer from fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic debilitating disorder characterized by widespread pain with tenderness in specific areas, leading to fatigue, headache and sleep disorder. Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS), is also a localized musculoskeletal pain producing condition whose diagnostic and manage...

  12. Current studies on myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Ta-Shen

    2009-10-01

    Recent studies have clarified the nature of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). In an MTrP region, multiple hyperirritable loci can be found. The sensory components of the MTrP locus are sensitized nociceptors that are responsible for pain, referred pain, and local twitch responses. The motor components are dysfunctional endplates that are responsible for taut band formation as a result of excessive acetylcholine (ACh) leakage. The concentrations of pain- and inflammation-related substances are increased in the MTrP region. It has been hypothesized that excessive ACh release, sarcomere shortening, and release of sensitizing substances are three essential features that relate to one another in a positive feedback cycle. This MTrP circuit is the connection among spinal sensory (dorsal horn) neurons responsible for the MTrP phenomena. Recent studies suggest that measurement of biochemicals associated with pain and inflammation in the MTrP region, the sonographic study of MTrPs, and the magnetic resonance elastography for taut band image are potential tools for the diagnosis of MTrPs. Many methods have been used to treat myofascial pain, including laser therapy, shockwave therapy, and botulinum toxin type A injection.

  13. Congenital Insensitivity to Pain with Anhidrosis Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital Insensitivity to Pain with Anhidrosis syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessively inherited syndrome caused by neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase 1 gene mutation. The basic findings of the syndrome are absence of pain sense, anhidrosis, and selfdestructive behaviors. Herein, we describe a 4-year-old boy presented with xerosis, anhidrosis, and traumatic lesions on the hands and diagnosed as Congenital Insensitivity to Pain with Anhidrosis syndrome. On the occasion of this case, we aimed to review general and dermatological characteristics of this rare syndrome.

  14. Increased Risk of Myofascial Pain Syndrome Among Patients with Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Chen; Shen, Cheng-Che; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Yang, Albert C

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk of developing myofascial pain syndrome among patients diagnosed with insomnia. We conducted a population-based longitudinal study of a matched cohort with 7,895 participants (1,579 patients with insomnia and 6,316 controls) who were selected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The patients were observed for a maximum of 10 years to determine the incidence of newly diagnosed myofascial pain syndrome. A Cox regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors associated with myofascial pain syndrome in patients with insomnia. During the 10-year follow-up period, 182 insomnia patients (14.9 per 1,000 person-years) and 379 controls (7.5 per 1,000 person-years) were diagnosed with myofascial pain syndrome. The incidence risk ratio of myofascial pain syndrome between the insomnia and control patients was 2.00 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.67-2.38, P  myofascial pain syndrome (95% CI = 1.62-2.31, P  myofascial pain syndrome in patients with insomnia. Patients with insomnia had a higher risk of developing myofascial pain syndrome than controls. This study adds to the understanding of the complex relationship between sleep disturbance and pain.

  15. Behcet's syndrome in nonendemic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leccese, Pietro; Yazici, Yusuf; Olivieri, Ignazio

    2017-01-01

    Behcet's syndrome is more common in certain geographic regions, however, can be seen outside of these areas and need to be included in the differential diagnosis of many patients, as it has overlapping features with many rheumatologic conditions. Especially in regions with immigrant populations, there seem to be similarities to originating countries in Behcet's prevalence, but the syndrome is not limited to those from certain backgrounds and can be seen in others also. There is emerging evidence that even though the prevalence of Behcet's may be similar to that of endemic areas, in nonendemic regions the condition may be less severe, suggesting potential environment agents in determining the severity of the disease. In addition, women seem to be overrepresented in nonendemic areas and may explain part of the reason for less severe symptoms, as Behcet's tends to be more severe in men. The somewhat different presentation of Behcet's syndrome in nonendemic areas needs to be considered when thinking about Behcet's in the differential diagnosis of patients. Research into potentially less severe form of the disease in nonendemic areas may provide new clues to the pathogenesis of this condition.

  16. Botulinum toxin for myofascial pain syndromes in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Adriana; Andriolo, Régis B; Atallah, Alvaro N; da Silva, Edina M K

    2014-07-25

    This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 4, 2012. Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a regional muscular pain syndrome characterised by the presence of trigger points, which are painful points in one or more muscles. The pain can be felt at the site where the trigger point is located or it can be felt away from that place when the muscle is pressed (referred pain). Botulinum toxin is a protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and is a potent neurotoxin that eventually inhibits muscle contractions. It is capable of selectively weakening painful muscles and interrupting the pain cycle. To assess the effectiveness and safety of botulinum toxin A (BTXA) in the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), excluding MPS in neck and head muscles. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 4, 2012. The search strategy for the update was the same as in the original review and we searched CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library (2013, Issue 11 of 12), MEDLINE (Ovid) (2012 to 29 November 2013) and EMBASE (Ovid) (2012 to 27 November 2013). The search strategy was composed of terms for myofascial pain and botulinum toxin. For the original review, we also searched the Cochrane Pain, Palliative and Supportive Care (PaPaS) Review Group Specialised Register until December 2011, PubMed (from 1966 to 2011) and LILACS (from 1982 to 2011). There was no language restriction. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving botulinum toxin for treating participants with MPS. We excluded studies with MPS of the neck and head from this review as they have already been assessed in existing systematic reviews. We considered a diagnosis of MPS to be based on the identification of trigger points in the taut band through palpation of sensitive nodules, local twitch response and specific patterns of referred pain associated with each trigger point. Two review authors independently screened identified studies

  17. Clinical Characteristics of Dry Eye Patients With Chronic Pain Syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vehof, Jelle; Smitt-Kamminga, Nicole Sillevis; Kozareva, Diana; Nibourg, Simone A.; Hammond, Christopher J.

    PURPOSE: To investigate clinical characteristics of dry eye disease (DED) patients with a chronic pain syndrome. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. study. METHODS: Four hundred twenty-five patients of a tertiary care DED patient cohort in the Netherlands were included. Chronic pain syndromes irritable bowel

  18. The prevalence of chronic postmastectomy pain syndrome in female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancer diagnoses in women. Surgical treatment is indicated in most patients. Postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is a debilitating neuropathic pain syndrome that develops after breast surgery. A review of the literature revealed no studies determining the ...

  19. Painful myofascial trigger points and pain sites in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rodney U; Sawyer, Timothy; Wise, David; Morey, Angie; Nathanson, Brian H

    2009-12-01

    A combination of manual physiotherapy and specific relaxation training effectively treats patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. However, little information exists on myofascial trigger points and specific chronic pelvic pain symptoms. We documented relationships between trigger point sites and pain symptoms in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. We randomly selected a cohort of 72 men who underwent treatment with physiotherapy and relaxation training from 2005 to 2008. Patients self-reported up to 7 pelvic pain sites before treatment and whether palpation of internal and external muscle trigger points reproduced the pain. Fisher's exact test was used to compare palpation responses, ie referral pain, stratified by reported pain site. Pain sensation at each anatomical site was reproduced by palpating at least 2 of 10 designated trigger points. Furthermore, 5 of 7 painful sites could be reproduced at least 50% of the time (p pain sites were the penis in 90.3% of men, the perineum in 77.8% and the rectum in 70.8%. Puborectalis/pubococcygeus and rectus abdominis trigger points reproduced penile pain more than 75% of the time (p pain in at least 80% of the patients at the respective pain sites (p painful sites in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Identifying the site of clusters of trigger points inside and outside the pelvic floor may assist in understanding the role of muscles in this disorder and provide focused therapeutic approaches.

  20. Lumbar facet injection for the treatment of chronic piriformis myofascial pain syndrome: 52 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Ting; Chen, Han-Yu; Hong, Chang-Zern; Lin, Ming-Ta; Chou, Li-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Shui; Tsai, Chien-Tsung; Chang, Wen-Dien

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of lumbar facet joint injection for piriformis myofascial pain syndrome. Fifty-two patients with chronic myofascial pain in the piriformis muscle each received a lumbar